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Language and the manipulation of teen women's identity

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Language and the manipulation of teen women's identity creating deficiency, subverting agency and devaluing teen women's personhood on the multiple levels of discourse in teen women's magazines
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Sayers, Addie L
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vii, 403 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.

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Discourse ( jstor )
Gender roles ( jstor )
Grammatical gender ( jstor )
Language ( jstor )
Linguistics ( jstor )
Magazines ( jstor )
Men ( jstor )
Verbs ( jstor )
White people ( jstor )
Women ( jstor )
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theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2002.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 397-402).
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Printout.
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Vita.
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by Addie L. Sayers.

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LANGUAGE AND THE MANIPULATION OF TEEN WOMEN'S IDENTITY:
CREATING DEFICIENCY, SUBVERTING AGENCY AND DEVALUING
TEEN WOMEN'S PERSONHOOD ON THE MULTIPLE LEVELS OF DISCOURSE
IN TEEN WOMEN'S MAGAZINES














By

ADDIE L. SAYERS


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2002












ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I would first and foremost like to thank Dr. MJ Hardman and Dr. Kesha Fikes for

their support, guidance and patience throughout the process of researching and writing

this thesis and particularly for their flexibility during the hectic time of the defense. It was

an honor and pleasure to have worked on a committee with these two women. I

personally thank Dr. Hardman for teaching me how to perceive, for believing in my work

and for always listening. Dr. Hardman has been my personal inspiration as the standard of

excellence to which I aspire and has selflessly helped me through my entire academic

process. I also am indebted to Dr. Fikes for her constant enthusiasm, energy and

inspiration. Dr. Fikes always guides me in new directions and my work is stronger

because of her.

I am especially grateful to Dr. Diana Boxer and Dr. Tace Hedrick for their

suggestions and encouragement.

I would also like to thank Nicholas Mrozinske and my family for their love,

patience, personal support and encouragement throughout this process. Nicholas spent

hours helping me format and print and provided a much needed personal respite. I owe a

special thanks to my mother, Marjorie Lofts, for teaching me to grasp and be proud of my

own Agency, while never-taking any credit for her hard work.

Lastly, I thank Melissa Gerhard and Anna Mulkey for providing me with loving

and supportive friendships for many years.












TABLE OF CONTENTS



page

ACKNOW LEDGM ENTS ................................ ....................... .......

ABSTRACT....... ............................................................ ........................vi

CHAPTER

ONE INTRODUCTION .................... ....... ..................... ........................................1

TWO MAGAZINE BACKGROUND AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE .....................8

The Importance of Teenage Magazines.......................................... ....................
Magazines and Youth Culture............................ ... .... ..................9
M magazines and Consumerism............................... ............ ........ ........... .10
Linguistic Analyses of Teen Magazines..........................................................13

THREE THEORY AND METHODOLOGY..............................................17

M ethodological Theory................................................................................. 17
Theories of Agency, Language and Gender .....................................................20
Hardman's Derivational Thinking............................. ..................21
Russ' Notion of Agency...............................................25
M ethodology........... ....... .. ...... ................................... ..........................27

FOUR TEEN WOMEN IN NOMINAL MORPHOLOGY, LEXICON AND
SEM ANTICS.......................... ................... ...29

Teen W omen as Bound Affix.................... ......................................................31
Teen Women as Independent Roots................................ ..........................36
Discourse Community Member--Teen Women as "You".....................37
Asymmetrical Vocabulary--Teen Women as "Girl"...............................38
Other M miscellaneous Root Identities ....... .............................................40
Root identities with positive semantics................................... 41
Root identities with negative semantics.....................................41
Teen Women as Personal Name (PN)..............................................................44






C onclusion............ .................................... ............................ ...................44

FIVE TEEN WOMEN IN ADJECTIVAL MORPHOLOGY, RANKING AND
H IERARCH IE S.............................................................. ...................... 46

Ranking, Hierarchy and Singularity ................................................................46
Hierarchies within Teen Women's Culture........................................................47
The Ranking of Teen Women against Men............................................49
The Ranking of Teen Women against Each Other....................................53
Ranking and Hierarchy of Magazine over Readers..................................55
C onclusion......................... ........................................................ .............. ..... 62

SIX TEEN WOMEN IN SYNTAX AND DISCOURSE.........................................64

Syntax and Discourse Pattern Data .................................64
Word Order Patterns and Agency.............................................68
Sentence and Discourse Patterns and Teen Women's Agency............................74
Agency and agency....................................................... 74
Denial of Agency by Semantic Role............................................................75
Denial of Agency by Negative Agency.......................................... ................... 79
Denial of Agency through Emulation...............................................................80
Denial of Agency by Sex......................................................................................84
Denial of Agency by M ale Hegemony...........................................................88
O vert D enials of A gency............................................................ .......................94
Denial of Agency by Synecdoche and Instrumentation...........................95
Denial of Agency through Whiteness....................................................97
Denial of Agency by Manipulation...................... ..........................................99
Directive Conditioned Agency........................................................99
Quiz Conditioned Agency..................................................................102
Denial of Agency through Felicity Conditions..................... ........ ................104
Commissives..................................... ..................... 105
D irectives ............ ........ ....... ................................. ...... .......................107
Conclusion............................................................................ ...................... 111

SEVEN CON CLU SION ................................................................ .........................113

APPENDIX

A TEEN WOMAN AS SEMANTIC ROLE AGENT......................................... 117

B TEEN WOMAN AS SEMANTIC ROLE BENEFACTIVE AND
PO SSE SSIV E .................................................................. ...................142

C COM M ISSIVES.................. .. ...................................... ...................147







D DIRECTIVE AND COMMISSIVE CONDITIONED DISCOURSE................. 151

E D IR E C TIV E S............................... .................................... .................. 160

F DOA (DENIAL OF AGENCY) INSTRUMENT AND SYNECDOCHE..........246

G DOA (DENIAL OF AGENCY) OF NEGATIVE MALE AGENCY
AND M ALE HEGEM ONY.......................................... ...................254

H TEEN WOMAN AS SEMANTIC ROLE EXPERIENCE .............................258

I MALE SUBJECTS.............. ....... ... ...........................270

J TEEN WOMAN AS SEMANTIC ROLE MODAL......................................... 311

K TEEN WOMAN AS NEGATIVE SUBJECT.............................................320

L OVERT DOAS (DENIALS OF AGENCY) WHITENESS AND AGE.............328

M TEEN WOMAN AS SEMANTIC ROLE PASSIVE AND PROCESS.............330

N QUIZ CONDITIONED DISCOURSE................................. ............ .............333

O STAR SUBJECTS............................... .....................346

P TEEN WOMAN AS SEMANTIC ROLE VOLITIONAL.................................364

Q RANKING AND HIERARCHY DATA...................... ..........................370

R WORD ORDER PATTERNS................................ ........... .................... 393

REFEREN CES ....................................... ....... ............................................................397

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH..............................................403












Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts


LANGUAGE AND THE MANIPULATION OF TEEN WOMEN'S IDENTITY:
CREATING DEFICIENCY, SUBVERTING AGENCY AND DEVALUING
TEEN WOMEN'S PERSONHOOD ON THE MULTIPLE LEVELS OF DISCOURSE
IN TEEN WOMEN'S MAGAZINES

By

Addie L. Sayers

August 2002

Chair: Dr. M. J. Hardman
Major Department: Linguistics

For American teen women, the teen years constitute poignant moments of

gendered identity transformation considered key to the detriment and/or enforcement of

adult subjectivity. Teen women undergo two complementary cultural phenomena at this

time: they suffer the greatest losses of security, self-esteem and self-worth during their

identity formation at this age period, while they also simultaneously become one of

America's most highly sought after and targeted consumer prospects. American teen

magazines relate specifically to these phenomena, as teen magazines are in the teen

identity, and manipulation of identity, business. Because teen magazines are uniquely

marketed for the "community" of American teenage women, teen magazines use language

to formulate and delineate a speech community of teen women readers. It is through

language that teen magazine writers and editors create, mediate and negotiate the ideal






identities of teen women and teen women readers within the pages of their magazines and

it is through language that teen magazines deny full personhood to teen women.

This thesis argues that the language used to construct teen womanhood within

magazines illustrates the fundamental ideologies of teen womanhood held and prescribed

by magazine writers, editors and publishers and embedded in teen magazines, in which

teen women are fundamentally lacking and deficient. This thesis also shows how teen

magazine language on multiple levels of discourse contributes to the processes that

devalue teen women's Agency in order to sell solutions to the very identity problems the

magazines create.











CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION



Magazines marketed for American teenage women are a multibillion-dollar

industry. Furthermore, teen magazines are the largest growing subset of the publishing

industry with new teen magazines being created each year (Steil 2001). Since their

creation in 1944, teen magazines have flaunted their influence in the creation and

mediation of teen women's identity and American teen culture (Schrum 1998:157). The

authority of teen magazines is particularly strong, as they are one of the few items of

popular culture specifically marketed for teen women to address their life, culture, wants

and needs. This is particularly important, given that teen years constitute poignant

moments of gendered identity transformation considered key to the detriment and

or/enforcement of adult subjectivity (de Beauvoir 1989, Pipher 1994, Brown and Gilligan

1992).

While there have been significant social scientific analyses of the content and

history of teen magazines and the implications of magazine content on teen women

readers, much of this research has come from sociology and history (Currie 1999,

Schrum 1998, Schelnker, Caron and Halteman 1998, Evans, Rutberg, Sather and Turner

1991). As such, most of the current research examines the magazines on a larger and

more global level, analyzing items such as magazine pictures and imagery, consumerism

within magazines, representations of femininity and feminist versus non-feminist content.





2
Much social scientific research takes the linguistically constructed idealized teen woman

interlocutor spoken to by the magazine in text for granted as one and the same as the

living readers of the magazines and instead analyzes the real, or hypothesizes the

potential, effects and ramifications of magazine themes, signs and imagery on actual teen

women. Yet, because teen magazine text simulates conversation between magazine

writers and teen readers, and magazine writers have no direct access to the actual readers

of the magazines, magazines must necessarily construct an idealized, abstract interlocutor

through their language. In other words, conversations can not be one-sided; they need at

least two participants. By the sheer act of making conversation, magazine writers

produce an illusionary speaker simply because they have no actual speakers available.

With each semantic, lexical and morphological appellation magazines call their ideal

interlocutor into being. It is through this interlocutor that magazines attempt to speak to

teen readers, and it is this identity and subject position that actual teen readers either

interact with, reject or appropriate.

So while there has been some investigation of how the reading of the

metamessages and the viewing the imagery and content of magazines results in teen

women altering their own identities, there has also been relatively little investigation of

the actual identity that the teen woman confronts and interacts with in order to potentially

transform her own. In other words, few researchers have taken a more structural stance of

investigating the internal ideological and ideal constructions of teen reader identity

within magazines, particularly in the language and discourse (notable exceptions include

Garner, Sterk and Adams 1998, Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998, Duffy and Gotcher

1996, Talbot 1992, Talbot 1995). I argue, however, that it is crucial to examine the ways

that magazines create and negotiate the illusionary ideal identity of the absent teen





3
woman interlocutor through language. That is, before examining the possible effects of

teen magazines on teen women's subjectivity as teen women read magazines and interact

with them, it is first necessary to understand exactly what ideal identity teen women are

interacting with in this process. I would argue that the basic ideologies, themes and

images of the magazine are conceptualized through the ideal illusionary identity; as such,

this identity is potentially the most powerful force in actual reader's identity alteration.

When teen women read magazines, it is this identity that meets them and it is interaction

with it that may influence or motivate transformation.

One other final problem often overlooked in either analyses of language and

gender in general, or in analyses of the language of teen magazines in particular, is the

racialization of gender and gendered identity. In other words, many researchers use

"women," "teen women" or "girls" as cover terms without realizing the racialization of

these unmarked forms. A similar usage of unmarked and undefined terms occurs in teen

magazines. In other words, both magazines editors and writers and researchers alike take

a "color blind" stance to the notion of race within magazines; those researchers who do

mention teens constructed within magazine language as "white" often fail to implicate

the results of such whiteness.

By taking a "color blind" approach to race to analyzing magazines and by

constructing a seemingly "colorless" interlocutor within magazines, researchers and

writers, respectively, either assume that race does not matter (as if, for example, all teen

woman share commonalities regardless of race) and/or ignore notions of race under the

presupposition that it is not relevant to their issue at hand. The "color blind" approach

assumes that each racial category is conceptualized the same, so speaking of race is

unimportant (Frankenberg 1995). However, all racial categories are not constructed





4
through the same processes; whiteness is constructed implicitly by the explicit

construction of racialized Others, making whiteness an invisible normative state

(Mrozinske 2002). This means that forms unmarked for race, such as "teen woman" are

read as white, while all racial terminology exists only as a derivation to an unmarked

white form, as in "African-American teen women."

A "color blind" approach fails because it does nothing to unmask the hidden

unmarked whiteness (Frankenberg 1995). As such, within teen magazines, because the

ideal teen interlocutor is constructed as colorless, she becomes white. Therefore, a "color

blind" approach in teen magazine language reinforces white privilege and notions of

ranked singularity and denies teen women of color the experience of being an "everyday

teen," as ideal interlocutorhood is reserved for whites. Furthermore, a color blind

approach within language and gender research is equally as damaging and as reinforcing

of normative whiteness. An appropriate investigation of the full extent of race and

racialization in teen magazines would take an additional masters thesis and is not the

intent of this thesis. Instead, however, this thesis takes a race-cognizant approach to ideal

interlocutor identity, as failure to do so not only undermines the concept of Agency but

also asserts race hierarchy and privilege.

This thesis deconstructs the basic ideologies of teen womanhood and of teen

readers by analyzing who magazines construct as their ideal teen interlocutor through the

lexicon, semantics, morphology, syntax and discourse' of teen magazine "conversation."

It is this ideological identity that illustrates the basic the basic rails along which

magazines expect teen women's identity to go. It is by examining the language through

' The word "discourse" has been borrowed by other social sciences and is used in a number of ways. The
way I am using "discourse" here is in the traditional core linguistic sense of the level of linguistic structure
above the level of the sentence, the structures which develop when two or more utterances come together to
form larger units of speech, such as conversations, paragraphs or bodies of text.





5
which magazines create, modify and manipulate the ideal identity of their abstract

interlocutor that I discover the underlying assumptions magazines hold about teen

women and their actual teen readers.2 To determine whether teen women, when reading

and interacting with the ideal identity offered by magazine language, appropriate, reject,

and/or deny this subject position offered by magazines that is, whether teen women

transform their own identity through interaction with the ideal identity requires

fieldwork with actual teen women. This is not a question of this thesis, but a question for

further research. Instead, this thesis attempts to first determine who and what teens

would interact with before investigating any transformative effects of such interaction.

I suggest that a centralizing point for analyzing language and ideal identity, and

the internal structures of assumptions within magazines, is the examination of the ideal

teen reader's Agency through language. That is, I analyze each linguistic structure for

how it creates ideal identity with respect to the Agency of such identity. The concept of

Agency was originally proposed by Russ (1997) to explicate women's work as writers

and the processes used against such work. I, however, reanalyze Agency as an abstract

concept and cover term to mean the full humanity and personhood of teenage women,

with authentic selves (in contrast to Pipher's (1994) notion of "false selves," a type of

"female impersonation" of teen women who experience a conflict between their

autonomous self and their need to be feminine (pp.21-22) ) and with the freedoms,

autonomy and rights owed to a fully functioning teen member of society. I then



2 Another way to explain my thesis is by drawing on Kenneth Pike's notion of"-emics" as outlined in
Hardman and Hamano (1997). With this project I am uncovering the magazine discoursemics of identity
and teen womanhood. I am very hesitant to use "-emics" as it has opposite meanings in some subfields of
anthropology than it does in linguistics, and for purposes of clarity and brevity it would be easier not to
explicate the differences. Linguistics "-emics" is grounded in the Lee-Sapir-Whorf hypothesis and the basic
concept of the phoneme, as "-emics" are units of perception. I offer this description for those familiar with
Hardman's reworking of Pike.





6
investigate the creation, negotiation, mediation and conditions for the Agency of the ideal

teen interlocutor through language.

I capitalize agency for two theoretical reasons. The first reason is for the two

different uses of Agency within this thesis. "Agency" with a capital "A" refers to the

abstract concept of personhood, while "agency" with a lower case "a" is a linguistic term

referring to a specific semantic role held by a grammatical subject of a sentence who

performs an action or mental process action verb. Secondly, I capitalize Agency to link

with, and yet to simultaneously distinguish my reworking from, Russ' original concept.

In this thesis I fill the theoretical gap of a race-cognizant structural and

ideological analysis of the language creating ideal interlocutor identity by analyzing the

linguistic structure of the three most popular American teenage magazines, Teen,

Seventeen and YM. I first discover the overall discourse structure of the magazines. I

next examine the language used within that structure by magazine writers and editors to

talk to and about their teen women readers, by constructing the ideal identity of their

interlocutor. Finally, I investigate the interplay between such language and Agency. That

is, I assess each linguistic utterance with respect to the Agency of ideal teen woman

addressed/discussed in that utterance.

I argue that magazines consistently undermine teen women's3 Agency by the

linguistic devices used on virtually all levels of magazine language: through nominal and

adjectival morphology, semantics, syntactic patterns, speech acts and in larger discourse.

Within teen magazine language, teen women do not have full Agency. In other words,


'Henceforth, when I use the terms "teen woman/en" or "teen (woman/en) readers" I specifically mean the
ideal identity of the illusionary interlocutor as constructed by teen magazine language. I do not mean the
actual teen women and/or teen readers of the magazines, but rather the identities built by the magazines that
actual readers interact with. I am using this notation only for ease and space constraints, primarily, but also
because it is through the language constructing their ideal interlocutor that teen magazine writers reveal
their basic assumptions of teen womanhood.





7
within a supposed locus of teen women's culture, the ideal teen woman's identity is

fractured and Agency is conditioned. This thesis will show within the language of teen

magazines how the ideal teen woman is "allowed" to do and act, but only in certain

domains and under certain limitations.












CHAPTER TWO
MAGAZINE BACKGROUND AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE



The Importance of Teenage Magazines

Currently, within the United States, media of popular culture, such as the Internet,

TV, movies and video games are increasingly created for and aimed at teenage audiences.

Teenage magazines, however, are one of the only items created and marketed specifically

for teen women' girls and young women who range in age from 12 to19 years that

address the lives, wants and needs of teen women and their culture. Teenage magazines,

therefore, are uniquely and distinctly for teen women. Though the magazines and the

companies that publish them (Petersen of Teen, Primedia of Seventeen and Gruner and

Jahr USA of YM) are owned by men and have male CEOs, the magazines are edited,

managed and written by women, marketed to teen women and girls, and often purchased

by teen women or their parents.

Teen, Seventeen and YM are the three most popular and highest-grossing American

teenage magazines. All three magazines are readily accessible nationally and internationally

through subscription and can be purchased from new stands in the U.S.; they are easily

found in grocery stores, bookstores and school libraries. All three magazines sell slightly


I use the term "teen women" in contrast to "girls" to respect the Agency of age of teen women. I saw
this practice first in a feminist, non-profit teen magazine of empowerment called Teen Voices. As I will
show later in the thesis, there currently is no truly age-Agentive term for teens, as "girls" is used for
girls and women from childhood through adulthood. My use of this term, therefore, is to correct this
non-Agency while respecting teen women as people. I use "girl" to refer to girl children aged 1-11
years, encompassing the so-called "tween" years of late girlhood.

8





9

over two million copies a year, but have an incredibly high readership of 6 to 8 million

readers (Handelman 2001, Duffy and Gotcher 1996). In addition, each of the three

magazines has a long history of publication of at least twenty years, although Seventeen,

the oldest teen magazine, was created in 1944 (Schrum 1998). In 1992, YM, for example,

was "read by 8 million of the 13.7 million teens in the U.S." (Duffy and Gotcher 1996:

33). Furthermore, a study in 2000 found that "80% of girls [sic] ages 12 to 19 reported to

having read a magazine for pleasure in the past week" (Steil 2001). These studies did not

address the specific racial and class backgrounds of the sample populations, but these

three magazines are primarily marketed for white upper and middle class teen women.

Magazines and Youth Culture

Teenage magazines serve a variety of functions in teen women's lives. As cultural

artifacts they transmit and teach cultural knowledge. Magazines offer "a socialization of

social values, expectations, patterns and futures goals" (Ostermann and Keller-Cohen

1998: 532). Some teenage women look to magazines as an additional source of advice

and answers when they have questions or concerns. Many teen women feel that the

magazines "understand" the adolescent experience 62% of the respondents of a market

survey said that they trusted the teenage magazine being surveyed [YM] (Duffy and

Gotcher 1996: 33). According to Garner, Sterk and Adams (1998), "teens rank the media

just behind peers and parents as sources of information and influence" (p.60). As elements

of literacy teenage magazines "reflect and shape social practices" (Ostermann and Keller-

Cohen 1998: 531). In addition, Finders (1997) has shown that junior high school girls

[sic] use teenage magazines to establish in-group and out-group peer relations. In her





10

research, "reading [of the magazines] was an exclusive social event.., and the experiences

reported in the magazines were appropriated by the girls [sic] as their own" (p.99).

Magazines and Consumerism

In addition to being a locus of popular culture, another reason that teen magazines

are important to analyze is due to the traditional and historical connection between teen

magazines and their big business, corporate sponsors. Women have historically been

targeted as consumers, as consumption of goods is slated to relieve women and girl's

anxieties (Schrum 1998, Loeb 1994, Roberts 1998). Teen magazines were co-created

with advertising partners and boast of their ability to "understand" and manipulate girl's

[sic] consumer identity (Schrum 1998). Teenage magazine publishers sell their

advertisers' products to their teen women readers, and sell their teen women readers to

their advertisers. In sum, male owners and male presidents of corporations support each

other while attempting to manipulate the identity and needs of teen women.

Not only do magazines have a long historical connection with their corporate

business partners, but they also currently continue to strengthen, and even increase, their

big business relationship. Magazine advertising has increased significantly in the late

1990s and early 2000s in virtually all teenage magazines. For example, in November 2000

Seventeen had 123.42 ad pages, Teen had 41.51 ad pages (up from the 22 ad pages in its

first-ever issue), and YM had 50.72 total ad pages (up from the 12 initial adds in its first

issue) (Steil 2001). On average, Seventeen's total pages are between 200-250, Teen's are

between 100-150, and YM averages 80-100 total pages. Nearly half of the total pages of

Teen, Seventeen and YM in November 2000, then, were advertisements. Not only that, but

advertisements are also placed within editorial articles. Magazine editors frequently place





11

selected consumer products in the "problem solving" or "suggestions" sections of their

advice columns, quizzes, beauty and fashion feature sections; taking these ads into

consideration, the actual number of advertisements in teenage magazines is even greater

than 50% of the magazine content. As shown later in the thesis, the written text of the

magazines and the advertised goods often work together in support of the same

ideological narrative.

Finally, the magazines themselves are also the products of corporations. As such,

each of these magazines has reached beyond the realm of print and now produces goods

and services other than their respective magazines, in the name of their magazine. In doing

so, Teen, Seventeen and YM all manufacture adolescent literature and source books,

ranging from quiz collections to dating and beauty guides, often called "Teen /Seventeen

/YM's Guide to X." All three magazines have active, large web sites, complete with mail

lists, chat rooms and even web servers based on the magazines. All three magazines also

have their own Teen/Seventeen/YM interactive CD-ROM virtual makeover kits, analogous

to the forerunner virtual CD-ROM makeover kit started by the women's magazine

Cosmopolitan. Seventeen magazine has even branched beyond the realm of other types of

media; it now has its own line of Seventeen hair care products, ranging from brushes and

barrettes to hair clips and scrunchies. So while magazines advertise consumable goods,

they also advertise and support themselves as consumable goods. Furthermore, their

influence reaches far from the domain of magazine print.

An additional reason for the use of corporate teenage magazines is that despite the

feminist movement and the recent "Girl Power" movements, teenage magazines still

present images and representations of, and advise teen women to become, traditionally




12

feminized girls and young women. Feminist researchers argue that teen magazines

perpetuate heterosexist agendas (Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998: 531), position young

women against each other as adversarial competitors in quest for a man (Garner, Sterk

and Adams 1998: 59), and assume that girls' [sic] attitudes, opinions and bodies are in

constant need of change, while young men, even when presented negatively, are always

"fine" how they are (Garner, Sterk and Adams 1998, Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998).

In addition, with primary focus on romance, beauty and fashion, teen magazines

perpetuate the theme that by looking beautiful and by "gaining the proper knowledge

[about how to find a man]...one's power of attraction can be enhanced" attraction is the

ultimate goal (Duffy and Gotcher 1996: 36).

Schlenker, Caron, and Halteman (1998) analyzed the editorial content of

Seventeen magazine in 1945, 1955, 1965, 1975, 1985, and 1995 in order to measure any

effects of the various feminist movements since the magazines' inception. The researchers

classified traditionally feminine content as that relating to appearance, female-male

relations, and home and classified feminist messages as self-development, career

development and world and political issues. They argue that although feminist content

was largest in the years 1945, 1975 and 1995, (it was lowest in 1955, 1965 and 1985) that

"the changes [the adaptation of feminist content] are slight and still do not reflect the roles

of teenage girls [sic]" adding, "even in the 1990s this publication [Seventeen], being the

most widely distributed teenage magazine, still does not address most of the intellectual

issues concerning young women" (Schlenker, Caron and Halteman 1998: 148).





13

Linguistic Analyses of Teen Magazines

There have been only a few analyses of the language of teen magazines, although

each has provided insight into the ways that language functions to create, perpetuate or

reinforce traditional female roles and male hegemony (Garner, Sterk and Adams 1998,

Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998, Talbot 1992, Talbot 1995). For example, in analyzing

the language of Teen, Seventeen, Sassy and the Brazilian magazine Capricho, Ostermann

and Keller-Cohen (1998) illustrate how the language of quizzes, which are present in

every issue of each magazine, "contribute to the larger social practices which lead girls

[sic] to devalue themselves, through the position they construct for their readers,

problematizing girls' [sic] behavior and offering ideologically motivated solutions to these

problems" (p.539). They argue the quizzes serve as a microcosmic view of the major

images, representations, themes and messages of the entire teen magazine. Advice

prescribed by the magazines comes in many forms quizzes, however, serve as a baseline

for all other forms of advice (Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998).

First, quizzes set up a problem for teen women, assuming that teen women are in a

constant state of becoming and that their behavior is never quite adequate, but rather

questionable (Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998). Quizzes then evaluate the teen

woman's responses and place her into a specific category. Finally, they assign value to the

categories and give the teen women of each category advice on how to improve. The key

element of the quizzes is the linguistic presupposition that teen women are in need of

improvement (Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998). Teen men's behavior, however, is

"valued, expected, and not questioned" (Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998: 544).





14

Based on answers given to the quiz questions, teen women are categorized into

traditionally dichotomized positions; for example, in a quiz about flirtation, teen women

are labeled either a "Great Girlfriend," a "Snob Sista," or a "Wild Woman" (Ostermann

and Keller-Cohen 1998: 544). In addition, the advice given to teen women is circular and

heterosexist the 'Great Girlfriend' is evaluated positively for being herself' and yet the

" 'Snob Sista' is advised to do exactly the opposite...to simulate a personality which is not

hers: 'if you have to act...that's okay' "(Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998: 544). The

dichotomization and contradiction exists in virtually all other quizzes. In addition, this

type of assessment/advice/dichotomization is not limited to quizzes, but rather spans the

editorial content of the entire magazine. In other words, "a good girl [sic] should be

herself, but only as far as being herself means to be a good girl [sic]" (Ostermann and

Keller-Cohen 1998: 552).

The theme of being a "good teen woman" and subordinating one's needs to the

needs of men was also found in Garner, Sterk and Adam's (1998) analysis of the sexual

etiquette of YM, Teen, Seventeen, Glamour and Mademoiselle. Garner, Sterk and Adams

(1998) analyzed the sexual messages of these magazines from a symbolic convergence

theory perspective. They argue that sexual rhetoric of the magazines positions teen

women in one of three sexual roles: woman as sex object, women as sex therapists, and

women as communication teachers (Garner, Sterk and Adams 1998). In each case,

women's sexual attitudes and behaviors as constructed through rhetoric were conditioned

by the actions of men, as objects of men, therapists to men or the responsible ones for

educating men on communication. In other words, relationship problems are the

responsibility of the woman because the man's state is normal and acceptable (Garner,





15

Sterk and Adams 1998). It is important to note, that although Garner et al (1998) did not

overtly discuss the racialization of such rhetoric, this version of teen women's sexual roles

is distinctly a white one; in other words, the experiences and stereotypes in sexual rhetoric

for white teen women is again taken as normative. In their conclusion, Garner, Sterk and

Adams (1998) assert that if "young people take these messages to heart, they will continue

to enact a vision in which men are the citizens of the world and women are the citizens of

men" (p. 75). Once again, teen women are the ones in need of change. For teen women

of color, however, the change needed is twofold: act "woman" and act "white."

Coming from a critical discourse perspective, Talbot (1992) examined the ways

that language constructs female gender identity in the British magazine Jackie. Talbot is

particularly concerned with deconstructing and/or denaturalizing the process of gender

identity formation within the magazine, as well as investigating the relationship of this

shared constructed discourse community to consumerism and commodification (Talbot

1992). She analyzed the linguistic features of an article on lipstick and argued that items

such as presupposition, informal words, and pronouns are used to establish a community

between the editor and reader. These linguistic patterns synthesize "writer and reader into

a friendly relationship," while these patterns also function to create and "[to present] a

feminine consumption community consisting of free individuals whose identities are

established in pleasurable consumption" (Talbot 1992: 193). Talbot (1995) takes a

similar, yet more poststructuralist approach to this process in her later work analyzing the

same lipstick article in Jackie; she argues there that power and identity are discursively

created in magazine text, and that "synthetic personalization and the need for adult

femininity catch the reader up in a bogus community in which the subject position of





16

consumer is presented as an integral part of being feminine" (p. 161). While Talbot (1995)

is not suggesting that magazine readers are tricked or duped into subject positions, she
/
instead argues that patriarchy and consumption mold the subject positions created through

the linguistics of "synthetic sisterhood" in teen magazines. In sum, "feminine identity is

achieved in consumption and in relationships with men" (Talbot 1995: 162).

This thesis continues linguistic research and further explores the link between

language, Agency and identity in the language of teen magazines, specifically in the

morphology, semantics, syntax, speech acts and discourse patterns.












CHAPTER THREE
THEORY AND METHODOLOGY



Methodological Theory

One of the primary arguments of many English-language and gender theorists is

that sexist linguistic structures exist out of the conscious level of the majority of English

speakers (Hardman 1993a, 1993b, 1996, Cameron 1992, Frank and Ashen 1983). This is

also true of one's native language structures in general; native speakers have complete

intuition of and fluency in their native tongue, and yet may not be able to consciously and

overtly explain the grammatical rules that they possess (Stewart and Vaillette 2001,

Daniels 1998). Theorists argue that such imperceptibilityy" is one reason that sexist

discourse in English is ubiquitous, and even pervades work by those who consider

themselves feminists (for example, the continued use of structures that place women after

men, such as "men and women" [sic] by feminist linguists). One goal of feminist

linguistic research, then, is to not only help others perceive sexist discourse, but also to

place women in linguistic structures where they can be perceived.

My methodology involved me first learning to perceive linguistic structures

potentially outside of my awareness by learning the process of linguistic pattern

perception. I next applied this process to the language of teenage magazines in order to

discover the underlying linguistic structure of adolescent magazine discourse and to

examine how and where teen women were placed in such structure. The basic






18

methodology for this can be found in Hardman and Hamano's text (1997), which outlines

the methods for analyzing linguistic field data and for discovering the structure of other

languages on their own terms through dynamic interaction among research consultants

and researcher. There are two basic components to their methodology: (1) that data "can

only be attained through careful observation and interaction" (Hardman and Hamano

1997: iii) with research consultants such that the researcher and those who/that which she

researches both take part in knowledge creation, and therefore, (2) as a cooperative

member of knowledge creation, the researcher must realize her situatedness within the

research process. This method is congruent with Fox-Keller's (1995) work in biology

through "dynamic objectivity, ...the pursuit of knowledge that grants to the world...its

independent integrity, but does so in a way the remains cognizant of, indeed relies on,

...connectivity with that world" (p. 117). Hardman and Hamano take "dynamic

objectivity" a step further; because researchers interact in the pursuit of knowledge,

researchers must always be conscious of the structures they impose in doing their

research. Hardman and Hamano (1997) argue that because one always perceives through

the structure of her language, one's natural tendency is to project default linguistic

structures from her native languages) onto other languages. In other words, "true"

linguistic objectivity (in the positivist sense) is completely impossible, and, unless

researchers consciously work around the structural categories imposed by their native

language, they may fail to perceive alternate linguistic forms (Hardman and Hamano

1997). The method outlined by Hardman and Hamano (1997) is specifically rigorous and

involves procedures designed to teach pattern perception while simultaneously

recognizing the interconnectedness and situatedness of research.







19

Although originally designed as a methodology for fieldwork, this method is

quite useful for one's native language, as well. Hamano (Hardman and Hamano 1997)

argues that since the goal of fieldwork is to "reach [and describe] the real intuition of

native speakers, ...this method will prove relevant not only in the study of hitherto

unknown languages but also in the study of one's own language.. bringingn] out what

one is rarely aware of as a native speaker" (p. iii). In textual analysis, the morphology,

syntax and semantics of each sentence are described, analyzed and classified. Because all

data are examined from various viewpoints in a number of ways, categories of analysis

and specific research questions are not assigned apriori; by using this method, relevant

categories of analysis and the appropriate questions emerge from the data. In my work,

this is realized by each sentence being first taken as a unit and broadly classified and

filed according to sentence type; next, components of the sentence, such as subject,

object, verbs and adjectives are defined structurally and analyzed and filed accordingly.

Individual words are then examined and filed into morphological and semantic

categories, so that almost all levels of language are accounted for and "the totality of

language" (Hardman and Hamano 1997: iii) is maintained. By filing large sets of data

under broad, open-ended classifications based on the structures found in a given text, the

researcher is forced to perceive, through extensive classification, the underlying structure

of the text. The interaction between the researcher and her object of research and the

consequent social and cultural connection of the text, along with the filing and

classification involved, determine which categories are pertinent and how. The native

speaker intuition that guides the formation of the text is thus made apparent as structural

patterns emerge, regardless of the language.







20

My work is also informed by the theory and methodology of Critical Discourse

Analysis (CDA). According to CDA, the analysis of texts of is also analysis of ideology

(van Dijk 1999). That is, regardless of the given logical and linguistic constraints of

discourse, the different syntactic, semantic and lexical structures used are precisely

structured to indicate underlying ideological implications (Fairclough 1992; van Dijk

1999, Hodge and Kress 1993). CDA "highlights how language conventions and

language practices are invested with power relations and ideological processes which

people are often unaware of' (Fairclough 1992: 7). Therefore, rigorous textual

classification not only brings about structural patterns and native speaker intuition, but

also the ideology of that particular group of speakers. While Hardman and Hamano's

methodology is not specifically Critical Discourse Analysis and while the methods of

Critical Discourse Analysts differ from those of Hardman and Hamano, these theorists

nonetheless share congruent methodologies and methodological assumptions. In CDA

and in Hardman and Hamano, text is structured outside of complete native speaker

awareness, but careful analysis brings out not only the underlying linguistic structures of

discourse, but the cultural and ideological ramifications resulting therefrom; to both, text

structure, culture, ideology and worldview cannot be separated.

Theories of Agency, Language and Gender

There are two basic theoretical constructs that inform my methodology and

analysis sections. The first theory is M.J. Hardman's construct of Derivational Thinking,

while the second is Joanna Russ's notion of Agency.









Hardman's Derivational Thinking

The structure of each given language is organized around a set of principles or

motifs. Hardman has developed the notion of the linguistic postulate to explain these

principles (Hardman 1993a, 1993b, 1996, Hardman and Taylor 2001). A linguistic

postulate is "a theme or motif that can be found in almost all the sentences of a language,

a feature that is used repeatedly by the language to organize the universe" (Hardman

1996: 25). Linguistic postulates are specified on multiple levels of the language the

morphological, semantic, syntactic, discourse and rhetorical levels. They are basic, in

that they are marked in the central core of inflectional morphology, but extensive,

spreading through the entire language such that they also mark the underlying

philosophical and ideological beliefs of the culture at large. According to Hardman

(1993b),

We [human beings] accept the linguistic postulates of our mother tongue without
argument or discussion, as natural parts of the universe...In fact, it is so difficult
to imagine 'real' human beings operating without one's own linguistic postulates
that it verges on the impossible... As underlying assumptions, they are particularly
powerful (p.42).

Because linguistic postulates are marked repeatedly and systematically on all levels of

language, they form a formidable structural pattern of thought in the given culture.

Hardman (1993a, 1993b, 1996, Hardman and Taylor 2001) identifies the

linguistic postulates of the English language as number (singular/plural, as in

singular/plural agreement of nouns and verbs), sex-based gender (humans are divided by

biological sex; these sexes are projected onto non-human inanimate objects and things)

and the ranking/comparative (as in, the inflection of adjectives into comparative and

superlative forms, like "wise, wiser, wisest" and "good, better, best"). Hardman (1996)







22

has labeled the interaction and mutual reinforcement of these postulates, and thus the

"grammatical base for [an English speaker's] general model of human relationships"

(p.26) Derivational Thinking. Derivational Thinking means that for English speakers

number, gender, and hierarchy matter, as human beings are ranked such that white man is

the norm and all else (including females, peoples of color, colonized groups, etc.) are

seen as derivative and are measured accordingly (Hardman 1996: 32), socially structured

by linguistic constructions. Put another way, by Taylor (Hardman and Taylor 2001),

"number is important; number one is most important; number one is male" (p.3). Thus,

the default assumption of a human being, according to derivational thinking, is a

singular, white male.

The cultural correlations to the linguistic postulates of English have many

realizations. For example, in terms of the postulate of number/singularity, Hardman cites

the adulation of linear work, cultural axioms, such as "E Pluribus Unum" ('from many,

one'), the obsessions with monotheoretical slants in academia, monotheism in religion,

singular causes in history and science, and singular cures in medicine (Hardman 1993b:

43). Because singularity is prime, English-speakers find it difficult to conceptualize

difference and diversity; any acknowledgment of difference or diversity is immediately

ranked against a "singular" standard. Realizations of sex-based gender include the

assumption that human beings, especially those in high ranked positions, are men, as in

designations between a "female doctor" and a "doctor;" US naming patterns; denial of

Agency for women; the fact that the easiest way to insult a man is to label him some type

of "woman;" and the notion that 'woman = [-male]'- women are suffixes attached to men

to signify not what women are, but what men are not (Hardman 1996: 27-30). Because







23

English speakers think in sex-based gender, sex-based gender is a base for

conceptualizing the world (Oyewumi 1997). Examples of ranking and hierarchy are more

subtle than the other two linguistic postulates, but are nonetheless as powerful: English

speakers often insist on the ranking of all people and things so pervasively that no student

ever in one of Hardman's classes has been able to go 24 hours without ranking (Hardman

1993b: 46).

Although others have posited a link between sexism and the English language

(Cameron 1992, Penelope 1990), Hardman's construct covers four areas that are often

problematic in other theoretical frameworks. First, with Derivational Thinking, Hardman

grounds sexist language in the overall, constant, unconscious, reinforced patterning of

linguistic postulates in natural English use. Therefore, because Derivational Thinking is

highly pervasive (existing at all levels of language, reaching into cultural ideology) yet

extremely subtle, it is able to undermine even the good intentions of those who consider

themselves non-sexist. Hardman thus obviates blaming anyone specifically; instead, her

focus is how everyone participates in perpetuation of sexism, despite ideologically acting

or being otherwise.

Secondly, Hardman's theoretical framework allows for a way around the sexist

language that she posits; in other words, because Hardman shows how sexism is

'unconsciously' maintained through the English language by linguistic postulates, she

also allows for linguistic alternatives to sexist language by consciously working around

those same postulates. That is, as equally as she interrogates the English language, she

also equally allows for linguistic creativity, albeit difficult, and cultural change. With







24

Derivational thinking, therefore, Hardman both identifies the problems and seeks to

correct them.

The third major strength of Hardman's theory is that she grounds American

cultural sexism in the English language. By doing so, Hardman avoids essentializing or

totalizing all languages as universally masculine or hegemonic, as others have done.

Hardman does not apply Derivational Thinking cross-linguistically. Instead, she argues

that each language has its own distinctive linguistic postulates; sexism in language is not

a human universal and any sexism that is realized in a given language is shaped by

patterns distinct to that language. This is particularly important, as many theories of

language and gender contain questionable assumptions of universalism across languages

and cultures (Brown 1980, Coates 1993) which do no more than project the structure of

English onto another language. Oyewumi (1997) illustrates the danger of the

introduction of sexism and western gender notions into Yoruba culture through linguistic

and colonial imperialism, as well as the subsequent hazards of assuming that two

languages share the same thought structures and worldviews. In essence, Hardman does

not silence the voices of women in other cultures by arguing for a universal, cross-

cultural application of her conceptual framework, as other Western theorists have done.

Hardman's final major strength is her ability to explain the interconnectedness

and permeability of sex-based gender ranking on almost all levels of language. Hardman

has supported Derivational Thinking with examples from morphology, semantics, syntax,

metaphor, discourse and conversational styles. Furthermore, by grounding her work in

the theoretical concept of the phoneme, she has shown how such interconnected language






25

structures affect and reinforce patterns in culture (Hardman and Hamano 1997).

Derivational Thinking is a theory of language as well as a theory of worldview.

Russ's Notions of Agency

In How to Suppress Women's Writing, Joanna Russ (1997) introduced and

examined the concept of women's Agency within the English-language literary canon.

Russ (1997) systematically analyzed the means by which women's Agency in this case,

the complete and free ability of a woman writer to produce literary works and have those

works accepted, recognized and valued as her own was denied, polluted or ignored, as

the purpose of her book was to analytically illustrate the tools in suppression of women's

writing (p.5). Examples of Agency suppression include everything from limiting girls'

access to reading and literacy and materials and training therein, falsely classifying

women's work in categories outside of the canon (False Categorization), character

attacks on the author and thus, the quality of the work (Pollution of Agency), asserting

that the author did not actually produce the work, but that someone else (a man) did

(Denial of Agency), to blatantly ignoring that the work was even created (Russ 1997).

Russ (1997) made the purpose of this meticulous illustration clear; her argument was that

women were not denied direct access to literature and its production by overt, formal

prohibition from it, but rather, that men of that canon had developed numerous strategies

for ignoring, condemning or belittling the works of women (pp. 4-5).

The crux of Russ's argument was that overt, conscious prohibition of women

from the literary cannon was not the practice that resulted in the small amount of

accepted women writers. Instead, Russ argues that specific strategies worked covertly to

secure the opacity of women's suppression by the canon; by the laws of literature and






26

society women were "allowed" to produce and add to the canon, but if any actually did

so, (and many did) the suppressive practices took over to keep women's work in its

place. So women had the "freedom" to write canon-quality works, yet the isolations,

restrictions, pollutions, and denials of Agency kept them so they "never did" (Russ

1997).

Russ's notion of Agency has two major strengths. First, Agency allows for a

notion of women's full personhood without relying on notions of "equality" with men, as

"equality" with men relies again relies a male standard of existence. In addition, Agency

includes not only rights and privileges of being a full human being, but the respect and

freedom due to a functioning citizen of the world. This encompasses a totality of

women's actions, beliefs and opinions under one united term. Secondly, Agency, and the

processes used to deny Agency, are also strong tools for feminist linguistic analyses

because they account for the subtle, and not always perceivable, ways that women's

achievements are undermined. Russ's strength here, like Hardman's, is that sexism

exists in everyday, consistent acts and behavior, and not only in overt prohibitions of

women. This is important, because more women and girls have entered "traditionally

masculine" spheres previously closed to them and yet still suffer the effects of sexism,

like sexual harassment. Often times it is difficult to label these subtle attacks against the

full humanity of women, yet Russ provides workable labels and names the processes at

work against women, which can be easily applied and analyzed. Furthermore, because

Agency is concerned with day-by-day acts, it is easily applied to language, as "all that is

human is mediated through language" (Hardman 2002, Personal Communication). For







27

example, Hardman (1993a) has reworked Russ's notion for use in linguistics, grounding

Agency in language and grammar.

Methodology

In order to both discover the underlying structure of magazine discourse and to

examine the ideological and cultural position of young women within such discourse, I

applied the methodology above to six total editions of three magazines Teen March

1998, Teen February 2000, Seventeen March 1998, Seventeen March 2000, YM March

1998 and YM March 2000.

From each magazine I analyzed all relevant pages of editorial content. I was only

interested in the editorial discourse of the magazines in order to specifically examine the

content over which magazine publishers have complete control. I did not, therefore,

analyze the advertisements, horoscope and numerology sections or reader letters and

contributions. Because I am most interested in the ways that magazines talk to and about

their readers, I chose to focus on the "voice" of the magazine writers only. Contributions

from or co-constructed with teen readers were ignored. All editorial pages of all three

magazines, other than horoscopes and numerology and reader contribution sections, were

considered material for analysis.

Inspired by Hardman's notion of Derivational Thinking and Russ' concept of

Agency, I examined all levels of teen magazine discourse with exception of the

phonological, since magazines are written discourse. My first category of analysis was

the syntactic, or sentential analysis. I took each editorial sentence and analyzed each

clause according to sentence type and speech act type. Within syntactic analysis I also

examined word order within the phrases of the sentence, as well as the internal properties







28

of the sentence: subject, subject type, verb phrase, verb type, subject semantic role,

verbal semantics. Each sentence was filed under theme of the article. For each sentence

I was primarily interested in the relationship between the sentence as a whole and the

position of the teen woman reader; nonetheless, each sentence, regardless, was still

categorized.

My second category of analysis was the morphological analysis. For

morphology, I examined not only the root and derivational structures of women and men

nouns (a la Hardman 1993a, 1993b, 1996), but also the base and derivations of adjectives

in terms of conjugations for ranking comparison, given that adjectives not only describe

the teen women themselves, but also elements of their personal life and culture. In

addition, ranking is a crucial part of American English sexism within Derivational

Thinking. In other words, I was interested not only in nominal morphology pertaining to

teen women and men, but also with adjectival morphology. Each morphological

structure was classified according to subtype.

For my final category of analysis I examined the semantic and lexical level of

magazine discourse. In this layer of examination I was interested in the various

umbrellas of meaning under which teen women's identity was constructed, particularly in

the types of lexical items and semantic frames used to describe teen women and men.

Each example of teen identity was first recorded and then filed according to semantic

subtype.












CHAPTER FOUR
TEEN WOMEN IN NOMINAL
MORPHOLOGY, LEXICON AND SEMANTICS



Given that the discourse of teen magazines completely consists of written text, the

conversation between magazine writer and teen woman reader is a one-way, rather than

two-way process (Talbot 1992: 174, Talbot 1995). That is, magazine writers have no

direct access to the personal life and history of their interlocutor; as a result, the magazine

must construct an imaginary reading subject (Talbot 1992: 175, Talbot 1995). For teen

magazines, in particular, the type of imaginary subject that they construct is extremely

important. Actual teen readers have indicated that one of the primary reasons for reading

magazines is because magazines provide them with real-life advice relevant to the teen

woman experience (Currie 1999, Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998, Garner, Sterk and

Adams 1998). For teen women to seek out teen magazines and to trust them as such a

"source," teen magazine writers must construct ideal identities for their readers that situate

both the writer of the magazine and the imaginary reader within a shared discourse

community (Currie 1999, Finders 1997). In teen magazines, the crucial social components

delineating the idealized discourse community are age and, most importantly, gender

(Currie 1999, Finders 1997).

The data show that teen magazines have six general ways for constructing, and

thus referencing, their teen women readers: with personal pronouns, such as "you;" as





30

independent noun roots, like "girl" or "lady;" by affixation of a feminine suffix to an

independent noun root or with a female form marked with a male possessive, as in

"hostess" and "the president's wife," respectively; though metaphor, such as "chick;"

through "generic masculines" [sic], such as "freshmen" or using a personal name, like

"Tyra Banks." The pronoun "you" accounts for most of teen women's identity, occurring

2,174 times for a total of 59.4%. Personal Names of women stars, celebrities and experts

(PN*) total 15.4%, or 564 examples, while Personal Names (PN) for teen women total

11.3% or 425 examples. Independent roots make 10.7% of teen women's identity; of that

10.7%, however, only 1.7% of the roots are semantically positive, while the other 9%

function as euphemisms, deny Agency or carry negative semantics. 1.2% of teen women's

identity are women derivations from men or possessed by them, while 1.1% are

metaphors. A final .5% of teen women's identity is formed with generic masculines [sic].

Teen women, in essence, exist as one of six general identities within the language of teen

magazines that positions them within the idealized reader discourse community.

These six general identities break down further into three general morphological

shapes. That is, to construct readers as both teenaged and young women, magazine

writers use one of three morphological forms: a bound affix, an independent noun root, or

a person name (PN). Each morphological identity has different consequences for teen

women's Agency. While each form undoubtedly identifies the reader as female-sexed and

of adolescent age, the morphological shapes of the teen women are not necessarily

indicative of full, active persons. Membership to this specific discourse community,

therefore, does not necessarily mean membership with full Agency.





31

Teen Women as Bound Affix

The first morphological category for constructing teen women in the data is

through bound affixation. In these cases, the word for the teen woman consists of at least

two obligatory morphemes: an independent noun root (which is generally masculine or

perceived of as masculine) and a bound affix, usually a suffix. That which marks teen

woman identity within the word is the bound suffix; female identity exists only as bound

suffix to a male independent root so that the feminine form is derived from the masculine

form. The "female" suffix, then, serves only to mark a prior root as non-masculine. While

the masculine root is obligatory, the female derived form is not; in other words, the female

form is dependent upon the male form for her identity such that she cannot exist without

him, while the male form can exist completely and separately without the female suffix.

The two most common derivational suffixes in teen magazines are {-ess} and

{-ette}. Common examples throughout all three magazines include "princess" (Seventeen

1998, Teen 1998, YM 1998), "goddess" (YM 2000, Teen 1998, YM 1998) "actress"

(Seventeen 2000, YM 2000, Seventeen 1998, Teen 2000), "hostess" (Seventeen 2000)

and "studette" (YM 1998) derived from the obligatory masculine forms of "prince,"

"god," "actor," "host" and "stud," respectively.

Women's identity solely encoded in bound affixation has multiple effects on teen

women's Agency. First, given that masculine forms are obligatory, while feminine forms

are not, the masculine becomes the base, unmarked form (Hardman 1996, Miller 1983,

Penelope 1990). Humanity, particularly in examples such as "princess
perceived as masculine, and male becomes the natural sex (Hardman 1996, Miller 1983,

Penelope 1990). This pattern is also reinforced by the fact that within the magazines, as





32

well as in the English language in general, "there is NO [morphological] PATTERN for

deriving masculine from feminine" (Miller 1983: 190). In essence, because of the

asymmetrical derivational morphology of sex within the magazines and within English, the

female sex is deviant, while male sex is normal (Penelope 1990: 103).

Furthermore, some derivational morphological patterns not only reinforce, but also

help create male root identity, which in turn allows for consequent markedness of female

forms. In other words, I argue that the addition of a derivational affix makes a genderless

root a male root by marking it as female or non-male. One example of this is "actress"

from "actor."' I argue that the agentive suffix {-r}, which derives agent nouns meaning

"X who/that does" from action verbs, is inherently gender-neutral. {-r), however, gets

perceived of as masculine, and actually feels masculine to English native speakers, because

of two linguistic patterns: either by female-sexed marking (morphologically or by

adjectival modification) or through sociolinguistic use in traditionally all male spheres of

activity (as in a register of manhood [sic], only those who do X or who are not denied

Agency in doing X2 are male). Therefore, when the form "actress" is used, it not only is

marked and derivative, but it implies that "actor" is male, analogous to other feminine

derivations from roots with truly masculine semantics (such as "studette" from "stud").

Additional examples clarify my argument that sociolinguistic spheres of use and/or

derivational affixation help create male root identity. First, there are a number of derived



SInterestingly many women in Hollywood have been leading a movement to do away with the term
"actress." In addition, the current president of the Screen Actors Guild is Melissa Gilbert.

2 I am using Russ' notion of denial of Agency through anomalousness here. In many cases, women did
act in a give sphere of influence, but they were either "written out" of the history of a given sphere (a la
Dorothy Lee and the Lee-Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis) or were so few in number in that sphere that they were
labeled anomalies to their gender so their work could be disregarded (Russ 1997).




33

{-r} words that are not only gender-neutral, but essentially non-human forms, such as

"blender," "grater," "computer," and "sifter." Two popular examples from teen

magazines are "hair dryers" and "mattifiers" makeup that causes skin to have a matte-

like surface appearance. Second, there are many gender-neutral forms for humans, such

as "caller," "author," "writer," or "runner," as well as "reader" and "winner," two that are

prominent in teen magazines. Note that in these cases, no {-ess} or {-ette) derivations

exist. Thirdly, {-r} can be used for exclusively female semantics, where the masculine

form (if it exists) is marked, as in "cheerleader"/"male cheerleader" and "spinster." Next,

in some cases where {-r} bases (base = verb root + {-r}) are perceived as masculine,

either women have been actively denied Agency, or the action of the root verb has been

exclusively done by men, as in "engineer" or "soldier."3 The roots are masculine because

women never do them, have been kept from doing them, or have been denied Agency

despite doing them. Other bases that are perceived as masculine can be modified by a

female adjective to overtly mark female sex, as in "lady or woman doctor" or "woman

pilot;" note, however, that these nouns do not have counterparts marked with derivational

affixes, doctresss or *pilotess. In addition, one can say and does hear "doctor" and

"pilot" for either sex, without marking. These bases are masculine for some, or can be

used for either sex, for others.

The strongest perceptions of masculine identity, however, are bases that have a

feminine derived form, as in "actress


3Note that even these terms are perceived of as only masculine by some English speakers, as both of these
traditionally male-only spheres of action are now more open to both women and men. This "freedom" of
gender-neutral semantic interpretation might also be possible by the fact that there are no derivational
affixes attached to these forms.




34

these cases, the base form is definitely masculine, particularly in the pairs in which the

feminine form has undergone semantic derogation or pejoration (Schultz 1975). Unlike

gender-neutral forms like "reader" and "runner," which have no female derivations, the

addition ofderivational affixation helps make a root masculine. That is, when there is not

sex-based derivation the base can go either way, describing women or men; when there is

a sex-based derivation, the derivation and marked form is feminine, while the base is

unmarked and masculine.4

In essence, therefore, the magazines' use of derivational affixes not only

perpetuates sex-ranked divisions, but also reifies them. The derivational forms then not

only mark female sex as derivative, but also allow the male sex to be perceived as the

norm. As such, derivational affixes form a feedback loop in English. Because male-only

masculine semantic bases (like "goddess
feminine affixes throughout English to mark women and allow men to pass as the norm,

female derivational affixes on gender-neutral or potentially gender-neutral bases (such as

"actress>actor") consequently continue the cycle by reinforcing the perception of the base

as essentially masculine. In essence, just as male becomes "neutral" [sic] (as in,

male--norm=human), "neutral"(as in, no explicit gender) becomes male.

Female derivation from male roots also reinforces ranking inherent in English-

language gender hierarchy. Not only is the masculine form natural, but it is also the

outranking sex. Hardman identifies sex-based derivation as evidence of one of the

linguistic postulates of English, sex-based gender. Sex-based gender, as well as number


4 I would also argue that one other linguistic pattern supports my argument of the gender-neutrality of
{-r} pairs such as "washerwoman" and "fisherman," where in these instances, one would expect instead
to have "*fisheress" or "*fisherette" and "fishers."




35

and ranking comparison, are repeated and systematically reinforced on all levels of the

English language to produce Derivational Thinking (Hardman 1993a, 1993b, 1996).

Hardman (1996) argues with her concept of Derivational thinking that the "thinking

patterns of English-language speakers rank human beings such that man is the norm, and

all else is seen as derivative and is measured accordingly" (p.26). Such derivation, as

overt marking of sex-based gender, therefore enforces the ranking of the genders.

Not only is female sex, "deviance" and lower rank encoded in these derivational

affixes, so too are further semantic connotations. The affixes {-ette} and {-ess} also carry

meanings of softening, weakening or lessening of that to which they are attached.

According to one morphology textbook, the {-ette} suffix has three meanings, "small,

female or mock material [emphasis mine]" (Bauer 1999: 78). Given that English

semantics obligatorily positions female as [- male], small and mock material are natural

correlatives; in essence, the derivational suffixes have one meaning with three circular

realizations, woman = small = mock material. "Princesses" and "actresses" are not equal

to the "princes" and "actors" that MAKE [sic] them;

Girls [sic] diminished sense of self means that, often unconsciously, they
take on a second-class, accommodating status. Few of the girls [sic]...had
ever been told that girls [sic] 'can't' do what boys can most were overtly
encouraged to fulfill their potential. Yet all, on some level, had learned this
lesson anyway (Orenstein 1994: XXVIII).

In sum, teen magazines, written and edited by women and produced entirely for a

community of teen women and girls, are not free from morphological patterns that lessen

women's Agency through denigration of the feminine. 1% (40 examples) of the total

identities for teen women are derivations. Within magazines for teen women, it is man,

and not teen women, as the base.





36

Teen Women as Independent Roots

The second category of data is women as independent roots. Independent roots

are free morphemes that can completely stand alone; while other morphemes may attach

to these roots as affixes, these attachments are not obligatory.5 Independent roots,

therefore, rely on no other morphemes for their identity; they can exist without the

necessity of other morphemes.

In English, independent roots are generally associated with morphological

autonomy and personal Agency, as words that encode semantic male sex are always free

roots and never bound affixes6 (Hardman 1993a, 1993b, 1996, Miller 1983). Within

general English morphology, full personhood is associated with root morpheme identity.

Within teen magazines, however, construction of teen female identity through independent

roots is not necessarily a guarantee for personal Agency. For teen women, status as an

independent root comes closer to full personhood, and in some instances, teen women as

independent roots are full Agents. Unlike semantically male independent roots,

however, semantically independent roots for teen women are also equally subject to






5 I also include compounds in this section since they consist of two independent roots together and may
have derivational and inflectional morphemes attached to them. Though a compound is not an
independent root, it functions similar to one in that can take affixation.

6 One could argue that there is one exception the historical morpheme {wer-}. In Old English sex-
based gender morphemes for persons were bound to the then neutral root man, 'person, 'as in wifnan
'woman (person)' and werman 'male (person)' or occurred alone as wifand wer. Female forms were not
derived from male forms, but rather, forms for both women and men were equally derived from other
sources. Throughout the transition to Moder English, however, man eventually underwent reanalysis to
specifically indicate male sex (and prescriptively supposedly humankind) while wifunderwent semantic
specification to mean "female marriage partner," becoming "wife." {Wer-} died out nearly completely,
but does exist in Moder English today in the word "werewolf" (Quirk and Wrenn 1994).





37

reduced Agency. Within teen magazines, therefore, there is not only gender asymmetry in

derivation, but also in roothood.

Discourse Community Member--Teen Women as "You"

The most frequent identity, and the most common independent root for teen

women, is the pronoun "you." This is not surprising; magazines organize their discourse

structure to simulate a conversation between the magazine and the reader. To create the

"idealized discourse community," the magazine must call the reader into the conversation

and situate her within the discourse (Talbot 1992, Currie 1999). The easiest way to do

this as a partnered interlocutor is with the pronoun "you."

The pronoun "you" in and of itself neither supports nor denies Agency. The

discourse and syntactic units within which "you" is situated support or deny Agency. The

use of "you," however, does allow the manipulation of Agency. In other words, since the

magazines create the discourse and syntax that discusses and describes the "you," they can

situate their readers as doers ("you asked for it..." or "you thought") or hierarchically, as

lacking against the knowledge of the magazine writers ("you should..." or "you have

to..."). The pronoun "you" here is crucial to this situation; magazines need the minimized

social distance and intimacy of"you," (i.e., first or second person), as well as the implied

singularity (singular rather than plural). "You should do it" contains more manipulative

force than "readers (a third person identity) should do it," since third person lacks crucial

intimacy. "We should do it" crosses the line between magazine and reader; if the

magazine writers situate themselves communally as such, then they lose some hierarchy

over readers magazine writers can not simultaneously be experts to be called on for





38

advice and lacking or ailing enough (like the idealized readers they posit) to need the

advice to begin with.

Asymmetrical Vocabulary-Teen Women as "Girl"

The independent root "girl" is one of the three most common identities, and the

second most common independent root, that magazines use to construct their ideal

readers. "Girl" occurs consistently across all magazines 275 times. Magazines use "girl"

to refer to any teen woman from childhood age until womanhood (ages 12 19 years);

sometimes, even women over eighteen years are referred to as "girls." In other words,

there are two basic age gradients for free lexical items for teen women "girl" and

"women." "Women," however, is rare (it occurs 27 times across 6 magazines) and

magazines never directly refers to their readers as women. When it is used, it is often

reserved for women over age twenty-five (such as Tipper Gore), or in articles with

medical or reproductive themes, particularly articles under the theme of Sex and the Body.

Because magazines discuss advice and information regarding sexual health and activity,

they often frame their discourse towards "women" and "young women." I would argue

that this is a tool to free magazines from any possible legal or social ramifications from

using the "girls" with sexual discussions, rather than a discourse device to support teen

women's identity, particularly because of the powerful influence of magazine advertisers

and sponsors and their political ideologies.

A surface analysis would suggest that since "girl" is a free and independent root

there is no denial of Agency possible for teen women. When looking at male sexed-

identity within the magazines, however, a double standard of age gradiance appears. For

teen women there are two basic independent root choices for age (excluding the pronoun




39

"you" and personal names), "girl" and "woman;" for the male sexed, there are three,

"boy," "guy" and "man." "Boy" can be used for the youngest of the male sex with each

lexical subsequent lexical item increasing in age or as a synonym for the more popular

lexical choice of "guys." Similar to "woman," "man" is also relatively rare, although use

of "woman" only outnumbers use of "man" by 1 (27 to 26). "Guys," however, in a

magazine for and about teen women, slightly outnumbers "girls" in frequency of

occurrence, as "girls" appears 275 times while guys appears 299 times; for the male-sexed

teenager, "guys" is the most frequent lexical choice. Older men and teenage men from

seventeen to twenty-five are more frequently called "guys," rather than "boys" (unlike the

analogous use of "girls" for teen women of the same age range); one example is YM's

sixteen-page layout of "Hottest Guys," featuring teenaged and adult males.

Interestingly, although the younger lexical choice for teen men ("boys"- 18 times)

and the older form ("men" 26 times) exist in the magazines, the mid-aged lexical item

("guys" 299 times) is most prevalent. For teen women, however, there is no term

analogous to "guys;" where teen men have three free lexical choices, and the magazines

use the most age appropriate choice most frequently, teen women have two. The lexicon

for teen women suffers a lexical gap in the language of teen magazines, and in the English

language in general. For example, in one article that features a woman singer, the singer

refers to herself as a "woman," but Seventeen 2000 calls her "girl" (p. 160). Seventeen

2000 does this again in another article on actor Shiri Appleby*, calling her a "girl,"

although she is 21 (p. 168). Likewise, in YM 1998, the magazine references a group of

women musicians as "rocker girls" (p. 114). In contrast, while Teen, Seventeen and YM

use "girl" almost exclusively, non-corporate magazines use "teen women." This lexical





40

gap, and the choice of "girl," however, denies maturity to the older readers of the

magazines, particularly the teen women.

This gender asymmetry in age gradation is further strengthened in conjoined noun

phrases featuring teen women and men. For example, it is most common to have "girls"

conjoined with "guys," as in combinations such as "a guy-girl combo" and "that guy-girl

affair"(Seventeen 1998: 192), "one lucky guy and girl" (Seventeen 2000: 152), "a guy and

a girl" twice in Teen 2000 (p.36), and "Everyone (especially guys) wants to be around a

girl" (Seventeen 2000: 144). In Teen 1998 teen women as "chick" and "girlie" contrast

with "men" in "Sure this Spring is majorly manly, but we like chick flicks, too, in cool

girlie movies" (p.52). Although magazines have chosen a younger and less mature lexical

item for teen women, when they discuss teen women and teen men together, they almost

never choose the younger and less mature for teen men. ("Boy and girl" [sic] does occur,

but is rare; most often, it is found in frozen expressions like "The Boys and Girls Club of

America"). Therefore, free root lexical choice enforces the ranking of the sexes; teen

women receive the lesser of the two choices. While teen women are denied maturity in

most conjoined noun phrases, teen men's maturity is respected and maintained.

Other Miscellaneous Root Identities

The other independent root identities for teen women in teen magazines form two

distinct groups those with positive semantic frames, and those with negative semantics

or that function as euphemisms. While teen magazine writers intend for all identities to be

positive, many of their terms for teen women contain negative semantic overtones. As

such, the negativity of the terms undermines teen women's Agency.







Root identities with positive semantics

In contrast to "you," "girl" and derivations, independent noun root identities

appear to hold the greatest promise for teen women's Agency. In fact, some terms for

teen women not only reflect, but also support their Agency. Examples include "queen"

(used 20 times), "sister/ah" (used 10 times), and "diva" (used 7 times). None of these

terms are derived from masculine forms; while "queen" and "diva" highlight strength,

"sister/sistah" emphasizes teen women community. All of these terms uphold the maturity

(and gender) of the teen women, without sacrificing Agency, semantic frames, or

maturation.

Root identities with negative semantics

Not all independent roots are positive nor do they support teen women's Agency.

Many independent roots for teen women undermine Agency and sacrifice women's

autonomy for male independence. The first type of negative root is that which associates

teen women with abstract ideals specifically, beauty and perfection. Teen, Seventeen

and/or YM speak of "belles" (4 times), "hottie" (1 time), "bellas" (1 time), "beauties" (4

times) and "angels" (1 time). Here, the teen woman is associated with one superficial trait

- her physical appearance, or the supreme trait to attain perfection. Teen women

identity is reduced to singular, stereotypical and ideal qualities for women.

Independent roots for teen women are reduced to other types of stereotyping.

Teen women are named "gypsy" (1 time), "lass" (1 time), "ladies" (5 times), "gal" (8

times), and "witch" (1 time). Each of these terms contains some negative, dichotomous

role for women as the temptress [sic] who lures men ("gypsy" and "witch") as in "Need

to put your crush under a Valentine's Day spell?" and "Leave your sweetie spellbound by




42

puffing your skin with..." (Teen 2000: 18); or the innocent to be protected by them [sic],

("lass," "gals" and "ladies"), as in "His gift was a dose of tender lovin' care" (YM 1998:

38). Both "ladies" and "gals" have a doubly negative history; in addition to their

connotations of chivalry, they began (and are still used) as euphemisms for "women."

Over time, however, they both have undergone semantic denigration and have been

criticized by feminist linguists, both for their negative semantic connotations and for the

way they (as euphemisms) support the "taboo" of the word "women" (Lakoff 1975, Frank

and Ashen 1983). Further euphemisms include the borrowed words "chica" (11 times)

from Spanish, glossing as "girl and/or small," and "femme" (7 times), the French gloss for

"woman." One could argue that the motivation for these borrowings is the desire for

"prestige" by using other languages, but more likely, it is the need for terms for women

other than those with English semantic baggage.

Independent roots functioning as metaphors also deny Agency to teen women.

For example, teen women are referred to as animals, in "chick" (15 times) and "vixen" (1

time), as food, "sweetie" (3 times) and "honey" (1 time), as children, "baby" (5 times) and

"babe" (14 times) and as a mythical being, "siren" (1 time). These metaphors link teen

womanhood with food, immaturity, fantasy and animals, which deny her age and

humanity, or full personhood.

Lastly, some independent roots do the exact opposite for teen women that is,

they reinforce male dependence. The two most prominent examples here are "ladies" and

"Cinderella" (6 times). ("Princess" also functions similarly, although it is a derived form).

Both of these examples reify the belief that women are helpless and need to be protected,

sheltered and saved. While "lady" realizes the "Victorian 'angel in the house,' the woman




43

who...conquers personal desire and lives only to enhance the lives of others" (Orenstein

1994: 37), "Cinderella" is a depreciative word reminiscent of a young woman, who having

been mistreated by women, awaits and is dependent upon on her male prince for salvation.

In three additional examples, teen women are described as male possessions; that is, while

the teen woman is an independent root, that root is modified by a possessive phrase

linking her to a father or husband/boyfriend. Examples in Seventeen 2000 include "Vice

President's wife," referring to Tipper Gore (p. 150), "Luke's love interest," Drew

Barrymore* (p. 176) and the "mob bosses' daughter" (p. 172). While "wife," "interest"

and "daughter" are free roots, their male possessor denies this freedom. Thus far, these

categories of independent roots for teen women perpetuate dependence on men: personal

appearance as judged by men, their temptation of men, and/or protection by or salvation

from men.

In the final category of teen women as independent roots teen women's identity is

not only conditioned by or dependent upon men, but also completely consumed by

masculine identity. That is, teen women are described with supposedly "masculine

generics" prescriptive male-sexed cover terms for people that are supposed to include

both women and men, but which actually serve to deny Agency to women. Examples

include "upperclassmen" (Seventeen 2000), "little green men" for aliens (Seventeen

2000), "you guys" (second person plural form) (YM 2000, Seventeen 1998, Teen 1998,

Teen 2000), "tomboy" and "freshmen" (Seventeen 2000, Teen 1998). In each instance

above, the teen woman is subsumed under the male form, although the reverse never

occurs. Humanity is further implied to be male, and male is the default form.





44

Independent roothood does not necessarily grant the autonomy to teen women

that it does to men. While it offers sites of Agency, as in "sister/sistah" and "queen," it

simultaneously provides sites that pollute or deny Agency, as in "Cinderella," "lady,"

"vixen" or "girl." The magazines' choices of lexical items and the morphology contained

therein couple attempts at Agency with attempts at denial or pollution of Agency; teen

women morphological identity, in teen women's magazines, is thus subject to incongruity

and internal contradiction.

The Teen Woman as a Personal Name (PN)

The third most common identity for teen women is the personal name (PN).

Personal names total 415 examples, with an additional 564 personal names for teen

women actors and entertainers. This identity pattern is the most agentive for teen women.

In addition, since magazines use entertainers, stars and featured "everyday" (non-famous)

teen women to sell products, goods and services, overt names most often occur with

agentive verbs. Examples include "Violet led..." (Teen 1998: 118) or "...says Amanda"

(Teen 1998: 119).

Personal Names for teen women do not necessarily imply their Agency. Teen

women can be denied identity by naming. "Mrs. O'Connelly" is one example. In this

case, the woman lacks an identity of her own; all that is known of her is that she is married

and the name of her husband. She is completely consumed by her husband's name and

identity.

Conclusion

In conclusion, in the nominal morphology of teen women identity within the

language of teen magazines, the thread of teen women's Agency is slowly and surely




45

unraveled by multiple forces. While some forms (Personal Names, select free independent

roots) describe and situate teen women as autonomous, active persons, other forms

derivationall affixes, negative lexical items) consistently undermine teen Agency,

positioning women in linguistic, sociolinguistic and cultural dependence upon men.

Morphological Agency for teen women in their own magazines, therefore, is tainted; for

each step up towards autonomy, there are two steps back in dependence.












CHAPTER FIVE
TEEN WOMEN IN ADJECTIVAL
MORPHOLOGY, RANKING AND HIERARCHIES



Ranking, Hierarchy and Singularity

Linguists have argued that English-speaking women and girl's conversations styles

reflect goals of community and cooperation compared to competition (Sheldon 1992,

Edelsky 1981, Tannen 1990, Maltz and Borker 1982, Coates 1993, 1994, Goodwin

1990). Women-women or girl-girl conversations in English typically are multi-floored

rather than single-floored (Edelsky 1981), involve conversational cues of

acknowledgement and understanding through minimal responses and conversational

overlap (Coates 1993, Tannen 1990) and are more subject to interruptions or

conversational turn-taking violations (West and Zimmerman 1983, Fishman 1983). From

work in discourse analysis, it has been concluded that white women's discourse is

particularly absent from notable conversational hierarchies.

Conversely, however, within the language of teen magazines, hierarchies play a

major role; so much so, in fact, that multiple forms of hierarchy exist within teen magazine

language. First, through Agency patterns and gender-ranked language, teen women are

outranked by teen men. Secondly, countless examples rank the teen woman and all

aspects of her life. As such, teen women are set as competitors against other teen women

and against themselves. Finally, the writers and editors of the magazine outrank





47

teen women. In this chapter, I analyze these specific ways and the ramifications of ranking

and singularity on teen women's Agency.

Hierarchies within Teen Women's Culture

A basic assumption of teen magazines is that teen women readers are forever in

need of improvement. Teen women can always do "better" things, act "better," have

"better" items and make themselves "better." As such, teen women are fundamentally

conceptualized as lacking in some way; teen magazines provide advice, solutions,

products, goods and services that correct this lack by transforming teen women from

"good" to "better" en route to "best." In the language of teen magazines, an ideal and

superlative teen woman, in all ways and aspects of her life, is posited to exist. The goal of

the teen magazine is to provide the teen woman with the means to transform herself from

"lacking reader" to the "ideal superlative teen woman." In essence, the teen woman is

simply never "good enough;" teen magazines then exploit this presupposition with their

discourse.

The basic way that teen magazines do this is by ranking all aspects of the teen

woman's life by modifying them and her with adjectives marked with the comparative and

superlative morphemes {-er} and {-est).' Countless examples rank hairstyles, dresses,

trends, clothes, and people teen women are bombarded with "the best, the prettiest, the

sexiest" and "the hottest." On the cover of Teen 1998 alone, one reads "prettiest dresses,"

"hottest hairdos," "newest makeup," and "best new TV shows." That is four ranking



1One of the two fundamental ways that two or more elements of teen culture are compared in teen
magazine language is by ranking them. The other way to compare two or more items is through
conceptualization with metaphors specifically, violence metaphors. This is the subject of my next
research.





48

examples on the COVER page. Seventeen 1998 and YM 1998 have similar ranking

quantities: a fourteen-page layout of "Hottest guys" (with the words "hottest guys"

printed 10 times) appears in YM 1998 (pp. 66-80), while Seventeen 1998 has a flood of

beauty-ranking examples, such as "make your hair shinier" (p. 64), "prettiest prom

makeup" (p. 9), "a perfect prep" (p. 20), "latest gotta-have-its [clothes]" (p. 60), "...eyes

appear smaller" (p.40), "trendiest pieces" (p. 36) and "perfect platforms" (p. 20).

Teen women and their friends are ranked against each other. Seventeen 2000 talks

of "closest friends" (p. 106), "best buds" (p. 112) and "the weaker sex" (p. 28). Other

people are also ranked in Seventeen 2000 "the most-wanted movie star" (p. 186), "the

busiest heartthrobs" (p. 194), "the most cynical student," (p. 197/8) and the "most stylish

male" (p. 252). YM2000 discusses the "wackiest talk show host" (p. 14), makingn] you

harder" (p.36), "the brightest babe" (p.106), the "better babysitter" (p. 23) and the "most

valuable players" (p. 63). In one YM 2000 article regarding drug use, people who were

"more likely" and "less likely" were mentioned 9 times total; "best friends" occurs

throughout each magazine more than 40 times.

Articles themselves in the magazines, "Best and Worst Ways to Reveal a Crush"

(p. 40) in Teen 1998, "Most Humiliating Experiences" (p. 14) in YM 1998, and the

ranking involved in the "10th Annual Readers Poll" (pp. 167-168) in Seventeen 1998, are

inherently hierarchical in both their content and language. Not only are the people, places

and things in these articles ranked against each other, but also teen women are encouraged

to rank and compare items hierarchically. Advice columns also contain similar ranking;

teen women are told in YM 2000 how to "get comfier" (p. 52), "to feel freer" (p. 63) and

how to get "softer, silkier skin" (p. 28). Instead of a teen womanhood based on





49

community, a teen woman is faced with competition to have the "latest and greatest

spring shoes" (p. 8) in YM 1998, to be one "to shine the brightest," (p. 90) "to all be

perfect" (p. 192) from Seventeen 1998 or to "score[ing] a perfect 10..." (p. 108) from

Teen 1998.

The Ranking of Teen Women against Men

There are two major problems with this ranking. First, continuous ranking of

everything strengthens and reinforces the gender hierarchy already existent in the other

discourse structures of teen magazines by making ranking seem natural. Gender hierarchy

is, after all, one gender outranking the other. Teen women are already outranked by teen

men in syntactic agency, word order patterns and in nominal morphology, for example.

Adjectival morphological superlativity on virtually every page of the magazines fortifies

the notion that ranking is inevitable; in other words, constant and incessant ranking makes

ranking seem an essential part of the English-speaking world.

Ranking intersects with gender hierarchy in another way. Hardman (1993a, 1993b,

1996, Hardman and Taylor 2001) argues that ranking is actually grammaticalized in

English, and that this obligatory grammaticalization of ranking links directly to ranking of

the sexes. Hardman (1993a, 1993b, 1996, Hardman and Taylor 2001) asserts that number

is a linguistic postulate of English; as such, singularity (the base form of English number)

is prized. "The first two postulates [number and ranking/comparative], by themselves, do

not appear to relate to gender, but because the three mutually reinforce one another they

both reflect and create a gendered way of thinking" (Hardman and Taylor 2001: 3).

Derivational Thinking results. Taylor (Hardman and Taylor 2001) summarizes this





50

connection of singularity and ranking to sex-based gender, "number one is important;

number one is most important; number one is masculine" (p.3).

Linking superlative ranking with the other discourse patterns of the magazines, I

liken Hardman's Derivational Thinking theoretically to a pyramid women and those

classified as "Others" are at the wide bottom, site of the non-inflected adjective, the

"good." In the middle are the men who are not the one singular best, but the "betters."

At the top of the pyramid is the "one singular" white man the "best" at the pinnacle. For

the singular best white man to reach the top of the pyramid, he must step on the backs of

others, for "best" implies only "one;" the nature of the pyramid allows only one at the top

and elevation of any means subjugation, or loss of elevation, of all others. In order to

reach the "betters," he must become the "pure" root with no suffixes or derivations. As

such, the singular white man must sever from all those below him, only using them as

"steps" to keep him at the pinnacle; for example, as in the case of nominal derivational, the

{-esses} below are used to create the male {-er} above.

For white men, therefore, competition is between ROOTS "the betters" and the

"best." As roots, white men automatically have Agency, but nonetheless compete for

superlativity. Unless metaphorically feminized and affixed as "Others" either as women

(becoming a suffix rather than root), or as homosexuals, non-whites, and the colonized

(becoming marked derivations of the root) white men remain roots. The line of the

"better," therefore, becomes the glassfloor keeping the white men/roots high (and thus

out of Otherhood/derivation). This glass floor is a line of Entitled Agency ofRoothood.

Competition above and below the line is essentially different. Because competition

above is between roots of "better" and "best," failure at competition does not necessarily





51

result in complete loss of Agency. Agency is given in roothood, so Agency is given for

"betters" or "bests" (although more Agency may come with "bestness"). The "Others," in

the domain of "the goods," who are suffixes, do not complete for actual Agency, however.

Agency is not a given, nor is it entitled, as below the line exist the DERIVATIONS.

Derivations are already and instantaneously outranked by their roots at the top of the

pyramid; the syntax of Agency, the word order patterns, the marking of the feminine (and

non-white) and the derived feminine forms from masculine roots support this. "Others,"

therefore, compete differently; their competition is between no Agency and Sub-Agency.

"Others" compete for the Sub-Agency of Objecthood of affixation to a root (being the

"princess" for the "prince" and being the object/patient for the agentive subject, for

example). For them, the middle line is the "glass ceiling" keeping them low.

The problem that this entails and produces is that competition means different

things below and above the line. Competition becomes extremely detrimental below, as

Agency is not guaranteed like it is above. Put another way, competition below equals

Sub-Agency Vs. No Agency, whereas above equals Better Agency Vs. Best Agency. In

other words, women/"Others" are attacked from all fronts2. Teen women are first

outranked by teen men; secondly, teen women are situated as competitors against each

other. If the teen woman "wins" against her competitor, she "wins" to become an

object/patient. Teen women, no matter which way they turn, are denied Agency through

ranking of all sorts, as ranking situates teen women in an inevitable Catch 22. Ranking,

therefore, in all of its forms, functions to deny teen women Agency.


2 Although I try to eliminate violence metaphors from my language, I am specifically using a violence
metaphor here because I believe this is violence against teen women and those Othered. I do not wish to
cover up that violence I want it to be felt and understood.





52

Other research supports that competition and hierarchy differ for women and men.

Elgin (1989) argues that "failure" within white American society actually has different

semantic subfeatures for women and men. She asserts that for white women "failure" is

[++final], as in "leaving no option for trying anything new and thus leaving the field in

disgrace," whereas for white men, "failure" is [+non-final], meaning that "something [was]

tried and hasn't worked, and now...it's necessary to try something else" (Elgin 1989: 36).

In addition, work in conversational discourse contends that community and cooperation,

rather than hierarchy and competition, are key features to women's discourse (Sheldon

1992, Edelsky 1981, Tannen 1990, Maltz and Borker 1982, Coates 1993, 1994, Goodwin

1990, West and Zimmerman 1983). In fact, in conversation, features of hierarchical

discourse used by men in women-men conversation disrupt conversational flows and result

in women's dissatisfaction (Tannen 1990, Fishman 1983, Maltz and Borker 1982, West

and Zimmerman 1993). Likewise, research on white male speech shows that white men

use hierarchy, competition and one-ups-man-ship [sic], like single floor snatching, direct

speech acts, interruption and no backchanneling, as conversational tools with each other;

when used in white men-men conversation, these competitive devices do not stop

conversational floor with male interlocutors in the way that they do with women

interlocutors (Tannen 1990, Fishman 1993, Maltz and Borker 1982, West and Zimmerman

1993, DeCapua and Boxer 1999, Kiesling 1996). One notable example here is DeCapua

and Boxer's (1999) work on bragging, boasting and bravado in a brokerage firm; in this

article white men were proud to compete against each other. Conversational and other

types of dominance were an accepted part of the career, yet very few woman worked in

the firm; the two white women and one Nigerian man who did work in the firm were left





53

outside of the primary work in-group and did not participate in the conversational

"contest" (DeCapua and Boxer 1999).

The Ranking of Teen Women against Each Other

While the first problem with ranking is that it pits women and Others at the bottom

of the pyramid under white men, the second problem with ranking relates to placement

within the bottom. The linguistics of ranking, the superlative form, {-est}, allows only one

- the singular best. This was mentioned above. But the same principle of rank and

singularity that positions women under men throughout the pyramid also positions women

and men within pyramid strata. Competition is not just vertical, but horizontal as well.

This means that theoretically within "Otherhood" teen women compete against each other;

the singular best for women (derivations) is "a perfect white derivation;" the singular best

for men (roots) is a white root, and the singular best for humankind (derivations and

roots) is also white root.

In other words, ranking goes hand in hand with singularity at all levels of the

pyramid. Although derivations, derivations still complete to be the best derivation.

Through language, the magazines presuppose that there is an "ideal, perfect best woman."

This perfect, idealized derivation/teen woman is held as the standard from which all

readers should be judged; in essence, to be like her, Seventeen 2000 readers need to find

"the best party scene" (p. 110), wear the "hippest Hollywood styles" (p. 226), with the

"easiest ever updos" (Cover), the "prettiest polishes" (p. 17), the "hottest makeup" (p. 17),

the "perfect match" to "best express your individuality" (p.54), in "perfect relaxation"

(p.20), with the "fondest memory" (p.36), while being the "most fanatical" (p.74), the

"weaker sex" (p.28), and "his latest soft-lipped conquest" (p. 76), because "most are.."




54

(p.130) and because X "...is better than..." X (p.188). The reader also needs to be white;

because such ranking is overtly unmarked for race, the resultant singularity reinforces

notions of white normativity and white privilege (Mrozinske 2002). There can be only one

"best," which means one type and one race of a teen woman.

Because singular is the exalted default form, any diversity or plurality, as in the

many "goods," exists only as a derivation, and thus deviation, of singularity. Any

difference is thus immediately conceptualized as either [+best] or [-best], analogous to the

ranked binary system of "one singular" [+ best] and "Others" [-best]. All attempts at

accepting differences or diversity are instantly undermined; difference necessarily means

plurality, yet singularity is prized. Therefore, teen women are in constant competition; in

terms of teen women's superlativity against each other, there can be only one. In sum, all

teen women other than the fictional "singular best" fail most of the time.

Constant ranking and hierarchy, particularly constant failure to be the best, results

in a state of constant lack or "less-than-ness" for the teen woman; she and the objects of

her identity and social world are always outranked. This structure ties in heavily with the

ideology of teen magazines; ever since their conception, they have blatantly admitted to

mold, shape and present an image of the idealized adolescent girl [sic] (Schrum 1998). In

this case, this idealized girl [sic] is perfect; her identity, her consumables, and her products

are all ranked, but ranked with the superlative form. On a deeper level, in addition, ranking

and hierarchy and the subsequent image of perfection create and reify the ideal of the

'perfect girl'[sic] or the "good girl/good woman ideal." "The 'perfect girl' is painfully

reminiscent of the Victorian 'angel in the house,' the woman who...conquers personal

desire and lives only to enhance the lives of others" (Orenstein 1994: 37). According to





55

Brown and Gilligan (1992) in discussing one of their patients,

The image of the perfect girl [sic] is powerful...the terrifying or terrorizing
nature of this image lies in its power to encourage Jessie [a teenage
woman] to give over the reality of her astute observations of herself and
the human world around her or at least to modulate her voice and not
speak about what she sees...and knows. Voice-training by adults
undermines these girls' [sic] experiences and reinforces images of female
perfection...[it] implies that such girls [sic] exist and are desirable (p.61).

There is no way that the average reader can be the singular best all of the time.

However, the language of teenage magazines ranks everything, such that the image of a

"perfect girl" becomes seemingly attainable and desirable. Magazines then rely on this

image to sell their magazines, goods and services. In other words, the image of the

"perfect girl" is just beyond reach; by buying products, goods and services, and by reading

the editorial contents, quizzes and advice columns, the teen reader can better herself and

get closer to the ideological ideal. Teen magazines "teach" teens how to do this, which

leads to the next linguistic structure.

Ranking and Hierarchy of Magazine over Readers

The final layer of ranking and hierarchy in the language of teen magazines is

magazine hierarchy over readers. This ranking is primarily at the level of discourse; here,

magazine editors and writers use language to position themselves as the "knowers" and

the teen women as those who "need to know." As usual, however, with most expressions

of power and ideology through language (Hardman 1993a, 1993b, 1996, Hardman and

Taylor 2001, van Dijk 1999, Hodge and Kress 1993), this third ranking process

necessarily overlaps with the other two forms of ranking in the magazine. I argue that

magazine hierarchy is not only dependent upon the ranking of teen women against each

other and teen men, but also specifically on the outranking of the singular best ideal teen




56

women sub-Agent (the ideological perfect white girl [sic]) against other teen women. As

such, like all other forms of hierarchy in teen magazines, magazine hierarchy functions to

deny teen women's Agency.

There are two fundamental patterns used in teen magazines to position teen

women readers under magazine editors and writers. The first pattern is the use of

volitional modal auxiliaries issued from the magazine to the teen reader. I use the term

volitional to refer to the particularly strong end of the English modal continuum that

expresses the highest level of speaker's modal will of X toward the interlocutor. For

example, going from lowest volition to highest are models "could, should, need to, have

to, must" and "should not, could not, need not, not have to, must not."

Modal auxiliaries are used throughout the magazine, and are not just limited to the

teen-initiated advice columns or teen reader quizzes; instead, the magazine "offers the

advice" of modal auxiliaries throughout many themes of the magazines and in virtually all

article types. Seventeen 2000 instructs teen women throughout the magazine; a teen

woman is told "what you need to know" in an article on relationships (p. 148), "what you

must remember" in a piece on makeup/beauty (p.62); and that "you barely need..." in a

prom feature (p. 188). The Table of Contents in Teen 1998 asks "Should you change?"

(p.2), where the magazine then answers the question for the teen women; in a quiz the

reader is instructed that "you need to..." (p.70). Also in Teen 1998, teen women were told

in a quiz that "you gotta get" (p.66) and "you should just listen" (p.68), in a piece on teen

issues "you have to" (p.61), in a relationship advice article that "you gotta tell..." and

"you've got to" (p.30), in a "general" advice column that "you have to" (p, 26), and in a

fashion piece "you must look..." (p.91). YM2000 offers teen women modal




57

"instructions" on what "you gotta realize" and what "you should just stop" in an "Inner

You" piece (p.68) and what "you gotta be able to..." and that "you just have to..." with

regards to "Guys" (p.54 and p.62, respectively). In Seventeen 1998 teen women are

literally told by the magazine what they should think, feel, do and not do; as "you should

think..." but "you can't show..." (p. 116), "you should feel" (pp. 140, 142), "you have to"

(pp.174, 188) and "you've got to..." (p.238).

The modal volitionals are not limited to modal verb phrases. Magazine editor's

volitional will is also expressed through nominalized modifiers. In these instances, a

volitional modal is nominalized; the modal will is that the teen women purchase the item

described with modal nominalization. When nominalized, the modal may function as the

head or the modifier. Examples of nominalized NPs with modal heads include include,

Seventeen 1998's "must haves" (p.90) and YM 2000's celebrity "gotta have[s] ..." (p.84),

while nominalized NPs with modal modifiers inside include "must have music" (YM 2000:

84), "spring's major must haves" (Seventeen 2000: 158), "must see movies and hotties"

(Teen 1998: 4) and "must see flicks" (Teen 1998: Cover page). In addition, a teen woman

is told "you really need one standout piece" with regards to her fashion (Seventeen 2000:

240). Lastly, as Teen 1998 touts, "showing off the shoulders is a must" (p.98). With both

modal VPs and nominalized VPs, teen women are instructed on how and what to be,

think, feel, act, do, not do and possess, in various realms of their life: in fashion, self

issues, sex and body issues, quizzes, relationship articles, teen issue pages and the cover

page, for example.

Ranking and hierarchy link with such models in two ways. First, given that the

magazines are structured as simulated conversation between magazine voice and teen





58

woman interlocutor, modal auxiliaries work in only one direction. It is not a conversation

among equals; magazines use volitional models towards readers, not vice versa. In doing

so, the will and determination of the modal is that of the magazine writer; the will is

directed at the teen woman. Furthermore, as is done in other discourse types (like

quizzes), magazine editors "cite" outside professionals and "experts" to strengthen their

volitional position (Ostermann & Keller-Cohen 1998). To this end, magazine writers

appear equal, (they must get their information from someone else), and yet also quite

powerful, as they have the means to obtain this information and pass it on.

Ironically, however, the power asymmetry comes not from the use of the experts

per se, but in the way the magazines pass on the information. The magazines themselves,

and not the voices of the experts, actually issue the volitional models; the professionals are

referenced only to justify magazine editor's will. As such, the very device that magazines

editors use to situate themselves closer to their readers (Ostermann & Keller-Cohen

1998), the use of expert professionals, functions only at a surface level; the magazine

editors actually distance themselves from their readers, and align themselves with the

professionals, by using strong volitionals. In addition, Ostermann and Keller-Cohen (1998)

argue that use of"accredited sources," like physicians, health officials and psychologists in

quiz advice columns, simultaneously distances the editor from the advice while conferring

a tone of seriousness to quizzes (p.548). This seriousness is reflected in volitional

support; by such "seriousness," experts strengthen the volitional force of the magazine

editors/writers. The magazines, therefore, strongly assert knowledge onto the teen

women, telling them what they "should," "must" and "need to" do; they "should," "must,"

and "need to" because the magazines, and the experts, say so.




59

The second problem with volitionals is that such modal assertion situates the teen

women readers as fundamentally lacking. Similar to directives, the issuing of a modal

implies that that action has not been done; the modal becomes infelicitous if the issuer says

"one should X" if one already did X. Note here that the crucial necessary element for a

felicitous volitional modal is non-Agency; doing is Agentive, but doing violates the

discourse device. As such, the magazines use yet another discourse strategy that

presupposes that teen readers are fundamentally incomplete or in need of change; the same

discourse device then offers an answer, solution or means of completion by which this teen

reader can correct her lacking.

Such one-way assumption and correction of teen reader lack is dependent upon

her outranking by the magazine, the "singular best teen woman" and teen men.

Fundamentally, the magazines use morphological (derivation under root) and adjectival

(good under best) superlativity and ranking to "create" the notion of the perfect girl [sic].

They then reify and manipulate the position of the reader as non-perfect by instructing

her, through models (and other discourse devices), how to get to this impossible, yet

idealized perfect state. Seemingly, if the non-perfect reader did all that she "should,"

"must" and "has to," she would be more like the ideal and less like the reader. That is, the

ideal "singular best teen woman Sub-Agent" does not need the models; she has already

done what she "needs to" and "should" do. The models (and magazine directives) are the

directions for which the outranked teen woman ascends the hierarchy ladder, en route to

sub-Agency position. The other forms of ranking are necessary for the success of this

third type; if teen readers were already respected as full persons with full Agency,

magazines would violate their personhood by assuming it needed correcting. To regard





60

the teen woman as an Agent requires both acknowledgment and recognition of her full

humanity, not presupposing her to be insufficient.

The second way that magazines assert rank over their interlocutors is through

directive type. In English, directive type usually indicates (and/or illustrates) the

relationship between interlocutors; for example, Goodwin (1990) found that in same sex

peer groups, African-American girls used less face threatening "mitigated directives,"

while African-American boys used face threatening "aggravated directives" and Sheldon

(1992) argues that young white girls in conversation with each other use more face

cognizant directives than young white boys in all boy conversation. In analysis of dinner

table conversation, Ochs and Taylor (1992) assert that mothers issue more mitigated

directives; more direct directives were characteristic of the speech of the father.

Furthermore, Gleason and Greif(1983) found that male caretakers, but not necessarily

fathers, used directives similar to those issued by women parents and caretakers. Finally,

researchers argue that in cross-sex conversation men's aggravated directives can function

hierarchically and/or disrupt the conversational turns (Goodwin 1990, Tannen 1990).

One preliminary theme from these findings is that directive type varies according to

gender and role, within both the family (mother or father) and in larger social units

(employed as caretaker or other type of employment). This research on gender and

directives suggests overall that girls, women and some men (caretakers) use directives

with much attention to interlocutor face needs, while boys and men issue direct, face

threatening and potential hierarchical directives.

One would assume, given that magazine writers and editors aspire to converse

with teen readers as "equal" members of the same speech community, that teen women





61

magazines would contain face cognizant directives, similar to those reported in girl-girl,

women-women and mother/caretaker-child conversation (Goodwin 1990, Ochs and

Taylor 1992, Tannen 1990, Sheldon 1992, Coates 1994). This, however, is not the case.

Instead, the most numerous directive type is bald on record (Brown and Levinson 1987),

highly direct, directives. While indirect directives do occur, (usually in the form of a

question or a modal declarative), these more hedged, less face threatening directives are

rare in comparison with direct ones; 99.4% (3,152 total) of all directives are direct, while

only .6% (20 total) are indirect.

Such directives could illustrate and/or reify one of two possible relationships

between teen magazine writers and readers. First, the magazine editors could be assuming

a highly intimate relationship with teen women readers, as in many middle-class, white

English-speaking communities in the US, politeness strategies lessen or cease between

intimate interlocutors (Boxer 2002, Personal Communication). One other possible

interpretation is that the magazines are not attempting to co-construct a symmetrical floor

(Edelsky 1981); instead, in creating consumers, magazines must take a more hierarchical

role over readers, using direct directives analogously to the way fathers do in dinner table

conversations (Ochs and Taylor 1992) or some white men do in conversations with

women (Tannen 1990). I argue the second point. Directives "imply a clear sense of the

second [linguistic] postulate [of English], that of ranking" (Hardman and Taylor 2002: 3).

Furthermore, "that a speaker assumes the right to give another orders or instructions

implies rank, a situation not found in all languages" (Hardman and Taylor 2002: 3).

Given that magazine directives function with negative presuppositions and that the

general pattern of teen magazine discourse is to lessen or extinguish teen women's





62

Agency, I argue that bald on record (Brown and Levinson 1987) directives function as

hierarchy-maintaining devices. While it may be argued that magazines editors have chosen

direct directives to create a symmetrical floor as intimates, the felicity conditions that

uphold those very directives presuppose that one interlocutor is lacking and that the other

knows how to fix that lack. It is not the "lacking" interlocutor, however, who determines

the lack, but the "knowing" magazine interlocutor. As such, asymmetry is instantly visible;

again, as with volitionals, the reader is left "needing to know" while the magazine is in the

position of"knowing." To put it another way, even though it is argued that girls [sic] do

not use direct directives (Goodwin 1990, Sheldon 1992), they frequently hear them used

at them (Boxer 2002, Personal Communication).

Conclusion

In sum, the three forms of ranking in teen magazines, the ranking of teen women

against the ideological "perfect white girl" [sic], the ranking of teen women against teen

men, and the ranking of teen women against their more knowledgeable magazine editors,

intersect with and mutually support one another. The ranking of teen women against each

other and against teen men, with the notions of singularity present therefrom, function to

"create" an ideological, singular best ideal white teen woman Sub-Agent. The ranking of

magazine over teen woman, through modal volitionals and bald on record (Brown and

Levinson 1987) directives, then solidifies the position of teen woman under magazine

editors. In this position, the inherent lack of other forms of ranking is not only intensified,

but is able to be manipulated. In other words, the way to get from the bottom of the

pyramid to the ideal sub-Agency position is by following the "modal-directive" road. This

road, however, depends crucially on two things: one, that there first exists a hierarchical





63

ladder to ascend (this is made possible by ranking women against men); and second, that

the teen woman starts at the bottom of the ladder (which necessarily implies no Agency,

negative Agency, and/or lack of Agency, in addition to gender ranking). Each of the

rankings needs each other. As such, teen women's Agency is again denied through

various interconnecting and mutually reinforcing discourse devices on multiple levels of

teen magazine language.












CHAPTER SIX
TEEN WOMEN IN SYNTAX AND DISCOURSE



Syntax and Discourse Pattern Data

For this section of the thesis I recorded and categorized all applicable sentences of

the magazines. Each sentence was first organized according to speech act type: directive,

commissive and interrogative and declarative. I grouped interrogatives and declaratives

together since they are both fundamentally framed by the magazine to the reader, either by

asserting information to the reader or by questioning a third interlocutor (a celebrity in an

interview, for example) or a teen woman reader rhetorically. While declaratives typically

function to provide information and interrogatives generally function to request

information, in teen magazines the distinction is slightly different from everyday

conversation. In teen magazines, questions to third party interviewees are often presented

to provide information to the reader (similar to an assertive statement). In addition,

questions towards teen readers are more rhetorical than information seeking; because the

teen woman interlocutor is not present in the conversation, she cannot possibly answer the

question. Fundamentally, neither have the illocutionary force to require anything of the

reader. Therefore, in each case, whether in question or statement form, clear subjects,

subject semantic roles and verb types emerge similarly and allow for classification.

The speech acts ofcommissives and directives, however, differ significantly. In

commissives, the magazine commits itself and/or the speaker to a future action, such as a





65

promise provided the reader fulfills her required role. Similarly, directives are issued from

magazine to teen reader in order to cause the teen reader to perform some action, exist in

a given state, and so forth. Fundamentally, in these speech acts, the magazines issue

utterances with high illocutionary force of future action on the part of the reader. As

such, particularly pertaining to Agency', these acts were classified according to

illocutionary force type requests and orders (directives) or promises (commissives).

I next further classified the interrogative and declarative sentences together

according to subject, subject semantic role and verb type and examined female-male word

orders within when relevant. The subject person categories that emerged from the data

were: teen reader/teen woman (as in "girl" or "you"); woman celebrity expert or public

figure (such as "Drew Barrymore*" or 'Dr. Debbie*"); teen man ("he" or "your crush");

man celebrity, expert orpublicfigure (as in "Carson Daly*" or "Dr. Rainer*"); and non-

human inanimate subject (such as "jewel tones"or "lyrics"). I did not include third-party

subjects (including, for example, adults outside of the teen community; magazine writers

and editors; and generic person figures, such as percentages of people who watch TV, that

are impossible to classify into a gender category). Both female-male and male-female

word orders emerged in both NPs and ADJPs and in larger units of discourse.

The semantic roles and verb types that emerged were: agent, subject of an action

verb who performs the action of that verb or subject of a mental process verb, (such as

thinking), who performs the mental action, as in "Diamond says..." (Seventeen 2000: 236)


SIn this chapter it is important to remember that I have made a distinction between Agency (with an
upper case 'A') and agency (with a lower case 'a'). Agency is an abstract term encompassing the full
humanity and personhood of a teen woman. However, agency is the state of a semantic role subject of an
action verb.





66

"you baby-sat" (YM 1998: 57) and "you know that" (Teen 2000: 44); experience,

subject of a perception verb who perceives or experiences the action of the verb, but who

does not necessarily perform the action, such as "you feel..." (Seventeen 1998: 219) and

"she wanted to work" (Seventeen 2000: 144); benefactive, the recipient or beneficiary of

an action, while not herself performing the action, as in "...you've received..." (Seventeen

1998: 142) and "Kerri, Erin...and Amanda got clothes..." (Teen 2000: 22); possessive, the

possessor or owner of an item as the subject of a verb of possession, such as "you'll

have..." (YM 1998: 36) and "you own" (Teen 1998: 118); modal, the subject of a modal

verb phrase with weak volitionality on a modal continuum of strength, as in "...a girl could

do" (YM 2000: 41) and "...and you may end up feeling" (Teen 2000: 38); volitionals,

subjects of strong volitional modal verb phrases that express a high degree of modal will,

such as "you have to sell" (Seventeen 2000: 242) and "you must enclose" (Teen 2000:

95); process, the subject that undergoes a process or a change of state, as in "...if you

become" (Seventeen 2000: 151) and "gals turn 16..." (YM 2000: 86); and finally, passive,

the grammatical patient/object, positioned as sentence subject, that is affected or acted

upon, but that does not participate in the agency of a passive verb phrase, such as

"...Brenda was called" (Seventeen 1998: 217) and "...models get glitzed" (Teen 1998:

114). I did not include subjects of copula, or "X=Y" type sentences.

The next classification I made of the data was its overall discourse function with

regards to teen woman Agency. This involved further classifying interrogative and

declarative sentences that diverged from the normal function of supplying information.

For example, some agency sentences, while containing agent semantic roles, function in an

adjacency pair to introduce or to ground a directive. In this instance, agency is




67

manipulated, and the agency exists only in order to issue an additional directive. These

overt manipulations of Agency were classified as follows: quiz conditioned discourse, teen

woman subjects of various semantic roles, such as "you secretly think" and "You always

coordinate" (Seventeen 2000: 106), that exist in a quiz in order to later classify and

evaluate the teen women and her behavior; directive and commissive conditioned

discourse, teen woman subject sentences in adjacency pairs with, and thus introducing,

directives and commissive speech acts, as in "Before you slather...take these steps" (YM

2000: 26) and "...when you have..., you'll stop stressing" (Teen 2000: 36); negative

Agency, a sentence with a subject semantic role that is overtly negated or is framed with

negative semantics, as in "You're not describing..." (Seventeen 2000: 146) and "...she

whined" (YM 2000: 86); and the overt Denials of Agency, Denial ofAgency through

Instrument, where an inanimate instrument, such as "accessories" and "this dress"in "your

accessories make a bold statement"(Seventeen 2000: 220) and "...this dress will leave a

lasting impression..." (YM 1998: 98), respectively, instead of the teen woman, functions

as the semantic role agent, Denial ofAgency through Synecdoche, as in "...her...strands

top the look" (Teen 2000: 22) and "...Simon's message is most clearly heard in..."

(Seventeen 2000: 114) where a teen woman's body part or personal characteristic is the

semantic role agent, Denial of Agency through Whiteness, where the teen woman in the

discourse is assumed to be white, denying Agency to woman of color, as in Teen's (1998)

discussion of self-tanners and Denial of Negative Male Agency, in which male hegemony

is maintained through discourse that denies a semantically negative action to a man, as in

"women have been injured [by men]..." (YM 2000: 22) and "...if his behavior makes you

feel" (Seventeen 2000: 146). Examples of all such data are discussed in relevant sections





68

in this chapter text with further examples found in corresponding data sets in the

appendices.

In addition, for each syntactic and discourse example I recorded the magazine

month and year, page number, specific theme of the article according to the magazine, and

then the general theme of the article. There were 19 total general themes of the

magazines: Teen Focus News and Issues; Entertainment and Celebrities; Makeup, Fashion

and Beauty; Advice--General; Advice--Friends and Family; Advice--Dating and Guys;

Advice-Sex and the Body; Advice-Health and Well-being; Advice--Makeup and Beauty;

School and Career; Health and Well-being; Friends, Family and Home; Dating,

Relationships and Guys; Quizzes; Sex and the Body; Cover and Table and Contents;

Magazine Events and Information; Special Magazine Features; and Miscellaneous. I

broke advice down into different subject headings because of the different ideologies of

advice columns, the different writers of advice columns and the possible slightly different

formats of each column.

I lastly created a database for storing each discourse example and all of its relevant

information in order to arrange, analyze and count the data. This was also particularly

useful in organizing the data to examine the effects of each syntactic and discourse feature

on teen women's Agency. Throughout the thesis relevant data examples are included in

each discussion, but additional examples for each individual data section can be found in

the data base in the appendix.

Word Order Patterns and Agency

Word order matters for English speakers. Order of constituents within sentences

determines the grammatical function of the constituent; for example, in unmarked





69

sentences thefirst NP is the obligatory grammatical subject, while later NPs are optional

objects of verbs or prepositions. In Karen talked to Moe, Karen is the grammatical

subject, while Moe, the other following NP, is the object. To topicalize an NP in English

syntax, and thus give it preference in a given sentence, the NP is moved to first position,

even before the subject NP, as in To Moe, Karen talked (Givon 1993: 275). In this case,

sentential emphasis is given to Moe; to do this, Moe must be placed before, and be uttered

prior to, the subject Karen. The importance of order is furthered strengthened by the

semantic roles assigned according to position. The subject NP (the first NP) is generally

the sentence agent, the one who acts out or experiences the verb. Almost all object NPs

in English, however, are entities that are acted upon; generally, therefore,first sentential

position is active, while later positions are passive.2

Similarly, order of words within constituents also indicates relative importance.

Givon (1993) argues that within conjoined NPs, the first noun (N) is remembered longer,

attended to faster and is considered more "topic-worthy" (p.277). Hardman (1993a,

1993b, 1996) takes this argument further and asserts that culturally preferred orders of

female forms after male forms indicate and perpetuate the ranking of women under men.

Furthermore, Miller (2002) argues that within Indo-European languages (where order

matters to begin with) there are two general principles that govern order of conjoined NPs


2 Note that the structure of English sentences contrasts sharply with other languages and is not universal.
One specific example is the Jaqi languages of South America, in which objects and subjects are
intrinsically linked and thus obligatorily connected; as such, the Jaqi languages conjugate for 10 persons
for each possible pair of object and subject (for example, 'I ... to her,' or 'her ... to me') (Hardman 1993a,
1993b, 1996). It is impossible within the structure of these languages for objects and subjects to be
severed (Hardman 1993a, 1993b, 1996). In addition, and as a result of this structure, Jaqi subjects can not
and do not outrank objects nor vice versa (Hardman 1993a, 1993b, 1996). Another example comes from
Japanese; in Japanese, the topicalization of an item has nothing to do with word order, but rather with
morphology. Word order is slightly fluid, but topicalization is only possible by marking a base with the
morpheme {-wa} (Tohsaku 1999).




70

- Panini's Rule and Cultural Prominence. Panini's rule states that shorter constituent

occurs first, while the under cultural prominence principle, the "better" or "more culturally

preferred" element takes first position (Miller 2002). While some Indo-European

languages operate under one principle completely (such as Russian under Panini's Rule, in

which the surface NP order 'mother and father' versus 'father and mother' depends

completely on length resulting from case endings), many combine both principles (Miller

2002). In the case of English, Miller (2002) argues that both principles apply, but that

Cultural Prominence takes over in the case of human NPs. For Miller as well, then,

because male NPs outrank female NPs, they occur in first position (Miller 2002). In

essence, the first of the two NPs is both more cognitively and culturally important.

Therefore, within English, although nothing in the grammar itself prohibits or

limits which human NP occurs first, the default word order is women after men. This is

no different in teenage magazines. I examined all cross-sex conjoined NPs and ADJPs and

found that while approximately 14.6% of the time women occurred before men in the

joined NP or ADJP (as in "girl or guy" (p.86) from YM 2000) approximately 85.3% of the

time women occurred after men, as in "bachelors or bachelorettes" (Teen 2000: 51), "a

guy-girl combo" (Seventeen 1998: 192), "Freddie Prinze, Jr. and Rachel Leigh Cook"

(Teen 2000: 51), "Dude...Chick" (YM 2000: 60), "second choice is...for guys, but

women go for ..." (Seventeen 1998: 119), "...he or she..." (Seventeen 1998: 91), "gay and

lesbian" (Seventeen 1998: 192), "for him and for you" (Seventeen 1998: 80), "a guy and

girl" (Teen 2000: 51) and "Prom king and queen" (Seventeen 2000: 152).

Within magazines for teen women, teen women are not "topic-worthy" or

important enough. So while Seventeen 2000 features a full six-page layout of prom





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clothes and fashion, and emphasizes the importance of prom to teen women, in the end,

the center of the prom is the "Prom king and queen" (p. 152). Likewise, Teen 1998 boasts

on the cover of its "massive movie issue...and all the must-see flicks" (cover page). In the

actual content of this 6-page article, the 3 films with women main stars are featured on the

last 2 pages at the very bottom crammed into a small section together, while all 6 pages

are otherwise devoted to movies with male main stars with each star profiled with each

movie discussion. In this instance, teen men are not only the first feature of the article and

first in an ADJP position describing the article "...this spring is majorly manly, but we like

chick flicks, too" (p.52), but teen men also occur first in terms of page layout in page

order and reading preference (reading from left to right). That is four ways that teen men

outrank teen women in an article for teen women. Similar patterns are repeated in almost

all instances of female-male NP or ADJP pairs; teen women are supposedly praised and

empowered by teen magazines, and yet, the male word order preference undermines any

empowerment. On yet another level of language, teen women are outranked.

The secondary position of teen women, and thus the primary position of teen men,

is not limited to conjoined phrases. This order pattern of syntax is actually mirrored in

discourse above the level of the sentence. Just as teen women follow teen men within

constituents, so too do sentences about teen women follow sentences about teen men

within discourse. In other words, in both syntax and larger units of discourse teen women

are secondary to teen men; in each instance, teen women are followers and teen men are

the leaders. For example, in the Seventeen 1998 's Reader's Poll, the "best/worse actress"

and "best/worse female singer" (note the ranking inherent in the poll itself, the categories

of the poll "best/worst" and the derivational suffix {-ess}) follow the "best/worst actors"




72

and "best/worst male singer" (p. 167). In a later Seventeen 1998 article discussing snack

choices, the article explains, "first choice is ...for guys, ...women go for..." (p. 119). In a

Seventeen 2000 piece about school violations of teen's rights (like mandatory drug tests),

a teen woman who stood up for her rights and challenged her school was featured not

only later in the article, but on the last page of the segment, while the articlefirst featured

a teen man who challenged the school and stood up for his rights on the opening page of

the story (p.216). Cultural and linguistic preference of women under men structures both

sentences and discourse alike.

One final problem with male primacy in word ordering is that, like other categories

of gender-hierarchical language, it mutually interacts with and reinforces other linguistic

patterns of gender hierarchy. This is illustrated above with the overlap between ranking

and order, derivation and order and female deprecation and order. In addition, word order

often also interconnects with asymmetrical vocabulary. That is, many of the conjoined NP

or ADJP pairs, or descriptive sentences about teen women and men, not only occur in a

male prime order, but also frequently include asymmetrical lexical pairs. The male-based

phrase or sentence thus outranks the female-based item both in order and in semantics

and/or morphology. For example, the "girls" are joined with (or pitted against) the

"guys," in Seventeen 1998's "a guy-girl combo" (p.152), YM 2000's "we asked the guys,

then the girls..." (p.57) and Teen 1998's "local guy and girl" (p.117). Again, while teen

women's Agency is denied ("girl"), teen men's age and maturity are respected ("guy"). In

some instances, asymmetry goes further: Seventeen speaks of "actors" before "actresses"

in 1998 and 2000 and Teen 1998 juxtaposes female and male, "This Spring's flicks are

majorly manly...but we dig chick flicks, too [Emphasis mine]" (p.52). Here, teen women




73

as derivations ("actresses") and as non-human, baby animal metaphors of deprecation

("chick") are coupled with the free autonomous root from which they are derived

("actor") or with an adult male human being ("manly"). In each instance there is double

damnation for teen women; teen men outrank teen women by being first and as

autonomous human beings.

The potential linguistic power of word order lies in its subtly freezing of lexical

choice. Constant production of frozen pairs of male-female items obscure female Agency

while simultaneously reinforcing masculine privilege. In other words, nothing in the

grammar prohibits combinations of "teen women and teen men" or "teen women and

guys," and yet these productions are both very rare and highly marked. Female-male pairs

take conscious labor and effort, yet male-female pairs are "easy" and roll off the tongue

with no effort. Put another way, a native speaker of English does not have to consciously

think to put male first, so much so that she may not even be aware that she does so3.

Nearly every single use of female first orders, however, takes active and cognizant work;

female first word orders seem to violate native speaker intuition (communicative

competence) so deeply that without concerted, conscious effort (perhaps analogous to

that of a non-native speaker of English) they do not occur. In sum, within teen magazines


3Hardman (1996) cites a students' work where sex choices (female or male) were reversed on a
questionnaire. Participants in the research project often ignored lexical choice completely and marked
female or male based on position rather than actually word choice. As a result of the masculine always
being first, the researcher found that a number of men actually marked themselves as female-sexed by
choosing masculine out of habit of first place.
I would also argue, (based on my intuition alone I do not have empirical evidence here), that
many feminist linguists are equally susceptible to the "ease" of masculine-first orders, as many of them
argue against hierarchy-enforcing language while using male-female ordered forms (Lakoff 1975 and
Cameron 1992 are two examples).
From my own experience, I too, after working in feminist linguistics for years and while writing
a thesis on the subject, fall subject to female last word orders. My first draft of this chapter contained 11
red marks from my chair where I had written about the woman after the man. This shows the power of
gender ranking to affect us outside of our human awareness, even in those who actively work against it.




74

(and the English language in general) it is natural and easy to deny Agency to women and

to grant Agency to men. On the same token, it takes actual conscientiousness and

attentiveness to speak of women as Agents.

Sentence and Discourse Patterns and Teen Women's Agency

Nominal morphological patterns and lexical choices establish teen women's basic

identity within teen magazines. Adjectival morphology ranks this identity, as well as the

other facets of teen women's culture. Word order patterns involving women and men

solidify the relationship of these identities to teen men. The syntax and discourse patterns

of the magazines, the very way that sentences are built and sentences arranged together

into larger units of discourse, however, complete the formulation of teen women's

identity. Here teen women become doers, experiences or recipients of the world; it is

here, in syntax and discourse, that teen women are paired with verbs and the combination

of teen woman type and teen woman verb type shape the final face of teen women within

magazines.

Each syntactic and discourse category has ramifications for, and affects, teen

women's Agency. The most Agentive of all syntactic and discourse pattern are those with

teen women subjects, particularly teen women agents.

Agency and agency

Linguistic agency as a semantic role is the most Agentive of all subject types. In

this category, teen women are full actors and participate in the actions of the teen

magazine world. Examples of agent semantic roles include: "Andrea started..." (p.138)

and "you're using" (p.236) in Seventeen 1998; "Arial created..." (p.57) and "you answer"

(p.42) in YM 1998; "Kerry jokes..." (p.134) from Seventeen 2000, "girls do..." (p.91)




75

from YM'2000; "...says Natalie" (p. 117) in Teen 1998; "you're snowboarding" (p.65) in

Teen 2000; "you apply" (p. 109) from Teen 1998; "you question" (p.64) in YM 2000; "you

studied for" (p.38) in Teen 2000; and "you're directing" (p. 119) from Seventeen 2000. In

these sentences, the teen woman performs the action of the verb of the sentence. Of the

total number of discourse types, however, agency only totals 858 sentences, or 10.4% of

the total discourse. In breaking down utterances with teen women semantic subjects, of

all other semantic role subject types agency is the largest. However, all other semantic

roles and discourse types, in some way, deny Agency to teen women. In other words,

approximately 90% of teen magazine discourse is non-Agentive, and as such, deny, limit,

and/or condition the Agency of teen women.

Denial of Agency by Semantic Role

The second largest category of semantic roles for teen is experience. In the role

of experience, the teen woman perceives or endures the sensation of a verb of perception,

but she is not responsible for the action. Such verbs include verbs of feeling, emotion and

the senses. Examples of teen woman experiences include "if you like" (Teen 2000: 54);

"how you look" (YM 1998: 26), "girls really dig" (Seventeen 1998: 32), "...and you

enjoy..." (Teen 2000: 38), "a style you love" (Seventeen 2000: 54); "you feel" (all

magazines, multiple occurrences), "all the excuses I need" (YM 1998: 26), "you look..."

(Teen 1998: 36) and "some women experience" (Seventeen 2000: 132). In these

sentences, the teen woman does not initiate the action or feeling that she is sensing;

instead, she undergoes the experience and the experience takes her over. In this sense, she

is not an Agentive actor upon the world, but a feeler and a sensor without Agency over




76

those sensations. Experience sentences total 349 and make up 4.2% of teen magazine

discourse.

The next category of semantic roles for teen women is the benefactive and

possessive roles. In these two roles, the teen woman again lacks Agency; she either

receives or owns an object or trait, respectively. The teen woman does not, however,

instigate the action that allows her to acquire these items. The sentence only references

the result of said action; the teen woman is the end of the action, not the means.

In benefactive sentences, teen women receive or become beneficiaries of a given object as

a result of an action performed by someone else. In many instances ofbenefactives in teen

magazines, the "someone else" is either the magazine or a teen man. As such, the

magazine or a teen man is the agent (the means) of the given process, as either could

easily be inserted in the sentence in a "from"-phrase in most of the benefactive sentences.

Two specific examples include, "How can a girl get your attention?" (YM 1998: 32) and

"Wai Yim Lam wins..." (Teen 1998: 115). In the first example, the "from" agent clause

would be "from you [a teen man]," while the second could read, "wins... from Teen

magazine." The man and Teen, respectively, are the agents of giving, while the teen

woman waits passively to receive her object. "[Y]ou're probably getting opinions"

(Seventeen 2000: 110), "you ended up with..." (Seventeen 2000: 68), "you get a

reaction" (YM 1998: 110) and "you got" (Teen 2000: 38) further illustrate this point.

Possessive sentences take benefactives one step further. In these sentences, the

focus on the teen woman is her ownership of X. For example, "you've got" and "you

have..." occur frequently in all magazines, while "Erin and Laura had..." (p. 238) from

Seventeen 2000 and "you own" (p. 118) in Teen 1998 are more specific illustrations. In





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these sentences, teen women's identity is described by her consumption and possession,

and not by what she does. This is not an atypical "feminine" identity, as women are often

associated with the items they purchase and consume (Loeb 1994, Roberts 1998).

Furthermore, it is often the role of women to inactively "obtain" from fully Agentive men.

Possessives and benefactives sentences, or teen women as passive recipients and owners,

combine form approximately 1.7% of magazine discourse, totaling 137 utterances.

The next semantic roles in teen magazines for teen women are models and

volitionals. These units offer no Agency to teen women; instead, as the subject of modal

and volitional verb phrases, teen women are fully subject to the will of the interlocutor

issuing the statement. In other words, modal verbs express interlocutor will in some way,

either weak will, in models, or very strong will in volitionals. Modals and volitionals

typically offer authoritative suggestions; in the case of teen magazines, these suggestions

are from the magazine writers and editors to the teen woman. Again, any Agency in the

sentence comes from the magazine; the teen woman is somehow needy of the suggestion.

"You can count" (Teen 1998: 52), "you might find" (Seventeen 1998: 28), "she could

get..." (Seventeen 2000: 238), "you may think"(YM 2000: 36), "you would probably"

(YM 2000: 44), "you might find out" (YM 1998: 116), and "you may not want" (Teen

2000: 44) illustrate weaker modal suggestions, while "you must remember" (Seventeen

2000: 148), "every girl should have" (Teen 2000: 40), "you gotta realize" (YM 2000: 68),

"you have to decide" (Teen 2000: 40), "you must look" (Teen 1998: 91), "you need to go

back" (Seventeen 2000: 148), and "you should just stop" (YM 2000: 68) exemplify the

stronger willed volitionals. In each instance, the magazine pushes the passive teen reader

along, as she "can," "might," "may," "must," "needs to" and "should" do; the magazines




78

nudge her to complete their desired actions that she has not yet done. She has very little

Agency in models and volitionals; the magazines "suggest" and she is supposed to

capitulate. Modals and Volitionals, the covert "advice" of the magazines to readers

account, for 423, or 5.1% of the discourse of teen magazines. Teen women lose another

5% Agency in their own magazines as subjects of their own sentences.

The final category of semantic roles of teen women subjects is the process and

passive set. In these sentences, teen women have the least amount of Agency they can

while still being subjects of sentences. While in process sentences teen women experience

a change of state, in passive sentences they are completely and utterly acted upon as

patients/objects. "[T]urn[ing] 16" (YM 2000: 86), "if you become..." (Seventeen 2000:

151), and "one lady...will become" (YM 1998: 121) all demonstrate teen women

undergoing the process of state changing, either by "becoming" or "turning." The teen

women, again, have no power in or agency over the process; the process overtakes them.

Teen women "turn" and "become" with no effort or activity of their own.

Teen women lose Agency in a similar means through passive sentence

constructions. In these sentences, teen women occur in the subject slot of the sentence as

passive objects of action verbs. Examples include "females were put on earth" (Seventeen

2000: 84), "we girls are faced with..." (Seventeen 2000: 76), "girls are subtly trained"

(Seventeen 2000: 241), "models get glizted" (Teen 1998: 114), "...get you noticed" (YM

2000: 86), "... [we can] still be respected" (Seventeen 2000: 241), and "you're hurt by"

(Teen 1998: p.30). "Girls," "you," "we," "females," and "models" are not actually

performing the action of the verb, but instead are the ones who are done to or acted upon

by the verb agent. In many passive examples the agent is not present; in others, the agent





79

follows "by" in a prepositional phrase. Whether present or absent, however, the agent is

always implied, and the patient never participates in the action directed at her. This means

that the "females were put on earth" by someone else, "girls are subtly trained" by

someone else, "models are glitzed" by someone else, "get you noticed" by someone else

and "we are respected" by someone else. This is the most passive position (hence the

name of the verb type) for any subject, as it only implies a movement of an object from

"typical" object position following the verb to a subject slot prior to that verb. Teen

women have no Agency, but exist in their typical object position, in the 54 utterances, or

.7% of magazine sentences.

Denial of Agency by Negative Agency

Not all subject semantic roles for teen women are positive. In fact, 2.7%, or 225

sentences with teen woman subjects are either overtly negative or have a negative

semantic frame. In these instances, teen women are denied positive Agency, but are

granted Negative Agency when they are responsible for a problem. Examples occur in all

themes of the magazine, including "if you're constantly freaking out" (Teen 2000: 36),

"...girl will steal him away" (Teen 1998: 28), "you'll moan and groan" (Teen 2000: 38),

"if you don't please this guy" (YM 2000: 52), "Do you hide your true self from guys?"

(YM 2000: 11), "you pureed your heart" (YM 1998: 60), "if you lack..." (YM 2000: 40),

"the excuses you're making" (YM 1998: 26), "...why are you acting like you still wear

Osh Kosh...?" (YM 1998: 44). More than half all examples, however, occur in advice

columns, dating and relationships articles, makeup and beauty features or in quizzes all

of the feature articles that function to critique, evaluate and advise the teen reader. This is

specifically important with regards to teen woman's Agency. While teen magazines are





80

responsible for creating and negotiating teen women's identity within their pages, a major

part of the identity in advisement features is negative. As such, teen magazines use

negative agency as another discourse device to again presume that their reader is

somehow lacking, or to blame her for a given problem that they later "solve" through

advice discourse. She must be flawed, without Agency, in order to sell her solutions.

Denial of Agency through Emulation

As is apparent from the numbers in the data above, not all subjects of teen

magazine sentences are teen women. 6.5% of all sentences, or 535 total, have women

"star" subjects or women experts, professionals, celebrities and/or public figures. 487 of

these 535 are actually "women star" agents. It is crucial to differentiate between teen

women and teen and adult women celebrities. As first mentioned by Ostermann and

Keller-Cohen (1998), magazines often make use of "expert" and "professional"

physicians, psychiatrists, scientists, scholars, makeup artists, fashion designers and others

to solidify and support the advice offered by the magazine, while distancing such advice

from the magazine editors and writers in order to maintain a shared discourse community

with the reader. Such "stars" are not part of the teenage discourse community, but rather

are often admired and respected by the magazines and the readers as somehow being more

worldly or more knowledgeable than the "average" teen woman reader. In fact, in YM

2000 a series of stars guest-edited and/or wrote for the magazine. Teen women, the

readers particularly, do not have this same ability.

Magazines generally make use of "stars" in one of three ways. While the "experts"

and "stars" in this category are women, the uses of the women "stars" all function

differently to deny Agency to teen women. Magazines first use "stars," as "entertainers"





81

or "celebrities," as subject material for their magazine. Writers and editors report on the

activities, likes and needs of these celebrities, such as "she's*4 traveling" (Seventeen 1998:

132), "[she*] worked her way" (Seventeen 2000: 72), "Maria Patillo* plays..." (Teen

1998: 45), "Lila* sang..." (YM 1998: 115), "Jessica* made..." (YM 2000: 94) and

"Emily* finds..." (Teen 2000: 97). Readers are directed to participate in admiration of

stars, as Seventeen 1998 issues the cover directive to readers to "tell us the stars you love

and hate" (Cover). Magazines also interview the "stars" who grace their covers, either as

"models" or "entertainers," telling how model "Sasha* had adapted..." (Teen 1998: 8),

actor "Shiri Appleby* decided..." (Seventeen 2000: 168) and singer "Chilli* bears her

soul..." (YM 2000: 91). Some "star" subject discourse is pure gossip, telling how "Tori

Spelling* caused a big buzz" (Seventeen 2000: 182), "Natasha Lynne* heats up..." (YM

1998: 28) and how "Tiffani-Amber Theissen* ...rented" (Seventeen 2000: 182).

The world in which these stars "work," "travel" and "cause big buzzes" is not the

world of the teen woman reader. Instead, magazines present such discourse to be

emulated by the teen reader; teen readers should read, admire, aspire to and emulate the

actions of the woman stars within the pages. This is an area of Agency (and a speech

community) that is not realistically open to the teen woman reader the Agency of the

"star." Other magazine features support this position. Throughout the magazines such

stars are dressed in beautiful clothing and adorned with fancy makeup and professional

hairstyles that contrast with the "real life" pictures of teen readers in teen-related profile

articles. The teen readers, however, are given the opportunity to look like these coiffed



41 use the asterisk "*" to indicate that a person is a "star," since the asterisk symbol looks like a mini-star
and was one of the few symbols accepted in my database program.





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and decorated stars, and obtain what they have, through contests or by product

placements under their profiles. For example, although later interviewed over three pages

on her personal and professional life, actor Katie Holmes* has a look that is obtainable by

teen readers, as Seventeen 1998 instructs "to get a look like Katie's*, try..." (p. 12);

although Sasha* the model's "studies as a junior at Beverly Hills High School are [her]

top priority," the reader can purchase her "eyes [products], lips [products], skin

[products], choker" and "dress" (Teen 1998: 8); in addition, while Teen 2000 features star

sisters Melissa Joan* and Emily* Hart in both a personal interview on sisterhood and in a

guest advice column on sister questions, the reader is encouraged to enter the contest on

the cover and "Win this Cover Look!" of their dresses Teen 2000 (Cover page). Teen

women have the Agency to read about these stars, evaluate and/or imitate these women,

but they lack the Agency that the star women possess. The closest that the teen woman

can come is the emulation of these women, such as the purchasing of products used by

them.

The second use of stars, other than as magazine subjects, is as subtle magazine

advertisements. In many cases stars are overtly placed next to a directive for, or a picture

and price of, their clothes, hairstyle, makeup, skin products, movie, TV show or CD.

While stars as subjects are found most in entertainment articles, stars as advertisements

occur most frequently in the Makeup, Beauty and Fashion and Fitness sections of the

magazines. The star is usually pictured prominently and the language on the page

describes in detail the relationship of the star to the given advertised items, while listing

the price and or availability of each item. For example, in a fashion feature actor Christina

Ricci* is pictured in various outfits with language that reads "Christina* choose..." and




83

"Christina* put on her..." (Seventeen 2000: 50) while outlining each fashion and

accessory piece. In a fitness feature called "Sweat like the stars," four celebrities, Alison*,

Alex*, Essense* and Christine* are pictured exercising as "[they*] lunge and squat, kick

box, hip-hop dance and practice martial arts" (Seventeen 1998: 78). The article then

issues the directives "Do it like Essence*," "Do it like Alison*," and "Do it like

Christine*" above various exercises for the reader to try, as readers are directed to "follow

along these rising celebs for totally glam results." In Teen 1998 an article called "Runway

radiance" features the makeup of a spring fashion show. In this article nameless models

are pictured wearing the makeup of star designers; the article tells that designer "Nicole

Miller*... featured glitter-glazed lips, cheeks and eyes" and how designer "Vivienne Tam*

took a sublet approach to the sparkly skin look" (Teen 1998: 114). The products are

placed next to or above such expressions of star agency, while under such expressions,

Teen issues directives and prices, such as "Highlight your face with Prescriptives's

Monocream Sheer Color in Whisper (above), $20." Teen magazines selectively utilize

star agency in order to manipulate their teen woman readers. They use star agency as

advertising placements joined with directives and assume that, because teen women are

somehow needy or fundamentally must improve, the star power will boost the directive

power. Such negative assumption denies teen reader's Agency and exploits readers'

emulation of such stars with the very stars that readers admire.

The final way that women stars are used against teen women, or to deny teen

women's Agency, is by use of star experts, as referred to by Ostermann and Keller-Cohen

(1998). Teen magazines support their advice columns, health and well-being features, sex

and the body and relationship articles with expert opinions by professionals, physicians,




84

psychiatrists and counselors. They do this to solidify and support the advice offered by

the magazine while they keep themselves within the discourse community of the teen

reader (Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998). It is the expert who provides the advice, the

teen magazine simply relies the message. Examples usually involve direct quotes from the

star expert outlined by the magazine with verbs of speaking, as in "Dr. Jacobson* says..."

and "Dr. Jacobson* suggests..." (YM 1998: 36), "Dr. Jaliman* recommends" (YM 2000:

115), "Dr. McGrath* says..." (YM 1998: 60), "Hillyer* stresses..." (Teen 1998: 70),

"... cautions Dr. Debbie*" (YM 1998: 48) and "... says Paula Hillard, MD*" (Teen 2000:

42). The magazines actually issue the directives and volitionals that order or advise the

teen women readers the discourse devices that assume, again, that teen women are in

need of improvement or fixing. However, the magazines manipulate the placement of

experts' agency, to make it appear that the experts, and not the magazine, pass judgment

on the teen reader. Once again, however, this practice actually works against teen women

and their Agency, as the agency of the star professionals strengthens their necessity for

change.

Denial of Agency by Sex

The two largest discourse categories in the magazines individually after teen

woman agency are male subjects (836) and male star subjects (559), respectively.5

Together, however, male subjects account for 16.9% of all total magazine discourse; of



5 In the original data set I separated male subjects from male star subjects. For the purpose of analysis,
however, I now combine the two subjects. I separate teen women and women stars because teen women
stars are fundamentally out of the discourse community of teen women they either serve as models,
mentors, experts or advertisers to be emulated. Both teen men and male entertainers, however, are also
outside of the teen woman's discourse community. Both serve as advisors and experts, as teen magazines
frequently use "average" teen men's opinions as baselines for advice for teen women readers. As such, in
this discussion section, I have combined the two into one discourse category.




85

that, 11.7% is male agency. Therefore, within the magazines, men and men stars' agent

semantic roles combined outnumber the 10.4% of magazine discourse that contains a non-

star teen woman agent. While teen woman subjects are more numerous than men and men

star subjects, men's agency outnumbers teen women's agency in teen women's magazines.

The effect of this pattern on teen women's Agency is obvious. Within their own

magazines, teen women do and act less than teen men and male stars and celebrities.

When examining teen women and teen men's agency together, however, more insidious

patterns emerge.

Both teen women and teen men have distinct spheres of agency. Teen women are

most frequently agents in Teen Focus News and Issues articles and in Makeup, Beauty and

Fashion features. In contrast, teen men's agency is somewhat low here; men's 83 in Teen

Focus News and Issues contrasts with teen women's 306 and men's 16 in Makeup,

Beauty and Fashion contrasts with women's 66. Men are most frequently agents in

Dating, Relationships and Guys articles, Quizzes, and Advice on Guys and Dating. In

these categories, women contrast with men at numbers of 54 to men's 126 in Dating,

Relationships and Guys articles, 94 to 13 in Quizzes, and 84 to 55 in Advice on Guys and

Dating. While in Relationship advice columns teen women are closer in agency to teen

men, in actual relationship features teen men's agency more than doubles that of teen

women. Furthermore, teen women as negative agents occur most in these three sections -

Relationships, Quizzes and Advice Guys and Dating.

This means double condemnation for teen women. They are agents when it

concerns only women, in teen women's news and in beautification of their personal

appearance. However, in spheres of teen culture that possibly involve teen men, such as




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quizzes that evaluate teen women's behaviors toward men, dating advice columns and

features on relationships with men, teen women not only have less agency, but they have

more negative agency than men do. So they lose positive agency and gain negative

agency in spheres involving men. By specifically investigating agency and theme

correlations teen women's Agency conditions become clear; teen women are allowed

Agency in news directly pertaining to their lives (such as profiles of teen readers) and

when they beautify themselves for men, but in relationships and quizzes, positive Agency

is more a domain of teen men than teen women.

These conditioned spheres of agency in relationship articles and quizzes result in

two specific discourse tendencies for teen women's Agency within teen magazines. First,

teen women are more often objects to male subjects and are more often negative blamerr"

agents to men's positive agency. Specific examples illustrate such object-subject relations:

"he compliments you" (YM 1998: 32), "he calls you" (Seventeen 1998: 80), "he begs

you" and "he asks you" (Seventeen 1998: 114), "guys clue you in" (Teen 1998: 40),

"...girl he's taking" (Teen 1998: 38), "this one keeps you" (YM 2000: 62), "a guy to like

you" (Seventeen 2000: 144), "Is he flirting with you?" (Teen 2000: Cover Page), "...[he]

dishes out compliments, gifts and affection to make girls melt" (Teen 2000: 59), "...a guy

who will do anything to get a girl" (Seventeen 2000: 192), "...a stud invites you" (YM

1998: 44), "...a Scott Wolf look-alike ask you out" (Teen 2000: 85), and "why he wows

you" (YM 2000: 44). In a "Real Life Section Quiz" ironically meant to stress female

independence, entitled 'Is he healthy for you?," one reads "he gives you..." and "[he]

forbids you" (Teen 1998: 66). Teen 1998 also contributes with "How your date feels

about you" (p.38), "he'll think you're psycho" (p.40) and "he's afraid of allowing you too





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much freedom" (p.70); YM 1998 has "What kind of girls do [men] dig?" (p.28), "he now

regards you in a more girlfriend-worthy light" (p.32), "it's flattering that he's into you"

(p. 157), "Six clues he's noticed you" (p. 32) and "He found the perfect way to show you

how special he thinks you are" (p. 38). In all of the examples, the teen woman is the

object, while a teen man is the subject. The last example above is negative in three ways;

there are double female objects and masculine subjects in both the dependent and

independent clauses and the ranking of "perfect." In quizzes, relationships and dating

advice columns women are "done to" and men are the "doers;" women are passive and

men are active the actors of the sentence. Object-subjects are already ranked in English,

given the singularity postulate of derivational thinking and the primacy and necessity of

English subject positions (Hardman 2002, Personal Communication). This promotes a

hierarchy in relationships and perpetuates the link between women and objecthood. "In

woman, there is...a conflict between her autonomous existence and her objective self...she

is taught to make herself object; [and]...therefore renounce her autonomy" (de Beauvoir

1989: 280).

In some examples, however, teen women do appear in the subject position along

with men when the teen women's clause is negated or overtly negative. In many cases

the sentences occur together to form larger units of discourse. For example, Teen 1998

instructs readers in a guy-likes article, "Don't stare at him constantly he'll think you're

psycho" (p.40), in guy talk section of YM 1998 guys were polled and their answers were

given to the question "What look-at-me-move do girls make that bugs you?" (p.32), Teen

2000 asks readers "Could your crush be sending signals you're not catching?" (p.58), and

in a relationship advice column YM 1998 reads "...it's hard for him to deal with his





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feelings, so he's keeping mute. Don't hassle him about it or you may weird him out more"

(p.36). Teen men do not take equal responsibility in the problems of the relationship, as

Seventeen 1998 prints on the cover "Is he really a jerk? Why you fight with your boyfriend

[emphasis mine]." In this example and the article, while both the teen woman and the man

participate in the relationship arguments, it is the teen woman who appears in the subject

position while the boyfriend exists as an oblique, an object of a preposition. Teen women

often experience both ends of a negative agency spectrum; while YM 2000 asks teen

women readers "Do you hide your true self from guys?," it questions teen readers later,

"Are you too quick to change your looks and likes to please a boy?" (p. 44). In addition,

teen woman's negative agency often results in contradictory identities for teen women

(contradictory advice is discussed in Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998); YM 2000 begins

a relationship article with "Think he's too popular, too stuck on sports, or too shy to

notice you? No way you just need the right sweetie strategy" and advises teen women

how to alter their behavior in order to get the attention of a teen man. It later adds

contradictorily, "Catching his eye isn't as tough as you think and there's definitely no

need to resort to an Energizer Bunny flirt-a-thon or actphony [emphasis mine]" (p.62).

In both instances, however, the one uniting element throughout the contradiction is the

negativity of the teen woman; she is either needy of "the right strategy" or directed not to

"resort to a... flirt-a-thon or act phony."

Denial of Agency by Male Hegemony

While the objecthood and negative agency of teen women is maintained

throughout much of the magazine discourse involving teen women and men, positive male

hegemony is also supported by most of the magazine discourse. In fact, one motif in the





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magazines is male hegemony, as teen women's lives, relationships, behavior, clothes and

appearance are often judged by, or in response to, men's beliefs. Each magazine includes

a section on "Guys," expressing teen men's opinions. YM's is called "Guy Talk," in which

writers pose questions, such as "How can a girl get your attention?" (YM 1998: 32) to

teen men (note that the teen woman is in a benefactive role, attention is in a patient role,

and the teen man is the agent) and then post their answers. Teen has an advice column

"Ask a Guy," in which a teen man answers reader-invited problem questions and

"average" teen men are questioned things like "What do guys think when girls try to be

perfect for them?" (Teen 1998: 28). Teen also has a column entitled "Guy Likes, Guy

Gripes" where Teen writers take to "the streets" and question teen men regarding teen

women. Seventeen also has an advice column for those who would like to "Ask a Boy."

YM takes matters even further. They print a column called "Romance" whose sole

purpose is to highlight men's positive agency. Although both teen women and men take

part in romance together, YM publishes requested stories from readers only about "his

random acts of kindness," (YM 2000: 48) and "his amazing anniversary move" (YM

1998: 38). Men even judge teen women's clothing; YM2000 boasts "Dress to Thrill:

Guys Reveal The Looks They Love" (Cover page). Lastly, in YM, any articles deemed

"eye-catching" enough for the cover page stories, (and thus those that appear on the

cover), are starred in the table of contents; the only section in the table of contents to have

ALL articles starred and on the cover was the section entitled "Guys."

Not only are teen men's responses, judgments and opinions central to whole

articles within the magazines, but teen men are also central to the advice and information

within the articles. In other words, male hegemony structures teen magazine articles as




90

well as the content of the articles. Men's behavior is fundamentally taken as a given, and

positive or negative, this behavior is rarely judged by the magazines. Teen men are to be

taken as they are, and teen women, instead, are the ones who should change in response to

teen men. This does not mean that teen men are never presented negatively; in contrast,

they carry negative semantics at times. The difference between teen women and men

within the magazines is that whether teen men behave well or poorly, it is the

responsibility of the teen woman to adjust her life and actions to his. Furthermore, if she

misbehaves, the magazines scold her for it; if a teen man misbehaves, he is either acting

like a "typical male" or he is not a good person. Either way, he is not expected to correct

his wrong doings, and magazines even provide linguistic discourse features that act as

"excuses" for the negativity of the man. In sum, there exists a double standard for teen

women and men in positive and negative agency in teen magazines that again denies

positive Agency to teen women; teen women adjust their lives to teen men, and not vice

versa.

Examples clarify the process of male hegemony in teen magazines. In an

entertainment piece illustrating the spring's movies called "Spring Flick Fever," Teen 1998

outlines six pages worth of upcoming films. Of the six pages of films, four are devoted to

films with male stars, while on the bottom of the last two pages (note that women follow

men in order) Teen chooses three films featuring women actors. These three films

contrast with the seven with male stars, next to this text, "Sure this Spring is majorly

manly, but we like chick flicks, too, in cool girlie movies" (p.51). In addition, in the body

of text describing the seven films with prominent male actors, Teen writes the following

guidelines under the directives "See it With...;" "Got a babe [man] you can claw your




91

nails into during a fright-fest? One who'll dig it when you hide your eyes on his

shoulder?" under the scary movie, "...if your idea of exercise is pumping your mascara

wand, catch it with the jock you've been crushin' on" under the sports movie, "you're

favorite wild man" under the Tarzan film and "With the Wild West theme, the brotherly

bonding and probably lots of bullets flying, you may be tempted to go with your guy..."

under the Western action film. The magazine assumes that certain movies are "guy" films,

so teen readers must have men accompany them. Teen 2000 makes use of "guy"

presumptions as well; in order to issue teen readers directives in an article titled "Advice

you can't live without," Teen orders readers to "get to know your 'guy' side... and

change a tire, fix a faucet, set up the VCR. Ask your friend's (cute) older brother to show

you how" (p.65). In this example, the only the Agency the teen woman possesses is that

of asking a man for help, as cars, pluming and electronics are out of her domain of

Agency. A Teen 2000 article called "What's his Flirtsonality?" contains an enormous

amount of male hegemony. It begins by contrasting female negative and male positive

agency, asking "Could your crush be sending signals you're not sensing?" (p.58). The

article writers then provide a solution for the teen reader's negative problem, saying "Get

to know his 'flirt'sonality' (the personality he fronts to get girls), and get tuned into his

attempts" (p.58). Note that the teen woman's negative needs are those to be fixed, as she

must be responsible for getting to know him and for passively "getting tuned into" his

attempts. In addition, he is allowed to, and is never reprimanded in this quiz for "fronting"

or posing one personality to women in order to "get" them. While teen women are

scolded for "acting phony" (YM 2000: 62), the teen man is not only allowed to "front,"

but it is the teen reader's responsibility to decipher his fronting so that she can "flirt back,"





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by not only learning his "flirtsonality," but by taking a quiz on it (p.59). The article next

contains the actual quiz in which the readers evaluate the teen man they are interested in;

in contrast to the three common categories that magazine quizzes place teen women into,

teen men get five: "the party animal, lover, hero, tough guy, serious one, confident"

(p.59). Unlike quizzes that evaluate teen women's behavior, teen men's final categories

are all Agentive. After placing the men into the five categories, magazines then tell teen

women how to "flirt back" their Agency follows the man's, of course. Finally, in the

advice on how to "flirt back," women often take a support, rather than Agentive role in

their own flirting; one column issued the directives "Show appreciation for his gestures..."

and "Thank him..." to the teen reader flirting back with "The Lover," while the teen

woman flirting with the "Party Animal" was directed to "Help him plan his next bash" and

"Join the clean-up crew and laugh at his jokes" (p.59).

In other articles, male hegemonic statements include "When he's got good

news...he'll tell you" (p.32) and "Pay him a compliment showing him your extreme level

of worship" from YM 1998 (p. 43); "...so he can show off the beauty (teen woman) on his

arm" in (Teen 1998: 66); and Teen 2000 readers are told in a makeup feature that they

should 'Pick a perfume to match his personality" (p.18). In an article entitled "The crush

list" Teen 2000 featured a number of adult men stars, including Fred Durst* and Mark

McGrath*. The magazine encouraged teen readers to write to these stars, under the

directive "Contact [PN]" next to the astrological sign, relationship status, compatibility

signs and answer to the question "he likes girls who..." for each man. The men, of course,

were not condemned for their lifestyles; each man was equally encouraged to be a "crush"

figure, even though Fred Durst* has an eight year old child and Mark McGrath* "lives





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with his girlfriend, but rumor has it, he's still playing the field" and "likes girls who pump

his ego" (p.53). No mention is made of the fact that magazines present adult men with

children close in age to the readers as figures of attraction, nor is the unfaithful and sexist

behavior of Mark McGrath* admonished or reprimanded. Quite the contrary, actually,

exists; teens are directed to contact them. On final example of male hegemony and the

double standard for positive and negative agency occurred in a Teen 2000 advice column.

A reader wrote in about how her boyfriend had read her diary and she was upset about it.

The answer given by the magazine to this teen woman was that she should not have been

so "obsessed" with him. The teen man who violated her trust and invaded her personal

space was barely mentioned, yet she was scolded (p.44). Unfortunately, within the pages

of teen magazines, a subtle male dominance permeates articles. This hegemony not only

lessens the positive Agency of teen readers in magazines for them, but it also exacerbates

their negative Agency and responsibility.

One last realization of male hegemony in teen magazines is the denial of men's

negative agency. This only occurs 9 times total in the magazine and accounts for .1% of

the discourse patterns. Nonetheless, it is still a device that denies teen women's positive

Agency and teen men's negative Agency. Furthermore, when considered with the other

linguistic devices that weaken women and strengthen men in teen discourse, it is a small

part of an overridingly large force. For example, in an article advising a teen woman who

had been abused by an adult man, the magazine read "your teacher's unwanted attention

makes you feel...," "Any gestures that make you," "...if his obsession is coupled with..."

and "...if something creeps you out...or makes you nervous..." (Seventeen 2000: 146).

In each instance, the male teachers' negative Agency was nominalized into instrumental




Full Text

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LANGUAGE AND THE MANIPULATION OF TEEN WOMEN' S IDENTITY : CREATING DEFICIENCY SUBVERTING AGENCY AND DEVALUING TEEN WOMEN' S PERSONHOOD ON THE MULTIPLE LEVELS OF DISCOURSE IN TEEN WOMEN' S MAGAZINES B y ADDIE L. SAYERS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF AR TS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2002

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would first and foremost like to thank Dr. MJ Hardman and Dr. Kesha Fikes for their support, guidance and patience throughout the process of researching and writing this thesis and particularly for their flexibility during the hectic time of the defense It was an honor and pleasure to have worked on a committee with these two women I personally thank Dr. Hardman for teaching me how to perceive for believing in my work and for always listening Dr. Hardman has been my personal inspiration as the standard of excellence to which I aspire and has selflessly helped me through my entire academic process I also am indebted to Dr. Fikes for her constant enthusiasm, energy and inspiration Dr. Fikes always guides me in new directions and my work is stronger because of her. I am especially grateful to Dr. Diana Boxer and Dr. Tace Hedrick for their suggestions and encouragement. I would also like to thank Nicholas Mrozinske and my family for their love patience personal support and encouragement throughout this process Nicholas spent hours helping me format and print and provided a much needed personal respite I owe a special thanks to my mother Marjorie Lofts for teaching me to grasp and be proud of m y own Agency while never taking any credit for her hard work. Lastly I thank Melissa Gerhard and Anna Mulkey for providing me with loving and supportive friendships for many years u

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TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ....... .... . ....... . ...................... ..... ............... ...... ... .......... ....... ... ii ABSTRACT ..... ....... ............. .............................................. . ........ ........... ... . ....... . . . . vi CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION ... .................... .......... . ..... ........ .... .... .... .......... ...... ........... ... .... 1 TWO MAGAZINE BACKGROUND AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE ....... . .... ..... 8 The Importance of Teenage Magazines ....... ... ... ........................................... . ..... 8 Magazines and Youth Culture ................................. . ................. .... ... .... ...... ... ..... 9 Magazines and Consumerism .. ............ ............ ...... .... ................. ...... ............... 10 Linguistic Analyses of Teen Magazines ........ ...... ... .... ..... .... . .................. ... .... ..... 13 THREE THEORY AND METHODOLOGY ..... ............. ........ ....... ............................... 17 Methodological Theory ... ...................... ...... ..... ......................... .......... ............ 17 Theories of Agency Language and Gender. .................. ..... .... .... ... ... . ....... ........ 20 Hardman s Derivational Thinking ....... ...... . . ..... ......... ........ ... ...... ..... ...... 21 Russ Notion of Agency ...... . ................. .... . ..... ....... .... .... ... ................ 25 Methodology ..... .... ....... ................................... ... ...... ........ ... .... .... .................. . 27 FOUR TEEN WOMEN IN NOMINAL MORPHOLOGY LEXICON AND SEMANTICS ......... ...... .... ........... ... ....... ...... ... ........ . . .... . .................... 29 Teen Women as Bound Affix .............................. . .... ..... ....... ........ ... ......... ......... 31 Teen Women as Independent Roots .... ....... ........ .... ........ ... ... ..... ... . .... .............. 36 Discourse Community Member--Teen Women as "You" ..... ..... .......... ... 37 Asymmetrical Vocabulary--Teen Women as Girl ................................. 38 Other Miscellaneous Root Identities ... ......... ... .................... .......... ... ...... 40 Root identities with positive semantics ............ .............. .......... ... 41 Root identities with negative semantics ... .................... ...... ... ...... 41 Teen Women as Personal Name (PN) .............. . ....... ... .... .... ..... ..... ... ..... ... .... ... 44 ill

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Conclusion .............. .... ........... .... ....... ..... .... ....... ... . ... ... .... . ................. ... ... ... 44 FIVE TEEN WOMEN IN ADJECTIVAL MORPHOLOGY RANKING AND IIIERARCIIIES . .... . .... . . ................ ...... ............................... ..... ...... ... 46 Ranking, Hierarchy and Singularity ............ ... ... ..... . ........... ........... ... ........ ... .... 46 Hierarchies within Teen Women s Culture ..... . .... ... .... ..... ... ... ... ..... ................. 4 7 The Ranking of Teen Women against Men ................... ..... . . ... ..... ....... . .49 The Ranking of Teen Women against Each Other .......... .............. ...... ... 5 3 Ranking and Hierarchy of Magazine over Readers . ...... ..... . . . ............ ..... . .... .... 5 5 Conclusion .... ....... ............................ ... . ... ......... ...... .... .... ...................... .... .... 6 2 SIX TEEN WOMEN IN SYNTAX AND DISCOURSE. .......... ..... ... . .......... . .......... 64 Syntax and Discourse Pattern Data ....... .... ........ ......... ... ...... . .... ........ ............... 64 Word Order Patterns and Agency . ..... .......... . .... ... ... ............... ... ... .................. 68 Sentence and Discourse Patterns and Teen Women s Agency . ..... ........ .... ... ..... 74 Agency and agency ....... .... . ..... ..... .... .... ..... . ................ ...... .... ... ......................... 7 4 Denial of Agency b y Semantic Role ....... ............ ... ....... .... .... . ..... ...................... 75 Denial of Agency by Negative Agency ...... ......... ..... ........... .......... .............. ....... 79 Denial of Agency through Emulation ...... ..... ... . ..... ......................... ... ...... .... ..... 80 Denial of Agency by Sex ........... .... ..... ... ........ ............... ... ........ ... ..... ....... ......... 84 Denial of Agency by Male Hegemon y ...... .... ... ........ ...... ... ............ . ............... . . 88 Overt Denials of Agency . ........... ... . ... .... .... ........ . ...... ......... ... ...... ........ ....... . ... 9 4 Denial of Agenc y by Synecdoche and Instrumentation ..... ...... ... ... . . ....... 95 Denial of Agency through Whiteness ... . ... . .... ......................................... 97 Denial of Agency by Manipulation ... ... ..... ... .......... . ..... ... ... .... . . ....... ......... ..... .. 99 Directive Conditioned Agency ... ...... ...... ......... ......... ......... .................. . . 99 Quiz Conditioned Agency .......... .... .......... . ... . ... . ... ... .... .......... . .... .... . 102 Denial of Agency through Felicity Conditions .......... . ..... .......... ... ....... .... ........ 104 Commissives ............. ... ..... ..................... ... ........... ........... .... .............. 105 Directives ..... .............. . ... ...... . ..... ...... ....................... ........ ........ ....... 107 Conclusion .. ............ ... ............................. . ...... ............ ............................... ... 111 SEVEN CONCLUSION . .... . ....................... ........... .... . .......... . ............. .... .... .... ....... 113 APPENDIX A TEEN WOMAN AS SEMANTIC ROLE AGENT . . . ... .... ... .... .... .............. ... 117 B TEEN WOMAN AS SEMANTIC ROLE BENEF ACTIVE AND POSSESSIVE ... . ....... .......... .... .... ...... ............... .... .............. .... ...... .... . 142 C COMMISSIVES . . .... ........ ..... ....... .... ... ...... ... .............................. .... ... . ... .. 147 lV

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D DIRECTIVE AND COMMISSIVE CONDITIONED DISCOURSE. ............... 151 E DIRECTIVES ..... .... ...... ... ......... .... .......................... . ........... .......... .... .......... 160 F DOA (DENIAL OF AGENCY) INSTRUMENT AND SYNECDOCHE ...... .... 246 G DOA (DENIAL OF AGENCY) OF NEGATIVE MALE AGENCY AND MALE HEGEMONY .... ..... ... ............ ....... .......... .................... ... 254 H TEEN WOMAN AS SEMANTIC ROLE EXPERIENCER. ................. . .......... 258 I MALE SUBJECTS . ... .................. ................ ... ............. ... ... ....... .... .... .... ... ..... 270 J TEEN WOMAN AS SEMANTIC ROLE MODAL ......... ... ............ . ....... . . ... 311 K TEEN WOMAN AS NEGATIVE SUBJECT. ........... ............. ......... .... .... ...... 320 L OVERT DOAS (DENIALS OF AGENCY) WHITENESS AND AGE ............ 328 M TEEN WOMAN AS SEMANTIC ROLE PASSIVE AND PROCESS ............ . 330 N QUIZ CONDITIONED DISCOURSE ........ ......... ....... . .......................... . ... . 333 0 ST AR SUBJECTS ................... . ...... ........................... .................. . ..... ......... 346 P TEEN WOMAN AS SEMANTIC ROLE VOLITIONAL . ............ ... ........ ....... 364 Q RANKING AND HIERARCHY DAT A. ......... ............ ... ................ ....... ... ........ 370 R WORD ORDERPATTERNS .......... ............. .... . ... . ... .... .... ...... . ........ ....... 393 REFERENCES ...... .... ............... .... . .... ... ... ....... ..... ... ................. . ........... . . ... ...... ...... 397 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ........ ... .... ........... ................ ......... ..................... ... ...... ..... 403 V

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts LANGUAGE AND THE MANIPULATION OF TEEN WOMEN'S IDENTITY : CREATING DEFICIENCY, SUBVERTING AGENCY AND DEVALUING TEEN WOMEN'S PERSONHOOD ON THE MULTIPLE LEVELS OF DISCOURSE IN TEEN WOMEN'S MAGAZINES By Addie L. Sayers August 2002 Chair : Dr. M. J. Hardman Major Department: Linguistics For American teen women, the teen years constitute poignant moments of gendered identity transformation considered key to the detriment and/or enforcement of adult subjectivity Teen women undergo two complementary cultural phenomena at this time : they suffer the greatest losses of security self-esteem and self-worth during their identity formation at this age period while they also simultaneously become one of America's most highly sought after and targeted consumer prospects American teen magazines relate specifically to these phenomena, as teen magazines are in the teen identity, and manipulation of identity, business Because teen magazines are uniquely marketed for the "community" of American teenage women, teen magazines use language to formulate and delineate a speech community of teen women readers It is through language that teen magazine writers and editors create, mediate and negotiate the ideal V1

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identities of teen women and teen women readers within the pages of their magazines and it is through language that teen magazines deny full personhood to teen women This thesis argues that the language used to construct teen womanhood within magazines illustrates the fundamental ideologies of teen womanhood held and prescribed by magazine writers editors and publishers and embedded in teen magazines in which teen women are fundamentally lacking and deficient This thesis also shows how teen magazine language on multiple levels of discourse contributes to the processes that devalue teen women s Agency in order to sell solutions to the very identity problems the magazines create .. VII

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Magazines marketed for American teenage women are a multibillion-dollar industry Furthermore teen magazines are the largest growing subset of the publishing industry with new teen magazines being created each year (Steil 2001) Since their creation in 1944 teen magazines have flaunted their influence in the creation and mediation of teen women s identity and American teen culture (Schrum 1998 : 157 ) The authority of teen magazines is particularly strong as they are one of the few items of popular culture specifically marketed for teen women to address their life culture wants and needs This is particularl y important given that teen y ears constitute poignant moments of gendered identity transformation considered key to the detriment and or/ enforcement of adult subjectivit y (de Beauvoir 1989 Pipher 1994 Brown and Gilligan 1992) While there have been sigruficant social scientific analyses of the content and history of teen magazines and the implications of magazine content on teen women readers much of this research has come from sociology and history ( Currie 1999 Schrum 1998 Schelnker Caron and Halteman 1998 Evans Rutberg Sather and Turner 1991 ) As such most of the current research examines the magazines on a larger and more global level analyzing items such as magazine pictures and imagery consumerism within magazines representations of femininity and feminist versus non-feminist content. 1

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2 Much social scientific research takes the linguistically constructed idealized teen woman interlocutor spoken to by the magazine in text for granted as one and the same as the living readers of the magazines and instead analyzes the real or hypothesizes the potential, effects and ramifications of magazine themes signs and imagery on actual teen women Yet because teen magazine text simulates conversation between magazine writers and teen readers and magazine writers have no direct access to the actual readers of the magazines magazines must necessarily construct an idealized abstract interlocutor through their language In other words, conversations can not be one-sided ; they need at least two participants By the sheer act of making conversation, magazine writers produce an illusionary speaker simply because they have no actual speakers available With each semantic lexical and morphological appellation magazines call their ideal interlocutor into being It is through this interlocutor that magazines attempt to speak to teen readers and it is this identity and subject position that actual teen readers either interact with, reject or appropriate So while there has been some investigation of how the reading of the metamessages and the viewing the imagery and content of magazines results in teen women altering their own identities there has also been relatively little investigation of the actual identity that the teen woman confronts and interacts with in order to potentially transform her own In other words, few researchers have taken a more structural stance of investigating the internal ideological and ideal constructions of teen reader identity within magazines particularly in the language and discourse (notable exceptions include Gamer Sterk and Adams 1998 Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998 Duffy and Gotcher 1996 Talbot 1992 Talbot 1995) I argue however that it is crucial to examine the ways that magazines create and negotiate the illusionary ideal identity of the absent teen

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3 woman interlocutor through language That is before examining the possible effects of teen magazines on teen women s subjectivity as teen women read magazines and interact with them, it is first necessary to understand exactly what ideal identity teen women are interacting with in this process I would argue that the basic ideologies themes and images of the magazine are conceptualized through the ideal illusionary identit y ; as such this identity is potentially the most powerful force in actual reader s identity alteration When teen women read magazines it is this identity that meets them and it is interaction with it that may influence or motivate transformation One other final problem often overlooked in either analyses of language and gender in general or in analyses of the language of teen magazines in particular is the racialization of gender and gendered identity In other words many researchers use women," teen women or girls as cover terms without realizing the racialization of these unmarked forms A similar usage of unmarked and undefined terms occurs in teen magazines In other words both magazines editors and writers and researchers alike take a color blind stance to the notion of race within magazines ; those researchers who do mention teens constructed within magazine language as white often fail to implicate the results of such whiteness By taking a color blind approach to race to analyzing magazines and by constructing a seemingly colorless interlocutor within magazines researchers and writers respectively either assume that race does not matter (as if, for example all teen woman share commonalities regardless of race) and /or ignore notions of race under the presupposition that it is not relevant to their issue at hand The color blind approach assumes that each racial category is conceptualized the same so speaking of race is unimportant (Frankenberg 1995) However all racial categories are not constructed

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4 through the same processes ; whiteness is constructed implicitly by the explicit construction of racialized Others making whiteness an invisible normative state (Mrozinske 2002) This means that forms unmarked for race such as teen woman" are read as white while all racial terminology exists only as a derivation to an unmarked white form, as in "African-American teen women." A color blind" approach fails because it does nothing to unmask the hidden unmarked whiteness (Frankenberg 1995) As such within teen magazines because the ideal teen interlocutor is constructed as colorless she becomes white Therefore a color blind approach in teen magazine language reinforces white privilege and notions of ranked singularity and denies teen women of color the experience of being an everyday teen, as ideal interlocutorhood is reserved for whites Furthermore a color blind approach within language and gender research is equally as damaging and as reinforcing of normative whiteness An appropriate investigation of the full extent of race and racialization in teen magazines would take an additional masters thesis and is not the intent of this thesis Instead however this thesis takes a race-cognizant approach to ideal interlocutor identity as failure to do so not only undermines the concept of Agency but also asserts race hierarchy and privilege This thesis deconstructs the basic ideologies of teen womanhood and of teen readers by analyzing who magazines construct as their ideal teen interlocutor through the lexicon semantics morphology syntax and discourse1 of teen magazine conversation." It is this ideological identity that illustrates the basic the basic rails along which magazines expect teen women s identity to go. It is by examining the language through 1 The word discourse ha s been borrowed by other social science and i s used in a number of wavs The way I am using discourse here i s in the traditional core linguistic sense of the level of lingui stic ~cture above the level of the sentence. the structures which develop when two or more utterance s come together to form larger units of speech. such a conversations. paragraph s or bodies of tex1.

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5 which magazines create, modify and manipulate the ideal identity of their abstract interlocutor that I discover the underlying assumptions magazines hold about teen women and their actual teen readers 2 To determine whether teen women, when reading and interacting with the ideal identity offered by magazine language, appropriate reject and/or deny this subject position offered by magazines that is, whether teen women transform their own identity through interaction with the ideal identity requires fieldwork with actual teen women This is not a question of this thesis but a question for further research Instead, this thesis attempts to first determine who and what teens would interact with before investigating any transformative effects of such interaction I suggest that a centralizing point for analyzing language and ideal identity, and the internal structures of assumptions within magazines is the examination of the ideal teen reader's Agency through language That is, I analyze each linguistic structure for how it creates ideal identity with respect to the Agency of such identity The concept of Agency was originally proposed by Russ ( 1997) to explicate women's work as writers and the processes used against such work. I however reanalyze Agency as an abstract concept and cover term to mean the full humanity and personhood of teenage women, with authentic selves (in contrast to Pipher's (1994) notion of''false selves a type of ''female impersonation of teen women who experience a conflict between their autonomous self and their need to be feminine (pp .21-22)) and with the freedoms, autonomy and rights owed to a fully functioning teen member of society I then 2 Another way to ex.plain my thesis is b y drawing on Kenneth Pike's notion of" -emics" as outlined in Hardman and Hamano (1997). With this project I am uncovering the magazine discoursemics of identity and teen womanhood. I am very hesitant to use -emics as it has opposite meanings in some subfields of anthropology than it does in linguistics and for purposes of clarity and brevity it would be easier not to explicate the differences Linguistics -emics is grounded in the Lee-Sapir-Whorf hypothesis and the basic concept of the phoneme as -emics are units of perception I offer this description for those familiar with Hardman s reworking of Pike

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6 investigate the creation, negotiation, mediation and conditions for the Agency of the ideal teen interlocutor through language I capitalize agency for two theoretical reasons. The first reason is for the two different uses of Agency within this thesis Agency" with a capital A" refers to the abstract concept of personhood while "agency with a lower case a is a linguistic term referring to a specific semantic role held by a grammatical subject of a sentence who performs an action or mental process action verb Secondly I capitalize Agency to link with, and yet to simultaneously distinguish my reworking from, Russ original concept. In this thesis I fill the theoretical gap of a race-cognizant structural and ideological analysis of the language creating ideal interlocutor identity by analyzing the linguistic structure of the three most popular American teenage magazines Teen Seventeen and YM. I first discover the overall discourse structure of the magazines I next examine the language used within that structure by magazine writers and editors to talk to and about their teen women readers by constructing the ideal identity of their interlocutor. Finally I investigate the interplay between such language and Agency That is I assess each linguistic utterance with respect to the Agency of ideal teen woman addressed/discussed in that utterance I argue that magazines consistently undermine teen women s3 Agency by the linguistic devices used on virtually all levels of magazine language : through nominal and adjectival morphology semantics syntactic patterns speech acts and in larger discourse Within teen magazine language teen women do not have full Agency In other words 3Henceforth, when I use the terms teen woman/en or teen ( woman/en ) readers I specifically mean the ideal identity of the illusionary interlocutor as constructed b y teen magazine language I do nor mean the actual teen women and/or teen readers of the magazines but rather the identities built by the magazines that actual readers interact with I am using this notation only for ease and space constraint s primaril y but also because it is throngh the language constructing their ideal interlocutor that teen magazine writers reveal their basic assumptions of teen womanhood

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7 within a supposed locus of teen women's culture the ideal teen woman s identity is fractured and Agency is conditioned This thesis will show within the language of teen magazines how the ideal teen woman is allowed to do and act but only in certain domains and under certain limitations

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CHAPTER TWO MAGAZINE BACKGROUND AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE The Importance of Teenage Magazines Currently within the United States media of popular culture such as the Internet TV movies and video games are increasingly created for and aimed at teenage audiences Teenage magazines however, are one of the only items created and marketed specifically for teen women1 -girls and young women who range in age from 12 to 19 years that address the lives wants and needs of teen women and their culture Teenage magazines therefore are uniquely and distinctly for teen women Though the magazines and the companies that publish them (Petersen of Teen Primedia of Seventeen and Gruner and Jahr USA of YM) are owned by men and have male CEOs the magazines are edited managed and written by women, marketed to teen women and girls and often purchased by teen women or their parents Teen Seventeen and YM are the three most popular and highest-grossing American teenage magazines All three magazines are readily accessible nationally and internationally through subscription and can be purchased from new stands in the U S .; they are easily found in grocery stores bookstores and school libraries All three magazines sell slightly 1 I use the tenn teen women in contrast to girls to respect the Agency of age of teen women I saw this practice first in a feminist non-profit teen magazine of empowerment called Teen V oices As I will show later in the thesis there currentl y is no truly age-Agentive term for teens. as girls is used for girls and women from childhood through adulthood. My use of this term therefore, is to correct this non-Agency while respecting teen women as people I use girl to refer to girl children aged I -11 years encompassing the so-called tween years of late girlhood. 8

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9 over two million copies a year but have an incredibly high readership of 6 to 8 million readers (Handelman 2001 Duffy and Gotcher 1996). In addition, each of the three magazines has a long history of publication of at least twenty years although Seventeen, the oldest teen magazine was created in 1944 (Schrum 1998) In 1992 YM for example was "read by 8 million of the 13. 7 million teens in the U S (Duffy and Gotcher 1996 : 33) Furthermore a study in 2000 found that 80% of girls [sic] ages 12 to 19 reported to having read a magazine for pleasure in the past week (Steil 2001 ) These studies did not address the specific racial and class backgrounds of the sample populations but these three magazines are primarily marketed for white upper and middle class teen women Magazines and Youth Culture Teenage magazines serve a variety of functions in teen women s lives As cultural artifacts they transmit and teach cultural knowledge Magazines offer a socialization of social values expectations patterns and futures goals'' (Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998 : 532) Some teenage women look to magazines as an additional source of advice and answers when they have questions or concerns. Many teen women feel that the magazines "understand" the adolescent experience 62% of the respondents of a market survey said that they trusted the teenage magazine being surveyed [ YM] (Duffy and Gotcher 1996 : 33) According to Garner Sterk and Adams ( 1998) '1eens rank the media just behind peers and parents as sources of information and influence (p 60) As elements of literacy teenage magazines reflect and shape social practices" (Ostermann and Keller Cohen 1998 : 531 ). In addition Finders ( 1997) has shown that junior high school girls [sic] use teenage magazines to establish in-group and out-group peer relations In her

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10 research, "reading [of the magazines] was an exclusive social event . and the experiences reported in the magazines were appropriated by the girls [sic] as their own" ( p 99 ) Magazines and Consumerism In addition to being a locus of popular culture another reason that teen magazines are important to analyze is due to the traditional and historical connection between teen magazines and their big business corporate sponsors Women have historically been targeted as consumers as consumption of goods is slated to relieve women and girl s anxieties (Schrum 1998 Loeb 1994 Roberts 1998) Teen magazines were co-created with advertising partners and boast of their ability to understand and manipulate girl's [sic] consumer identity (Schrum 1998) Teenage magazine publishers sell their advertisers products to their teen women readers and sell their teen women readers to their advertisers In sum, male owners and male presidents of corporations support each other while attempting to manipulate the identity and needs of teen women Not only do magazines have a long historical connection with their corporate business partners but they also currently continue to strengthen and even increase their big business relationship Magazine advertising has increased significantly in the late 1990s and early 2000s in virtually all teenage magazines For example in November 2000 Seventeen had 123.42 ad pages Teen had 41.51 ad pages (up from the 22 ad pages in its first-ever issue) and JMhad 50 72 total ad pages (up from the 12 initial adds in its first issue) (Steil 2001). On average Seventeen s total pages are between 200-250 T e en s are between I 00-150 and JM averages 80-100 total pages Nearly half of the total pages of Teen Seventeen and }Min November 2000 then were advertisements Not only that but advertisements are also placed within editorial articles Magazine editors frequently place

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11 selected consumer products in the "problem solving" or "suggestions" sections of their advice columns, quizzes, beauty and fashion feature sections; talcing these ads into consideration, the actual number of advertisements in teenage magazines is even greater than 50% of the magazine content. As shown later in the thesis the written text of the magazines and the advertised goods often work together in support of the same ideological narrative Finally, the magazines themselves are also the products of corporations As such each of these magazines has reached beyond the realm of print and now produces goods and services other than their respective magazines in the name of their magazine In doing so, Teen, Seventeen and YM all manufacture adolescent literature and source books ranging from quiz collections to dating and beauty guides, often called Teen / Seventeen IYM 's Guide to X All three magazines have active large web sites, complete with mail lists, chat rooms and even web servers based on the magazines All three magazines also have their own Teen/Seventeen/YM interactive CD-ROM virtual makeover kits analogous to the forerunner virtual CD-ROM makeover kit started by the women s magazine Cosmopolitan. Seventeen magazine has even branched beyond the realm of other types of media ; it now has its own line of Seventeen hair care products, ranging from brushes and barrettes to hair clips and scrunchies So while magazines advertise consumable goods they also advertise and support themselves as consumable goods Furthermore their influence reaches far from the domain of magazine print. An additional reason for the use of corporate teenage magazines is that despite the feminist movement and the recent "Girl Power" movements teenage magazines still present images and representations of, and advise teen women to become traditionally

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12 feminized girls and young women Feminist researchers argue that teen magazines perpetuate heterosexist agendas (Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998 : 531 ) position young women against each other as adversarial competitors in quest for a man (Gamer, Sterk and Adams 1998 : 59) and assume that girls' [sic] attitudes, opinions and bodies are in constant need of change while young men, even when presented negatively are always "fine how they are (Gamer, Sterk and Adams 1998, Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998) In addition, with primary focus on romance beauty and fashion, teen magazines perpetuate the theme that by looking beautiful and by gaining the proper knowledge [ about how to find a man] ... one s power of attraction can be enhanced attraction is the ultimate goal (Duffy and Gotcher 1996 : 36). Schlenker Caron, and Halteman (1998) analyzed the editorial content of Seventeen magazine in 1945 1955, 1965 1975 1985 and 1995 in order to measure any effects of the various feminist movements since the magazines inception The researchers classified traditionally feminine content as that relating to appearance female-male relations and home and classified feminist messages as self-development career development and world and political issues They argue that although feminist content was largest in the years 1945 1975 and 1995 (it was lowest in 1955 1965 and 1985) that ''the changes [the adaptation of feminist content] are slight and still do not reflect the roles of teenage girls [sic]" adding "even in the 1990s this publication [Seventeen] being the most widely distributed teenage magazine still does not address most of the intellectual issues concerning young women (Schlenker, Caron and Halteman 1998 : 148)

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13 Linguistic Analyses of Teen Magazines There have been only a few analyses of the language of teen magazines although each has provided insight into the ways that language functions to create perpetuate or reinforce traditional female roles and male hegemony (Garner Sterk and Adams 1998 Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998 Talbot 1992 Talbot 1995) For example in analyzing the language of Teen Seventeen Sassy and the Brazilian magazine C apricho Ostermann and Keller-Cohen (1998) illustrate how the language of quizzes ~ which are present in every issue of each magazine contribute to the larger social practices which lead girls [sic] to devalue themselves through the position they construct for their readers problematizing girls [sic] behavior and offering ideologically motivated solutions to these problems (p 539) They argue the quizzes serve as a microcosmic view of the major images representations themes and messages of the entire teen magazine Advice prescribed by the magazines comes in many forms quizzes however serve as a baseline for all other forms of advice (Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998) First quizzes set up a problem for teen women, assuming that teen women are in a constant state of becoming and that their behavior is never quite adequate but rather questionable (Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998) Quizzes then evaluate the teen woman s responses and place her into a specific category Finally they assign value to the categories and give the teen women of each category advice on how to improve The ke y element of the quizzes is the linguistic presupposition that teen women are in need of improvement (Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998) Teen men s behavior however is valued expected and not questioned (Ostermann and KellerCohen 1998 : 544)

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14 Based on answers given to the quiz questions, teen women are categorized into traditionally dichotomized positions; for example in a quiz about flirtation, teen women are labeled either a "Great Girlfriend a "Snob Sista, or a "Wild Woman (Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998 : 544) In addition, the advice given to teen women is circular and I heterosexist the 'Great Girlfriend is evaluated positively for being herself and yet the Snob Sista is advised to do exactly the opposite .. to simulate a personality which is not hers : 'ifyou have to act.. that s okay'" (Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998 : 544) The dichotomization and contradiction exists in virtually all other quizzes In addition, this type of assessment/advice/dichotomization is not limited to quizzes but rather spans the editorial content of the entire magazine In other words a good girl [sic] should be herself, but only as far as being herself means to be a good girl [sic]" ( Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998 : 552 ) The theme of being a good teen woman and subordinating one s needs to the needs of men was also found in Garner Sterk and Adam s (1998) analysis of the sexual etiquette of YM, Teen Seventeen Glamour and Mademoiselle. Garner Sterk and Adams ( 1998) analyzed the sexual messages of these magazines from a symbolic convergence theory perspective They argue that sexual rhetoric of the magazines positions teen women in one of three sexual roles : woman as sex object women as sex therapists and women as communication teachers (Garner Sterk and Adams 1998 ) In each case women s sexual attitudes and behaviors as constructed through rhetoric were conditioned by the actions of men, as objects of men, therapists to men or the responsible ones for educating men on communication In other words relationship problems are the responsibility of the woman because the man s state is normal and acceptable (Garner

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15 Sterk and Adams 1998). It is important to note that although Gamer et al ( 1998) did not overtly discuss the racialization of such rhetoric, this version of teen women s sexual roles is distinctly a white one ; in other words the experiences and stereotypes in sexual rhetoric for white teen women is again taken as nonnative In their conclusion, Garner Sterk and Adams (1998) assert that if"young people take these messages to heart they will continue to enact a vision in which men are the citizens of the world and women are the citizens of men" (p 75) Once again teen women are the ones in need of change For teen women of color however the change needed is twofold : act woman and act '~hite Corning from a critical discourse perspective Talbot (1992) e x amined the ways that language constructs female gender identity in the British magazine Jackie Talbot is particularly concerned with deconstructing and/or denaturalizing the process of gender identity formation within the magazine as well as investigating the relationship of this shared constructed discourse communit y to consumerism and commodification (T albot 1992) She analyzed the linguistic features of an article on lipstick and argued that items such as presupposition informal words and pronouns are used to establish a communit y between the editor and reader. These linguistic patterns synthesize ''writer and reader into a friendly relationship," while these patterns also function to create and [to present] a feminine consumption community consisting of free individuals whose identities are established in pleasurable consumption" (Talbot 1992 : 193) Talbot ( 1995) takes a similar yet more poststructuralist approach to this process in her later work anal yzing the same lipstick article in Jackie ; she argues there that power and identit y are discursively created in magazine text and that synthetic personalization and the need for adult femininity catch the reader up in a bogus community in which the subject position of

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16 consumer is presented as an integral part ofbeing feminine,, (p 161) While Talbot (1995) is not suggesting that magazine readers are tricked or duped into subject positions she I instead argues that patriarchy and consumption mold the subject positions created through the linguistics of"synthetic sisterhood in teen magazines In sum 'feminine identity is achieved in consumption and in relationships with men (Talbot 1995 : 162) This thesis continues linguistic research and further explores the link between language, Agency and identity in the language of teen magazines specifically in the morphology semantics syntax, speech acts and discourse patterns

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CHAPTER THREE THEORY AND .METHODOLOGY Methodological Theory One of the primary arguments of many English-language and gender theorists is that sexist linguistic structures exist out of the conscious level of the majority of English speakers (Hardman 1993a, 1993b 1996 Cameron 1992 Frank and Ashen 1983) This is also true of one s native language structures in general ; native speakers have complete intuition of and fluency in their native tongue, and yet may not be able to consciously and overtly explain the grammatical rules that they possess (Stewart and Vaillette 2001 Daniels 1998) Theorists argue that such imperceptibility is one reason that sexist discourse in English is ubiquitous and even pervades work by those who consider themselves feminists (for example the continued use of structures that place women after men, such as men and women [sic] by feminist linguists) One goal of feminist linguistic research then, is to not only help others perceive sexist discourse but also to place women in linguistic structures where they can be perceived My methodology involved me first learning to perceive linguistic structures potentially outside of my awareness by learning the process of linguistic pattern perception I next applied this process to the language of teenage magazines in order to discover the underlying linguistic structure of adolescent magazine discourse and to examine how and where teen women were placed in such structure The basic 17

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18 methodology for this can be found in Hardman and Hamano' s text ( 1997) which outlines the methods for analyzing linguistic field data and for discovering the structure of other languages on their own terms through dynamic interaction among research consultants and researcher. There are two basic components to their methodology : (I) that data can only be attained through careful observation and interaction" (Hardman and Hamano 1997 : iii) with research consultants such that the researcher and those who/that which she researches both take part in knowledge creation, and therefore (2) as a cooperative member of knowledge creation, the researcher must realize her situatedness within the research process This method is congruent with Fox-Keller s ( 1995) work in biology through dynamic objectivity ... the pursuit of knowledge that grants to the world ... its independent integrity but does so i n a way the remains cognizant of, indeed relies on, .. connectivity with that world (p 117 ) Hardman and Hamano take dynamic objectivity a step further ; because researchers interact in the pursuit of knowledge, researchers must always be conscious of the structures they impose in doing their ./ research Hardman and Hamano ( 1997 ) argue that because one always perceives through the structure of her language one' s natural tendency is to project default linguistic structures from her native language ( s) onto other languages In other words 'true linguistic objectivity (in the positivist sense) is completely impossible and unless researchers consciously work around the structural categories imposed by their native language they may fail to perceive alternate linguistic forms (Hardman and Hamano 1997) The method outlined by Hardman and Hamano ( 1997) is specifically rigorous and involves procedures designed to teach pattern perception while simultaneously recognizing the interconnectedness and situatedness of research

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19 Although originally designed as a methodology for fieldwork, this method is quite useful for one's native language as well Hamano (Hardman and Hamano 1997) argues that since the goal of fieldwork is to "reach [ and describe] the real intuition of native speakers, .. this method will prove relevant not only in the study of hitherto unknown languages but also in the study of one s own language .. bring[ing] out what one is rarely aware of as a native speaker (p iii) In textual analysis the morphology syntax and semantics of each sentence are described analyzed and classified Because all data are examined from various viewpoints in a number of ways categories of anal ysis and specific research questions are not assigned a priori ; by using this method rele v an t categories of analysis and the appropriate questions emerge from the data In my work, this is realized by each sentence being first taken as a unit and broadly classified and filed according to sentence type; next components of the sentence such as subject object verbs and adjectives are defined structurally and analyzed and filed accordingly Individual words are then examined and filed into morphological and semantic categories so that almost all levels of language are accounted for and 'the totality of language" (Hardman and Hamano 1997 : iii ) is maintained By filing large sets of data under broad open-ended classifications based on the structures found in a given text the researcher is forced to perceive through extensive classificatio~ the underlying structure of the text The interaction between the researcher and her object of research and the consequent social and cultural connection of the text along with the filing and classification involved determine which categories are pertinent and how The native speaker intuition that guides the formation of the text is thus made apparent as structural patterns emerge regardless of the language

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20 My work is also informed by the theory and methodology of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) According to CDA, the analysis of texts ofis also analysis of ideology (van Dijk 1999) That is regardless of the given logical and linguistic constraints of discourse the different syntactic, semantic and lexical structures used are precisely structured to indicate underlying ideological implications (Fairclough 1992 ; van Dijk 1999 Hodge and Kress 1993) CDA "highlights how language conventions and language practices are invested with power relations and ideological processes which people are often unaware of' (Fairclough 1992 : 7) Therefore rigorous textual classification not only brings about structural patterns and native speaker intuitio~ but also the ideology of that particular group of speakers While Hardman and Hamano s methodology is not specifically Critical Discourse Analysis and while the methods of Critical Discourse Analysts differ from those of Hardman and Hamano these theorists nonetheless share congruent methodologies and methodological assumptions In CDA and in Hardman and Hamano text is structured outside of complete native speaker awareness but careful analysis brings out not only the underlying linguistic structures of discourse but the cultural and ideological ramifications resulting therefrom ; to both text structure culture, ideology and worldview cannot be separated Theories of Agency, Language and Gender There are two basic theoretical constructs that inform my methodology and analysis sections The first theory is M.J Hardman s construct ofDerivational Thinking while the second is Joanna Russ s notion of Agency

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21 Hardman's Derivational Thinking The structure of each given language is organized around a set of principles or motifs Hardman has developed the notion of the linguistic postulate to explain these principles (Hardman 1993a, 1993b, 1996, Hardman and Taylor 2001 ) A linguistic postulate is "a theme or motif that can be found in almost all the sentences of a language a feature that is used repeatedly by the language to organize the universe (Hardman 1996 : 25) Linguistic postulates are specified on multiple levels of the language the morphological semantic syntactic discourse and rhetorical levels They are basic in that they are marked in the central core of inflectional morphology but extensive spreading through the entire language such that they also mark the underlying philosophical and ideological beliefs of the culture at large According to Hardman ( 1993b ), We [human beings] accept the linguistic postulates of our mother tongue without argument or discussion as natural parts of the universe .. In fact it is so difficult to imagine real' human beings operating without one's own linguistic postulates that it verges on the impossible .. As underlying assumptions they are particularly powerful (p.42) Because linguistic postulates are marked repeatedly and systematically on all levels of language, they form a formidable structural pattern of thought in the given culture Hardman (1993a 1993b, 1996 Hardman and Taylor 2001) identifies the linguistic postulates of the English language as number (singular/plural as in singular/plural agreement of nouns and verbs) sex-based gender (humans are divided by biological sex; these sexes are projected onto non-human inanimate objects and things) and the ranking /c omparative (as in the inflection of adjectives into comparative and superlative forms like "wise, wiser, wisest" and "good, better, best ) Hardman (1996)

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22 has labeled the interaction and mutual reinforcement of these postulates and thus the grammatical base for [an English speaker 's] general model of human relationships (p 26) Derivational Thinking Derivational Thinking means that for English speakers number gender and hierarchy matter as human beings are ranked such that white man is the norm and all else (including females, peoples of color colonized groups etc ) are seen as derivative and are measured accordingly (Hardman 1996 : 32) socially structured by linguistic constructions Put another way by Taylor (Hardman and Taylor 2001 ) number is important ; number one is most important ; number one is male (p 3) Thus the default assumption of a human being according to derivational thinking is a singular white male The cultural correlations to the linguistic postulates of English have many realizations For example in terms of the postulate of number / singularity Hardman cites the adulation of linear work, cultural axioms such as ''E Pluribus Unum ( from many one ) the obsessions with monotheoretical slants in academia monotheism in religion, singular causes in history and science and singular cures in medicine (Hardman 1993b : 43) Because singularity is prime English-speakers find it difficult to conceptualize difference and diversity ; any acknowledgment of difference or diversity is immediately ranked against a singular standard Realizations of sex-based gender include the assumption that human beings especially those in high ranked positions are men, as in designations between a female doctor" and a doctor ;" US naming patterns ; denial of Agency for women ; the fact that the easiest way to insult a man is to label him some type of woman ;" and the notion that woman = [-male]'women are suffixes attached to men to signify not what women are but what men are not (Hardman 1996 : 27-30) Because

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23 English speakers think in sex-based gender, sex-based gender is a base for conceptualizing the world (Oyewumi 1997) Examples of ranking and hierarchy are more subtle than the other two linguistic postulates, but are nonetheless as powerful : English speakers often insist on the ranking of all people and things so pervasively that no student ever in one ofHardman's classes has been able to go 24 hours without ranking (Hardman 1993b : 46) Although others have posited a link between sexism and the English language (Cameron 1992, Penelope 1990), Hardman s construct covers four areas that are often problematic in other theoretical frameworks First with Derivational Thinking Hardman grounds sexist language in the overall constant unconscious reinforced patterning of linguistic postulates in natural English use Therefore because Derivational Thinking is highly pervasive (existing at all levels of language reaching into cultural ideology ) yet extremely subtle, it is able to undermine even the good intentions of those who consider themselves non-=sexist Hardman thus obviates blaming anyone specifically ; instead her focus is how everyone participates in perpetuation of sexism, despite ideologically acting or being otherwise Secondly Hardman's theoretical framework allows for a way around the sexist language that she posits ; in other words, because Hardman shows how sexis~s unconsciously maintained through the English language by linguistic postulates she also allows for linguistic alternatives to sexist language by consciously working around those same postulates That is as equally as she interrogates the English language, she also equally allows for linguistic creativity albeit difficult and cultural change With

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24 Derivational thinking therefore, Hardman both identifies the problems and seeks to correct them The third major strength ofHardman' s theory is that she grounds American cultural sexism in the English language By doing so Hardman avoids essentializing or totalizing all languages as universally masculine or hegemonic as others have done Hardman does not apply Derivational Thinking cross-linguistically Instead she argues that each language has its own distinctive linguistic postulates ; sexism in language is not a human universal and any sexism that is realized in a given language is shaped b y patterns di s tin c t to that language This is particularly important as man y theories of language and gender contain questionable assumptions of universalism across languages and cultures ( Brown 1980 Coates 1993 ) which do no more than project the structure of Engli s h onto another language Oyewumi ( 1997 ) illustrates the danger of the introduction of se xi sm and western gender notions into Yoruba culture through linguistic and colonial imperialism, as well as the subsequent hazards of assuming that two languages share the same thought structures and worldviews In essence Hardman does not silence the voices of women in other cultures by arguing for a universal cross cultural application of her conceptual framework as other Western theorists ha v e done Hardman s final major strength is her ability to explain the interconnectedness and permeabilit y of se x -based gender ranking on almost all levels oflanguage. Hardman has supported Derivational Thinking with examples from morphology semantics s y nta x metaphor discourse and conversational styles Furthermore by grounding her work in the theoretical concept of the phoneme she has shown how such interconnected language

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25 structures affect and reinforce patterns in culture (Hardman and Hamano 1997) Derivational Thinking is a theory of language as well as a theory of worldview Russ's Notions of Agency In How to Suppress Women s Writing, Joanna Russ ( 1997) introduced and examined the concept of women s Agency within the English-language literary canon Russ ( 1997) systematically analyzed the means by which women s Agency in this case the complete and free ability of a woman writer to produce literary works and have those works accepted recognized and valued as her own was denied polluted or ignored as the purpose of her book was to analytically illustrate the tools in suppression of women s writing (p 5) Examples of Agency suppression include everything from limiting girls access to reading and literacy and materials and training therein, falsely classifying women s work in categories outside of the canon (False Categorization) character attacks on the author and thus the quality of the work (Pollution of Agency) asserting that the author did not actually produce the work, but that someone else (a man ) did (Denial of Agency) to blatantly ignoring that the work was even created (Russ 1997) Russ ( 1997) made the purpose of this meticulous illustration clear ; her argument was that women were not denied direct access to literature and its production by overt formal prohibition from it but rather that men of that canon had developed numerous strategies for ignoring, condemning or belittling the works of women (pp 4-5) The crux ofRuss' s argument was that overt conscious prohibition of women from the literary cannon was not the practice that resulted in the small amount of accepted women writers Instead Russ argues that specific strategies worked covertly to secure the opacity of women s suppression by the canon ; by the laws of literature and

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26 society women were allowed to produce and add to the canon, but if an y actuall y did so ( and many did) the suppressive practices took over to keep women s work in its place So women had the freedom" to write canon-quality works yet the isolat i ons restrictions pollutions and denials of Agency kept them so the y never did ( Russ 1997) Russ s notion of Agency has two major strengths First Agenc y allows for a notion of women s full personhood without relying on not i ons of equality with men, as equality with men relies again relies a male standard of existence In addition, Agenc y includes not only rights and privileges of being a full human being but the respect and freedom due to a functioning citizen of the world This encompasses a totalit y of women s act i ons beliefs and op i nions under one united term Secondl y, Agency, and the processes used to deny Agenc y are also strong tools for feminist linguistic anal y ses because they account for the subtle and not always perceivable ways that women s achievements are undermined Russ s strength here like Hardman s is that sexism exists in everyday consistent acts and behavior, and not only i n overt prohibitions of women This is important because more women and girls have entered 'traditionally masculine spheres previously closed to them and yet still suffer the effects of sexism, like sexual harassment Often times it is difficult to label these subtle attacks against the full humanity of women, yet Russ provides workable labels and names t he processes at work against women which can be easily applied and analyzed Furthermore because Agency is concerned with day-by-day acts it is easily applied to language as "all that is human is mediated through language (Hardman 2002 Personal Communication ) For

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27 example, Hardman (I 993a) has reworked Russ's notion for use in linguistics grounding Agency in language and grammar Methodology In order to both discover the underlying structure of magazine discourse and to examine the ideological and cultural position of young women within such discourse I applied the methodology above to six total editions of three magazines -Teen March 1998, Teen February 2000 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 2000 YM March 1998 and YMMarch 2000 From each magazine I analyzed all relevant pages of editorial content. I was onl y interested in the editorial discourse of the magazines in order to specifically examine the content over which magazine publishers have complete control. I did not therefore analyze the advertisements horoscope and numerology sections or reader letters and contributions Because I am most interested in the ways that magazines talk to and about their readers I chose to focus on the 'voice of the magazine writers only Contributions from or co-constructed with teen readers were ignored All editorial pages of all three magazines other than horoscopes and numerology and reader contribution sections were considered material for analysis Inspired by Hardman s notion ofDerivational Thinking and Russ concept of Agency I examined all levels of teen magazine discourse with exception of the phonological since magazines are written discourse My first category of analysis was the syntactic or sentential analysis. I took each editorial sentence and analyzed each clause according to sentence type and speech act type Within syntactic analysis I also examined word order within the phrases of the sentence as well as the internal properties

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28 of the sentence: subject, subject type, verb phrase, verb type subject semantic role, verbal semantics Each sentence was filed under theme of the article. For each sentence I was primarily interested in the relationship between the sentence as a whole and the position of the teen woman reader ; nonetheless, each sentence regardless was still categorized My second category of analysis was the morphological analysis For morphology, I examined not only the root and derivational structures of women and men nouns (a la Hardman 1993a 1993b, 1996), but also the base and derivations of adjectives in terms of conjugations for ranking comparison, given that adjectives not only describe the teen women themselves, but also elements of their personal life and culture In addition, ranking is a crucial part of American English sexism within Derivational Thinking In other words I was interested not only in nominal morphology pertaining to teen women and men, but also with adjectival morphology Each morphological structure was classified according to subtype. For my final category of analysis I examined the semantic and lexical level of magazine discourse In this layer of examination I was interested in the various umbrellas of meaning under which teen women s identity was constructed particularly in the types of lexical items and semantic frames used to describe teen women and men Each example of teen identity was first recorded and then filed according to semantic subtype

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CHAPTER FOUR TEEN WOMEN IN NOMINAL MORPHOLOGY LEXICON AND SEMANTICS Given that the discourse of teen magazines completely consists of written text the conversation between magazine writer and teen woman reader is a one-way rather than two-way process (Talbot 1992 : 174 Talbot 1995) That is, magazine writers have no direct access to the personal life and history of their interlocutor ; as a result the magazine must construct an imaginary reading subject (Talbot 1992 : 175, Talbot 1995). For teen magazines in particular the type of imaginary subject that they construct is extremely important Actual teen readers have indicated that one of the primary reasons for reading magazines is because magazines provide them with real-life advice relevant to the teen woman experience (Currie 1999 Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998 Garner Sterk and Adams 1998) For teen women to seek out teen magazines and to trust them as such a source," teen magazine writers must construct ideal identities for their readers that situate both the writer of the magazine and the imaginary reader within a shared discourse community (Currie 1999 Finders 1997) In teen magazines the crucial social components delineating the idealized discourse community are age and most importantly gender (Currie 1999 Finders 1997) The data show that teen magazines have six general ways for constructing and thus referencing their teen women readers : with personal pronouns such as ''y ou ;" as 29

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30 independent noun roots, like "girl" or "lady;" by affixation of a feminine suffix to an independent noun root or with a female form marked with a male possessive as in "hostess" and '1he president's wife," respectively; though metaphor such as chick ;" through "generic masculines" [sic], such as 'ireshmen" or using a personal name like "Tyra Banks The pronoun ''you" accounts for most of teen women's identity occurring 2 174 times for a total of 59.4% Personal Names of women stars celebrities and experts (PN*) total 15.4%, or 564 examples, while Personal Names (PN) for teen women total 11.3% or 425 examples Independent roots make 10 .7% of teen women s identity ; of that 10 7% however only 1.7% of the roots are semantically positive while the other 9% function as euphemisms, deny Agency or carry negative semantics. 1.2% of teen women s identity are women derivations from men or possessed by them, while 1 I% are metaphors A final 5% of teen women's identity is formed with generic masculines [sic]. Teen women, in essence exist as one of six general identities within the language of teen magazines that positions them within the idealized reader discourse community These six general identities break down further into three general morphological shapes That is to construct readers as both teenaged and young women, magazine :/ writers use one of three morphological forms: a bound affix, an independent noun root, or a person name (PN) Each morphological identity has different consequences for teen women s Agency While each form undoubtedly identifies the reader as female-sexed and of adolescent age the morphological shapes of the teen women are not necessarily indicative of full active persons Membership to this specific discourse community therefore, does not necessarily mean membership with full Agency

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31 Teen Women as Bound Affix The first morphological category for constructing teen women in the data is through bound affixation In these cases the word for the teen woman consists of at least two obligatory morphemes : an independent noun root ( which is generally masculine or perceived of as masculine) and a bound affix, usually a suffix That which marks teen woman identity within the word is the bound suffix ~ female identity exists only as bound suffix to a male independent root so that the feminine form is derived from the masculine form The female" suffix, then, serves only to mark a prior root as non-masculine While the masculine root is obligatory the female derived form is not ; in other words, the female form is dependent upon the male form for her identity such that she cannot exist without him while the male form can exist completely and separately without the female suffix The two most common derivational suffixes in teen magazines are { -ess } and { -ette}. Common examples throughout all three magazines include princess (Seventeen 1998 Teen 1998 YM 1998) goddess (YM 2000 Teen 1998 YM 1998) actress (Seventeen 2000 YM 2000 Seventeen 1998 Teen 2000) hostess" (Seventeen 2000 ) and "studette" (YM 1998) derived from the obligatory masculine forms of prince," "god," actor," "host" and stud," respectively Women s identity solely encoded in bound affixation has multiple effects on teen women s Agency First given that masculine forms are obligatory while feminine forms are not the masculine becomes the base unmarked form (Hardman 1996 Miller 1983 Penelope 1990) Humanity particularly in examples such as princess < prince is thus perceived as masculine and male becomes the natural sex (Hardman 1996 Miller 1983 Penelope 1990) This pattern is also reinforced by the fact that within the magazines as

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32 well as in the English language in general, "there is NO [ morphological] PATTERN for deriving masculine from feminine" (Miller 1983 : 190) In essence, because of the asymmetrical derivational morphology of sex within the magazines and within English, the female sex is deviant while male sex is normal (Penelope 1990 : 103) Furthermore, some derivational morphological patterns not only reinforce but also help create male root identity which in turn allows for consequent markedness of female forms In other words I argue that the addition of a derivational affix makes a genderless root a male root by marking it as female or non-male One example of this is actress from "actor. "1 I argue that the agentive suffix {-r} which derives agent nouns meaning "X who/that does" from action verbs, is inherently gender-neutral {-r}, however gets perceived of as masculine and actually feels masculine to English native speakers because of two linguistic patterns : either by female-sexed marking (morphologically or by adjectival modification) or through sociolinguistic use in traditionally all male spheres of activity (as in a register of manhood [sic] only those who do X or who are not denied Agency in doing X2 are male) Therefore, when the form "actress" is used it not only is marked and derivative but it implies that "actor" is male analogous to other feminine derivations from roots with truly masculine semantics (such as "studette" from "stud") Additional examples clarify my argument that sociolinguistic spheres of use and/or derivational affixation help create male root identity First, there are a number of derived 1 Interestingly many women in Hollywood have been leading a movement to do away with the term actress In addition. the current president of the Screen Actors Guild is Melissa Gilbert 2 I am using Russ notion of denial of Agency through anomalousness here In many cases. women did act in a give sphere of influence but they were either written out of the history of a given sphere (a la Dorothy Lee and the Lee-Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis) or were so few in number in that sphere that the y were labeled anomalies to their gender so their work could be disregarded (Russ 1997)

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33 {-r} words that are not only gender-neutral but essentially non-human forms such as ''blender," grater " computer," and sifter." Two popular examples from teen magazines are "hair dryers and mattifiers makeup that causes skin to have a matte like surface appearance Second there are many gender-neutral forms for humans such as "caller " author " writer or runner as well as reader and winner two tha t are , ' prominent in teen magazines Note that in these cases no { -ess } or { -ette } derivation s exist Thirdly { -r } can be used for exclusivel y female semantics where the masculine form (if it exists ) is marked as in cheerleader /"male cheerleader and spinster." N e xt in some cases where { -r } bases ( base = verb root + { -r }) are percei v ed as masculine either women have been actively denied Agency, or the a c tion of the root verb has been e x clusively done by men as in engineer or sold i er "3 The roots are masculin e becaus e women never do them ha v e been kept from doin g t hem or have been denied A g enc y despite doing them Other bases that are percei v ed as ma s culine can be mod i fied b y a female adjective to overtly mark female sex, as in lad y or woman doctor or '\voman pilot ;" note however that these nouns do not have counterparts marked w i th deri v ational affixes *doctress or *pilotess In addition, one can sa y and does hear doctor and pilot for either se x without marking These bases are masculine for some or can be used for either sex, for others The strongest perceptions of masculjne identity, however are bases that ha v e a feminme derived form, as in actress < actor," rnistress < master or majorette < major. In 3 Note that even these terms are percei ved of as onl y masculine by so m e English speakers as both o f these traditionall y male-onl y spheres of action are now more open to both women and men. This fr eedom .. o f gender-neutral semantic interpretation might also be possible by the fact that there are no deriv ational affixes attached to these forms

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34 these cases, the base form is definitely masculine, particularly in the pairs in which the feminine form has undergone semantic derogation or pejoration ( Schultz 1975 ). U nli k e gender-neutral forms like reader and runner," which have no female derivations the addition of derivational affixation helps make a root masculine That is when there is not sex-based derivation the base can go either way describing women or men ; when there is a sex-based derivation, the derivation and marked form is feminine while the base i s unmarked and masculine 4 In essence therefore the magazines use of derivational affixes not onl y ./ perpetuates se x -ranked divisions but also reifies them The derivational forms then not onl y mark female sex as derivative but also allow the male sex to b e perceive d a s the norm As such, derivational affixes form a feedback loop in English Because male-onl y masculine semantic bases (like goddess actor'') consequently continue the cycle by reinforcing the perception of the base as essentially masculine In essence just as male becomes neutral [sic] ( as in, male=norm=human) neutral (as in no explici t gender ) becomes male Female derivation from male roots also reinforces ranking inherent in English language gender hierarchy Not onl y is the masculine form natural but it is also the outranking sex Hardman identifies sex-based derivation as evidence of one of the linguistic postulates of English sex-based gender Sex-based gender as well as number 4 I w ould also argue that one other linguistic pattern supports m y argument of the gender-neutrali ty of { -r } pairs such as washerwoman and fisherman, where in these instances. one w ould expect instead to have *fisheress or *fisherette and fishers ."

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35 and ranking comparison, are repeated and systematically reinforced on all levels of the English language to produce Derivational Thinking (Hardman 1993a 1993b 199 6) Hardman (1996) argues with her concept ofDerivational thinking that the thinking patterns of English-language speakers rank human beings such that man is the norm., and all else is seen as derivative and is measured accordingly (p 26) Such derivation as overt marking of sex-based gender therefore enforces the ranking of the genders Not only is female sex, deviance and lower rank encoded in these derivational affixes so too are further semantic connotations The affixes { -ette } and { -ess } also carry meanings of softening weakening or lessening of that to which the y are attached According to one morphology textbook the {-ette} suffix has three meanings, small female or mock material [ emphasis mine]" (Bauer 1999 : 78) Given that English semantics obligatorily positions female as [male] small and mock material are na t ural correlatives ; in essence the deri v ational suffixes have one meaning with three circular realizations woman = small = mock material 'Princesses and actresses are not equal to the princes and actors that MAKE [sic] them ; Girls [sic] diminished sense of self means that often unconsciousl y, the y take on a second-class accommodating status Few of the girls [sic]. . had ever been told that girls [sic] can t do what boys can most were overtl y encouraged to fulfill their potential. Yet all on some level had learned this lesson anyway (Orenstein 19 9 4 : XXVTII) In sum, teen magazines written and edited by women and produced ent i rel y fo r a community of teen women and girls are not free from morpholo gi cal patterns that lessen women s Agency through denigration of the feminine I % ( 40 examples) of the total identities for teen women are derivations Within magazines for teen women it i s man, and not teen women as the base

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36 Teen Women as Independent Roots The second category of data is women as independent roots Independent roots are free morphemes that can completely stand alone ; while other morphemes may attach to these roots as affixes these attachments are not obligatory 5 Independent roots therefore rely on no other morphemes for their identity ; they can exist without the necessity of other morphemes In English independent roots are generally associated with morphological autonomy and personal Agency as words that encode semantic male sex are always free roots and never bound affixes6 (Hardman 1993a 1993b 1996 Miller 1983) Within general English morphology full personhood is associated with root morpheme identity Within teen magazines however construction of teen female identity through independent roots is not necessarily a guarantee for personal Agency For teen women status as an independent root comes closer to full personhood and in some instances teen women as independent roots are ful1 Agents Unlike semantically male independent roots however semantical1y independent roots for teen women are also equally subject to 5 I also include compounds in this section since they consist of two independent roots together and may have derivational and inflectional morphemes attached to them Though a compound is not an independent root it functions similar to one in that can take affixation 6 One could argue that there is one exception the historical morpheme { wer} In Old English sexbased gender morphemes for persons were bound to the then neutral root man 'person as in wifman woman (person)' and wennan male (person)' or occurred alone as wif and wer Female forms were not derived from male forms but rather forms for both women and men were equall y derived from other sources. Throughout the transition to Modem English. howe ver, man eventually underwent reanalysis to specificall y indicate male sex (and prescriptively supposedly humankind) while wifunderwent semantic specification to mean female marriage partner," becoming wife." {Wer-} died out nearly completel y but does exist in Modem English toda y in the word werewolf (Quirk and Wrenn 1994 )

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37 reduced Agency Within teen magazines therefore there is not only gender asymmetry in derivation, but also in roothood Discourse Community Member--Teen Women as "You" The most frequent identity and the most common independent root for teen women, is the pronoun "you This is not surprising ; magazines organize their d i scourse structure to simulate a conversation between the magazine and the reader To create the idealized discourse community," the magazine must call the reader into the con v ersation and situate her within the discourse ( Talbot 1992 Currie 1999 ) The easiest w a y to do this as a partnered interlocutor is with the pronoun "y ou The pronoun you in and of itself neither supports nor denies Agenc y The discourse and syntactic units within which you is situated support or den y Agenc y The ,./ use of' 'y ou, however does allow the manipulation of Agenc y In other words since the magazines create the discourse and syntax that discusses and describes the 'y ou, the y can situate their readers as doers ( ''y ou asked for it .. or ''y ou thought") or hierarchically, as lacking against the knowledge of the magazine writers (''y ou should . or ''y ou have to .. "). The pronoun 'you here is crucial to this situation ; magazines need the minimized social distance and intimac y of''y ou," ( i. e first or second person) as well as the implied (... singularit y ( singular rather than plural) You should do it contains more manipulative force than readers ( a third person identity) should do it," s i nce third person lacks crucial intimacy 'We should do it crosses the line between magazine and reader ; if the magazine writers situate themselves communally as such then they lose some hierarch y over readers magazine writers can not simultaneously be experts to be called on for

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38 advice and lacking or ailing enough (like the idealized readers they posit) to need the advice to begin with Asymmetrical Vocabulary--Teen Women as "Girl" The independent root girl is one of the three most common ident i ties and the second most common independent root, that magazines use to construct their ideal readers Girl occurs consistentl y across all magazines 275 times Magazines use girl" to refe r to any teen woman from childhood age until womanhood ( ages 1 2 1 9 y ears ); sometimes even women over eighteen years are referred to as girls In other words there are two basic age gradients for free lexical i tems for teen women girl and women." 'Women, however is rare ( it occurs 27 times across 6 magazines ) and magazines never directl y refers to their readers as women When it is used it is often reserved for women over age twent y -five ( such as Tipper Gore), or in arti cles with medical or reproducti v e themes particularl y articles under the theme of Sex and the Body Because magazines discuss advice and information regarding sexual health and activit y, the y often frame their discourse towards women and 'young women." I would argue that this is a tool to free magazines from any possible legal or social ramifications from using the girls with sexual discussions rather than a discourse device to support teen women s identity particularly because of the powerful influence of magazine advertisers and sponsors and their political ideologies A surface analysis would suggest that since girl is a free and independent root there is no denial of Agency possible for teen women When looking at male sexed identity within the magazines however, a double standard of age gradiance appears. For teen women there are two basic independent root choices for age ( excluding the pronoun

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39 "you" and personal names) "girl" and '~oman;" for the male sexed there are three "boy," "guy" and "man ''Boy'' can be used for the youngest of the male sex with each lexical subsequent lexical item increasing in age or as a synonym for the more popular lexical choice of"guys. Similar to '~oman," man" is also relatively rare although use of'~oman" only outnumbers use of"man" by I (27 to 26) Guys," however in a magazine for and about teen women, slightly outnumbers girls" in frequency of occurrence as "girls" appears 275 times while guys appears 299 times ; for the male-sexed teenager "guys" is the most frequent lexical choice Older men and teenage men from seventeen to twenty-five are more frequently called guys," rather than 'boys (unlike the analogous use of"girls" for teen women of the same age range) ; one example is YM's sixteen-page layout of"Hottest Guys," featuring teenaged and adult males Interestingly although the younger lexical choice for teen men ( 'boys -118 times ) and the older form ("men" 26 times) exist in the magazines the mid-aged lexical item ("guys" 299 times) is most prevalent. For teen women, however there is no term analogous to guys ;" where teen men have three free lexical choices and the magazines use the most age appropriate choice most frequently teen women have two. The lexicon for teen women suffers a lexical gap in the language of teen magazines and in the English language in general For example in one article that features a woman singer the singer refers to herself as a '~oman," but Seventeen 2000 calls her girl (p 160) Seventeen 2000 does this again in another article on actor Shiri Appleby* calling her a girl," although she is 21 (p 168) Likewise, in YM 1998, the magazine references a group of women musicians as rocker girls (p 114) In contrast while Teen, Seventeen and YM use "girl" almost exclusively non-corporate magazines use teen women This lexical

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40 gap and the choice of"girl," however denies maturity to the older readers of the magazines, particularly the teen women This gender asymmetry in age gradation is further strengthened in conjoined noun phrases featuring teen women and men For example it is most common to have girls conjoined with guys," as in combinations such as a guy-girl combo and that guy-girl affair (Seventeen 1998 : 192) one lucky guy and girl (Seventeen 2000 : 152 ) a guy and a girl twice in Teen 2000 (p 36 ), and Everyone (especially guys) wants to be around a girl (Seventeen 2000 : 144) In T e en 1998 teen women as chick and girlie contrast with men in Sure this Spring is majorly manly but we like chick flicks too, in cool girlie movies (p 52) Although magazines have chosen a y ounger and less mature lexical item for teen women when they discuss teen women and teen men together they almost n eve r choose the y ounger and less mature for teen men (''Boy and girl [sic] does occur, but is rare ; most often it is found in frozen expressions like The Boys and Girls Club of ._/ America ) Therefore free root lexical choice enforces the ranking of the sexes ; teen women receive the lesser of the two choices While teen women are denied maturity in most conjoined noun phrases teen men s maturity is respected and maintained Other Miscellaneous Root Identities The other independent root identities for teen women in teen magazines form two distinct groups those with positive semantic frames and those with negative semantics or that function as euphemisms While teen magazine writers intend for all identities to be positive many of their terms for teen women contain negative semantic overtones As such the negativity of the terms undermines teen women s Agency

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41 Root identities with positive semantics In contrast to "you," "girl" and derivations independent noun root identities appear to hold the greatest promise for teen women's Agency In fact some terms for teen women not only reflect but also support their Agency Examples include queen" (used 20 times), "sister/ah" (used 10 times) and "diva" (used 7 times) None of these terms are derived from masculine forms ; while "queen" and "diva" highlight strength sister/sistah" emphasizes teen women community All of these terms uphold the maturity (and gender) of the teen women, without sacrificing Agency semantic frames or maturation Root identities with negative semantics Not all independent roots are positive nor do they support teen women s Agency Many independent roots for teen women undermine Agency and sacrifice women s autonomy for male independence The first type of negative root is that which associates teen women with abstract ideals specifically beauty and perfection Teen Seventeen and/ or YM speak of "belles ( 4 times) hottie ( 1 time) bellas" ( 1 time) 'beauties ( 4 times) and "angels" (1 time) Here the teen woman is associated with one superficial trait her physical appearance or the supreme trait to attain perfection Teen women identity is reduced to singular stereotypical and ideal qualities for women Independent roots for teen women are reduced to other types of stereotyping Teen women are named "gypsy" ( 1 time), lass" ( 1 time) "ladies" ( 5 times) gal (8 times) and ''witch" (1 time) Each of these terms contains some negative dichotomous role for women as the temptress [sic] who lures men ("gypsy' and ''witch") as in 'Need to put your crush under a Valentine's Day spell?" and "Leave your sweetie spellbound by

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42 puffing your skin with ... (Teen 2000 : 18); or the innocent to be protected by them [sic] ( lass," "gals" and "ladies"), as in 'His gift was a dose of tender lovin' care (YM 1998 : 38) Both "ladies" and "gals" have a doubly negative history ; in addition to their connotations of chivalry they began (and are still used) as euphemisms for 'women Over time however they both have undergone semantic denigration and have been criticized by feminist linguists, both for their negative semantic connotations and for the way they (as euphemisms) support the 'taboo" of the word 'women (Lakoff 1975 Frank and Ashen 1983) Further euphemisms include the borrowed words "chica" (11 times) from Spanish glossing as girl and/or small," and femme" (7 times) the French gloss for ''woman One could argue that the motivation for these borrowings is the desire for prestige by using other languages but more likely it is the need for terms for women other than those with English semantic baggage Independent roots functioning as metaphors also deny Agency to teen women For example teen women are referred to as animals in chick" ( 15 times) and "vixen" ( 1 time) as food sweetie (3 times) and "honey" ( 1 time) as children 'baby ( 5 times) and (/ 'babe (14 times) and as a mythical being "siren" (1 time) These metaphors link teen womanhood with food immaturity fantasy and animals which deny her age and humanity or fuU personhood Lastly some independent roots do the exact opposite for teen women that is they reinforce male dependence The two most prominent examples here are "ladies" and Cinderella (6 times) (''Princess" also functions similarly although it is a derived form) Both of these examples reify the belief that women are helpless and need to be protected sheltered and saved While "lady" realizes the "Victorian angel in the house,' the woman

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43 who ... conquers personal desire and lives only to enhance the lives of others" (Orenstein 1994 : 3 7) Cinderella" is a depreciative word reminiscent of a young woman, who having been mistreated by women awaits and is dependent upon on her male prince for salvation In three additional examples teen women are described as male possessions ; that is while the teen woman is an independent root that root is modified by a possessive phrase linking her to a father or husband./boyfiiend Examples in Sev e nteen 2000 include "Vice President's wife," referring to Tipper Gore (p 150) Luke s love interest," Drew Barrymore* (p 176) and the mob bosses daughter (p 172) While \1/ife," interest and daughter are free roots their male possessor denies this freedom Thus far these categories of independent roots for teen women perpetuate dependence on men : personal appearance as judged by men their temptation of men, and/or protection by or salvation from men. In the final category of teen women as independent roots teen women s identi ty is not only conditioned by or dependent upon men but also completely consumed b y masculine identity That is, teen women are described with suppo sedly masculine generics prescriptive male-sexed cover terms for people that are supposed to include both women and men but which actually serve to deny Agency to women Examples include upperclassmen (Seventeen 2000) little green men for aliens ( Seventeen 2000) "you guys (second person plural form ) (YM 2000 Seventeen 1998 Teen 1998 Teen 2000) tomboy" and freshmen ( Seventeen 2000 Teen 1998) In each instance above the teen woman is subsumed under the male form although the reverse never occurs Humanity is further implied to be male and male is the default form

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44 Independent roothood does not necessarily grant the autonomy to teen women that it does to men While it offers sites of Agency, as in "sister/sistah" and queen," it simultaneously provides sites that pollute or deny Agency, as in "Cinderella," "lady," "vixen" or "girl." The magazines' choices of lexical items and the morphology contained therein couple attempts at Agency with attempts at denial or pollution of Agency ; teen women morphological identity in teen women's magazines is thus subject to incongruity and internal contradiction The Teen Woman as a Personal Name (PN) The third most common identity for teen women is the personal name (PN) Personal names total 415 examples with an additional 564 personal names for teen women actors and entertainers This identity pattern is the most agentive for teen women In addition since magazines use entertainers stars and featured "everyday" (non-famous) teen women to sell products goods and services overt names most often occur with agentive verbs Examples include "Violet led. . (Teen 1998 : 118) or ... says Amanda" (Teen 1998 : 119) Personal Names for teen women do not necessarily imply their Agency Teen women can be denied identity by naming ''Mrs. O'Connelly is one example In this case the woman lacks an identity of her own ; all that is known of her is that she is married and the name of her husband She is completely consumed by her husband s name and identity Conclusion In conclusion, in the nominal morphology of teen women identity within the language of teen magazines the thread of teen women s Agency is slowly and surely

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45 unraveled by multiple forces While some forms (Personal Names select free independent roots) describe and situate teen women as autonomous active persons other forms (derivational affixes negative lexical items) consistently undermine teen Agency positioning women in linguistic sociolinguistic and cultural dependence upon men. Morphological Agency for teen women in their own magazines therefore is tainted ; for each step up towards autonomy there are two steps back in dependence

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CHAPTER FIVE TEEN WOMEN IN ADJECTIVAL MORPHOLOGY RANKING AND IDERARCHIES Ranking Hierarchy and Singularity Linguists have argued that English-speaking women and girl s conversations styles reflect goals of community and cooperation compared to competition ( Sheldon 1 992 Edelsky 1981 Tannen 1990 Maltz and Borker 1982 Coates 1993 1994 Goodwin 1990) Women-women or girl-girl conversations in English typically are mult i -floored rather than single-floored (Edelsky 1981 ) involve conversational cues of acknowledgement and understanding through minimal responses and conversational overlap ( Coates 1993 Tannen 1990) and are more subject to interruptions o r J conversational tum-taking violations (West and Zimmerman 1983 F i shman 1983) From work in discourse analysis it has been concluded that white women s discourse is particularly absent from notable conversational hierarchies Conversely however within the language of teen magazines hierarchies play a major role ; so much so in fact, that multiple forms of hierarchy exist within teen magazine lan g uage First through Agency patterns and gender-ranked language teen women are outranked by teen men Secondly countless examples rank the teen woman and al l aspects of her life As such, teen women are set as competitors a g ainst other teen women and against themselves Finally the writers and editors o f the magazine outrank 46

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47 teen women. In this chapter, I analyze these specific ways and the ramifications of ranking and singularity on teen women's Agency. Hierarchies within Teen Women's Culture A basic assumption of teen magazines is that teen women readers are forever in need of improvement. Teen women can always do "better'' things, act "better, have "better'' items and make themselves "better. As such, teen women are fundamentally conceptualized as lacking in some way; teen magazines provide advice solutions products goods and services that correct this lack by transforming teen women from "good" to 'better' en route to 'best. In the language of teen magazine s an ideal and superlative teen woman, in all ways and aspects of her life is posited to exist The goal of the teen magazine is to provide the teen woman with the means to transform herself from lacking reader to the 'ideal superlative teen woman." In essence the teen woman is simply never "good enough;" t een magazines then exploit this presupposition with their discourse The basic way that teen magazines do this is b y ranking all aspects of the teen woman' s life by modifying them and her with adjectives marked with the comparative and superlative morphemes {-er} and { -est } 1 Countless examples rank hairstyles dresses trends clothes and people teen women are bombarded with "the best, the prettiest the sexiest and ''the hottest On the cover of Teen 1998 alone one reads prettiest dresses " hottest hairdos " newest makeup," and 'best new TV shows That is four ranking 1 One of the two fundamental way s that two or more elements of teen culture are compared in teen magazine language is by ranking them. The other way to compare two or more items is through conceptualiz.ation with metaphors specificall y violence metaphors This is the subject of m y next research.

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48 examples on the COVER page. Seventeen 1998 and YM 1998 have similar ranking quantities : a fourteen-page layout of"Hottest guys" (with the words "hottest guys" printed 10 times) appears in YM 1998 (pp 66-80), while Seventeen 1998 has a flood of beauty-ranking examples, such as "make your hair shinier'' (p 64), 1Jrettiest prom makeup" (p 9), "a perfect prep" (p 20), ''latest gotta-have,.its [ clothes]" (p 60) ... eyes appear smaller'' (p.40) "trendiest pieces" (p 36) and '1>erfect platforms" (p 20). Teen women and their friends are ranked against each other Seventeen 2000 talks of"closest friends" (p. 106), "best buds" (p 112) and "the weaker sex" (p 28) Other people are also ranked in Seventeen 2000 "the most-wanted movie star'' (p 186) 1he busiest heartthrobs" (p 194), '1he most cynical student (p 197/8) and the most stylish male (p 252) YM2000 discusses the ''wackiest talk show host" (p. 14) "mak[ing] you harder'' (p 36) '1he brightest babe" (p.106) the ''better babysitter" (p 23) and the "most valuable players" (p 63). In one YM 2000 article regarding drug use people who were "more likely'' and "less likely' were mentioned 9 times total ; ''best friends" occurs throughout each magazine more than 40 times Articles themselves in the magazines ''Best and Worst Ways to Reveal a Crush" (p 40) in Teen 1998, ''Most Humiliating Experiences" (p 14) in YM 1998, and the ranking involved in the "10th Annual Readers Poll" (pp 167-168) in Seventeen 1998 are inherently hierarchical in both their content and language Not only are the people, places and things in these articles ranked against each other but also teen women are encouraged to rank and compare items hierarchically Advice columns also contain similar ranking ; teen women are told in YM 2000 how to get comfier'' (p 52) '10 feel freer'' (p 63) and how to get "softer, silkier skin" (p 28) Instead of a teen womanhood based on

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49 community, a teen woman is faced with competition -to have the "latest and greatest spring shoes" (p 8) in YM 1998, to be one "to shine the brightest," (p 90) '10 all be perfect" (p. 192) from Seventeen 1998 or to "score[ing] a perfect 10 . (p 108) from Teen 1998 The Ranking of Teen Women against Men There are two major problems with this ranking First, continuous ranking of everything strengthens and reinforces the gender hierarchy already existent in the other discourse structures of teen magazines by making ranking seem natural Gender hierarchy is, after all, one gender outranking the other. Teen women are already outranked by teen men in syntactic agency, word order patterns and in nominal morphology for example Adjectival morphological superlativity on virtually every page of the magazines fortifies the notion that ranking is inevitable; in other words, constant and incessant ranking makes ranking seem an essential part of the English-speaking world Ranking intersects with gender hierarchy in another way Hardman ( 1993a, 1993b 1996, Hardman and Taylor 2001) argues that ranking is actually grammaticalized in English, and that this obligatory grammaticalization of ranking links directly to ranking of the sexes Hardman (1993a, 1993b 1996 Hardman and Taylor 2001) asserts that number is a linguistic postulate of English ; as such, singularity (the base form of English number) is prized "The first two postulates [number and ranking/comparative], by themselves, do not appear to relate to gender but because the three mutually reinforce one another they both reflect and create a gendered way of thinking" (Hardman and Taylor 2001 : 3) Derivational Thinking results Taylor (Hardman and Taylor 2001) summarizes this

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50 connection of singularity and ranking to sex-based gender "number one is important ; number one is most important ; number one is masculine (p.3). Linking superlative ranking with the other discourse patterns of the magazines, I liken Hardman' s Derivational Thinking theoretically to a pyramid women and those classified as "Others" are at the wide bottom, site of the non-inflected adjective the "good. In the middle are the men who are not the one singular best but the 'betters At the top of the pyramid is the "one singular' white man the ''best at the pinnacle For the singular best white man to reach the top of the pyramid he must step on the backs of others for 'best" implies only "one;" the nature of the pyramid allows only one at the top and elevation of any means subjugation, or loss of elevation, of all others In order to reach the ''betters he must become the 'pure root with no suffixes or derivations As such, the singular white man must sever from all those below him, only using them as steps to keep him at the pinnacle ; for example as in the case of nominal derivational the { -esses } below are used to create the male {-er} above For white men, therefore competition is between ROOTS the betters" and the 'best As roots white men automatically have Agency but nonetheless compete for superlativity Unless metaphorically feminized and affixed as Others either as women (becoming a suffix rather than root), or as homosexuals non-whites and the colonized (becoming marked derivations of the root)-white men remain roots. The line of the 'better," therefore becomes the glass.floor keeping the white men/roots high (and thus out of Otherhood/derivation) This glass floor is a line of Entitled Agency of Roothood Competition above and below the line is essentially different. Because competition above is between roots of''better" and ''best," failure at competition does not necessarily

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51 result in complete loss of Agency Agency is given in roothood, so Agency is given for ''betters" or "bests" (although more Agency may come with ''bestness") The Others," in the domain of"the goods," who are suffixes, do not complete for actual Agency however Agency is not a given, nor is it entitled, as below the line exist the DERIVATIONS Derivations are already and instantaneously outranked by their roots at the top of the pyramid ; the syntax of Agency the word order patterns the marking of the feminine ( and non-white) and the derived feminine forms from masculine roots support this. "Others," therefore, compete differently ; their competition is between no Agency and Sub-Agency "Others" compete for the Sub-Agency of Objecthood of affixation to a root (being the "princess" for the "prince" and being the object/patient for the agentive subject for example) For them, the middle line is the glass ceiling" keeping them low The problem that this entails and produces is that competition means different things below and above the line Competition becomes extremely detrimental below as Agency is not guaranteed like it is above Put another way, competition below equals Sub-Agency Vs. No Agency, whereas above equals Better Agency Vs. Best Agency. In {/ other words womenf'Others are attacked from all fronts2 Teen women are first outranked by teen men ; secondly teen women are situated as competitors against each other If the teen woman wins against her competitor she ''wins" to become an object/patient. Teen women no matter which way they tum, are denied Agency through ranking of all sorts as ranking situates teen women in an inevitable Catch 22 Ranking therefore in all of its forms functions to deny teen women Agency 2 Although I try to eliminate violence metaphors from my language I am specificall y using a violence metaphor here because I believe this ; s violence against teen women and those Othered. I do not wish to cover up that violence I want it to be felt and understood.

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52 Other research supports that competition and hierarchy differ for women and men Elgin ( 1989) argues that 'failure within white American society actually has different semantic subfeatures for women and men She asserts that for white women failure is [ ++final] as in 'leaving no option for trying anything new and thus leaving the field in disgrace whereas for white men, ''failure" is [+non-final] meaning that something [was] tried and hasn t worked and now .. .it s necessary to try something else (Elgin 1989 : 36) In addition, work in conversational discourse contends that community and cooperation, rather than hierarchy and competition, are key features to women s discourse ( Sheldon 1992 Edelsky 1981 Tannen 1990 Maltz and Borker 1982 Coates 1993 1994 Goodwin 1990 West and Zimmerman 1983) In fact in conversation, features of hierarchical discourse used by men in women-men conversation disrupt conversat i onal flows and result in women s dissatisfaction (Tannen 1990 Fishman 1983 Maltz and Borker 1982 West and Zimmerman 1993) Likewise research on white male speech shows that white men use hierarchy competition and one-ups-man-ship [sic] like single floor snatching, direct speech acts interruption and no backchanneling, as conversational tools with each other; when used in white men-men conversation, these competitive devices do not stop conversational floor with male interlocutors in the way that they do with women interlocutors (Tannen 1990 Fishman 1993 Maltz and Borker 1982 West and Zimmerman 1993 DeCapua and Boxer 1999 Kiesling 1996) One notable example here is DeCapua and Boxer's ( 1999) work on bragging, boasting and bravado in a brokerage firm; in this article white men were proud to compete against each other Conversational and other types of dominance were an accepted part of the career yet very few woman worked in the firm; the two white women and one Nigerian man who did work in the firm were left

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53 outside of the primary work in-group and did not participate in the conversational "contest" (DeCapua and Boxer 1999) The Ranking of Teen Women against Each Other While the first problem with ranking is that it pits women and Others at the bottom of the pyramid under white men, the second problem with ranking relates to placement within the bottom The linguistics of ranking, the superlative form, {-est}, allows only one the singular best. This was mentioned above But the same principle of rank and singularity that positions women under men throughout the pyramid also positions women / and men within pyramid strata Competition is not just vertical, but horizontal as well. This means that theoretically within "Otherhood" teen women compete against each other ; the singular best for women (derivations) is "a perfect white derivation;" the singular best for men (roots) is a white root, and the singular best for humankind ( derivations and roots) is also white root. v In other words ranking goes hand in hand with singularity at all levels of the pyramid Although derivations derivations still complete to be the best derivation Through language the magazines presuppose that there is an ideal perfect best woman This perfect, idealized derivation/teen woman is held as the standard from which all readers should be judged; in essence to be like her Seventeen 2000 readers need to find ''the best party scene" (p.110) wear the "hippest Hollywood styles" (p 226) with the easiest ever updos" (Cover) the "prettiest polishes" (p 17), the "hottest makeup" (p 17) the "perfect match" to "best express your individuality" (p 54) in perfect relaxation" (p 20), with the "fondest memory'' (p 36) while being the "most fanatical" (p. 74) the "weaker sex" (p 28) and "his latest soft-lipped conquest" (p 76), because most are ..

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54 (p 130) and because X .. is better than ... X (p 188) The reader also needs to be white; because such ranking is overtly unmarked for race, the resultant singularity reinforces notions of white normativity and white privilege (Mrozinske 2002). There can be only one ''best," which means one type and one race of a teen woman Because singular is the exalted default form, any diversity or plurality as in the many "goods," exists only as a derivation, and thus deviation of singularity Any difference is thus immediately conceptualized as either [+best] or [-best] analogous to the ranked binary system of "one singular" [ + best] and "Others" [-best] All attempts at accepting differences or diversity are instantly undermined ; difference necessarily means plurality yet singularity is prized Therefore teen women are in constant competition ; in terms of teen women s superlativity against each other there can be only one In sum, all teen women other than the fictional "singular best" fail most of the time Constant ranking and hierarchy particularly constant failure to be the best results in a state of constant lack or less-than-ness for the teen woman ; she and the objects of her identity and social world are always outranked This structure ties in heavily with the ideology of teen magazines ; ever since their conception, they have blatantly admitted to mold shape and present an image of the idealized adolescent girl [sic] (Schrum 1998) In this case this idealized girl [sic] is perfect ; her identity, her consumables and her products are all ranked but ranked with the superlative form On a deeper level in addition ranking and hierarchy and the subsequent image of perfection create and reify the ideal of the perfect girl'[sic] or the "good girl/good woman ideal "The 'perfect girl' is painfully reminiscent of the Victorian 'angel in the house,' the woman who ... conquers personal desire and lives only to enhance the lives of others" (Orenstein 1994 : 37) According to

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55 Brown and Gilligan (1992) in discussing one of their patients, The image of the perfect girl [sic] is powerful. . the terrifying or terrorizing nature of this image lies in its power to encourage Jessie [a teenage woman] to give over the reality of her astute observations of herself and the human world around her -or at least to modulate her voice and not speak about what she sees . and knows Voice-training by adults undermines these girls' [sic] experiences and reinforces images of female perfection . [it] implies that such girls [sic] exist and are desirable (p. 61) There is no way that the average reader can be the singular best all of the time However the language of teenage magazines ranks everything such that the image of a "perfect girl" becomes seemingly attainable and desirable Magazines then rely on this image to sell their magazines goods and services In other words, the image of the "perfect girl" is just beyond reach ; by buying products goods and services and by reading the editorial contents quizzes and advice columns, the teen reader can better herself and get closer to the ideological ideal Teen magazines 1.each teens how to do this which leads to the next linguistic structure Ranking and Hierarchy of Magazine over Readers The final layer of ranking and hierarchy in the language of teen magazines is magazine hierarchy over readers This ranking is primarily at the level of discourse ; here magazine editors and writers use language to position themselves as the knowers and the teen women as those who "need to know As usual however with most expressions of power and ideology through language (Hardman 1993a 1993b 1996 Hardman and Taylor 2001 van Dijk 1999 Hodge and Kress 1993), this third ranking process necessarily overlaps with the other two forms of ranking in the magazine I argue that magazine hierarchy is not only dependent upon the ranking of teen women against each other and teen men, but also specifically on the outranking of the singular best ideal teen

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56 women sub-Agent (the ideological perfect white girl [sic]) against other teen women As such, like all other forms of hierarchy in teen magazines, magazine hierarchy functions to deny teen women's Agency There are two fundamental patterns used in teen magazines to position teen women readers under magazine editors and writers The first pattern is the use of volitional modal auxiliaries issued from the magazine to the teen reader. I use the term volitional to refer to the particularly strong end of the English modal continuum that expresses the highest level of speaker s modal will ofX toward the interlocutor For example going from lowest volition to highest are modals could, should need to, have to, must and "should not could not need not, not have to, must not." Modal auxiliaries are used throughout the magazine and are not just limited to the teen-initiated advice columns or teen reader quizzes ; instead the magazine offers the advice of modal auxiliaries throughout many themes of the magazines and in virtually all article types Seventeen 2000 instructs teen women throughout the magazine; a teen woman is told "what you need to know in an article on relationships (p 148) "what you must remember in a piece on makeup/beauty (p 62) ; and that "you barely need ... in a prom feature (p 188) The Table of Contents in Teen 1998 asks "Should you change?" (p 2) where the magazine then answers the question for the teen women ; in a quiz the reader is instructed that ''you need to . (p 70). Also in Teen 1998, teen women were told in a quiz that ''you gotta get" (p 66) and 'you should just listen" (p 68) in a piece on teen issues 'you have to" (p. 61 ) in a relationship advice article that 'you gotta tell . and ''y ou ve got to" (p 30) in a general" advice column that ''you have to" (p 26), and in a fashion piece ''you must look . (p 91) Yl\12000 offers teen women modal

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57 "instructions" on what "you gotta realize" and what "you should just stop in an 'Inner You" piece (p 68) and what you gotta be able to .. and that ''you just have to ... with regards to "Guys" (p 54 and p 62, respectively) In Seventeen 1998 teen women are literally told by the magazine what they should think, feel do and not do ; as ''y ou should think ... but ''you can't show ... (p 116) ''you should feel ( pp 140 142 ), ''y ou have to (pp 174 188) and 'you ve got to ... (p.238) The modal volitionals are not limited to modal verb phrases Magazine editor s volitional will is also expressed through nominalized modifiers In these instances a volitional modal is nominalized ; the modal will is that the teen women purchase t he item described with modal nominalization When nominalized the modal ma y function as the head or the modifier. Examples of nominalized NPs with modal heads include include S eventeen 1998 s must have s" ( p 90 ) and YM 2000 s celebrity gotta have[s] ... (p 84 ), while nominalized NPs with modal modifiers inside include mu s t ha v e music (YM 2000 : 84) spring s major must haves ( Seventeen 2000 : 158) must see mov ies and hotties (Teen 1998 : 4) and "mus t see flicks ( Teen 1998 : Cover page ) In addition a t een woman is told 'you really need one standout piece with regards to her fashion (Seventeen 2000 : 240) Lastly as T ee n 1998 touts showing off the shoulders is a must ( p 98 ) With both modal VPs and nominalized VPs teen women are instructed on how and what to be think feel act do not do and possess in various realms of their life : in fashion self issues sex and bod y issues quizzes relationship articles teen issue pages and the co ver page for example Ranking and hierarch y link with such modals in two way s F i rst given that the magazines are structured as simulated conversation between magazine voice and teen

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58 woman interlocutor modal auxiliaries work in only one direction It is not a conversation among equals ; magazines use volitional modals towards readers not vice versa In doing so the will and determination of the modal is that of the magazine writer ; the will is directed at the teen woman Furthermore as is done in other discourse types (like quizzes) magazine editors "cite" outside professionals and experts to strengthen their volitional position (Ostermann & Keller-Cohen 1998) To this end magazine writers appear equal (they must get their information from someone else) and yet also quite powerful as they have the means to obtain this information and pass it on Ironically however the power asymmetry comes not from the use of the experts per se but in the way the magazines pass on the information The magazines themselves and not the voices of the experts actually issue the volitional modals ; the professionals are referenced only to justify magazine editor s will As such, the very device that magazines editors use to situate themselves closer to their readers ( Ostermann & Keller-Cohen 1998 ), the use of expert professionals functions only at a surface level ; the magazine editors actually distance themselves from their readers and align themselves with the professionals by using strong volitionals In addition, Ostermann and Keller-Cohen ( 1998) argue that use of "accredited sources," like physicians health officials and psychologists in quiz advice columns simultaneously distances the editor from the advice while conferring a tone of seriousness to quizzes (p 548) This seriousness is reflected in volitional support ; by such seriousness," experts strengthen the volitional force of the magazine editors/writers The magazines therefore strongly assert knowledge onto the teen women telling them what they should," must and "need to" do; they should " must," and need to" because the magazines and the experts say so

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59 The second problem with volitionals is that such modal assertion situates the teen women readers as fundamentally lacking Similar to directives the issuing of a modal implies that that action has not been done ; the modal becomes infelicitous if the issuer says one should X" if one already did X Note here that the crucial necessary element for a felicitous volitional modal is non-Agency ; doing is Agentive but doing violates the discourse device As such, the magazines use yet another discourse strategy that presupposes that teen readers are fundamentally incomplete or in need of change ; the same discourse device then offers an answer solution or means of completion b y which this teen reader can correct her lacking Such one-way assumption and correction of teen reader lack is dependent upon her outranking by the magazine the singular best teen woman" and teen men I Fundamentally the magazines use morphological ( derivation under root ) and adjectival (good under best) superlativity and ranking to create the notion of the p erfect girl [sic]. They then reify and manipulate the position of the reader as non-perfect b y instructing her through modals (and other discourse devices) how to get to this impossible yet idealized perfect state Seemingly if the non-perfect reader did al] that she should ," must" and "has to," she would be more like the ideal and less like the reader. That is the idea] singular best teen woman Sub-Agent does not need the modals ; she has alread y done what she needs to and should do The modals ( and magazine directi v es ) are the directions for which the outranked teen woman ascends the hierarchy ladder en route to sub-Agency position The other forms of ranking are necessary for the success of this third type ; if teen readers were already respected as full persons with full Agency magazines would violate their personhood by assuming it needed correcting To regard

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60 the teen woman as an Agent requires both acknowledgment and recognition of her full humanity not presupposing her to be insufficient. The second way that magazines assert rank over their interlocutors is through directive type. In English, directive type usually indicates (and/or illustrates) the relationship between interlocutors ; for example Goodwin (1990) found that in same sex peer groups Afiican-American girls used less face threatening "mitigated directives ,' l j while Afiican-American boys used face threatening "aggravated directives and Sheldon ( 1992) argues that young white girls in conversation with each other use more face cognizant directives than young white boys in all boy conversation. In analysis of dinner table conversation, Ochs and Taylor (1992) assert that mothers issue more mitigated directives ; more direct directives were characteristic of the speech of the father. Furthermore Gleason and Greif ( 1983) found that male caretakers but not necessarily fathers used directives similar to those issued by women parents and caretakers Finally L,/" researchers argue that in cross-sex conversation men s aggravated directives can function hierarchically and/or disrupt the conversational turns (Goodwin 1990 Tannen 1990) One preliminary theme from these findings is that directive type varies according to gender and role within both the family (mother or father) and in larger social units (employed as caretaker or other type of employment) This research on gender and J directives suggests overall that girls women and some men (caretakers) use directives with much attention to interlocutor face needs while boys and men issue direct, face threatening and potential hierarchical directives One would assume given that magazine writers and editors aspire to converse with teen readers as "equal" members of the same speech community, that teen women

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61 magazines would contain face cognizant directives, similar to those reported in girl-girl women-women and mother/caretaker-child conversation (Goodwin 1990 Ochs and Taylor 1992 Tannen 1990 Sheldon 1992 Coates 1994) This however is not the case Instead the most numerous directive type is bald on record (Brown and Levinson 1987) highly direct directives. While indirect directives do occur (usually in the form of a question or a modal declarative) these more hedged less face threatening directives are rare in comparison with direct ones ; 99 .4% (3, 152 total) of all directives are direct while only 6% (20 total) are indirect. Such directives could illustrate and/or reify one of two possible relationships between teen magazine writers and readers First the magazine editors could be assuming a highl y intimate relationship with teen women readers as in many middle-class white English-speaking communities in the US politeness strategies lessen or cease betweeJ;Y' intimate interlocutors (Boxer 2 002 Personal Communication ) One other possible ./ interpretation is that the magazines are not attempting to co-construct a symmetrical floor (Edelsky 1981 ) ; instead in creating consumers, magazines mus t take a more hierarchical role over readers using direct directives analogously to the way fathers do in dinner table conversations (Ochs and Taylor 1992) or some white men do in conversations with women (Tannen 1990) I argue the second point. Directives imply a clear sense of the second [linguistic] postulate [of English] that of ranking (Hardman and Taylor 200 2 : 3) Furthermore 'that a speaker assumes the right to give another orders or instructions implies rank a situation not found in all languages (Hardman and Taylor 2002 : 3) Given that magazine directives function with negative presuppositions and that the general pattern of teen magazine discourse is to lessen or extinguish teen women s

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62 Agency, I argue that bald on record (Brown and Levinson 1987) directives function as j hierarchy-maintaining devices While it may be argued that magazines editors have chosen direct directives to create a symmetrical floor as intimates the felicity conditions that uphold those very directives presuppose that one interlocutor is lacking and that the other knows how to fix that lack. It is not the "lacking" interlocutor however who determines the lack, but the "knowing magazine interlocutor. As such, asymmetry is instantly visible; again, as with volitionals the reader is left needing to know while the magazine is in the position of" knowing To put it another way even though it is argued that girls [sic] do not use direct directives (Goodwin 1990 Sheldon 1992) they frequently hear them used at them (Boxer 2002 Personal Communication) Conclusion In sum, the three forms of ranking in teen magazines the ranlcing of teen women against the ideological 'perfect whit e girl" [sic] the ranking of teen women against teen men7 and the ranlcing of teen women against their more knowledgeable magazine editors intersect with and mutually support one another. The ranking of teen women against each other and against teen me~ with the notions of singularity present therefrom function to create an ideological singular best ideal white teen woman Sub-Agent. The ranlcing of magazine over teen woman through modal volitionals and bald on record (Brown and Levinson 198 7) directives then solidifies the position of teen woman under magazine editors In this position the inherent lack of other forms of ranlcing is not only intensified, but is able to be manipulated. In other words, the way to get from the bottom of the pyramid to the ideal sub-Agency position is by following the modal-directive" road This road however depends crucially on two things : one that there first exists a hierarchical

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63 ladder to ascend (this is made possible by ranking women against men) ; and second that the teen woman starts at the bottom of the ladder (which necessarily implies no Agenc y negative Agency and/or lack of Agency, in addition to gender ranking ) Each of the rankings needs each other As such, teen women's Agency is again denied through various interconnecting and mutually reinforcing discourse devices on multiple levels of teen magazine language

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CHAPTER SIX TEEN WOMEN IN SYNTAX AND DISCOURSE Syntax and Discourse Pattern Data For this section of the thesis I recorded and categorized all applicable sentences of the magazines Each sentence was first organized according to speech act type : directive commissive and interrogative and declarative I grouped interrogatives and declaratives together since they are both fundamentally framed by the magazine to the reader either by asserting information to the reader or by questioning a third interlocutor ( a celebrity in an interview for example) or a teen woman reader rhetorically. While declaratives typically function to provide information and interrogatives generally function to request information, in teen magazines the distinction is slightly different from everyday conversation In teen magazines questions to third party interviewees are often presented to provide information to the reader (similar to an assertive statement). In addition, questions towards teen readers are more rhetorical than information seeking ; because the teen woman interlocutor is not present in the conversation, she cannot possibly answer the question Fundamentally, neither have the illocutionary force to require anything of the reader. Therefore, in each case whether in question or statement form, clear subjects, subject semantic roles and verb types emerge similarly and allow for classification The speech acts of commissives and directives, however differ significantly In commissives the magazine commits itself and/or the speaker to a future action, such as a 64

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65 promise provided the reader fulfills her required role Similarly, directives are issued from magazine to teen reader in order to cause the teen reader to perform some action, exist in a given state, and so forth. Fundamentally, in these speech acts, the magazines issue utterances with high illocutionary force of future action on the part of the reader. As such, particularly pertaining to Agency1 these acts were classified according to illocutionary force type requests and orders (directives) or promises (commissives) I next further classified the interrogative and declarative sentences together according to subject, subject semantic role and verb type and examined female-male word orders within when relevant The subject person categories that emerged from the data were : teen reader / teen woman (as in "girl" or "you"); woman celebrity expert or public figure (such as ''Drew Barrymore*" or ''Dr. Debbie*"); teen man ("he" or ''your crush") ; man celebrity, expert or public figure (as in "Carson Daly*" or ''Dr. Rainer* "); and non human inanimate subject (such as 'Jewel tones"or lyrics"). I did not include third-party subjects (including, for example adults outside of the teen community ; magazine writers and editors; and generic person figures such as percentages of people who watch TV, that are impossible to classify into a gender category). Both female-male and male-female word orders emerged in both NPs and ADJPs and in larger units of discourse The semantic roles and verb types that emerged were : agent, subject of an action verb who performs the action of that verb or subject of a mental process verb, ( such as thinking) who performs the mental action, as in ''Diamond says . (Seventeen 2000 : 236) 1 In this chapter it is important to remember that I have made a distinction between Agency (with an upper case A') and agency (with a lower case a ) Agency is an abstract term encompassing the full humanity and personhood of a teen woman However agenc y is the state of a semantic role subject of an action verb

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66 ''you baby-sat" (YM 1998 : 57) and ''you know that" (Teen 2000 : 44) ; experiencer subject of a perception verb who perceives or experiences the action of the verb but who does not necessarily perform the action, such as ''you feel.. (Seventeen 1998 : 219) and "she wanted to work" (Seventeen 2000 : 144) ; benefactive the recipient or beneficiary of an action, while not herself performing the action, as in . you ve received . ( Seventeen 1998 : 142) and ''Kerri Erin ... and Amanda got clothes ... (Teen 2000 : 22) ; possessive the possessor or owner of an item as the subject of a verb of possession, such as 'you'll have ... (YM 1998 : 36) and 'you own (Teen 1998 : 118) ; modal the subject of a modal verb phrase with weak volitionality on a modal continuum of strength, as in ... a girl could do (YM 2000 : 41) and . and you may end up feeling (Teen 2000 : 38 ); vo/itionals subjects of strong volitional modal verb phrases that express a high degree of modal will such as 'you have to sell ( Seventeen 2000 : 242 ) and 'you must enclose (Teen 2000 : 95 ); proce s s, the subject that undergoes a process or a change of state as in .. .if you become (Seventeen 2000 : 151) and gals tum 16 . (YM 2000 : 86) ; and finally, passive the grammatical patient/object positioned as sentence subject that is affected or acted upon, but that does not participate in the agency of a passive verb phrase such as ... Brenda was called ( Seventeen 1998 : 217) and ... models get glitzed (Teen 1998 : 114 ) I did not include subjects of copula, or ''X=Y' type sentences The next classification I made of the data was its overall discourse function with regards to teen woman Agency This involved further classifying interrogative and declarative sentences that diverged from the normal function of supplying information For example some agency sentences while containing agent semantic roles function in an adjacency pair to introduce or to ground a directive In this instance agency is

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67 manipulated, and the agency exists only in order to issue an additional directive These overt manipulations of Agency were classified as follows : quiz conditioned discourse teen woman subjects of various semantic roles, such as "you secretly think and "You always coordinate" (Seventeen 2000 : 106) that exist in a quiz in order to later classify and evaluate the teen women and her behavior ; directive and commissive conditioned discourse teen woman subject sentences in adjacency pairs with, and thus introducing directives and commissive speech acts as in ''Before you slather.. take these steps (YM 2000 : 26) and ... when you have ... you'll stop stressing (Teen 2000 : 36); negative Agency a sentence with a subject semantic role that is overtly negated or is framed with negative semantics as in ''You're not describing ... (Seventeen 2000 : 146) and ... she whined" (YM 2000 : 86) ; and the overt Denials of Agency Denial of Agency through Instrument, where an inanimate instrument, such as "accessories" and 'this dress"in "your accessories make a bold statement"(Seventeen 2000 : 220) and" ... this dress will leave a lasting impression ... (YM 1998 : 98), respectively, instead of the teen woman, functions as the semantic role agent Denial of Agency through Synecdoche as in ... her ... strands top the look" (Teen 2000 : 22) and .. Simon's message is most clearly heard in ... (Seventeen 2000 : 114) where a teen woman's body part or personal characteristic is the semantic role agent Denial of Agency through Whiteness where the teen woman in the discourse is assumed to be white denying Agency to woman of color as in Teen s ( 1998) discussion of self-tanners and Denial of Negative Male Agency, in which male hegemony is maintained through discourse that denies a semantically negative action to a man, as in '~omen have been injured [by men]. . (YM 2000 : 22) and ... if his behavior makes you feel (Seventeen 2000 : 146) Examples of all such data are discussed in relevant sections

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68 in this chapter text with further examples found in corresponding data sets in the appendices. In addition, for each syntactic and discourse example I recorded the magazine month and year page number specific theme of the article according to the magazine and then the general theme of the article There were 19 total general themes of the magazines : Teen Focus News and Issues ; Entertainment and Celebrities ; Makeup Fashion and Beauty ; Advice--General ; Advice--Friends and Family; Advice--Dating and Guys ; Advice--Sex and the Body ; Advice--Health and Well-being ; Advice--Makeup and Beauty ; School and Career ; Health and Well-being ; Friends Family and Home ; Dating Relationships and Guys ; Quizzes ; Sex and the Body ; Cover and Table and Contents; Magazine Events and Information ; Special Magazine Features ; and Miscellaneous. I broke advice down into different subject headings because of the different ideologies of advice columns the different writers of advice columns and the possible slightly different formats of each column I lastly created a database for storing each discourse example and all of its relevant information in order to arrange, analyze and count the data This was also particularly useful in organizing the data to examine the effects of each syntactic and discourse feature on teen women's Agency. Throughout the thesis relevant data examples are included in each discussion but additional examples for each individual data section can be found in the data base in the appendix Word Order Patterns and Agency Word order matters for English speakers Order of constituents within sentences determines the grammatical function of the constituent ; for example, in unmarked

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69 sentences the first NP is the obligatory grammatical subject, while later NPs are optional objects of verbs or prepositions In Karen talked to Moe, Karen is the grammatical subject, while Moe, the other following NP, is the object. To topicalize an NP in English syntax, and thus give it preference in a given sentence, the NP is moved to first position, even before the subject NP as in To Moe, Karen talked (Givon 1993 : 275) In this case sentential emphasis is given to Moe; to do this Moe must be placed before and be uttered prior to, the subject Karen. The importance of order is furthered strengthened by the semantic roles assigned according to position The subject NP (the first NP) is generally the sentence agent, the one who acts out or experiences the verb Almost all object NPs in English, however, are entities that are acted upon ; generally therefore .first sentential position is active, while later positions are passive 2 Similarly order of words within constituents also indicates relative importance Givon (1993) argues that within conjoined NPs the first noun (N) is remembered longer attended to faster and is considered more "topic-worthy ' (p 277) Hardman (1993a 1993b 1996) takes this argument further and asserts that culturally preferred orders of female forms after male forms indicate and perpetuate the ranking of women under men Furthermore Miller (2002) argues that within Indo-European languages (where order matters to begin with) there are two general principles that govern order of conjoined NPs 2 Note that the structure of English sentences contrasts sharply with other languages and is not universal One specific example is the Jaqi languages of South America, in which objects and subjects are intrinsically linked and thus obligatorily connected; as such, the Jaqi languages conjugat e for l O persons for each possible pair of object and subject (for example I . to her,' or 'her .. to me' ) (Hardman 1993a 1993b 1996) It is impossible within the structure of these languages for objects and subjects to be severed (Hardman 1993a, 1993b 1996) In addition, and as a result of this structure Jaqi subjects can not and do not outrank objects nor vice versa (Hardman 1993a, 1993b 1996) Another example comes from Japanese ; in Japanese the topicalization of an item has nothing to do with word order but rather with morphology Word order is slightly fluid but topicalization is only possible by marking a base with the morpheme {-wa} (Tohsaku 1999)

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70 Panini's Rule and Cultural Prominence Panini's rule states that shorter constituent occurs first while the under cultural prominence principle the "better' or more culturally preferred" element takes first position (Miller 2002) While some lndo-European languages operate under one principle completely (such as Russian under Panini s Rule in which the surface NP order 'mother and father versus 'father and mother' depends completely on length resulting from case endings) many combine both principles (Miller 2002) In the case of English, Miller (2002) argues that both principles apply but that Cultural Prominence takes over in the case of human NPs. For Miller as well then, because male NPs outrank female NPs they occur in first position (Miller 2002 ). In essence the first of the two NPs is both more cognitively and culturally important Therefore within English, although nothing in the grammar itself prohibits or limits which human NP occurs first the default word order i s women after men This is no different in teenage magazines I examined all cross-sex conjoined NPs and ADJPs and found that while approximately 14 6% of the time women occurred before men in the joined NP or ADJP (as in girl or guy'' (p 86) from YM 2000) approximately 85 .3% of the time women occurred after men, as in ''bachelors or bachelorettes (Teen 2000 : 51 ) a guy-girl combo" (Seventeen 1998 : 192) ''Freddie Prinze Jr. and Rachel Leigh Cook (Teen 2000 : 51 ) ''Dude . Chick (YM 2000 : 60) second choice is ... for guys but women go for ... (Seventeen 1998 : 119) ... he or she ... (Seventeen 1998 : 91), gay and lesbian (Seventeen 1998 : 192) for him and for you (Seventeen 1998 : 80) a guy and girl (Teen 2000 : 51) and "Prom king and queen" (Seventeen 2000 : 152) Within magazines for teen women, teen women are not 'topic-worthy' or important enough So while Seventeen 2000 features a full six-page layout of prom

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71 clothes and fashion, and emphasizes the importance of prom to teen women, in the end, the center of the prom is the ''Prom king and queen" (p.152) Likewise Teen 1998 boasts on the cover ofits "massive movie issue ... and all the must-see flicks" (cover page). In the actual content of this 6-page article, the 3 films with women main stars are featured on the last 2 pages at the very bottom crammed into a small section together while all 6 pages are otherwise devoted to movies with male main stars with each star profiled with each movie discussion. In this instance teen men are not only the first feature of the article and first in an ADJP position describing the article" .. this spring is majorly manly, but we like chick flicks, too" (p 52), but teen men also occur first in terms of page layout in page order and reading preference (reading from left to right) That is four ways that teen men outrank teen women in an article for teen women Similar patterns are repeated in almost all instances of female-male NP or ADJP pairs ; teen women are supposedly praised and empowered by teen magazines and yet, the male word order preference undermines any empowerment. On yet another level of language, teen women are outranked The secondary position of teen women, and thus the primary position of teen men, is not limited to conjoined phrases This order pattern of syntax is actually mirrored in discourse above the level of the sentence Just as teen women follow teen men within constituents, so too do sentences about teen women follow sentences about teen men within discourse. In other words, in both syntax and larger units of discourse teen women are secondary to teen men ; in each instance teen women are followers and teen men are the leaders. For example in the Seventeen 1998 's Reader's Poll, the 'best/worse actress and ''best/worse female singer'' ( note the ranking inherent in the poll itself the categories of the poll ''best/worst" and the derivational suffix {-ess}) follow the ''best/worst actors"

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72 and "best/worst male singer" (p.167) In a later Seventeen 1998 article discussing snack choices, the article explains, "first choice is .. for guys, ... women go for ... (p 119). In a Seventeen 2000 piece about school violations ofteen' s rights (like mandatory drug tests), a teen woman who stood up for her rights and challenged her school was featured not only later in the article but on the last page of the segment, while the article first featured a teen man who challenged the school and stood up for his rights on the opening page of the story (p 216) Cultural and linguistic preference of women under men structures both sentences and discourse alike One final problem with male primacy in word ordering is that, like other categories of gender-hierarchical language, it mutually interacts with and reinforces other linguistic patterns of gender hierarchy This is illustrated above with the overlap between ranking and order derivation and order and female deprecation and order In addition, word order often also interconnects with asymmetrical vocabulary That is, many of the conjoined NP or ADJP pairs or descriptive sentences about teen women and men, not only occur in a male prime order, but also frequently include asymmetrical lexical pairs The male-based phrase or sentence thus outranks the female-based item both in order and in semantics and/or morphology. For example the "girls" are joined with (or pitted against) the "guys," in Seventeen l 998's "a guy-girl combo" (p.152) Yl\12000's ''we asked the guys then the girls ... (p 57) and Teen 1998's "local guy and girl" (p.117) Again while teen women's Agency is denied ("girl") teen men's age and maturity are respected ("guy") In some instances asymmetry goes further : Seventeen speaks of"actors" before "actresses" in 1998 and 2000 and Teen 1998 juxtaposes female and male, "This Spring's flicks are majorly manly .. but we dig chick flicks too [Emphasis mine]" (p 52) Here teen women

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73 as derivations ("actresses") and as non-human, baby animal metaphors of deprecation (" chick") are coupled with the free autonomous root from which they are derived ("actor ) or with an adult male human being ("manly'') In each instance there is double damnation for teen women ; teen men outrank teen women by being first and as autonomous human beings The potential linguistic power of word order lies in its subtly freezing of lexical choice Constant production of frozen pairs of male-female items obscure female Agenc y while simultaneously reinforcing masculine privilege In other words nothing in the grammar prohibits combinations of"teen women and teen men or teen women and guys," and yet these productions are both very rare and highly marked Female-male pairs take conscious labor and effort yet male-female pairs are easy' and roll off the tongue with no effort Put another way a native speaker of English does not have to consciousl y think to put male first so much so that she ma y not even be aware that she does so3 Nearly every single use of female first orders however takes active and cognizant work; female first word orders seem to violate native speaker intuition ( communicative competence) so deeply that without concerted conscious effort (perhaps analogous to that of a non-native speaker of English) they do not occur. In sum, within teen magazines 3 Hardman (1996) cites a students work w here sex choices ( female or male ) were reversed on a questionnaire Participants in the research project often ignored lexical choice completel y and marked female or male based on position rather than actuall y word choice As a result of the masculine alwa y s being first, the researcher found that a number o f men actuall y marked themsel v es as f e male-se xed by choosing masculine out of habit of first place I would also argue (based on m y intuition alone I do not have empirical evidence here) that many feminist linguists are equally susceptible to the ease of masculine-first orders as many of them argue against hierarch y -enforcing language while using male-female ordered forms (Lakoff 1975 and Cameron 1992 are two examples) From m y own experience I too after working in feminist linguistics for y ears and while writing a thesis on the subject fall subject to female last word orders M y first draft of this chapter contained 11 red marks from m y chair where I had written about the woman after the man. This shows the power of gender ranking to affect us outside of our human awareness even in those who activ e l y work against it.

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74 ( and the English language in general) it is natural and easy to deny Agency to women and to grant Agency to men On the same toke~ it takes actual conscientiousness and attentiveness to speak of women as Agents Sentence and Discourse Patterns and Teen Women's Agency Nominal morphological patterns and lexical choices establish teen women s basic identity within teen magazines Adjectival morphology ranks this identity as well as the other facets of teen women's culture Word order patterns involving women and men solidify the relationship of these identities to teen men The syntax and discourse patterns of the magazines the very way that sentences are built and sentences arranged together into larger units of discourse however complete the formulation of teen women s identity Here teen women become doers experiencers or recipients of the world ; it is here in syntax and discourse that teen women are paired with verbs and the combination of teen woman type and teen woman verb type shape the final face of teen women within magazines Each syntactic and discourse category has ramifications for, and affects teen women s Agency The most Agentive of all syntactic and discourse pattern are those with teen women subjects., particularly teen women agents Agency and agency Linguistic agency as a semantic role is the most Agentive of all subject types In this category teen women are full actors and participate in the actions of the teen magazine world Examples of agent semantic roles include : "Andrea started .. (p 138) and ''you're using" (p.236) in Seventeen 1998 ; "Arial created .. (p.57) and ''you answer' (p 42) in YM 1998; "Kerry jokes . (p 134) from Seventeen 2000, "girls do .. (p 91)

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75 from Yi\12000; .. says Natalie" (p 117) in Teen 1998; ''you re snowboarding" (p 65) in Teen 2000; ''you apply'' (p 109) from Teen 1998 ; 'you question" (p 64) in Yi\12000 ; ''you studied for'' (p 38) in Teen 2000 ; and ''you're directing" (p 119) from Seventeen 2000 In these sentences the teen woman performs the action of the verb of the sentence Of the total number of discourse types however, agency only totals 8 5 8 sentences or 10. 4 % of the total discourse In breaking down utterances with teen women semantic subjects of all other semantic role subject types agency is the largest. However all other semanti c roles and discourse types in some way deny Agency to teen women In other words approximately 90% of teen magazine discourse is non-Agentive and as such, deny limit and/or condition the Agency of teen women Denial of Agency by Semantic Role The second largest category of semantic roles for teen is experiencer. In the role of experiencer the teen woman perceives or endures the sensation of a verb of perception but she is not responsible for the action Such verbs include verbs of feeling emotion and the senses Examples of teen woman experiencers include "if you like (Teen 2000 : 54 ); "how you look" (YM 1998 : 26) girls really dig (Seventeen 1998 : 32) ... and you enjoy . (Teen 2000 : 38) a style you love (Seventeen 2000 : 54) ; 'you feel" (all magazines multiple occurrences) "all the excuses I need (YM 1998 : 26) 'you look . (Teen 1998 : 36) and some women experience (Seventeen 2000 : 132). In these sentences the teen woman does not initiate the action or feeling that she is sensing ; instead she undergoes the experience and the experience takes her over In this sense she is not an Agentive actor upon the world but a feeler and a sensor without Agency over

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76 those sensations Experiencer sentences total 349 and make up 4 2 % of teen magazine discourse The next category of semantic roles for teen women is the benefacti v e and possessive roles In these two roles the teen woman again lacks Agency ; she either receives or owns an object or trait respectively The teen woman does not however instigate the action that allows her to acquire these i tems The sentence only references the result of said action ; the teen woman is the end of the action, not the means In benefactive sentences teen women receive or become beneficiaries of a given object as a result of an action performed by someone else In man y instances of benefactives in teen magazines the someone else is either the magazine or a t een man As such, the magazine or a teen man is the agent ( the means ) of the given process as either could easil y be inserted in the sentence in a '~om" -phrase in most of the benefactive sentences Two specific examples include "How can a girl get your attention?" (YM 1998 : 32) and 'Wai Yim Lam wins ... (Teen 1998 : 115) In the first example the '~om" agent clause would be '~om you [a teen man]," while the second could read "wins .. from Teen magazine The man and Teen respectively are the agents of giving while the teen woman waits passively to receive her object [Y]ou 're probably getting opinions ( Seventeen 2000 : 110) 'you ended up with . ( Seventeen 2000 : 68) 'you get a reaction (YM 1998 : 110) and ''you got (Teen 2000 : 38) further illustrate this point. Possessive sentences take benefactives one step further In these sentences the focus on the teen woman is her ownership of X For example 'you ve got" and ''you have .. occur frequently in all magazines while 'Erin and Laura had ... (p 238) from Seventeen 2000 and 'you own" (p 118) in Teen 1998 are more specific illustrations. In

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77 these sentences, teen women's identity is described by her consumption and possession, and not by what she does This is not an atypical 'i'eminine" identity as women are often associated with the items they purchase and consume (Loeb 1994, Roberts 1998). Furthermore, it is often the role of women to inactively "obtain" from fully Agentive men Possessives and benefactives sentences, or teen women as passive recipients and owners, combine form approximately 1 7% of magazine discourse totaling 13 7 utterances The next semantic roles in teen magazines for teen women are modals and volitionals These units offer no Agency to teen women ; instead as the subject of modal and volitional verb phrases, teen women are fully subject to the will of the interlocutor issuing the statement In other words modal verbs express interlocutor will in some way either weak will, in modals, or very strong will in volitionals Modals and volitionals typically offer authoritative suggestions ; in the case of teen magazines these suggestions are from the magazine writers and editors to the teen woman Again, any Agency in the sentence comes from the magazine ; the teen woman is somehow needy of the suggestion "You can count" (Teen 1998 : 52) ''you might find" (Seventeen 1998 : 28) she could get .. (Seventeen 2000 : 238) "you may think"(YM 2000 : 36) ''you would probably (YM 2000 : 44) ''you might find out (YM 1998 : 116) and ''you may not want (Teen 2000 : 44) illustrate weaker modal suggestions while ''you must remember (Seventeen 2000 : 148) "every girl should have (Teen 2000: 40) 'you gotta realize (YM 2000: 68) ''you have to decide" (Teen 2000 : 40) ''you must look (Teen 1998 : 91) ''you need to go back" (Seventeen 2000 : 148) and ''you should just stop (YM 2000 : 68) exemplify the stronger willed volitionals In each instance, the magazine pushes the passive teen reader along as she "can "might "may "must "needs to" and "should" do ; the magazines

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78 nudge her to complete their desired actions that she has not yet done. She has very little Agency in modals and volitionals; the magazines "suggest" and she is supposed to capitulate. Modals and Volitionals, the covert "advice" of the magazines to readers account, for 423 or 5 1% of the discourse of teen magazines Teen women lose another 5% Agency in their own magazines as subjects of their own sentences The final category of semantic roles of teen women subjects is the process and passive set In these sentences, teen women have the least amount of Agency they can while still being subjects of sentences. While in process sentences teen women experience a change of state, in passive sentences they are completely and utterly acted upon as patients/objects "[T]um[ing] 16" (YM 2000 : 86) "if you become .. (Seventeen 2000 : 151 ), and "one lady . will become" (YM 1998 : 121) all demonstrate teen women undergoing the process of state changing, either by "becoming" or '1:urning The teen women, again have no power in or agency over the process ; the process overtakes them Teen women '1:um" and 'become with no effort or activity of their own. Teen women lose Agency in a similar means through passive sentence constructions. In these sentences teen women occur in the subject slot of the sentence as passive objects of action verbs Examples include "females were put on earth" (Seventeen 2000 : 84) ''we girls are faced with .. (Seventeen 2000 : 76), girls are subtly trained" (Seventeen 2000: 241) ''models get glizted" (Teen 1998 : 114), .. get you noticed" (YM 2000 : 86) ... [we can] still be respected" (Seventeen 2000 : 241), and "you re hurt by" (Teen 1998 : p 30) "Girls," "you," ''we," "females," and "models" are not actually performing the action of the verb, but instead are the ones who are done to or acted upon by the verb agent In many passive examples the agent is not present ; in others, the agent

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79 follows ''by" in a prepositional phrase Whether present or absent however the agent is always implied and the patient never participates in the action directed at her This means that the ''females were put on earth" by someone else girls are subtly trained by someone else "models are glitzed by someone else get you noticed by someon e e l se and 'we are respected" by someone else This is the most passive position (hence the name of the verb type) for any subject as it only implies a movement of an object from typical object position following the verb to a subject slot prior to that verb Teen women have no Agency but exist in their typical object positio~ in the 54 utterances or 7% of magazine sentences Denial of Agency by Negative Agency Not all subject semantic roles for teen women are positive In fact 2 7% or 225 sentences with teen woman subjects are either overtly negative or have a negative semantic frame In these instances teen women are denied positive Agency, but are granted Negative Agency when they are responsible for a problem Examples occur in all themes of the magazine, including "if you re constantly freaking out (Teen 2000 : 36 ), ... girl will steal him away (Teen 1998 : 28) 'you 'll moan and groan" ( Teen 2000 : 38) "if you don't please this guy (YM 2000: 52) "Do you hide your true self from guys?" ( YM 2000 : 11) 'you pureed your heart" (YM 1998 : 60) "if you lack .. (YM 2000: 40 ), the excuses you re making (YM 1998 : 26) ... why are you acting like you still wear Osh Kosh ... ?" (YM 1998 : 44) More than half all examples however occur in advice columns, dating and relationships articles makeup and beauty features or in quizzes all of the feature articles that function to critique, evaluate and advise the teen reader. This is specifically important with regards to teen woman s Agency While teen magazines are

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80 responsible for creating and negotiating teen women's identity within their pages a major part of the identity in advisement features is negative As such, teen magazines use negative agency as another discourse device to again presume that their reader is somehow lacking or to blame her for a given problem that they later solve'.' through advice discourse She must be flawed without Agency in order to sell her solutions Denial of Agency through Emulation As is apparent from the numbers in the data above not all subjects of teen magazine sentences are teen women 6 5% of all sentences or 535 total have women "star" subjects or women experts professionals celebrities and/or public figures 487 of these 535 are actually 'women star agents It is crucial to differentiate between teen women and teen and adult women celebrities As first mentioned by Ostermann and Keller-Cohen (1998), magazines often make use of "expert" and "professional" physicians psychiatrists scientists scholars makeup artists fashion designers and others to solidify and support the advice offered by the magazine while distancing such advice from the magazine editors and writers in order to maintain a shared discourse community with the reader Such stars are not part of the teenage discourse community but rather are often admired and respected by the magazines and the readers as somehow being more worldly or more knowledgeable than the average" teen woman reader. In fact, in YM 2000 a series of stars guest-edited and/or wrote for the magazine Teen women the readers particularly do not have this same ability. Magazines generally make use of"stars" in one of three ways While the "experts" and "stars" in this category are women, the uses of the women "stars" all function differently to deny Agency to teen women Magazines first use "stars," as "entertainers"

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81 or "celebrities," as subject material for their magazine Writers and editors report on the activities likes and needs of these celebrities such as she 's*4 traveling ( Seventeen 199 8 : 132), "[she*] worked her way'' (Seventeen 2000 : 72) 'Maria Patillo* plays . ( Teen 1998 : 45), "Lila* sang ... (YM 1998 : 115) Jessica* made ... (YM 2000 : 94 ) and ''Emily* finds . (Teen 2000 : 97) Readers are directed to participate in admiration of stars as Seventeen 1998 issues the cover directi v e to readers to ''tell us the stars y ou l ove and hate" (Cover) Magazines also interview the stars who grace their covers either as models" or "entertainers," telling how model "Sasha* had adapted . ( Teen 1998 : 8 ), actor "Shiri Appleby* decided .. (Seventeen 2000: 168) and singer 'Chilli* bears her soul .. (YM 2000: 91 ) Some star subject discourse is pure gossip telling how Tori Spelling* caused a big buzz (Seventeen 2000 : 182) 'Natasha Lynne* heats up .. (YM 1998 : 28) and how 'Tiffani-Amber Theissen* ... rented (Seventeen 2000 : 182 ) The world in which these stars 'work 'travel and cause big buzzes is not the world of the teen woman reader. Instead, magazines present such discourse to be emulated by the teen reader ~ teen readers should read admire aspire to and emulate the actions of the woman stars within the pages This is an area of Agency ( and a speech community) that is not realistically open to the teen woman reader the Agency of the star Other magazine features support this position Throughout the magazines such stars are dressed in beautiful clothing and adorned with fancy makeup and profess i onal hairstyles that contrast with the real life" pictures of teen readers in teen-related profile articles The teen readers, however, are given the opportunity to look like these coiffed 4 I use the asterisk to indicate that a person is a "star," since the asterisk symbol looks like a mini-star and was one of the few symbols accepted in m y database program

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82 and decorated stars, and obtain what they have through contests or by product placements under their profiles For example although later interviewed over three pages on her personal and professional life actor Katie Holmes* has a look that is obtainable by teen readers as Seventeen 1998 instructs "to get a look like Katie's* try ... (p 12); although Sasha* the model's "studies as a junior at Beverly Hills High School are [her] top priority," the reader can purchase her "eyes [products] lips [products] skin [products] choker and dress" (Teen 1998 : 8) ; in addition, while Teen 2000 features star sisters Melissa Joan* and Emily* Hart in both a personal interview on sisterhood and in a guest advice column on sister questions the reader is encouraged to enter the contest on the cover and ''Win this Cover Look! of their dresses Teen 2000 (Cover page) Teen women have the Agency to read about these stars evaluate and/or imitate these women, but they lack the Agency that the star women possess The closest that the teen woman can come is the emulation of these women, such as the purchasing of products used b y them The second use of stars other than as magazine subjects is as subtle magazine advertisements In many cases stars are overtly placed next to a directive for or a picture and price of, their clothes hairstyle makeup skin products movie TV show or CD. While stars as subjects are found most in entertainment articles stars as advertisements occur most frequently in the Makeup Beauty and Fashion and Fitness sections of the magazines The star is usually pictured prominently and the language on the page describes in detail the relationship of the star to the given advertised items while listing the price and or availability of each item For example in a fashion feature actor Christina Ricci* is pictured in various outfits with language that reads Christina* choose ... and

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83 "Christina* put on her .. (Seventeen 2000 : 50) while outlining each fashion and accessory piece. In a fitness feature called "Sweat like the stars," four celebrities, Alison*, Alex*, Essense* and Christine* are pictured exercising as "[they*] lunge and squat, kick box, hip-hop dance and practice martial arts" (Seventeen 1998: 78) The article then issues the directives "Do it like Essence*," ''Do it like Alison*," and ''Do it like Christine*" above various exercises for the reader to try, as readers are directed to "follow along these rising celebs for totally glam results." In Teen 1998 an article called ''Runway radiance" features the makeup of a spring fashion show In this article nameless models are pictured wearing the makeup of star designers ; the article tells that designer ''Nicole Miller* ... featured glitter-glazed lips, cheeks and eyes" and how designer "Vivi enne Tam* took a sublet approach to the sparkly skin look" (Teen 1998 : 114) The products are placed next to or above such expressions of star agency while under such expressions Teen issues directives and prices such as 'Highlight your face with Prescriptives's Monocream Sheer Color in Whisper (above), $20 Teen magazines selectively utilize star agency in order to manipulate their teen woman readers They use star agency as advertising placements joined with directives and assume that because teen women are somehow needy or fundamentally must improve, the star power will boost the directive power. Such negative assumption denies teen reader's Agency and exploits readers emulation of such stars with the very stars that readers admire The final way that women stars are used against teen women, or to deny teen women s Agency is by use of star experts as referred to by Ostermann and Keller-Cohen (1998) Teen magazines support their advice columns, health and well-being features sex and the body and relationship articles with expert opinions by professionals physicians

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84 psychiatrists and counselors They do this to solidify and support the advice offered by the magazine while they keep themselves within the discourse community of the teen reader (Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998) It is the expert who provides the advice, the teen magazine simply relies the message Examples usually involve direct quotes from the star expert outlined by the magazine with verbs of speaking as in ''Dr. Jacobson* says ... and ''Dr. Jacobson* suggests ... (YM 1998 : 36), ''Dr. Jaliman* recommends" (YM 2000 : 115), ''Dr. McGrath* says ... (YM 1998 : 60) "Hillyer* stresses .. (Teen 1998 : 70) .. cautions Dr. Debbie*" (YM 1998 : 48) and" ... says Paula Hillard, l\ID*" (Teen 2000 : 42) The magazines actually issue the directives and volitionals that order or advise the teen women readers the discourse devices that assume, again, that teen women are in need of improvement or fixing. However the magazines manipulate the placement of experts' agency to make it appear that the experts, and not the magazine, pass judgment on the teen reader Once again, however this practice actually works against teen women and their Agency as the agency of the star professionals strengthens their necessity for change Denial of Agency by Sex The two largest discourse categories in the magazines individually after teen woman agency are male subjects (836) and male star subjects (559), respectively .5 Together however male subjects account for 16.9%, of all total magazine discourse ~ of 5 In the original data set I separated male subjects from male star subjects For the purpose of analysis however I now combine the two subjects I separate teen women and women stars because teen women stars are fundamentally out of the discourse community of teen women they either serve as models mentors experts or advertisers to be emulated. Both teen men and male entertainers however are also outside of the teen woman s discourse community Both serve as advisors and experts as teen magazines frequently use average teen men s opinions as baselines for advice for teen women readers As such, in this discussion section, I have combined the two into one discourse category

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85 that, 11. 7% is male agency Therefore, within the magazines, men and men stars agent semantic roles combined outnumber the 10 .4% of magazine discourse that contains a nonstar teen woman agent. While teen woman subjects are more numerous than men and men star subjects, men s agency outnumbers teen women's agency in teen women s magazines The effect of this pattern on teen women's Agency is obvious Within their own magazines, teen women do and act less than teen men and male stars and celebrities When examining teen women and teen men s agency together however, more insidious patterns emerge. Both teen women and teen men have distinct spheres of agency Teen women are most frequently agents in Teen Focus News and Issues articles and in Makeup Beauty and Fashion features In contrast teen men s agency is somewhat low here ; men s 83 in Teen Focus News and Issues contrasts with teen women s 306 and men s 16 in Makeup Beauty and Fashion contrasts with women s 66. Men are most frequently agents in Datin& Relationships and Guys articles Quizzes and Advice on Guys and Dating. In these categories women contrast with men at numbers of 54 to men s 126 in Dating Relationships and Guys articles 94 to 13 in Quizzes, and 84 to 5 5 in Advice on Guy s and Dating. While in Relationship advice columns teen women are closer in agency to teen men, in actual relationship features teen men s agency more than doubles that of teen women Furthermore teen women as negative agents occur most in these three sections Relationships Quizzes and Advice Guys and Dating This means double condemnation for teen women They are agents when it concerns only women, in teen women s news and in beautification of their personal appearance However, in spheres of teen culture that possibly involve teen men, such as

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86 quizzes that evaluate teen women s behaviors toward men, dating advice columns and features on relationships with men, teen women not only have less agency but they have more negative agency than men do So they lose positive agency and gain negative agency in spheres involving men By specifically investigating agency and theme correlations teen women's Agency conditions become clear ; teen women are allowed Agency in news directly pertaining to their lives (such as profiles of teen readers) and when they beautify themselves for men, but in relationships and quizzes, positive Agency is more a domain of teen men than teen women These conditioned spheres of agency in relationship articles and quizzes result in two specific discourse tendencies for teen women's Agency within teen magazines First, teen women are more often objects to male subjects and are more often negative ''blamer'' agents to men s positive agency Specific examples illustrate such object-subject relations : 'he compliments you" (YM 1998 : 32) "he calls you (Seventeen 1998 : 80) ''he begs you and he asks you" (Seventeen 1998 : 114) guys clue you in (Teen 1998 : 40), .. girl he s taking" (Teen 1998 : 38) "this one keeps you" (YM 2000 : 62), "a guy to like you" (Seventeen 2000 : 144) 'Is he flirting with you?" (Teen 2000 : Cover Page) ... [he] dishes out compliments gifts and affection to make girls melt" (Teen 2000 : 59) . a guy who will do anything to get a girl" (Seventeen 2000 : 192) ... a stud invites you" (YM 1998 : 44) ... a Scott Wolf look-alike ask you out" (Teen 2000 : 85) and 'why he wows you (YM 2000 : 44) In a ''Real Life Section Quiz" ironically meant to stress female independence, entitled ''Is he healthy for you? one reads "he gives you . and "[he] forbids you" (Teen 1998 : 66) Teen 1998 also contributes with ''How your date feels about you" (p. 38) "he'll think you're psycho" (p.40) and "he s afraid of allowing you too

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87 much freedom" (p.70); YM 1998 has "What kind of girls do [men] dig?" (p.28), "he now regards you in a more girlfriend-worthy light" (p.32), "it's flattering that he's into you" (p.157), "Six clues he's noticed you" (p 32) and "He found the perfect way to show you how special he thinks you are" (p 38) In all of the examples the teen woman is the object, while a teen man is the subject. The last example above is negative in three ways ; there are double female objects and masculine subjects in both the dependent and independent clauses and the ranking of"perfect. In quizzes relationships and dating advice columns women are "done to" and men are the "doerst women are passive and men are active the actors of the sentence Object-subjects are already ranked in English, given the singularity postulate of derivational thinking and the primacy and necessity of English subject positions (Hardman 2002 Personal Communication) This promotes a hierarchy in relationships and perpetuates the link between women and objecthood 'To woman, there is . a conflict between her autonomous existence and her objective self .. she is taught to make herself object ; [and] . therefore renounce her autonomy" (de Beauvoir 1989 : 280) In some examples, however teen women do appear in the subject position along with men when the teen women s clause is negated or overtly negative In many cases the sentences occur together to form larger units of discourse For example Teen 1998 instructs readers in a guy-likes article "Don't stare at him constantly he 'll think you're psycho" (p 40) in guy talk section of YM 1998 guys were polled and their answers were given to the question What look-at-me-move do girls make that bugs you?" (p 32) Teen 2000 asks readers "Could your crush be sending signals you re not catching?" (p 58) and in a relationship advice column YM 1998 reads" ... it's hard for him to deal with his

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88 feelings, so he's keeping mute. Don't hassle him about it or you may weird him out more" (p 36) Teen men do not take equal responsibility in the problems of the relationship as Seventeen 1998 prints on the cover ''Is he really a jerk? Why you fight with your boyfriend [ emphasis mine]." In this example and the article while both the teen woman and the man participate in the relationship arguments it is the teen woman who appears in the subject position while the boyfriend exists as an oblique an object of a preposition Teen women often experience both ends of a negative agency spectrum ; while YM 2000 asks teen women readers "Do you hide your true self from guys ?," it questions teen readers later Are you too quick to change your looks and likes to please a boy?" (p 44) In addition., teen woman's negative agency often results in contradictory identities for teen women (contradictory advice is discussed in Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998) ; YM2000 begins a relationship article with 'Think he s too popular too stuck on sports or too shy to notice you? No way you just need the right sweetie strategy and advises teen women how to alter their behavior in order to get the attention of a teen man It later adds contradictorily 'Catching his eye isn't as tough as you think and there's definitely no need to resort to an Energizer Bunny flirt-a-thon or act phony [emphasis mine]" (p 62) In both instances however the one uniting element throughout the contradiction is the negativity of the teen woman ; she is either needy of ''the right strategy' or directed not to resort to a . flirt-a-thon or act phony ." Denial of Agency by Male Hegemony While the objecthood and negative agency of teen women is maintained throughout much of the magazine discourse involving teen women and men, positive male hegemony is also supported by most of the magazine discourse In fact, one motif in the

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89 magazines is male hegemony, as teen women's lives, relationships, behavior, clothes and appearance are often judged by, or in response to, men's beliefs Each magazine includes a section on "Guys," expressing teen men's opinions YM's is called "Guy Talk," in which writers pose questions, such as "How can a girl get your attention?" (YM 1998 : 32) to teen men (note that the teen woman is in a benefactive role, attention is in a patient role and the teen man is the agent) and then post their answers Teen bas an advice column "Ask a Guy," in which a teen man answers reader-invited problem questions and "average" teen men are questioned things like ''What do guys think when girls try to be perfect for them?" (Teen 1998 : 28). Teen also has a column entitled "Guy Likes Guy Gripes" where Teen writers take to "the streets" and question teen men regarding teen women. Seventeen also has an advice column for those who would like to "Ask a Boy. YM takes matters even further They print a column called "Romance" whose sole purpose is to highlight men s positive agency Although both teen women and men take part in romance together, YM publishes requested stories from readers only about "his random acts of kindness," (YM 2000: 48) and "his amazing anniversary move" (YM 1998 : 38). Men even judge teen women's clothing; YM2000 boasts ''Dress to Thrill : Guys Reveal The Looks They Love" (Cover page) Lastly in YM any articles deemed "eye-catching" enough for the cover page stories, ( and thus those that appear on the cover) are starred in the table of contents ; the only section in the table of contents to have ALL articles starred and on the cover was the section entitled "Guys Not only are teen men s responses, judgments and opinions central to whole articles within the magazines, but teen men are also central to the advice and information within the articles In other words, male hegemony structures teen magazine articles as

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90 well as the content of the articles Men's behavior is fundamentally taken as a given, and positive or negative this behavior is rarely judged by the magazines Teen men are to be taken as they are and teen women, instead are the ones who should change in response to teen men. This does not mean that teen men are never presented negatively ; in contrast they carry negative semantics at times The difference between teen women and men within the magazines is that whether teen men behave well or poorly i t is the responsibility of the teen woman to adjust her life and actions to his Furthermore if she misbehaves the magazines scold her for it ; if a teen man misbehaves he i s either acting like a 'typical male or he is not a good person Either way he is not expected to correct his wrong doings and magazines even provide lingu i stic discourse features that act as e x cuses for the negativity of the man In sum, there exists a double standard for teen women and men in positive and negative agency in teen magazines that again denies positive Agency to teen women ; teen women adjust their lives to teen men and not vice versa Examples clarify the process of male hegemony in teen magazines In an entertainment piece illustrating the spring s movies called Spring Flick Fever," T ee n 199 8 outlines six pages worth of upcoming films Of the six pages of films four are devoted to films with male stars while on the bottom of the last two pages (note that women follow men in order) Teen chooses three films featuring women actors These three films contrast with the seven with male stars next to this text, "Sure this Spring is majorly manly but we like chick flicks too, in cool girlie movies" (p 51) In addition, in the body of text describing the seven films with prominent male actors Teen writes the following guidelines under the directives See it With .. ;" "Got a babe [man] you can claw your

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91 nails into during a fright-fest? One who'll dig it when you hide your eyes on his shoulder?" under the scary movie, ... if your idea of exercise is pumping your mascara wand, catch it with the jock you've been crushin' on" under the sports movie "you re favorite wild man" under the Tarzan film and ''With the Wild West theme the brotherly bonding and probably lots of bullets flying, you may be tempted to go with your guy . under the W estem action film The magazine assumes that certain movies are "guy' films so teen readers must have men accompany them Teen 2000 makes use of guy presumptions as well ; in order to issue teen readers directives in an article titled Advice you can t live without," Teen orders readers to get to know your guy side . and change a tire fix a faucet, set up the VCR. Ask your friend s (cute) older brother to show you how" (p 65) In this example the only the Agency the teen woman possesses is that of asking a man for help as cars pluming and electronics are out of her domain of Agency A Teen 2000 article called ''What's his Flirtsonality?" contains an enormous amount of male hegemony It begins by contrasting female negative and male positive agency asking "Could your crush be sending signals you re not sensing?" (p. 58) The article writers then provide a solution for the teen reader s negative problem, saying "Get to know his 'flirt'sonality' (the personality he fronts to get girls) and get tuned into his attempts (p 58) Note that the teen woman s negative needs are those to be fixed as she must be responsible for getting to know him and for passively getting tuned into his attempts In addition, he is allowed to, and is never reprimanded in this quiz for fronting" or posing one personality to women in order to "get" them While teen women are scolded for acting phon y'' (YM 2000 : 62) the teen man is not onl y allowed to front," but it is the teen reader s responsibility to decipher his fronting so that she can flirt back,"

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92 by not only learning his "flirtsonality," but by talcing a quiz on it (p 59) The article next contains the actual quiz in which the readers evaluate the teen man they are interested in contrast to the three common categories that magazine quizzes place teen women into teen men get five: "the party animal, lover, hero tough guy serious one confident" (p 59) Unlike quizzes that evaluate teen women's behavior teen men s final categories are all Agentive. After placing the men into the five categories magazines then tell teen women how to ''flirt back" their Agency follows the man s of course Finally in the advice on how to ''flirt back," women often take a support rather than Agentive role in their own flirting ; one column issued the directives Show appreciation for his gestures ... and Thank him ... to the teen reader flirting back with 'The Love r, while the teen woman flirting with the 'Party Animal was directed to ''Help him plan his next bash" and Join the clean-up crew and laugh at his jokes (p 59) In other articles male hegemonic statements include "When he s got good news ... he 'll tell you (p 32) and ''Pay him a compliment showing him your extreme level of worship" from YM 1998 (p 43) ; ... so he can show off the beauty (teen woman) on his arm" in (Teen 1998 : 66) ; and Teen 2000 readers are told in a makeup feature that they should 'Pick a perfume to match his personality'' (p. 18) In an article entitled ''The crush list Teen 2000 featured a number of adult men stars including Fred Durst* and Mark McGrath* The magazine encouraged teen readers to write to these stars under the directive "Contact [PN]" next to the astrological sign, relationship status compatibility signs and answer to the question he likes girls who . for each man The men, of course were not condemned for their lifestyles ; each man was equally encouraged to be a crush" figure even though Fred Durst* has an eight year old child and Mark McGrath* lives

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93 with his girlfriend, but rumor has it, he's still playing the field" and "likes girls who pump his ego" (p.53) No mention is made of the fact that magazines present adult men with children close in age to the readers as figures of attraction, nor is the unfaithful and sexist behavior of Mark McGrath* admonished or reprimanded Quite the contrary actually exists ~ teens are directed to contact them On final example of male hegemony and the double standard for positive and negative agency occurred in a Teen 2000 advice column A reader wrote in about how her boyfriend had read her diary and she was upset about it. The answer given by the magazine to this teen woman was that she should not have been so "obsessed" with him. The teen man who violated her trust and invaded her personal space was barely mentioned, yet she was scolded (p 44) Unfortunately, within the pages of teen magazines a subtle male dominance permeates articles This hegemony not only lessens the positive Agency of teen readers in magazines for them, but it also exacerbates their negative Agency and responsibility One last realization of male hegemony in teen magazines is the denial of men s negative agency This only occurs 9 times total in the magazine and accounts for 1% of the discourse patterns Nonetheless, it is still a device that denies teen women s positive Agency and teen men s negative Agency Furthermore when considered with the other linguistic devices that weaken women and strengthen men in teen discourse it is a small part of an overridingly large force For example in an article advising a teen woman who had been abused by an adult man, the magazine read "your teacher's unwanted attention makes you feel.. "Any gestures that make you," . .if his obsession is coupled with ... and ... if something creeps you out. . or makes you nervous ... (Seventeen 2000 : 146) In each instance the male teachers negative Agency was nominalized into instrumental

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94 noun phrases, so that the instrument, and not the man himself, acts as the agent of the sentence The way that the magazines present this abusing teacher obscure his fault in the damaging process and focus instead on the teen woman ; it appears that unwanted attention," "gestures " his obsession" and something" cause the teen woman to be uncomfortable, rather than the man who actually commits the action YM 2000 has a similar statement saying "women have been injured . (p 22) leaving out the by men agentive phrase, while Seventeen 1998 nominalizes a teen man's negative behavior into an opinion" in ... his opinion demeans you" (p.82) Finally in a relationship advice article (referred to above) in which a teen man sneaks and reads his girlfiiend s diary, as the teen woman is being scolded for her obsession" with the teen man that she detailed in her diary the teen man s fault is reduced to the following phrase .. his nose didn't belong in it (p 44) So again, while the teen woman is reprimanded the teen man is excused ; his negative Agency is reduced to the synecdoche of his nose Overt Denials of Agency Thus far teen women have been denied Agency through various subtle processes ; they have either lost Agency through occupying different subject positions and semantic roles that place them as recipients feelers, possessors and objects rather than actors They have lost Agency by not belonging to the world of women stars who advise direct and guide them They have lost Agency because they have been constructed under negative semantics or in utterances that negate their ability Lastly they have been denied Agency by their gender alone by not possessing the dominance and power in given spheres that magazines give to men

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95 In addition to these subtle ways in which teen women are conditioned to act in specific spheres and under certain conditions there are also more overt forces that limit the full personhood of teen women These overt Denials of Agency function slightly differently that the denials so far ~ while in the more covert denials of Agency the teen woman loses positive Agency primarily by magazines giving it to someone else in overt Denials of Agency the teen woman sacrifices Agency through processes that reduce or limit the teen woman herself In other words, overt Denials of Agency work through first minimizing or compartmentalizing the teen woman; the loss of Agency follows Overt Denials of Agency combined account for 2 .9/4 of magazine discourse with 243 examples in the data set Denial of Agency by Instrumentation and Synecdoche Just as men have their negative Agency reduced through nominalization into synecdoche and/or an instrumental noun phrase so too do teen women have their positive Agency reduced by similar processes In fact both Denial of Agency through Synecdoche and Denial of Agency through Instrumentation are two prominent ways in which magazine discourse constructs the teen woman s world by taking away credit for the things that she does in that world When a teen woman is reduced to a part of her body and the body part (and not the whole teen woman) is the agent of the sentence the teen woman has lost Agency through Denial of Agency through Synecdoche In this process the teen woman does not accomplish the actions of the verb ~ her body part is responsible For example in an article profiling prominent Afiican-American women in the US one woman was reduced to her work, as ... Simon s message is most clearly heard in (Seventeen 2000 : 114) Note also

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96 here that the sentence is passive so "Simon" is first diminished to "Simon s message and then "Simon s message is diminished to a patient object role In a beauty article in Teen 2000 a white woman loses Agency to her hair ... her . stands top the look and later her lips . so her lips could take second stage" (p 22) A woman singing trio loses credit of their success to their dance ability in YM 2000 by ... the trio s dance moves have made them ... (p 91) Lastly a teen woman is told ... your self assurance will show . in a friendship advice column in Seventeen 2000 (p 144 ) A body part or personal characteristic takes the Agency of the teen woman Agency is taken from teen women in a similar yet more frequent process Teen women are also denied Agency through instrumentation, a process in which a third person, inanimate object performs the action related to the teen woman Denial of Agency is particularly common in areas where teen women otherwise have Agency in the magazine in the Makeup Fashion and Beauty articles For example in multiple Makeup Fashion and Beauty articles S eventeen 2000 discusses the Agency of various products as in your accessories make a bold statement (p. 2 20) [hues] to spice up your prom night" (p. 222) ''Ribbons rings and sandals to floor a date ... (p 17) Clips barrettes and headbands to get you gorgeous ... (p 17) A. . gloss gives lips . (p .22 4), and ... undereye circles and blemishes are banished with Benefit's It Stick . ( p 58) Here the accessories," ''hues " ribbons, rings and sandals " clips barrettes and headbands," gloss and Benefit' s It Stick do the work; i f the teen woman is mentioned she is either an object or a benefactor of such Agency YM 2000 makes similar contributions telling about smokin gear that 'll put sizzle in your style (p 14 ) charm him clues (p 62) ''20 ways to boost your confidence (Cover page) ... what does and

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97 doesn't -get you noticed ... (p. 86), ... dresses that'll dazzle 'em" (p. 97) that "This season's ... shades light up the faces" (p. l 02) and that "Carlie's tank juices up ... a skirt" (p 113) Furthermore "conversation," "sparkle," "a dress," ''Body Haze" and makeup" fulfill a number of duties instead of teen women, as "one ... convo with you should leave him jonesin' for more" (YM 1998 : 4 3 ) a ... sparkle made eyes striking" ( Seventeen 1998 : 114) ''Urban Decay's .. Body Haze delivers cool color .. to your face" (Seventeen 1998 : 60), ... this dress will leave a lasting impression ... (YM 1998 : 98) and ... a single stick of makeup can keep you gorgeous (YM 1998 : 20) The magazines assume that teen women can not accomplish these tasks, and then advertise products that will If the teen women were presented as actual accomplishers then the teen women, and not the products would be in the agent position However, that would leave the products with no use and the teen women with no need of them In sum, to sell products teen magazines create need by denying teen women s Agency Deni.al of Agency through Whiteness The next denial of Agency involves compartmentalizing and limiting the teen woman, but in a slightly different way Under this pattern teen women of color are either suffixed to or erased from the population of teen women Agents reducing teen women Agents to white teen women only In other words in the same way that women are derived from unmarked male roots through suffixation, so too are women of color and their culture seemingly marked and derived from, white women and white women's culture The default teen woman equals teen white woman, where this whiteness is unmarked Examples clarify this phenomenon ; in a feature on solutions to potential prom problems, Teen advised readers to use "self-tanners if you re pale . (p 109) not if

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98 'you re white and pale," but "if you re pale In makeup articles across magazines teen women of color with dark skin are suffixed to advice for white women and white bodies as in "Apply a lavender-toned shadow, like Clinique Soft-Pressed Eye Shadow in Sheer Necessity (any purple shade will do) but if you have dark skin .. (Seventeen 1998 : 204) and in advice based on skin color (like recommendations for foundation and blush) dark colored skin advice follows that of light skin, as in Seventeen 2000 s makeup column (p 62). White culture is assumed to be everyone s culture but African-American culture is for African-Americans For example Seventeen 2000 ran an article in support of Black History but it was not in the Real Life section nor was it a feature piece ~ it occurred in the Who Knew? Section which highlights 'unusual" and interesting news pieces as well as the latest trends It read ''Meet four African-American women" (p 114) and assumed that these prominent women leaders and activists were unknown to the readers and that Seve nteen would introduce them The question remains, however as to whether these women were really unknown to African-American women or only to whites Seventeen 2000 appropriated a Native American term and applied it to the discussion of teen news talking of white teens personal powwows (p 239) Lastly much of the discourse here is actually hard to quantify as part of this discourse pattern is a lack of Agency of women of color and an ignorance of cultures of color. There are no ads for skin or hair products for women of color nor discussions of health problems that affect one cultural group over another ( such as sickle-cell anemia or the everyday psychological physical and emotional affects of living in racist society) While there is one feature article on race relations in Teen 1998 this article discusses both "prejudice against blacks Hispanics or Asians as well as "prejudice against Caucasians (p 60), as if discrimination against whites exists

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99 The only way this article is allowed in a teen magazine, however, is to make race a problemfor whites, rather than because of them Fundamentally, Agency depends on white skin, white values and a white body; if items of people of color's culture exist in, are shared with, or pertain to or affect whites, then, and only then, may they be included (although suffixed to whites in some way) or appropriated in the magazine However if elements of culture are unique to peoples of color then they are not for the domain of the teen magazine Agency is for white teen women Denials of Agency by Manipulation Directive Conditioned Agency One fundamental feature of magazine discourse is that it is a written simulated conversation between magazine writer and teen reader Within this conversation magazine writers make use of specific linguistic devices used in spoken exchange ; one used frequently is adjacency pairs In spoken conversation an adjacency pair is a two sequenced discourse unit that is initiated in one interlocutor turn and finished or continued in a second interlocutor s turn, such as a question from interlocutor A and an answer to that question from interlocutor B (Schegloff and Sacks 2000 : 265). These discourse items are designated pairs because they work together to complete a small segment of conversation as one generally needs the other The adjacency pairs in teen magazines are slightly different that those in spoken conversation Because teen magazines are speaking to an interlocutor that is not present they must not only assume the interlocutor's answers but also adjus t their language in result of that absent answer Because of this, the adjacency pairs most common in teen magazines are question-directive or agency sentence-directive sequences. An example of

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100 a question-directive sequence is, ''Think you have what it takes? Enter the seventeen/CHANEL New Model of the Year contest and find out" (Seventeen 1998 : 66) where the first half"Think you have what it takes?" is the question sequence followed by the directive ''Enter the ... contest and find out" to complete the pair Because the magazines have no access to the actual answer of their question, the second half of the adjacency pair becomes the magazine directive This pattern of question/directive pairs is quite common throughout the magazines Another common adjacency pair is the agency/directive set This set first consists of a sentence with a teen woman as an agentive subject while the second half issues a directive related to the teen agency of the first sentence For example in a feature entitled 'You shop in Teen 1998 a teen woman named Amy is featured with her favorite clothing and fashion picks Sentences quote Amy "'Denim s always cool,' declares Amy about this chambray underwear set" or" I always have a bunch of stuff, so I like big pockets,' Amy explains and describe her actions and feeling about the featured items on the page ''Being a bit of a hippie Amy gravitated toward this ethnic-print shirt" (p 24) After each quote or agency sentence the magazine gives the prices and brand names for each of the items At the bottom of the page a directive reads ''For fashion info [ the stores and locations of the products listed] see Where to Shop" (p 24) In essence Amy and her Agency are used to testify for the worth of the products so that the magazines can then advertise those products via directives to teen readers. Amy is functioning similarly to the star experts who validate the advice given by the magazines as magazines use Amy s agency to manipulate the Agency of teen women I call this pattern Directive Conditioned

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101 Agency to indicate the manipulation of teen reader's Agency through the Agency of another In addition to adjacency pairs directive conditioned Agency is also realized by agentive subordinate clauses within directives or by linked agency/directive clauses Examples from YM 1998 include ''Blast back and chest acne with a medicated body was every time you shower'' (p 18 ), ''Before you rinse away the remains of the day, make sure you're using ... (p 112), ''Using a lip brush and staying within the lines you've drawn, apply a matching layer of lipstick (p 22) and ''Don't eat in front of the TV or while you're talking on the phone" (p 83) ; Seventeen 1998 contributes with ''Enter to win ... while you listen to the hippest new music" (p. 90) and ''If you go abroad on a Service Station trip, expect to spend . (p 70), while Teen 1998 adds "Always apply deodorant after you dress" (p.108) and ''Defy the twinset trend if you dare and team it with a different color cardigan" (p.113) 2000 editions of the magazines also contain examples of directive conditioned Agency; YM 2000 provides ''Before you slather on any new facial lotion or potion, get the skin scoop on how its ingredients can work for you" (p.26) (note the resultant Denial of Agency through Instrumentation) and "Take pride in what you ve done" (p 85), while "After applying volumizing mousse (try Back to Basics Basic Texture Gel Control Volumizing Mousse) scrunch strands while you blowdry'' (p 17) comes from Teen 2000 Each directive clause either contains or is linked to a subordinate agentive clause to manipulate and condition the Agency of the teen woman In total approximately 3 3 % of teen magazine discourse was some type of directive conditioned Agency, totaling 274 instances throughout the magazine.

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102 Quiz Conditioned Agency Directives are not the only ways that teen magazines grant yet condition and manipulate teen women s Agency The last type of conditioned Agency occurs in one of the seemingly necessary and ubiquitous components of teen magazines -the quiz This last pattern of conditioned discourse Qui z Conditioned Agency, grants teen women Agency during the body of the quiz, only to later classify her into one of three or four categories based on the answers she gave to, and the specific Agencies she had in, the above questions Ostermann and Keller-Cohen (1998 ) have shown that quizzes involve negative presuppositions about teen women and give them contradictory and circular advice particularly in the questions asked and the categories assigned. I argue in addition, that the fact that quizzes provide Agency only to categorize teen women in order to later assert directives or advice," undermines the full personhood of the readers. The purpose of such Agency is only to later take it away in order to sell solutions to the problems that the quiz created as quizzes work as disciplinary instruments" of teenage [girl] socialization (Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998 : 531) Examples of quiz conditioned discourse illustrate the process of Agency denial. Teen women readers are asked to answer questions such as When your friends call you up .. and tell you to bring along your other half, you : A. grab your purse and your babe and head for the party B. decline their offer knowing he'll feel uncomfortable C. beg him to come along promising that you can leave if he s bored D tell the gang you re busy-why make him angry by mentioning your buds? ( Teen 1998 : 68) in a quiz called "Is he healthy for you?" and

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103 You're on a brainy kick and plan to read more Your latest book is : A. really good, but you've been reading it on and off for six months B sitting on your nightstand -you just whipped through ten chapters last night. C still at the library, but you swear you'll start reading after finals (Teen 2000 : 85) in a quiz titled ''Can you stick to your goals?'' In each answer choice the teen woman is the subject of an agentive verb with Agency In the answers however the teen woman is assigned one of three or more categories based on the answers that she gave to those and all other questions For the first quiz, ''Is he healthy for you?," the once Agentive teen woman becomes a passive object who needs "love" direction when assigned to the following passive categories : "Supported in Love," Stumped by Love," Slave to Love" and "Strangled by Love" (Teen 1998 : 70) ; while the categories for the second quiz Can you stick to your goals?," are ''TAPE : the spool is unrolling and you re coming undone," 'CEMENT : paving the way but occasionally getting stuck and GLUE : pour it on you 're ready for more (Teen 2000 : 85) Other quizzes follow this similar structure : first agency questions and then, categories of one extreme the other extreme and middle ground Each extreme and the middle ground all imply and assume a lack in the teen woman ; Ostermann and Keller-Cohen ( 1998) discuss the inherent negative presuppositions involved in this process Note above if she is ''TAPE," she s coming undone," if she is CEMENT," she is O K for now but she occasionally get[ s] stuck" and if she is "GLUE," she s good but "ready for more" (Teen 2000 : 85) In each case the magazine provides the teen woman with a problem that needs to be fixed and crucial to the discourse at least one directive solution to that problem supported by star experts when possible In other words part of what magazines sell is advice and solutions to problems ''TAPE" is directed "if you don t push yourself you won't get far

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104 enough . you need to make an effort," "CEMENT' is ordered, 'But if you 're not trying out for the track team or for cheerleading, ask yourself why ... Be proud of yourself and your accomplishments .. Focus on what you want" and "GLUE" is told 'While you re doing it all, you may be ignoring your needs Take pride in what you've done but don't lose sight of your true interest" (Teen 2000 : 85) All of these directives are supported by the expertise of Anne Kilcullen* a professional therapist (Teen 2000 : 85) A similar process exists in the other quiz~ 'Supported in Love," the O K for now category is told "To keep this catch [a good boyfriend], treat him right by being his No. 1 fan, too while "Stumped by Love" is directed to "tell him the truth about how you feel and what you want -don't expect him to read your mind and coax him into expressing his hopes for and problems with the relationship" (Teen 1998 : 70) "Slave to Love" and "Strangled by Love are the most extreme categories for the teen woman ~ teen women in both are advised to ''Let him know he's important to you but that you ve been neglecting other crucial people and things and "You need to start putting your foot down and saying no . . Have the self-respect to get out of a bad situation before it gets even worse," respectively (Teen 1998 : 70) Magazine writers use quizzes as a discourse domain in which to produce teen women's Agency, only to deny that very Agency in issuing directives that entail negativity or lack on the teen women s part. Again, teen women's Agency is conditioned in order to sell products, goods services and advice. Denial of Agency through Felicity Conditions The final process used to deny Agency to teen woman readers involves magazine speech acts ~ specifically, commissives and directives The function of a speech act is to affect, change or transform reality (Jaworski and Coupland 2000 : 16) As such, each

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105 speech act has a set of felicity conditions, the necessary situational circumstances that must be fulfilled for completion of a potential speech act for the desired reality effect Felicity conditions are crucial to speech acts, as they define and differentiate one speech act from another and govern the possible completion or "misfiring" (Austin 2000 : 67) of that act. According to Austin (2000), speaking generally, it is always necessary that the circumstances in which the words are uttered should be in some way, or ways appropriate, and it is very commonly necessary that either the speaker himself [sic] or other persons should also perform certain other actions, whether 'physical' or mental' actions or even acts of uttering further words (p 65) Felicity conditions ground and solidify the perlocutionary force of the given utterance (Jaworski and Coupland 2000 : 16) It is specifically the felicity conditions of the magazine speech acts that deny teen women's Agency The two most common speech acts in magazine discourse are commissives (promises) and directives (requests orders and demands) Each of these speech acts have their own individual felicity conditions but at least one felicity condition of both functions to limit the full personhood of teen women Commissives The first speech act utilized by teen magazine is the commissive speech act. Commissives account for I 1 % of magazine discourse, with 97 total utterances The function of a commissive is to promise something to someone Typically, the speech act of commissives involves interlocutor A promising to do action X for interlocutor B In magazines however, it more common that interlocutor A (the magazine) promises that action X will occur for interlocutor B (the reader) if interlocutor B (the reader) does action Y In other words instead of promising to do an action themselves, the magazines

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106 promise that an action will materialize for a teen woman if she performs another action (usually, completes a magazine-issued directive) Action Y will get her Action X as testified to by the magazine As commissives, a basic felicity condition is that the promised act has not yet materialized ~ in addition, in commissives that involve one act being dependent upon another neither act has occurred A key feature of the com.miss i ve is lack of action, while proper realization of a commissive ideally results in completed action Applied to the commiss i ves in teen magazines, this means that for each commissive offered from the magazine to the teen reader the reader is assumed to be deficit in some way The magazine then offers the com.missive as a way to correct that deficiency either by having the teen reader accomplish an additional causative task or by the action of the magazine itself Either way the condition of deficit relies on the teen woman reader being somehow absent of Agency For example Teen 2000 promises Sparks are sure to fly ... if you deck your bod with Revlon StreetWears Gotta Have Hearts All Over Glitter ( p 18 ), "Open a savings account and you 'll earn interest every month (p. 65) 'Enlarge your circle of guy and girl friends ... When you have lots of other stuff going on, you '11 be amazed at how quickly you'll stop stressing over the time he spends with her (p.36) and Join the cleanup crew and laugh at his jokes -you'll win his heart for sure ( p 59) Teen 1998 adds "Soak up your surroundings as you walk and if you start to lose your concentration do your energy move You'll finish your walk feeling focused, calm and totally energized (p .35), "These prom makeup tips and hairstyle how-tos will get you noticed ... (p.2), and "Tie up a too-hot look and [you'll] drive the tuxedo crowd crazy' (p .95). All other magazines make additional promises : in Seventeen 2000 'you 'll be in the

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107 know ... (p 152), "you'll step out feeling . (p 56) and ')'ou'll leam" (p 172); from Seventeen 1998 ')'ou 'II understand" (p 146), ')'ou'll hone .. (p. 76) and ''Look like a million" twice (p.17, p.42); in n..12000 . you'll be the bomb" (p.44), ... get softer silkier skin" (p.28); and from n..11998 ')'ou'll make a splash" (p.112) . you'll be psyched" (p.116) and ... you'll be known as . (p.44) Each promise above entails that the teen woman had not already done or does not exist in the given state ; she is not "in the know," she has not yet "learned," she does not ''look like a million," she is not already "known as . and she had not yet "made a splash Furthermore in addition to implying lack of Agency, commissives do not always even result in Agency when fulfilled Many promises involve patient semantic roles, ... you'll be psyched" (YM 1998 : 116) "These prom makeup tips and hairstyle how-tos will get you noticed .. (Teen 1998 : 2) and . you'll be known as ... (YM 1998 : 44), process roles .. you'll be the bomb" (YM 2000 : 44 ) "When you have lots of other stuff going on, you '11 be amazed at how quickly you'll stop stressing over the time he spends with her (Teen 2000 : 36) and "you'll be in the know . (Seventeen 2000 : 152) and/or benefactives ... get softer silkier skin" (Seventeen 1998 : 28) and "Join the cleanup crew and laugh at his jokes you'll win his heart for sure" (Teen 2000 : 59) In sum, by the necessary felicity condition that assumes teen readers are lacking, commissives function not only as promises but also as denials of Agency Directives The final speech act used to limit the full personhood of teen readers is directives Directives are orders, requests and commands that basically serve to cause an interlocutor, or in this case a reader, to do something. Directives are the most common discourse device

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108 and make up a large part of the magazines on their own; 3 8 5 % of the magazines totaling 3,172 utterances are directives This means that almost 40%, of magazine discourse are orders commands or requests from the magazine to the teen reader Since teen magazines are simulated conversations, teen magazine writers must hypothesize about the underlying circumstances involving the speech act Like commissives the felicity conditions key to the directives is also the crucial forces denying Agency The basic felicity condition responsible is the assumption of deficit on the teen woman s part ; lack of Agency is necessary for the directive to be fulfilled For example if a mother told her child to close the door the directive would either fail or seem illogical if the door were not open or if the child had already closed the door This process works with all directives and similar assumptions of deficiency in completion of directive verb X are made with each directive issued By choosing directives magazine writers assume that the action entailed in the directive has yet not been completed One other crucial felicity condition involved in the strength of teen magazine directives is the requirement of power and status In prescriptive American English the issuing of a directive entails status and/or power ; for example in prescriptive English children do not often issue successfuJ directives to parents or teachers in the quantity that parents and teachers do to children, nor would employees generally issue direct directives to their employers Therefore each directive takes for granted the notions of speaker volition, speaker desire and the power/status required of the speaker ; in other words the speaker and hearer presume together because of the necessary status/power of the speaker that the directive action should be done" by the hearer

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109 The following chart summarizes the felicity conditions of directives : S(peaker) requests H(earer) to do A(ction) : 1 S believes A has not yet been done. 2 S believes that H is able to do A 3. S believes that His willing to do A-type things for S 4 S wants A to be done. (Stewart and Vaillette 2001 : 224) Numbers 2, 3 and 4 relate to interlocutor status, and indirectly to Agency ; in this case precisely the ranking of magazines over readers Magazine writers do their best to establish power over their readers while simultaneously appearing as an equal member in a shared speech community The unidirectional directives and the use of experts to support directives specifically strengthen conditions number 2 and 3 Number 1 however directly associates with teen Agency It is the assumption ofNumber 1 combined with the power gained to enforce numbers 2 3, and 4 that make magazine directives particularly powerful yet highly detrimental to teen women's Agency Because directives are the most prolific discourse category in teen magazines numbers of directives order teen readers throughout most of the pages Readers are directed in YM 1998 to ''Try .. (p .12, p 42) ''Use ... (p 22), "Apply .. (p 12) "write to ... (p 36), ''Discover his love potential .. (Cover page) 'Don't wash your face ... (p 110) "cover up dark circles and blemishes .. (p 97) and are ordered 35 times to Call various numbers (p 91) In Seventeen 1998 directives include "See . (p 76) Choose a lip pencil shade ... (p.64) Avoid wearing lipstick while your lips are recovering (p 64) email. .. (p 64) buy ... (p 90) Find out what kind of insurance you have (p 138) Experiment ... (p 192) 'Hike ... (p 190) ''Listen carefully" (p 198) and Surf seventeen com ... (p 36) 2000 editions also provide readers with multiple commands ;

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110 YM 2000 orders readers to "Develop .. (p 40) Speak up" (p. 68) "Do stay focused (p 86) ''Dazzle the dude (p.46) and Give him a muse (p. 63) as one reads Appl y blush with . (p 62), Apply the paste" (p.68), "Choose a metallic polish (p 64) 'Decipher what this means (p 36) Learn how to cook" (p 120) and 'Make eyes radiate . (p 56) in Seventeen 2000 A teen reader finds ''Don t forget" (p .12, p 46) Glam it up (p 2 p 101) ... and concentrate . (p 35) ... do both (p 103) and 'Read on" (p .36) in Teen 1998 in addition to check out (p .18, p 64) and "Slather your smacker with ... (p 18) in Teen 2000 Certain articles in teen magazines are completely centered around directives such as advice columns and quizzes The entire content feature entitled Advice You Can t Live Without in Teen 2000 consists of 50 different directives that readers should do to make your mark on the new century'' (p. 65) ; the article commands readers to do everything from "Go gounnet 'Energize !," Stash some cash, 'Cultivate culture," Think first and "Do yourself a favor" to ''Cool off, 'Feed your mind," 'Lend a hand and Snooze under the stars (p 65 ) This article, in particular illustrates and exposes the underlying conditions of directives that deny Agency. First the article gives the directives under the disguise of advice which indicates the subtle yet powerful ranking of teen magazine over readers and the covert nature of directives as orders and commands Next each directive presumes that the reader has not yet completed any of the directives ; this is espec i ally strong in this article because of the prolific amount future projecting verbs that it contains in order to support each directive. Two specific examples include the magazine quoting one reader who says "I plan on trying to listen" under the directive 'Do a sound check. while under the directive "Stop fibbing, the magazine cites a teen named Jennifer saying Jennifer

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111 15, Texas, swears she's going to stop lying to others" (Teen 2000 : 65) In addition, on the cover page the other reference to this article boasts of a future state of reality following the completion of the speech acts "Advice that will change your life" (Teen 2000 : Cover Page) Since Jennifer has not yet stopped lying and the other reader plans on trying to listen, and your life is not yet changed the teen reader equally is presumed to not have done these actions herself as all teen readers in the shared discourse communit y" ( Currie 1999) are in the same boat. When they follow such "advice," when they complete what they have not yet done but need to, however their lives will be changed Basically, this entire article lists 50 problems or deficits in teen woman readers supports these deficiencies with self-identified flaws and/or desires for change by other teen women and then offers at least 50 directive answers for teen women to do to correct the lack that the article created in the first place This is true of all directives If a teen woman s life were not in need of change and she were already a fully productive complete teen woman, then she would not need advice to change it. Each directive assumes she does and as such, denies Agency to teen women Conclusion An overwhelming number of syntactic and discourse patterns within the langua g e of teen magazines deny condition or limit the Agenc y of teen women readers I argue that while there are sites of Agency within teen magazines there are also numerou s constant and consistent discourse patterns that destabilize such A g ency As subjects of utterances teen women are denied Agency by Semantic Role as experiencers patients benefactors or process verb subjects rather than semantic agents or by Negative Agency where the sentence in which they are an agent is overtly negated or is constructed under a

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112 negative semantic frame Teen women also lose Agency to other subjects in teen magazines; by Denial of Agency through Emulation of women stars as experts and celebrities are used to manipulate or to advertise to the teen woman, while as a result of Denial of Agency by Sex teen women lose Agency to men, while Denial of Agency by Sex splits their spheres of Agency into those that belong to "women" and those that belong to men ." Denial of Agency by Male Hegemony solidifies men at the center of the teen woman s universe at the expense of her self and personhood ; she becomes responsible for female-male problems while he evades condemnation as the agent of the relationship Body parts and characteristics of the teen woman and third person inanimate objects steal Agency from teen women in Denial of Agency through Synecdoche and Instrumentation, respectively Denial of Agency through Whiteness invalidates teen women of color and their culture and makes teen Agency reliant on whiteness Teen women Agency is further defeated by discourse that manipulates them by assuming they are lacking as when they are agents only be to be evaluated and commanded in quizzes (Quiz Conditioned Discourse) or agents in adjacency pairs with directives (Directive Conditioned Discourse) Lastly teen women suffer Agency loss through the felicity conditions of speech acts issued toward them; both commissives and directives presuppose incomplete Agency or flawed personhood, and then aim to correct the flaws with future action Teen magazine editors compose sentences and write discourse that highlights the lives and cultures of teen woman. Teen women as functioning Agents, however play a small active role in their very own culture a culture that seems to depend on their failure deficiency and need for change

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CHAPTER SEVEN CONCLUSION In this thesis I have shown how the language of Teen Seventeen and YM structures, mediates and negotiates the illusionary identity of the ideal teen woman I argue that within the linguistic structure of teen magazines while there are sites of Agency much of the language mutuall y interacts to undermine the Agenc y of teen women readers Within nominal morphology while teen women are constructed as autonomous, independent noun roots many of these roots are built under negative semantic frames function as euphemisms or negate the maturity of teen readers ; in addition, teen women, and not men lose identity through affixation to a white male ( or perceived male) root. Women exist as suffixes, while men exist as roots Next adjectival morphological superlativity builds a pyramid of hierarchy within the pages of the magazine ; it ranks the teen woman and all elements of her culture against other teen women in order for them to compete for sub-Agency of the ideological perfect white girl [sic] position Teen magazines then contribute to the pyramid by outranking teen readers in speech acts and discourse devices In addition sex-based ranking keeps women as sub-Agents at the bottom this pyramid while it holds men at the pinnacle above the Glass Floor of Entitled Roothood Syntax and discourse patterns further solidify the positions of women and men When occurring together in discourse syntax orders the female after the male as prime 113

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114 order. In larger discourse units female last order is also preferred Furthermore teen women and men have distinct spheres of Agency within teen magazine language ; for teen women, Agency exists in Teen Focus News and Issues (stories featuring teen women readers) and Makeup Fashion and Beauty features while teen men s Agency appears most in relationship articles relationship advice and quizzes Within such articles a double standard exists for women and men in discourse ; teen women often have negative Agency or occur as patients to male agents when described with male participants in syntax, while denial of negative male Agency supports male hegemony Other realizations of male hegemony such as discourse in which women are scolded while men are free from reprimand asymmetrical vocabulary and masculine roothood center men as the focus of the teen woman s world ; she must adjust her likes behavior attitudes and actions to those of men, and not vice versa Moreover, while teen women have Agency most often when they are subjects of sentences other semantic roles work to lessen teen women to feelers experiencers possessors beneficiaries and patients Likewise teen women s Agency is denied through instrument Agents, Synecdoche and Emulation of star and celebrities Agency. Similarly whiteness i s made the norm for teen women, and teen women of color are suffixed to whites or ignored Lastly but importantly the very speech acts of the discourse and the adjacency pairs formed with such speech acts assume teen women are deficient. Almost 40% of teen magazine discourse are commands orders and promises that simultaneously reinforce magazine hierarchy while cementing teen women at the bottom of the hierarchy in desperate need of change Teen women s and women star s Agency is often manipulated to support the strength of orders and promises Additionally teen women s

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115 Agency is further manipulated in quizzes where teen magazines grant Agency only to place teen women in the right category to take Agency away One fundamental desire of magazine writers and editors is to sell magazines To sell Teen, Seventeen and YM the producers of these magazines have decided to sell solutions to problems These magazines use language and discourse in all areas of the magazine -in quizzes (Ostermann and Keller-Cohen 1998) real life features advice columns makeup, fashion and beauty layouts and in entertainment experts to first create problems for teen women They frame their readers as needy deficient and problematic ; when readers are positioned in sites of Agency it is often to the detriment of another teen woman reader (one is sacrificed for the cause) or it is because the reader is fine now but better work in order to maintain her current state of acceptability. Because teen women are lacking no matter how they are constructed (lexically semantically morphologically or through felicity conditions of speech acts, for example) advice and solutions are often contradictory and seemingly hypocritical On one hand teen magazines tell teen women to be independent and strong yet on the other hand their morphology syntax and lexicon remove the foundation of strength and independence from them Unfortunately the constant reinforced presupposition at virtually all levels of magazine discourse of readers who are lacking and insufficient undermines and devalues teen women s Agency Teen women are not even respected nor given the full humanity and personhood as teen girls let alone as teen women who contribute to society If magazines were to respect the humanity of its readers they could not make the negative assumptions that they make Furthermore if teen personhood were cherished in teen magazines rather than unraveled thread by thread of Agent-reducing discourse it would be an affront to teen readers to infer their inferiority

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116 I am not saying that teen magazines purposely set out to construct negative identities for their readers What I am saying is that sexist racist, "girl-poisoning (Pipher 1994) and hierarchical language is embedded at virtually all levels of teen magazine structure in nominal morphology adjectival morphology lexical choices nominal and verbal semantics syntax, speech acts and discourse. Such language structures interact with each other and undercut and burrow away the positive ideologies of the magazines There is still a need for future research in the processes at work both in support of and against teen women's Agency particularly as it is constructed through language This thesis as one investigation into the personhood of teen women, serves as a starting point for further investigations and can hopefully lead to research that asks the right questions If people want to work past sexism, racism and a "girl-poisoning culture" (Pipher 1994 ) then they must first be aware of the subtle ways that they themselves perpetuate and act within that culture and particularly of their language The aim of this thesis was bring such language to light so that people advocates everywhere, particularly the women who write edit and produce teen magazines, may be a little more aware of how they talk to and about teen women

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APPENDIX A TEEN WOMAN AS SEMANTIC ROLE AGENT

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..... ..... 00 Data Examole . Alexis says ... Ali clioned ... ... Ali hoisted . . . Ali... who lives ... ... Alicia and Andrea make . ... Amanda kept her makeup . ... Amber and Laura debate . Amber insists ... Amv and her nals decided . . . Amy says ... . Amv savs ... ... Analyze the life ... Andrea started ... ... Ariel created ... Ashlev and Jenice take ... ... Brenda recalls ... Brenda recalls ... ... Brenda says ... Brenda says ... ... Brenda ... watched . ... Brick says . ... Carole dished ... Carole hangs ... Cathleen ... who olavs . ... Cathleen and her mom ... check out ... Cathleen has narrowed ... Cathleen ... dreams ... Cornie . started ... ... Danielle . joined . Deayn spices ... . Dee insists ... Enter Drew ... . Erin use ... . Eva ... went.. ... I almost started Discourse Catevorv Ma2azine Agency Seventeen Agency Seventeen A2encv Seventeen Agency Seventeen A2encv Seventeen Agency Teen Agencv Teen Agency Teen Agencv Seventeen Agencv Seventeen Agency Seventeen Agencv Seventeen Agency Sev enteen Al?.encv YM Agency YM A2encv Seventeen Agency Seventeen Aeencv Seventeen Agency Seventeen Aeencv Seventeen Agency Seventeen Aeencv Seventeen Agency Seventeen Aeencv Teen Agency Teen Agencv Teen Agency Teen Aeencv Seventeen Agency YM Aeencv Seventeen Agency Teen Aeencv Seventeen Agency YM Agencv Seventeen Agencv YM Month Year Pa2e March 1998 238 March 1998 146 March 1998 146 March 1998 146 March 1998 116 February 2000 22 March 1998 57 March 1998 58 March 1998 190 March 1998 192 March 1998 192 March 2000 110 March 1998 236 March 1998 57 March 2000 50 March 1998 217 March 1998 217 March 1998 217 March 1998 217 March 1998 217 March 1998 217 March 1998 234 March 1998 235 March 1998 57 March 1998 57 March 1998 57 March 1998 57 March 1998 217 March 2000 79 March 1998 116 March 1998 118 March 1998 132 March 2000 115 March 1998 225 March 2000 71

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Data Exam1>le Discourse Cate2orv . .I check Agencv ... I did decide Agency .. .I fell asleep Agency d got up Agency ... I have ... Agencv ... I laughed Agency . .I learned Agency .. .I lumber Agency .. .I made m yself Agencv ... I passed Agencv 2practice Agencv . .I pretend ... Agencv ... 1 raced Agencv ... I read Agency ... I returned Agencv ... I sing ... Agency ... 1 started Agencv ... I started ... Agency .. .I take Agency ... I told my mom Agencv . .I told my mom ... Agencv ... I trained myself Agency .. .I tried Agencv ... I was sitting Agency . .I was sitting ... Agencv ... I wasn't sleeping . Agencv .. .I would fall asleep Agency ... I'd fall Agencv ... I'd fro ze n Agencv ... I'd see Agency .. .I'd start Agencv .. .I'd wake up Agencv ... If Alison Terrv aualifies Agencv . .Jakirah says Agencv ....:..: .Jennifer says ... Agencv Ma2azine Month Year Seventeen March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 1 998 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 Seventeen March 1998 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 Se ve nteen March 2000 Teen March 1998 Seventeen March 1 998 Pa2e 241 71 70 70 72 70 70 241 71 71 241 168 71 71 72 168 70 71 72 70 70 70 71 70 71 70 7 1 -70 7 0 70 --70 70 114 60 -8 2 ---......

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Data Example Discourse Catei?Orv Mae.azine Month Year Paee .. .Johnna agrees .. Agency Seventeen March 1998 82 .. .Johnson has taken Agenc y Seventeen March 2000 114 .. .Jordan will raise Agency Teen March 1998 58 ... Kahn says Agency Teen March 1998 32 ... Kellie oenned ... Agency Teen February 2000 1 6 ... Kerry has corralled Agency Se ve nteen March 2000 134 ... Kerry jokes Agency Seventeen March 2000 134 ... Kerry returns Agency Seventeen March 2000 134 ... Kerry steps Agency Seventeen March 2000 136 ... Krista was watching ... Agenc y Seventeen March 1998 223 . Laura dyed Agenc y Teen March 1998 57 ... Laura says ... Agenc y Teen March 1998 57 ... Lauren Perth remembers ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 225 ... Lauren sooke ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 216 ... Lauren tries ... Agency Seventeen Marc h 1998 225 ... Leila sees her dad Agency Seventeen March 2000 238 ... Lexie ... and Sophie ... take the idea ... Agency Teen February 2000 16 ... Lisa picked Agency Seventeen March 1998 40 -N 0 . Mandi carried ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 225 ... Mar lien confessed ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 234 ... Meghan cleanse with Agency YM March 2000 116 ... Nancy says .... Agency Se ven teen March 2000 238 . Nicole plays ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 116 ... PN and PN use ... Agency Se ve nteen March 1998 116 . PN reports ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 116 ... PN says ... Agency Seventeen March 2000 114 ... Raquel shows Agency YM March 2000 113 ... Rebecca says . Agency Seventeen March 1998 80 ... Sabrina played Agenc y Seventeen March 1998 40 ... Samantha enrolled ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 224 ... She and her friends cut... Agency Se ve nteen March 1998 116 ... She didn't live ... Agency YM March 2000 54 ... She lived Agency YM March 2000 54 ... Stacey gave her this windowchime Agency Seventeen March 2000 142 . Susan Fleischer learned . Agency Seventeen March 1998 215

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory Ma2azine Month Year Pa!!e ... Susan reflects .. Agency Seventeen March 1998 215 ... Terrv is motivating others Agency Seventeen March 2000 114 ... The girls are drooling Agency Seventeen March 2000 134 ... These ... girls head to ... Agency YM March 2000 50 ... They moved Agency Seventeen March 2000 238 ... Tricia hid ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 223 ... Violet Palmer and Dee ... are making ... Agency Teen March 1998 118 .. .rEva l discovered ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 223 ... [I'd] start Agency YM March 2000 70 ... m had avoided Agency YM March 2000 71 ... [lj had convinced myself Agency YM March 2000 71 ... rMoml who'll be making ... Agency Teen March 1998 57 ... [girls ... l burn ... Agency YM March 1998 82 .. .rgirls . l eat Agency YM March 1998 82 ... r gj rls l said ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 217 . r she l let them cool Agency Seventeen March 1998 40 ... rshel pinned Agency Seventeen March 1998 40 ..... ... !the y ] boogied down ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 192 N ..... ... rthe y l dance Agency Seventeen March 2000 236 ... [the y l ended ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 192 ... rthevl went out ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 192 ... I y ou'll] break UP ... Agency Teen March 1998 30 ... f y ou'rel ogling the stars Agency YM March 2000 89 ... fyou'rel trving ... Agency Teen February 2000 38 ... a friend comes Agency Teen February 2000 42 ... a girl planned Agency YM March 2000 86 ... a girl to let a guy know Agency YM March 1998 80 ... a girl...takes Agency YM March 2000 64 ... adds Johnson Agency Seventeen March 2000 114 ... adds Lauren Agency Teen March 1998 117 ... adds Nicole Agency Seventeen March 2000 142 ... admists Jakirah Agency Teen March 1998 60 ... admits Marv ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 132 ... after you eat Agency Teen February 2000 34 ... all I've brought Agency Seventeen March 2000 241

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Data Example Discourse Catel!orv Ma1rnzine Month Year Paee ... all she ordered Agenc y YM March 2000 64 ... all you've been waiting ... Agencv YM March 1998 12 ... and II'dl check Agenc y YM March 2000 70 ... and rn fell ... Agency YM March 2000 70 ... and rn laugh .. Agency Seventeen March 2000 241 ... and [I) mumbled Agency YM March 2000 70 ... and rn now use ... Agencv Seventeen March 1998 168 . and fKaril switches to ... Agency Teen February 2000 22 ... and la girl] struts Agencv YM March 2000 64 ... and lgirlsl reoorted . Agency Seventeen March 1998 217 ... and I if shel changes Agency Teen February 2000 40 ... and f she'lll select music Agency Teen March 1998 58 ... and r she's] befriended Al!.encv Teen March 1998 64 ... and f she l hosted Agency Seventeen March 2000 114 ... and [she] morphed Al!.encv Seventeen March 1998 44 ... and f she! reminds ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 80 ... and [she) said ... Ae.encv Seventeen March 1998 217 ... and f shel sooke ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 215 -N N ... and [she] took a closer look Agencv Seventeen March 2000 142 ... and f shel understands ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 148 ... and [she] was jul!!!ling ... Agencv Seventeen March 2000 114 ... and f shel waves ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 236 ... and [they] adorn ... Ae.encv Seventeen March 1998 116 ... and fthevl cuddle Agency Seventeen March 2000 236 ... and [who] is conducting ... Ae.encv Seventeen March 2000 114 ... and fvou've been] sweating Agency YM March 1998 83 ... and fyou'vel established Al!.encv YM March 1998 82 ... and fyoul chatted ... Agency Teen March 1998 30 ... and f you] decide ... Ae.encv Seventeen March 1998 138 -... and lvoul dip ... Agency YM March 2000 54 ... and r you] give ... Ae.encv Teen March 1998 36 --... and fyoul race home . Agency Seventeen March 1998 188 ... and hugs Agencv Seventeen March 2000 136 ... and she was choosing Agency Seventeen March 2000 I JO ... and then r they] pin ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 116 ---

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Data Example Discourse Cate2orv Ma2azine ... and you say ... A,gency Seventeen ... are you eating ... ? Agency Teen ... are you exercising ... ? Agency Teen ... are you going ... Agency Seventeen ... as do ladies ... Agency Seventeen ... as she usually does Agency Seventeen ... beauties go glam Agency Teen ... before you hit the hay Agency Sev enteen ... divas made ... Agency Seventeen ... do you resoond ... ? Agency Teen ... do you susoect ... ? Agency Teen ... eXPlains Lauren ... Agency Seventeen ... explains Leila Agency Seventeen ... few who wrote Agency YM ... first girl came back ... Agency Seventeen ... gals go for Agency Teen ... giggles Tricia Agency Seventeen ... girl who asked ... Agency Seventeen ... girl who's looking Agency YM ... girls came out ... Agency Seventeen ... cirls do Agency YM ... girls focus Agency YM ... girls ovulate Agency YM ... girls who ovulate Agency YM ... girls who read ... Agency Teen ... girls who've hit ... Agency Teen ... girls ... visit... Agency Seventeen ... if fshel changes Agency Teen .. .if she fFatima} stuck ... Agency Teen ... if she follows Agency Teen ... if you eat Agency YM ... if you get stuck Agency Seventeen ... if you haven't had sex ... Agency YM .. .if you're dating Agency YM ... if you've scheduled ... Agencv Seventeen Month Year March 1998 February 2000 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 Pa2e 216 38 38 236 176 236 4 174 190 38 30 216 238 12 217 119 223 217 63 217 91 64 48 82 56 32 138 4 0 -61 I 18 -34 --76 --48 -36 -138 ...... N w

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory Ma2azine Month Year Pa2e ... m y sister hit me Agency YM March 2000 7 1 ... or [the y start ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 138 ... or f you're I hanging out Agency Teen February 2000 65 ... or f voul round .. Agency Teen March 1998 14 ... or lyou] take ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 138 ... or you quit him Agencv Seventeen March 2000 84 ... princioal allowed Agency Teen March 1998 119 ... queen wears 'em Agency YM March 2000 111 ... recalls Brenda ..... Agency Seventeen March 1998 217 ... remarks Brick ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 217 ... reports Justine Agency Teen March 1998 60 . says Alexis Agency Seventeen March 1998 82 ... says Amanda Agency Teen March 1998 119 ... says Ann Brick ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 217 ... says April Agency Seventeen March 2000 112 ... says April Stevens Agencv Seventeen March 2000 110 ... says Beverly Agency Teen March 1998 61 ... says Claudia Agencv Teen March 1998 32 -N ... says Dowd Agency Se v enteen March 2000 238 -... says Ellen Wan Agency Seventeen March 2000 110 ... says Emil y Agency Seventeen March 2000 110 ... says Erin Agencv Seventeen March 2000 239 ... says Eva ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 223 ... says Hill Agencv Seventeen March 2000 114 ... says Joan ... Agency Teen March 1998 36 ... says Kahn Agencv Teen March 1998 32 ... says Kerry Agency Seventeen March 2000 134 ... says Kerry Marsh Agency Seventeen March 2000 134 ... says Lauren Agency Seventeen March 1998 225 -... says Leila Agency Seventeen March 2000 238 -... says Leila ...... Agency Se v enteen March 2000 238 ... says Meghan Agencv YM March 2000 23 ... says Mojar Agency Seventeen March 2000 64 -... says Moiar ... Agency Seventeen March 2000 64 --... says Nancy Agency Seventeen March 2000 238 -

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Data Example Discourse Cateeor v Maeazine ... sa y s Natalie Agenc y Teen ... sa y s Samantha . Agenc y Se v enteen ... sa y s Samantha .... Agency Se v enteen ... sa y s Simon Agenc y Se v enteen . says Stace y Agenc y Seventeen ... sa y s Susan .. Agency Se v enteen ... sa y s Terry Agenc y Seventeen .. she and her friends fold ... Agenc y Se v enteen ... she answers ... Agenc y Se v enteen ... she asked . Agenc y Se v enteen ... she ate Agenc y YM ... she attended Agency YM ... she belongs ... Agency Teen . she broke ... Agenc y Seventeen . she calls ... Agenc y Teen . she can't stop listening to ... Agency Teen . she comes second to Agency YM ... she crows Agency Seventeen . she did v isit Agency Teen ... she discusses race Agenc y Se v enteen ... she does ... Agenc y Teen ... she explains Agenc y Se v enteen ... she found you Agency YM ... she gives y ou Agenc y Teen ... she got her start Agenc y Seventeen ... she high fi v es Agency Seventeen . she leaves Agency Teen ... she listens ... Agenc y Se v enteen ... she makes Agency YM ... she makes ... Agency Se v enteen ... she mentioned ... Agency S ev ent e en ... she nixed Agency Se v enteen ... she not only stood up .... Agency Se v enteen ... she opted for... Agency Teen . she parties Agen cy Teen Month Year March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 February 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 February 2000 March 1998 Paee 117 223 223 114 142 215 114 116 236 215 23 23 36 236 26 47 57 136 57 114 26 114 67 26 110 136 42 148 23 236 225 44 110 22 57 ..... N V,

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Data Examole Discourse Cateeorv Maeazioe Month Year Pa2e ... she put on Agenc v Seventeen March 1998 44 ... she recalls Agenc y Seventeen March 1998 224 ... she recalls .. Agencv Seventeen March 2000 110 ... she remarks Agenc y Seventeen March 2000 134 ... she says Agency Seventeen March 1998 216 ... she says .. Agency Seventeen March 1998 216 ... she says ... Agencv Seventeen March 1998 116 ... she says ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 146 ... she says .. .. Agencv Seventeen March 1998 116 ... she says ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 223 . she says ..... Agency Seventeen March 1998 146 . she says ...... Agency Seventeen March 1998 192 ... she savs .. ..... Agency Seventeen March 1998 223 ... she sa y s ... ... Agency Teen March 1998 26 ... she says ... ... ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 225 ... she says ... ... ... Agencv Seventeen March 1998 46 ... she savs ... . ...... Agencv Teen March 1998 61 ... she says .... ....... . Agency Teen March 1998 57 -N 0\ ... she says ........ ............. Agencv Teen March 1998 58 ... she says ..... ... ...................... Agenc y Teen March 1998 119 ... she says ... ............. .... . ... ........ Agenc y Seventeen March 2000 136 ... she says ..... ...... .. Agencv Seventeen March 2000 238 . she sees you .. Agencv Seventeen March 1998 236 ... she shouts Agencv Seventeen March 2000 136 ... she soends ... Agencv Seventeen March 1998 236 ... she started ... Agencv Seventeen March 1998 236 ... she still hasn't decided ... Agency Teen March 1998 57 ... she stops ... Agencv Seventeen March 1998 80 ... she takes Agencv Seventeen March 2000 134 . she takes ... Agencv Seventeen March 1998 236 ... she wades Agencv Seventeen March 2000 134 ... she walked ... Agencv Seventeen March 1998 224 ... she walks Agency Seventeen March 2000 134 ... she was dustine ... Agencv Seventeen March 1998 236 ... she was generating ... Agency Seventeen March 1998 216

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Data Example Discourse Cate2orv ... she went along ... Agenc v ... she went for. .. Agenc y ... she went. .. Agencv . she wore . Agencv ... she wound Agenc v . she'd make Agencv . she'll aoorove Agencv . she'll help decorate Agenc v ... she's branched out Agenc y ... she's considering ... Agenc v ... she's doing this Agencv ... she's frolicked Agencv ... she's oerforming . Agenc y ... so man y of y ou w rote Agencv . some y oung Japan ese wom e n ar e disco v ering Agencv ... student she was seeing Agencv . students show ... Agenc v . style queens wear. .. Agencv ... swine Agencv ... that she v oted Agencv ... the girls bonded Agencv ... the girls go . Agencv ... the threesome shoooed ... Agencv ... these girls push Agencv . these girls sweat Agencv ... these women are using Agencv ... the y buy . Agencv ... the y tum ... Agencv ... time y ou' v e been to Agencv ... unless y ou've been liv ing Agencv ... wash ... Agencv ... we gave each other Agencv ... we reall y bonded Agencv ... what Momm y does Agencv ... w hat advice would y ou giv e Agencv Ma2azioe Month Seventeen March Teen February Seventeen March Sev enteen March Seventeen March Teen March YM March Teen March Teen March Sev enteen March Teen Februarv Sev enteen March Teen March YM March Sev enteen March Teen March Seventeen March Sev enteen March YM March YM March Sevent e en March Sev enteen March Sev enteen March Sev enteen March Sev enteen March Sev enteen March Sev enteen March Seve nt e en March Teen Februarv Teen February YM Mar c h YM March YM March YM Mar c h YM March Year 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 Pa2e 215 22 223 217 40 52 40 58 61 192 40 186 26 12 118 58 116 116 115 86 142 225 192 78 78 114 116 1 3 8 65 6 5 115 72 72 91 91 ..... N --..J

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Data Exarnole Discourse Cate2orv ... what you studied ... ? Agenc y ... whe she attends . Agenc y ... when Hannah ... found herself Agenc y ... when I hit Agency ... when she comes to you Agencv .. when she's not oersuing Agency . when you break this to . Agencv ... when you start puberty Agency ... where would a girl find you ... ? Agencv . whether you're snowboarding Agency ... who rLaura 1 aooroves ... Agency ... who attends ... Agency ... who olavs Congres Agencv ... who says Agency ... who savs ........ Agency ... who's been battling Agency ... YOU ace ... Agency ... you agree ... Agency ... vou allow a boy .. Agency ... you and your friends devour Agency ... you answer Agencv ... you aooly Agency ... vou asked for it Agency ... you asked for .. Agency ... you attended ... Agency ... you belong ... Agency ... vou break ... Agencv ... you brush your teeth ... Agency ... vou buy Agencv ... you call Agency ... YOU call him ... Agencv ... you call... Agency ... You call ......... Agencv ... you called Agency . vou confided .. Agency Ma2azine Month Teen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February Seventeen March YM March Teen February Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February Teen February Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Teen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Teen March Year 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 199& 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 Pa2e 36 114 70 70 144 114 40 130 67 65 58 225 114 65 65 114 35 153 52 76 42 109 12 48 192 138 236 34 103 64 80 80 58 42 28 _.. N 00

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Data Exam11le Discourse Cateeorv Maeazine ... y ou date Agency YM ... y ou date ....... Agency YM ... you deal ... Agencv Seventeen ... you describe Agency Seventeen ... YOU did it Agency YM ... you did ... Agency Seventeen ... YOU did ......... Agency Seventeen ... you do Agency YM ... you do ... Agency Seventeen ... you do ........................ Agency YM . y ou excel Agency Teen ... y ou explain Agency Seventeen ... y ou feed him ... Agency Seventeen ... y ou finish Agency Teen ... you forget Agency Seventeen ... y ou get dressed ... Agencv Seventeen ... you give Agency Teen ... you give us ... Agency Seventeen ... you give ... Agency Seventeen ... you give .... Agencv Seventeen . you go Agency YM ... you go into ... Agency Seve nteen ... you go throu!!h ... Agency Seventeen ... you go ... Agency Seventeen ... You got to know ......... Agency YM ... you grab ... Agencv Teen . YOU grow up Agency Teen ... you guessed it Agency Seventeen ... you have contacted Agency YM ... you have lost y our confidence Agency Seventeen ... you have reached ... Agency Seventeen . you have ... Agency Teen . you hide ... Agency Teen ... you hit Agencv Seventeen ... you hit. . Agency Teen Month Year March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 Paee 36 60 116 130 43 153 216 26 132 40 38 70 80 85 151 142 36 28 138 48 42 80 153 138 80 36 61 176 92 151 138 26 51 76 14 ...... N \0

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Data Examole Discourse Cate2orv ... you hop Ae.encv ... you just stoooed Agencv ... you keep ... Ae.encv ... you lather Agencv ... You launch ... Ae.encv ... you lay . Agency . You leav e Agency ... you leav e ... Ae.encv ... you let them know Agencv ... you let... Ae.encv .. ,you lift ... Agenc y ... you look. . Ae.ency ... you made Agency ... you make Ae.encv . you make like ... Agencv ... you make ... Ae.encv ... you mean Agencv . you mean it Ae.ency ... you melt Agencv ... you met... Ae.encv ... you moved in ... Agencv ... you offer ... Ae.encv . you open ... Agencv . you page him ... Ae.encv ... you question Agency ... you ran into him Ae.encv ... you sa y Agencv ... you say .......... Agencv ... you scream Agencv ... you send Agencv ... you set Agencv . you shop Agencv ... you shop ... Agencv ... you shop ... Ae.encv ... you sing Agencv Ma2azine Month Te e n March YM March T e en March Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February Seventeen March Teen February Sev enteen March Sev enteen March Sev enteen March YM March Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February YM March YM March Teen March Teen March Sev enteen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Teen March Sev enteen March Teen February Teen February Teen March Teen February Teen February Seventeen March Year 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 Pa2e 32 58 3 0 42 82 238 85 142 65 216 1 3 2 2 3 6 43 85 188 236 85 40 54 26 45 192 216 2 3 8 64 42 144 26 76 44 85 2 24 95 76 ..... w 0

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Data Example Discourse Cate1wrv ... you sleep w ith him Agency ... you soend Agency ... YOU spring ... Agencv ... you start thinking AgencY ... vou start ... Agenc y . you stick to the breakup rules Agenc y ... you studied for Agency ... you susnect. .. Agency ... you take ... Agency ... You tell him Agency ... you tell him Agency ... YOU tell him ... Agency ... you thought Agencv ... You tick Agency ... you told him Agency ... you used to soend Agency ... you voice ... Agency ... you walk by Agency ... You wash Agency ... you who drop . Agency ... you will bounce back Agency ... you work Agencv ... vou wrote it... Agencv ... you'll also test Agencv ... you'll be slathering Agency ... You'll be starting ... Agencv ... you'll develop ... Agencv ... YOU'll discover Agencv ... you'll find Agency ... YOU'll find ... Agencv ... y ou'll laugh Agencv ... you'll probabl y find ... Agencv ... you'll reject him Agency ... y ou'll see him . Agencv ... you'll shoot us down Agency Ma1rnzine Month YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Teen March Seventeen March Teen February Tee n March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM Mar c h YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Teen February Seventeen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Teen February YM March Teen March Tee n March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Teen March Teen February Tee n March YM March Year 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 199 8 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 Pa2e 53 36 188 58 36 146 38 32 36 82 148 80 36 63 58 62 216 116 42 132 59 86 84 65 28 36 32 76 24 192 59 26 44 52 64 --l.,J -

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Data Examole Discourse Catel!orv . you'll signal Agencv ... you're casting Agency ... you're cohosting Agencv ... you're dating (2 times) Agency ... you're directing Agencv ... you're facing Agency ... you're finding out ... Agencv ... you're going Agency ... you're going to go Agencv ... you're helping friends Agency ... You're iust sitting ... Agencv ... you're moving on Agencv ... you're not buying ... Agency ... you're not sweating Agencv ... YOU're nairing ... Agency ... you're spending ... Agencv ... YOU're standing Agency ... you're studying ... Agencv ... you're talking ... Agency ... you're trying Agencv ... you're trying ... Agency ... you're using Agenc v ... you're using ... Agency ... you're wearing Agencv ... you've aoolied Agency ... you've been drooling over Agencv ... you've been working out Agency ... y ou've come Agencv ... you've consented ... Agency ... you've crossed ... Agencv ... vou've cut off Agency ... you've decided ... Agencv ... you've done it Agency ... you've done ... Agencv ... you've done .... Agency Matrnzine Month YM March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Teen March YM March Teen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Se ve nteen March Seventeen March Teen February YM March YM March Se ve nteen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Year 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 Pa!!e 36 89 42 36 114 83 28 68 216 44 54 59 188 36 204 28 64 36 148 62 236 110 138 64 64 38 83 59 216 236 46 238 82 1820 6 216 .... vJ N

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory ... you've finished Agencv ... you've got.. Agency ... you've iust landed Agencv ... you've just saved your boyfriend Agency ... You've practiced ... Agencv ... you've put in Ae:encv ... vou've put. .. Agencv ... y ou've skiooed Ae:encv ... you've soent every Agency ... you've slated ... Ae.encv ... you ... are following Agency ... your best freinds are goine. ... Ae.encv ... your sister decides ... Agency .. and f y oul hang ... Agencv .. remember how ... Agency . she savs ... Agency . the last girl made Ae:encv . vou've waited .... Agency 1000 girls spill ... Ae:encv 12% describe Agency 31 % fill it with Ae:encv 34% record ... Agency 4% spill Agencv 9% jot down Agencv A Gap saleswoman referred Agencv African.American women who are changing ... Ae:encv Alison who graduated ... Agency Amber shows off. . Ae:encv Aprille was learning ... Agency Ariel Fox sells Ae.encv As I step ... Agency Brittany said . Agency Carol had left Ae:encv Diamond admits Agency Diamond and her mom live Ae:encv Mairnzine Month Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Teen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Year 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 Pa2e 64 80 176 84 36 242 140 48 110 216 110 112 236 54 56 223 64 236 22 23 23 23 23 23 241 20 110 58 44 57 241 236 238 236 236 ...... w w

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Data Examule Discourse Cate1?0rv Diamond and her mother sing ... Agencv Diamond is soending Agencv Diamond says Agencv Diamond says ... Agency Erin and Laura are dealing ... Agency Erin talks to ... Agency Exavia shows off. . Agencv Felicia and Diamond are talking ... Agency Felicia and Diamond share ... Agency Girls are towering Agency I actually made Agency I advance Agency I arrive Agency I choose ... Agency I collapsed Agency I dozed off. . Agencv I fell down Agency I found ... Agency I grasp Agency I keep in mind Agencv I kept trying Agency I left ... Agencv I make Agency I mask Agencv I nail ... Agency I opened my eyes Agencv I practice Agency I ran in ... Agencv I slept Agency I sprawl Agencv I started Agency I started to fall Agencv I struck up Agency I told myself Agency I told myself ... Agency Ma2azine Month Year Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 1998 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 YM March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 Pa2e 236 236 236 236 239 239 90 236 236 22 72 241 241 240 70 71 70 71 241 241 71 4 241 241 241 71 241 70 72 241 72 71 72 70 71 ..... w

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Data Example Discourse Cate2orv I tried ... Agencv I was imagining Agency I was making it up Agency I was now conking Agency I was sleeping . Agencv I was visiting Ae:encv I went. .. Agency I woke up Agencv I woke up ... Agency I'd fall over Agencv I'd fall ... Agency I'd finish ... Agencv I'll never forget Agency l'm doing Agencv I'm entering Agencv I'm gaining Agencv I'm having Agencv I've gone Agency I've mastered the ... Agencv Jennifer keeps . Agency Jessica does Agencv Kerry Marsh does ... Agency Kerrv has come in Agencv Kerry jumps into Agency Kerrv muses Agencv Kerry's cruising ... Agencv Kim tells us Agency Lauren calls ... Agencv Leila and her mom share Agency Leila moved Agencv Leila moved back in Agency Leila now soends Agencv Leila sa y s Agencv Meghan has been reaching Agency Meghan now annlies ... Ae:encv Ma2azine Month YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Sev enteen March Sev enteen March YM March YM March Year 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 Pa2e 71 71 70 71 72 70 72 71 72 70 71 71 70 241 241 72 241 72 240 80 113 17 136 136 136 134 16 216 238 238 2 3 8 238 238 116 116 ..... w V,

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Data Exam11le Discourse Cate2orv Ma2azine Mom sits quietl y Agen cy Se v enteen Nancy moved in Agency Se v enteen Nancy sa y s Agenc y Se v enteen Nancy works Agenc v Se v enteen Natalie S says . Agency Teen Nicole and Stacev stood ... Agency Seventeen Nicole gave Stace y . Agency Seventeen She learned that Agenc v Seventeen She raised Agency YM She sold Agenc v YM She sold them Agenc y YM She was holding Agenc v YM She wrote Agencv YM Shed been working Agency YM They ... went shoooing .. Agencv YM Tina gi v es ... Agency Teen Victoria suggests . Agencv Seventeen Violet describes .. Agency Teen Violet led . Agencv Teen Virginia dishes on ... Agency Seventeen We agree on ... Agencv Se v enteen We stuff Agency Se v enteen What do y ou do ? Agencv YM When you send us ... Agencv Seventeen Where she works ... Agencv YM fyoul take ... Agency YM as I hit Agencv Seventeen femmes gi v e sexism the boot Agency YM first you type in ... Agencv Teen girls beat the blues Agency YM if she owns up Agencv Teen if you do aerobics Agency Se v enteen if you stumble Agency YM if y ou're forking . Agencv Se v enteen no matter what school y ou choose Agency Se v enteen Month Year March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 February 2000 March 2000 February 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 Pa2e 164 238 2 3 8 238 117 142 142 241 54 54 54 54 54 54 22 18 82 118 118 20 241 241 52 28 23 54 241 22 30 23 40 130 53 48 110 ...... w 0\

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Data Example Discourse Cate2Q!)'. Ma2azine real girls put Agency YM says Erin ... Agency Seventeen says Kacee Agenc y Seventeen says LaToya Agency Seventeen savs Laura Agency Seventeen says Linda Agency Seventeen she does ... Agency Seventeen she landed in Agency Seventeen she makes Agency Seventeen she met Agency Seventeen she says Agency Seventeen she says ... Agency Seventeen she started Agency Seventeen she tells Agency Seventeen she treats ... Agency Seventeen she was making ... Agency YM she'd pretend to be MLK Jr Agency Seventeen so she went Agency Seventeen what will you do? Agency Seventeen when Kerry and her friends board Agency Seventeen when you see ... Agency YM while others don't full y develop Agency Seventeen you advertise Agency YM you asked ... Agency Seventeen you attempt Agency Teen you baby-sat Agency YM you catch ... Agency YM you don't drive y ourself crazy Agency Teen you enter Agency Seventeen you eventually kick Agency YM you feed him ... Agency Seventeen y ou figure Agency YM you figure ... Agency YM vou get into ... Agency YM you go Agency Teen Month Year March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 2000 February 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 Pa2e 60 239 197 197 239 197 148 238 134 136 136 238 238 134 148 53 114 238 151 136 42 130 52 192 85 57 63 85 176 34 82 22 36 52 104 ..... w -.....J

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Data Example Discourse Cate2orv you goi ng to marry Agencv you make y our w a y Agenc y you meet them ... Ae:encv you miss Agencv you picked Ae:encv y ou pretend Agencv you say Ae:encv you slip Agencv you stay ... Ae:encv you talked a lot. . Agenc y you tell Ae:encv you told us Agencv you tum down Ae:encv you usually score ... Agencv you watch Ae:encv you write about Agenc v y ou'd use for an y romance Ae:encv you'll duplicate Agenc v y ou'll laugh .......... Ae:encv y ou'll look back ....... Agenc v you'll trash ... Ae:encv y ou'll tug Agencv y ou're doing Ae:encv you're going Agencv y ou're not wastine: time Ae:encv you' re probably eating Agencv y ou've been flirtine: with Ae:encv y ou've gained ... Agencv .... you know ....... Ae:encv (Mental Process) ... Didia know ... ? Agencv (Mental Process) ... Emil y thought about... Ae:encv (Mental Process) .. .I fie:ured out Agencv (Mental Process) .. .I knew Ae:encv (Mental Process) .. .I knew ... Agencv (Mental Process) ... I reali z ed Agencv rMental Process) Ma2azine Month YM M a rch Sev enteen March Sev enteen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Sev enteen March YM March YM March Sev enteen March YM March Teen February YM March YM March Sev enteen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Sev ent e en March Sev enteen March YM March Sev enteen March YM March Teen February Teen February Sev enteen March YM March YM March YM March YM March Year 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 Pa2e 60 176 110 58 52 60 42 107 236 52 103 12 66 85 126 22 146 60 60 60 22 22 40 241 242 82 121 42 65 50 110 70 70 72 70 ..... w 00

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory .. .I'd think ... Agency (Mental Process) ... Katie has known ... Agency (Mental Process) ... Kerry knew Agency (Mental Process) ... Kerrv knows Agenc y (Mental Process) ... Lauren thought. . Agency (Mental Process) ... Simon knows a lot... Agency (Mental Process) ... fyoul think ... ? Agency (Mental Process) . and fyoul think ... Agency (Mental Process) ... didja know ..................... ? Agency (Mental Process) ... didia know ... ? ... (3 times) Agency (Mental Process) ... gals relate ... Agency (Mental Process) . .if you know .. Agency (Mental Process) . if you think ... Agency (Mental Process) .. .if you're considering ... Agency (Mental Process) ... or rYoUl think ... Agency (Mental Process) ... or someone you know Agency (Mental Process) ... she knew Agency (Mental Process) ... she knows Agency (Mental Process) ... she means ... Agency (Mental Process) ... she thinks ... Agency (Mental Process) ... she thought Agency (Mental Process) ... think you ... ? Agency (Mental Process) . what do you think .... ? Agency (Mental Process) ... what do you think ... ? Agency (Mental Process) ... what you understand . Agency (Mental Process) ... will you ... know ... ? Agency (Mental Process) ... you also know ... Agency (Mental Process) . you believe Agency (Mental Process) ... y ou consider ... Agency (Mental Process) ... you get the picture Agency (Mental Process) . you iust know Agency (Mental Process) ... you know Agency (Mental Process) ... YOU know it Agency (Mental Process) ... y ou know that Agency (Mental Process) ... YOU know ... Agenc y (Mental Process) Ma2azine Month YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Teen February Teen February Teen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March YM March YM March Teen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Teen March Teen March Teen March Teen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Teen February YM March YM March Se v enteen March Teen February Se v enteen March Year 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 Pa2e 70 225 134 136 216 114 103 142 57 56 52 82 116 110 138 64 70 63 26 216 86 66 72 72 36 36 52 44 188 62 63 6 4 7 6 44 84 ...... l.,J \0

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory Ma2azine Month Year Paee ... vou know ... Agency (Mental Process) Seventeen March 1998 140 ... you know .... Agency (Mental Process) Seventeen March 1998 238 . vou know ..... Agency (Mental Process) Seventeen March 1998 238 ... y ou know ...... Agency (Mental Process) Teen March 1998 38 ... vou know ....... Agency (Mental Process) Seventeen March 1998 190 ... vou know ... ... ... Agency (Mental Process) YM March 2000 52 ... y ou know .......... Agency (Mental Process) Teen March 1998 36 . YOU know ... ... ... Agency (Mental Process) Teen March 1998 118 ... you know ............ Agency (Mental Process) Seventeen March 1998 76 . vou know ............... Agency (Mental Process) Teen March 1998 46 ... y ou know ........... ......... Agency (Mental Process) Teen February 2000 65 ... vou know .... ... ... .... ... ... Agency (Mental Process) YM March 1998 32 ... y ou know .................... .... Agency (Mental Process) YM March 1998 30 ... y ou realize Agency (Mental Process) Seventeen March 1998 76 ... you realize ... Agency (Mental Process) Seventeen March 1998 153 ... you really know . Agency (Mental Process) Teen March 1998 36 ... you think Agency (Mental Process) Teen March 1998 72 ... you think (2 times) Agency (Mental Process) Teen February 2000 58 -0 ... y ou think .. Agency (Mental Process) Seventeen March 1998 153 . YOU think .... Agency (Mental Process) Seventeen March 1998 48 ... you think .... Agency (Mental Process) Seventeen March 1998 132 ... YOU think .. ... Agency (Mental Process) YM March 1998 48 ... you think ....... Agency (Mental Process) Seventeen March 1998 192 ... y ou think .......... Agency (Mental Process) Teen March 1998 30 . y ou think ........ . Agency (Mental Process) YM March 1998 12 ... YOU think ........... . Agency (Mental Process) YM March 2000 52 ... you think .............. Agency (Mental Process) YM March 2000 63 ... YOU think .................. . ...... Agency (Mental Process) YM March 1998 42 . y ou think ... .... .... ... ....... .... ..... Agency (Mental Process) YM March 1998 62 ... YOU think ......... ......... ......... ...... ... Agency (Mental Process) YM March 2000 62 ... you totaJly think ... Agency (Mental Process) YM March 2000 44 ... y ou trust Agency (Mental Process) Se v enteen March 1998 48 ... you understand Agency (Mental Process) Teen March 1998 36 ... y ou understand .. Agency (Mental Process) Teen March 1998 26 . y ou'd always imagined Agenc y (Mental Process) YM March 1998 42

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Data Exam1Jle Discourse Cate1rnrv Mae:azine Month Year Paee ... y ou'd think Agency {Me ntal Process) Seventeen March 2000 136 ... You'll agree Agency (Mental Process) YM March 1998 118 ... y ou'll know ... Agencv (Mental Process) Seventeen March 1998 176 ... y ou'll probabl y annrove ... Agencv (Mental Process) T een March 1998 48 ... y ou're crushing . Agencv (Mental Process) Teen March 1998 40 ... y ou're wondering ... Agencv (Mental Process) Teen March 1998 26 ... you've decided ... Agencv (Mental Process) Sevent ee n March 1998 148 ... you've dreamed Agencv
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APPENDIXB TEEN WOMAN AS SEMANTIC ROLE BENEFACTIVE AND POSSESSIVE

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Data Examole Discourse Cate2ory Ma2azine Month Year Pa2e ... Get... .. Benefactive Seventeen March 1998 190 ... Wai Yim Lam wins Benefactive Teen March 1998 115 ... You're probably getting opinions ... Benefactive Seventeen March 2000 110 ... and r Y oul get more Benefactive Seventeen March 1998 76 ... are you getting enough . ? Benefactive Teen February 2000 38 ... get... Benefacti v e Seventeen March 1998 192 ... how can a girl get y our attention ... Benefactive YM March 1998 32 . how can a girl get y our attention ... ? Benefactive YM March 1998 69 .. .if you get one ... Benefactive Teen February 2000 42 ... she and Amber got. .. Benefactive Teen March 1998 57 ... she'll get the hint Benefactive YM March 1998 57 ... they got. . Benefactive Seventeen March 1998 192 . what kind of girls catch ... ? Benefactive YM March 1998 80 ... what you get. ..... Benefactive Seventeen March 2000 174 ... when she wins Benefactive YM March 1998 121 ... win a trio Benefacti ve Teen March 1998 57 -w ... vou ended up with ... Benefactive Seventeen March 2000 68 ... You first got... Benefactive Seventeen March 1998 138 ... you get a reaction Benefacti ve YM March 1998 110 ... You get.. Benefacti ve Seventeen March 1998 148 ... you get... . Benefactive Seventeen March 1998 236 ... you get. ..... Benefactive YM March 2000 78 ... you get... .... Benefactive Seventeen March 1998 56 ... you got Benefactive Teen February 2000 38 ... vou'II get. . Benefactive Seventeen March 1998 84 ... y ou've received ... Benefactive Seventeen March 1998 138 . Get... Benefactive Seventeen March 1998 190 . you've received ... B e nefactive Seventeen March 1998 142 Exa via won ... Benefactive Seventeen March 1998 90 How do you win Benefactive Seventeen March 2000 184 Kerri Erin ... and Amanda got clothes ... Benefactive Teen February 2000 22 Ten ... chicas will get. .. Benefactive YM March 1998 119 they were getting ... Benefactive Seventeen March 1998 236 what you get Benefactive Seventeen March 2000 174 y ou're not getting .... Benefactive YM March 1998 60

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Data Examole Discourse Cate1rnrv Ma2azine Month Year Pae:e ..... you have Possessive Seventeen March 1998 76 .... you have ... Possessive Seventeen March 1998 153 .... you've got Possessive YM March 2000 91 ... African-American women who have the power to chanJ?.e ... Possessive Seventeen March 2000 114 ... Amy had ... Possessive Seventeen March 1998 192 ... Ariel's sure got Possessive YM March 1998 57 ... Cathleen's had Possessive Teen March 1998 57 ... Cindv and . have .. Possessive Seventeen March 1998 116 ... Got. .. questions ... Possessive Seventeen March 1998 64 ... I had Possessive YM March 2000 71 .. .I had ... Possessive YM March 2000 72 ... I have Possessive YM March 2000 72 .. .I have .... Possessive YM March 2000 72 ... I'd have Possessive YM March 2000 70 ... I'd have ... Possessive YM March 2000 70 ...... ... Kindsey ... has ... Possessive Seventeen March 1998 116 t ... Mandi ... had that point... Possessive Seventeen March 1998 224 ... Raquel has ... Possessive YM March 2000 110 .. She had ... Possessive Seventeen March 1998 236 ... Susan had ... Possessive Seventeen March 1998 215 ... rshel had ... Possessive Seventeen March 1998 225 .. Jthe v l had pictures ... Possessive Seventeen March 1998 192 ... ryoul got a babe ... ? Possessive Teen March 1998 51 ... lvoul have all the facts Possessive YM March 1998 46 ... r voul have ... Possessive Seventeen March 1998 138 ... a girl who has confidence Possessiv e Seventeen March 2000 144 ... a young girl who has Possessive YM March 2000 91 ... how many crushes ... have you had ... Possessive Seventeen March 2000 110 ... if you and Mom have ... Possessive Teen March 1998 53 .. .if you had a blowout. .. Possessive Seventeen March 2000 114 .. .if you had ... Possessive Seventeen March 1998 138 ... if vou have Possessive Teen February 2000 40 . .if you've got Possessive Seventeen March 1998 76

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Data Examole Discourse Cate1mry ... she got ... of sleep Possessive ... she has Possessive ... she's had a crush on Possessive ... she's had ... Possessive ... she's had ....... Possessive ... these girls got game Possessive ... they had no idea Possessive .. what you have Possessive ... when you have one ... Possessive ... you both have other ... Possessive ... you do have Possessive ... you got Possessive ... you had Possessive ... you had ... Possessive ... you had ...... Possessive ... you have Possessive ... you have a ... Possessive ... you have never ... Possessive ... vou have the rililit to be concerned ... Possessive ... you have .. Possessive ... you have ... Possessive ... you have .... Possessive ... you have ..... Possessive ... you have ...... Possessive ... you have ........ Possessive ... you have ........ Possessive ... You have ......... Possessive ... you have ........... Possessive ... YOU own Possessive ... you two have ... Possessive ... you'll have Possessive ... you'll have ........ Possessive ... you've barely gotten Possessive ... you've even had Possessive ... you've got Possessive Ma1rnzine Month Teen March Teen March Teen February Teen March Teen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Teen February Teen March Teen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Year 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 Paee 57 57 65 58 58 50 142 48 80 80 62 24 43 82 216 66 144 140 84 176 138 138 138 142 38 85 30 32 118 148 76 36 76 86 188 ...... V'I

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Data Examole Discourse Cate2orv ... you'v e got enough Possessi v e ... Y ou've got the day off. .. Possessi v e ... y ou've got.. Possessive ... you've got.. Possessi v e . you've got.. .. Possessive ... you've got. .... Possessi v e ... you've got. . . Possessi v e ... you've got. . .... Possessi v e ... You've got. ... .... Possessi v e Aprille had Possessi v e Do you have . ? Possessi v e Erin and Laura had Possessi v e Erin has alwa y s had Possessi v e Gilda Carle has ... Possessi v e Hannah has ... Possessive I had Possessi v e l had no idea ... Possessi v e I had ... Possessi v e I was ha v ing Possessi v e If you've got. .. Possessive Jessica's got Possessi v e Jessie McNeely had one ... Possessive PNs may all have had ... Possessi v e girl has nals Possessive if you've ever had . Possessive lots of girls have ... Possessi v e she's got.. Possessive you have Possessi v e y ou hav e reservations ... Possessi v e you hav e . Possessi v e you have ......... ... Possessive you'll have Possessi v e you've got on ... Possessive y ou've got.. Possessive you've got. ... Possessive Ma2azine Month Year Sev enteen March 1998 Teen February 2000 Sev enteen March 1998 Sev enteen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Sev enteen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Sev ente e n March 1998 Sev enteen March 1998 Seventeen March 2000 Sev ente e n March 2000 Teen March 1998 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 Sev enteen March 2000 YM March 2000 Sevent e en March 2000 Sev enteen March 2000 YM March 2000 Teen February 2000 YM March 2000 Sev enteen March 1998 Sev enteen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Teen March 1998 YM March 1998 Teen February 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Pa2e 48 12 188 148 26 148 148 89 26 44 146 238 239 30 71 72 70 70 70 209 11 l 72 2 3 9 5 3 42 42 148 151 84 32 62 85 230 2 3 6 216 ...... 0\

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APPENDIXC COMMISSIVES

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...... 00 Data Example ... How lo stand out .. Soarks are sure to flv ... Twentv-five babes will nab ... lvou'lll be the ... and rvou can1 get. .. ... and rvou canl receive ... and lvou'lll be clean ... and lvou'lll become ... and lvou'lll have tons more .. ... and your ex will be ... ... get softer silkier skin ... he'll cool it ... he'll resoect vou ... how to flirt back ... how to soot him ... one luckv girl will snag ... schmoozing will be cake ... seven ... readers ... will get ... ... ten girls will each win ... they'll resoect vou ... ... we promise you'll use it... ... whether vou're selling ... with . vou can really be ... vou are faced with ... vou could be selected ... you make it or break it ... you may aooear ... ... you should notice ... you will make fabulous friends ... you will see ... you will see ... ... you will see ... ... you'll be a hit ... you'll be able to ... you'll be amazed Discourse Cateimrv Maeazine Commissive YM Commissive Teen Cornmissive YM Commissive Seventeen Commissive Seventeen Commissive Seventeen Commissive Teen Commissive Seventeen Commissive Teen Commissive Seventeen Commissive YM Commissive YM Commissive YM Commissive Teen Commissive Teen Commissive YM Commissive Teen Commissive YM Commissive YM Commissive Seventeen Commissive Seventeen Commissive Seventeen Commissive Seventeen Commissive Seventeen Com missive Seventeen Commissive Seventeen Commissive Seventeen Commissive Seventeen Commissive Seventeen Commissive Teen Commissive Teen Commissive Teen Commissive Teen Commissive Teen Commissive Teen Month Year Paee March 2000 11 February 2000 18 March 2000 40 March 1998 26 March 2000 158 March 2000 158 March 1998 108 March 1998 76 February 2000 65 March 2000 74 March 2000 28 March 2000 64 March 2000 63 February 2000 59 February 2000 59 March 2000 79 February 2000 87 March 1998 4 March 2000 79 March 1998 114 March 2000 54 March 2000 114 March 2000 80 March 2000 114 March 2000 152 March 2000 114 March 1998 90 March 2000 148 March 2000 110 March 1998 32 March 1998 26 March 1998 28 February 2000 3 March 1998 36 Februarv 2000 36

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Data Example Discourse Cateiwrv Ma2azine Month Year Pa2e ... you'll be known as Conunissive YM March 1998 44 ... Y ou'll be psyched Conunissive YM March 1998 116 ... y ou'll be sure Commissive Teen March 1998 36 ... you'll breeze through Com missive Teen March 1998 89 ... you'll earn interest Commissive Teen February 2000 65 ... you'll find Com missi ve Seventeen March 1998 26 .. you'll finish ... Commissive Teen March 1998 35 ... y ou'll get fit Commissive Teen February 2000 65 ... y ou'll get to ... Commissive Seventeen March 1998 174 ... y ou'll get... Commissive Seventeen March 1998 192 ... y ou'll have Commissive Teen March 1998 36 ... y ou'll have ... Commissive Seventeen March 1998 203 ... y ou'll keep y our cool Com missive Teen March 1998 108 ... YOU1ll know Com missiv e Teen March 1998 36 ... y ou'll score Commissi ve Teen March 1998 36 ... YOU1ll stop stressing Com missive Teen February 2000 36 ... y ou'll win his heart Com missive Teen February 2000 59 ... y ou're sure to be ... Com.missive YM March 1998 116 ..... ... y our guy will love ... Commissive Teen February 2000 18 .. y ou'll be the bomb Commissive YM March 1998 44 .. y ou'll dig Commissive Seventeen March 1998 60 B y ... you can tum .. .into ... Com missive Seventeen March 2000 76 Catch your crush Commissive YM March 2000 0 Dress to thrill Commissive YM March 2000 0 Fifteen girls will look. .. Com.missive YM March 2000 11 Look like a million Com.missive Seventeen March 2000 42 Look like a million ... Commissive Seventeen March 2000 17 Once you see ... Comrnissi v e YM March 2000 22 One will score ... Commissive YM March 2000 40 Rub 'n' scrub y ourself ... Conunissive YM March 2000 28 Six ... readers will each win Commissive YM March 2000 38 These prom makeup tips and hairstyle how-tos will get you noticed ... Com.missive Teen March 1998 2 Three readers will receive ... Comm issive YM March 2000 14 You'll be in the know Commissive Seventeen March 2000 152 You'll step out feeling ... Commissive Seve nteen March 2000 56

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Data Examule Discourse Cate1wrv Ma2azine drive the ... crowd crazy Com missi ve Teen if vou let hair loose Commissive YM runners-up will each win Commissive Seventeen we !!llarantee you'll get your ... Commissive Seventeen you can be oaired ... Commissive YM you can get. .. Commissive Seventeen you can !aver 'em Commissive YM you get a mirrored case Commissive YM y ou will see ... Com missi ve Teen you'll also find ... Commissive YM you'll be in ... Commissive Seventeen you'll be left with Commissive YM you'll be low Commissive YM you'll be surprised Commissive Teen you'll be ... Commissive YM you'll feel Commissive YM you'll find Comrnissive YM y ou'll find ... Commissive YM you'll get bored Commissive YM y ou'll get to Com.missive YM you'll have a bake sale Commissive Seventeen y ou'll hone Commissive Seventeen vou'll leam Commissive Seventeen you'll make a solash Conunissive YM you'll understand ... Commissive Seventeen you'll win (2 times) Commissive YM Month Year March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 Pa2e 95 34 46 230 23 158 26 30 18 11 188 34 36 118 106 60 23 18 36 23 242 76 172 112 146 116 _. VI 0

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APPENDIXD DIRECTIVE AND COMMISSIVE CONDITIONED DISCOURSE

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..... Vt 10 Data Examole ... [ifyoul start ... if you follow .. .if you've lost ... or fif voul have ... when you have ............... ... when you lock if you have ..... you skinned ... ifvou get if you love .. .. she says ............. .... you soot... ... Amy gravitated . ... Before you take ... tours ... ... Denise ... who's going ... ... Elizabeth says . Even if you wear them . .Jennifer swears .. .Jessie has resolved ... Lynn says ... So before you buy ... ... Tiffany is going to make ... fif youl play basketball ... (youl oersonalize it... ... [youl Quit . (youl tell ... [youl write the essays ... ... after you dress ... after you look at ... after you've out 'em on ... and f YOU l head ... and (youl Listen ... and fvoul send in your aoolications ... ... and use ... and vou soot the boy Discourse Cateeory Commissive Conditioned Discours e (Agency) Commissive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Comntissi v e Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Commissive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Commissive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Commissive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Commissive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Commissive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Commissive Conditioned Discourse (Benefactive) Commissive Conditioned Discourse
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Data Example Discourse Cate1!ory ... as you blowdry Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... as you bring your foot Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... as you lower your chest Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... as you punch Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... as vou take it... Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... as you watch Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... before you ditch blowdrving . Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) . before you dive Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) .. before you do Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) . before you ring Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) . declares Amy Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) . do you make Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) . do you need a makeover ... ? Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) . don't see . ? Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... ever dreamed .. ? Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... explains Amy Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... if you dare Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) . if vou deck your bod with ... Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) . .if you don't know . Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) . if you don't wear Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) . if you find Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... if you go Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) . if You liked Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... if you picked Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... if you run Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) . if you think Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) . if you wear Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) . if you're gonna .. Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... if you're kicking Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) .. .looking_ . ? Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) . once you're lol!l!ed in Directive Conditioned Discourse (A1rencv) ... one vou've got him Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) . or ruyou) play a soecific snort Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) . or rvou'rel writing an angry letter Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) . or ryou) sweep it... Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) M81!azine Month Teen February Seventeen March Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February YM March YM March YM March Teen March Teen February YM March Teen March Seventeen March Teen March Teen March Teen February Teen February Teen February YM March Seventeen March Teen February YM March Teen February YM March Teen March YM March Teen February Teen March YM March YM March Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March Year 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 Paee 17 126 33 78 20 120 20 82 42 42 24 84 44 115 90 24 113 18 30 65 40 70 50 82 33 126 98 48 85 36 23 46 33 121 62 ..... VI w

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Data Example Discourse Cateimrv Ma2azine Month Year Pal!e . pissed off at ... ? Directi v e Conditioned Discours e (Agencv) YM March 1998 62 ... sa y s Autumn Directi v e Conditioned Discourse (Agenc v) Teen February 200 0 87 ... sa y s Darcy Directi v e Conditioned Dis c ourse < Agen cv ) Teen Febru ary 2000 6 5 ... says Erin Directi v e Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Teen February 2000 6 5 ... says Jess Directi v e Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Teen February 2000 6 5 ... says Lacey Directi v e Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Teen February 2000 6 5 ... sa y s Lisa Directi v e Condit i oned Discourse (Agen cv ) Teen February 2000 65 ... says Liz zv Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Teen February 2000 87 ... says Marle y Directiv e Condit i oned Discourse ( Agencv) Teen February 2000 65 ... says Michelle Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Teen February 2000 65 ... sa y s Nicole Directi v e Conditioned Discourse (Agen cv ) Teen February 2000 65 ... says Sammie Directi v e Conditioned Discourse (Agen cv ) Teen February 200 0 87 ... says Sandra Directi v e Condit i oned Discourse (Agencv) Teen Februarv 2000 65 ... says Sarah-Beth Directi v e Condit i oned Discourse < Agen cv ) Teen February 200 0 65 ... says Sophie Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Teen February 2000 65 ... says Stephanie Directive Conditioned Discourse ( Agencv) Teen February 2000 65 ... she adds Directi v e Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Teen March 1998 24 ... she adds ... D i recti v e Condit i oned Discourse (Agencv) Teen March 1998 24 -V, ... she admits Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Teen March 1998 24 ... she aooolol!ized Directi v e Conditioned Discourse ( Agencv) Teen February 2000 65 ... she says ... Directi v e Conditioned Discourse (Agen cv ) Teen March 1998 24 ... she sa y s ................ .. Directi v e Conditioned Discourse ( Agencv) Teen Februa ry 200 0 65 ... she's going to stop Directi v e Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Teen February 2000 6 5 ... so you can really make Directi v e Conditioned Discourse < Agencv) Teen February 2000 6 4 ... sport you're doing Directi v e Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Teen February 2000 33 . what y ou sa y Directi v e Conditioned Discourse ( Agencv) Teen February 2000 6 5 ... when you do Directi v e Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM March 2000 8 6 ... when y ou get to the end D i rective Conditioned Discourse < Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 126 ... when you hear Directi v e Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) YM March 2000 6 3 ... when you see him Directi v e Conditioned Discourse < Agencv) YM March 2000 46 ... when you're on the go Directi v e Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Se v enteen March 2000 6 8 ... where you stick them Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 228 . whether you're telling ... Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Se v enteen March 200 0 121 ... why you act Directive Conditioned Discourse ( Agencv) YM March 1998 44 ... you answered Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) YM March 1998 6 2

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Data Example Discourse Cate!!ory Mae.azine Month Year ... vou aonlv Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Teen March 1998 ... you call... Dire c tive Conditioned Discours e (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 ... you can't get to ... Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Teen February 2000 ... you did ... Directive Conditioned Discourse ( Ae.encv) Teen March 1998 ... vou encounter Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Teen March 1998 ... you find Directive Conditioned Discourse (Ae.encv) YM March 1998 ... vou find ... Directive Conditioned Discourse < Ae.encv) Seventeen March 1998 ... vou go Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Teen March 1998 ... you hear him* ... Directive Conditioned Discourse ( Ae.encv) Teen March 1998 ... you help Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agenc y ) Teen February 2000 ... you hit the sheets Directive Conditioned Discourse ( Ae.encv) YM March 1998 ... vou lather Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) YM March 1998 ... you learn Directive Conditioned Discourse ( Ae.encv) Teen February 2000 ... vou listen ... Directive Conditioned Discourse < Ae.encv) Seventeen March 1998 ... you munch out Directive Conditioned Discourse (Ae.encv) YM March 1998 ... vou press ... Directive Conditioned Discourse < Ae.encv) Teen March 1998 ... you shoo Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM March 1998 ... vou shower Directive Conditioned Discourse ( Ae.encv) YM March 1998 -Vl Vl ... You start ... Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Teen March 1998 ... you study ... Directive Conditioned Discourse
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Data Example Discourse Catee;ory ... you've drawn Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you've got (2 times) Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you've hit Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you've laid . Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) .. whether you blush ... Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) At Nike Com ... You choose ... Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Before you slather ... Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Do YOU blush ... ? Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Do you crave ... ? Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) lfyou need ... Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) lfyou use ... Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) NOTE : all profiles of her likes/agency ( Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) before you tell them . Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) gotta step out. .. ? Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) if you dare not mess ... Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) if you do it ri Eilit Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) if you do ... Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) if you get on ... Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) if you're looking Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) you answered Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) you blast with Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) you finish Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) you pick Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) you rinse away Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) you seoarate Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) you shower Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) you tell Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) you're forming Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) you're using Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) you've done Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency) . Amy knows Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) ... Did you know ... ? Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) ... and ryoul must know more ... Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) ... know someone ... ? Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) ... what do you think ... ? Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) Mae:azine Month YM March YM March YM March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Teen March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen February Teen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Teen February Seventeen March YM March Teen February Teen March Teen February Teen March Teen February Teen February Year 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 Pae:e 22 115 62 18 62 48 26 26 24 239 28 24 121 104 121 36 40 40 23 115 34 85 105 112 228 18 85 227 112 85 24 20 46 30 57 ...... Vt 0\

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Data Example Discourse Cate1wn1 ... y ou assume ... Directi v e Conditioned Discourse (Agenc v Mental Process) ... v ou don't know ... Directi v e Conditioned Discourse (Ag e nc y Mental Process) ... vou think ... Directi v e Conditioned Discourse (Agencv Mental Process) ... y ou've thought Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) ... vou ... or someone you know ... Directive Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) ... and r y ou mightl win Directi v e Conditioned Discourse (Benefacti v e) C an't get enough ... ? Directi v e Conditioned Discourse ffienefacti v e) ... y ou're ready ... Directi v e Conditioned Dis c ourse (Copula) Tired of waiting for.. ? Directi v e Conditioned Discourse (Copula) if pimples pla!!lle v ou ..... Directi v e Conditioned Discourse ( DOA Instrument) ... Can't decide ... Directi v e Conditioned Discourse (Ex periencer) ... Crav ing sugar... ? Directi v e Conditioned Discourse
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Data Examole Discourse Cate2ory Ma2azine Month Year Pa2e ... want your hair ... ? Directive Conditioned Discourse ffixoeriencer) Teen March 1998 103 ... want ... ? Directive Conditioned Discourse
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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory Ma2azioe Month Year Pa2e ... Got a guy problem . ? Directive Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) Teen Februarv 2000 44 ... Got the bathroom ... ? Directive Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) Teen March 1998 118 ... Got the sniffles . ? Directive Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) Teen Februarv 2000 12 ... got a hot date ... ? Directive Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) YM March 1998 24 ... got. .. Directive Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) Seventeen March 1998 56 ... if you have Directive Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) YM March 2000 26 ... if you have (2 times total) Directive Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) Seventeen March 1998 48 ... if you have ... Directive Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) YM March 2000 26 ... if vou or a friend have ... Directive Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) Teen February 2000 38 . she's having Directive Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) Teen March 1998 24 ... v ou have ..... Directive Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) Teen March 1998 32 . YOU made ... Directive Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) Teen March 1998 l 18 ... you've got. . Directive Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) Teen March 1998 118 ... YOU've had Directive Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) YM March 1998 82 Got a question ... ? Directive Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) YM March 1998 40 Got curly or wavv locks . Directive Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) Teen February 2000 76 Priya has ... Directive Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) Teen Februarv 2000 65 do you or your classmates have .. ? Directive Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) Teen February 2000 30 V. have some ... ? Directive Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) Teen March 1998 35 if you got (3 times) Directive Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) YM March 1998 62 if you have Directive Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) YM March 2000 26 if you have . Directive Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) YM March 2000 26 if y ou have . ... Directive Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) YM March 2000 26 if you've got... Directive Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) Seventeen March 2000 219 still got...? Directive Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) YM March 1998 20 ... do you have to pick a shoe ... Directive Conditioned Discourse (Volitional) Teen February 2000 33 . wha t should you look for... Directive Conditioned Discourse (Volitional) Teen Februarv 2000 33

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APPENDIXE DIRECTIVES

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Data Examole Discourse Cateeory Maeazine Month Year Paee ... "cable curl" ... Directi v e (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 48 ... (Then) invite y our friends Directi v e (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 120 . . . or email ... Directive (Agenc y ) Seventeen March 2000 84 ..... Call Directi v e (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 152 ..... call Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 115 ..... call ... Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 12 ..... see Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 76 .. ... see ... Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 22 ..... trv Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 12 ... . try .............. ... Directi v e (Agency) YM March 1998 42 .... use Directi v e (Agency) YM March 1998 22 .... Aooly Directive (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 64 ... Develop Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 40 .. .. Doit... Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 190 .... Have ... Directi v e (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 190 .... Make it... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 190 -0\ .. .. and run ... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 98 .... call ........ Directi v e (Agency) YM March 1998 59 . . call ..... ..... ............. ... ..... . ... . ... .... .... .... Directi v e (Agency) YM March 1998 58 .... check out... .... Directi v e (Agency) Teen February 2000 12 .... exolain ... Directi v e (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 148 .... include Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 83 .. .. or email Directive (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 64 .... try Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 76 .... use Directive (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 76 .... write to Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 36 ... Add Directi v e (Agency) Teen March 1998 109 ... Allow me ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 192 ... Alwa y s use remo v er. .. Directi v e (Agency) Teen March 1998 109 ... Annlv Directiv e (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 56 ... Aooly blush with ... Directi v e (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 62 ... Annlv the blush Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 62 ... Aool y the naste Directive (Agency) Se v enteen March 2000 68 ... Annl v ... Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 204 ... Aool y .... Directi v e (Agenc y ) Teen March 1998 14

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Data Example Discourse Catei:wrv Ma1rnzine Month Year Pa2e ... Aooly ..... Directi v e (Agencv) Se v enteen March 1998 221 ... Ask Directi v e (Agencv) YM March 1998 43 ... Ask Juli ... Directi v e (Ag e ncv) Teen March 1998 2 ... Ask friends . Directi v e ( Agencv) Se v enteen March 1998 138 ... Ask them to tell v ou Directi v e (Agencv) Se v enteen March 2000 120 ... Ask ... Directi v e ( Agencv) Se v enteen March 1998 192 ... Ask . . Directi v e (Agencv) Se v enteen March 1998 216 ... Attempt. .. Directi v e (Agencv) Se v enteen March 1998 192 ... Audition for Directi v e (Agencv) YM March 2000 63 . Avoid Directi v e ( Agencv) Se v enteen March 1998 64 ... Banish bad Directi v e (Agenc v ) YM March 2000 116 . Bring a purse that's ... Directi v e ( Agencv) Se v enteen March 2000 54 . Brush . Directi v e (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 204 ... Buy ... Directi v e ( Agencv) Se v enteen March 1998 190 . Call Directi v e (Agencv) Teen March 1998 64 ... Call (35 times) Directive (Agencv) YM March 1998 121 ... Call... Directi v e (Agencv) Se v enteen March 1998 116 -0\ ... Call .... Directi v e (Agencv) Teen March 1998 64 N . Call .... Directi v e (Agencv) Teen March 1998 64 ... Call. ... . Directi v e ( Agencv) Teen February 2000 40 ... Call ........ ... ........ (2 times) Directi v e (Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 239 . Call. . ............... ..... ..... . .... Directi v e ( Agencv) Se v enteen March 2000 151 .. Catch him alone Directi v e (Ae.encv) YM March 2000 63 ... Chat live with . Directi v e ( Agencv) Se v enteen March 2000 36 . Check out. . . Directive < Ae.encv) Teen February 2000 18 ... Check out. ..... Directive (Agencv) Teen February 2000 64 ... Check out. ........ Directi v e (Ae.encv) YM March 2000 36 ... Check out. ........... ....... ..... Directi v e (Agencv) Teen February 2000 14 . Check us out online Directi v e (Agencv) Teen February 2000 4 ... Choose a metallic oolish Directi v e (Agencv) Se v enteen March 2000 64 ... Clio a burst of beads ... Directi v e (Ae.encv) Se v enteen March 2000 52 ... Compare and contrast Directi v e (Agencv) Se v enteen March 1998 36 . Comoare ... Directi v e (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 236 ... Complement . Directi v e ( Ae.encv) Se v enteen March 1998 228 . Create . Directi v e (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 246

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Data Example Discourse Category ... Create ... Directi ve {Agency) ... Dab the color Directi ve (Agency) ... Dampen the aoolicator Directi ve {Agency) . Dazzle the dude Directive (Agency) ... Debate Directi ve {Agency) ... Decide in ... Directi ve (Agency) ... Decide ... Directi ve (Agency) ... Decipher what this means Directi ve (Agency) ... Dip a fluffv brush ... Directi ve (Agency) . Discover Directi ve (Agency) ... Discover his ... Directi ve (Agency) ... Dish dirty and swap Directive (Agency) ... Di vvv v our friends Directi ve (Agency) ... Do stay focused Directi ve (Age ncy) ... Don't ask ... Directi ve (Agency) ... Don't brush Directive (Agency) ... Don't forget... Directive (Agency) ... Don't forget. ... Directi ve (Agency) ... Don't forget. ... Directi ve (Agency) ... Don't go Directive (Agency) ... Don't infiltrate ... Directi ve (Agency) ... Don't irk him with immature antics Directive (Agency) ... Don't let Directi ve (Agency) ... Don't let Mom Directi ve (Agency) ... Don't let. .. Directi ve (Agency) ... Don't match nail oolish Directi ve (Agency) ... Don't miss Directi ve (Agency) ... Don't miss out. . Directi ve (Agency) ... Don't miss ... Directi ve (Agency) ... Don't slide ... Directive {Agency) ... Don't stress ... Directive (Agency) ... Don't tell Directi ve {Agency) ... Don't use Directi ve (Agency) ... Don't wait. .. Directi ve (Agency) ... Don't wash y our face Directi ve (Agency) Magazine Month Teen March Se venteen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Teen March Teen March Seventeen March Teen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Teen March YM March Teen March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March YM March Year 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 Page 20 62 56 46 36 36 213 36 62 95 0 36 80 86 76 101 12 90 26 68 80 32 108 86 1 6 64 58 80 68 16 190 76 104 192 110 ...... vJ

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Data Example Discourse Catel!orv Mae:azine Month Year Pae:e ... Don't worrv ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 176 ... Don ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 190 ... Draw ... Directive (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 202 ... Dress up tresses ... Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 52 ... Drink a cup of strong Directive (Agencv) Se v enteen March 2000 120 ... Drop him Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 84 ... Ease into a conversation with him ... Directive (Agencv) Se ve nteen March 2000 84 ... Eat ... Directive (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 190 ... Enter ... Directive ( Agencv) Se v enteen March 1998 90 ... Establish a ... neriod ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 76 ... Exhale Directive (Agencv) Teen Februarv 2000 33 ... Exneriment... Directive (Agency) Se ven teen March 1998 192 ... Fan ... Directive ( Agencv) Teen March 1998 16 ... Fasten Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 226 ... Firure out... Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 138 ... Finagle yourself backstag e Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 120 ... Find out if Directive (Agencv) YM March 1998 44 ... Find out ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 138 ...... i ... Find time Directive (Agencv) YM March 2000 68 ... Find your flower oower ... Directive (Agency) Tee n March 1998 4 ... Finish ... Directive (Agencv) Se ve nteen March 1998 218 ... Follow the lead of ... Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 65 ... For.. try ... Directive ( Agencv) Se ve nteen March 2000 68 ... Forget fashion ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 84 ... Form ... Directive (Agencv) Se v enteen March 1998 190 ... Get away ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 192 ... Get bakin' Directive (Agencv) Teen February 2000 34 ... Get down in Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 98 ... Get him the ... box ... Directive ( Agencv) Teen Februarv 2000 3 4 ... Get him to Directive (Agencv) YM March 2000 63 ... Get in the ring with ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 120 ... Get with Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 65 ... Get ... Directive ( Agencv) Se v enteen March 1998 148 ... Give each other Directive (Agency) Se v enteen March 2000 76 ... Give her Directive ( Agencv) Teen Februarv 2000 40

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Data Example Discourse Cateimrv ... Give him Directive ( Ae.encv) ... Give him a muse Directive (Agency) ... Give ho-hum hair Directive ( Ae.ency) ... Give your crown ... Directive (Agency) ... Give vourself Directive (Agency) ... Give ... Directive (Agency) ... Glam it up Directive (Agency) .. Glam it up ... Directive (Aeency) ... Go Garafolo ... Directive ( Agency) ... Go for darker tones ... Directi v e < Ae.encv) ... Go for it Directive (Agency) ... Go for it ... Directive (Ae.encv) ... Go for ... Directi v e (Agency) ... Go neon brie.ht... Directi v e ( Aeencv) ... Go on ... a hike Directi v e (Agencv) ... Go to bed Directive (Agency) ... Go where ... Directive (Ae.encv) ... Grab Directive (Agency) ... Grab some friends Directi v e (Agencv) ... Grab the Nicole Directive ( Agency) ... Grab ... Directive ( Ae.encv) ... Grab ... Directive (Agency) ... Handcraft cards Directive ( Ae.encv) ... He needs to hear how ... Directive (Agency) ... Head to the rink Directive ( Agency) ... Head ... Directive (Ae.encv) ... Heat up your wardrobe Directive (Agency) ... Hike ... Directi v e (Agencv) ... How to stay friends with ... Directive ( Agency) ... Hyperventilate over. .. Directi v e < Aeencv) ... Imagine yourself Directive (Agency) ... Impress ... Directive (Aeency) .. .Instead stick to ... Directi v e (Agency) .. .Invest in Directi v e ( Agencv) .. .Join Directi v e (Agencv) Mairnzine Month YM March YM March Seventeen March Teen March YM March Seventeen March Teen March Teen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Teen February Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Teen February Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Teen March Teen February YM March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Teen February Se v enteen March Teen February Se v enteen March Teen February Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March YM March Se v enteen March Se v ente e n March Teen February YM March Year 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 Pa2e 64 63 56 114 46 202 101 2 246 64 65 110 209 56 12 121 121 103 12 30 90 190 12 84 12 190 4 190 7 6 36 44 190 7 6 6 5 63 ..... 0\ Vl

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory .. .Join fellow fans Directi v e (Agency) . .Just keep Directive (Agenc y ) ... Keep it. .. Directi v e (Agency) ... Keep the chatter Directive (Agency) ... Keep the details ... private ... Directive (Agency) ... Layer on Directive (Agency) ... Laver ... Directive (Agency) ... Learn how to cook Directi v e (Agency) ... Learn the routine Directive (Agency) ... Learn to kickbox Directive (Agency) ... Lea v e your sweetie soellbound Directive (Agency) . Let cool Directive (Agency) ... Let go a little ... Directive (Agency) ... Let him ... Directive (Agency) ... Let your friends Directive (Agency) . Let's focus on Directive (Agency) ... Let's focus . Directive (Agency) ... Let. .. Directive (Agency) ... Lie down ... Directive (Agency) ... Lie stomach down Directive (Agency) ... Limt up Directive (Agency) ... Listen carefully Directi v e (Agency) ... Listen up Directive (Agency) ... Log on to . Directive (Agency) ... Log on to ... (3 times) Directive (Agency) ... Log onto www .... Directive (Agency) ... Look for Directive (Agency) ... Look for ..... Directive (Agency) . Look your teacher. . Directive (Agency) . Maintain seoarate turf ... Directive (Agency) . Make Directive (Agency) ... Make a oact Directive (Agency) ... Make eight glasses Directive (Agency) ... Make eye contact. . Directive (Agency) ... Make eves radiate ... Directive (Agency) Ma2azine Month Teen February Teen February YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Teen February Teen February Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Teen February Seventeen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Teen March Teen February Teen March Se v enteen March Teen March Teen February Teen February Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Teen February Teen February Teen February Teen February Seventeen March Year 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 Pa2e 12 85 12 80 76 12 219 120 174 120 18 20 108 82 65 146 146 216 35 33 109 188 4 47 29 36 98 204 146 76 73 12 65 59 56 .... 0\ 0\

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Data Exam1>le Discourse Catel!orv Ma2azine Month Year Pa2e ... Make your Directi ve { Agenc y ) YM March 2000 86 ... Make y our own ... breakthrough Directi ve ( Agencv) Teen February 2000 12 ... Mark m y words ... Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 84 ... Match Directi ve (Agencv) Teen March 1998 107 ... Meet (6 TIMES TOTAL THIS PAGE) Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 152 ... Meet.. Directi ve (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 172 ... Meet... Directive (Agency) Se ve nteen March 1998 90 ... Meet. . Directi ve (Agencv) Teen March 1998 2 ... Mix ... Directi ve ( Ae.encv) Seventeen March 1998 246 ... Or email... Directi ve (Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 28 ... Or email... Directi ve ( Ae.encv) Se ve nteen March 2000 74 ... Or email. .... Dir ec ti ve (Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 84 . Or e111ail. ........ . . ...... ..... . . .......... Directi ve (Agencv) YM March 2000 42 . Order another one Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 121 ... Order bv phone Directi ve (Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 126 . Order the ... Directi ve (Ae.encv) Se ve nteen March 2000 121 ... Order ... Directi ve (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 192 ... Organize a fright night Directi ve < Ae.encv) Teen February 2000 65 -0\ -...J ... Own the sootlight Directi ve (Agencv) YM March 2000 101 ... Pen your poetry Directi ve ( Ae.encv) Teen March 1998 123 ... Pick Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 108 .. Pick a color Directi ve ( Ae.encv) Teen March 1998 98 . Pick his most memorable ... Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 36 ... Place a bag Directi ve ( Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 124 ... Plan an activitv Directi ve (Ae.encv) Teen Feb ruary 2000 12 ... Plan ... Directi ve (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 209 ... Pla y it safe Directi ve (Ae.encv) Seventeen March 2000 64 . Please include Directi ve (Agencv) Teen February 2000 40 ... Please include ... Directi ve (Ae.encv) Teen March 1998 26 ... Pucker up Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 112 ... Pull... Directive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 35 .. Pur your arms Directi ve (Ae.encv) YM March 1998 78 ... Put a little Directi ve (Agencv) YM March 2000 28 ... Put in some Directi ve (Ae.encv) YM March 2000 46 ... Quit... Directive ( Agen cv) Seventeen March 1998 82

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Data Examole Discourse Cateeorv ... Raise y ourself up Directi ve (Agencv) ... Reach ... Directive (Agency) ... Read Directi ve (Agencv) ... Read his lips Directi ve (Agency) ... Read on for tips ... Directi ve (Agencv) . Read on ... Directi ve (Agency) ... Read on ........ Directi ve (Agencv) ... Read this Directi ve (Agency) ... Read ... Directi ve (Agencv) ... Read . Directi ve (Agency) ... Read ... Directi ve (Agencv) ... Reduce Directi v e (Agency) ... Regress ... Directi ve (Agencv) ... Relax . . Directi v e (Agency) ... Relive vour memories Directi v e (Agency) ... Renew your card Directi ve (Agencv) ... Reoeat 10 times Directi ve (Agency) ... Reoeat. .. Directi ve (Agencv) . Resist the temptation ... Directi ve (Agency) ... Save Directi ve (Agencv) ... Sav Directi ve (Agency) ... Say no to Directi ve ( Agencv) ... Schmoo ze with Lil' Kim Directi ve (Agency) ... See it as Directi v e (Agencv) ... See oaee 94 Directi ve (Agency) ... See the last page Directi ve (Agencv) ... See where to shop .... Directive (Agency) ... See where to shop ......... . Directive (Agencv) ... See ... Directi ve (Agency) ... Select Directi ve (Agencv) ... Send Directi ve (Agency) ... Send in ... Directi ve (Agencv) ... Send us Directi ve (Agency) ... Send your ... Directi v e (Agencv) ... Send ... Directi ve (Agency) Maeazine Month Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Se ve nte en March Teen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Se venteen March Teen February YM March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Teen February Teen February Teen March Se v enteen March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Teen March Teen February Seventeen March Teen February YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February YM March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Year 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 Paee 126 124 36 4 110 36 52 110 84 190 65 116 190 192 36 12 33 35 76 30 68 52 184 118 30 172 24 109 90 209 64 30 79 84 146 ..... 00

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Data Exam1>le Discourse Cateirnrv Maeazine Month Year Pare ... Sent your questions to ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 84 ... Set y our tube Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 12 ... Share y our ... Directi ve (Agency) YM March 2000 48 ... Show the world Directi ve (Agency) YM March 2000 68 ... Sit him down Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 84 ... Slather y our smacker with ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 18 ... Sleep for 12 hours Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 121 ... Slowl y stand Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 124 ... Soothe Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 79 . Sound off on Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 36 ... Sound off on ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 36 ... Speak up Directive (A g e n cy) YM March 2000 68 ... Snend an entire afternoon Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 120 ... Spend ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 146 ... Snend ... Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 190 ... Split. .. Directive (Agency) Se ventee n March 1998 188 ... Spring into ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 2 ... Start a new cornmunitv Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 121 -O"I . Start aooreciating Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 12 ... Start with 15 reps Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 33 ... Sta y away from Directi ve ( Agen cy) Seventeen March 2000 76 ... Sta y monochromatic Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 64 ... Sta y out or up ... Directive (A gencv) Seventeen March 2000 120 . Suprise your mom Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 12 . Surf seventeen com ... Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 36 . Sweep the blush ... Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 62 ... Swine the color Directi ve (Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 62 . Swine the shadow Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 56 . Tackle Directive (Agencv) Teen February 2000 65 ... Take Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 107 ... Take a stab Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 12 ... Take a tip Directive (Agencv) YM March 2000 86 ... Take in ... Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 63 .. .Take it from me Directive (Agencv) YM March 2000 86 .. .Take notes Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 120

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Data Examole Discourse Cate1wrv Ma2azine .. .Take one ... Directive (Aeenc v ) Seventeen .. .Take these steps Directive (Agency) YM ... Take ... Directive (Agencv) Seventeen ... Take ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen ... Take ...... Directive (Agencv) Teen ... Tear out. .. Directive (Agency) Seventeen ... Tell 'em . Directive (Agencv) Seventeen ... Tell a different person Directive (Agencv) Teen ... Tell her ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen .. .Tell him the truth Directive (Agencv) Teen ... Tell the world Directive (Agency) YM ... Tell your parents Directive (Agencv) Seventeen ... Tell ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen ... Think ... Directive (Agencv) Seventeen ... Tie Directive (Agency) Teen ... Tilt ... Directive (Agencv) Seventeen ... Travel with us ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen . Treat yourself ... Directive (Agencv) Seventeen . .Try Directive (Agency) Teen ... Try (7 times) Directi v e (Agencv) YM ... Try a hot pink shade ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen ... Try to find Directive (Agencv) YM ... Try zaooing Directive (Agency) YM ... Try ... Directive (Agencv) Teen ... Try ...... Directive (Agency) Teen ... Tum to oaee 94 Directi v e (Agencv) Teen ... Use Directive (Agency) YM ... Use lip balm Directive (Agencv) Seventeen ... Use ... .... ............. ......... . . Directive (Agency) Seventeen ... Vow to take care of Directive (Agencv) Teen ... Wear it. .. Directive (Agency) Seventeen ... Weather-proof... Directive (Agencv) Teen ... Win Melissa Joan Hart's dress ... Directive (Agency) Teen ... Work in Directive (Agencv) YM ... Work it Directive (Agency) YM Month Year March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 March 2000 March 1998 Pa2e 140 26 190 190 107 167 190 12 148 70 53 121 82 153 73 246 190 90 26 95 64 62 63 20 108 14 63 68 48 65 233 2 4 38 83 -..... --.J 0

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Data Example Discourse Cates!Orv Maeazine Month Year Paee ... Work mask Directi ve (Agencv) Teen February 2000 76 ... Wrap y ourself ... Directi ve (Agenc y ) Seventeen March 1998 194 ... Write to Directi ve (Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 114 ... Write to ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 44 ... Write ... Directi ve (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 84 ... Write ... Directi ve (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 190 ... Zone in ... Directi ve (Agency) Se ve nteen March 1998 90 ... fdon'l] go Directi ve (Agencv) YM March 1998 36 ... add Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 48 ... add one to two Directi ve (Agencv) Teen February 2000 77 ... add up your points Directi ve (Agency) YM March 1998 44 ... add ... Directi ve (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 221 ... add .... Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 246 ... add ..... Directi ve (Agencv) Teen March 1998 22 ... add ..... Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 103 ... add ....... Directi ve (Agencv) YM March 1998 16 ... allow ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 220 ... alternate between Directi ve (Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 126 --...J ...... ... always annlv Directi ve (Agencv) Teen March 1998 108 . alwavs leave . to pros ... Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 68 ... and r vou1 rinse it Directi ve (Agencv) YM March 1998 110 ... and aool y ... Directi ve (A gency) Seventeen March 1998 205 ... and ask him Directi ve ( Agencv) YM March 2000 63 ... and assume a push-up oosition Directive (Agency) Se v enteen March 2000 126 . and avoid ... Directi ve (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 138 ... and bag the convo Directi ve (Agencv) YM March 1998 42 ... and bake Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 34 ... and blend auickl v Directi ve ( Agencv) Se v enteen March 2000 62 ... and blend quickl y .. Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 62 ... and braid Directive (Agencv) Se v enteen March 2000 227 ... and broaden y our ... Directi ve (Agencv) Seven t een March 2000 108 ... and brush Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 104 . and call Directi ve (Agencv) Teen February 2000 38 ... and check out Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 12 . and chill Directi ve (Agencv) Se v enteen March 1998 3 8

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Data Example Discourse Cateeorv Ma1rnzine ... and chill... Directi v e (Agencv) Se v enteen ... and chow down Directi ve ( Aeencv) YM ... and click on Directi v e (Agencv) Teen ... and clip Directi v e ( Aeencv) Seventeen ... and come ioin us Directi v e (Agencv) YM ... and concentrate ... Directi v e ( Aeencv) Teen ... and count Directive (Agenc y ) YM ... and count to I 0 Directi v e ( Agencv) Teen ... and create Directi v e (Agenc y ) Teen ... and curl Directi v e ( Agencv) Se v enteen ... and curl. ... Directi v e (Agencv) Teen ... and dance Directi v e ( Agenc y ) Teen ... and design Directi v e (Agencv) Teen ... and div ide ... Directi v e ( Agen cv ) Tee n . and don't flake Directi v e (Aeencv) Teen ... and don't look back. .. Directi v e (Agencv) Se v enteen ... and don't rinse ... Directi v e (Aeencv) Teen ... and draw ... Directi v e (Agencv) Teen ... and draw ... Directi v e (Agencv) Teen ... and dribble it Dir e cti v e (Ag e ncv) Se v ente e n ... and drink. .. Directi v e (Aee n cv ) Se v ente e n ... and exolain Directi ve (Agencv) Se v enteen ... and familiarize Directi v e < Aeencv) YM ... and find out Directi v e (Agencv) YM ... and find out. .. Directi v e ( Aeencv) Se v enteen ... and flex . Directive (Agencv) Teen . and focus on . Directi ve (Aeenc v ) YM ... and give Directi v e (Ag e ncv) Teen ... and gi v e ... .... Directi v e (Agencv) YM ... and gi v e .... ..... Directi v e (Agencv) YM ... and go Directi v e (Aeencv) Se v ente e n . and go easv ... Directi v e (Agencv) Se v enteen ... and go ... Directi v e ( Aeencv) Teen ... and gobble up Directi v e (Agencv) Se v enteen ... and ha v e Directi v e (Agencv) YM Month Year March 1998 March 2000 February 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 February 2000 February 2000 March 1998 February 2000 February 2000 February 2000 March 1998 February 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 Paee 207 64 65 48 86 3 5 46 65 12 48 76 1 2 65 101 65 84 16 36 36 126 190 148 6 3 44 66 35 42 101 58 59 7 6 203 3 5 121 44 ..... --.J N

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-Data Example Discourse Cate2ory Ma2azine Month Year Pa2e ... and help him ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 26 ... and hop ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 0 ... and keep an eve Directi ve (Agency) YM March 2000 46 ... and kick Directi ve (Agency) YM March 1998 62 ... and leave ... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 64 ... and let hair drv Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 76 ... and let him know ... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 26 ... and list... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 30 ... and lock on your looks ... Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 52 ... and lose the laziness Dir ec tive (Agency) Teen February 2000 85 ... and lower y ourself down Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 126 ... and mail it ... Dir ective (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 184 ... and make sure ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 142 ... and make ... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 2 ... and mean it... Dir ective (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 190 ... and move on Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 44 ... and move on ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 65 ... and move ... Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 28 --...J \..,.) ... and pick up ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 148 ... and pile it on Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 76 ... and plant a kiss on his lips Dir ective (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 12 l ... and play down Directi ve (Agency) YM March 1998 95 ... and oost Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 58 ... and practice Dir ective (Agency) Teen February 2000 12 ... and predict... Dir ec ti ve (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 209 ... and preoare .. Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 140 ... and pretend Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 42 ... and prove ... Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 190 ... and punch Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 62 ... and put on Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 66 ... and raise yoUiself up again Directi ve (Agency) Se v en t een March 2000 1 26 ... and read Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 58 ... and rela x ... Directive (Agency) Teen Februarv 2000 65 ... and remo ve Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 77 ... and re v Dir ective (Agencv) Teen March 1998 108

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory Maeazine Month Year Pa2e ... and reveal Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 42 ... and review ... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 36 ... and roll up Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 101 ... and row Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 48 ... and say buh-bye Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 62 ... and scram ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 84 . and see Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 44 ... and send it to ... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 123 ... and send it to ... Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 86 ... and send ... Directive ( Agency) Seventeen March 1998 167 ... and settle Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 87 ... and shake out Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 20 ... and sit back Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 124 ... and smile ... Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 59 ... and smooth ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 62 . and soothe fingers Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 77 ... and soort Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 59 ... and spread Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 112 ... and stay on budget ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 52 ... and straiQ.hten your elbows Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 33 ... and style Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 76 ... and take Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 58 ... and take her Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 12 ... and take turns Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 121 ... and talk to him Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 40 ... and taste Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 107 ... and team it Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 113 ... and tell her Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 40 ... and tell him Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 146 ... and tell him ... Directive (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 82 ... and tell him ...... Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 40 ... and tell them Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 58 ... and tell your e:uv ... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 28 ... and tell ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 28 ... and try ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 140

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Data Example Discourse Catee:orv Mae:azine Month Year Pae:e ... and turn Dir e cti ve (Agenc v ) Se v enteen March 1998 78 ... and twirl it Dir e cti v e (Agencv) Se v enteen March 2000 229 . and twist. .. Directi v e (Agencv) Se v enteen March 2000 226 ... and visit Directi v e (Agencv) Se v enteen March 1998 26 ... and walk out. .. Directi v e (Agencv) Teen February 2000 33 ... and walk ... Directi v e ( Agencv) Teen March 1998 103 . and whip up watercolors Directi v e (Agenc v ) Teen February 2000 12 ... and work uo ... Directive (Agenc v ) Teen March 1998 35 ... and write it. . Directi v e (Agencv) Teen March 1998 36 ... and write them do w n Directi v e (Agencv) Se v enteen March 2000 144 . aooly Dir e ctive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 108 ... aoolv . Directi v e (Agencv) Se v enteen March 1998 202 ... aooly ...... Directi v e ( Agencv) YM March 1998 16 ... arrange Directi v e (Agencv) Se v enteen March 1998 48 ... ask Directi v e ( Agencv) Te e n March 1998 32 . ask 'em first Directi v e (Agencv) Teen February 2000 30 ... ask her. ... Directi v e (Agencv) Se v enteen March 1998 153 ... ask him Directi v e (Agencv) YM March 1998 42 -....J VI ... ask him out Directi v e ( Agencv) Teen March 1998 40 ... ask him .. Directi ve (Agencv) Se v enteen March 1998 192 ... ask the exoerts ... Directi v e (Agencv) Teen March 1998 18 ... ask them ... Directi v e ( Agencv) Se v enteen March 1998 192 . ask v our mom ... Directi v e (Agencv) Se v enteen March 1998 140 ... ask y ourself Directi v e (Agenc v ) YM March 1998 82 ... ask. .. Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 138 ... ask . .... Directive (Agencv) YM March 1998 62 ... ask ............ Directive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 30 ... a v oid ... Directi v e (Agencv) Se v enteen March 1998 192 ... a v oid ..... Directi v e (Ae.encv) Teen March 1998 35 ... bag ... Directive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 20 ... bake ... Directi v e (Agencv) Se v enteen March 1998 246 ... balance face up Directi v e (Agencv) Tee n February 2000 33 . bear in mind ... Directi v e (Agencv) Teen March 1998 26 . belt out Directi v e (Agencv) YM March 1998 116 . bend ... Directi v e ( Agencv) Tee n March 1998 35

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Data Example Discourse Cate1wrv Ma1rnzine Month Year Pa2e ... blend Directi v e ( Agencv) Teen March 1998 10 3 ... blot Dire cti v e (Agen cy ) YM March 1998 22 . blow drv ... Directi v e ( Agenc v ) Teen March 1998 16 ... blow it out Directiv e (Agency) Teen March 1998 101 ... braid it Directi v e ( Agen cv ) Seventeen March 1998 48 ... break it uo Directi v e (Agency) Teen March 1998 101 . break it up .. Directi v e ( Agency) Teen March 1998 36 . bring Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 78 ... bring it in Directi v e ( Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 48 ... bring uo Directi v e (Agency ) YM March 1998 42 ... bring up ... . . . ...... Directi v e ( Agen cy ) YM March 1998 4 3 ... bust out Directi v e (Agency) YM March 1998 44 ... buy Directi v e (Agen cy ) Seventeen March 2000 121 ... buv that niftv necklace Directi v e (Agency) Teen Februarv 2000 1 2 ... call Directi v e (Agency) Teen March 1998 40 . call ( 4 times) Directi v e (Agen cy ) YM March 1998 24 . call him up Directi v e (Agency) YM March 1998 0 ... call ... Directi v e (Agen cy ) Se venteen March 1998 246 --...l ... call .... ... Directi v e (Agency ) Teen March 1998 14 . call .... ... .. Directi v e (Agency) Teen March 1998 14 ... call . .... . ... Directi v e (Agency) Teen March 1998 16 ... call ... ...... . .... Directi v e (Agency) Teen March 1998 61 . call. .... ......... .. . Directi v e ( Agen cy ) Se ventee n March 2000 146 ... call ... .... . ....... ... .... ... ... Directi v e (Agen cv ) Seventeen March 2000 146 ... camp under the stars Directi v e (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 121 ... catch his e v e Directi v e (Agencv) YM March 1998 0 ... catch it. . Directi v e (Agency) T een March 1998 49 . chalk it up Directi v e (Agencv) YM March 1998 44 ... check out Directi v e (Agency ) Teen March 1998 24 ... check out (2 times) Directi v e (Agencv) YM March 1998 52 . check out (3 times) Directiv e (Agen cy ) YM March 1998 24 ... check out ecrush's advice ... Directiv e ( Agencv) Teen Februarv 2000 30 . check out the ratio Directi v e (Agen cy ) Se v enteen March 2000 110 .. check out. Directiv e (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 116 ... check out. .. Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 90

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Data Example Discourse Cate1wrv Ma1rnzine Month Year Paee ... check out ... Directive ( Agencv) Teen March 1998 16 ... check out. ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 90 ... check out. ... Directive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 47 ... check out. .... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 56 ... check out. ..... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 118 ... check out. ....... Directive < Agencv) Teen March 1998 36 ... check out. ......... Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 62 ... check out. . ...... ........ Directive ( Agencv) Teen February 2000 30 ... check them out... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 246 . check ... Directive ( Agencv) Teen March 1998 38 ... chill Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 59 . choose the descriotion Directive (Agencv) YM March 1998 62 ... circulate ... Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 216 ... clean out Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 58 ... clear it Directive < Agencv) YM March 1998 116 ... click on "WIN" Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 30 ... clip ... Directive ( Agencv) Teen March 1998 16 ... clue in Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 4 ...... --.J --.J ... coat Directive < Agencv) Teen March 1998 104 ... coax him into Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 70 ... color your hair Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 121 ... comb Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 48 ... comb out Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 48 ... comb .... Directive < Agencv) YM March 1998 16 ... comb ..... Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 16 ... combat. .. Directive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 16 ... complement. .. Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 221 ... concentrate . Directive < Agencv) Teen March 1998 35 ... conclude Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 42 ... consider ducking ... Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 118 ... consider logging on Directive (Agencv) Se v enteen March 2000 118 ... consult Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 43 ... consult. .. Directive < Agencv) Teen March 1998 32 ... convince them Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 59 ... copy Directive (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 48

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Data Example Discourse Catee.orv ... corner him Directive ( Agencv) ... cover up dark circles and blemishes Directi v e (Agencv) ... crank the stereo Directi v e (Agencv) ... create Directi v e ( Agencv) ... create ... Directi v e (Agencv) ... crop Directive ( Ae.encv) . curl... Directive (Agencv) ... curl... .. Directi v e ( Ae.encv) ... decide ... Directi v e (Agencv) . decorate Directi v e ( Ae.encv) ... defv Directive (Agencv) . disaooear ... Directive ( Ae.encv) ... discuss the situation Directi v e (Agencv) ... divide Directive (Ae.encv) ... do Directi v e (Agencv) ... do 15 reps Directi v e (Agencv) ... do 25 Directive (Agency) ... do anything Directive ( Ae.encv) ... do both Directi v e (Agency) ... do both ... Directi v e ( Agencv) ... do it like Directi v e (Agency) ... do see a derm Directive (Agencv) ... do something Directi v e (Agency) ... do switch Directi v e ( Agencv) ... do the course ... Directive (Agency) ... do this Directi v e (Agencv) ... do whatever Directive (Agency) ... do ... Directi v e ( Agencv) ... do .... Directi v e (Agency) ... do ..... Directive ( Agencv) . do ...... Directive (Agencv) ... do . . ... ........ Directive ( Agencv) ... do . ..... ...... .... Directi v e (Agencv) ... don't .. Directive ( Agencv) ... don't attack. Directive (Agency) Mae.azine Month Se v enteen March YM March Se v enteen March Teen March Teen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Teen March Se v ente e n March Se v enteen March Teen March Teen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March YM March Teen March Teen March Se v enteen March YM March YM March YM March Se v enteen March YM March YM March Teen March Se v enteen Marc h YM March Teen March YM March YM March Teen March Teen March Year 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2 0 0 0 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 Pae.e 121 97 121 103 36 16 220 48 216 48 113 188 146 103 40 126 124 59 103 103 78 110 59 110 126 58 59 16 78 62 35 83 59 40 30 ..... -..J 00

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Data Example Discourse Catee.orv Mae.azine Month Year Paee ... don't cheat. Directive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 36 . don't faint. .. Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 192 ... don't forget.. Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 194 ... don't hesitate ... Directive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 32 ... don't miss out. .. Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 90 . don't shake it. .. Directi v e (Agencv) Teen March 1998 18 ... don't throw Directive (Agency) Sev enteen March 1998 76 . don ... Directive ( Agencv) Sev enteen March 1998 192 . draw Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 97 ... drink it up ... Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 174 ... drop ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 192 ... drop ... Directive ( Agencv) Teen March 1998 28 ... dust powder Directive (Agencv) YM March 1998 94 . embark ... Directive (Agencv) Sev enteen March 1998 190 ... enhance Directi ve ( Agencv) YM March 1998 20 ... enter ... Directive (Agency) Sev enteen March 1998 90 ... enter .... Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 90 ... estimate ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 192 ...... -...J ... exhale ... Directive ( Agencv) Teen March 1998 35 ... expect. . Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 140 ... explain ... Directive ( Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 80 ... explain ... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 36 ... exolore Directive (Agencv) Sev enteen March 1998 76 ... extend your left arm Directive ( Agencv) Sev enteen March 2000 126 ... extend ... Directive (Agency) Sev enteen March 1998 202 ... fasten Directive (Agencv) Sev enteen March 1998 48 ... fess up Directive (Agency) Teen Marc h 1998 130 ... file ... Directive ( Agencv) Teen March 1998 109 ... fill Directive (Agency) Sev enteen March 1998 64 ... find Directive ( Agencv) Teen March 1998 104 ... find out. . Directive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 28 ... find someone Directive (Agencv) Teen February 2000 85 ... finish Directive ( Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 48 ... finish .... Directi v e (Agency) YM March 1998 16 ... flip Directive ( Agencv) YM March 1998 4

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Data Example Discourse Category ... flip ... Directive (Agency) ... follow Directi ve (Agency) ... follow these ... Directive (Agency) ... follow ... Directi ve (Agency) ... gargle Directive (Agency) ... gather Directive (Agency) ... gather .. ... Directive (Agency) ... get out now Directive (Agency) ... get out there Directi ve (Agency) ... get over Directive (Agency) ... get over it Directive (Agency) ... get rid of ... Directi ve (Agency) ... get to ... Directive (Agency) ... get vour l!llv buds Directi ve (Agency) ... get... Directive (Agency) ... give Directive (Agency) ... give him Directi ve (Agency) ... give him a ... excuse ... Directive (Agency) ... give him ... Directi ve (Agency) ... give his restaurant ... Directive (Agency) ... give yourself ... Directive (Agency) ... cive vourself ...... Directi ve (Agency) ... giver her ... Directive (Agency) ... glam it up ... Directi ve (Agency) ... go back ... Directive (Agency) ... go bold ... Directive (Agency) ... go bowling Directive (Agency) ... go camping Directive (Agency) ... go commune Directive (Agency) ... go for Directive (Agency) ... go for it Directive (Agency) ... go for .......... Directive (Agency) . go for ....................... Directive (Agency) ... go slow Directive (Agency) ... go through Directive (Agency) Magazine Month Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March Teen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Teen March YM March YM March Teen March YM March Teen March Teen March YM March Teen March Teen March Teen March YM March Teen February Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Year 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1989 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 Page 246 18 48 218 22 48 76 110 59 36 62 14 138 40 176 24 42 42 26 44 26 30 57 4 36 105 116 65 76 26 82 59 43 62 126 ..... 00 0

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Data Example Discourse Cateiwrv Mairnzine Month Year Paee ... go to Directi ve (Agencv) YM March 1998 62 ... go to a party Directi ve (Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 121 ... go to someone Directive ( Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 148 ... go to town ... Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 17 ,.,go ... Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 190 ... go .... Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 190 ,., go ..... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 96 ... grab Directi ve ( Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 76 ... grab a soda .. Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 207 ... groove Directi ve (Agencv) YM March 1998 59 ... groove ... Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 188 ... l?.Uilt them into heloing v ou Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 121 ... hall butt Dir ec ti ve (Agency) YM March 1998 48 ... hang 'em Directi ve ( Agencv) YM March 1998 58 ... hang up pronto Directi ve ( Al?.encv) YM March 1998 42 ... ha ve Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 16 ... ha ve each person ... Directive (Agencv) Teen February 2000 65 ... ha ve her come over Directi ve (Agency) YM March 1998 58 ...... 0() ...... ... have y our princioal .. Directive ( Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 90 ... ha ve ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 40 ... ha ve ....... Directive (Agencv) YM March 1998 58 ... head somewhere Directi ve (Agency) YM March 1998 116 ... head to Directi ve ( Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 68 ... heads up ... Directive < Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 116 ... heat things up with Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 0 ... hide Directive ( Agencv) Teen March 1998 103 ... high-five ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 148 ... highlight Directive (Agencv) YM March 1998 97 ... hit the ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 61 ... hold ... Directive ( Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 246 ... include Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 115 ... include ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 18 ... jog his memory Directive ( Agencv) YM March 1998 42 ... ioin Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 57 .. ,join ... Directive ( Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 192

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Data Example Discourse Cate1?0rv .. join ... Dir ec ti ve ( Agencv) ... join ..... Directi ve (Agency) . ioin ...... ....... Directi ve (Agency) ... jot a juicy ne w entry Directi ve (Agency) ... iot down ... Directi ve (Agency) .. jump Directive (Agency) ... iump rooe Directive (Agency) .. jump up Directi ve < Agencv) ... iump . Directi ve (Agency) . .just avoid ... Directive ( Agencv) ... just chill... Directive (Agency) .. .just spread the word ... Directive ( Agencv) ... keep Dir ective (Agencv) ... keep calling ... Directi ve ( Agencv) . keep in mind Directive (Agency) ... keep lips ... Directive (Agencv) ... keep things Directive (Agency) ... keep twirling Directive (Agencv) ... keep your fingers away Directive (Agency) ... keep .... Dir ec tive (Agencv) ... keep .................... Directive (Agency) ... kiss the sun Directi ve ( Agencv) ... label it Directi ve (Agency) .. .lean in ... Directive (Agencv) .. .leave on Directi ve (Agency) ... leave time ... Directi ve ( Agencv) .. .let Directive (Agency) ... let 'your student' ... Dir ec tive ( Agenc y ) ... let dry Directi v e (Agency) . .let him know Directi ve (Agencv) ... let him know ... Directi ve (Agency) ... let us know Directi ve ( Agencv) ... let . Directive (Agency) .. .light up . Directive ( Agencv) . line ... Directi ve (Agen cy ) Ma1rnzine Month Teen March Seventeen March YM March Teen February Se ve nteen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Teen February Tee n March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Teen February YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Teen March Teen February Seventeen March Teen March Teen March Seventeen March Teen March Teen March Teen February Teen March Tee n March Teen March Year 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 Pa2e 61 38 59 12 138 78 126 78 20 203 32 30 10 l 28 48 219 62 226 42 116 58 68 59 35 74 192 103 36 48 26 70 30 16 16 104 ..... 00 N

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory Ma2azine ... listen carefull y lo the w a y Directi v e (Agen ;y) Seventeen ... listen up . Directi v e ( Agenc y ) Teen .. .log onto . Directi v e (Agency) Teen ... l ook for Directi v e (Agency) Teen ... l ook for a pair Direc t ive (Agency) Teen . .look for . Directive (Agency) Teen . .look for . ... Directi v e (Agency) Teen .. .look ... Directi v e (Agency) Teen ... l ower y ourself as far do w n Directive (Agency) Se v enteen ... make Directi v e (Agency) Teen ... make him fee l good b y ... Directi v e ( Agen cy ) Teen . make him y ours ... Directi v e (Agency) YM ... make it tlticker Directi v e ( Agen cy ) T een ... make it. .. Directi v e (Agen cy ) Teen ... make sure Dir e cti v e (Agency) YM ... make sure y ou ha v e ... Directi v e (Agen cy ) Teen ... make sure ... Directi v e (Agen cy ) Teen . make your exi t Directi v e (Agency) YM ... make your workouts fun Directi v e (Agenc y ) Teen ... make ... Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen ... make ... Directi v e (Agency) Teen ... make .... Directi v e (Agency) T een ... make ...... ........ Directi v e (Agen cy ) YM ... mark y our calendars Directi v e (Agency) Tee n . massage Directi v e (Agency) YM ... massage 'em Directi v e (Agency) Tee n ... meet.. Directi v e (Agen cy ) Se v ente e n ... meet.. Directive (Agen cy ) Teen ... meet.. . Directi v e (Agen cy ) Se v ent ee n ... ntist. . Directi v e (Agen cy ) YM ... mix ... Directi v e (Agen cy ) Se v ente e n ... move like Directive (Agency) YM . mo v e on . Directi v e (Agency) Se v ent e en . negotiate ... Directi v e (Agen cy ) Se v ente e n . nix Directi ve (Ag e ncy) S ev ent ee n Month Year March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 Mar c h 1998 Pa2e 146 44 129 33 33 16 44 26 126 101 70 0 34 98 40 33 26 43 33 246 20 102 60 115 112 77 84 8 90 16 246 40 192 192 6 4 .... 00 w

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory ... offer to stav ... Directive (Agency) ... opt for a purple wig Directive (Agency) ... opt for lighter colors Directi ve (Agency) ... or fdon'tl use ... Directi ve (Agency) ... or camp out Direct ive (Agency) ... or check Directive (Agency) ... or check out Directive (Agency) ... or contact Directi ve (Agency) ... or create ... Directive (Agency) ... or distance ... Directive (Agency) ... or e-mail Directi ve (Agency) ... or e-mail... Directi ve (Agency) ... or e-mail... Directi ve (Agency) ... or email Directi ve (Agency) ... or email us Directive (Agency) ... or email... Directive (Agency) ... or email... Directi ve (Agency) ... or email... .. Directi ve (Agency) ... or email ............ Directi ve (Agency) ... or email ............. Directive (Agency) ... or email... ............. Directive (Agency) ... or give it all Directi ve (Agency) ... or go in ... Directi ve (Agency) . or log on to Directive (Agency) ... or log on to ....... Directive (Agency) ... or opt for very ... Directive (Agency) . or pop in Directive (Agency) ... or see my fave ... sites ... Directive (Agency) ... or sit back Directive (Agency) ... or surf Directive (Agency) ... or try Directive (Agency) ... or trv a colorful ... Directive (Agency) ... or visit ( 4 times total) Directi ve (Agency) ... or visit ............. Directive (Agency) ... or visit... Directive (Agency) Ma2azine Month Seventeen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Teen March Teen March YM March Teen February Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March YM March Seventeen March Se venteen March Seventeen March Teen February YM March Seventeen March Teen February Seventeen March Teen February Teen February Seventeen March YM March Teen February Se venteen March YM March Teen March Se ven teen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Year 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 Pa2e 188 121 64 110 116 61 61 71 65 26 16 84 24 114 23 84 116 56 57 48 184 65 48 30 40 64 26 30 38 67 107 64 70 121 116 ...... 00 .::,.

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Data Example Discourse Cate2orv ... or visit ... ................. Directive ( Agencv) ... or volunteer together Directive (Agency) ... or whip up Directive (Agencv) ... or write us via email Directive ( Agencv) ... or write ... Directive (Agency) ... own it Directive (Agencv) ... pack Directive (Agency) . oaint Directive ( Agencv) ... oaint... Directive (Agency) ... pair Directive ( Agency) ... oair. .. Directive (Agencv) ... pat Directive ( Agency) ... oerk up Directive (Agencv) ... Pick Directi v e ( Agency) ... pick. .. Directive ( Agencv) ... Pick. ... Directive (Agency) ... pick .... Directive ( Agencv) ... Pick ..... . Directive (Agencv) ... picture Directive (Agencv) ... place ... Directive (Agencv) ... place .... Directive (Agencv) ... place ..... Directive (Agencv) ... place ...... Directive (Agency) ... place ....... Directive ( Agencv) ... Plan to be Directive (Agency) ... play up your eves with ... Directive (Agencv) ... please include Directive (Agency) ... please include ... Directive ( Agencv) ... please include ...... Directive (Agency) ... point out the constellations Directive (Agencv) ... ooint... Directive (Agencv) ... pop it... Directive (Agency) . practice Directive ( Agencv) ... Practice in front of a mirror Directive (Agency) ... practice ... .... Directive ( Agencv) Ma1rnzine Month Seventeen March Teen February Teen February Teen February Teen March YM March Teen March Teen March Teen March Teen March Teen March Teen March Teen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Teen March Teen March Teen March Seventeen March Teen March Teen March Teen March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March YM March Year 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 Pa2e 204 12 74 16 12 62 108 101 107 107 24 108 109 36 202 204 205 107 58 246 246 16 35 102 50 56 32 28 30 121 3 5 190 989 120 42 ...... 00 Vl

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Data Exam1>le Discourse Cateimrv Maeazine Month Year Pa2e ... preheat... Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 246 ... pretend ... Directi v e ( Agency) Teen March 1998 36 ... prim e ... Directi v e < Aeencv) Teen March 1998 18 ... print... Directi v e (Agency) Teen March 1998 18 ... pull Directive ( Aeencv) Teen March 1998 103 ... oull hair Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 101 ... pull y our heel Directive (Aeencv) Seventeen March 2000 126 .. PUil .. .. Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 16 ... punch in Directive ( Aeencv) YM March 1998 42 ... out awa y Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 58 ... put the condom Directive ( Aeencv) YM March 1998 48 ... out the iumproap Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 126 ... put yourself Directi v e ( Aeency) YM March 1998 110 ... out yourself... Directi v e (Agency) Teen March 1998 26 ... put ... Directive ( Aeencv) Teen March 1998 16 ... Quell Directive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 38 ... read his lios ... Directive ( Aeency) Teen March 1998 38 ... read ... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 3 2 ...... (X) ... read .... . ..... .. .. Directive (Aeencv) YM March 1998 59 ... rearrange ... Directive (Agencv) Se v enteen March 1998 190 ... reli v e ... Directi v e ( Aeen cy ) Se v enteen March 1998 190 . remember ... Directive (Agencv) Se v enteen March 1998 190 ... remember .... Directi v e (Aeency) Se v enteen March 1998 204 . remember ..... Directive (Aeencv) Teen March 1998 28 ... remind ... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 28 ... remind .. ... Directive ( Aeencv) Teen March 1998 30 . remove Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 22 ... remove ... Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 246 ... rent Directive (Aeency) Seventeen March 1998 76 ... rent.. Directi v e (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 190 ... repeat Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 78 ... reneat the warm-up Directive (Aeencv) Seventeen March 2000 126 ... rephrase Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 40 . repla y ... Directive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 38 ... request. .. Directive ( Aeency) Seventeen March 1998 140

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Data Example Discourse Catel!orv Mal!azine Month Year Pal!e ... rest. .. Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 35 -. . revel Directi ve ( Agencv) YM March 1998 58 ... rewrite . 'em Directi ve (Agency) YM March 1998 59 ... rip off your clothes Directi ve (A~) Seventeen March 2000 121 ... rise to the occasion Directive (Agency) Se ve nteen March 1998 76 ... rub Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 107 . rub ... Directive ( Agencv) Teen March 1998 18 ... rub .... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 18 ... rub .. ... Directi ve ( Agencv) YM March 1998 59 ... rub .. ... . Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 108 ... run ... Directi ve ( Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 176 ... run .... Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 16 ... save them for ... Directi ve (Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 64 ... save y ourself Directi ve (Agencv) YM March 1998 58 ... save yourself the embarrassment Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 30 ... say "whatever" . Directive ( Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 84 . say (2 times) Directi ve (Agency) YM March 1998 43 ... say (four times) Directive ( Agencv) YM March 1998 57 00 -...J . say bye-bye Directi ve (Agency) YM March 1998 26 ... sa y hello Directi ve ( Agency) YM March 1998 62 ... say hi Directi ve (Agency) YM March 1998 42 ... say ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 26 ... say ... Directi ve (Agencv) Teen March 1998 38 ... say ............ ... .... . Directi ve (Agency) YM March 1998 42 ... score sootless skin Directive ( Agencv) YM March 1998 18 . scratch that Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 56 .. scribble Dir ec tive (Agencv) YM March 1998 58 . scrunch Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 1 02 ... scrunch ... Directi ve (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 48 ... search ... Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 192 ... secure Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1 998 102 ... secure them Directive ( Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 226 ... secure ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 103 ... secure ... Directive ( Agencv) Seventeen March 1 998 56 ... secure ... ... . Directi ve (Agency) YM March 1998 1 6

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Data Example Discourse Catee:orv Mae:azine Month Year Pa2e ... secure .... ... Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 48 ... see Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 57 ... see above (15 times) Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 12 l ... see if... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 18 ... see it with Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 50 ... see it with ... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 48 ... see it with .... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 51 ... see it with ........ Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 52 ... see it ... Directi v e (Agency) Teen March 1998 30 ... see last oages ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 20 ... see l ast oages ... Directive (Agency) Se ve nteen March 2000 58 ... see what Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 61 ... see where to shop Directi v e (Agency) YM March 1998 96 ... see whe r e to sho p ...... Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 102 ... see where ... Directi v e (Agency) Teen March 1998 22 ... see ... Directi v e (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 238 ... see .... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 12 ... see ..... Directi v e (Agency) Teen March 1998 20 00 00 ... see ........ Directi v e (Agency) Teen March 1998 24 ... see . ...... .... ... Directive (Agency) Teen March 19 98 113 ... see ............... ..... Directive (Agency) Se ve nteen March 1998 76 ... see ............... . ..... Directi v e (Agency) YM March 2000 113 ... see ...... .............. ..... .... Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 30 ... see .... ........ ... ...................... Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 20 ... send Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 46 ... send him ... Directi v e (Agency) Teen March 1998 28 ... send in a p h o to (2 times) Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 30 ... send them ... Directi v e (Agency) Teen March 1998 35 ... sen d y our ... stories to ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 74 ... sen d y ou r name address ... Directive (Agency) Se v enteen March 2000 58 ... send ... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 14 ... send .. .. Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 18 ... sen d ... . Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 18 ... sen d ...... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 72 ... send ......... . ...... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 32

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Data Example Discourse Cateeorv Maeazine Month Year Paee ... s e oarate . Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 220 ... set Directi v e (Agency) YM March 1998 16 ... set goals Directi v e (Agency) YM March 1998 59 ... shake off Directi v e (Agency) YM March 1998 66 ... shake y our baby act Directi v e (Agency) YM March 1998 44 ... share ... Directi v e (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 188 . shop for sneakers Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 33 ... show him Directi v e (Agency) YM March 1998 116 ... show . Directi v e (Agency) Teen March 1998 28 . show . Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 190 ... show ... ....... Directi v e (Agency) YM March 1998 60 ... shows preview ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 90 ... sien up ... Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 190 ... sing . Directi v e (Agen cy ) Teen March 1998 104 ... sites .. .to help y ou deal Directi v e (Agency) Teen February 2000 30 ... skate . Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 190 ... skip ... Directi v e (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 204 ... skip . Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen March 2000 20 00 \0 . skip .... Directi v e (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 220 ... sla y him Directi v e (Agency) YM March 1998 43 ... slick Directi v e (Agency) Teen March 1998 103 ... slick ... Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 204 . slick . Directi v e (Agency) Teen March 1998 108 ... slick. . Directi v e (Agency) Se v ente e n March 1998 48 ... slide Directi v e (Agency) Teen March 1998 22 ... slide . Directi v e (Agency) Teen March 1998 16 ... slide .... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 16 ... slip ... Directi v e ( Agency) Teen March 1998 22 ... slowl y stand ... Directi v e (Agency) Teen March 1998 35 . smooth Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 18 . smooth on gloss Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 l07 . smooth on ... Directi v e (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 220 . smooth o ver Directi v e (Agency) Teen March 1998 109 ... smooth ... Directive (Agency) Sevente e n March 1998 218 ... smudge color up Directi v e (Agency) YM March 1998 95

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Data Example Discourse Catet!Orv ... snag ... Directive (Agencv) ... snip Directive (Agency) ... so check out Directive ( Agency) ... so iump Directive (Agency) ... so jump on Directive (Agency) ... so send them in Directive (Agency) ... soak in ... Directive ( Agency) . soak ... Directive (Agency) ... soften Directive (Agencv) ... sneak to him . Directive (Agency) ... speak up Directive ( Agency) ... speak up ... Directive (Agencv) ... spray ... Directive (Agency) ... sprav ... Directive (Agencv) ... spritz Directive (Agency) . spritz hair ... Directive (Agencv) ... spritz ... Directive (Agency) ... spritz .... Directive (Agencv) ... spritz ..... Directive ( Agency) ... stand around ... Directive (Agencv) ... stand vour ground . Directive ( Agency) ... stand ... Directive (Agencv) . stand ... . Directive ( Agency) . stare at him ... Directive (Agencv) ... start Directive (Agency) ... start here Directive (Agency) ... start planning Directive (Agency) ... start walking . Directive (Agencv) . start ... Directive ( Agency) ... start ... Directive (Agencv) ... start .......... Directive (Agency) ... stash 'em ... Directive (Agencv) ... stash it Directive (Agency) . steer deer of .. Directive (Agencv) ... stick the ... bits ... Directive ( Agency) Maeazine Month Year Teen March 1998 YM March 1998 Teen February 2000 Teen February 2000 Teen February 2000 Teen February 2000 Teen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Teen February 2000 Teen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Teen March 1998 YM March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Teen March 1998 YM March 1998 YM March 1998 Teen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Paee 14 16 29 65 12 30 32 35 77 30 61 140 16 103 108 16 220 16 16 21 l 238 35 35 40 108 42 59 35 192 246 35 14 108 64 56 -' 0

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Data Example Discourse Cate1wrv Ma2azine Month Year Pa2e ... stick with Directive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 109 ... stick ... Directi v e (Agen cv) Seventeen March 1998 192 ... stop calling Directive (Agencv) YM March 1998 58 ... store polish ... Directive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 18 ... strai!!.hten Directive (Agencv) Se ve nteen March 1998 48 ... substitute Directive ( Agencv) Teen Februarv 2000 65 ... suds up for Directive (Agencv) YM March 1998 113 ... suggest. .. Directive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 28 ... surf Directive (Agencv) Se ve nteen March 2000 36 . sway ... stories ... Directive (Agencv) YM March 1989 59 ... sweep Directive ( Agencv) Teen March 1998 107 ... sweep ... Directive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 18 ... sweep ....... ... Directive ( Agencv) YM March 1998 95 ... switch Directive (Agencv) Se ve nteen March 1998 78 ... switch .... Directive ( Agencv) Teen March 1998 35 ... swivel Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 78 ... take Directive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 101 ... take a nen ... Directive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 30 \0 -... take a step back Directive (Agencv) YM March 1998 59 ... take heart ... Directive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 38 ... take it ... Directive (Agencv) Se ve nteen March 1998 192 ... take lips Directive < Agencv) YM March 1998 95 ... take off on a weekend ... trip Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 121 ... take ... Directive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 16 ... take .. ... Directive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 22 ... take .... .... Directive ( Agencv) Teen March 1998 107 ... take ..... ... Directive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 36 ... talk Directive ( Agencv) Teen March 1998 61 ... tap Directive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 104 ... tease ... Directive ( Agencv) Teen March 1998 16 ... tell Directive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 40 . tell her Directive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 26 ... tell her ... Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 138 ... tell her .... Directive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 26 ... tell him ... Directive ( Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 238

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Data Example Discourse Cateiwrv Ma2azine ... tell them Directi v e (Agency) Sev enteen ... tell us Directi v e (Agenc y ) Teen ... tell us about... Directi v e (Agency) Teen ... tell us ... Directi v e (Agency) Seventeen ... tell us ......... Directi v e (Agencv) YM ... tell... Directi v e (Agenc y ) Teen ... test Directi v e (Agenc y ) YM ... test dri v e Directi v e (Agency) Teen . then ask that boy Directi v e (Agency) Sev enteen . then bend your elbows Directi v e (Agenc y ) Sev enteen ... then blend ... Dir ectiv e (Agency) Sev enteen ... then bounce back Directi v e (Agenc y ) YM ... then celebrate Directi v e (Agency) YM ... then circle ... Directi v e ( Agency) Teen ... then dust the nowder ... Directi v e (Agency) Sev enteen ... then end Directi v e (Agency) YM ... then fill in ... Directi v e (Agenc y ) YM ... then finish with Directi v e (Agency) Sev enteen ... then go ... Directi v e (Agency) Teen ... then grab a friend Directi v e (Agency) Sev enteen ... then hold ... Directi v e (Agency) Sev enteen ... then lower it Directi v e (Agency) Sev enteen ... then motor Directi v e (Agency) YM ... then oat yourself on ... Directive (Agency) Sev enteen ... then pick up ... Directi v e (Agency) Seventeen . then press up ... Directi v e (Agency) Teen ... then read Directi v e (Agenc y ) Teen ... then return Directi v e (Agency) Teen ... then rinse Directive (Agency) YM ... then slice 'em Directi v e (Agency) Teen ... then slide Directi v e (Agency) Sev ente e n ... then smudge black oencil Directi v e (Agency) Sev enteen . then splash face Directi v e (Agency) YM . then spra y on Directive (Agency) Teen ... then step from side to side Directi v e (Agency) Sev enteen Month Year March 2000 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 February 2000 February 2000 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 February 2000 March 2000 Pa2e 121 46 30 116 14 28 107 105 120 126 62 58 116 35 62 4 3 26 126 35 121 246 214 62 84 126 35 65 33 112 78 48 56 112 18 124 -' N

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Data Examole Discourse Cate1wrv Ma2azine Month Year Pa2e ... then sweep mascara Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 17 ... then switch Directi ve (Agency) Se ve nteen March 2000 124 ... then switch ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 35 ... then tissue off Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 112 . then to the left again Directi ve ( Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 124 ... then twist. . Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 18 ... then unwrap Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 20 ... then work up to Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 33 ... tidy Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 102 ... tie Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 56 . tie one on ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 20 ... tie up Dir ec ti ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 95 ... tio ... Directi ve (Age ncy) Seventeen March 1998 48 ... top Directi ve (Agency) YM March 1998 20 ... treat. .. Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 22 . trickier than the other ones Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 34 ... trust him ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 28 ... try Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 22 -\0 w ... try 'em Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 112 ... try (3 times) Dire c ti ve (Agency) YM March 1998 58 ... try Bi ore Directive (Agency) Teen Fe bruary 2000 74 ... try Yves Rocher Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 56 ... try a ... fragrance Dire c ti ve ( Agency) Teen February 2000 18 ... try a minute of Directi ve (Agency) Se v enteen March 2000 126 . try a rich smell Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 18 ... try a scent like ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 18 ... try calling ... Directi ve (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 216 ... try exercising Directi ve (Agency) YM March 1998 26 . try lining (two times total) Directi v e (Agency) Se ve nteen March 1998 64 ... try on the dress ... Directive (Agency) Se ve nteen March 2000 44 ... try saving Directi v e (Agency) YM March 1998 40 . try shouting ... Directive (Agency) Se ve nteen March 1998 82 ... try the following Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 239 ... try the old Directive (Agency) Se v enteen March 2000 146 ... try these new tares Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 33

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory ... try to Directive (Agency) . try . Directive (Agency ) ... try .... Directi v e (Agency) ... try . ... . Directive (Agency) ... try ... .... . Directive (Agency) . try . . ... . . . . Directi v e (Agency) . try . ..... ... . ... .... Directive (Agency) . try . ... ...... ........ .... . . Directive (Agency) . trv ... mousse Directive (Agency) ... tuck Directi v e (Agency) . tuck ... Directive (Agency) ... tuck . ... Directi v e (Agency) . tune . Directi v e (Agency) ... tum ... Directive (Agency) ... twist Directive (Agency) . twist small sections Directive (Agency) ... twist up Directive (Agency) ... tvoe in his name and citv Directive (Agency) ... unclog Directive (Agency) . unroll Directive (Agency) . use Directive (Agency) ... use a ... liner Directive (Agency) . use a lie.ht hand Directive (Agency) . use an alias Directive (Agency) . use only Directi v e (Agency) . use ... Directive (Agency) ... use .... Directive (Agency) . use . ... Directive (Agency) ... use . .... Directive (Agency) . use . . .... Directive (Agency) . use . ...... ... Directi v e (Agency) . veg out. .. Directi v e (Agency) ... visit Directive (Agency) ... visit (2 times) . Directi v e (Agency) . visit (3 times total this oage) Directive (Agency) Ma2azine Month YM March Se v enteen March Teen March Teen March Se v enteen March Tee n February Teen March YM March Teen February Teen March YM March YM March Se v enteen March YM March YM March Teen February Se v enteen March Teen February YM March Teen March Teen March Teen February Se v enteen March Se v enteen March YM March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Teen March Se v enteen March Teen March YM March Se v enteen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Year 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 200 0 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 200 0 1998 200 0 1998 200 0 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 Pa2e 36 22 0 20 105 68 6 5 32 116 17 101 16 16 190 79 16 20 48 3 0 18 101 107 17 62 68 110 218 22 0 18 221 3 5 48 192 6 1 239 210 ..... \0

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory Maeazine . visit the campus Directive (Agency) Seventeen ... visit www Directive (Agency) Seventeen ... visit you r doctor Directive (Agency) Teen . visit. . Directive (Agency) Se v enteen ... visit. ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen ... visit. ....... Directive (Agency) Teen ... walk away ... Directive (Agency) Se ve nteen ... want to shine . ? Directive (Agency) Seventeen ... warm up any washed out face Directive (Agency) YM ... wash Directive (Agency) YM ... wash three times Directi ve (Agency) YM ... watch him Directive (Agency) YM ... watch it Directive (Agency) Teen ... watch it. .. Directi ve (Agency) Teen ... watch this face Directi ve (Agency) Teen ... wear Directive (Agency) Teen ... wear 'em ... Directive (Agency) Teen ... wear high heels and ve l vet Directive (Agency) Se ve nteen ... wear it. . Directi v e (Agency) Teen . wear the type of socks ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen . wear ... Directive (Agency) Teen ... wear ... ... Directive (Agency) YM ... weave ... Directive (Agency) Teen ... what to look for . Directi v e (Agency) Se ve nteen . what to try . Directive (Agency) Se ven teen ... wind it Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen ... wind the braid Directive (Agency) Se v enteen . wonder aloud .... Directive (Agency) Seventeen . work Directive (Agency) YM . w ork ... Directive (Agency) Se v enteen ... work. ..... Directi v e (Agency) Teen ... wrap Directive (Agency) Se v enteen ... wrao twists in foil Directive (Agency) Teen ... wrap ... Directive (Agency) Teen ... wra o .... Directive (Agency) Tee n Month Year March 2000 March 2000 February 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 Paee 110 114 42 28 190 61 90 90 18 18 110 116 4 45 45 107 22 120 36 33 20 58 101 62 62 56 48 188 16 190 35 5 6 20 1 6 18 ..... \0 Vl

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory Ma2azine Month Year Pa2e ... write Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 61 ... write down ... Directive ( Agency) Seventeen March 1998 138 ... write down . . Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 138 . write down ... . Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 36 ... write him Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 40 ... write to Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 132 ... write to . Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 4 ... write to . Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 18 ... write to .... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 26 . write to . ...... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 28 ... write to ........ . Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 10 ... write to ..... ...... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 30 ... write to ... .......... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 130 ... write to . ..... .... .... Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 14 ... write us Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 40 ... write ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 116 ... write ....... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 216 ... write ..... ..... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 246 -'-0 0\ . write ......... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 84 ... v ou ask ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 192 ... you can also use ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 62 ... v ou can call Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 146 ... you can do it solo in vour back.vard Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 124 ... vou can get them to go Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 121 ... y ou can line up more Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 124 ... vou can work behind Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 118 ... you can write a naner Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 121 ... vou can ..... . Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 20 ... you never know ... could result ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 108 ... zap it Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 108 .. Blowdrv ... strands ... Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 20 .. Stand staililit Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 126 . Take ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 216 .. and change vour name Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 96 .. and go! Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 116

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Data Example Discourse Cate2orv Ma2azine Month Year Pa2e . and rinse Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 74 .. and tell him why ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 59 .. have a friend Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 76 .. then press it Directi ve (Age nc y ) YM March 2000 34 .. try fi !!llring Directi ve (Agency) YM March 1998 40 Accept a compliment Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 65 Adapt ... Directi v e (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 76 Add a drop ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 60 Add flair Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 242 Add it to Dir ective (Agency) Teen February 2000 65 Add ... a ... hat Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 80 Adiust vour watch Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 65 Adopt a foreign accent Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 121 Adorn v our fingers ... Dir ec ti ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 220 Adorn y our waves Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 228 Announce Directi ve (Agency) YM March 1998 60 Answer the question Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 184 -\0 Aoolv Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 34 -.....I Aooly a shadow ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 17 Aooly a shadow .... Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 17 Aooly a ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 76 Aooly gold glitter ... Dir ec ti ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 224 Aool v lotion Directi ve (Agency) YM March 1998 112 Aooly medic a ted ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 75 Aoolv mousse ... Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 48 Aool y orange mascara ... Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 225 Aoolv shadow there .. Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 72 Aooly the product ... Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 26 Aoolv the same ... Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 225 Aooly ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 220 Aoolv .... Direc ti ve (Agency) Tee n March 1998 109 Aonlv ..... Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 117 Aool y ...... Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 97 Annlv ....... Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 22 Aooly ........ Directive (Age n cy) YM March 2000 116 -

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Data Example Discourse Cateeorv Maeazine Month Year Paee Annly ... ........ Directi v e (Ae.encv) YM March 1998 95 Anoly ........ ..... Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 48 Anoroach him Directive ( Ae.encv) Teen February 2000 59 Aie you gonna e.o . ? Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 252 Airange ... Directive ( Ae.encv) YM March 1998 58 Ask Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 76 Ask Juli Directive ( Ae.encv) Teen February 2000 3 Ask a Guy ... Directive (Agencv) Teen February 2000 3 Ask a e.uv ... Directive ( Ae.encv) Teen March 1998 2 Ask an adult Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 146 Ask anything ..... Directive ( Ae.encv) YM March 1998 4 Ask her ... Directive (Agencv) Teen February 2000 36 Ask him Directive ( Ae.encv) YM March 2000 62 Ask the exoerts ... Directive (Agencv) Teen February 2000 17 Ask the salon Directive ( Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 48 Ask your ... Directive (Agencv) Teen Februarv 2000 65 Ask. .. Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 142 Ask. .... Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 142 Ask. ..... Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 142 Ask. ...... .... Directive (Agencv) YM March 1998 57 Avoid eating . Directive ( Agencv) YM March 2000 36 Avoid hip hop Directive (Agencv) YM March 2000 40 Avoid scrubs ... Directive (Agencv) YM March 2000 28 Avoid .... Directive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 118 Back down ... Directive (Agencv) Seve nteen March 1998 80 Back down ... Directive ( Ae.encv) Seve nteen March 1998 238 Back down .... Directive ( Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 82 Back down ..... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 82 Back down ..... Directive ( Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 82 Bag it... Directive (Agencv) YM March 2000 38 Bake some ... treats Directive (Agencv) Teen February 2000 12 Banish R.A.T.s Directive (Ae.encv) Teen February 2000 65 Be a good Directive (Agencv) Teen February 2000 65 Be on time Directive (Agencv) Teen February 2000 65 Beam with Directive (Agencv) YM March 2000 14

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Data Example Discourse Cateeorv Ma2azine Bear in mind ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen Beat the blues ... Directive (Agency) Teen Become a lifesaver.. Directive (Agency) Teen Beefuo your Directive (Agency) YM Believe it Directive (Agency) YM Bend your right leg Directive (Agency) Seventeen Beware of ... Directive (Agency) Teen Blame it on the . fumes Directive (Agency) Seventeen Blaze a trail Directive (Agency) YM Blend Directi v e (Agency) YM Blend in Directive (Agency) YM Blend in .... Directive (Agency) YM Blend on well Directive (Agency) YM Blend ... Directive (Agency) YM Blend .... Directive (Agency) Seventeen Blink again Directive (Agency) YM Blot !ins Directi v e (Agency) YM Blow drv Directive (Agency) YM Blowdrv ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen Borrow binoculars Directive (Agency) Teen Bounce back ... Directive (Agency) YM Breakdown Directive (Agency) YM Bring me ... Directi v e (Agency) YM Bring ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen Brush Directive (Agency) YM Brush a . eyeshadow ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen Brush on shadow ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen Buff vour bod Directive (Agency) YM Bum fat... Directive (Agency) YM Burst out of the winter blahs ... Directive (Agency) YM But don't lose si!!ht ... Directi v e (Agency) Teen Buy into silvery blue ... Directive (Agency) Teen Bu y oaint Directive (Agency) Teen Buy your dress (TWICE TOTAL THIS PAGE) Directive (Agency) Se ve nte e n Buy yourself Directive (Agency) YM Month Year March 1998 Februarv 2000 February 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 Februarv 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 Februarv 2000 Februarv 2000 February 2000 March 2000 March 1998 Pa2e 148 38 65 14 64 124 118 134 12 95 96 97 95 26 222 126 94 16 48 65 4 22 86 140 95 224 225 28 36 30 85 65 12 158 58 ..... \0 \0

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Data Example Discourse Cate1wrv Buv ... .... Directive (Agency) Call Directive (Agency) Call ( 10 times total) Directi ve (Agency) Call (2 times on this page) Directive (Agency) Call (2 times total on this page) ... Directi ve (Agency) Call (2 times) Directive (Agency) Call (2 times) .... Directive (Agency) Call (3 times on this page total) Directi ve (Agency) Call (3 times) Directive (Agency) Call (4 times total) Directive (Agency) Call (4 times) Directive (Agency) Call (4 times) ... Directi ve (Agency) Call (5 times) Directive (Agency) Call (7 TOTAL TIMES THIS PAGE ) Directi ve (Agency) Call (9 TOTAL TIMES THIS PAGE) Directive (Agency) Call ... Directi ve (Agency) Call Carlie Directi ve (Agency) Call around Directi ve (Agency) Call him Directive (Agency) Call him ... Directive (Agency) Call your local ... Directi ve (Agency) Call ... Directi ve (Agency) Call .... Directi ve (Agency) Call ..... Directi ve (Agency) Call ...... Directi ve (Agency) Call... .... Directi v e (Agency) Call ........... Directi ve (Agency) Call .............. Directi ve (Agency) Call. ... ............... Directive (Agency) Call. . . ......... ..... ... Directive (Agency) Call. ........... ................. Directi ve (Agency) Call .... ..... .................... Directive (Agency) Call ........... .... ...... ................................. Directi ve (Agency) Carrv Directi v e (Agency) Carry ... Directi v e (Agency) Ma2azine Month Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February Se v enteen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Se v enteen March Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Teen February YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February Year 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1 998 **** 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 Pa2e 76 204 129 206 207 233 252 209 210 220 220 70 98 158 152 212 111 76 58 80 65 238 241 208 26 67 22 76 92 152 26 56 76 76 42 N 0 0

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Data Example Discourse Cate1?:orv Catch it on ... Directi v e (Agen cy ) Catch on to ... Directi v e (Agency) Catch that disco fever ... Directi v e (Agen cy ) Celebrate Directi v e (Agency) Celebrate .. Directi v e (Agency) Cha cha cha ... Directi v e (Agenc y ) Chalk it up to Directi v e (Agency) Change y our room Directi v e ( Agency) Chase awav ... Directi v e (Agency) Chat li v e ... Directi v e (Agency) Chat up Ja y -Z Directi v e (Agenc y ) Check in ... Directi ve ( Agency) Check it out ........ Directi v e ( Agency) Check it out.. ............ Directi v e (Agency) Check local TV listings ... Directive (Agency) Check out Directi v e (Agency) Check out (2 times) Directi v e (Agency) Check out (2 times) ... Directi v e (Agency) Check out (4 TIMES TOTAL THIS PAGE) Directi v e (Agency) Check out Alateen Directi v e (Agency) Check out their ... Directive (Agency) Check out these Directi v e (Agency) Check out these tips Dire cti v e (Agency) Check out these ... Directive (Agency) Check out these ..... Directive (Agency) Check out y our bod v -art smarts ... Directive (Agency) Check out. .. Directi v e (Agenc y ) Check out ... ,, Directi v e (Agen cy ) Check out.. ... Directi v e (Agency) Check out. ..... Directi v e (Agency) Check out ........ Directive (Agency) Check out ...... ... Directive (Agency) Check out.. ........ Directi v e (Agency) Check out.. ......... Directive (Agency) Check out.. .......... Directive (Agen cy ) Ma2azine Month Teen February Se v enteen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February Se v enteen March Teen February YM March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Se v ente e n March Se v enteen March YM March Teen February Se v enteen March Se v enteen March YM March Se v enteen March YM March YM March YM March Se v ent een March Teen February YM March YM March Se v enteen March Teen February Teen F e bruarv Teen February Seventeen March YM March Se v ent een March Sev ente e n March YM March Year 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 Pa2e 56 232 98 26 36 87 144 65 115 36 184 12 24 58 51 136 26 28 158 92 18 83 242 51 83 124 152 87 62 65 30 23 40 3 8 109 N 0 -

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Data Examole Discourse Cate1rnn1 Check out. ............ Directive (Agencv) Check out. ............. Directive (Agencv) Check out. .... .... ..... Directive ( Ae.encv) Check out. .............. Directive (Agencv) Check out. ............. ... Directive ( Ae.encv) Check out. ... .............. Directive (Agency) Check out. ... . .... ... ......... Directive ( Ae.encv) Check out. . .... ... ... .... . Directive (Agencv) Check out. ... . .... .... ........... Directive (Ae.encv) Check out. .... . ..... .... .... . .... . Directive (Agencv) Check out. ................................. .. Directive ( Ae.encv) Check out. . ........... .......... ..... .... ......... Directive (Agencv) Check out. .. our.. feature ... Directive ( Agenc v) Check that the fabric ... Directive (Agency) Check us out. .. Directive (Ae.encv) Choose a gentle scrub ... Directive (Agencv) Choose a great location Directive (Agencv) Choose a shade Directive (Agencv) Choose a shade ... Directive (Ae.encv) Choose a spot... Directive (Agencv) Choose the ... sorav Directive (Agencv) Choose ... Directive (Agencv) Choose ... ... Directive (Agencv) Choose ........... . Directive (Agencv) Choo vour locks ... Directive ( Agency) Circle the excuses ... Directive (Ae.encv) Clean out vour closet Directive (Agencv) Cleanse Directive (Agencv) Close the book Di rec ti ve ( Ae.encv) Coat vour lashes ... Directive (Agency) Coat. . Directive (Agencv) Collect a ... classic Directive (Agencv) Collect seashells Directive (Ae.encv) Collect. .. Directive (Agencv) Comb Directive ( Agencv) Ma2azine Month Seventeen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Teen February YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Teen February Seventeen March Teen February YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Teen February YM March Teen February YM March Teen February Seventeen March Teen February Teen February Teen February Seventeen March YM March Year 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 Pa2e 9 66 57 48 65 119 115 22 63 124 16 56 12 44 50 28 242 95 64 242 20 205 220 117 87 26 65 22 65 224 79 12 65 142 96 N 0 N

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Data Examole Discourse Catee:orv Ma2azine Comb your lashes ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen Come celebrate ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen Come in from Directive (Agency) Teen Compliment me ... Directive (Agency) YM Conceal ... circles and zits Directive (Agencv) YM Concentrate ... Directive (Agency) Teen Confide in Directive (Agencv) YM Connect the dots ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen Consider spending . Directive (Agency) Seventeen Contact Directive (Agency) Teen Contact 'em . Directive (Agency) Teen Contact Carson ... Directive (Agency) Teen Contact Fred ... Directi v e (Agency) Teen Contact Freddie Directive (Agency) Teen Contact Josh Directive (Agency) Teen Contact Justin Directive (Agencv) Teen Contact Mark Directive (Agency) Teen Contact Nick ... Directive (Agencv) Teen Contact rucky Directive (Agency) Teen Contact Seth ... Directive (Agencv) Teen Contact Tom Directive (Agency) Teen Control. .. Directive (Agency) Teen Cool off. .. Directi v e (Agency) Teen Cover Directive (Agency) Teen Crack a smile Directive (Agencv) YM Crack your crush Directive (Agency) YM Crack your crush ... Directive (Agency) YM Create a ... combustion Directive (Agency) Teen Crush on orange ... Directive (Agencv) Seventeen Cry ... Directive (Agency) YM Cultivate culture ... Directive (Agency) Teen Curb the urge Directive (Agencv) YM Curl UP ... Directive (Agency) Teen Cut Directive (Agencv) Teen Cut class Directive (Agency) Seventeen Month Year March 2000 March 2000 February 2000 March 2000 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 February 2000 February 2000 February 2000 February 2000 February 2000 February 2000 February 2000 February 2000 February 2000 February 2000 February 2000 February 2000 February 2000 February 2000 February 2000 March 1998 m 2000 March 2000 February 2000 March 2000 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 February 2000 February 2000 March 2000 Pa2e 225 158 74 40 96 65 92 64 42 95 50 56 52 57 56 56 53 54 55 55 55 76 65 76 62 14 62 65 17 58 65 83 33 78 121 N 0 w

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Data Example Discourse Cateeorv Ma2azine Month Year Pa2e Dab a bit.. Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 222 Dab a drop ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 62 Dab a tiny bit. .. Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 224 Dab the mixture ... Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 28 Dab ... Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 116 Dare to do ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 24 Dare to wear ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 192 Declare war Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 42 Decode him Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 l l Decorate ... . Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 56 Define your cheekbones Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 222 Delegate ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 242 Designate ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 76 Dig in Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 107 Digest. .. Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 104 Dip ... a brush Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 26 Discover Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 105 Disl!l.lise ... Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 115 N Disregard Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 40 Disreirard this ... Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 65 Divide the total Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 242 Divide your hair Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 226 Do lO ... Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 79 Do 15 reps Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 126 Do a sound check Directive (Agency) Teen Februarv 2000 65 Do buy ... Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 22 Do choose ... Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 l lO Do fun stuff ... Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 53 Do get. ... Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 86 Do it like Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 78 Doit... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 78 Do not say ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 140 Do realize Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 86 Do skip Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 86 Do so ... Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 115

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Data Example Discourse Cate1wrv Maeazine Do something ... Directi v e (Agencv) Teen Do talce ... Directive (Agencv) YM Do the natural thing Directi ve (Agencv) YM Do trv ... Directive (Agencv) YM Do vour bodv right. .. Directi v e (Agencv) Teen Do y our own ... Directive (Agencv) YM Do v ourself a favor Directive (Agencv) Teen Don your blue jeans Directive (Agencv) Teen Don vour dragon suit Directi ve (Agencv) Teen Don't ask Directi ve ( Agencv) YM Don't attempt. .. Directive (Agencv) Seventeen Don't avoid Directive (Agencv) YM Don't blame yourself... ... Directive (Agencv) V Don't blow ... Directive (Agencv) YM Don't carrv ... Directi ve (Agencv) Seventeen Don't date Directive (Agencv) YM Don't dis yourself Directive (Agencv) YM Don't eat Directive (Agencv) YM Don't even bother dating ... Directive (Agencv) Seventeen Don't exnect him to ... Directive (Agencv) Teen Don't exoect. . Directive ( Agencv) Seventeen Don't fall for 'em ... Directive (Agencv) Teen Don't file fakes ... Directive (Agencv) YM Don't fool yourself ... Directi ve (Agencv) YM Don't forget Directive (Agencv) YM Don't forget... Directive ( Agencv) Teen Don't forget..., Directive (Agencv) Teen Don't forget.. .... Directive ( Agencv) Seventeen Don't forget. .... . Directive (Agencv) Teen Don't forget... ...... Directi ve (Agencv) Teen Don't forget... ... . ..... Directive (Agencv) YM Don't forget . ...... ... ... Directive (Agencv) Seventeen Don't forget. .............. Directive (Agencv) Tee n Don't freak Directi v e (Agencv) YM Don't get. .. Directi v e ( Agencv) Seventeen Month Year February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 March 2000 February 2000 February 2000 February 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 Pa2e 38 22 104 22 65 40 65 12 12 86 6 4 116 92 22 216 36 36 83 80 70 140 34 22 26 63 IOI 95 46 1 6 130 113 76 12 20 235 N 0 Vt

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Data Examole Discourse Cateiwrv Don't give . Directive (Agencv) Don't go crazy Directive (Agency) Don't go out ... Directi ve (Agencv) Don't hassle him Directi ve (Agency) Don't hit the sheets Directi ve (Agencv) Don't hop back Directive (Agency) Don't ignore her ... Directive (Agencv) Don't join Chocoholic Anonomous . Directive (Agency) Don't iudge yourself Directi ve (Agencv) Don't keep the truth ... Directive (Agency) Don't let that out you off Directive (Agencv) Don't let... Directive (Agency) Don't let.. .. .. Directi ve (Agencv) Don't let.. .... .... Directi ve (Agency) Don't look. .. Directive (Agencv) Don't miss Directive (Agency) Don't miss . Directive (Agency) Don't miss ...... Directive (Agency) Don't overscrub Directive (Agencv) Don't overscrub .... Directi ve (Agency) Don't plan ... Directive (Agencv) Don't put on ... Directive (Agencv) Don't restrict Directi ve (Agency) Don't rip . Directi ve (Agencv) Don't see them Directi v e (Agency) Don't settle for ... Directi ve (Agencv) Don't share . Directi ve (Agency) Don't smoke ... Directi ve (Agencv) Don't stop moving Directive (Agency) Don't stress Directi v e (Agencv) Don't stress . Directive (Agency) Don't take Directi ve (Agencv) Don't take it... Directi ve (Agency) Don't take it ...... Directive (Agency) Don't try to ... Directi v e (Agencv) Ma2azine Month Teen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen February Teen February Teen February YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Teen February Teen March YM March Teen February Teen February YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen February Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Teen March YM March Teen February Year 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 Pa2e 14 126 62 36 110 62 36 34 85 40 174 112 46 50 118 28 49 12 110 110 140 58 86 22 36 57 42 42 124 9 142 80 30 57 38 N 0

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory Ma2azine Don't wait. . Directive (Agency) Teen Don't waste ... Directi ve (Agencv) Se v enteen Don't worry Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen Don't worry ... Directive (Agencv) Seventeen Don't worrv ......... Directive (Agency) YM Don't you dare wear ... Directive (Agency) Teen Dot lips and eves Directive (Agency) YM Dot onto Directive (Agency) YM Double zap flakes ... Directi ve (Agency) YM Downplav ... Directive (Agency) YM Draw a hopscotch board Directive (Agency) Seventeen Draw a line ... Directive (Agency) YM Dress to impress ... Directive (Agency) YM Drink Directi ve (Agency) Teen Drink ... Directi ve (Agenc v) Teen Drool over Directive (Agency) Seventeen Drop the dude ... Directive (Agency) YM Drop us a oostcard Directive (Agency) Seventeen Drop ... Directive (Agency) YM Dry up ........ Directi ve (Agency) YM Orv ... Directive (Agency) YM Dust an ... blush Directive (Agency) Seventeen Eat healthv food Directi ve (Agency) Teen Email me ... Directive (Agency) YM Email ... Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen Email ... Directive (Agency) Teen Email... Directive (Agency) Teen Embellish ... Directive (Agency) YM Embrace Directi ve (Agency) YM Emphasize ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen Energi z e Directive (Agency) Teen Enlarge vour own circle Directive (Agency) Teen Enlist. .. Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen Enter Directive (Agency) Se ve nteen Enter a contest Directive (Agency) Teen Month Year February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 Februarv 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 February 2000 February 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 February 2000 March 1998 March 2000 February 2000 February 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 February 2000 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 Pa2e 65 76 16 70 40 20 107 96 28 18 126 26 54 79 42 26 64 172 118 115 38 225 42 12 206 95 96 38 40 153 65 36 48 66 65 N 0 --.J

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Data Example Discourse Cate2orv Erase ... Directive (Agency) Estimate your costs Directive ( Agency) Even out Directive (Agency) Exchange snacks ... Directive ( Agency) Exercise Directive (Aeencv) Expand y our voca b Directive (Agency) Expect to soend Directive ( Aeencv) Exoeriment with ... Directive (Agency) Explain . Directive (Aeencv) Explain ... Directive (Agency) Explain ... Directive (Aeencv) Face it... Directive (Agency) Face it. .. Directive (Agencv) Face it. ........ Directive (Agency) Fasten Directive (Agency) Fasten it Directive (Agencv) Fasten the kinks ... Directive (Aeency) Fasten ... Directive (Agency) Fasten ... Directive ( Aeencv) Fear not Directive (Agency) Fear not! ... Directive (Agency) Feed your mind Directive (Agencv) Feel good Directive (Agency) Fess up Directive ( Aeencv) Fil!ht flakes Directive (Agency) Fight zits Directive ( Aeencv) Fiirure out the combo to your crush's heart Directive (Agency) File Y2K style ... Directive (Agencv) Fill y our cookie iar . Directive ( Agency) Fill ... Directive (Agency) Find a set of steos ... Directi v e (Agencv) Find a shade Directive (Aeencv) Find out Directive (Agency) Find out if ... Directive (Agency) Find out w hat's ... Directive ( Aeencv) Ma2azine Month YM March Seventeen March Teen February Teen February YM March Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February Teen February Teen February YM March YM March YM March Teen February Teen February Teen February Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Teen February Seventeen March Year 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 Pa2e 116 242 79 65 58 87 70 216 188 148 153 80 236 110 229 227 226 226 227 76 188 65 65 96 28 117 11 65 34 78 126 30 12 84 17 N 0 00

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory Ma2azine Find out.. Directive (Agency) Teen Find out. .. Directive (Agency) YM Find out. . ..... Directive (Agency) Teen Find the routine Directive (Agenc y ) YM Find these prints Directive (Agency) YM Find ... Directive (Agenc y ) Seventeen Finger comb Directi v e (Agency) Seventeen Finish the look Directive (Agency) Seventeen Finish with Directi v e (Agency) YM Flaunt Directi v e (Agency) YM Flip it. .. Dire c ti v e (Agency) YM Flip the nal!:e Directi v e (Agency) YM Flip y our lids . Directi v e (Agency) YM Flirt in Broken English w ith Directi v e (Agen cy ) Se v enteen Focus on Directi v e (Agency) Teen Focus on ... Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen Fold arms across chest. .. Directi v e (Agency) Teen Follow Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen Follow our flowchart ... Directive (Agency) YM Follow the instructions Directi v e (Agency) YM Follow these tips Directi v e (Agency) Teen Follow these tips ... Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen Follow up with ... Directi v e (Agency) Teen Follow with a minute of graoe v ines Directive (Agency) Se v enteen Follow ... Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen Follow .... Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen Follow ...... Directi v e (Agency) YM Follow .......... Directive (Agency) Seventeen For ... call . Directive (Agency) Seventeen For ... try ... Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen Forget Detroit. .. Directi v e (Agency) Teen Forget fibbing Directi v e (Agency) Teen Forget playing ... Directive (Agency) Teen Free y our hair Directi v e (Agency) Teen Funkv up y our fringe Dir e cti v e (Agen cy ) YM Month Year February 2000 March 2000 February 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 February 2000 March 1998 February 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 February 2000 March 2000 February 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 February 2000 Marc h 1998 Pa2e 52 80 4 117 34 76 48 222 94 96 11 59 30 121 85 205 33 227 44 28 74 242 74 124 2 2 2 60 57 78 48 20 117 65 114 87 107 N 0 \C)

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory Ma2azine Month Year Pa2e Gather vour hair Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen March 2000 229 Gear up ... Directive (Agenc y ) Tee n March 1998 118 Get ahead of... Directive (Agency) Teen Februarv 2000 29 Get down in Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 11 Get going . Directi v e (Agency) YM March 2000 22 Get help now ... Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 38 Get them Directi v e (Agency) YM March 1998 62 Get to know his ... Directi v e (Agency) Teen February 2000 58 Get to know the "e:uv" side . Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 65 Get uo your courage ... Directive (Agency) Teen Februarv 2000 65 Get your butt ... Directi v e (Agency) YM March 2000 42 Get vour e:uv buds ... Directi v e (Agency) YM March 2000 42 Gi v e a fond ... Directi v e (Agency) Teen February 2000 87 Gi v e him Directi ve (Agency) YM March 2000 63 Give him a shoutout... Directive (Agency) Se v enteen March 2000 36 Give him ... Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 52 Give him ...... Directive (Agen cy ) YM March 1998 36 N Give the brush ... Directive (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 56 0 Give your tresses Directi v e (Agency) Teen February 2000 87 Give yourself Directi v e (Agency) YM March 2000 68 Give yourself ... Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 62 Give zits ... Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 113 Give . Directi v e (Agency) Se venteen March 1998 114 Glam it UP ... Directi v e (Agency) YM March 2000 97 Go Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 9 Go Back to the Future ... Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 65 Go Gourmet. . Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 65 Go Hollvwood hip ... Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 100 Go back Directi v e (Agency) YM March 1998 22 Go birdwatching Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 65 Go for ... Directi v e (Agency) YM March 2000 107 Go for on ... Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 28 Go for . Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 218 Go for.. . .... Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 22 Go for .... ........ Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 38

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Data Example Discourse Cate2orv Ma2azine Month Year Pa2e Go global Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 8 Go on ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 214 Go to your . Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 40 Go undercover ... Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 65 Go ... ... Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 22 Grab a lipstick Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 30 Grab our March issue ... Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 12 Grab your big rubber ball ... Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 33 Grasp the back sections Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 226 Grasp the ball ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 124 Have a bake sale ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 20 Have a blast. ... Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 36 Have a fright fest... Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 12 Have a funkv fonnal... Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 4 Have everyone ... Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 38 Have stuff Directi v e (Agency) YM March 2000 64 Have .... ... Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 83 N Heed my Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 86 _. _. Help him plan ... Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 59 Hide a small bust. .. Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 209 Hiehlieht your face . Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 114 Hit a craft shop Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 38 Hit the oavement. .. Directive (Agencv) Teen February 2000 65 Hit the scene Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 46 Hold for one count. .. Directive (Agencv) Teen February 2000 33 Hold off Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 42 Hold onto the wall ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 126 Hold the bold . Directi v e (Agency) YM March 2000 107 Hold UP Directi v e (Agency) YM March 2000 64 Hold up a sign Directive (Agencv) YM March 2000 86 Hold your breath Directi v e (Agency) YM March 2000 46 Hold ... Directive (Agency) Se v enteen March 2000 124 Hold .. ...... Directive (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 78 Hop . Directive (Agency) Se v enteen March 2000 20 Imagine Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 40

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Data Example Discourse Catel!orv Mal!azine Month Year Pal!e Include Dire c ti ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 242 Indulge Directive ( Agencv) YM March 1998 107 Indu l ge ... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 118 Inhale as vou Directive ( Agencv) Teen February 2000 33 Inha l e ... Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 33 Inquire about Directive (Agencv) Teen February 2000 65 Intensifv cheek bones Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 95 Intensifv ... Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 203 Interview Will Smith Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 184 Invest. .. Directive ( Agencv) Teen February 2000 87 Invite Directive ( Agencv) YM March 1998 59 Invite ... Directive (Agencv) Teen March 1998 118 Jab away Directive < Agencv) Se ve nteen March 2000 124 Jam wit h MTV Directive (Agencv) YM March 2000 14 Join Target. .. Directive ( Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 158 Join t he braid brigade Directi v e {Agencv) YM March 1998 104 Join the clean u o crew ... Directive ( Agencv) Teen February 2000 59 N Join the club ... Directive (Agency) Se ve nteen March 2000 176 N Join us ... Directi ve ( Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 158 Join ... Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 158 Jump rope ... Directi ve ( Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 124 Just affix ... Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 42 Just design it... Directi ve (Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 48 Jus t do 'em Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 118 Just do it Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 24 Just don't resort to ... Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 36 Just highlight. .. Directive ( Agencv) YM March 1998 95 Just move on ... Directi ve (Agency) YM March 2000 46 Just peek Directi ve ( Agencv) YM March 2000 126 Just relax ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 140 Just say Directive (Agencv) YM March 2000 46 Jus t sa v ... Directive (Agency) YM March 1989 60 Just section Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 48 Keep Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 228 Keep a journal. . Directive ( Agencv) Teen February 2000 65

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Data Example Discourse Cateiwry Ma2azine Month Year Pa2e Keep a scrub brush ... Directi ve (Agency) YM March 2000 28 Keep connected ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 87 Keep friz Directi ve (Agency) YM March 1998 107 Keep hair . Directi ve (Agency) YM March 2000 117 Keep hands Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 77 Keep in mind ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 148 Keep in mind .... . Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 36 Keep the glow going ... Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 224 Kick off your. . Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 67 Kick those blues Directi ve (Agency) YM March 1998 104 Kick ... Directi ve (Age ncy) Seventeen March 2000 214 Kung fu 'em Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 5 Land a loofah Directi ve (Agency) YM March 2000 28 Land ... Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 78 Laugh at his jokes ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 59 Lay it on Directi ve (Agency) YM March 2000 34 Lean on your pals Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 62 N ...... Lean ... Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 124 l.,J Learn to change ... fix set up ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 65 Learn to identifv Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 65 Leave Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 87 Leave on ... Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 112 Lea ve ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 10 l Lend a hand Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 65 Let him down easy Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 146 Let it drv Directive (Agency) Teen Fe bruary 2000 87 Let them know Directi ve (Agency) YM March 1998 62 Let this dude brood Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 80 Lift ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 48 Light UP Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 38 Light up y our kisser. .. Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 28 Line Directi ve (Agency) YM March 1 998 20 Line top lids Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 95 Line up 5 sticks Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 124 Line unner lashline Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 17

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Data Example Discourse Cate1?0rv Ma1rnzine Month Year Pa2e Line vour. .lashes ... Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 224 Link UP with ... Directi ve (Agency) YM March 1998 116 Listen to those Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 44 Listen up! Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 82 Listen up! Directi ve (Agency) YM March 1998 28 Listen up ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 176 Listen ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 114 Live them ... Directi v e (Agency) YM March 2000 40 Log on to Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 174 Log on to ... ( 6 times} Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 95 Log on to ................ Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 48 Look at it. . Directi ve (Agency) YM March 2000 86 Look at... Directi ve (Agency) YM March 1998 58 Look at.. .. Directi ve (Agency) YM March 1998 60 Look for (2 times) Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 112 Look for him later Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 194 Look for info ... Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 36 N Look for ... Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 158 -+:,. Look for.. ....... Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 65 Look out for .... Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 51 Loop the pin Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 229 Lose it. . Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 26 Lose it ......... Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 60 Lower ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 78 Make Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 76 Make a cool connection Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 28 Make a few pieces ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 24 Make a floral arrangement Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 104 Make a list Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 58 Make a long story Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 109 Make everyday ... Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 54 Make it short and sweet Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 98 Make it ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 242 Make like Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 63 Make lips ... Directi v e (Agency) YM March 1998 22

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Data Example Discourse Catel!orv Make m e ... Directive (Age nc y) Make sock puooets Directi ve (Agencv) Make sure he understands ... Directi ve (Agency) Make sure . Directi ve ( Agency) Make sure ... Directive ( Ae:encv) Make sure ... .... Directive (Agencv) Make sure .... . ... Directive ( Ae:encv) Make the decision . Directive (Agencv) Make the investment Directive ( Agencv) Make the loser buy ... Directi ve (Agencv) Make the move ... Directi ve ( Agencv) Make your best oitch Directi ve (Agency) Make y our bod Directi ve (Ae:enc y) Make your magic ... Directi ve (Ae:encv) Make your mark. .. Directive (Agency) Makeover your message Directi ve ( Agencv) Mark your lios ... Directi ve (Agencv) Mash an ... Directi ve (Agencv) Meet Directi ve (Agencv) Meet five divas Directi ve ( Agencv) Meet four African-American women ... Directi ve (Agency) Meet our cover e:irls ... Directi ve (Agencv) Meet up with Seventeen's editors ... Directi ve (Agencv) Mention . Directi ve (Agencv) Mix Directive ( Ae:encv) Move outta town (2 times) Directi ve (Agency) Move ... Directive ( Ae:encv) NOTE about sandals : the y won't make y ou talle Directi ve (Agency) Nab the look Directi ve ( Agencv) Nail that soecial night. .. Directi ve (Agencv) Name that video Directive (Agencv) Never underestimate . Directi ve ( Ae:encv) Never use water .... Directive (Agencv) Nominate yourself for ... Directive ( Agencv) Now sit on the bottom Directive (Agencv) Ma!!azine Month YM March Teen February Seventeen March YM March Teen February YM March Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Teen February YM March YM March Teen February Seventeen March Teen February Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Teen February Teen February Teen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Teen March YM March Teen February Seventeen March Year 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1 998 1 998 2000 2000 Pal!e 40 65 84 42 85 112 65 148 230 120 111 84 79 23 34 65 64 74 152 115 114 3 152 188 96 96 65 20 38 17 126 118 110 30 126 N ...... V,

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory Ma2azine Month Year Pa2e Obiect. . Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 216 Open a sa v ings account. . Directi v e (Agenc y ) Teen February 2000 65 Ooen y our heart ... Directive (Agen cy ) Teen February 2000 28 Order Directi v e ( Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 26 Organi z e Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 65 Organi z e a bake sal e Directive (Agency) Se v enteen March 2000 242 Pack the car Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen March 2000 121 Package evervthing Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen March 2000 242 Paint Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 65 Paint vour nails ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 60 Park a . Directi v e (Ag e ncy) Se v enteen March 2000 216 Part hair Directi v e (Agency) YM March 2000 34 Part hair... Directive (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 48 Part your hair. .. Directi v e (Agen cy ) Se v enteen March 2000 226 Pat on Directive (Agen cy ) YM March 1998 95 Pav $4 95 . Directi v e (Agency) YM March 2000 23 Pay attention Directi v e (Agenc y ) Seventeen March 2000 221 N Pav attention to him Directive (Agen cy ) Teen February 2000 44 Pay attention ... Directive (Agen cy ) Seventeen March 1998 140 Pav attention ..... Directi v e (Agency) YM March 2000 62 Pen y our own ooetry Directive (Agen cy ) Teen February 2000 86 Pick a destination Directi v e (Agency) YM March 1998 116 Pick a pair ... Directi v e (Agency) YM March 2000 38 Pick a oerfume to match his oersonalitv ... Directi v e (Agency) Teen February 2000 18 Pick his brain D i rective (Agency) YM March 2000 62 Pick two colors ... Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 26 Pick up Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 70 Pick up some ooetry Directi v e (Agency) Teen February 2000 12 Pick up ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 168 Pick v our oerfect wash ... Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 112 Pick ... Directive (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 76 Picture this . Directive (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 38 Picture this .. .. Directive (Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 68 Place a rubber ball Directive (Agency) Se v enteen March 2000 126 Place two dots ... Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 26

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Data Examole Discourse Catel!orv Mal!azine Month Year Paee Plan a ... party .. Directi ve ( Al?.encv) Teen February 2000 12 Plav alphabet SOUP Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 87 Play around Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 9 Plav it cool... Directive (Agency) Teen March 1998 2 Play up Directive (Agencv) YM March 1998 8 Plav UP ... Directi ve (Al?.encv) Se ventee n March 2000 219 Play up . . . ... Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 20 Please include Directive ( Al?.encv) Teen February 2000 42 Please include ... ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 44 Please send address changes to Directi ve (Agencv) Teen February 2000 lO Please send ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 4 Plot your stratee.v Directive (Agencv) Se venteen March 2000 120 Pluck vour favorite ... Directive (Agency) Se v enteen March 2000 204 Polish your face . Directi ve ( Agencv) YM March 2000 28 Post sie.ns Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 242 Pour out Directive (Agencv) YM March 1998 60 Practice Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 35 N Practice . Directi ve ( Agencv) YM March 1998 4 ---.J Praise someone Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 65 Prep for prom .... Directive ( Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 152 Preoare Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 9 Press a brush Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 72 Press your right arm Directive ( Al?.encv) Seventeen March 2000 126 Pretend Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 12 Pretend ..... Directive (Agencv) YM March 1998 62 Prettifv Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 97 Pretty it up ... Directive (Agencv) Teen February 2000 77 Prevent Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 20 Print out. .. Directive (Agencv) YM March 2000 23 Prom proof. ... Directi v e (Agency) YM March 1998 16 Promote Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 87 Protect your pout Directive (Agencv) Teen February 2000 75 Pucker up Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 96 Pull Directive ( Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 56 Pull it towards you Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 126

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Data Example Discourse Cateimry Ma2azine Month Year Pare Pull out ... Directive (Agenc y ) Se v enteen March 2000 226 Pull your hair Directive (Agency) Se v enteen March 2000 227 Pull your hair.. .. Directive (Agenc y ) Seventeen March 2000 229 Pull ..... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 48 Punch ... Directive (Agency) Se v enteen March 2000 124 Push a button Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 23 Push a fedora pin Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 229 Push it Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 229 Put any item Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 65 Put both hands ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 124 Put in a good word ... Directi v e (Agency) Teen February 2000 65 Put the sweets Directi v e (Agency) Se v enteen March 2000 242 Put your ... Directive (Agenc y ) YM March 2000 26 Put your foot down Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 114 Ouit riooing on him ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 82 Raise your right leg ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 124 Raise ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 78 N Reach out Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 239 QO Read her lips ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 17 Read on Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 119 Read on ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 16 Read on ... (2 times) Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 66 Read on ...... Directive (Agency) YM March 1998 82 Read on ... ..... Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 34 Read the ... words ... Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 40 Read them ... Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 40 Read ... Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 86 Read ........... Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 115 Reconcile a grudge Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 65 Register... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 158 Relaaax ... Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 65 Relax ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 140 Remember Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 44 Remember ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 153 Remember ... Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 87

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Data Example Discourse Catee:orv Ma~azine Month Year Pa2e Remo ve anything ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 65 Remo ve ... Directi ve ( Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 80 Renew ties ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 87 Rent old ... Directi ve ( Agencv) Teen February 2000 65 Reoeat Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 78 Reoeat the onnosite direction .. : Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 124 R e oeat. . Directive (Agencv) Seventeen March 1998 78 Reoeat. . ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 78 Reoeat. .. ... ... Directi ve < Agencv) YM March 1998 62 Reques t... Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 190 Respect y ourself Directive ( Agencv) YM March 2000 14 Resoect y ourself . Dir ective (Agency) YM March 2000 52 Rest hands on the floor. .. Directi ve (Agencv) Teen February 2000 33 Re ve l in ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen March 1998 118 Rinse Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 76 Rinse off Directi ve (Agencv) Teen February 2000 79 Rinse your hair Directive (Agency) Teen February 2000 87 N .... Rinse ... Directive (Agencv) YM March 1998 110 \0 Rio out. . Directi ve (Agency) YM March 1998 58 Rock out to Directive < Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 174 Rock the vote Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 65 Roll each side ... Directi ve < Agencv) YM March 2000 34 Roll it... Directive (Agency) Seventeen March 1998 48 Rub downward ... Directi ve (Agency) YM March 2000 28 Run for ... Directi ve < Agencv) Teen February 2000 65 Save major bucks ... Directive (Agency) YM March 2000 38 Save y our cash ... Directive ( Agencv) YM March 2000 42 Save y our courage Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen March 2000 120 Save yourself a trip Directi ve (Agencv) Seventeen March 2000 126 Save ... Directi ve (Agency) YM March 2000 26 Say "eye-do" Directi ve (Agencv) YM March 2000 30 Say Anything (2 times total) Directi ve (Agencv) YM March 2000 14 Say Cheese! Directi ve (Agency) Teen February 2000 49 Say No to Sex Directi ve (Agencv) YM March 2000 14 Say anvthing .... Directi ve (Agency) YM March 1998 4

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Data Example Discourse Catee:orv Sa y hello ... Directi v e (Ag e nc y ) Sav ... Directi v e (Agenc y ) Scone out (2 times) Directi v e (Agenc y ) Scooe out. .. Directi v e (Agen cy ) Score a camara ... Directi v e (Agency) Scream Directi v e (Agency) Seal... Directi v e (Agency) Secure e x tra hair Directi v e ( Agen cy ) See Directi v e (Agency) See "Gear up" for information ... Directi v e (Agen cy ) See (2 times) Directi v e (Agenc y ) See Steo 8 .... Directive (Agen cy ) See Where to shop Directi v e (Agency) See how far ... Directi v e (Agenc y ) See how to shop ... Directi v e (Agenc y ) See how . Directi v e (Agenc y ) See if Directi v e (Agency) See last nae.es ... Directi v e (Agen cy ) See oage 14 ... Directi v e (Agency) See oaee 50 ... Directi v e (Agency) See oage ... (2 times) Directi v e (Agen cy ) See oaee ..... . Directi v e (Agency) See oage ..... ... ... Directi v e (Agen cy ) See where to shop .... . Directi v e (Ag e ncy) See where to shop .... ... Directi v e (Agen cv ) See your name Directi v e (Agency) See ... Directive (Agen cy ) See . . Directi v e (Agency) See ..... Directi v e (Agency) See ......... Directive (Agency) See . . .... ... .. ... . ... ..... . . ...... Directive (Agency) Send Directi v e (Agency) Send a clue . Directive (Agency) Send a note Directive (Agency) Send a postcard ... Directi v e (Agency) Mae:azine Month T ee n February Se v enteen March YM March YM March Se v enteen March YM March YM March YM March Teen March S ev ente e n March YM March YM March YM March Sevent e en March YM March Seventeen March YM March Se v enteen March Teen February Teen Februarv Teen February YM March T e en February Tee n Februarv Te e n February Teen February YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Se v ente e n March Teen February Teen Februarv Se v enteen March Year 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 Pa2e 87 82 112 20 20 58 107 34 98 124 58 59 28 121 26 236 63 46 4 52 29 14 51 26 28 65 101 26 22 12 24 12 65 87 20 N N 0

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Data Examole Discourse Cate1rnrv Ma2azine Send all... Directive ( Ae.ency) YM Send it... Directi v e (Agency) Seventeen Send letters ... Directive < Ae.encv) Se ve nteen Send me an email Directive (Agency) YM Send questions ... Directive ( Ae.encv) Seventeen Send requests to Directive (Agency) Seventeen Send vour card Directive ( Agencv) Se v enteen Send your ... Directi v e (Agency) YM Send ... Directi v e ( Agencv) Se v enteen Send ..... Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen Send .... .. Directi ve (Agency) Teen Send ........ Directi ve ( Ae.encv) Se venteen Send ... .... ... Dire c ti ve (Agency) Se ven teen Send ... . ... . ...... Directive ( Ae.enc v ) YM Send ............ ....... ... Directi v e (Agency) YM Seoarate the too ... Directive (Agencv) Seventeen Seoarate ... Directi ve (Agency) Se ve nteen Set 10 cones Directi v e (Agencv) Seventeen Set out... Directi ve (Agencv) Teen Shake it uo ... Directi ve (Agency) YM Shake it. .. Directive < Ae.encv) YM Shake your thang Directi v e (Agency) YM Share Directi v e (Ae.encv) Seventeen Share your opinions ... Directive (Agency) Teen Share vour own soecial. .. Directive ( Agency) YM Shine on with ... Directive ( Ae.encv) YM Shoo Directi ve (Agency) Teen Shop ... Directi ve < Ae.encv) Seventeen Show aooreciation for his gestures Directi v e (Agency) Teen Show him Directive (Agencv) YM Sit on the ground Directi ve (Agencv) Se v enteen Skip the prom Directi ve (Agency) YM Skip the scrubs ... Directi v e (Ae.encv) YM Slather on a mask ... Directive ( Agency) YM Slather ... Directive (Ae.encv) YM Month Year March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 February 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 February 2000 March 2000 March 2000 February 2000 March 2000 February 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 Pa2e 48 56 46 18 142 174 172 24 153 26 42 76 24 28 50 226 48 126 85 99 40 14 16 59 48 26 82 28 59 63 124 116 28 2 8 107 N N -

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Data Examole Discourse Cate1wrv Sleep Directive ( Agencv) Slick Directi ve (Agency) Slide Directive ( Agencv) Slide your feet Directive (Agency) Slip into ... Directive (Agencv) Slip on ... Directive (Agencv) Slurge on ... Directive (Agency) Smell wildflowers Directive (Agencv) Smile orettv ... Directive (Agency) Smile ... Directive (Agencv) Smooth Directive (Agency) Smooth downward Directive (Agencv) Smooth it. . Directive (Agencv) Smooth .... Directive (Ae.encv) Snag a scrub Directive (Agency) Snag her job Directive ( Ae.encv) Snag her stvle ... Directive (Agency) Snag her style . D irective (Agencv) Snag ...... Directive (Agency) Sneak a peak Directive (Agencv) Sneak over to the cinema ... D ire ctive (Agency) Snooze under the stars Directive (Ae.encv) So dig in Directive (Agency) Soak Directive ( Ae.encv) Soak in ... Directive (Agency) Soak ... Directive ( Agencv) Sparklize strands ... Directive (Ai?ency) Soeak up ... Directive (Ae.encv) Sneak your mind Directive (Agency) Soeed dial Directive (Ae.encv) Soend Directive (Agency) Spend an entire Spring Break . Directive (Ae.encv) Soend an entire soring break Directive (Agencv) Spend less than ... Directive ( Ae.encv) Soend .. ..... Directive (Agency) Ma2azine Month YM March Teen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Teen February Teen February YM March Teen Feb ruary Teen February Teen February Teen March Seventeen March Teen February YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Year 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 Pa2e 116 109 26 220 96 38 26 65 20 62 79 26 117 48 28 23 17 50 62 116 112 65 18 78 78 77 114 48 65 116 59 121 121 42 62 N N N

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Data Example Discourse Cate1wrv Splash .... Directive (Agency) Splurge Directive (Agency) Splurge on Directive (Agency) Splurge on the exorbinant straoov sandals Directive (Agency) Snot a new e:uv Directive (Agency) Soot-conceal Directive (Agency) Snot-treat... Directive (Agency) Spray Directive (Agency) Spray damp strands ... Directive (Agency) Spring for .... Directive (Agency) Squeeze Directive (Agency) Stand in front Directive (Agency) Stand on your left leg Directive (Agency) Stand uo for someone Directive (Agency) Stand your ground ... Directive (Agency) Stand your ground ... Directive (Agency) Stand your ground .... Directive (Agency) Stand your ground . . Directive (Agency) Stand ... Directive (Agency) Stand ... ..... Directive (Agency) Start Directive (Agency) Start a new community Directive (Agency) Start here ... Directive (Agency) Start marching in place ... Directive (Agency) Start shoooing ... Directive (Agency) Start talking Directive (Agency) Start ... Directive (Agency) Start ... Directive (Agency) Stash some cash Directive (Agency) Stay away from ... Directive (Agency) Stay calm ... Directive (Agency) Steal this style Directive (Agency) Step to the right... Directive (Agency) Step up ... Directive (Agency) Stick to these rules ... Directive (Agency) Ma1rnzine Month YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Teen February YM March Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Teen March Teen February YM March YM March Teen February Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Year 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 Paee 112 26 30 120 174 94 117 227 20 57 78 124 124 121 80 238 82 82 78 78 62 121 44 124 148 63 114 109 65 40 40 20 124 l 16 76 N N w

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Data Example Discourse Cate1!0rv Stick . Directive (Agency) Stop Directive (Agency) Stop for onl y a few seconds ... Directive (Agency) Stop stressing Directive (Agency) Stop wishin' for . Directive (Agency) Stop worrying Directive (Agency) Stop ...... Directi ve (Agency) Store in ... Directive (Agency} Store ... Directive (Agency) Stretch for two minutes Directive (Agency) Strike gold Directive (Agency) Submerge shoes Directi ve (Agency) Suck up Directive (Agency) Suds up ... Directive (Agency) Suggest Directive (Agency) Sul!l!est. . Directive (Agency) Swap post practice munchies . Directi v e (Agency) Sweat Directive (Agency) Sweat like ... Directive (Agency) Sweep a bronzer.. Directive (Agency) Sweep cheecks Directive (Agencv) Sweep ... Directive (Agency) Sweep .... Directive (Agency) Swing bv seventeen com Directive (Agency) Switch arms Directive (Agency) Take Directive (Agency) Take ... Directive (Agency) Take a course Directive (Agency) Take a high-tech trek Directive (Agency) Take a hint Directive (Agency) Take a ... trip Directive (Agency) Take another step Directive (Agency) Take charge . Directive (Agency) Take home ... Directive (Agency) Take it easy ... Directive (Agency) Ma2azine Month YM March Se venteen March Se ve nteen March Teen February Teen February YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Se ve nteen March YM March YM March YM March Teen February YM March Seventeen March Teen February Seventeen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March YM March Se ve nteen March YM March Se ve nteen March Se ve nteen March Se v enteen March Teen February Teen February YM March Teen February YM March Se v enteen March YM March Seventeen March Teen February Year 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1989 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 Pa2e 115 228 124 42 20 64 53 213 213 124 104 38 40 79 63 148 65 12 78 224 107 222 26 36 126 64 87 6 5 104 65 116 124 57 158 42 N N

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Data Example --Discourse Category -Take it out on Directi ve (Agency) Take lots of pictures Directive (Agency) Take note . Directive (Agency) Take out... Directive (Ageney) Take pride ... Directive (Agency) Take step one . Directi v e (Ageney) Take the first step ... Directive (Agency) Take the oath . Directive (Ageney) Take these steps ... Directi ve (Agency) Take this qui z Directi v e (Agency) Take this quiz . Directi ve (Agenc y ) Take your pals Directi ve (Agenc y ) Take ..... Directi ve (Agency) Take ..... . Directi ve (Agency) Talk to Directive (Ageney) Talk to an adult Directive (Ageney) Talk to her Directive (A~n9'.L_ Talk to him . Directive (Ageney) Talk to ... Directive (Agency) Tame frizz Directi ve (Ageney) Tap your foot... Directi ve (Agency) Taoe it... Directi ve (Ageney) Team a top Directive (Ageney) Tell him how ... Directi ve (Agency) Tell me . Directive (Ageney) Tell me ...... Directive (Agency) Tell the Guy Directive (Ageney) Tell the 1ruv (3 times) Directi ve (Agency) Tell the guv ... Directi ve (Ageney) Tell them Directi ve (Ageney) Tell us Directi ve (Agency) Tell us about. .. Directive (Ageney) Tell us about. ... Directive (Agency) Tell us how Directive (Agenc y ) Tell us why Directive (Agency) -Ma2azine Month YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February Seventeen March Teen February Se v enteen March YM March Teen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Teen February YM March Teen February Teen March Seventeen March Teen February Seventeen March YM March Teen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Teen March YM March YM March YM March Teen _Feb~ Year 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 Pa2e 62 120 174 140 85 174 38 214 26 66 82 23 76 59 38 59 36 26 138 76 124 58 11 l 62 40 12 52 53 52 76 72 24 50 38 30 N N Vl

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Data Examole Discourse Cateiwrv Tell us ... Directi v e (Agency) Tell US . . Directive (Agency) Tell us ..... Directive (Agency) Tell yourself Directive (Agency) Tell yourself (3 times) Directive (Agency) Tell yourself . Directive (Agency) Tell yourself.. Directive (Agency) Tell yourself ...... Directive (Agency) Tell... Directive (Agency) Test your Scream IQ ... Directive (Agency) Test... Directive (Agency) Thank him Directive (Agency) Then chow down Directive (Agency) Then do one minute . Directive (Agency) Then live by Directive (Agency) Then punch . Directive (Agency) Then rub Directive (Agency) Then see ... Directive (Agency) Think Directive (Agency) Think first. . Directive (Agency) Throw a oartv Directive (Agency) Throw ... Directive (Agency) Tie a colorful...coil... Directive (Agency) Tie one on Directive (Agency) Tighten your abs Directive (Agency) Tighten your trap Directive (Agency) Tone down . Directive (Agency) Top with Directive (Agency) Touch Directive (Agency) Tour your town Directive (Agency) Trade UP Directive (Agency) Transform your look Directive (Agency) Travel Directive (Agency) Treat your feet Directive (Agency) Treat yourself Directive (Agency) Ma2azine Month YM March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March YM March YM March Se v enteen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Se v enteen March YM March Teen February Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Teen February Se v enteen March YM March YM March Teen February Teen February Seventeen March Teen February Teen February YM March Teen February Teen February YM March YM March YM March Se v enteen March YM March Teen February Teen February Teen February YM March Year 200 0 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 200 0 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 200 0 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 Pa2e 46 9 46 60 53 80 52 52 216 20 126 59 184 124 65 126 110 46 65 65 26 65 20 107 33 87 117 94 26 76 110 20 65 77 14 N N 0\

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory Treat y ourself ... . Directi v e (Agency) Trust us ... Directi ve (Agenc y ) Try Directi v e (Agency) Try (3 times) Directi v e (Agency) Try (6 times) Directi v e (Agen cy ) Try 15 reos Directi v e (Agency) Try Conair's clrvers ... Directi v e (Agency) Try Ponds ... Directive (Agency) Try a new food Directi v e (Agen cy ) Try a wild Directive (Agenc y ) Try a wisecrack . Directi v e (Agency) Try again ... Directi v e (Agency) Try arriving Directi v e (Agency) Try banl!S ... Directi ve (Agen cy ) Try lavender. .. Dir e cti v e (Agenc y ) Try munching ... Directive (Agency) Try not... Directi ve (Agency) Try out Directi v e (Agen cy ) Try out. .. Directi v e (Agency) Try ooetry ... Directi v e (Agency) Try this with Directi v e (Agency) Try to be ... Directi v e (Agencv) Try to go Directi v e (Agen cy ) Try to .... Directi v e (Agency) Try volumi z ing Directi v e (Agency) Try ... Directive (Agency) Try ... (2 times total) Directive (Agency) Try ... (7 times) Directi v e (Agency) Try ... Directi v e (Agenc v ) Try . . Directi v e (Agency) Try ...... Directi v e (Agency) Try ... .... Directi v e (Agency) Try ...... Directi v e (Agency) Try ......... Directi v e (Agency) Try ........... Directi v e (Agency) Ma2azine Month YM March Te e n February Teen March YM March YM March Teen February Teen February YM March Teen February Se v enteen March YM March YM March YM March Teen February Se v ente e n March YM March YM March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Teen February T een February Teen February YM March Te e n February Teen February Se v enteen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM Mar c h Year 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 Pa2e 100 52 107 36 94 33 20 28 65 228 46 43 62 17 64 82 115 152 158 65 47 59 22 87 76 209 28 107 28 28 28 103 117 115 1 0 7 N N -.J

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Data Example Discourse Cate1?orv Try ... ..... ... Directi ve (Agencv) Try .... ..... ... Directi ve (Agency) Try ............... Directive (Agencv) Try ................ Directi ve (Agency) Try ......... .......... Directive ( Agencv) Try ... ... .... .............. Directive (Agencv) Try ... ............ ............ Directive (Agencv) Try ... ....... ... . ... ... ..... ..... Directive ( Agencv) Try ...... ................................ Directi ve (Agencv) Tune in ... Directi ve ( Agencv) Turn it around Directi ve (Agency) Turn tech master Directi ve ( Agencv) Turn the page Directi ve (Agencv l Tum to page ... Directi ve (Agencv) Tum to og ... Directi ve (A~) Tum to ... Directive ( Agencv) Turn to ... .... Directi ve (Agency) Turn to ............... Directive ( Agencv) Turn to ... ..... ........... Directi ve (Agencv) Type your answer Directive (Agencv) USe a cotton swab . Directi ve (Age n cv) Use Directi ve (Agencv) Use Love & Sex ... Directi ve (Agencv) Use a ... pump Directi ve (Agencv) Use a scrub ... Directi ve (Agencv) Use hairspray Directi ve (Agencv) Use it. .. Directi ve (Agencv) Use it... Directi ve (Agencv) Use products Directive (Agencv) Use your charisma Directive ( Agencv) Use your charisma ... Directi ve (Agencv) Use y our fingers ... Directive ( Agencv) Use .. Directi ve (Agency) Use ... Directi ve (Agencv) Use ... Directi ve (Agencv) Mal?azine Month YM March YM March Teen February Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March Teen February Teen February Seventeen March YM March Teen February YM March YM March YM March Teen February Seventeen March YM March Teen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March Teen February Seventeen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Teen February Year Pa2e 1998 16 2000 34 2000 76 1998 12 2000 38 2000 23 1998 26 1998 56 2000 116 1998 59 2000 38 2000 65 2000 152 2000 40 2000 29 2000 38 1998 28 1998 8 2000 38 2000 184 2000 26 1998 10 l 2000 36 2000 214 2000 28 1998 48 2000 26 2000 26 2000 75 2000 1 2 1 2000 121 2000 228 1998 107 2000 222 2000 87 -N N 00

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory Ma2azine Use ........ Directive (Agency) YM Use ... . ...... Directive (Agency) YM Use .......... .... Directive (Agency) Seventeen Use ... . . ... .... ... Directive ( Agency) YM Use ... pins Directive (Agency) Seventeen Visit Directive (Agency) Seventeen Visit (2 times on this oage) Directive (Agency) Seventeen Visit (2 times) Directive (Agency) Seventeen Visit (2 times) .... Directive (Agency) Seventeen Visit (2 total times) Directive (Agency) Seventeen Visit (3 TIMES TOTAL ON THJS PAGE) Directive (Agency) Seventeen Visit ( 4 times total) Directive (Agency) Seventeen Visit ( 4 total times) Directive (Agency) Seventeen Visit (twice total on this page) Directive (Agency) Seventeen Visit seventeen com ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen Visit www . Directive (Agency) Seventeen Visit. . Directive (Agency) Seventeen Visit. . Directive (Agency) Seventeen Visit. . . Directive (Agency) Seventeen Visit... ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen Wait. . Directive (Agency) Seventeen Walk the runway .. Directive (Agency) Seventeen Walk them forward Directive (Agency) Seventeen Wallow ... Directive (Agency) YM Wash with Directive (Agency) Teen Wash vour face ... Directive (Agency) Teen Wash your hands ... Directive (Agency) Teen Watch it! Directive (Agency) Teen Watch one girl's eves sparkle ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen Watch your back .. .. Directive (Agency) Seventeen Watch ... Directive (Agency) Seventeen Wear them Directive (Agency) Teen Whip out. .. Directive (Agency) Seventeen Whoop in the name of. .. Directive (Agency) Teen Why don't vou suggest. .. Directive (Agency) Teen Month Year March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 February 2000 February 2000 February 2000 February 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 February 2000 Februarv 2000 Pa2e 104 107 26 94 226 204 208 220 252 219 205 212 220 209 36 48 206 206 217 218 148 152 124 58 76 74 42 50 17 174 174 112 242 12 36 N N

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Data Example Discourse Cate1?0rv Why not ask us ... ? Directive (Agencv) Why not call... ? Directi ve ( Agency} Why not sue.e.est. .. Directive (Agencv) Why not try raising Directive ( Ae.encv) Win a Directive _(Agencv) Win a trip Directive ( Agencv) Win her beauty bounty ... Directive (Agencv) Wipe down Directive ( Agencv) Work Directive (Agency) Work a tiny amount. .. Directive ( Agencv) Work in ... Directive (Agency) Work in ... Directi ve (Agencv) Work on . Directive (Agencv) Work . Directi ve (Agencv) Work. . a ... oomade Directive (Agencv) Wrap each one Directive (Agencv) Wrap the braid ... Directive (Agencv) Wrap your wrists ... Directive ( Agencv) Write a letter. . Directive (Agencv) Write down Directive ( Agency) Write him Directive (Agencv) Write it out Directive (Agencv) Write to ... Directive (Ae.encv) Write to ...... Directive (Agencv) Write to ........ Directive ( Ae.encv) Write to .......... Directive (Agencv) Write to ..... ................... . Directive ( Ae.encv) Write US .... Directive (Agencv) Write ... Directive (Agencv) You talk to him Directive (Agencv) Yuk it up Directive < Ae.encv) Zap static Directive (Agencv) Zap zits Directive (Agencv) Zoom in ... Directive (Agencv) you give him an ultimatum ... Directive (Agencv) Mae:azine Month YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February Seventeen March Teen February YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February Seventeen March YM March Teen February Seventeen March Teen February Teen February Teen February YM March YM March Teen March Seventeen March YM March Teen February YM March YM March Seventeen March Year 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 Pae:e 36 64 62 118 46 184 17 42 12 17 3 8 48 63 48 228 226 227 220 65 242 58 87 28 57 40 16 46 42 12 146 62 76_ 115 82 84 N \.;J 0

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Data Example Discourse Cateeory Maeazine acknowledge Directive (Agency) YM always call back Directive (Agency) YM always stick up for her Directi ve (Agency) YM and run around naked Directive ( Agency) Seventeen and spread ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen and use . Directive (Agency) Teen aooly Directive (Agency) Teen apoly ... . . Directive (Agency) YM ask yourself why Directive (Agency) Teen believe it Directive (Agency) YM bend ... Directive (Agency) Teen blast Directive (Agency) YM blend ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen blowdrv ... Directi ve (Agency) Teen blowdry .... Directi ve (Agencv) Seventeen boogie over to ... Directi ve (Agency) YM borrow Directive (Agencv) Seventeen brush Directive (Agency) Teen brush ..... . Directive (Agencv) YM brush ........ Directi ve (Agency) YM call Directive (Agencv) Seventeen call (3 times) Directi ve (Agency) Seventeen call (7 times) Directive (Agency) Seventeen call out. .. Directive (Agency) YM call... Directive (Agency) Teen call .. ...... ......... .. Directive (Agencv) YM carry Directive (Agency) YM carry ... Directive (Agencv) YM catch him alone ... Directive (Agency) YM catch . Directive (Agencv) Teen change ... Directi ve (Agency) YM check it out Directive (Agency) Teen check out. ... Directi ve (Agencv) Teen check out. ... Directi ve (Agency) YM check out. ... . . Directive (Agencv) Seventeen Month Year March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 Februarv 2000 March 2000 March 2000 Pa2e 62 57 57 121 10 l 76 107 18 85 59 101 18 107 103 48 121 76 107 18 97 21 l 231 234 43 29 48 40 60 62 51 58 50 29 104 228 N \;.) .....

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory check us out. .... Directive (Agency) circle Directive (Agency) clip .. Directive (Agency) close Directive (Agency) comer him and say ... Directive (Agency) criticize nicely Directive (Agency) cry ......... Directive (Agency) curl vour top lashes . Directive (Agency) deep clean Directive (Agency) dial-a-stvle ... Directive (Agency) do 10 reps ... Directive (Agency) do the drill Directive (Agency) don't ask Directive (Agency) don't freak Directive (Agency) don't sweat it Directive (Agency) dot... Directive (Agency) downsize Directive (Agency) drop knees ... Directive (Agency) email.. ...... Directive (Agency) excuse Directive (Agency) exfoliate Directive (Agency) exfoliate daily Directive (Agency) fake it Directive (Agency) fake it.. .. Directive (Agency) fake ... Directive (Agencv) fi!mre out... Directive (Agency) file them ... Directive (Agency) fill Directive (Agency) find Directive (Agency) finish Directive (Agency) focus Directive (Agency) give ...... .. ... Directive (Agency) glam it up Directive (Agency) go for Directive (Agency) go for it Directive (Agency) Ma2azine Month Teen February YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March Teen Februarv YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen March Teen February YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Year 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 Pa2e 49 59 16 58 121 57 58 17 18 24 124 62 62 48 24 20 83 35 17 62 20 20 59 22 20 63 22 22 59 18 83 60 18 219 62 N l.,J N

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Data Example Discourse Catel!orv go for ..... Directive (Ae.encv) go out. . Directive (Agencv) have a party Directive ( Agencv) include your age ... Directive (Agencv) indulge Directive (Agencv) invite Directive (Agencv) jot it down Directive (Agencv) jump Directive (Agencv) keep Directive ( Agencv) keep 'em short Directive (Agencv) keep eyes Directive (Agencv) keep the line ooen Directive (Ae.ency) keep ...... Directive ( Agencv) kick Directi ve (Agencv) lay ... Directive (Agency) let it all Directive (Agencv) let me know Directive (Agencv) let your feelings Directive ( Agencv) line Directive (Agencv) line ... Directive ( Agencv) log on to ... Directive (Agencv) longer look Directive ( Agencv) look for Directive (Ae.encv) lower Directive (Agencv) make ... Directive (Agencv) make a list Directi v e (Agencv) make the journey Directive ( Agencv) manicure Directive (Agencv) max out. .. Directive (Agencv) merge Directi v e (Ae.encv) mix . Directive (Agencv) moan Directive ( Agencv) never blow off. . Directive (Agencv) never bring up Directive ( Agencv) never get ohvsical... Directi v e (Agencv) Mal!azine Month YM March YM March YM March Teen February YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Se ve nteen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen March YM March Se v enteen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Year 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 199 8 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 Pa2e 18 59 60 17 83 59 59 58 108 22 94 174 18 76 83 59 18 58 18 22 24 22 112 78 59 60 107 22 22 59 101 60 57 57 216 N w w

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Data Example Discourse Cate2orv never make her feel.. .. Directive (Agency) or email. ..................... Directive (Agency) or rinse off Directive (Agency) organize Directive (Agencv) oat ... Directive (Agency) nav him a compliment Directive (Agency) phone ..... Directive (Agency) pick up Directive (Agency) point out Directive (Agency) pretend ... Directive (Agency) oull... Directive (Agency) pump up Directive (Agency) punch ... Directive (Agency) put (2 times) Directive (Agency) put in little surprises Directive (Agency) put on ......... Directive (Agency) out your worries Directive (Agency) read the front oage Directive (Agency) read ........... ... Directive (Agency) record ... Directive (Agency) refer to it Directive (Agency) remove Directive (Agency) rent. .. Directive (Agency) repeat Directive (Agency) resoond to Directive (Agency) rinse thoroughly Directive (Agency) rinse your face right ... Directive ( Agency) rip it up Directive (Agency) round UP ... Directive (Agency) save face ... Directive (Agency) scone out Directive (Agency) see it with .... Directive (Agency) see last na!!es Directive (Agency) send (2 times) Directive (Agency) send .... Directive (Agency) Ma2azine Month YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen March YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March Teen February YM March YM March Teen February YM March Teen February YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen March Seventeen March YM March Teen March Year 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 Pa2e 57 46 112 59 108 43 24 24 40 36 48 22 58 58 65 59 24 87 59 65 60 22 58 59 42 112 111 58 58 43 112 50 184 57 115 N w

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Data Example Discourse Cate1wrv shred a letter ... Directive (Agencv) shrink it down Directive (Agency) shut his mouth Directive (Agency) sit somewhere Directive ( Agencv) slick. ..... Directive (Agency) slide Directive ( Agencv) smear. .. Directive (Agency) smooth Directive (Agencv) smooth the color over.. Directive (Agency) smooth ... Directive ( Agencv) smudge Directive (Agency) smudge color inward ... Directive (Agencv) smudge .... Directive (Agencv) smudge ... .... Directive (Agency) snack on Directive (Agencv) snag ... . ....... Directive (Agency) snag ... . ....... ........ ... .. Directive ( Agencv) so slap on Directive (Agency) sob Directive ( Agencv) soot treat. .. Directive (Agency) spot treat. ... Directive (Agencv) spritz Directive (Agencv) start Directive (Agencv) start ... Directive (Agencv) stay balanced Directive (Agency) stroke Directive ( Agencv) stroke mascara Directive (Agency) surf ... Directive (Agencv) sweep Directive (Agency) sweep ... Directive ( Agencv) switch l egs Directive (Agencv) take Directive (Agencv) take ... Directive (Agencv) take it... Directive (Agencv) take your cues ... Directive (Agencv) Ma2azine Month YM March YM March Teen March YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Teen February YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen March YM March Se v enteen March YM March YM March Teen Februarv YM March Teen March Teen March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March Teen Februarv Year 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 Paee 62 58 38 62 18 43 20 102 62 20 18 17 20 97 62 24 26 48 59 18 20 101 58 216 83 97 17 30 107 104 126 83 62 22 33 N w VI

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Data Example Discourse Cateiwrv tell them .... Directi v e (Agency) tell us ... Directi v e (Agency) tell us ... . ... Directi v e (Agen cy ) then follow Directi v e (Agency) then smudge color outward ... Directi v e (Agency) then use a finger. . Directive (Agency) then work foam Directi v e ( Agency) tissue off Directive (Agency) trace ... Directive ( Agency) trv Directi v e (Agency) try (2 times) Directi v e ( Agency) trv (5 times) Directi v e (Agency) try (6 times) Directi v e (Agency) trv (7 times) Directi v e (Agency) try (five times) Directive (Agency) trv a taur,e-colored liner Directive (Agency) try and plug into Directi v e ( Agency) trv out Directi v e (Agency) try ... Directi v e (Agency) trv ..... Directive (Agency) try ..... Directi v e ( Agency) trv .... ... ... ............ ... Directi v e (Agency) turn to (2 times) Directi v e ( Agency) unroll ... Directive (Agency) use Directive (Agency) use temoorarv dye Directive (Agency) use ... Directive ( Agency) use ... Directi v e (Agency) use ... ... ... Directive ( Agency) use .... .... ... .... Directive (Agen cy ) use ............. ... . .... . ..... Directi v e (Agency) vent it Directive (Agency) v isit (3 times) Directive (Agencv) v isit ( 4 times total) Directive (Agency) v isit (7 times) Directi v e (Agency) Ma!!azine Month YM March Tee n March YM March YM March Teen February YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen February YM March YM March Teen March Teen March YM March YM March YM March Teen March YM March Se v enteen March Teen March Teen March YM March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Year 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 Pa2e 60 36 36 60 17 94 112 112 22 107 83 18 96 97 20 17 42 59 26 105 18 22 119 101 18 121 16 103 18 20 20 62 234 233 23 l N w

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Data Example Discourse Cateiwrv vi sit. ......... ....... ........... Directi ve ( Ag e n cv ) wann up Directi ve (Agency) was h Directi ve (Agencv) wash hair... Directi ve (Agency) wash in Directi ve (Agencv) work it Directi v e ( Ae.encv) work it... Directi v e (Agencv) work on thinking Directi v e ( Agencv) write down ... Directi ve (Agency) write to .. ... Directi ve ( Ae.encv) write to .......... Directi ve (Agency) you can afford Directi ve (Ae.encv) y ou double Directi ve (Agencv) vou get in touch with Directi v e (Agencv) y ou get it... Directi ve ( Ae.encv) vou go about doing it Directi ve (Agency) zap Directi ve ( Ae.encv) ... But don't worrv Dire c ti ve (Agency Mental Process) ... Consider loction as it... Directi ve (Ae.encv Mental Process) ... Consider them Directi v e (Agency Mental Process) .. .Just think ... Directi ve (Ae.encv Mental Process) ... Think about it Directi ve (Agency Mental Process) ... Think again Directi ve (Agencv Mental Process) ... Think back. .. Directi ve
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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory ... think of your interests Directive (Agency Mental Process) . think of . Directive (Agency Mental Process) ... think . Directive (Agency Mental Process) ... think ...... Directive (Agency Mental Process) ... think ...... ... Directive (Agency Mental Process) ... think ... ... ...... . Directive (Agency Mental Process) And think of it this way Directive (Agency Mental Process) Consider yourself Directive (Agency Mental Process) Don't think .... Directive (Agency Mental Process) Just think ... Directive (Agency Mental Process) Know that you ... Directive (Agency Mental Process) Know your limits ... Directive (Agency Mental Process) Realize Directive (Agency Mental Process) Realize ... Directive (Agency Mental Process) Think Directive (Agency Mental Process) Think of all the things ... Directive (Agency Mental Process) Think of it as ... Directive (Agency Mental Process) Think of it this way ... Directive (Agency Mental Process) Think of romance ... Directive (Agency Mental Process) Think of this ... Directive (Agency Mental Process) Think pink ... Directive (Agency Mental Process) Think ... Directive (Agency Mental Process) Think ... Directive (Agency Mental Process) Think .... Directive (Agency Mental Process) Think. ... . Directive (Agency Mental Process) Think ............ Directive (Agency Mental Process) fantasize Directive (Agency Mental Process) know Directive (Agency Mental Process) think .. ....... Directive (Agency Mental Process) ... Get Azura*'s beauty goods ... Directive ffienefactive) ... Get a dressier do ... Directive (Benefactive) . Get color control Directi v e (Benefactive) ... Get your.. fix Directive (Benefactive) ... Get ... Directive (Benefactive) ... Win it Directive (Benefactive) Ma2azine Month Seventeen March YM March Teen March Teen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Teen February YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Se v enteen March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Teen March Seventeen March YM March Year 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 1989 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 Pa2e llO 80 26 35 35 68 84 48 36 34 60 40 42 40 117 144 216 241 44 76 98 116 62 192 190 58 62 62 59 58 52 38 45 90 79 N w 00

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-Data Example Discourse Cate2orv ... Win this cover look ... Directive ffienefactive) ... Win! Directi ve (Benefactive) ... get Directive ffienefactive) ... get a great date Directive (Benefactive) ... get in touch . Directive ffienefactive) ... get madras Directive (Benefactive) ... get the SCOOP Directive ffienefactive) ... get your life back Directive (Benefactive) ... score samples ... Directive ffienefactive) ... win Directive
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Data Example Discourse Cate2orv ... Be a ... Directive (Copula) . Be creative .. Directive (Copula) ... Be proud Directive (Copula) ... Be yourself ... Directive (Copula) ... Be ... froufrou Directi ve (Copula) ... Become a fashion chameleon Directive (Copula) ... Don't be scared ... Directive (Copula) ... Get a ... sunkissed look Directive (Copula) . Get current Directive (Copula) ... Get nast. .. Directive (Copula) ... Get ready Directi ve (Copula) . Get readv ... Directi ve (Copula) ... Get skin glowing Directive (Copula) . and be sure ... Directi ve (Copula) ... and get back in gear Directive (Copula) ... and get inspired Directive (Copula) ... be a bowl-a-rama mama! Directive (Copula) ... be aware Directive (Copula) ... be careful Directive (Copula) ... be careful ... Directive (Copula) ... be careful ... ... Directive (Copula) ... be on the lookout. .. Directive (Copula) ... be sure to see your doctor Directive (Copula) ... be sure to ... Directive (Copula) ... be sure to . Directive (Cooula) ... be sure ... Directive (Copula) .. be sure . . Directive (Copula) ... be worthv ... Directive (Copula) ... be your Directive (Copula) ... do be gentle Directive (Copula) ... don't be ... Directive (Copula) ... get Directive (Copula) ... get buff to the beat Directive (Copula) ... get fit... Directive (Copula) ... get funky Directive (Copula) Ma2azine Month Teen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Teen February Teen February YM March Teen February Teen March YM March Teen February Teen February YM March Teen February Teen February YM March Teen March YM March Teen March Teen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Teen March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March Teen March YM March Year 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 Pa2e 101 246 43 188 116 87 59 96 87 45 8 50 74 38 38 65 116 36 28 18 118 32 130 90 115 140 190 26 36 110 176 16 26 35 116 N .i::,. 0

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory Ma2azine ... get gleamm v glammv Directi ve (Copula) Teen ... get good and soaked Directi ve (Cooula) YM ... get gorgeous Directive (Copula) YM ... get tough on Directive (Copula) YM ... keep being Directive (Copula) YM .. .look as ... Directive (Copula) Seventeen . or be lounge lizards Directi ve (Copula) YM ... YOU get a look Directi ve (Copula) Teen Be a beauty ... Directi ve (Copula) YM Be a better ... Directive (Copula) YM Be a disco di va! Directive (Copula) YM Be a frayed femme ... Directi ve (Copula) YM Be a reoorter ... Directi ve (Cooula) Seventeen Be a sneaker star Directi ve (Copula) Seventeen Be good to you bod Directi ve (Copula) Teen Be his . cheerleader Directi ve (Copula) YM Be honest. .. Directi ve (Copula) Seventeen Be sure Directi ve (Copula) Teen Be sure to checkout... Directi ve (Copula) Teen Be sure to use Directive (Copula) Seventeen Be sure to ... Directi ve (Copula) Seventeen Be the queen Directive (Copula) Teen Be wary ... Directi ve (Copula) Seventeen Become a hero. .. Directive (Copula) Teen Don't be a couch ootato Directive (Copula) Teen Don't be ashamed Directi ve (Copula) YM Don't be shy Directive (Copula) Seventeen Don't be shy ... Directi ve (Copula) Teen Get awesome with Ananda Directi ve (Copula) YM Get awesome with .. Directi ve (Copula) YM Get basic ... Directi ve (Copula) Teen Get de-mythified with our guide . Directi ve (Copula) Teen Get glowing bv . Directive (Copula) YM Get gorgeous Directive (Copula) Teen Get guts y ... Directi ve (Copula) Teen Month Year March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 February 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 March 2000 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 February 2000 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 March 2000 March 2000 February 2000 February 2000 March 1998 February 2000 February 2000 Pa2e l 14 28 18 28 40 219 99 89 101 23 11 38 20 48 12 63 140 105 38 222 138 42 l 14 59 12 92 48 12 108 14 24 34 95 65 65 N -

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Data Example Discourse Catee:orv Get hip to ... Directive (Copula) Get hip ... Directive (Cooula) Get in svnc Directive (Copula) Get over him Directive (Copula) Get over him ... Directive (Copula) Get oatch haoov Directive (Copula) Get ready for... Directive (Copula) Get readv to revel... Directive (Copula) Get silly ... Directive (Copula) be haoov ... Directive (CopuJa) be meea oositive Directive (Copula) be proud Directive (Copula) get quenched. .. Directive (Copula) vou be the iud~e Directive (Copula) ... Don't out up with it .... Directive (Exneriencer) ... Don't worrv Directive
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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory Get o ve r ... Directive (Exoeriencer) Have fun ... Directive (Experiencer) Have fun ........... Directive (Exoeriencer) Hear the call of nature ... Directive (Exoeriencer) Look 24-karet cool... Directive (Exoeriencer) Love them ... Directive (Exoeriencer) Revel in ... Directive (Experiencer) get osvched Directive (Exoeriencer) get pumoed Directive (Experiencer) ... why not nass it along? Directive (Interrogati ve INDIRECT) How 'bout trying ... Directive (Interrogative INDIRECT) Why not take . ? Directive (Interrogative INDIRECT) ... You might even consider dating ... Directive (Modal INDIRECT) ... fyou canl deal Directive (Modal INDIRECT) ... or.. f y ou can] look slammin' Directive (Modal INDIRECT) ... yo u and your friend can learn how to ... Directive (Modal INDIRECT) ... y ou can ... get funkv Directive (Modal INDIRECT) ... you can also log on to ... Directive (Modal INDIRECT) ... yo u can contact ... Directive (Modal INDIRECT) ... you can ease into Directive (Modal INDIRECT) ... YOu can fifillre out Directive (Modal INDIRECT) ... you can find Directive (Modal INDIRECT) You can brighten' up Directi ve (Modal INDIRECT) You can do ... Directive (Modal INDIRECT) You can ... Directive (Modal INDIRECT) yo u can also ... Directive (Modal INDIRECT) you can catch up ... Directive (Modal INDIRECT) y ou can thank ... Directive (Modal INDIRECT) y ou can ... Directive (Modal INDIRECT) ... But don't think ... Directive (Negative Agency/Experiencer) ... Do not even consider.. Directive (Negative Agencv/Exoeriencer) ... Don't think you have to be Directive (Negative Agency/Experiencer) ... Don't make any plans Directi ve (Negative Agency/Experiencer) ... Don't match Directive (Negative Agency/Experiencer) ... Don't throw a hissv fit Directive (Negative Agencv/Exoeriencer) Ma2azine Month YM March YM March YM March Teen February YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March Teen February Teen March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Teen February Teen March Teen February YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen March YM March YM March YM March Teen March Seventeen Marc h Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Year 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 Pa2e 0 36 40 65 100 40 246 59 62 14 115 86 84 40 34 114 34 14 61 85 40 78 34 28 68 104 24 42 20 8 76 118 121 40 114 N .l:,. w

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Data Example Discourse Cate1mrv Ma~azine ... Fret not Directive (Negative Agenc v/Ex neriencer) Se ve nteen ... Get strong & sculpted ... Directive (Negati ve Agencv/Exneriencer) Se ve nteen .. .Just don't wear Directive (Negative Agencv/Exneriencer) Teen ... So don't feel pressured ... Directive (Negati ve Agencv/Exneriencer) Se v enteen . get sweatv Directive (Negative Agencv/Exneriencer) YM ... treat him right by being his No l fan too Directive (Negative Agencv/Exneriencer) Teen Do not sing ... Directive (Negative Agencv/Exneriencer) YM Don't accuse him Directive (Negative Agencv/Exoeriencer) Seventeen Don't be shv . Directive (Negative Agencv/Exneriencer) Se vent een Don't be ... Directive (Negative Agencv/Exneriencer) YM Don't break it. .. Directive (Negative Agencv/Exneriencer) YM Don't count on it... Directive (Negative Agencv/Exneriencer) YM Don't do it... Directive (Negative Agencv/Exneriencer) Seventeen Don't drown your sorrows . Directive (Negative Agencv/Exneriencer) YM Don't exoect Directive (Negative Agencv/Exneriencer) Seventeen Don't expect to see Directive (Negative Agencv/Exneriencer) Se v enteen Don't feel bummed Directive (Negative Agencv/Exneriencer) Se v enteen Don't fight Directive (Negative Agencv/Exneriencer) YM Don't forget Directive (Negative Agencv/Exoeriencer) Se ve nteen Don't get mad Directive (Negati ve Agencv/Exneriencer) Teen Don't go . Directive (Negati ve Agencv/Exneriencer) YM Don't let them float. .. Directive (Negative Agencv/Experiencer) YM Don't miss ... Directive (Negative Agencv/Exneriencer) Seventeen Don't miss ... . Directive (Negati ve Agencv/Exneriencer) Se v enteen Don't wait for the corsage Directive (Ne!!.ative Agencv/Exneriencer) Se ve nteen Don't wear a watch Directive (Negative Agencv/Exneriencer) Seventeen Get in touch Directive (Ne!!.ative Agencv/Exneriencer) Seventeen Kick your confidence crisis Directive (Negative Agencv/Experiencer) YM Never bring ... Directive (Negative Agencv/Exneriencer) YM or [don'tl sulk ... Directi ve (Negati v e Agencv / Experiencer) YM ... Don't get stiffed Directive (Passive) Se v enteen ... Get all choked uo Directive (Passive) Teen ... and get tested for Directive (Passive) YM ... don't get locked into Directive (Passive) YM .. and get tw1ed into .. Directi v e (Passive) Teen Month Year March 2000 March 2000 February 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 Pa2e 120 124 87 110 60 70 40 146 138 28 40 42 114 23 166 194 144 54 184 113 104 38 152 158 204 121 60 14 53 23 68 28 48 110 58 N

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Data Examole Discourse Cateeory Maeazine Have your fortune read by . Directive (Passive) Teen have it cleaned ... Directive (Passive) Seventeen let our ... Directive (Passive) Teen ... Have the self-resoect Directive (Possessive) Teen ... Have . Directive (Possessive) Seventeen ... and have Directive (Possessive) YM Have a phat Tuesday ... Directive (Possessive) Seventeen Have no shame ... Directive (Possessive) YM Have ... Directive (Possessive) Seventeen Month Year February 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 Paee 29 213 40 70 190 59 36 40 190 N V,

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APPENDIXF DOA (DENIAL OF AGENCY) INSTRUMENT AND SYNECDOCHE

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N -...) Data Examole ... All four nail lacauers ... put hot color at your fingertios ... Benetint . goes on Azura*'s lips .. ... Cleaners treat ... Clues ... about...to help curve ... ... Detox Shamooo removes ... ... Doing something . allows you ... Excessive exercies can cause you ... Exercise makes me feel . Getting him . will make it easier ... It ftooting the trombone] could raise your grades ... .. .It deters you ... Learning . gives you ... Maybelline's ... Blush gives cheeks a . flush .. ... Redkins oaste sta y s ... ... Shaving . smooths skin . Soft pinks complement... ... Songs that'll make you hit reoeat ... Sonl!S that'll make you hit reoeat ... ... These acids ... clear oores ... These baiz.s will make you want to climb ... ... They'll help purge ... This will give you ... fill builds confidence ... fill forces you to take a breather ... . .rltl frees the inner you ... fit 1 exoands your circle of friends ... fitl uol!I'ades the extracurrics . f lipstickl that gives you coverage ... ... fthe color should not] wash it fyour skin] out... ... a hanger keeos . crease free . a little snip can make looks lucious ... a once-a-week ... rnask can get tresses looking fab ... a single stick of makeup can keep you gorgeous . a snooze on this pillow promises ... ... a ... belt creates curves Discourse Catee:ory Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agencv Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Denial of Agency Instrument Mae:azine Month Year Pae:e Seventeen March 2000 56 Seventeen March 2000 58 Seventeen March 2000 68 YM March 1998 8 Seventeen March 2000 68 Seventeen March 2000 118 Seventeen March 2000 130 YM March 2000 68 YM March 2000 63 Seventeen March 2000 114 Seventeen March 2000 112 Seventeen March 2000 114 Seventeen March 2000 56 Seventeen March 2000 68 YM March 2000 28 Seventeen March 2000 62 Seventeen March 2000 174 Seventeen March 2000 174 YM March 2000 26 Seventeen March 2000 48 YM March 2000 28 Seventeen March 2000 108 Seventeen March 2000 114 Seventeen March 2000 114 Seventeen March 2000 114 Seventeen March 2000 114 Seventeen March 2000 114 Teen March 1998 105 Teen March 1998 105 Seventeen March 2000 213 YM March 1998 16 Teen Februarv 2000 76 YM March 1998 20 Teen Februarv 2000 28 YM March 2000 110

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Data Example Disco urse Cate2ory . acting mature ... will always win ... Denial of Agency Instrument ... action will gi ve y ou the energy Denial of Agency Instrument . advice that will change y our life Denial of Agency Instrument ... all the things that make y ou hann v Denial of Agency Instrument ... an album that will inspire y ou Denial of Agency Instrument ... an outfit that makes you feel Denial of Agency Instrument ... an . .laugh .. .is the way to win Denial of Agency Instrument ... and rit willl revolt you Denial of Agency Instrument ... and fit] gives me oecs ... Denial of Agency Instrument .. and [scrubsl can create ... Denial of Agency Instrument ... and [they] create a slender line ... Denial of Agency Instrument ... and [they] remo ve Denial of Agency Instrument . and make you more comfortable ... Denial of Agency Instrument .. and so does that Denial of Agency Instrument ... basic black keeps the snotlight... Denial of Agenc y Instrument ... bath and shower gel wash away ... Denial of Agency Instrument . bra/oantv set that makes you smile Denial of Agency Instrument ... camara that helps you star. .. Denial of Agency Instrument ... cinnamon and bronze brighten darker.. Denial of Agency Instrument ... clothes that flatter her bod y Denial of Agency Instrument ... creative endeavors could improve your grade ... Denial of Agency Instrument ... does everything stop y ou ... ? Denial of Agency Instrument ... dresses that'll daz z le 'em Denial of Agency Instrument ... eating healthy fuels Denial of Agency Instrument ... evervthing started to haonen for you* Denial of Agenc y Instrument ... fashion fantasies that'll take you . Denial of Agency Instrument ... gel keeps hair ... Denial of Agency Instrument ... hair is kickin' Denial of Agen cy Instrument ... hanging with him makes you feel... Denial of Agency Instrument ... he talent leaves y our heart Denial of Agency Instrument ... health y habits help pump up y our immune svstem Denial of Agency Instrument ... hemp seed oil lea ve s strands ... Denial of Agency Instrument ... her album shows off. . Denial of Agency Instrument ... her dedication must have earned ... Denial of Agency Instrument ... her mouth waters in Denial of Agency Instrument Ma2azine Month Year Seventeen March 1998 YM March 1998 Teen Februarv 2000 YM March 2000 Teen Februarv 2000 YM March 1998 YM March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Se ventee n March 2000 YM March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 YM March 2000 Teen February 2000 YM March 2000 Seventeen March 1998 YM March 2000 Teen February 2000 Se venteen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 YM March 2000 Se venteen March 2000 YM March 1998 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 Teen March 1998 YM March 1998 YM March 2000 Seventeen March 1998 YM March 2000 Teen Februarv 2000 Se venteen March 2000 YM March 2000 Seventeen March 1998 YM March 2000 Pa2e 153 26 0 68 50 58 62 172 240 28 50 26 36 63 220 30 65 20 62 64 20 26 97 68 94 2 1 6 68 153 62 42 68 94 160 103 N 00

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Data Example Discourse Catel!orv Ma2azioe ... her star turn in ... movie ... led Natasha Lvonne* to her role ... Denial of Agency Instrument YM ... her.. allure is turning heads ... Denial of Agency Instrument Seventeen ... his opinion demeans you ... Denial of Agency Instrument Seventeen ... if ... bag slays you Denial of Agency Instrument YM .. .ingredients that give your hair ... soots ... Denial of Agency Instrument Seventeen .. .it rpep. oil] energizes your scalP ... Denial of Agency Instrument Seventeen .. .it lredl can make you glamourous Denial of Agency Instrument Teen .. .it also fuels Denial of Agency Instrument YM ... it has made them Denial of Agency Instrument YM ... it lets the neckline ... neek through Denial of Agency Instrument Seventeen .. .it makes you Denial of Agency Instrument YM .. .it no longer controls me Denial of Agency Instrument YM ... jewel tones make a statement Denial of Agency Instrument Teen .. .lyrics that demand female indeoendence Denial of Agen cy Instrument YM ... makeup .. .jewelrv ... and shoes will complete ... Denial of Agency Instrument YM ... music makes you ... Denial of Agency Instrument Se ve nteen ... nagging or ... snatching will piss him off Denial of Agency Instrument YM ... nothing will ... (bother a girl) Denial of Agency Instrument Se ve nteen ... notions can come to vou Denial of Agency Instrument Teen ... picking up ... and making ... allows you Denial of Agency Instrument Seventeen ... Playing it calm gets ... Denial of Agency Instrument Seventeen ... providing ... enables her. .. Denial of Agency Instrument Seventeen ... rosy plum or berry ... warm up ... Denial of Agency Instrument Se ve nteen ... scrubs can airn.ravate Denial of Agency Instrument YM ... seeing them ... should help you Denial of Agency Instrument Teen ... shade that suits you Denial of Agency Instrument Teen ... shade to give your nail bed a ... Denial of Agency Instrument Seventeen ... shade's that'll look best.. Denial of Agency Instrument Seventeen ... shades ... make evervthing look beautiful Denial of Agency Instrument Teen ... steos ... can have you smilin' Denial of Agency Instrument Teen ... strong calves help vour balance ... Denial of Agency Instrument Teen ... svling cream adds some oomph to Azura*'s ... hair Denial of Agency Instrument Se ve nteen ... techniques to help you Denial of Agency Instrument Se ve nteen ... that crack ... made you Denial of Agen cy Instrument YM ... that makes her cool Denial of Agency Instrument YM Month Year March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 February 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 Pa2e 28 160 82 38 68 68 l05 68 91 216 68 71 98 91 24 176 40 160 118 118 82 140 62 28 36 l05 6 4 6 4 113 38 35 58 130 62 68 N \0

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Data Examole Discourse Cate1:1orv Maeazine ... that put y ou off. . D e nial of Al!encv Instrument Seventeen ... the Internet hooks you up Denial of A_gencv Instrument Teen ... the class mi e.ht boost your art backm-ound Denial of Aencv Instrument Seventeen ... the color should warm your skin ... Denial of Ae.encv Instrument Teen ... the color suds with ... to give you . the hair. . Denial of Al!encv Instrument Teen . the empire waist and floor-sweeping hem accentuate . Denial of Airencv Instrument Seventeen ... the mood takes you Denial of Alzencv Instrument Seventeen ... the products will keep y our strands ... Denial of Al!encv Instrument Teen ... these looks oartv on Denial of Al!encv Instrument Teen ... these platforms will make vou want Denial of Al!encv Instrument Teen . these prom tios and tricks will banish any pre-prom surprises ... Denial of Al!encv Instrument Teen ... they f scrubsl will onlv cause ... Denial of Ae:encv Instrument YM . they won't make you taller than your date ... Denial of Al!encv Instrument Teen . things that will reallv affect your life Denial of Agencv Instrument Seventeen ... things will get... D e nial of Ae:encv Instrument Seventeen ... this dress will leave a lastinl! impression ... Denial of Agencv Instrument YM ... tricks to help you cash . Denial of Al!encv Instrument Teen ... undereye circles and blemishes are banished with Benefit's It Stick ... Denial of Al!encv Instrument Seventeen ... way you act makes you Denial of Ae:encv Instrument YM . what does and doesn't get you noticed. . Denial of Agencv Instrument YM ... what insoired you ... Denial of Ae:encv Instrument Seventeen ... when they're lbraceletsl not decoratinl! ... Denial of Al!encv Instrument Sev enteen . whos ... CD shows evervone ... Denial of Al!encv Instrument Sev enteen . vour braces holding you back Denial of Ae:encv Instrument Sev enteen . your presence has the nower . Denial of Ae:encv Instrument YM . and litl brings ... Denial of Ae..encv Instrument YM . what makes you m-eat Denial of Al!encv Instrument YM 13 wavs to fake out... Denial of Agencv Instrument YM 13 ways to fake out. .... Denial of Al!encv Instrument YM 20 wavs to boost vour confidence Denial of Agencv Instrument YM A dress ... purnos uo Raauel's netite frame Denial of Al!encv Instrument YM A liostick gives lios Denial of Agencv Instrument Seventeen A ooncho makes a orettv . coveruo Denial of Al!encv Instrument Seventeen A .. closs gives tins Denial of Airencv Instrument Seventeen An ace bandage flattens ... Denial of Al!encv Instrument Seventeen Month Year March 2000 February 2000 March 2000 March 1998 February 2000 March 2000 March 2000 Februarv 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1989 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 Paee 174 3 106 105 20 50 121 20 93 111 108 28 20 110 84 98 36 58 44 86 132 68 172 144 32 28 68 0 8 0 llO 225 216 224 240 N Vt 0

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Data Example Discourse Cateeory Cardboard ... fom1s help Denial of Agencv Instrument Carlie's tank juices up ... a skirt Denial of Agency Instrument Charm him clues (5 times) Denial of Agency Instrument Christina Ricci's* gown is ... Denial of Agency Instrument Claiming your own space will redefine ... Denial of Agency Instrument Clios barrettes and headbands to get vou gorgeous . Denial of Agency Instrument Do cliques rule y our life ? Denial of Agency Instrument Do cliques rule vour life ? Denial of Agency Instrument Does it freak Diamond out ? Denial of Agency Instrument Eating foods . will make y ou Denial of Agency Instrument Eating . makes Denial of Agency Instrument Flicks that bust the blues Denial of Agency Instrument Givim~ ... can wear y ou out Denial of Agency Instrument Hard Candy ... glazes Denial of Agency Instrument Ha v e mall mess-ups e ver ruined y our stvle ? Denial of Agency Instrument His ... thinking has you mesmeri z ed Denial of Agencv Instrument If the prosoect thrills y ou Denial of Agency Instrument If y our bargain buy keeps y ou under budget. . Denial of Agencv Instrument Is your need out of control ? Denial of Agency Instrument It f solo timel will improve y our chance ... Denial of Agencv Instrument It gives any face a juicy glow Denial of Agency Instrument It'll make you ... Denial of Agencv Instrument It's a hard-knock life that can hurt or strenghthen ... ties . Denial of Agency Instrument Items that really warm our hearts Denial of Agency Instrument Layers ... add lots of oomph Denial of Agencv Instrument Much of AoPleby's grace ... comes from y ears of childhood ballet training . Denial of Agency Instrument Music to get you moving Denial of Agencv Instrument Nelson's tale takes a tum D e nial of Agency Instrument Nothing will get y our limbs mo v ing faster Denial of Agencv Instrument Once the gown finall y hit stores it soawned ... D e nial of Agency Instrum e nt Ribbons rinl!S and sandals to floor a date . D e nial of Agen cy Instrument Scrubbing unclogs oores Denial of Agency Instrum e nt Shoes that take a stand Denial of Agency Instrument Songs that'll get y ou ... Denial of Agencv Instrument The new classes combine ... to gi ve y ou a toned ... bodv Denial of Agen cy Instrument Maeazine Month Seventeen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Teen February Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March YM March YM March YM March S e vent ee n March Year 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 Paee 213 113 63 17 80 17 0 106 236 36 36 41 22 30 28 63 110 42 106 76 105 44 20 38 17 164 3 6 172 174 50 17 28 22 3 6 1 2 4 N Vi ......

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Data Example Discourse Cateeorv The ordeal has made them stronger D e nial of Agency Instrument The spheres remove Denial of Agency Instrument The studv will examine . Denial of Agency Instrument These scrubs pump up . Denial of Agency Instrument Thev blend with ... Denial of Agency Instrument They smooth Denial of Agency Instrument Thev'll bring out the devil in you . Denial of Agency Instrument This season's ... shades light up the faces Denial of Agency Instrument This service removes . Denial of Agency Instrument Urban Decay's ... Body Haze delivers cool color ... to your face Denial of Agency Instrument What discourages you ... ? Denial of Agency Instrument Your walking ... will help get him the message . Denial of Agency Instrument fhuesl to spice up your prom nicltt Denial of Agency Instrument a . soarkle made eyes striking Denial of Agency Instrument charm him clues Denial of Agency Instrument charm him clues ... Denial of Agency Instrument exercises that'll help you ... Denial of Agency Instrument her career ... began Denial of Agency Instrument his flirting makes you Denial of Agency Instrument his ... that drives you wild Denial of Agency Instrument if pimples pla!!Ue you . Denial of Agency Instrument it lets the ... neckline .. neek throul!h Denial of Agency Instrument one ... convo with you should leave him ionesin' for more Denial of Agency Instrument reading revs me up Denial of Agency Instrument reoort that could bump up your grade Denial of Agency Instrument running gives me ... Denial of Agency Instrument shade that complements e ye color .. Denial of Agency Instrument smokin gear that'll put sizzle in your style Denial of Agency Instrument spirit-boosting scents Denial of Agency Instrument the film gives Helen* ... Denial of Agency Instrument the looks l!UVS love Denial of Agency Instrument the rioole effect will fascinate you ... Denial of Agency Instrument thev keep you warm Denial of Agency Instrument they put them a head above Denial of Agency Instrument this conditioner keeps Brooke's locks looking fab Denial of Agency Instrument Magazine Month Se v enteen March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Teen March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March Teen Februarv YM March Sev enteen March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Teen Februarv YM March Seventeen March Year 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 200 0 2000 2000 1998 Pai!e 238 28 114 28 26 26 38 102 68 60 94 84 222 114 62 62 35 166 64 62 28 216 43 26 84 26 56 14 30 176 14 172 72 22 56 N Vt N

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Data Examole Discourse Cateeorv Maeazine this footwear is helping . .femmes Denial of Agency Instrument YM traveling doesn't bother a girl... Denial of Agency Instrument Seventeen velvet and mesh make a dress ... Denial of Agency Instrument Teen your accessories make a bold statement Denial of Agency Instrument Seventeen ... Simon's message is most clearly heard in Denial of Agency Svnecdoche Seventeen ... her ... stands top the look Denial of Agency Synecdoche Teen ... one girl's eyes soarkle ... Denial of Agency Svnecdoche Seventeen ... so her lips could take second stage Denial of Agency Synecdoche Teen ... your self assurance will show . Denial of Agency Svnecdoche Seventeen Nothing will get your limbs moving faster Denial of Agency Synecdoche Seventeen your 'tude gives you Denial of Agency Svnecdoche YM your body experiences Denial of Agency S y necdoche Seventeen ... the trio's dance mo v es ha ve made them ... Denial of Agency Svnecdoche YM Month Year March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 February 2000 March 2000 February 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 Pae:e 22 160 98 220 114 22 17 22 144 174 222 130 91 N VI w

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APPENDIXG DOA (DENIAL OF AGENCY) OF NEGATIVE MALE AGENCY AND MALE HEGEMONY

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N VI VI Data Example ... his nose didn't belong in ... his opinion demeans you ... if his behavior makes you feel . if his obsession is coupled with ... if something rhe doesl creeps you out ... or fsomethinR he does! makes vou nervous Any gestures rhe doesl that make you women have been injured rby menl ... your teacher's unwanted attention makes you feel... ... He's probabl y been hurt in love before so he's afraid of allowing you too much freedom lest v ou flv awav ... girls who need their daily dose of Carson* ... he* likes GIRLS WHO PUMP HlS EGO ... her boyfriend manages to flip her insecuritv switch ... how vour date feels about you .. .if your idea of exercise is pumping y our mascara wand, catch it with the iock you've been crushin' on ... selfish creep who squelches y our wants and needs ... He's totall y insecure about and terrified about letting y ou become a healthy indenendent nerson .. so he can show off the beautv (n. ) on his arm ... tao into his grooves Got a babe y ou can claw y our nails into during a fright-fest ? One who'll dig it when vou hide vour eves on his shoulder? Gu y s don't blow off their crew unless there's something -or someone else they find verv interesting Help him plan It could be that he now regards y ou in a more girlfriendworth y light so to him. it's like he's seeing vou for the first time Laue.h at his jokes ... NOTE : he has a secret admirer Discourse Cateeorv Denial of Agencv of Negative Male Agency Denial of Agency of Negative Male Agency Denial of Agencv of Ne!!.ative Male Agencv Denial of Agency of Negative Male Agency Denial of Agency of Ne!!.ative Male Agencv Denial of Agencv of Negative Male Agency Denial of Agency of Negative Male Agency Denial of Agencv of Ne!!.ative Male Agency Denial of Agency of Negative Male Agency Male Hegemon y Male Hegemon y Male Hegemon y Male Heg e mon y Male Hegemon y Male Hegemon y Male Hegemon y Male Heg e mon y Male Hegemon y Male Hegemon y Male Heg e mon y Male Hegemon y Male Hegemon y Male Hegemon y Male Hegemony Maeazine Month Year Paee Teen February 2000 44 Seventeen March 1998 82 Seventeen March 2000 146 Seventeen March 2000 146 Seventeen March 2000 146 Seventeen March 2000 146 Seventeen March 2000 146 YM March 2000 22 Seventeen March 2000 146 Teen March 1998 70 YM March 2000 89 Teen February 2000 53 Seventeen March 1998 80 Teen March 1998 38 Seventeen March )998 49 Teen March 1998 70 Teen March )998 66 YM March 2000 62 Teen March 1998 51 YM March 1998 32 Teen February 2000 59 YM March 1998 32 Teen February 2000 59 Teen February 2000 30

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NOTE: in contrast to three female quiz categories men get 5 : party animal lover hero tough ruv serious one confident NOTE: article features his random acts of relationship kindnesses what he does NOTE: he reads her diary about her "obsession" with him she's scolded for being obsessed NOTE : know "guy" side ask older brother to help you fix tire work VCR. etc NOTE: perfume should match HIS oei-sonalitv NOTE: relationship article focuses on HIS agency his amazing anniversarv move: next article cool moves vour ruv made NOTE : she's flirting "back" he flirts first NOTE: way to attract guys is by casting spells : need to put your crush ... under a soell? AND Leave vour sweetie soellbound NOTE : YOU get to know HIS FLIRTSONALJTY he's allowed to "front" YOUR responsiblity is to learn it and to take quiz on it he's never condmened for these actions Once again Teen special issues dish out the smartest moves about guys friends school fashion how to look and be your best and evervthing that matters to vou most Pay him a compliment showing him your extreme level of worsh Show aooreciation for his gestures ... Sure this Spring is majorly manly but we like chick flicks, too, in cool girlie movies Thank him . There is a heading in the table of contents entitled "Guys" also in the Table starred articles indicate what's on the cover the only section to be completely starred, meaning all of it's articles are on the cover, is "Guys" This boy's not afraid of you having a life and he wants you to be the best vou can be Male Hegemony Teen February Male Hegemonv YM March Male Hegemonv Teen February Male Hegemony Teen February Male Hegemonv Teen February Male Hegemony YM March Male Hegemonv Teen February Male Hegemony Teen Februarv Male Hegemony Teen February Male Hegemony Teen March Male Hegemonv YM March Male Hegemony Teen February Male Hegemonv Teen March Male Hegemony Teen February Male Hegemony YM March Male Hegemony Teen March 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 59 48 44 65 18 38 59 18 58 70 38 59 52 59 4 70 N VI

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This guy not only believes in you he nurtures your growth Since he's probably very self-assured, he doesn't feel that he loses any noser in the relationship when he's suooortive of you Male Hegemon y What kinds of girls do they* dig? Male Hegemon y Why do you think girls trv to be oerfect for iruvs? Male Hegemony With the Wild West theme the brotherly theme and probably lots of bullets flying. you may be temoted to go with your iruv Male Hegemony Your iruv seems ambivalent...one minute he's toatally into y ou ... Male Hegemon y get his oicks Male Hegemon y he made her feel like a criminal Male Hegemon y he may trv to cage you in like one of his feathered friends Male Hegemon y he's making you feel like a load Male Hegemon y is he healthy for y ou? Male Hegemon y it's flattering that he's into you Male H ege mon y womanizer Male Hegemony Teen March YM March Teen March Seventeen March Teen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Teen March 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 70 28 28 50 70 36 80 116 82 4 153 49 N V\ -....J

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APPENDIXH TEEN WO:MEN AS SEMANTIC ROLE EXPERIENCER

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N V1 Data Examule ........ vou feel ....... you feel ..... vou feel ..... you feel ..... vou want .... you feel .... vou feel... ... .... you want ... Arny digs ... Amv liked ... Do you yearn for .. ... Don't like ... ? . Get... ... Get... .. .I got unset .. .I heard .. .I wanted ........ .... .. .I wish .. .. .I'd most like ... ... Kari dares for ... ... Kristi Mead ... and her friends like to ... ... Lauren sees ... ... Lauren took offense ... ... Lauren wanted ... ... Samantha has wanted ... Shudder at ... . .f e:irlsl who prefered ... .. .rvou'rel feeling low ... f youl want .. .fvoul want...? ... a club you like ... a stvle you love .. ... adventurer who liked .. ... all the excuses I need ... all vou're craving ... Discourse Cateeory Exneriencer Experiencer Exoeriencer Exneriencer Exoeriencer Exneriencer Experiencer Exneriencer Experiencer Exoeriencer Experiencer Exneriencer Experiencer Exoeriencer Exneriencer Exneriencer Exoeriencer Exoeriencer Exoeriencer Experiencer Exneriencer Experiencer Exneriencer Exneriencer Exoeriencer Exoeriencer Exoeriencer Exneriencer Exoeriencer Exoeriencer Exoeriencer Exneriencer Exoeriencer Exoeriencer Exoeriencer Maeazine Month Year Paee Seventeen March 2000 151 Seventeen March 2000 146 Seventeen March 2000 146 Seventeen March 2000 146 YM March 1998 36 Seventeen March 2000 84 YM March 1998 58 Seventeen March 1998 60 Teen March 1998 24 Teen March 1998 24 Seventeen March 2000 110 Teen February 2000 44 Seventeen March 1998 190 Seventeen March 1998 190 YM March 2000 71 YM March 2000 70 YM March 2000 72 Seventeen March 1998 168 Seventeen March 1998 167 Teen February 2000 22 Teen February 2000 16 Seventeen March 1998 216 Seventeen March 1998 216 Seventeen March 1998 216 Seventeen March 1998 224 Seventeen March 2000 36 Seventeen March 1998 192 Teen February 2000 38 YM March 2000 63 Teen March 1998 18 YM March 2000 44 Seventeen March 2000 54 Seventeen March 1998 235 YM March 1998 26 Teen February 2000 4

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Data Exam~le Discourse Category ... and (:you're] loving it Exoeriencer .:.:.and [:you] hate Exneriencer .:.:. and [you] hate ... Experiencer ... and [:you] hope for ... Exoeriencer .:.:.aajjvoul see ... Exoeriencer ... and you eniov .... Exneriencer ... and vou look Exoeriencer ... as far as vou can Exneriencer ... as high as you can lift Exoeriencer ... as if :you mind Exneriencer . before you get. .. Exoeriencer ... buds vou haven't seen Exneriencer . chicks dig Exoeriencer . do you need ... ? Exneriencer ... get the picture ... ? Exoeriencer ... Jrirl likes ... Exneriencer ... girl who wants him Exoeriencer . girls just wanna ... Exoeriencer .. S!rls Qrefer... Exoeriencer ... goth Jrirls really di_g Exoeriencer ... guy you deserve ... Exoeriencer ... heard about Exneriencer ... how you feel.. .... Exoeriencer ... how you look Exneriencer ... how you'i;e feeling Exoeriencer ... if vou ... really like . Exneriencer . if you feel Exoeriencer ... if vou like Exneriencer ... if you like (3 times) Exneriencer ... if :you like ... Exneriencer ... if you realize . Exoeriencer ... if you really want Exneriencer . if you suffer Exoeriencer ... if you want Exneriencer ... if you want to keen in touch ... Exoeriencer MaP-azine Month YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Teen March Teen Februarv Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen March Sev enteen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Sev enteen March Seventeen March Teen Februarv YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Teen Februarv Teen Februarv Teen Februarv Seventeen March Teen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Year 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 Paee 444 0 9 22 36 38 36 124 124 66 82 116 22 8 111 246 40 190 138 32 84 56 40 26 130 52 144 54 55 52 84 68 72 104 20 --N 0

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Data Example Discourse Catel!orv ... if you want. . Exneriencer ... if you want. .... Exneriencer .. .if you want... ... Exoeriencer .. .if you want... .... Exneriencer ~ .if you want... ..... Exoeriencer ... if you want... ...... Exneriencer ... if you want ... to ... Exoeriencer ... if vou were dveing for... Exneriencer ... need help ... ? Exneriencer ... need some ... ? Exoeriencer ... she adores ... Exneriencer ... she feels ... Exoeriencer ... she felt heloless ... Exneriencer ... she felt ... Exoeriencer ... she heard ... Exneriencer ... she liked Exoeriencer ... she likes him Exneriencer ... she loves Exoeriencer ... she needs ... Exneriencer ... she wanted to work Exoeriencer ... she wanted .. Exoeriencer ... she wants Exneriencer ... she wants more soace Exoeriencer ... she wants .......... Exneriencer ... she wondered ... Exneriencer ... she'll love you Exneriencer ... she's into guvs ... Exoeriencer ... she ... and the ... other girl wanted .. Exneriencer ... some women exnerience Exneriencer ... some young women need ... Exneriencer ... that does mean vou want... Exneriencer ... that you care for him ... Exoeriencer ... this means you'll feel comfortable Exneriencer ... threesome got readv ... Exneriencer ... tri1rn:er vou need ... Exneriencer Ma2azine Month Year Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Teen Februarv 2000 YM March 1998 Teen Februarv 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 YM March 2000 YM March 1998 YM March 2000 Teen March 1998 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 1998 YM March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Teen Februarv 2000 Sev enteen March 1998 YM March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Sev enteen March 2000 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 2000 Teen March 1998 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Pa2e 140 140 174 29 40 44 112 68 64 32 146 26 215 4 215 54 80 72 52 134 215 64 144 65 215 26 148 217 1 3 2 138 112 30 108 192 36 N .....

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Data Exam~le Discourse Categon_ ... until she heard Exoeriencer ... wanna sna!Ll_ Exoeriencer . wanna win ... 7 Exoeriencer ... want to learn more ? Exoeriencer ... want to . ? Exneriencer ... what she wanted ... Exoeriencer ... what she wants Exneriencer ... what she's into ... Exoeriencer ... what she's used to Exneriencer ... what you want Exoeriencer ... when you're feeling Exneriencer ... when y ou're feeling blue Exoeriencer ... where y ou've seen him _g~riencer ... would you go Exoeriencer ... YOU and your sister ... want. .. Exneriencer ... you believe . Exoeriencer ... you believe .... Exoeriencer ... you both deserve Exoeriencer ... YOU can't wail ... Exneriencer ... you care Exoeriencer ... YOU care for him Exneriencer ... you care ... Exoeriencer . you craved .. Exneriencer ... you deserve Exoeriencer ... you do [want] Exneriencer ... you don't care ... Exoeriencer ... you don't love him ... Exoeriencer ... you don't want Exoeriencer ... you enioy ... Exoeriencer ... you expect Exoeriencer .. YOU feel Exneriencer ... you feel sad Exoeriencer ... YOU feel... Exoeriencer ... you feel... Exoeriencer ... YOU feel... Exoeriencer Ma!!azine Month Year Seventeen March 2000 YM March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 2000 Teen March 1998 Seventeen March 2000 YM March 2000 Teen Februarv 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 1998 YM March 1998 Seventeen March 2000 YM March 2000 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 2000 YM March 2000 Teen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Teen Februarv 2000 YM March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 YM March 1998 Teen March 1998 YM March 2000 Teen March 1998 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 2000 Paee 142 4 46 136 101 l lO 63 36 64 59 82 174 41 0 236 80 84 148 63 30 28 80 246 44 82 82 82 58 28 62 30 151 80 148 151 --N 0\ N

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Data Examf)le Discourse Cate2orv ... you feel. ... Exneriencer ... vou feel...., Exoeriencer ... YOU feel. .... Exneriencer ... you feel... ... Exneriencer ... You feel... .... Exneriencer ... you feel... .... Exneriencer ... You feel... ..... Exneriencer ... you feel. ........ Exneriencer ... you feel.. ........ Exneriencer ... you feel... ... .... Exneriencer ... you feel... ......... Exoeriencer ... you feel... .......... Exneriencer ... you feel... ........... Exoeriencer ... you feel... ............ Exoeriencer ... you feel. ....... ....... Exneriencer . YOU feel. ............. .... .... ... Exoeriencer ... you feel. ......... ....... ................. Exneriencer ... YOU feel. .................................. Exoeriencer ... you feel. ... ............ .................... Exneriencer ... YOU feel. ........................... ............... Exoeriencer ... you feel. .... . ........ ...... ........ ...... . .... .... Exneriencer ... you feeling scared and edgy Exoeriencer ... you felt ... Exoeriencer ... you felt .... Exneriencer ... you get bummed Exoeriencer ... you had it rough ... Exneriencer ... YOU hate ... Exoeriencer ... you hear E.x'Tieriencer ... vou hear ... Exoeriencer ... you just feel... Exoeriencer ... you like Exoeriencer . you like about yourself Exneriencer ... you like ... Experiencer ... YOU like ... Exneriencer ... you like ... (3 times) ... Exneriencer Mairnzine Month Seventeen March Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Teen March Teen March Teen March Teen March Teen February Teen March Seventeen March YM March Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Sev enteen March Teen Februarv Year 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 Pa2e 82 85 82 82 84 153 216 215 26 30 30 30 44 44 32 48 52 38 144 148 151 146 216 48 59 28 82 59 110 80 86 144 82 176 56 N 0\ vJ

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory ... vou like .... Exneriencer . you like ..... . Exoeriencer ... vou look sweeter Exneriencer ... you love Exoeriencer ... you love it too Exoeriencer ... you love them Exoeriencer ... you love .... Exoeriencer ... you love ........ .......... Exoeriencer ... you loved it Exoeriencer . you miss ... Exneriencer ... you need Exoeriencer ... you need to seek Exneriencer ... you need ... Exoeriencer ... vou need ...... Exneriencer ... you need ... ..... Experiencer ... vou need .... ....... ..... . Exneriencer . you really want.. Exoeriencer ... vou see ... Exoeriencer ... you see . .... .... . ..... Experiencer . vou still feel. .. Exoeriencer ... you still need Experiencer ... vou tend Exoeriencer ... you tend to have Exoeriencer ... vou think Exneriencer ... you trust Experiencer ... vou trust him Exneriencer ... you wanna Exoeriencer ... vou wanna see Exoeriencer ... you wanna ... Experiencer . you want Exoeriencer ... you want Exoeriencer ... you want a !!UV who . Experiencer ... you want him Exoeriencer ... you want inside Exoeriencer ... you want the foods Exneriencer Ma2azine Month Teen March Teen March YM March Sev enteen March Teen February Teen February Seventeen March YM March Teen February Sev enteen March Teen March YM March Sev enteen March YM March Teen February YM March Seventeen March Sev enteen March Teen February Teen March YM March Teen February YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Sev enteen March Teen March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March Year 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 Pa2e 26 32 44 0 29 12 9 24 16 82 68 62 140 92 40 42 238 246 14 30 62 85 48 26 59 46 52 26 107 82 102 144 62 23 82 N

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Data Examole Discourse Cate1.wrv ... y ou want to E x oeriencer ... y ou want to keeo E x oeriencer . y ou want to ...... Exneriencer ... v ou want to ....... . Exoeriencer ... you want.. E x neriencer ... vou want.. Exoeriencer . y ou want.. Exneriencer ... v ou want. ... Exoeriencer ... y ou want.. . Exneriencer ... v ou want... . E x oeriencer ... vou want. ..... E x neriencer ... v ou want.. ..... Exoeriencer . v ou want.. ...... Exoeriencer ... you want . ...... Exoeriencer ... YOU want.. ......... Exoeriencer ... y ou want. ... .... .... Exneriencer . you wanted .. Exoeriencer . you will get throui!h Exneriencer ... you will get... Exoeriencer . you won't hear E x neriencer ... you won't tolerate ... Exneriencer ... YOU1ll also crush on ... Exneriencer ... y ou'll also crush on ... (3 times) Exoeriencer ... you'll also crush on ... (3 times) ... Exoeriencer ... y ou'll also crush on .... Exneriencer . YOU1ll also crush on ..... Exoeriencer ... y ou'll also crush on ... . E x neriencer ... y ou'll both aooreciate ... E x oeriencer ... y ou'll feel (2 times) Exneriencer ... y ou'll feel better Exoeriencer ... you'll hear ... Exoeriencer ... you'll hooe E x oeriencer ... YOU1ll lo v e Exoeriencer ... y ou'll lo v e ... E x neriencer ... y ou'll need E x oeriencer Mai!azine Month Year Se v enteen March 1998 Se v enteen March 2000 YM March 1998 YM March 2000 Se v enteen March 1998 Se v enteen March 1998 Se v enteen March 1998 Se v enteen March 1998 S ev enteen March 1998 Se v enteen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Se v enteen March 1998 Se v enteen March 1998 Teen March 1998 YM March 2000 Teen March 1998 Se v enteen March 1998 Teen Februarv 2000 YM March 1998 YM March 2000 Se v enteen March 1998 Teen Februarv 2000 Teen Februarv 2000 Teen Februarv 2000 Teen Februarv 2000 Teen Februarv 2000 Teen Februarv 2000 Teen March 1998 YM March 1998 YM March 1998 Teen March 1998 YM March 1998 YM March 1998 S ev enteen March 1998 Se v enteen March 2000 Pa2e 48 124 59 52 82 80 138 82 140 153 26 48 84 26 62 26 138 38 59 63 80 57 55 56 52 53 54 51 40 58 38 40 12 176 126 N 0\ VI

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory ... YOU1ll need ........... Exoeriencer ... you'll regret Exoeriencer ... you'll see .... Exoeriencer ... vou'II want Exoeriencer ... you're feeling low Exoeriencer ... vou're feeling ... Exneriencer ... you're feeling ...... E x oeriencer ... vou're getting adjusted Exoeriencer ... you're hurting ... Exoeriencer ... vou're into Exoeriencer ... you're into him Exoeriencer ... You're longing for ... Exneriencer ... you're seeing Exoeriencer ... YOU1ve always wanted ... Exoeriencer ... you've been crushin' on ... Exoeriencer ... YOU1ve seen Exoeriencer ... you've seen him Exoeriencer ... you've seen him ... Exoeriencer ... you've seen ... Exoeriencer ... YOU ... love ... Exoeriencer ... you ... wanted ... Experiencer ... young women who feel embarrassed Exneriencer .. that you admire his taste Experiencer .. YOU feel... Exoeriencer Alex ... loves Experiencer Can you believe this ?:Uv? Exneriencer Erin seems content Experiencer Ever wondered ... Exneriencer Get ... Experiencer I admire Exoeriencer I enjoy Experiencer I exnerience Exoeriencer Ifeel... Experiencer I felt Exoeriencer I felt.. .. Exoeriencer Ma2azine Month Seventeen March YM March Teen March YM March YM March Teen March Teen February Teen February Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Teen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Year 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 Pa2e 76 59 30 40 59 26 44 36 82 63 32 16 60 110 49 34 63 80 30 167 238 130 63 219 78 20 239 241 190 241 241 241 241 241 70 N O'I O'I

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Data Example Discourse Cate2orv I felt.. ... Exoeriencer I felt ...... Exoeriencer I got excited Exoeriencer I loved acting Exoeriencer I miss Exoeriencer I need Exoeriencer I need the security Exoeriencer I wanted ..... Exoeriencer lf y ou want ... Exoeriencer Leila and her mom ... have had Exoeriencer Leila likes Scott Exoeriencer Let y our accessories ... Exoeriencer Nicole loves butterflies Exoeriencer Orange you glad ... Exoeriencer Things you used to enjoy Exoeriencer Want a unique undo ... ? Exoeriencer Want a ... Exoeriencer What y ou'll need ... Exoeriencer When you get... Exoeriencer Women who want to ... Exoeriencer dud you're into ... Experiencer girls who need Exoeriencer how ... you feel Experiencer if Nancy wanted Exoeriencer if you feel like it Exoeriencer if you like ... Experiencer none of them aooears hardened ... Exoeriencer she can resoond Experiencer she gets along ... Exoeriencer she likes Exoeriencer she prefers ... Exoeriencer that you want Exoeriencer want to hear Experiencer who looks like Exoeriencer you care about him alot... Experiencer Ma2azine Month YM March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Year 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 Pa2e 72 72 71 71 241 241 214 72 209 238 238 220 142 222 151 34 30 124 42 241 40 89 58 238 121 172 239 236 60 136 111 148 176 238 84 N 0\ -...J

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Data Exam1>le Discourse Cate2orv y ou deserve ... Exoeriencer y ou don't need ... Experiencer y ou dread ... Experiencer YOU feel E x oeriencer you feel (2 times) Experiencer you feel... Exoeriencer y ou feel... ... . .... . .... . Experiencer you feel. .......... ......... . . Exneriencer y ou find it difficult Exoeriencer y ou hate do.e.s Exoeriencer y ou just need ......... Experiencer y ou like ..... Experiencer y ou like ... ............... Exoeriencer y ou love them Exoeriencer y ou love ............. Exoeriencer y ou need Exoeriencer y ou see Exoeriencer you see ... ...... Exoeriencer y ou still hear Exoeriencer you trust Exoeriencer you want Exoeriencer y ou want the top to stay straight Exoeriencer you want to Exoeriencer you want to be Exoeriencer you \Vant to ... ..... . ..... ..... . .... ........... Exoeriencer y ou want ......... . Exoeriencer y ou want. ...... ......... Exoeriencer y ou want. . ... ............. ... Exoeriencer y ou'll like Exoeriencer you'll probabl y feel... ........ Exoeriencer y ou'll want to wear . Experiencer you'll want.. ..... Exoeriencer you'll wish Experiencer y ou've been listening Exoeriencer y ou' v e experienced Exoeriencer Ma2azine Month Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Teen March YM March Teen March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March Teen February Teen February Seventeen March YM March Teen February YM March YM m Teen February Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Year 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 Pa2e 153 60 176 40 36 28 40 58 151 44 62 53 57 194 58 65 62 110 96 146 54 228 172 151 44 58 64 23 76 58 235 58 44 48 151 N 0\ 00

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory Ma2azine vou've seen Exoeriencer YM your mother suffered Exoeriencer Seventeen Month Year March 2000 March 2000 Pa2e 86 151 N 0\

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APPENDIX I MALE SUBJECTS

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N ---J ...... Data Example ...... and fhel kept telling me .... and fhel sued ... .... and fhel walks ... .... he's going to .... .... if he types in ... 6 clues he's noticed you ... Alex ... cuts school... ... Alex raises . ... Charlie calls . ... Charlie had agreed ... ... Charlie learned ... . Charlie refused ... . Charlie says ... ... Charlie says .... ... Charlie was fighting ... ... Charlie won . ... Charlie ... denies ... ... Does he head ... George Washington kept. . ... He says it was ... ... How did he make it special ... Is he flirting with you ... ? . .Isidro says ... Isidro says . .. .Isidro savs .... ... Isidro was considering ... ? .. .Jackson says .. Jacob and his date went... . .Jacob ... asked ... ... Jones .. .interceded .. .Kemner aooreciates ... ... Kemoer olayed ... . Logan . .looks around ... Magoo makes ... ... Mark had picked ... Discourse Cate2ory Male Subject (Agency) Male Subject (Agencv) Male Subject (Agency) Male Subject (Agency) Male Sut>ject (Agency) Male Subject (Agency) Male Subject (Agency) Male Subject (Agency) Male Subject (Agency) Male Subject (Agency) Male Subject (Agency) Male Subject (Agencv) Male Subject (Agency) Male Subject (Agency) Male Subject (Agency) Male Subject (Agency) Male Subject (Agency) Male Subject (Agency) Male Subject (Agency) Male Subject (Agency) Male Subject (Agency) Male Subject (Agency) Male Sut>ject (Agency) Male Subject (Agency) Male Subiect (Agency) Male Subject (Agency) Male Subiect (Agency) Male Subject (Agency) Male Subject (Agency) Male Subject (Agency) Male Subject (Agency) Male Sut>ject (Agency) Male Subject (Agency) Male Subject (Agency) Male Subject (Agency) Ma2azioe Month Year Pa2e YM March 2000 71 Seventeen March 1998 215 Se v enteen March 1998 114 Seventeen March 1998 82 Teen February 2000 30 YM March 1998 32 Seventeen March 998 176 Seventeen March 1998 176 Seventeen March 1998 215 Se v enteen March 1998 215 Seventeen March 1998 215 Se v enteen March 1998 215 Se v enteen March 1998 216 Seventeen March 1998 216 Se v enteen March 1998 215 Seventeen March 1998 216 Seventeen March 1998 216 YM March 2000 63 Seventeen March 1998 116 Seventeen March 20 0 0 76 YM March 2000 48 Teen February 2000 0 Teen March 1998 56 Teen March 1998 56 Teen March 1998 5 6 Teen March 1998 5 6 Teen March 1998 6 0 Se v enteen March 1998 192 Seventeen March 1998 192 Teen March 1998 119 Seventeen March 1998 225 Se v enteen March 1998 225 Teen March 1998 6 0 Seventeen March 1998 176 Se v enteen March 1 998 2 3 5

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Data Examole Discourse Cate1wrv . Peter calls me about. .. Male Subject (Agency) . President. . has ur_ged ... Male Subject (A_gency) ... Scot started ... Male Subject (Agency) ... Scott had crashed ... Male Subject (Agency) ... This guy is taking out his moods on you ... Male Subject (A_gency) ... Wedo Male Subject (Agency) ... Zach has learned Male Subject (A_gency) ... fhe doesn't call herl and tell her. .. Male Sul>ject (Age ncy) ... lhel agrees to help y ou Male Subject (A_gency) . fhel asks Male Sul>ject (Agency) . lhel asks you Male Subject (Agency) ... lhe l celebrates Male Sul>ject (Agency) ... r he I cracks UP Male Subject (Agency) ... [he] dishes out compliments gifts and affection to make girls melt Mal e Subject (Agency) ... fhel doesn't say Male Subject (Agency) ... fhe] finally starts chattin_g Male Subject (Agency) ... r he l flaunts Male Subject (Agency) . fhe] forbids YOU Male Subject (A_gency) ... r he l _gears Male Subject (Agency) ... the] lti ve s you Male Subject (A_gency) ... lhel gi ve s you .. Male Subject (Agency) ... fhe] gives vou . . Male Subject (A_gency) . lhel has won ... Male Subject (Agency) . fhe] hosts Male Subject (Agency) ... lhel inquire ... Male Subject (Agency) ... fhe] joins Male Sul>ject (A_gency) ... lhel listens to y ou Male Subject (Agency) ... fhel makes Male Subject ( Agency) ... lhel says OK Male Subject (Agency) ... fhel says that Male Subject (Agency) . .fhel smiles Male Subject (Agency) ... r he l stars in ... Male Sul>ject (A_gency) ... lhel steps into .. Male Subject (A_gency) Ma2azine Month Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March YM March Teen March Teen February YM March Teen February Teen March YM March Teen March Teen March Teen March Teen March Teen March Teen March Seventeen March Teen Februarv Teen March Teen March YM March YM March Teen March Teen March Teen March YM March Teen February Year 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 "1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 Pa2e 80 116 235 235 84 63 224 82 68 43 68 59 43 59 68 43 66 66 66 66 68 66 215 43 38 66 43 62 66 68 68 62 59 N -..J N

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Data Examole Discourse Catel!orv . [hel suooorts Male Subject (Agencv) . lhel talks you . Male Subiect ( Agencv) ... [hel tells you Male Subiect < Ae:encv) ... fhel tells you ... Male Subject ( Agencv) ... [he l tells you .... Male Subiect < Agencv) ... fhe l tries to impress girls Male Subject (Agencv) ... [hel walk . Male Subject (Agencv) ... [he] went about it. .. Male Subject (Agencv) ... [hel wins the admiration ... Male Subject (Agencv) ... [he] . ignores Male Subject < Ae:encv) . a Scott Wolf look-alike ask you out Male Subject ( Agencv) ... a good boyfriend doesn't just. .. Male Subject < Agencv) ... a guy dumoed me Male Subject (Agenc y ) ... a guv talk Male Subiect < Agencv) ... a ruv to like you Male Subject (Agencv) . a guy who will do anything to get a girl Male Subject ( Ae:encv) ... a stud invites you Male Subject (Agency) ... all the attention her boy is gi ving her Male Subject ( Ae:encv) ... and f Jacobl had ... Male Subject (Agency) ... and f guysl share their stories ... Male Subject ( Agencv) ... and f he'lll check it out Male Subject < Ae:encv) ... and [he] asks Male Subiect (Agencv) ... and fhel chats Male Subiect < Agencv) ... and lhel chickens ... Male Subject (Agencv) ... and [he l drives you Male Subiect < Ae:encv) ... and fhel fit well Male Subject (Agencv) .. and [he] helped ... Male Subject < Ae:encv) ... and fhel insists .. Male Subject (Agencv) ... and [hel keeps Male Subiect < Agencv) ... and [he] manages ... Male Subject (Ae:encv) ... and [he] nerforms it. .. Male Subject (Ae:encv) ... and [he] reminds you Male Subject < Ae:encv) ... and lhel said ... Male Subject ( Agencv) ... and [hel shows you Male Subject < Agencv) ... and fhel sighs ... Male Subject (Agencv) Maeazine Month Teen February Teen March Teen March Teen March Teen March Teen February Teen March Teen March Teen February Teen March Teen February Teen March Teen March YM March Se v enteen March Seventeen March YM March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Teen Februarv Teen March YM March Teen March Teen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March YM March Se v enteen March Teen March Teen March Se v enteen March Teen March Seventeen March Year 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 200 0 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 199 8 1998 Pal!e 59 68 68 68 68 59 38 38 59 66 85 70 64 52 144 192 44 144 192 28 30 66 43 3 8 68 192 192 216 42 224 3 8 6 8 217 6 8 224 N -...,l w

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory ... and fhel slios it. .. Male Subject (Agency) ... and !he] states ... -Male Subject (Agency) ... and lhel suggests Male Subject (Agency) ... and lhel unplugs . Male Subject (Agency) ... and he calls y ou ... Male Subject (Agency) ... and he'll enter his Male Subject (Agency) ... and then lhel would move in ... Male Subject (Agency) ... as he does ... Male Subject (Agency) ... babe ... who's clawing Male Subject (Agency) ... beau will carry Male Subject (Agency) ... boyfriend does ... Male Subject (Agency) ... boyfriend is cheating ... Male Subject (Agency) ... boyfriend is taking ... Male Subject (Agency) ... boyfriend made y ou ... Male Subject (Age n cy) ... but fhel failed ... Male Subject (Agency) ... but fhel gives Male Subject (Agency) ... but fhel mumbles Male Subject (Agency) ... but this one keeps y ou Male Subject (Agency) ... creep ... who squelches Male Subject ( Agency) ... cutest boys do Male Subject (Agency) ... date says no ... Male Subject (Agency) ... did he onen ... ? Male Subject (Agency) ... explains Troy Male Subject (Agency) ... film he watches Male Subject (Agenc y ) ... girl he's taking ... Male Subject (Agency) ... l!llv plan a date Male Subject (Agency) ... l!llv who asked Male Subject (Agency) ... l!llv who had taken ... Male Subject (Agency) ... gu y who won't steal Male Subject (Agency) ... l!llv who's just trying ___ Male Subject (Agency) ... l!llvs acted Male Subject (Agency) ... l!llvs clue you in ... Male Subject (Agency) ... l!llvs don't blow off Male Subject ( Agency) ... l!llvs paying attention to Male Subject (Agency) ... l!llvs who quit Male Subject (Agency) Ma2azine Month Se ven teen March Teen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Teen March Teen March Se ve nteen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Teen March YM March Teen March YM March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Se ve nteen March Teen March YM March Teen March Se ve nteen March YM March YM March Teen March Teen March YM March Se ventee n March YM March Year 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 Pa2e 114 68 66 80 114 30 235 176 116 66 30 176 28 190 215 42 68 62 70 36 192 38 112 146 28 44 63 215 63 53 63 40 32 144 90 N --.J

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Data Example Discourse Catei!orv ... !!llvs who rock your world Male Subject ( Agencv) ... has Kemper ever used ... ? Male Subject < Ae.encv) ... has he made ... ? Male Subject (Agency) ... he admits Male Subject ( Agencv) ... he advises . Male Subject < Agencv) ... he agrees Male Subject ( Agencv) ... he aoolies ... Male Subject < Ae.encv) ... he asked ... Male Subject (Agencv) ... he asks Male Subject < Ae.encv) . he asks y ou out Male Subject (Agencv) . he asks y ou ... Male Subject ( Agencv) ... he asks ... Male Subject (Agencv) ... he begs you ... Male Subiect < Agencv) ... he begs ... Male Subiect ( Ae.encv) . he blew Male Subject (Agency) ... he broue.ht Male Subject ( Agencv) ... he bucks up ... Male Subject (Agencv) ... he busts Male Subject < Ae.encv) . he buys it Male Subject (Agencv) ... he called Male Subject ( Agencv) ... he calls Male Subject < Agencv) ... he calls you ... Male Subject ( Agencv) ... he claimed ... Male Subject ( Agencv) ... he comes out. .. Male Subject (Agencv) ... he compliments you Male Subiect ( Ae.encv) ... he continues ... Male Subject (Agencv) ... he cracked ... Male Subject ( Agencv) ... he danced . Male Subject (Agencv) ... he did ... Male Subject ( Ae.encv) ... he ditches hls dudes Male Subject < Agencv) ... he does Male Subject ( Agencv) . he does c hange ... Male Subject < Ae.encv) ... he does ... Male Subject (Agencv) ... he doesn't call her ... Male Subject ( Agencv) ... h e doesn't wear on e Male Subject (Agencv) Maeazine Month Teen February Seventeen March Teen March Teen March Seventeen March YM March Teen March Teen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Teen March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March YM March Year 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 Paee 4 224 56 56 216 40 38 28 52 32 114 82 114 82 52 70 188 43 42 63 50 80 215 42 32 2L_ 192 192 235 32 70 238 38 82 48 N -...J Vl

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Data Examole Discourse Cateeory ... he doesn't.. Male Subject (Agency) ... he draws Male Subject (Agency) . he dronned . Male Subject (Agency) ... he explains Male Subject (Agency) ... he filed ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he found the perfect wa y to show y ou how special [he thinks you are] Male Subject (Agency) ... he gets out Male Subject (Agency) ... he gives Male Subject (Agency) ... he go out... Male Subject (Agency) ... he grabs you Male Subject (Agency) ... he graffiti ed ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he hangs Male Subject (Agency) ... he hangs UP ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he hangs ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he hangs .. .. ........... Male Subject (Agency) ... he has shown Male Subject (Agency) ... he hasn't pressured ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he heads Male Subject (Agency) ... he hung ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he invited ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he is chilling ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he is going on ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he knows you from Male Subject (Agency) ... he laughs Male Subiect (Agency) ... he leans Male Subject (Agency) ... he learns Male Subject (Agenc y ) ... he lied ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he lives Male Subject (Agency) ... he loses his temoer Male Subject (Agency) ... he made Male Subject (Agency) ... he made ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he made ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he misses out Male Subject (Agencv) Maeazine Month Se v enteen March Teen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Se v enteen March Teen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March YM March Teen March Teen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March Year 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1 998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 Pa2e 82 38 216 43 216 38 44 43 30 148 235 66 80 82 116 43 153 63 235 28 80 80 42 68 38 176 82 57 146 53 80 63 42 N -.J

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Data Examole Discourse Cateiwrv ... h e now regards you in a more girlfriend worth y light Male Subiect (A gen cv) ... he nurtures v our growth Male Sub jec t (Agency) ... he ooens up Male Subject (Agency) ... he ooens up ........ Male Subject (Agency) ... he owns uo Male Subject (Agency) ... he oaints Male Subject (Agency) ... he pa v s ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he oavs ...... Male Subject (Agency) ... he olants ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he plays ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he oressures vou Male Subject (Agenc y ) ... he quits Male Subject (Agency) ... he read m v diary Male SuQject (Agenc v ) ... he remember e d Male Subject (Agency) ... he replies Male Subject (Agency) ... he rolls his eves ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he said yes ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he said ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he saves ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he savs Male Subject (Agency) ... he says (6 times) Male Subject (Age n cy) ... he sa v s hi Male Subject (Agency) ... he says .. Male Subject (Agency) ... he says ... Male Subiect (Agency) ... he savs ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he says .... Male Subject (Agency) ... he savs .... Male Subject (Agency) ... he says .. .. .. Male Subject (Agency) ... he sa vs ....... Male Subject (Agency) ... he says ...... .. Male Subject (Agency) ... he set ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he showed ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he slips Male Subject (Agency) ... he snelled it out Male Subject (Agency) ... he soends with her Male Subject (Agency) Maeazine Month YM March Teen March YM March Teen February YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Teen March Seventeen March Se ven teen March YM March Teen February YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Teen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Teen March YM March Teen February Year 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1 998 1998 1998 1 998 1 998 2000 Paee 32 70 63 59 46 63 188 52 38 224 146 40 3 48 43 224 82 192 58 60 42 42 82 82 216 238 238 224 224 238 235 235 70 38 36 N -...J -...J

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Data Example Discourse Cate1rnrv ... he stands alone Male Subject (Agency) ... he starts asking you Male Subject (Agency) . he still chills Male Subject (Agency) ... he still plans Male Subject (Agency) ... he still talks ... Male Sullject (Agency) ... he still wears Male Subject (Agency) ... he stops by Male Subject (Agency) ... he swallows ... Male Subject (Agency) . he swears ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he talked to ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he talks to you Male Subject (Agency) . he tells you Male Subject (Agency) ... he tells you ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he took .. Male Subject (Agency) ... he tosses Male Subject (Agency) ... he treats you ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he utters Male Subject (Agency) ... he was saving ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he was ... fighting ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he wears Male Subject (Agency) ... he went. .. Male Subject (Agency) ... he went... Male Subject (Agency) ... he won Male Subject (Agency) ... he won't even talk ... Male Sullject (Agency) ... he won't talk to her Male Subject (Agency) ... he wows you Male Sullject (Agency) ... he wows you . Male Subject (Agency) ... he writes Male Subject (Agency) ... he'd do ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he'd fasten ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he'll be hanging out Male Subject (Agency) ... he'll call ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he'll change ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he'll have ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he'll probably keep ... Male Subject (Agency) Maeazine Month Teen February Seventeen March YM March Teen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March YM March Teen March Teen March Teen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seven teen March Teen February Seventeen March Teen February YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Year 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 Paee 59 146 36 58 82 44 32 80 216 82 66 32 66 38 66 82 43 235 216 40 215 216 43 80 3 63 63 62 216 235 42 238 82 224 82 N -....J 00

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Data Examole Discourse Cate2:orv ... he'll see right thought it Male Subject ( Agency) ... he'll then honefullv log in Male Subiect (Agencv) ... he'll try ... Male Subject (Agency) ... he'll wait Male Subject ( Agencv) ... he's aced ... Male Subiect
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Data Examole Discourse Cateeorv ... he ... utters ... Male Subject (Agency) ... her boyfriend manages ... Male Subject (Agency) ... her boyfriend suspects ... Male Subiect (Ao:ency) .. him holding another girls hand ... Male Subject (Agency) ... him to help vou Male Subject (Agencv) ... his father built ... Male Subject (Agency) ... how he made vou feel like ... Male Subject (Agencv) ... husband who will iruarantee her membership Male Subject (Agencv) ... if he acts annoved Male Subject (Agencv) ... if he came over Male Subject (Agencv) .. .if he changes Male Subject (Agency) .. .if he chooses Male Subject (Agencv) .. if he commented Male Subject (Agency) .. .if he does call Male Subiect (Agencv) .. .if he doesn't make ... Male Subject (Agency) ... if he offers you .. Male Subject (Agencv) ... if he shares .. Male Subject (Agency) ... if he's making ... Male Subject (Agencv) ... if he's putting Male Subject (Agency) ... if he's seen ... Male Subject (Agencv) . if my ex crawled Male Subject (Agen cy ) .. .if my stepdad came Male Subject (Agency) .. .if you're friehtened by the bov Male Subject (Agency) ... if vour boyfriend has accompanied you Male Subject (Agencv) .. if your boyfriend's not.. .inviting you ... Male SlJhject (Agency) .. .is he trving ... ? Male Subject (Agencv) .. kids .. who kidnap ... Male Subject (Agency) .. .lots of e:uvs show Male Subiect (Agencv) ... one guy vomited. .. Male Subject (Agency) ... one e:uv who stole ... Male Subject (Agency) ... or f does hel smile ... ? Male Subject (Agency) ... or fhel is just SQUeezing Male Subject (Agencv) ... or fhel made Male Subject (Agency) ... or fhe] tries to make vou ... Male Subject (Agencv) ... recommends Stephen Male Subject (Agency) Maeazioe Month YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March YM March Se v enteen March YM March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March YM March Seventeen March Teen Februarv YM March YM March Teen March Teen March Se v enteen March Teen March YM March YM March YM Marc h YM March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Teen Februarv Teen March Seventeen March Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Teen March YM March Seventeen March Teen Februarv Year 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 Paee 63 80 114 80 44 225 38 172 84 44 84 36 44 63 30 38 82 30 64 62 62 71 146 172 36 30 176 44 216 235 43 66 32 84 44 N 00 0

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Data Example Discourse Cate2orv Ma2azioe ... savs Adam Male Subject (Agencv) Teen ... sa y s Andrew Rassej ... Male Subject (Agency) Se v enteen ... sa v s Atckinson ... Male Subject (Agencv) Seventeen ... says Chris B Male Subject (Agency) Teen ... savs Cole Male Subject (Agenc y ) Teen ... says Damien Male Subject (Agencv) Teen ... savs Douglass Ross .. Male Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... says Gary Mar x ... Male Subject (Agencv) Seventeen ... says Jason ... Male Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... savs John King ... Male Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... says Kemoer.. Male Sul,ject (Agencv) Seventeen ... savs Lo1ran Male Subject (Agency) Teen ... sa y s Logan ... Male Subject (Agenc v ) Teen ... savs Mike (2 times) Male Subject (Agency) Teen ... says Nick Rabkin ... Male Subject (Agencv) Seventeen ... savs Rabkin Male Subject (Agency) Seventeen . says Richard ... Male Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... sa y s Stephen (3 times) Male Subject (Agency) Teen ... savs Trov Scheid Male Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... says William ... Male Subject (Agency) Se v enteen ... savs Zack Hines Male Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... so he'll definitel y go Male Sut,ject ( Al!encv) Teen ... su1?.1?.est Robinson Male Subject (Agency ) Teen ... superintendent Rav Simon called Male Subiect (Agency) Se v enteen ... sweetie can't stop flirting Male Subject (Agencv) YM ... sweetie probably doesn't socialize Male Subject (Agency) YM ... that crack he made Male Sul,ject (Agencv) YM ... that he does ... Male Subject (Agen cy ) Se v enteen ... the gu y who lends Male Sul,ject (Agencv) YM ... the e;uv ... started dating Male Subject (Agency) Teen ... the personalitv he fronts to get girls Male Subject (Agencv) Teen ... then [hel calls Male Subject (Agencv) Teen ... then fhe] changes Male Subject (Agency) Teen ... then [hel keeos talking Male Subject (Agency) YM ... then he meets ... Male Subject (Agency) Seventeen Month Year March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 Februarv 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 February 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 February 2000 Februarv 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 Pa2e 36 174 216 117 117 16 174 217 224 174 224 60 61 44 118 114 192 44 112 181 225 30 36 217 64 63 62 82 48 38 58 66 68 43 176 N 00 -

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Data Example Discourse Cateimrv ... these ... babes will show up Male Subject (Agenc y ) ... thev find Male Subject (Agency) ... they'd say ... Male Subject (Agency) ... this ... creater exnends Male Subject (Agenc y ) ... this model's soorting it Male Subject (Agency) ... this ... man would go out ... Male Subject (Agency) ... three boyfriends to dress their girlfriends Male Subject (Agency) ... to shy to notice you Male Subject (Agency) ... we swear Male Subject (Agency) ... what he does ... Male Subject (Agency) . what he says ... Male Subject (Agency) ... what he's been doing Male Subject (Agency) ... what they said Male Subject (Agency) ... what totally cool move has your lffiV made Male Subject (Agency) ... what you (m) did ... Male Subject (Agenc y ) ... when a sweet snack walks by Male Subject (Agency) ... when he asks you ... Male Subject (Agency) ... when he tells you Male Subject (Agency) ... when they're together.. Male Subject (Agency) ... when you (m) do this ... Male Subject (Agency) ... who lurks ... Male Subject (Agency) . who worked on the study Male Subject (Agency) ... who'll treat you Male Subject (Agency) ... who's (m) staying ... Male Subject (Agency) ... who's not firing Male Subject (Agency) ... why he did Male Subject (Agency) ... why he still wows you Male Subject (Agency) ... why he wows you Male Subject (Agency) ... why he wows you ... Male Subject (Agency) ... why he wows you ... Male Subject (Agency) ... you (m) always do ... Male Subject (Agency) ... you romeo raves Male Subject ( Agency) ... YOU1re (m) going to be stealing ... Male Subject (Agency) ... your boy ... acts Male Subject (Agency) ... vour boyfriend chose you ... Male Subject (Agency) Ma2azine Month YM March YM March Teen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Teen February YM March Se v enteen March YM March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Teen March Year 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 Pa2e 8 32 63 63 66 153 57 62 63 114 l 14 63 43 38 114 44 112 68 82 112 174 114 116 112 62 58 63 63 62 63 114 44 114 64 30 N 00 N

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory ... vour boyfriend is trying to make y ou jealous ... Male Subject (Agency) ... your boyfriend talks about Male Subject (Agency) ... YOUr boyfriend will ... Male Subject (Agency) ... your crush walks by Male Subject (Agency) ... vour date arrives Male Subject (Agency) ... y our dude invites you Male Subject ( Agency) ... your ex read Male Subject (Agency) ... your ex snu!!!!ling with y our sister.. Male Subject (Agency) ... your friend (m) calls ... Male Subject (Agency) ... vour guy olay baseball Male Subject (Agency) ... your guv talk to other girls ? Male Subject (Agenc v) ... vour guy will notice y ou ... Male Subject (Agency) ... your main squeeze is nurturing Male Subject (Agency) ... v our signifcant other congratulates Male Subject (Agency) ... y our sister's hot !!UY friend ... asks you . Male Subject (Agency) .. and fhel invites y ou Male Subject (Agency) . he asks you Male Subject (Agency) .. he leans over Male Subject (Agency) 6 Clues he's noticed you Male Subject (Agency) A teacher f malel makes me uneasy ... Male Subject (Agency) Any !!UV who tries to make you ... Male Subject (Agency) Bill says Male Subject (Agency) Brave !!llvs bite the bullet.. Male Subject (Agency) Damon Albam celebrates Male Subject (Agency) Guvs absorb space . Male SuQject (Agency) Guys reveal... Male Subject (Agency) Have v ou ever gi v en in ... ? Male SuQjecl (Agency) He sa v s ............................................. Male Subject (Agency) Jackson Loo ... points to Male Subiect (Agency) Jimmy Jones ... who held up Male Subject (Agency) Johnn y Atckinson ... revealed ... Male Subject (Agency) Jones reconsidered Male SuQject (Agency) Jones ... allowed Male Subject (Agency) Mark made Male Subject (Agency) M v beau sells not... Male Subject (Agency) Ma2azine Month Teen February Seventeen March Teen March YM March Teen March Teen March Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February Teen March Seventeen March Teen March Teen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March YM March YM March YM March Teen March Teen March Seventeen March Teen March Teen March YM March Seventeen March Year 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 Pa2e 36 146 30 44 108 66 44 80 114 36 30 192 66 68 44 44 46 52 32 20 53 239 28 26 241 0 41 44 60 119 215 119 119 70 20 N 00 I.,..)

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory My ex r male I killed himself. .. Male Subject (Agency) Paul noticed f me] ... Male Subject (Agency) Sergio starts ... Male Subject (Agency) This guy is acting Male Subject (Agency) What he did ... Male Subject (Agency) your birthday? Tell us how he made you feel like the ultimate birthday girl. Male Subject (Agency) Your ... man tells you Male Subject (Agency) fhel doesn't make Male Subject (Agency) fhel offers Male Subject (Agency) almost every guv told us .. Male Subject (Agency) and fhel does ... Male Subject (Agency) any signals he's sending you Male Subject (Agency) dad took over Male Subject (Agency) did you decide . Male Sul)ject (Agency) does he ask ... ? Male Subject (Agency) he didn't quit... Male Subject (Agency) he found the perfect way to show you how special he thinks you are Male Subject (Agency) he got married Male Subject (Agency) he grabs you Male Subject (Agency) he has crossed a line Male Subject (Agency) he helps share Male Subject (Agency) he holds his hands Male Subject (Agency) he says (6 times) Male Subject (Agency) he says something rude Male Subject (Agency) he says ... Male Subject (Agency) he tells ... Male Sul)ject (Agency) he told me ... Male Subject (Agency) he tries to boss you Male Sul)ject (Agency) he'll be sneaking Male Subject (Agency) he'll resoect you Male Sul)ject ( Agency) he's acting Male Subject (Agency) he's coue.hing less Male Subject (Agency) Ma2azine Month Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March Teen March Teen March Teen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Se v enteen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March Year 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 Paee 20 20 57 53 84 38 44 43 68 40 58 146 239 63 43 239 38 238 146 146 238 241 43 84 52 235 235 146 241 63 36 40 N 00

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Data Example Discourse CatPOorv he's decided ... Male Subject (Agencv) he's doing Male Subject ( Ae.encv) he's doing .... Male Subject < Agency) he's teaching me Male Subiect (Agencv) he's trying Male Subject < Ae.encv) if he brags Male Subiect ( Agencv) if he shows up ... to find you ... Male Subiect < Ae:encv) no ruvs naid attention to me . Male Subject (Agencv) teenager who yearns . Male Subiect ( Ae.encv) the boyfriend had gone Male Subject < Agencv) the l!.UV .. disses ... Male Subiect ( Agencv) whv he wows y ou Male Subiect < Ae.encv) y ou're doing now Male Subiect (Agencv) your bro's hoeJ?.ing Male Subject ( Ae.encv) your crush calls ... Male Subject (Agencv) y our crush just made Male Subject < Agencv) your cute neil!.hbor introduces y ou Male Subiect < Ae.encv) y our date arrives Male Subject (Agencv) y our dude agrees ... Male Subject < Ae.encv) your guy sue:e:ests Male Subject ( Agencv) your ruv tries to sway you Male Subject < Ae.encv) ...... and he knows Male Subject (Agencv Mental Process) .... and rhe] remembers Male Subiect (Ae.encv Mental Process) ... fhe l who thinks r females were out on earth ... 1 Male Subject (Ageocv Mental Process) ... as well as [he was1 thinking ... Male Subject (Agencv Mental Process) ... brother thoul!.ht ... Male Subject (Al!encv Mental Process) ... dude thinks Male Subiect ( Ae.encv Mental Process) ... !!UV who knows Male Subject (Agency Mental Process) ... he doesn't real iz e ... Male Subject ( Ae.encv Mental Process ) ... he knew it... Male Subject (Ae.encv Mental Process) ... he knew the real y ou Male Subject ( Agency Mental Process) ... he knew ... Male Subiect (Ae.eocv Mental Process) ... he realized Male Subject (Agencv Mental Process) ... he recognizes ... Male Subject (Ae:encv Mental Process) ... he thinks you are Male Subject (Agencv Mental Process) Maeazine Month Seventeen March YM March Teen Februarv YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Sev enteen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen March Teen March YM March YM March YM March YM March Sev enteen March Teen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Teen March Teen March YM March Teen March Teen March Teen March YM March Year 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 page 80 59 44 71 53 146 80 71 189 238 44 62 92 44 44 44 44 108 68 44 53 91 42 84 56 235 36 32 28 38 44 28 56 30 38 N 00 Vl

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Data Example Discourse Cate1wrv ... he understands Male Subject (Agency Mental Process) ... he's thinking ... Male Subject (Agency Mental Process) ... slimy iruvs know this Male Subject (Agency Mental Process) ... stud thinks Male Subject (Agency Mental Process) ... this iruv resoects you ... Male Subject (Agency Mental Process) . what do you think Male Subject (Agency Mental Process) ... who he thinks . Male Subject (Agency Mental Process) . vour boyfriend thinks ... Male Subject (Ag ency Mental Process) he'll know Male Subject (Agency Mental Process) ... Jason . received ... Male Subject (Benefactive) ... and [Zach] has received ... Male Subject ffienefactive) ... he gets ... Male Subject (Benefactive) ... he e:ets . from vou Male Subject (Benefactive) ... he'll get the v ibe Male Subject (Benefactive) ... he'll Ct. . Male Subject (Benefactive) ... this actor gets our stamp . Male Subject ffienefactive) Isidrio's received Male Subject (Benefactive) ... Do iruvs really prefer y ou to wear Male Subject rExneriencer) . Does he feel...? Male Subject (Experiencer) .. .Isidro . and some buds . seem Male Subject (Exneriencer) ... Mark was into ... Male Subject
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Data Example Discourse Catee:orv Maeazine ... he believes . Male Subject (Experiencer) Seventeen . he best likes ... (5 times) Male Subject (Exoeriencer) Teen ... he can't see Male Subject (Experiencer) YM ... he cares about y ou Male Subject CExoeriencer) YM ... he cares .. Male Subject (Exoeriencer) Teen ... he cares ... Male Subject (Experiencer) Teen ... he digs Male Subject CExoeriencer) Teen ... he does not need ... Male Subject (Experiencer) Seventeen . he does want. .. Male Subject (Exoeriencer) Teen ... he doesn't get. .. Male Subject (Experiencer) Seventeen . he doesn't lo ve y ou Male Subject (Experiencer) YM ... he doesn't want. .. Male Subject (Experiencer) Teen ... he exoects ... Male Subject (Exoerience r) Seventeen ... he feels Male Subject (Exoeriencer) Teen ... he feels . Male Subject (Exoeriencer) Teen ... he feels ..... Male Subject (Exoeriencer) Teen ... he feels .... ... Male Subject (Experiencer) Teen ... he felt ... Male Subject (Exoeriencer) Seventeen ... he isn't into y ou Male Subject (Experiencer) YM ... he knows ... Male Subject (Exoeriencer) Seventeen ... he liked ... Male Subject (Exneriencer) Seventeen . he liked ..... Male Subject (Exoeriencer) Seventeen ... he liked ... ... Male Subject (Exoeriencer) Seventeen ... h e likes Male Subject (Experiencer) Teen ... he likes ha vi ng . Male Subject (Exoeriencer) Seventeen ... he likes you Male Subject (Exoeriencer) Teen ... he likes you Male Subject (Exoeriencer) YM ... he likes y ou ... Male Subject (Experie ncer) Teen ... he likes vou ....... Male Subject (Experiencer) YM ... he likes ... Male Subject (Exneriencer) Seventeen ... he loves Male Subject (Experiencer) Teen ... he loves ...... . . . ... Male Subject (Exoeriencer) YM ... he lo ves .. ...... .... ... . . Male Subject (Experiencer) YM ... he must ha ve seen Male Subject (Exneriencer) YM . he n eeds you more Male Subject (Experiencer) Teen Month Year March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 February 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 Paee 82 59 44 64 30 30 49 84 30 82 48 36 82 44 30 30 30 215 43 224 235 235 235 59 153 44 52 30 64 82 58 44 116 32 68 N 00 -..J

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Data Example Discourse Catee:ory ... he needs you ... Male Subject (Exoeriencer) ... he no longer cares ... Male Subject (Experiencer) ... he really does want Male Subject ffixneriencer) ... he seems conscious Male Subject (Experiencer) ... he seems to have Male Subject (Exneriencer) ... he seems . Male Subject (Exoeriencer) ... he sees Male Subject (Exneriencer) ... he staved cool... Male SuQject (Exoeriencer) ... he suffers Male Subject ffixoeriencer) ... he wanted ... Male Subject (Exneriencer) ... he wants Male Subject (Exoeriencer) ... he wants to ... Male Subject (Exneriencer) ... he wants vou to be Male Subject (Exoeriencer) ... he wants ... Male Subject (Exneriencer) . he wants ... ........... .... Male Subject (Exoeriencer) ... he wishes Male Subject (Exneriencer) ... he'd be into you Male Subject (Exoeriencer) . he'd get angry Male Subject (Exneriencer) ... he'll exnect vou Male Subject (Exoeriencer) ... he'll feel Male Subject (Exneriencer) ... he'll love knowing Male Subject (Exoeriencer) ... he'll probabl y feel Male Subject (Experiencer) ... he'll think you're ps y cho Male Subject (E x oeriencer) ... he's also enjoying . Male Subject (Exneriencer) ... he's feeling . Male Subject (Exoeriencer) ... he's freaked Male Subject ffixoeriencer) ... he's going to feel... Male Subject (Exoeriencer) ... he's going to get. .. Male Subject (Exneriencer) ... he's gonna like ... Male Subject (Exoeriencer) ... he's into you Male Subject (Exneriencer) ... he's into vou ... Male Subject (Exoeriencer) . he's into . Male Subject ffi x neriencer) ... he's not crazy about. .. Male Subject (Exoeriencer) ... he's not into ... Male Subject ffixneriencer) . he's totall y insecure about letting y ou go . Male Subject (Exneriencer) Mae:azine Month Seventeen March Teen March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Teen Februarv Seventeen March Teen March YM March Teen March YM March YM March YM March Teen March YM March YM March Teen March YM March Teen February Teen March Teen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Teen March Teen March Seventeen March Teen March Year 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 Paee 82 30 46 32 42 153 38 82 59 192 38 52 70 78 44 43 68 71 116 68 44 44 40 28 153 36 80 114 112 70 153 49 68 84 70 N 00 00

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Data Example Discourse Cate1wrv . he's totall y into ... Male Subject rExner i e ncer) ... he . need Male Subiect
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Data Examole Discourse Catei:wry he probably feels Male Subject
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Data Examole Discourse Cate1mrv ... he could have Male Subject (Modal) ... he could keep up Male Subject (Modal) ... he could ... Male Subiect
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Data Exam1>le Discourse Catel!orv he ma v try to Male Subject (Modal) hollies can fit Male Subject (Modal) one might ask Male Subject
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Data Example Discourse Cate2orv ... he's hitched to ... Male Subject (Passive) ... he's pictured Male Subject (Passive) ... the Hero is most drawn Male Subject (Passive) ... who is invited ... Male Subject (Passive) .... he has . Male Subject (Possessive) ... Charlie had ... Male Subject (Possessive) ... He's got a girlfriend ... Male Subiect
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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory ... boy did not have to ... Male Subject (Volitional) ... brother had to ... Male Subject (Volitional) ... he doesn't ha v e to ask y ou .. Male Subject (Volitional) ... he had to . Male Subject (Volitional) ... he has lots to learn Male Subject (Volitional) ... he has to want to Male Subject (Volitional) ... he has to ... Male Sul:>ject (Volitional) ... he must. .. Male Subject (Volitional) ... he should feel Male Sul:>ject (Volitional) ... he should quit Male Subject (Volitional) ... he should want Male Subject (Volitional) ... he's _gotta Male Subject (Volitional) ... he's gotta brush Male Subject (Volitional) .. he's _gotta cruise Male Subject (Volitional) ... if he has to Male Subject (Volitional) ... you need time Male Subject (Volitional) Dad who had to .. Male Subject (Volitional) .... Keanu* leaves Male Star Subject (Agency) .... he* reached Male Star Subject (A_gencv) .... he* says Male Star Subject (Agency) ... Antonio* . _gav e his ... Male Star Subject (A_gencv) ... Backstreet Boys* oerform ... Male Star Subject (Agency) ... Billie* insists ... Male Star Subject (A_gencv) ... Bill y Crudup* will make ... Male Star Sul:>ject (Agency) ... Billy's bud* hasn't ... Male Star Subject (A_gencv) ... Billy's* taking ... Male Star Sul:>ject (Agency) . Billy* did ... Male Star Subject (A_gencv) ... Bret* sa y s ... Male Star Subject (Agency) ... Brie:e:s* has been acting Male Star Subject (A_gencv) ... Carson* doesn't dress like ... Male Star Subject (Agency) ... Carson* puts it... Male Star Subject (A_gencv) ... Carson* says ... Male Star Sul:>ject (Agenc y ) ... Casner* writes ... Male Star Subject (A_gencv) ... Chris* appointed Male Star Subject (Agency) ... Chris* emphasizes Male Star Subject (A_gencv) Ma2azine Month Se v enteen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March YM March Seventeen March Teen March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March Teen February YM March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Teen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Teen March YM March YM March Year 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 Pa2e 217 235 80 216 70 40 112 48 52 84 53 63 40 42 53 46 239 30 28 57 124 36 44 176 176 49 49 30 192 84 84 84 48 79 79 N \0

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Data Example Discourse Cateeory ... Chris"' exnlains Male Star Subiecl (Agencv) ... Chris has found ... Male Star Subject (Agency) ... Chris hones ... Male Star Subiect (Agencv) ... Chris says Male Star Subject (Agency) ... Chris ... shows off ... Male Star Subject (Agency) ... Christopher recommends Male Star Subject (Agencv) ... Cott admits ... Male Star Subject (Agency) ... Cott confesses to double standards ... Male Star Subject (Agencv) ... Cott has never asked a girl... Male Star Subject (Agency) ... DC was battling Male Star Subject (Agencv) ... Dallas phones ... Male Star Subject (Agencv) ... Daniel savs Male Star Subject (Agency) ... Darren walked by Male Star Subject (Agencv) ... Desi1mer Max Aria la yered .. Male Star Subject (Agency) ... Do you do Male Star Subject (Agency) ... Don savs ... Male Star Subject (Agency) ... Donald plays ... Male Star Subject (Agency) ... Dustin Hoffman showed up ... Male Star Subject (Agency) ... Enter Dawson* ... Male Star Subject (Agency) ... Eric knows sign language Male Star Subject (Al?.encv) ... Ethan is riding ... Male Star Subject (Agencv) ... Fred Durst ... who directs ... Male Star Subject (Agencv) ... Fred* savs ... Male Star Subject (Agency) ... Freddie* claims that... Male Star Subject (Agency) ... Harrv Anderson moved ... Male Star Subject (Agency) ... Hartnett did Male Star Subject (Agency) .. .I'm having Male Star Subject (Agency) .. .I'm* not going Male Star Subject (Agency) ... I'm* not guaranteeing Male Star Subject (Agency) ... I've* provided you Male Star Subject (Agency) .. .I* come Male Star Subject (Agencv) .. .I* come ... Male Star Subject (Agency) .. .I have Male Star Subject (Agency) .. .I* lost Male Star Subject (Agency) .. .JC* Joev Lance* and Justin* ha v e caught... Male Star Subject (Agency) Maeazine Month YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen Februarv Teen February YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February Teen March Teen February Teen February Teen Februarv Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Year 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 Paee 78 78 79 79 78 64 74 74 74 49 49 28 28 50 80 225 46 225 161 50 50 51 52 57 223 189 92 91 86 86 91 91 92 92 79 N VI

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Data Example Discourse Category Mrurnzine .. .James* replies ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen .. .James* sums up .. Male Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen . .James* who plays Male Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen .. .Jared Leto* played Male Star Subject (Agency) Teen .. .Jason* drove . Male Star SuQject (Agency) Se v enteen .. .Jim Carrey* plays ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Teen . .John* objects Male Star Subiect (Agency) YM .. .Jon Stewart* hosts ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Se v enteen .. .Josh* and James* take ... Male Star Subiect (Agency) Seventeen .. .Josh* considers ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen .. .Josh* is bouncing ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen .. .Josh* ... ookes ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Se v enteen . Keanu Reeves* rocks .. Male Star Subject (Agency) YM ... Kenny Smith* says ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Teen ... Kutcher* has been tearing Male Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... Lenny* wears Male Star SuQject (Agency) Seventeen ... Leo* dealt ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... Leo* got. .. Male Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... Leo* plays ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... Leonardo* .. had . Male Star Subject (Agency) YM ... Mark* quit Male Star Subject (Agency) Teen .. Marsden* manages to Male Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... Marsden* tells Male Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... Matt* who plays ... Male Star SuQject (Agency) Teen ... Matthew Lillard* costars ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Teen ... Matthew* ... and ... team up .. Male Star SuQject (Agency) Teen ... Matthew* olayed Male Star Subject (Agency) Teen ... McGregor* stars ... Male Star SuQject (Agency) Teen ... Mekhi* ... flirted with Male Star Subject (Agency) YM ... Michale Fields* gives ... Male Star SuQject (Agency) Seventeen ... Moe* says Male Star Subject (Agency) YM ... Mr. Fil?.ht* ... sinl!S . Male Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... Nelson* recommends Male Star Subject (Agency) Se venteen ... Ohlmeyer* says ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... Oscar de la Hoya* . oacks Male Star Subject (Agency) YM Month Year March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 Pa2e 161 161 161 49 236 29 28 174 161 161 161 161 30 118 190 252 174 174 174 124 53 192 182 53 49 50 49 51 69 161 92 176 148 225 12 N 0\

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Data Example Discourse Cateiwrv Ma2azine ... Pacev* puts ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... Pace y tells . Male Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... Paul Stupin* finds ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... Phifer* decided to join Male Star Subject (Agencv) Seventeen . Ricky* wears ... Male Star Subiect (Agericy) Teen ... Rob Thomas* ... and ... sizzle Male Star Subject (Agency) YM ... Rob* fanned Male Star Subject (Agencv) YM ... Rvan* is doing Male Star Subject (Agency) YM . Sammy* hugs . Male Star Subject (Agency) Teen . Saunders* savs Male Star Subject (Agency) YM . Savage Garden's* blooming ... Male Star Subject (Agency) YM . Seth* explains Male Star Subject (Agency) Teen ... Seth* once crafted Male Star Subject (Agency) Teen ... Skeet* still makes Male Star Subject (Agency) YM ... Steve Madden* is making . Male Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... Tarzan* finds out Male Star Subject (Agency) Teen . The actor* heats up . Male Star Subject (Agency) YM ... This stud* makes ..... Male Star Subject (Agency) YM .. .Though Colt* also lists ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen .. .Tom* says Male Star Subject (Agency) Teen ... Tvrese* reveals Male Star Subject (Agency) YM ... Tvrese* ... had the crowd ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... Tvson* ... won't stop Male Star Subject (Agency) YM ... Walken,* ... who proves ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... West* made good Male Star Subject ( Agency) Seventeen ... West* plays Eli Male Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... Why did vou* droP ... Male Star Subject (Agency) YM ... Will Friedle* ... grow up . Male Star Subject (Agency) Teen ... Will Friedle* who makes us smile Male Star Subject (Agency) YM ... Will* spills Male Star Subject (Agency) Teen ... Willis* returns ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Teen ... Wilmer Valderrama* gets around ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Teen .. .rBeck*l goes by ... Male Star Subject (Agency) YM ... rHanson*] goes bv Male Star Subject (Agency) YM ... IMattl* looked ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Teen Month March March March March February March March March Februarv March March February Februarv March March March March March March Februarv March March March March March March March March March March March February March March March ---Year Pa2e 1998 161 1998 161 1998 161 2000 190 2000 50 1998 12 1998 12 1998 70 2000 49 1998 40 1998 28 2000 55 2000 55 1998 68 2000 48 1998 48 1998 80 1998 78 2000 74 2000 55 2000 64 2000 162 1998 124 1998 176 2000 194 2000 194 2000 90 1998 54 1998 32 1998 54 1998 50 2000 29 1998 30 1998 30 1998 50 ---~ -N -..J

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Data Examole Discourse Cate2orv .. .rhe*l points out that Male Star Subiect ( Agenc y ) .. .fhe* I sa y s ... Male Star Subject {Agency) ... rhe* I will sit in . Male Star Subj e ct (Agenc y ) .. .rhel* learned ... Male Star Subject (Agen cy ) ... a coed* caught between . Male Star Subject (Agency) ... adds Christopher Blake Male Star Sut,ject (Agenc y ) ... admits the hunkv star* Male Star Subject (Agency) ... advises Richard Nelson* Male Star Subj e ct (Agency) ... and [Hanson* was] eating _ Male Star Subject (Agency) ... and rTom*l took out Male Star Sul:,ject (Agenc v ) ... and [guvs*I who send y our pulse into orbit Male Star Subject (Agency) ... and I he*l belts out... Male Star Sul:,ject (Agency) . and lhe*I decided ... Male Star Subject {Agen cy ) ... and I he*l pla y s . Male Star Subject (Agen cy ) ... and [he*l started making Male Star Subject (Agency) ... and lhe*l vows .. Male Star Subject (Agency) ... and [hel* morphs Male Star Subject (Agency) ... and lhel* mo v ed to Male Star Subject (Agenc y ) ... and [youl* translate Male Star Subject (Agency) ... and you* looking for Male Star Sul:,ject (Agency) ... are you* going to stick Male Star Subject {Agency) ... as Chris* began Male Star Sut,ject (Agency) ... as Seth* and ... do Male Star Subject (Agency) ... as be* ambled Male Star Subject (Agency) ... band* views ... Male Star Subject (Agency) ... bros* attempt... Male Star Subject (Agency) ... brothers* are doing ... Male Star Subject (Agency) ... brothers* do . Male Star Subject (Agency) ... but I* noticed Male Star Subject (Agen cy ) ... but lhe*l scores . Male Star Subject (Agency) ... but rthe actors*] work. .. Male Star Subject (Agenc y ) ... do y ou* kiss Male Star Subject (Agency) ... do y ou* write Male Star Subject (Agency) ... does he* still pla y Male Star Subject (Agency) ... drummer* has ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Ma2azine Month Se v ente e n March Teen March Te e n February Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February Teen February Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Teen February Teen March YM March Sevente e n March YM March YM March Teen March YM March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Teen March Teen March Teen March Teen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Teen March Teen March Year 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 Pa2e 148 48 51 49 194 124 189 148 50 55 52 161 236 48 55 50 75 192 92 89 54 79 172 160 44 50 50 53 86 161 161 67 92 49 44 N 00

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Data Examole Discourse Cate2ory Maeazine ... dude* ... tops Male Star Subject (Agencv) YM ... dudes* jam Male Star Subject (Agency) YM ... explains Dr. Rainer* Male Star Subject (Agency) YM ... explains Kevin Creegan* Male Star Sul:,ject (Agency) Seventeen ... explains Michael* Male Star Subject (Agencv) YM ... explains Rickv* Male Star Subject (Agencv) Teen ... guvs* who make your knees weak Male Star Subject (Agency) Teen ... have you* ever been in Male Star Subject (Agencv) YM ... he'll* give fans ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Teen ... he'll* soon star Male Star Subject (Agencv) YM ... he's* done it .. Male Star Sul:,ject (Agency) Seventeen ... he's* not pla y ing Male Star Subject (Agencv) YM ... he's* racing ... Male Star Sul:,ject ( Agencv) Seventeen ... he's* still pla vi ng ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Teen ... he* acted Male Star Subject (Agencv) Teen ... he* admits Male Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... he* admits ... Male Star Subject (Agencv) Seventeen ... he* admits ..... Male Star Subject (Agency) Teen ... he* admitted ... Male Star Subject (Agencv) Seventeen ... he* anoears Male Star Sul:,ject (Agency) Seventeen ... he* belongs ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Teen ... he* chinned ... Male Star Subject (Agencv) Teen ... he* chinned ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Teen ... he* continues Male Star Subject (Agency) YM ... he* couldn't fi!?llfe out Male Star Sul:,ject (Agency) YM ... he* created Male Star Subject (Agencv) YM ... he* decided ... Male Star Sul:,ject (Agencv) Seventeen ... he* decided . .... Male Star Subject (Agencv) YM ... he* did Male Star Sul:,ject (Agency) Teen ... he* did ...... Male Star Subject (Agency) Teen ... he* does Male Star Subject (Agencv) Teen ... he* does have .. Male Star Sul:,ject (Agency) Teen ... he* does ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Teen ... he* embraces Male Star Subject (Agencv) YM ... he* explains Male Star Subject (Agency) YM Month Year March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 February 2000 February 2000 March 2000 February 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 Paee 70 30 36 124 46 50 52 90 56 69 74 68 176 53 46 190 161 56 174 192 50 48 48 46 28 114 236 78 49 55 49 45 45 75 79 N '-0

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Data Example Discourse Cate1wrv . he* flies awa y Male Star Subject (Agenc y ) . he* found out Male Star Subject (Agency) ... he* gave you* Male Star Subject (Agency) ... he* gives us Male Star Subject (Agency) . he* graduated Male Star Subject (Agency) . he* l!llest starred . Male Star Subject (Agency) ... he"' gushes . Male Star Subject (Agencv) . he* hangs Male Star Subject (Agency) ... he* inherited Male Star Subject (Agencv) ... he"' isn't dabbling Male Star Subject (Agency) ... he* joined Male Star Subject (Agency) ... he* jokes ... Male Star Subject (Agency) ... he* joshes . Male Star Subject (Agency) . he* jumoed ... Male Star Subject (Agency) . he* kept things lively Male Star Subject (Agency) ... he* lives with his girlfriend Male Star Subject (Agency) ... he* makes Male Star Subject (Agency) ... he* met Male Star Subject (Agency) ... he* nabbed Male Star Subject (Agency) ... he* plans Male Star Subject (Agency) ... he* olavs Male Star Subject (Agency) ... he* quios ... Male Star Subject (Agency) ... he* ran Male Star Subject (Agency) ... he* recalls Male Star Subject (Agency) ... he* said ... Male Star Subject (Agency) ... he* saw Male Star Subject (Agency) ... he* saw ... Male Star Subject (Agency) ... he* says Male Star Subject ( Agency) ... he* savs Male Star Subject (Agency) . he* says .. Male Star Subiect (Agency) ... he* sav s ... Male Star Subject (Agency) ... he* say s ... Male Star Subject (Agency) . he* says ... Male Star Subject (Agency) ... he* says .... Male Star Subiect (Agency) ... he* savs .... Male Star Subject (Agency) Ma2azine Month YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen March Teen March Seventeen March Teen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March YM March Seventeen March Teen February YM March YM March Teen March YM March Teen March Teen March Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February Teen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Year 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 Pa2e 78 28 94 92 49 50 84 49 92 79 192 74 45 28 190 53 79 30 49 79 49 45 55 194 174 192 192 50 45 44 84 161 161 161 74 w 0 0

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Data Examole Discourse Cate1wrv ... he* says ... . Male Star Subiect ( Ae.encv) ... he* says . . . Male Star Subiect (Agencv) ... he* says ...... Male Star Subiect ( Ae.encv) ... he* says .. ...... Male Star Subject (Agencv) ... he* says . . . . ... Male Star Subiect ( Ae.encv) ... he* says ..... ...... Male Star Subiect < Ae.encv) ... he* says . . ...... . ..... Male Star Subject ( Agencv) ... he* says . .... . . .. ... ..... Male Star Subiect < Ae.encv) ... he* shares . Male Star Subiect (Agencv) ... he* sie..ned Male Star Subiect ( Ae.encv) ... he* soends Male Star Subject (Agencv) ... he* spends ... Male Star Subiect ( Ae.encv) ... he* soent some time Male Star Subject < Ae.encv) . he* snorts 'em Male Star Subiect (Agencv) ... he* still took time M a le Star Subiect < Agencv) ... he* stretches Male Star Subiect (Agencv) ... he* tried Male Star Subiect (Ae.encv) ... he* wa tched . Male Star Subiect < Ae.encv) ... he* went Male Star Subiect ( Agencv) . he* wore . Male Star Subiect < Ae.encv) . he* wouldn't have gotten there . Male Star Subiect (Agencv) ... host dishes Male Star Subiect < Agencv) . .laughs Dennis* . Male Star Subiect (Ae.encv) ... men* who out. . Male Star Subiect (Agencv) ... native* . grew up ... Male Star Subiect < Ae.encv) . or fhe's*l romancing ... Male Star Subiect (Agencv) ... our.. sweetheart* makes . Male Star Subiect ( Ae.encv) ... oromises Dr. Ramos* Male Star Subiect (Agencv) . rapper* who snells ... Male Star Subiect < Agen cv) ... rebel* who . battles ... Male Star Subiect (Agencv) . said Stewart* .. Male Star Subiect (Agencv) ... says Bie.e.s* Male Star Subiect ( Ae.encv) . says Bie.e.s* .. . Male Star Subiect (Agencv) ... says Blake* Male Star Subiect ( Ae.encv) ... says Brad* Male Star Subiect (Agencv) Ma2azine Month Seventeen March Teen March Teen March YM March YM March YM March Teen February Teen February Seventeen March YM March Teen March Se ve nteen March Se ve nteen March YM March Teen February Teen March YM March Teen Februarv Teen March Teen March YM March Seventeen March Se ve nteen March Teen March Teen March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March Teen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Year 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 Pa2e 225 49 44 28 30 79 55 56 161 114 45 12 189 124 49 49 28 56 49 48 67 12 223 48 49 176 70 36 124 45 44 192 192 124 160 w 0 ......

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory ... says Brent* Male Star Subject (A_gency ) . says Chris* Male Star Subiect ( Agency) ... says Danny* Male Star Subject (Agency) . says David Feinberg* Male Star Subject (A_gency ) ... says Earl Mindell* Male Star Subject (Agency) ... saYS Eric* Male Star Subject (A_gency) . says Gordon* Male Star SuQject (Agency) ... says Hartnett* Male Star Subject (A_gency) ... says Howard Simom* Male Star Subiect (Agency) ... says Jackson* Male Star Subject (A_gency) ... says Jeremy* Male Star Subject (Agency) ... says Jerrv Moe* Male Star Subject (Agency) ... says John* . Male Star Subject (A_gency) ... savs Josh Jackson* . Male Star Subject (Agency) . says Kutcher* Male Star Subject (A_gency) ... says Mark Anders Male Star SuQject (Agency) ... says Marsden* Male Star Subject (A_gency) ... says Michale Gurian* Male Star SuQject (Agency) ... says Moe* (2 times) Male Star Subject (A_gency) ... says Nick* Male Star Subject (Agency) ... says Scott* ... Male Star Subject (A_gency) ... says Seth* Male Star SuQject (Agency) ... says Shane Murphy* Male Star Subject (A_gency) ... says bandrnate Craig* Male Star Subject (A_gency) ... savs the 25-year-old actor* Male Star Subject (Agency) ... stud* makes us wanna ... Male Star Subiect (A_gency) ... student* who _graduated Male Star Subject (Agency) ... svlist Mark Garrison* suggests .. Male Star Subject (Agency) ... the ... actor* now lives Male Star Subject (A_gency) ... the ... star* wiUjoin Male Star Subiect (Agency) ... the TRL host* snent. .. Male Star Subject (A_gency) ... the VJ* dishes Male Star Subject (A_gency) . the actor* hails ... Male Star Subject (Agency) ... the actors* live ... Male Star Subiect (Agency) ... the frontman . retc .1* don't swallow Male Star Subject (Agency) Mae:azioe Month YM March YM March Teen February Teen February YM March Teen February YM March Se v enteen March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Teen February Se v enteen March Teen February YM March Teen February Se vent een March YM March Teen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Teen Februa ry YM March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Teen March Year 1998 20 0 0 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 20 0 0 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2 000 2000 1998 20 0 0 1998 20 0 0 1998 20 0 0 2000 1998 1998 20 0 0 20 0 0 2000 2000 2000 20 0 0 1998 1998 Pae:e 4 0 79 50 38 26 5 0 104 189 66 36 236 92 236 160 190 124 192 4 6 92 54 164 55 6 0 53 190 7 0 48 68 189 194 5 6 86 192 161 44 w 0 N

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Data Example Discourse Catel!orv . the quartet* has ... claimed ... Male Star Subject (Agenc y ) ... the w ild man* has tamed ... Male Star Subiect ( Agencv) ... then rhel* branched out. .. Male Star Subject (Agencv) ... then [hel* made a solash ... Male Star Subject ( Agencv) ... they've* accomplished Male Star Subiect < Agencv) . they* plan to go Male Star Subject (Agencv) ... they* sizzle Male Star Subiect < Agencv) ... this cutie* makes Male Star Subject (Agencv) .. this dude* makes ... Male Star Subiect ( Agencv) ... this quintet* . burned Male Star Subject (Agencv) . this star* recently added Male Star Subiect ( Agencv) .. this ... babe* will rock Male Star Subiect < Agencv) ... this ... king* makes our hearts Male Star Subiect ( Agencv) ... what do you* do Male Star Subiect < Agencv) . what strikes you* Male Star Subject (Agencv) ... when he* lands ... Male Star Subiect ( Agencv) ... when he* visited . Male Star Subject < Agencv) ... when not working up a sweat Colt* ... Male Star Subiect ( Agencv) .. who* got ... chummy Male Star Subiect < Agencv) ... who* happens to ... Male Star Subject ( Agencv) ... who* lived ... Male Star Subject < Agencv) ... who* made the list Male Star Subject (Agencv) ... who* spends .. Male Star Subiect < Agencv) ... who* takes . Male Star Subject (Agencv) ... who* teaches class Male Star Subiect ( Agencv) ... why Will Friedle* rocks ... Male Star Subiect (Agencv) ... why does this actor* play . ? Male Star Subject ( Agencv) . YOU write Male Star Subiect (Agencv) ... you're* doing Male Star Subiect ( Agencv) ... you're* oerforming Male Star Subject < Agencv) ... you're* trving Male Star Subject ( Agencv) ... you've* had Male Star Subiect ( Agencv) . you* costarred Male Star Subject (Agencv) ... v ou* just got back ... Male Star Subiect ( Agencv) ... vou* soend Male Star Subject (Agencv) Maeazine Month YM March Teen March Teen March Teen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen Februarv Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Teen February Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Teen March YM March YM March Teen March YM March YM March YM March Teen March Teen March YM March Year 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 Pa!!e 90 48 49 51 90 90 12 76 68 12 190 74 76 89 89 51 51 74 192 1741 49 52 174 51 124 0 30 92 54 92 92 89 54 54 89 w 0 w

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory ... y ou* went out with Male Star Subject (Agency) .. Luke* and Zachary* . pla y Male Star Subject (Agency) Alexander Graham Bell* invented Male Star Subject (Agency) Behr* has beamed into his female viewers' hearts Male Star Subject (Agency) Big Boss Man* battle ... Male Star SuQject (Agency) Carson Daly* chats UP ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Carson Daly* checks in ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Carson* says . Male Star Subject (Agency) Carson* surprises us Male Star Subject (Agency) Chris Kirkoartick* has landed . Male Star Subject (Agency) Chris Kirkoatrick* talks about Male Star Subject (Agency) Chris Kirkoatrick* tears up Male Star SuQject (Agency) DJ Scribble* spins ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Dave Holmes* gi ves Male Star SuQject (Agency) Dave Holmes* gives up Male Star Subject (Agency) David Letterman* premiered Male Star Subject (Agency) Da vid* plays Male Star Subject (Agency) Devon* told us Male Star Subject (Agency) Director Spike Lee* offered Male Star Subject (Agency) Do you* have ... ? Male Star Subject (Agency) Donald's* been living ... Male Star Subje ct (Agency) Doug Mullins* who serves Male Star Subject (Agency) Enrique* joined Male Star Subject (Agency) Enrique* landed Male Star Subject (Agency) Feinberg* says ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Freddie Prinze* . did Male Star Subject (Agency) Freddy Prinze Jr* plays ... Male Star Subject (Agency) Hanson* was working ... Male Star Subject (Age ncy) He'll* also play Male Star Subject (Agency) He* says Male Star Subject (Agency) I* have met Male Star Subject (Agency) If he* resurrects Male Star Subject (Agency) Jackson* plays Male Star Subject (Agency) James* tells us ... Male Star SuQject (Agency) Jeff Timmons* reflects Male Star Subject (Agency) Ma2azine Month YM March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen February YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Teen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Teen February YM March YM March Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March YM March Year 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 Pa2e 89 52 26 194 44 0 11 84 18 78 11 14 23 18 40 12 67 119 190 80 46 174 92 92 38 12 40 50 194 174 86 174 176 238 90 w 0

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Data Example Discourse Cateimrv Josh* insists ... Male Star Subiect ( Agenc v ) Joshua Jackson* ... who remains . Male Star Subiect < Agencv) Julio Iglesias* ... who invented Male Star Subject ( Agencv) Keanu* rolls Male Star Subiect < Agencv) Kevin Williamson* ... who wrote ... Male Star Subiect (Agencv) Kutcher* filmed three movies Male Star Subject ( Agencv) Lennv* flv awav . Male Star Subject < A2enc v ) Marsden* manages to Male Star Subject (Agencv) Philip Bloch* has ... Male Star Subiect < Agencv) Photographer Kwaku* ... did Male Star Subject (Agencv) Seth* takes a job Male Star Subiect < Agencv) Shane West* made Male Star Subject (Agencv) Stephen Rubin* ... who counsels ... Male Star Subject ( Agencv) Steve Madden* makes ... Male Star Subject < Agencv) Sugar Rav* when they ooened ... Male Star Subject (Agencv) The American Pie star* plavs Male Star Subiect < Agencv) The Seattle nati ve* has aooeared in Male Star Subject (Agencv) The TRL host* makes his ... Male Star Subiect < Agencv) The University of Washington alum* remembers ... Male Star Subject (Agencv) Thierrv Mugler* makes tresses . Male Star Subiect (Agencv) Tim Hardaway* savs ... Male Star Subject (Agencv) Tom Green* doles out Male Star Subject ( Agencv) Tom* onened ... Male Star Subject < Agencv) Tom* ... and Mark-Paul* ... Play Male Star Subject (Agencv) Tomrnv offered ... Male Star Subiect < Agencv) West* says Male Star Subiect (Agencv) Witcomb Judson* oatented Male Star Subiect (Agencv) fBilly who ... 1 plavs ... Male Star Subject (Agencv) fhel* admits Male Star Subiect (A2encv) a ... drooout* lands ... Male Star Subject (Agencv) dude* who takes no bull ... Male Star Subject (Agencv) explains Charles ... MD* Male Star Subject < Agencv) e:uvs* manage ... Male Star Subject (Agencv) he's* made female fans go weak Male Star Subiect < Agencv) he* says Male Star Subject (Agencv) Ma2azine Month Teen February Seventeen March YM March YM March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March YM March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Teen February Se v enteen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Teen March Teen March YM March Teen Februarv YM March Teen Februarv Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Se v enteen March Teen February YM March YM March Teen March Se v enteen March YM March Year 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 Pa2e 56 181 92 30 161 190 252 192 38 18 172 194 148 17 22 192 174 11 174 103 118 18 55 28 50 194 26 49 174 51 124 42 50 192 79 w 0 V,

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Data Example Discourse Cate2orv he* sometimes indulges in Male Star Subiect (A!!encv) he* wowed audiences Male Star Subiect ( Ae.encv) the 21-year-old* will annear Male Star Subject (Agencv) the hunk* will costar Male Star Subiect ( Ae.encv) the photographer* did Male Star Subject (Ae.encv) you* want Male Star Subiect (Agencv) ... Chris* thinks up ... Male Star Subiect < Ae.encv Mental Process) ... Colt* knows its nossible . Male Star Subject (Agencv Mental Process) ... Darren* thinks Male Star Subiect < Ae.encv Mental Process) ... Do y ou* think. .. ? Male Star Subiect (Agencv Mental Process) ... How do you* know ... ? Male Star Subiect (Ae.encv Mental Process) .. .Josh* can't decide ... Male Star Subject (Agencv Mental Process) ... Willis* decides ... Male Star Subiect (Ae.encv Mental Process) .. .rBeck*l knows ... Male Star Subject (Agencv Mental Process) . rguys]* think now ... Male Star Subiect (Ae.encv Mental Process) ... do you* think Male Star Subject < Ae.encv Mental Process) ... do you* think ... Male Star Subiect (Agencv Mental Process) ... does be* . think ... ? Male Star Subiect (Ae.encv Mental Process) ... he* once considered Male Star Subiect (Agencv Mental Process) ... he* realizes Male Star Subject (Agencv Mental Process) ... he* recomizes Male Star Subiect (Agencv Mental Process) ... he* thoue.ht Male Star Subject (Ae.encv Mental Process) ... when did you* know Male Star Subiect (Agencv Mental Process) . would Owen* think ... ? Male Star Subiect (Ae.encv Mental Process) what he* thinks Male Star Subiect (Agencv Mental Process) ... Enrique* gets it from Male Star Subiect ffienefactive) .. .Jason* got... Male Star Subject
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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory ... Dannv* gets claustrophobic ... Male Star Subject ffixneriencer) ... Do you* get... Male Star Subject (Exoeriencer) ... Donald* likes ... Male Star Subject (Exneriencer) ... Freddie* likes to olav ... read. and watch ... Male Star Subject (Experiencer) ... Hartnett* . .loves ... Male Star Subject (Exoeriencer) .. .I've* seen Male Star Subject (Exoeriencer) . I* .. .feel Male Star Subject (Experiencer) .. .James* doesn't miss ... Male Star Subject (Exoeriencer) ... Mark* loves Male Star Subject (Exoeriencer) ... Matthew* is relishing ... Male Star Subject (Exoeriencer) ... Stewart* seems . Male Star Subject (Exoeriencer) .. .rhe*l likes to retreat ... Male Star Subject (Exneriencer) . after he* heard . Male Star Subject (Exoeriencer) ... and he* regrets ... Male Star Subject (Exoeriencer) ... bovfriend* who needs ... Male Star Subject ffixneriencer) ... do you* love ... ? Male Star Subject (Experiencer) ... he* heard Male Star Subject (Exoeriencer) ... he* hopes Male Star Subject (Experiencer) ... he* likes ... best.. Male Star Subject (Exoeriencer) ... he* likes girls who Male Star Subject (Experiencer) ... he* likes girls who Male Star Subject (Exoeriencer) ... he* likes girls who pump his ego Male Star Subject (Exoeriencer) ... he* likes girls who ... (3 times) Male Star Subject (Exoeriencer) ... he* likes to snack on Male Star Subject ffixneriencer) . he* loves to Male Star Subject (Exoeriencer) . he* might Male Star Subject (Exneriencer) ... he* was in love with ... Male Star Subject (Experiencer) ... one* wants ... Male Star Subject (Exneriencer) ... these dudes* sweatin' Male Star Subject (Experiencer) . this cutie* needs Male Star Subject (Experiencer) ... we're* diErlrin Male Star Subject ffixneriencer) ... we* don't want Male Star Subject (Exoeriencer) ... were vou* into Male Star Subject (Exneriencer) ... what do you* dig? Male Star Subject (Experiencer) ... what kind of girls do they* dig ... ? Male Star Subject (Exoeriencer) Ma2azine Month Teen February YM March Teen March Teen February Teen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Teen February Teen March Teen March Seventeen March Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March YM March YM March Teen March Teen February Teen February Teen Februarv Teen February Teen Februarv YM March YM March YM March Teen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen March YM March Year 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 P:we 50 90 46 57 45 86 92 161 53 50 44 74 53 84 161 54 28 79 45 52 54 53 55 56 119 64 28 52 28 78 64 64 92 54 28 w 0 -...J

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Data Example Discourse Cate,:wry .. you'd* like to tell them Male Star Subject (E x oeriencer) ... you'll* want Male Star Subject (Exoeriencer) ... y ou're* into Male Star Subject (Experiencer) ... y ou* must get Male Star Sul:>ject (E x periencer) ... you* wanted ... Male Star Subject (E x oeriencer) Colt Ledbetter* hones to ask a girl out. .. Male Star Subject (Exoeriencer) I* probably wouldn't have ... Male Star Subject (Exoeriencer) Oz* needed his soace Male Star Subject rE x oeriencer) Tom* .. .likes ... Male Star Subject (E x oeriencer) Tommy Hillfiger* liked Male Star Subject rE x oeriencer) Zac* sees Male Star Subject (Exoeriencer) he* loves her Male Star Subject rE x oeriencer) ... Can ... Matt* ... Male Star Subject (Modal) ... Casner* can ... Male Star Subje c t (Modal) .. .I* can out Male Star Subject (Modal) .. .John* would get... Male Star Subject (Modal) ... Reefs lead singer* can croon ... Male Star Subject (Modal) ... Theodor Giesel ject (Negati v e Agency) ... the actor* couldn't relax Male Star Subject (Negati v e Exoeriencer) James* doesn't much care Male Star Subject (Negati v e E x periencer) ... but even he* couldn't have calculated Male Star Subject (Negative Modal) . Carson* was born on ... Male Star Sul:>ject (Passive) ... I'm* constantly handed Male Star Subject (Passi v e) ... This ... writer* was born on ... Male Star Sul:>ject (Passive) ... Varsity Blues bo y s* could have taken lessons from Colt' Male Star Subject (Passive) ... he's never treated ... Male Star Subject (Passive) Ma2azioe Month YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen March Seventeen March YM March Se v enteen March Teen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Teen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Se v enteen March Teen February YM March Teen February YM March Teen March YM March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Teen March Se v enteen March Se v ente e n March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Teen February Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Year 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 Paee 90 90 92 92 54 20 86 194 44 114 12 26 53 48 92 236 72 36 51 70 55 28 54 28 161 189 53 189 192 190 84 86 12 74 225 w 0 00

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Data Examole Discourse Cate1wrv ... he* got charged Male Star Subject (Passive) ... he* was born on Male Star Subject (Passive) ... he* was last linked with . Male Star Subject (Passive) . the e:uvs* can't get. .. Male Star Subject (Passive) ... who* has gotten ... Male Star Subject (Passive) David Lee Roth* has been ... Male Star Subject (Passive) Harry* was nominated ... Male Star Subject (Passive) Phifer* will be seen in Male Star Subject (Passive) Professor Robinson* and his famil y are chosen . Male Star Subject (Passive) he* can be found Male Star Subject (Passive) he* can be snotted in ... Male Star Sul:>ject ( Passi ve) he* was dumped ... Male Star Subject (Passive) ... he* had ... Male Star Subject (Possessive) ... Beck* has ... Male Star Subject (Possessive) ... Billy* had ... Male Star Subject (Possessive) ... Billv* has Male Star Subject (Possessive) . Carson's* ha ving . Male Star Subject (Possessive) ... Donald* has ... Male Star Subject (Possessive) ... Fred* has .. Male Star Subject (Possessi v e) ... Got a cool. . plan ... ? Male Star Subject (Possessive) ... Got a fave ... ? Male Star Subject (Possessive) .. .James Iha* has ... Male Star Sul:>ject (Possessive) . Pre* had ... Male Star Subject (Possessi ve) ... Ricky* owns Male Star Subject (Possessive) ... Scotman* got .... Male Star Subject (Possessive) . rBeck*l has ... Male Star Subject (Possessive) ... fHanson*l have ... Male Star Subject (Possessive) ... ever had ... ? Male Star Subject (Possessi ve) .. he's* got "it" Male Star Subject (Possessive) . he's* got a secret Male Star Subject (Possessi ve) ... he's* got.. Male Star Subject (Possessive) ... he's* got. ..... Male Star Subject (Possessi ve) ... he's* had a hard time Male Star Subject (Possessi ve) ... he* had no idea Male Star Subject (Possessi ve) . he* has .. Male Star Subject (Possessive) Ma2azioe Month Teen March Teen February Teen February YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Teen February Teen February Teen March YM March Teen March Teen March Seventeen March Teen March Teen February YM March YM March Seventeen March Teen March Teen February Teen March YM March YM March YM March Teen February YM March Teen March Teen February Se ve nteen March Se ve nteen March Seventeen March Year 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 Pa2e 48 12 52 30 236 174 225 190 53 194 43 57 46 30 49 49 84 46 52 69 67 176 49 55 51 30 30 69 55 75 49 56 192 190 176 w 0 \0

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory Ma2azine Month Year Pa2e ... the NA bovs* ... ever had ... ? Male Star Subject (Possessive) Teen February 2000 50 ... this actor has had . Male Star Subject (Possessi v e) Teen March 1998 50 ... this star* ... has Male Star Subject (Possessive) YM March 1998 70 ... three actors* have Male Star Subiect (Possessive) Teen February 2000 55 . trio* has .. Male Star Subject (Possessive) Teen March 1998 44 ... who* has ... Male Star Subject (Possessi ve) Teen March 1998 45 .. he's* got. .. Male Star Subject (Possessive) Teen March 1998 52 Darren* has .. Male Star Subject (Possessive) YM March 1998 28 Harry* who's had .. Male Star Subject (Possessive) Teen March 1998 51 vou* have Male Star Subject (Possessive) YM March 2000 92 . he* grew up Male Star Subject (Process) YM March 1998 74 ... this 1ruv* turns 26 Male Star Subject (Process) Teen Februarv 2000 12 Freddie Prinze Jr. turns Male Star Subject (Process) Seventeen March 1998 26 l'v's wackies . host* gets ... Male Star Subject (Process) YM March 2000 14 ... he's* ~otta love ... Male Star Subject (Volitional) Teen March 1998 48 ... he* had to ... Male Star Subject (Volitional) Seventeen March 1998 174 ... he* has to decide ... Male Star Subject (Volitional) Teen February 2000 51 w ... this bad bov* had better ... Male Star Subject (Volitional) Teen Februarv 2000 52 -0

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APPENDIXJ TEEN WOMEN AS SEMANTIC ROLE MODAL

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Data Examole Discourse Cateeorv Maeazioe Month Year Pa2e ..... you can Modal Seventeen March 1998 70 ..... you can ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 76 ... Ann would play ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 236 .. .I could ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 168 .. .I would ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 168 ... I'd most... Modal Seventeen March 1998 168 .. .I1d most.. .. Modal Seventeen March 1998 168 .. .I'd want .. Modal Seventeen March 1998 164 ... Should you listen ... ? Modal Seventeen March 2000 110 ... We girls can either fall for... Modal Seventeen March 2000 76 ... Would you like ... ? Modal YM March 1998 119 ... fyou can take] and drop ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 192 ... fyou can] cancel them Modal Seventeen March 1998 76 ... fyou can] plan Modal Seventeen March 1998 76 ... f you can 1 play Modal Seventeen March 1998 76 ... [you can I sleep Modal Seventeen March 1998 76 w _.. ... fyoul can tell ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 216 N ... a girl could do Modal YM March 2000 41 ... advice you can't live without Modal Teen February 2000 4 ... an l!irl can rule ... Modal Teen March 1998 118 ... and fshe can] prescribe ... Modal Teen February 2000 42 ... and fwe canl vow to keep them ... Modal Seventeen March 2000 76 ... and fyou canl add Modal Teen February 2000 65 ... and fyou can] bond ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 116 ... and [you can] build ... Modal YM March 2000 104 ... and r YOU can] fil!ht Modal Seventeen March 1998 76 ... and fyou can] just use Modal Seventeen March 1998 64 ... and fyou may] get... Modal Teen February 2000 36 ... and you may end up feeling Modal Teen February 2000 38 ... as fast as you can Modal Seventeen March 2000 126 ... as high as you can Modal Seventeen March 2000 124 ... as you can Modal Seventeen March 2000 126 ... as you can ..... Modal Seventeen March 1998 78 ... can you believe ... ? Modal Teen February 2000 16 ... can you do ... ? Modal Seventeen March 1998 148

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Data Examole Discourse Cate1?0rv Ma1rnzine Month Year Paee ... can you imagine .. ? Modal Teen March 1998 18 ... can you say vummy ... ? Modal Teen February 2000 18 . can you stick to vour goals ... ? Modal Teen Februarv 2000 84 ... can you stick to ... ? Modal Teen February 2000 4 ... fighting ... can be good ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 80 ... if you can come clean the right way Modal YM March 1998 110 ... or fvou can] write ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 142 ... or we can fall for ... Modal Seventeen March 2000 76 ... or .Jyou may] ask ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 138 ... she can allow ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 138 ... she can fiirure out Modal Teen February 2000 42 . she can read ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 236 ... she can . Modal Seventeen March 1998 138 ... she could do ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 215 ... she could get... Modal Teen March 1998 26 . she mil!.ht have been Modal YM March 2000 54 ... she might have ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 215 w ... she might... Modal Teen March 1998 26 ..... w ... she would ... Modal Teen March 1998 26 . she wouldn't hesitate ... Modal Teen March 1998 24 . she'd say .. Modal Teen March 1998 28 ... should you change? Modal Teen March 1998 2 ... should you listen Modal Seventeen March 2000 110 ... so you can rework Modal Seventeen March 2000 68 ... that might be ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 80 ... that you can talk to Modal Seventeen March 2000 148 ... we can also be ... Modal Seventeen March 2000 241 ... what can a cir I do ... ? Modal YM March 1998 67 ... what could a gal do ... ? Modal YM March 1998 67 ... what you would like Modal YM March 1998 12 ... who can save ... Modal Teen March 1998 45 ... who would ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 235 . who you hanoen to know ... Modal Seventeen March 2000 80 ... why would you want to ... ? Modal Teen February 2000 17 ... would vou go for . Modal Seventeen March 1998 9

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory Ma2azine Month Year Pa2e ... would you let Modal YM March 2000 44 ... wouldn't vou want...? Modal Teen March 1989 26 .. you and your friends ma y have ... Modal Se v enteen March 2000 112 . vou can Modal Teen March 1998 36 ... you can also buy Modal Teen February 2000 33 ... vou can aooly Modal YM March 2000 107 ... you can ask . Modal Seventeen March 1998 140 ... You can barely see Modal YM March 2000 63 ... you can be gawked at. . Modal Seventeen March 1998 190 ... You can call Modal Seventeen March 1998 76 . you can call . Modal Seventeen March 1998 142 .. you can catch him ... Modal Teen March 1998 48 . you can catch ... Modal YM March 1998 4 ... you can claw ... Modal Teen March 1998 51 ... vou can create . Modal Seventeen March 1998 190 . you can cross Modal Teen February 2000 65 ... vou can ditch Modal YM March 1998 102 w ... you can do Modal Teen March 1998 61 ... vou can do ... Modal Seventeen March 2000 132 . you can eat Modal Seventeen March 1998 76 ... vou can end uo Modal Teen February 2000 44 . you can fill him in Modal YM March 2000 44 ... vou can find most of the eauioment Modal Seventeen March 2000 126 ... you can get Modal Seventeen March 2000 112 ... vou can get Modal YM March 2000 67 ... you can get. . Modal Teen March 1998 26 ... vou can get. ..... Modal YM March 1998 12 ... you can get...cavities Modal Teen February 2000 3 4 ... vou can give Modal YM March 1998 24 ... you can grow ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 82 . vou can ioin . Modal Teen March 1998 12 ... you can layer Modal YM March 2000 104 ... vou can learn Modal YM March 1998 12 ... you can lose touch Modal Seventeen March 2000 112 ... you can make him quit Modal YM March 1998 40

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Data Example Discourse Cateiwrv Ma2azine Month Year Pa2e ... you can mark off. .. Modal YM March 2000 52 . vou can move on Modal YM March 1998 62 ... you can never Modal YM March 2000 63 ... vou can play Modal Teen February 2000 17 ... you can relate Modal YM March 2000 63 ... you can rub Modal Seventeen March 1998 60 .. you can shine ... Modal Teen March 1998 16 ... you can skip Modal Seventeen March 1998 64 ... you can skip ... Modal YM March 1998 62 ... you can sparkle Modal Teen March 1998 114 ... vou can still rule Modal YM March 1998 62 ... you can stop Modal YM March 1998 26 ... vou can streaknroof.. Modal Seventeen March 1998 202 ... you can take ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 192 . vou can talk to ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 116 ... you can tell Modal YM March 1998 32 ... you can tell her ... Modal Teen March 1998 26 w .. you can think ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 80 ..... Vl . you can trv Modal Teen February 2000 44 ... vou can tum Modal YM March 1998 48 ... you can turn to ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 153 ... vou can vent Modal YM March 1998 58 ... you can wear Modal Teen February 2000 17 ... you can win Modal Seventeen March 1998 40 ... you can't be Modal YM March 1998 48 ... you can't believe ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 82 ... vou can't count on Modal YM March 1998 48 ... you can't get. .. Modal Teen March 1998 32 ... vou can . Modal Seventeen March 1998 176 ... you can ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 140 .. you can .... Modal Teen March 1998 14 ... you can .... Modal Seventeen March 1998 140 . you can ... ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 192 ... vou can .... ... Modal Teen March 1998 14 ... you can ...... . Modal Teen March 1998 18

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Data Examole Discourse Catet!Orv Mairnzine Month Year Paee ... you can ......... Modal Teen March 1998 26 . you can ... .... . Modal Teen March 1998 68 ... you can ..... . .... Modal YM March 1998 40 ... you can . ...... .... ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 68 ... vou can . ............. Modal YM March 1998 43 . you can ........ ........... . Modal Seventeen March 1998 60 ... vou can .. .love Modal Teen Februarv 2000 17 ... you can ... pick Modal Sev enteen March 1998 76 ... you could Modal Teen Februarv 2000 44 . you could ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 66 ... YOU could be ... Modal YM March 1998 60 . you could score Modal YM March 1998 28 ... you could stamo Modal Teen March 1998 115 ... you could use Modal YM March 1998 59 ... you could win ... Modal Sev enteen March 1998 66 . you just might Modal Teen Februarv 2000 65 ... vou may be Modal Teen March 1998 50 \;J .... ... You mav be ... Modal Sev enteen March 1998 84 0-.. ... you may be ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 216 . You may be . Modal Teen Februarv 2000 85 ... you may be . . Modal Seventeen March 1998 216 ... You may be ...... Modal Teen March 1998 36 . you maybe ... .... Modal YM March 1998 59 . You may be .... . . Modal Teen Februarv 2000 85 ... you may discover Modal YM March 2000 46 . you may feel Modal Seventeen March 2000 132 ... you may find ..... Modal Teen Februarv 2000 36 ... you may have Modal YM March 1998 43 . you may not see Modal YM March 1998 92 ... you may not want Modal Teen Februarv 2000 44 ... you may pick up Modal YM March 1998 92 . you may recomize Modal YM March 2000 107 ... you may think Modal YM March 1998 62 ... You may think ... Modal Seventeen March 2000 76 ... you may think .... Modal Teen Februarv 2000 85

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Data Examole Discourse Cate2ory Ma2azine Month Year Pa2e ... you may want to Modal Seventeen March 2000 148 ... vou mieht Modal Teen March 1998 32 ... you mil?.ht be Modal YM March 2000 63 ... YOU mil?.ht be ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 138 ... you might be ....... Modal YM March 1998 44 ... YOU mil?.ht be ........ Modal YM March 1998 82 . you might discover Modal Teen February 2000 14 ... you might end uo ... Modal Teen March 1998 38 ... vou mieht feel Modal Teen Februarv 2000 38 . you mi !?.ht feel... Modal Teen February 2000 42 ... vou might find out Modal YM March 1998 116 ... you might forget. .. Modal Sev enteen March 1998 138 ... YOU mieht get e v en Modal Sev enteen March 2000 197 ... you might ha v e ... . Modal Teen March 1998 32 . you mi !!ht throw Modal Sev enteen March 1998 48 ... you mieht want.. Modal Sev enteen March 1998 153 ... Y ou mil?.ht want... ... Modal Teen February 2000 38 \,;J . vou might weigh Modal YM March 1998 82 -...J ... you mieht wonder . Modal Seventeen March 1998 146 ... vou mieht. .. Modal Sev enteen March 1998 138 . you might... Modal Seventeen March 1998 140 ... You mieht ..... Modal YM March 2000 126 ... you mieht .. ... .... Modal Teen March 1998 28 ... YOU would Modal Seventeen March 1998 76 ... vou would have to ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 246 ... you would probablv Modal YM March 2000 44 ... vou'd be able ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 153 ... you'd be . Modal Seventeen March 1998 153 ... YOU1d like to ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 148 ... y ou'd love to Modal YM March 1998 62 ... you'd say ... (5 times) Modal Teen February 2000 59 ... vou've wanted Modal YM March 1998 12 ... you ... may . Modal Sev enteen March 1998 138 . You ... or that bud ... may snag ... Modal Teen February 2000 3 0 .I'd rather ... Modal Sev enteen March 1998 164

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory Ma2azine Month Year Pa2e .. You can count Modal Teen March 1998 52 .. you miRht find ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 28 Can I pull it off ... ? Modal Seventeen March 2000 241 Can I really oass for . Modal Seventeen March 2000 240 Can you believe this 1ruv? Modal Seventeen March 2000 74 Eventually you and your ex can ... Modal Seventeen March 2000 80 I could hooe Modal YM March 2000 72 I could move ... Modal YM March 2000 70 I would head Modal Seventeen March 1998 36 I wouldn't lose .. Modal Seventeen March 1998 168 I'd love ... Modal Seventeen March 1998 164 I'd oack Modal Seventeen March 1998 36 I'd travel Modal Seventeen March 1998 36 Neither she nor her mother can Modal Seventeen March 2000 238 She could get Modal Seventeen March 2000 238 We can be ... Modal Seventeen March 2000 241 Why should I go ... ? Modal YM March 1998 26 w -You can talk to her.. Modal Seventeen March 2000 144 00 can you believe ... ? Modal Seventeen March 1998 12 if you can Modal Seventeen March 2000 110 if you can ... Modal Seventeen March 2000 213 if you could Modal YM March 2000 40 she'd do Modal YM March 1998 57 sure you can rent ... Modal Seventeen March 2000 172 whether she should Modal Seventeen March 2000 36 why you'd rather ... Modal Seventeen March 2000 172 wouldn't you rather ... ? Modal Seventeen March 2000 172 you can be found Modal YM March 1998 44 you can continue Modal Seventeen March 2000 219 you can deal... Modal Seventeen March 1998 68 you can expose Modal YM March 1998 22 you can ~et.. ...... Modal YM March 2000 36 you can go Modal YM March 2000 54 you can ~o .......... Modal YM March 1998 48 you can say Modal YM March 1998 48

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Data Example Discourse Catee:ory Mae:azine Month Year Pae:e you can use Modal Sev enteen March 2000 229 you could get knocked up Modal YM March 1998 48 y ou could win Modal Sev enteen March 1998 12 y ou ma y lose weililit Modal YM March 2000 3 6 you ma y think Modal YM March 1998 58 y ou ma y think ... Modal YM March 2000 44 y ou ma y think .. ...... ... Modal YM March 1998 60 you might also Modal YM March 2000 42 y ou should try explaining that to him Modal Sev enteen March 2000 84 y ou'd annreciate ... Modal Teen March 1998 30 y ou'd be amazed ... Modal Sev ente e n March 1998 205 y ou'd rather not do ... Modal Te e n March 1998 118 y ou' v e e v er w anted Modal YM March 1998 12 vJ ..... IO

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APPENDIXK TEEN WOMAN AS NEGATIVE SUBJECT

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w N ..... Data Example ... Cathleen claims .. .I bombed .. .I couldn't concentrate ... Meghan was swiping .. Will she ever pick the right dress ? .. You're not describing ... .. .rcirls who didn't have ... l gave up the dream ... . .rher best friendl confesses ... to .. affair ... ... a mother would pummel ... advice you can't live without ... advice vou can't live without. ... ... and f she would havel had a terrible time ... .. and lvou'lll oossibl y cause . ... and some not so oatiently [waitingl ... and then Isbel dumps ... ... and they spread ... ... but you still fail ... different girls had made comments about how ug}y ... ... do you fight. . ... enern:v you've been lacking .. girl...will steal him away ... ... girls try to be oerfect... ... having trouble ... ... her best friend makes fun of her . .. .if she cuts you off. .. ... if she denies .. .. .if she laughs it off. .. ... if y ou act your age not. .. ... if you can t work out ... if you can't... . ... if you don't r notice l .. .if y ou don't do ... if y ou don't ooen .. ... if you eat onl y sweets ... if y ou get in too deeo ... Discourse Cate2ory Negative Subject (Agency) Negative Subject (Agency) Negative Subject (Agency) Nee.alive Subject (Agency) Negative Subject (Agency) Nee.alive Subject (Agency) Negative Subject (Agency) Negative Subject (Agency) Negative Subject (Agency) Negative Subject (Agency) Negative Subject (Agency) Negative Subject (Agency) Nee.alive Subject (Agency) Negative Subject (Agency) Negative Subject (Agency) Negative Subject (Agency) Nee.ative Subject (Agency) Nee.ative Subject (Agency) Negati v e Subject (Agency) Nee.ative Subject (Agency) Nee.alive Subject (Agency) Nee.alive Subject (Agency) Negati v e Subject (Agency) Nee.ali v e Subject (Agency) Negative Subject (Agency) Negative Subject (Agency) Negative Subject (Agency) Negative Subject (Agency) Negative Subject (Agency) Negative Subject (Agency) Negative Subject (Agency) Negative Subject (Agency) Nee.ative Subject (Agency) Nee.alive Subject (Agency) Nee.ali v e Subject (Agency) Ma2azine Month Year Pa2e Teen March 1998 57 YM March 2000 71 YM March 2000 70 YM March 2000 116 YM March 1998 99 Seventeen March 2000 146 Seventeen March 1998 192 Teen March 1998 52 Seventeen March 2000 172 Teen February 2000 64 Teen February 2000 87 Seventeen March 2000 241 YM March 1998 llO YM March 1998 12 Seventeen March 1998 148 Seventeen March 2000 80 Teen February 2000 85 Teen March 1998 63 Seventeen March 1998 82 YM March 1998 26 Teen March 1998 28 Teen March 1998 28 Se v enteen March 1998 56 Teen February 2000 3 Teen March 1998 26 Teen February 2000 40 Teen February 2000 40 YM March 1998 44 Teen February 2000 40 Teen February 2000 36 Seventeen March 2000 148 YM March 1998 62 Seventeen March 1998 82 YM March 1998 83 Teen February 2000 44

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Data Examole Discourse Cateeorv ... if you jump Negative Subject (Agency) ... if you mess up Neruitive Subject (Agency) . .if you misread ... Negative Subject (Agency) . if you missed ... Neruitive Subject (Agency) ... if you're constantly freaking out Negative Subject (Agency) . if you've been drowning Negative Subject (Agency) . .if you've been hitting the chaostick a bit too often ... Negative Subject (Agency) ... if you've ohrn:ed out... Neruitive Subject (Agency) ... or hf shel says you're ... Negative Subject (Agency) ... or ruyou'rel soving on him Negative Subiect (Agency) . or rYou're not always gonnal maintain Negative Subject (Agency) . or ryou'vel couch-ootatoed ... Negative Subiect (Agency) . or rYou'vel lost. .. Neruitive Subject (Agency) ... she breaks out Negative Subject (Agency) . she can't stop cutting herself Negative Subject (Agency) ... she cheated Ne!!ative Subject (Agency) ... she failed ... Neruitive Subject (Agency) ... she put Negative Subject (Agency) ... she said no ... Neruitive Subject (Agency) ... she wined Negative Subject (Agency) . she's not taking you seriously ... Neruitive Subject (Agency) ... she's starting to lose ... Negative Subject (Agency) ... signals you're not catching ... ? Negative Subject (Agency) ... the excuses you're making Negative Subject (Agency) . the girls complain Neruitive Subject (Agency) ... what look-at-me moves do girls make that bug . Neruitive Subject (Agency) ... why are you acting like you still wear Osh Kosh . ? Neruitive Subject (Agency) ... you accuse him ... Neruitive Subject (Agency) ... you add too much ... Negative Subject (Agency) ... You aren't looking ... Neirative Subject (Agency) ... vou ar1rue with ... Negative Subject (Agency) . you can't change the placement... Neirative Subject (Agency) . you can't handle class Neruitive Subject (Agency) ... you can't snack on Ne2ative Subject (Agency) ... you constantly resist Negative Subject (Agency) Maeazine Month Seventeen March YM March Teen March Seventeen March Teen February YM March Seventeen March Teen March Teen February Teen February YM March Teen March YM March YM March Teen February YM March Seventeen March YM March Teen February YM March Teen February Seventeen March Teen February YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Teen February YM March Teen February YM March Year 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 Paee 144 40 3 36 36 58 118 35 40 36 44 35 42 116 3 44 216 44 3 86 40 148 58 26 239 32 44 82 203 138 80 17 60 34 44 w N N

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Data Example Discourse Cateeon ... you didn't Neeative Sul:Jject (Agency) ... you don't aooreciate ... Negative Subject (Agency) ... vou don't... Negative Subject (Agency) ... y ou drop ... Negati ve Subject (Agency) ... vou fight Neeative Subject (Agency) ... you fight with Negative Subject (Agency) ... vou give him the silent treatment. . Neeative Subject (Agency) ... you haven't found Negative Subject (Agency) ... vou haven't just.. Negative Subject (Agency) ... you huff Negative Subject (Agency) ... you lose control Neeative Subject (Agency) ... vou lose him Negative Subject (Agency) ... vou may wierd him out more Negative Subject (Agency) ... vou missed ... Negative Subiect (Agency) ... you still can't Neeative Subject (Agency) ... vou stress Neeative Subject (Agency) ... you won't get far enoui!h Negative Subject (Agency) ... vou won't go through Negative Subject (Agency) ... you won't stav ... Negative Subject (Agency) ... vou wouldn't treat. .. Neeative Subject (Agency) ... vou vell . Neeative Subject (Agency) ... you'll crash and burn Negative Subject (Agency) ... vou'll make blemishes worse ... Negative Subject (Agency) ... you'll never kiss him Neeative Subject (Agency) ... you'll never kiss ... Neeative Subject (Agency) ... you're fii!hting . Neeative Subject (Agency) ... vou're not always gonna use Neeative Subject (Agency) ... vou're not talking to him Negative Subject (Agency) ... you're overreacting ... Neeative Subject (Agency) ... vou're strui!i!ling Negative Subject (Agency) ... you've quit.. Nee.ative Subject (Agency) ... vou've totally pigged out Neeative Subject (Agency) ... vou've wallowed enough Neeative Subject (Agency) . vou ... shooting with his best friends Neeative Subject (Agency) . vour best friend leads ... Neeative Subject (Agency) Maeazine Month Teen March Teen March Seventeen March Se ve nteen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Se ve nteen March YM March Teen February Teen February Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February Teen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Year 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 Paee 40 26 236 236 9 0 82 118 64 66 53 53 36 176 62 85 85 34 188 148 80 83 110 40 82 82 44 84 238 84 46 82 62 80 148 w N w

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Data Example Discourse Cate1wrv ... vour bud's not listening Negative Subject (Agency) ... your friend sounds ... self-absorbed ... Negative Subject (Agency) ... vour girl refuses ... Negative Subject (Agencv) ... your inabilitv to meet vour goals means Negative Subject (Agency) ... vour oal is whining about Negative Subject (Agencv) . fvoul threaten to ... Negative Subject (Agency) .. haven't stocked up ... ? Nea:rative Subject (Agencv) .. or r thev l let... Negative Subject (Agency) Britney* like you've never seen her Nea:rative Subject (Agency) Do vou forgo ... ? Negative Subject (Agency) Do you hide your true self from e:uvs? Nea:rative Subject (Agency) Do vou hide vour true self from iruvs? ... Negative Subject (Agency) Do you submit... Nel!ative Subject (Agency) Don't stare at him too much he'll think you're osvcho Negative Sul>ject (Agency) Got dull winter skin ... ? Nea:rative Subject (Agency) I couldn't move Negative Sul>ject (Agencv) I wasted monev ... Nea:rative Subject (Agency) If vou dish to your friends ... Negative Subject (Agencv) Larissa would have rolled her eves ... Nea:rative Subject (Agency) NOTE : Could your crush be sending signals you're not catching? Nea:rative Subject (Agency) NOTE: he's sending signals you're not catching Nea:rative Subject (Agency) Puff now oav later ... Nea:rative Subject (Agency) They didn't go Nea:rative Subject (Agency) Whv Leila derailed . Nea:rative Subject (Agency) but ryou] can't fiirure out Nea:rative Subject (Agency) her mom had never married Negative Subject (Agency) if she doesn't Nel!ative Subject (Agencv) if vou don't please this iruv ... Negative Subject (Agency) if you don't push vourself Nea:rative Subject (Agencv) if vou don't trv Nea:rative Subject (Agency) if you lack . Nea:rative Subject (Agency) she kept sinking Nea:rative Subject (Agency) she still can't articulate Negative Subject (Agencv) Ma2azioe Month Seventeen March Teen March YM March Teen Februarv YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen March YM March YM March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen Februarv Teen Februarv YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Se v enteen March YM March YM March Teen Februarv YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Year 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 Pa2e 144 26 40 85 44 82 38 52 40 44 11 44 44 40 28 70 168 80 241 58 58 36 22 238 63 238 40 52 85 22 40 238 238 w N

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Data Examole Discourse Cate!!orv the y ignore ... Negative Subject (Agencv) w hat you can't do ... Negative Subiect ( Agency) y ou also let y ourself ... Ne1?ative Subiect < Af!encv) y ou can't control. . Negative Subject (Agencv) y on didn't wear Nef!ative Subiect ( Af!encv) you overreact. .. Negative Subject (Agencv) y ou pureed your heart Ne1?ative Subiect (Af!encv) y ou put off Negative Subject (Af!encv) you'll deprive Negative Subject (Agencv) you'll moan and groan Negative Subiect ( Af!encv) y ou're bef!f!ing for trouble Negative Subject (Agencv) y ou're starving y ours elf Nef!ative Subiect ( Af!encv) you've changed ... Negative Subject (Agencv) y ou've never gone out. .. Nef!ative Subiect ( Af!encv) ... but r shel didn't know ... Negative Subject (Af!encv Mental Process) . she doesn't reali ze . Negative Subject ( Agencv Mental Process) ... y ou don't know Negative Subiect < Af!encv Mental Process) ... vou don't know ... Negative Subject (Agencv Mental Process) ... y ou're not thinking Negative Subiect < Af!encv Mental Process) She doesn't know how to tell him Negative Subject (Agencv Mental Process) if you can't remember Nef!ative Subiect (Af!encv Mental Process) you'll never know Negative Subject (Agencv Mental Process) .. y ou won't be . Nef!ative Subiect (Cooula) ... y ou'll be clueless Negative Subiect
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Data Example Discourse Cate2orv ... some of you are seriously stressing Negati v e Subject (E x oeriencer) . what she doen't realize Negative Subject (E x oeriencer) ... YOU can't stand Negative Subject (Exoeriencer) ... you don't feel like ... Negative Subject (Exoeriencer) . you don't feel.. Ne!!ative Subject (Exneriencer) ... you don't like Negative Subject (Exoeriencer) . you don't want... Negative Subject (Exneriencer) ... you won't believe . Negative Suqject (E x periencer) ... you'll dread ... Negative Subject (Exoeriencer) ... You're fuming ... Negative Suqject (E x periencer) Aprille didn't love it. . Negati v e Subject (Exoeriencer) I don't look good ... Negative Subject (Exoeriencer) Leila didn't like him Negative Subject (E x oeriencer) She doesn't blame Negati v e Subject (Exneriencer) if you act jealous ... Negative Subject (Experiencer) that you would fear ... Negative Subject (Exneriencer) you didn't seem to ... Negative Subject (Experiencer) you didn't trust him Negative Subject (Exneriencer) you don't need ... powers Negative Subject (Experiencer) you don't really like him Negative Subject (Exoeriencer) you don't want to have Negative Subject (Experiencer) .. .I couldn't stop Negative Subject (Modal) ... he couldn't Negative Subject (Modal) ... photos you can't bear to look at... Negative Subject (Modal) . you can't live Negative Subject (Modal) ... YOU can't show ... Negative Subject (Modal) ... you couldn't help Negative Subject (Modal) ... you may not. ... Negative Subject (Modal) Would you copy . ? Negative Subject (Modal) Would you hide .... Negative Subject (Modal) You can't crack. . Negative Subject (Modal) you can't go overboard Negative Subject (Modal) you can't live ... Negative Subject (Modal) you'd never l!lless Negative Subject (Modal) ... they weren't allowed ... Negative Subject (Passive) Maeazioe Month YM March Se v enteen March Teen February Seventeen March Teen March Teen February Seventeen March Se v enteen N Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Teen March Teen March YM March YM March Se v enteen March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Year 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 Paee 46 144 38 151 26 85 138 190 35 82 44 26 238 238 30 6 1 59 60 197 44 242 70 70 48 58 116 58 53 44 44 126 109 12 190 217 w N

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory ... girls who didn't have a date ... Negative Subject (Possessive) ... she hasn't been having ... Negative Su~ject (Possessive) ... she wouldn't have ... Negative Subject (Possessive) ... you didn't have Negative Subject (Possessive) ... you've never had Negative Subject (Possessive) Amber did not have ... Negative Subject (Possessive) you'll never have ... Negative Su~ject (Possessive) ... rvoul don't have Negative Subject (Volitional) ... you didn't have to .... Negative Subject (Volitional) ... you don't have to invite him ... Negative Subject (Volitional) ... YOU don't have to ... Negative Subject (Volitional) ... you don't have to ... Negative Subject (Volitional) ... vou don't need any Negative Subject (Volitional) Erin and Laura don't have to ... Negative Subject (Volitional) I didn't have to ... Negative Subject (Volitional) you don't have to Negative Su~ject (Volitional) you don't have to be Negative Subject (Volitional) you don't need Negative Subiect (Volitional) you shouldn't Negative Subject (Volitional) you won't get to Negative Subiect (Volitional) Ma2azine Month Seventeen March Teen March Teen March YM March Teen February Teen March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Teen Februarv Seventeen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Year 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 Pa2e 192 57 61 58 42 58 44 92 62 80 70 32 44 239 71 110 56 227 36 63 vJ N -...J

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APPENDIXL OVERT DOAS (DENIALS OF AGENCY) WIIlTENESS AND AGE

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w N \0 Data Example NOTE : reference to women musicians as "rocker girls" NOTE : they call Shiri Aooleby* a "girl' but she's 21 NOTE : they call her 'girl' she calls herself 'woman' .. .if you have dark skin ... Self tanners if you're oale in the who knew section it said "meet four African-American women asswning their unknown but are the y really unknown or only unknown to whites limter darker order of skin colors from light to dark nersonal nowwows Discourse Cate2ory Denial of A_gency Age Denial of Agency Age Denial of Agency Age Denial of Agency Whiteness Denial of Agency Whiteness Denial of Agency Whiteness Denial of Agency Whiteness Denial of Agency Whiteness Denial of Agency Whiteness Ma2azine Month Year Pa2e YM March 1998 114 Seventeen March 2000 168 Seventeen March 2000 160 Seventeen March 1998 204 Teen March 1998 109 Seventeen March 2000 114 Teen March 1998 107 Seventeen March 2000 62 Seventeen March 2000 239

PAGE 337

APPENDIXM TEEN WOMAN AS SEMANTIC ROLE PASSIVE AND PROCESS

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w w ...... Data Example ... Alvssa was born ... Amy's turned on by ... ... Brenda was called ... Eva was forced ... ... rvoul are drawn to ... ... and rwe can] still be respected ... ... be called your baby name by your parents ... get vou noticed ... girls are allowed ... ... models get glitzed ... she was discovered .. the girl who was voted ... ... they were destined to be ... ... you are called in ... ... you are considered ... ... you are entitled ... ... vou are put on hold ... you get called ... vou got naid for ... you were born ... ... vou were locked ... ... you'll be forced ... you're about to be blinded ... vou're allowed ... you're hurt by ... ... vou're taken ... ... you've been wronged ... ... vour friend is ... flattered by Girls are subtlv trained ... I was put out I'm given I'm transfixed by the ruv ... Leila was arrested Mom was dia1mosed ... We girls are faced with ... Discourse Cate1wrv Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Passiv e Passive Ma2azinc Month Year Pa2e Seventeen March 1998 234 Teen March 1998 24 Seventeen March 1998 217 Seventeen March 1998 223 Teen March 1998 61 Seventeen March 2000 241 Seventeen March 2000 121 YM March 2000 86 Seventeen March 1998 82 Teen March 1998 114 Seventeen March 2000 186 Seventeen March 2000 166 Seventeen March 2000 142 Sev enteen March 1998 140 Seventeen March 1998 148 Seventeen March 1998 142 YM March 1998 42 YM March 1998 44 YM March 1998 57 Seventeen March 1998 138 Seventeen March 1998 246 YM March 1998 62 YM March 1998 66 YM March 1998 59 Teen March 1998 30 Seventeen March 1998 216 Seventeen March 1998 216 Seventeen March 2000 144 Seventeen March 2000 241 YM March 2000 72 Seventeen March 2000 241 Seventeen March 2000 241 Seventeen March 2000 238 Seventeen March 2000 239 Seventeen March 2000 76

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Data Example Discourse Catef!orv females were out on earth ... Passi ve if y ou're being abused ... Passi ve if you've been sexuall y abused or assaulted Passi ve she had alread y been sought out Passi ve she was kicked out Passive you're reminded Passive .. .I'd got angry Process . Shanon gets Process ... Simon became an ... worker ... Process ... f y oul have been ... Process ... gals turn 16 Process .. .if vou become Process ... one .. .lady will become ... Process ... readers as they get... Process ... she grew up in ... Process ... when Kerry hit voting age ... Process ... you get bored Process I had become Process I went limp ... Process Meghan grew uo ... Process You have not died Process you get irritated Process Maf!azine Month Seventeen March Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Year 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 Pae:e 84 40 146 186 238 62 70 117 114 138 86 151 121 9 114 134 126 71 70 23 17 6 151 w w N

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APPENDIXN QUIZ CONDITIONED DISCOURSE

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w w Data Exarnole ... [youl throw on a T-shirt ...... rYoul say ... ... Amy ... she broke up ... Do you ask him ... Do vou oerk up ... ... The girls always save you . You keep your mouth shut ... You scout out an emptv chair ... You simed up for this class ... You'll be deciding .. .f shel asks ... ... fyou'll] skip lunch ... ... [you've] loeeed ... (you'vel scarfed ... [you've] worked out ... rvoul aeree ... ... r you l agree ... .. Jvoul aeree .... ... [voul answer va!!.Uely ... .. .rvoul ask him ... ... lyoul ask one ... .. Jyoul bail ... ... [youl bargain ... ... rvoul bovcott ... ... [youl buy her the sweater... ... rvoul call vour crew to see ... [youl cancel all plans ... .. .rvoul convince ... [youl convince yourself ... ... r YOU 1 cover... ... fyoul crank out .. .r vou l dash ... rvoul decline .. .rvoul ditch the party ... .. fyoul do Discourse Cateeory Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Oui z Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Aeency) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Aeency) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Magazine Month Year Pa2e Seventeen March 1998 106 Seventeen March 1998 112 Seventeen March 2000 106 YM March 2000 44 YM March 2000 44 Seventeen March 2000 106 Seventeen March 2000 106 Seventeen March 2000 106 Seventeen March 2000 106 Se v enteen March 2000 106 Seventeen March 1998 112 Seventeen March 1998 112 Teen Februarv 2000 84 Teen February 2000 84 Teen Februarv 2000 84 Seventeen March 1998 112 Seventeen March 1998 112 Seventeen March 1998 114 Seventeen March 1998 112 Seventeen March 1998 82 Seventeen March 1998 112 Seventeen March 1998 112 Seventeen March 1998 112 Seventeen March 1998 112 YM March 2000 22 Seventeen March 2000 106 Teen February 2000 84 YM March 1998 44 Seventeen March 1998 82 Seventeen March 1998 ll4 YM March 1998 44 YM March 1998 44 Teen March 1998 68 Seventeen March 1998 ll2 YM March 2000 22

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Data Example Discourse Cate1!ory Ma2azioe ... fyou) do ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Se v enteen ... fyoul drag ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... rvoul exolain Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM ... f youl forure ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen .. .rvoul go off ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... fyou) go ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... rvoul hand her ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... fyoul incorporate Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Teen ... fyoul lecture Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM ... fyou) lock in Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM ... f youl make at least Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Teen ... fyou) make olans Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... fyou) negotiate Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM ... r you) offer... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM ... fyoul pick Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Teen . .rvou1 reach Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Teen ... fvoul remind her.. Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... rvoul remind him ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Se v enteen ... r you) remind. .. Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen .. Jyoul resolve Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM ... fyou) run home Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM ... fyou) run ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM ... fyoul say Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM ... fvoul say nothing . Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Se v enteen .. .rvoul say ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Se v enteen . fyou) score yourself Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM .. .r vou I show up Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM ... fyoul stay home Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM . Jyoul take on Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Teen ... fyou) take your friend ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen .. Jyou) tell her Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM ... fyou) tell her . Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Se v enteen ... fyoul tell her ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Se v enteen . fyoul tell her .... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Se v enteen ... r you I tell her ..... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen Month Year March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 m 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 2000 Februarv 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 Februarv 2000 Februarv 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 Februarv 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 Pa2e 114 114 44 82 114 114 114 84 44 44 84 82 44 44 85 84 112 112 82 44 44 44 44 82 112 44 22 22 84 112 44 112 112 112 114 w w V,

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Data Exam1Jle Discourse Cat~orv ... [ y ou I tell her ..... Qui z Conditioned Discourse (Agency) .. .rvoul tell her.. .... Oui z Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) ... [you) tell him Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... [youl tell him ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) ... [you) tell him ... Qui z Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) ... Jyoul tell him .... Qui z Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) ... [you) tell him .... Qui z Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) .. .f voul tell him .... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... [youl tell him ....... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) ... rvoul tell the gang Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... f youl tell ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) ... rvoul try to hear... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... r you I try to make Qui z Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) ... r voul whip out Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Ag e n cy ) ... rvoul write him ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) ... fvoul veU Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... a bud confesses Qui z Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) ... and [you've startedl Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... and [you've) blamed ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) ... and [youl always follow throulrh Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... and f youl are making ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) ... and [you) ask him Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... and rvoul ask how Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) ... and [you) bag Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... and rvoul desi!!ll Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) ... and [youl desi!!ll ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... and rvoul get busv Qui z Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) ... and [you) give hints Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... and fyoul go Oui z Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) ... and [youl go home Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... and f y oul go ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) ... and [you) hand it... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... and [you} head Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) ... and fyoul head out the door Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... and [you} make them swear Quiz Conditioned Discourse (A~cv) Maeazine Month Seventeen March Se v enteen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Teen February Teen Februarv Seventeen March YM March YM March Teen February Teen February Teen February YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Year 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 Paee 114 114 44 82 114 82 114 114 114 68 112 82 84 85 82 44 44 84 84 84 222 44 108 22 22 22 22 66 22 222 22 82 68 106 108 vJ vJ 0\

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory ... and fyoul plan Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... and [you] soeak. .. Qui z Conditioned Discourse (Agen cy ) ... and fyoul soend ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... and [you] still talk ... Qui z Conditioned Discourse (Agency) . and fyoul tell him Qui z Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... and fyoul tell him Oui z Conditioned Discourse (Agen cy ) ... and fyoul tell him ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... and you have labeled Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) . and {you} call her ... Qui z Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... but fyoul finish Oui z Conditioned Discourse (Agency) . but f y oul remind . Qui z Conditioned Discourse (Agen cy ) .. but fyoul usuall y end up Ou iz Conditioned Discourse (Agen cy ) . do y ou notice Oui z Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... do you ... Qu iz Conditioned Discourse (Ag e n cy ) . do you ... hurn along ... ? Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... everyone you know Qu iz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... girl who asked him . Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... hooefully she won't find out Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... if y ou play fair Oui z Conditioned Discourse (Agency ) ... if you're alwa y s looking Qu iz Conditioned Discourse (Agen cy ) ... no ruv gets beat up by you ... Oui z Conditioned Discourse (Agen cy ) ... she asks y ou .. Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... she asks ... Ou iz Conditioned Discourse (Agen cy ) . she comes ... Ou iz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... she kissed ... Qu iz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... she offers you ... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... she pulls you ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... she's been acting ... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agen cy ) ... she's been doing .. Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... she's been e y eing Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... she's gonna oass ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agen cy ) ... since you started ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Ag e ncy) ... so you don't miss Oui z Conditioned Discourse (Agen cy ) . that you ... pick Qui z Conditioned Discourse (Agen cy ) ... the senior girls are throwing ... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Ma2azine Month Teen February Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Teen February Se v enteen March Teen February Se v enteen March Teen February Se v enteen March Teen February YM March Se v enteen Marc h YM March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March YM March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Se v enteen Marc h Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March YM Marc h Se v enteen Marc h Se v enteen Marc h Teen February YM Mar c h Se v enteen Marc h Year 200 0 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 200 0 2000 1998 1 998 2000 2000 1 998 Pa2e 85 112 112 112 114 85 114 84 114 84 82 84 114 112 44 106 82 108 44 108 82 112 112 114 112 112 114 112 108 2 2 112 114 84 44 112 w w -....J

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Data Examole Discourse Cate2ory Maeazine ... then ryou1 click over ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Se v enteen ... then rYoUl trv ... Oui z Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... they're wearing Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... unless I munch Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM ... what your oal did Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM ... whom you've worshiooed Oui z Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM ... you act Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM ... you admit ... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse ( Agencv) Se v enteen ... you a~ee Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agen cy ) Teen ... you always go . Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Seventeen ... YOU and your mother run ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... you ask your oarents Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Seventeen ... You ask ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... you blow it off Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Teen ... you brace yourself. . Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen . you decide Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM . you decide to add Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Teen . you did not study Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) YM . You do Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Se v enteen ... you do ... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Seventeen ... You do ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... you end up talking Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Se v enteen ... You exolain ... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... you finally roll out of Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Se v enteen ... you find out Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM ... you find out... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Se v enteen ... you flash her a smile Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Se v enteen ... you get them in Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Teen ... you give . Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Se v enteen ... you ~ab Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) Teen ... you ~oan Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Se v enteen ... you have been planning Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) YM ... you have stacked Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Teen .. you hit your oats Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM ... you invite ... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen Month Year March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 February 2000 March 1998 March 2000 February 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 February 2000 March 2000 March 2000 Paee 114 82 106 82 44 44 44 82 66 114 112 108 114 84 112 22 84 44 106 82 112 108 82 106 22 82 106 85 82 68 106 22 84 22 108 w w 00

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Data Example Discourse Catee:ory ... you just whiooed Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you laid out all Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you lend ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you let her ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you let her .. .. Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... vou made it Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) .. YOU made ... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you make sure ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you mark to the beat Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you meant Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you moan Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you oass Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you practice Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you pretend to sleep Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you promise ... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you ran to get her Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you rarely attend Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you sav 'hi' Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you say no ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you say no .. .. Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you say ........ Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you sav ........... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you scream Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you sil!Iled up ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... vou slam the door Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you smile Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... vou snag Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you start Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... vou started Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you studied ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you sue.e.est Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you sue.e.est that Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... you talk to a friend Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... vou tell Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ... vou tell her ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Maeazine Month Teen Februarv Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen Februarv Teen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Teen Februarv Teen February Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March A March Year 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 Pae:e 85 106 114 112 112 68 82 114 108 84 66 44 22 108 82 108 108 108 112 112 44 44 44 82 44 106 22 85 84 112 44 106 108 44 112 w w

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory Maeazine ... vou tell her .... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... you tell him ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... vou tell him ... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... you tell him ... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Teen ... vou tell him ... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... you tell him .... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... vou tell ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... vou toss vour friend Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... you try to ask him Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM ... vou wash Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM ... you were planning to Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... vou were reading it Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM ... you won't tell Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM ... vou'II back off. .. Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... you'll do Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Teen ... vou'II get around Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Teen ... you'll go ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... vou'II hook. .. Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... you'll meet him Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM ... vou'll preoare Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Teen ... you'll read Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Teen . vou'll sit... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... you're going out... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... vou're not going ... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... you're talking ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... vou're the one who invited ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... you've been eveing ___ Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM ... vou've eaten ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Teen ... you've given uo Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Teen . vou've managed to ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM ... you've picked Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Teen ... vou've witnessed Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM ... your best friend asks ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen . vour friend climbs in . Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Seventeen ... your mom will write Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM Month Year March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 Februarv 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 Februarv 2000 February 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 Februarv 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 February 2000 Februarv 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 Paee 112 82 112 85 82 82 82 106 44 114 108 44 44 112 85 85 112 114 44 68 84 82 112 114 114 108 44 84 84 44 70 44 112 114 22 vJ 0

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Data Example Discourse Cateimrv ... Your nal dribbled ketschup Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) . and rdo you] play the oart ... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) .. and rYoul say Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Do you chug? Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Do you hear out Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Do you play Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Do you start ... ? Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) I end up Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) I morph Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) I sit down Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) I sweat... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) I turn Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) I'll hit Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) If you let him Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Jeanette invites you Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) She shares Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Sold on sweatin' solo ... ? Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) You act like ... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv) You always coordinate Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) You don't drink Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) You write Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Your friends tell you Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) rYoul ask him ... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ryoul bail... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) rYoul finish your history oaoer Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) ryoul give her Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) r you 1 volunteer Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) if you circled (3 times) Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) you blow off Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) you go outside Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) you head for your usual... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YOU know ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) you swear Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) you're reading Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) you've been reading Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) Mae.azine Month Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Se v enteen March Teen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Teen February Teen February Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Se ventee n March Seventeen March Teen February YM March Teen February Year 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 Pae.e 108 44 106 44 44 44 44 82 82 82 26 82 82 44 106 66 26 82 106 44 22 106 85 85 106 22 44 26 44 106 106 108 85 44 85 w -

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Data Example Discourse Cate2orv Ma2azine you've built Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM you've had enoul!h Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency) YM ... You all agree not to ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) Seventeen ... fyou1 know .... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) Seventeen ... [youl think Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) YM ... and fyoul think Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) Teen ... and [youl thought. .. Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) Seventeen . and fyoul try to aooear Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) Seventeen ... but [you] doubt Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) YM ... she knows ... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) Seventeen ... what vou're thinking ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) Seventeen ... you fieured Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) Seventeen ... vou know ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) Seventeen ... you know ... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) Seventeen ... vou know ..... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) Seventeen ... you remember .... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) Seventeen ... YOU secretly think ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) Seventeen ... you swore you'd do ... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agencv Mental Process) Seventeen ... YOU think ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) Seventeen ... you were trying to tempt Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) Seventeen ... vou'll oromise Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) Teen ... you'll think Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) Teen I don't think so Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) YM you forgot Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) Teen you oromise to Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Agency Mental Process) Teen ... you get ... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse
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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory ... she's more into him ... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse
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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory Ma2azine Month Year Pa2e ... and rvoul lie . Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Negati v e Agency) Seventeen March 1998 114 ... but fyoul don't start Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Negative Agency) Teen February 2000 84 ... she has been missing . Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Negative Agency) Seventeen March 1998 112 ... she kee p s sleeping in class ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Negative Agency) Seventeen March 1998 112 ... she's been absent... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Negative Agency) Se v enteen March 1998 112 ... why make him angry Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Negative Agency) Teen March 1998 68 ... y o u b lurt out ridiculous comments Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Negative Agency) Teen March 1998 68 . y o u can't ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Negative Agency) Se ve nteen March 1998 114 ... you can't sa y . Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Negative Agency) Seventeen March 1998 114 . you do n't even ask Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Negative Agency) Teen March 1998 66 ... y o u don't even know ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Negati v e Agenc y ) Seventeen March 1998 112 ... y o u never keep them Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Negative Agency) Teen February 2000 84 ... y o u still haven't put Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Negative Agency) Teen February 2000 84 . v o u'are not going to a fashion ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Negative Agency) Se v enteen March 2000 106 . y o u've been neglecting Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Negative Agency) Teen March 1998 70 ... vou've l ost sigh t Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Negative Agency) Teen March 1998 70 ... y our friend has been wearing out. . Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Negative Agency) Se ve nteen March 1998 114 I can't ace ... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Negative Agency) YM March 1998 82 w t I can't go Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Negative Agency) YM March 1998 82 . v o u don't know Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Negative Agency Mental Process) Teen March 1998 68 ... f youl d o n't oother making ... Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Negative Exoeriencer) Teen February 2000 84 ... v o u do n't care Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Negative Exoeriencer) Seventeen March 2000 1 0 8 . y o u d o n't really care ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Negative Exoeriencer) Se ve nteen March 1998 114 I don't feel... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Negative Exoeriencer) YM March 1998 82 ... y o u can't be Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Negative Modal) Teen February 2000 85 I don't have . Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Negative Possessi v e) YM March 1998 82 . y o u sho uldn't have ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Negative Volitional) Seventeen March 1998 112 ... fyoul have (2 times) Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) Teen February 2000 84 . she has n o excuse Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) YM March 1998 44 ... s o y o u have Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) Teen February 2000 84 ... y o u have Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) Teen March 1998 66 ... y o u h ave nothing else Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) Se ve nteen March 2000 108 ... y o u've g o t Ouiz Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) Teen February 2000 85 I'm havin g Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Possessive) YM March 1998 82 I've g ot. . Ouiz C o nditioned Discourse (Possessive) YM March 2000 114

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Data Example Discourse Catee:orv Mae:azioe .. .I get Qui z Conditioned Discourse (Process ) YM ... you hav e to ... Qui z Conditioned Discourse (Volitional) Se v enteen . v ou should sav ... Quiz Conditioned Discourse (Volitional ) Se v enteen Month Year March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 Pae:e 82 114 114 w V,

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APPENDIXO ST AR SUBJECTS

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\.,J .t. _, Data Example ..... she savs ... she* says .... she* says ... ... Adler* adds ... ... Alkon* su1?1?ests . All Saints says ... ... Amanda* took it as . ... And [ she 1 left her.. ... Aoolebv* decided ... Annlebv* describes ... ... Aooleby* hasn't lost... ibv*1 ' ... Annie says ... Appleby was hanging . ... Annlebv went on ... ... Aooleby* ... shared a laugh ... Azura* evens out. . ... Azura highli!!hts ... ... Azura is talking about. . ... Azura* keeps her locks ... ... Azura* says ... ... Birdee is leading ... Boteler says ... Boteler says ... ... Britney* had ... Chilli* bears her soul ... Christan* added ... Christan aoolied . Christan finished ... ... Christan said ... Christian aoolied . ... Christina* choose ... ... Christina* put on her . . . Christina* wore her hair ... Claire* chatted ... ... Claire* oortra y s ... Discourse Cate2ory Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subiect (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subiect (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Star Subject (Agency) Mru!azine Month Year Paee Seventeen March 2000 168 Seventeen March 2000 168 Seventeen March 1998 159 Seventeen March 2000 108 Seventeen March 2000 144 Seventeen March 1998 172 YM March 1998 114 Seventeen March 2000 50 Seventeen March 2000 166 Seventeen March 2000 166 Seventeen March 2000 168 Seventeen March 2000 166 Seventeen March 2000 164 Seventeen March 2000 166 Seventeen March 2000 168 Seventeen March 2000 58 Seventeen March 2000 58 Seventeen March 2000 58 Seventeen March 2000 58 Seventeen March 2000 58 Teen March 1998 52 Seventeen March 2000 242 Seventeen March 2000 242 YM March 2000 86 YM March 2000 91 Seventeen March 1998 46 Seventeen March 1998 46 Seventeen March 1998 40 Seventeen March 1998 40 Seventeen March 1998 40 Seventeen March 2000 50 Seventeen March 2000 50 Seventeen March 2000 50 Seventeen March 1998 164 Teen March 1998 53

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory ... Claire* signs Star Subject (Agency) . Clayton* sa ys Star SuQject (Agency) . Cvnthia and Brittany* who pla y ... Star Subject (Agency) ... Do the Spice Girls* make you ... Star Subject (Agency) ... Do you* really play Star Subject (Agency) . Do you* try ... Star Subject (Agency) ... Dr. Jacobson* says ... Star Subject (Agency) ... Dr. Jacobson* SU!!!!ests Star Subject (Agency) ... Dr. Jaliman* recommends Star Subject (Agency) ... Dr. McGrath* says ... Star Subject (Agency) ... Emily* admits ... Star Subject ( Agency) ... Emily* also questions ... Star Subject (Agency) ... Emily* finds ... Star Subject (Agency) ... Emily* says . Star Subject (Agency) ... Gwen* .. and Ka y* ... share Star Subject (Agency) ... Hala* meets ... Star Subject (Agency) ... Hillyer* stresses ... Star Subject (Agency) .. .Jessica* made Star Subject (Agency) . .Jessica* spills Star Subject (Agency) .. .Joan* wold play ... Star Subiect (Agency) .. .Jodi Lyn OKeefe* stars in ... Star Subject (Agency) . .Joey* rows ... Star Subject (Agency) ... Katie* admits ... Star Subject (Agency) . Katie* chose ... Star Subiect (Agency) ... Katie* comes ... Star Subject (Agency) . Katie* explains . Star Subject (Agency) ... Katie* is doing . Star Subject (Agency) ... Katie* means ... Star Subiect (Agency) ... Katie* plays . Star Subject (Agency) ... Katie* noses ... Star Subiect (Agency) ... Katie* spends ... Star Subject (Agency) ... Lauryn Hill* is using Star Subiect (Agency) ... Lila* sang Star Subject (Agency) ... Maria Patillo* plays ... Star Subject (Agency) ... Melissa* and Emil y say "cheese" . Star Subject (Agency) Ma2azine Month Year Teen February 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 1998 YM March 1998 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 1998 YM March 1998 YM March 2000 YM March 1998 Teen February 2000 Teen February 2000 Teen February 2000 Teen February 2000 YM March 1998 Teen March 1998 Teen March 1998 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 Se venteen March 1998 Se ventee n March 2000 Seventeen March 1998 Se venteen March 1998 Se ve nteen March 1998 Se v enteen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Se ve nteen March 1998 Se ve nteen March 1998 Se ve nteen March 1998 Seventeen March 2000 YM March 1998 Teen March 1998 Teen February 2000 Paee 49 68 236 26 40 94 36 36 115 60 47 47 47 47 114 53 70 94 94 236 36 238 159 238 161 159 160 159 159 161 238 114 115 45 14 \.,J 00

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Data Example Discourse Cateeory ... Melissa* and Emil v who both star ... Star Subject (Agencv) ... Melissa* reveals Star Subject (Agency) ... Melissa* . savs ... Star Subject (Agencv) ... Michelle says .... Star Subject (Agency) ... Michelle* graduated .. Star Subject (Agencv) ... Michelle* e:ushes ... Star Subject (Agency) ... Michelle* sa v s ... Star Subject (Agencv) ... Michelle* who ola v s ... Star Subject (Agencv) ... Noami* came home Star Subject (Agency) ... Powell* calls home Star Subject (Agencv) ... Powell* flios through ... Star Subject (Agency) ... Powell* nersonalizes Star Subject (Agencv) ... Powell* points out Star Subject (Agency) ... Powell* savs Star Subject (Agencv) ... Price* invited Star Subject (Agency) ... Robin Schoen* (e) chose ... Star Subject (Agency) . Rozanda "Chili" Thomas* ... ha v e bounce Star Subject (Agencv) ... Sabrina* eathered ... Star Subject (Agencv) ... Sarina* snends Star Subiect (Agencv) . Sasha* grew up . StarSubject (Agency) ... Sasha* had adapted ... Star Subject (Agencv) ... Sasha* has been ... Star Subject (Agency) ... Savs Powell Star Subject (Agencv) ... She* brings Star Subject (Agency) ... She* hangs out Star Subject (Agencv) ... She* presents ... Star Subject (Agency) ... She* smoothes on ... Star Subject (Agencv) ... Sheri* blended ... Star Subject (Agency) ... Sheri started ... Star Subject (Agencv) ... Sherri* swept shadow ... Star Subject (Agencv) . Shiri Aooleby* almost didn't... Star Subject (Agency) . Shiri Aooleby* decided Star Subject (Agencv) ... Sonomi* ... gave Star Subject (Agency) ... The y 're* both wearing Star Subject (Agencv) ... The y backnacked Star Subject (Agency) Maeazioe Month Teen February Teen Februarv Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Teen March Teen March Teen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Sevent een March Year 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 Paee 14 47 47 161 161 161 161 161 236 160 160 160 160 160 182 203 91 46 172 8 8 8 160 160 160 50 58 72 72 72 164 168 104 104 168 I.;.)

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory ... Thev* write Star Subject (Agencv) ... Tiffani-Amber Thiessen* and ... Dean Jo Star Subject (Agency) ... Tinner Gore* sneaks Star Subject (Agency) ... Tipper* soutlt Star Subject (Agencv) ... Tori Snelling* caused a big buzz Star Subject (Agency) ... Tyra* learns ... Star Subject (Agencv) ... Veronica* studied Star Subject (Agency) ... Will Nina* convince him Star Subject (Agencv) ... Wvnonna* would throw ... Star Subject (Agency) ... fErnily*l falls in the middle ... Star Subject (Agencv) ... fHala*l falls hard ... Star Subject (Agency) ... fPNs* (4) l hio boo dance Star Subject (Agencv) ... JPNs* (4)1 kickbox ... Star Subject (Agency) ... fPNs* (4)1 squat... Star Subject (Agencv) ... r she*l finished ... Star Subject (Agency) ... r she* l settles ... Star Subject (Agencv) ... rshel* fluffed them Star Subject (Agency) ... r she l lined ... Star Subject (Agencv) ... r she 1 revealed that.. Star Subject (Agency) ... rshel* said Star Subject (Agencv) .. .rthey*l also dished Star Subject (Agency) ... fthev*l live together ... Star Subject (Agencv) ... adds Tamara* Star Subject (Agency) ... advises Debra Haffner* Star Subject (Agencv) ... and Emily* stars Star Subject (Agency) ... and Wvn* took. .. Star Subject (Agencv) ... and fNina*l asks George ... Star Subject (Agency) ... and fPNs* (4)1 practice Star Subject (Agencv) ... and rshe* isl raising Star Subject (Agency) ... and [she* would] rearrange ... Star Subject (Agencv) ... and r she*] captures ... Star Subject (Agency) ... and [she*l decorated Star Subject (Agencv) ... and rshe*l does ... Star Subject (Agency) ... and [she*l headed ... Star Subject (Agencv) ... and rshe*l smudged Star Subject (Agencv) Ma2azine Month Year YM March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 YM March 1998 YM March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Teen Februarv 2000 Teen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Teen Februarv 2000 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 2000 YM March 1998 Teen Februarv 2000 Seventeen March 1998 YM March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 YM March 2000 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Paee 104 182 150 150 182 40 114 28 236 14 53 78 78 78 44 53 44 44 150 150 14 236 108 40 47 236 28 78 52 236 161 44 18 161 40 w VI 0

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory ... and r she*l tal!l!ed Star Subject (Agency) ... and r she*l turns Star Sul:>ject (Agency) ... and f she*l worked her way ... Star Subject (Agency) ... and r shel* added Star Sul:>ject (Agency) ... and f shel* curls her lashes ... Star Subject (Agency) ... and r shel* discovered . Star Subject (Agency) ... and r shel* pinned Star Subject (Agency) ... and f she]* played UP her .. Star Subject (Agency) ... and r shel* took Star Subject (Agency) ... and f shel* wore it... Star Subject (Agency) ... and rthey're*l taking Star Subject (Agency) ... and f they*l give some sisterly advice Star Subject (Agency) ... and r thev share ... Star Sul:>ject (Agen cy ) ... and fthey*] tackled ... Star Subject (Agency) ... and she ascended ... Star Subject (Agency) ... and she did Star Subject (Agency) ... and she has brought Star Subject (Agency) ... and she sets out Star Subject (Agen cy ) ... as her dau!!hter* basks ... Star Subject (Agency) . as she gears up ... Star Subject (Agency) ... ask Kilculien* Star Subject (Agency) . babes* dish Star Subject (Agency) ... beauty* inquires ... Star Subject (Agency) ... beauty ... who arrives ... Star Sul:>ject (Agency) ... but MJH* says ... Star Subject (Agency) ... can one cir!* handle . ? Star Subject (Agency) ... cautions Dr. Debbie Star Subject (Agency) ... do you* admire most. .. Star Subject (Agency) ... do you* sing ... ? Star Subject (Agency) ... explains Alison Boteler* Star Subject (Agency) . explains Amy Newburger MD* Star Sul:>ject (Agency) ... explains Dr. Jaliman* Star Subject (Agency) ... explains Dr. McGrath* Star Subject (Agency) ... explains Hillyer Star Subject (Agency) ... explains Melissa* Star Subject (Agency) Mru.rnzine Month YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March YM March Teen February Se v enteen March Teen February Teen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February YM March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Teen February YM March YM March Teen February Se v enteen March Se v enteen March YM March YM March YM March Teen March Tee n February Year 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 200 0 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 200 0 1998 1998 200 0 Pa2e 114 114 72 46 58 236 44 50 168 50 115 4 236 47 53 44 164 172 164 164 85 115 159 161 47 40 48 47 164 242 28 117 6 2 70 47 w Vt -

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Data Example Discourse Cate1?0rv ... explains Van Hooser* Star Subject ( Agency) ... cirls* even brought them Star Subject (Agency) ... her best friend* goes ... Star SuQject (Agency) ... her mom* modeled ... Star Subject (Agency) ... her mom* nicknamed .. Star Subject (Agency) ... her mother* has put ... Star Subject (Agency) ... how she* met Star Subject (Agency) ... if you* scored Star Subject (Agency) ... notes Lvnn* Star Subject (Agency) ... our pro* finished ... Star Subject (Agency) ... oortraits she's* taken of... Star Subject (Agency) ... reveals Shiri* Star Subject (Agency) ... reveals the 21-year-old* ... Star Subject (Agency) ... says Adler* Star Subject (Agency) ... says Adler* ... Star Subject (Agency) ... says Adler* .... Star Subject (Agency) ... says Alkon* Star Subject (Agency) ... says Alkon* ... Star Subject (Agency) ... says Amy Allison* Star Subject (Agency) ... says Anne Kilculien* Star Subject (Agency) ... says Aoolebv* Star Subject (Agency) ... says Aooleby* ... Star Subject (Agency) ... says Ashlev* ... Star Subject (Agency) ... says Azura Skye* ... Star Subject (Agency) ... says Bonnie Jacobson* Star Subject (Agency) . says Christian* Star Subject (Agency) ... says Claire* Star Subject (Agency) ... says Conchata* ... Star Subject (Agency) ... says Cvnthia* ... Star Subject (Agency) ... says Dowd* ... Star Subject (Agency) ... says Dr. Debbie* (2 times) Star Subject (Agency) ... says Dr. Debbie* (7 times) Star Subject (Agency) ... says Dr Jaliman* Star Subject (Agency) ... says Dr Jaliman* (3 times) Star Subject (Agency) ... says Dr. Jaliman* (5 times) Star Subject (Agency) Ma2.azioe Month Seventeen March Teen Februarv Teen March Teen March T een March Seventeen March YM March Se v enteen March YM March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Teen February Seventeen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March YM March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Year 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 Paee 78 49 52 8 8 224 115 174 44 72 150 1 6 6 164 108 108 108 144 144 144 85 166 168 236 58 36 40 164 224 236 239 46 48 115 117 116 vJ VI N

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Data Example Discourse Cateswrv ... says Dr Jaliman* ... Star Subject (Agency) ... says Dr McGrath* (3 more times) Star Subject (Agency) ... says Dr McGrath* (3 times) Star Subject (Agency) ... says Dr. Newburger* Star Subject (Agency) ... says Dr Ponton* Star Subiect ( Agency) ... savs Ellen* Star Subiect (Agency) ... says Em* Star Subiect (Agency) ... savs Essence* Star Subject (Agency) ... says Fabrice* Star Subject (Agency) ... savs Grossman* Star Subject (Agency) ... says Helen Friedman* Star Subject (Agency) . savs Hillyer* Star Subject (Agency) ... says Hilly er* ... Star Subject (Agency) ... says Hillyer* .... Star Subject (A2ency) . says James* (2 times) Star Subject (Agency) . says James* . Star Subiect ( Agency) . says Jamie-Lvnn* Star Subject (Agency) ... savs Jan Arnold* Star Subject (Agency) ... savs Jane Greer* Star Subject (Agency) ... says JoAnn Hattner* Star Subiect (Agency) ... savs Kilculien* Star Subject (Agency) ... says Lonnie* Star Subiect (Agency) ... says Marion* Star Subject (Agency) ... says Melissa* (3 times) Star Subiect (Agency) ... savs Mello* Star Subject (A2encv) ... savs Michelle* ... Star Subject (Agency) . says Moore* Star Subiect (Agency) ... savs Paula Hillard, MD* Star Subject (Agency) ... says Price* Star Subiect ( Agency) ... savs Price* ... Star Subject (Agency) ... says Rev-Alvarez* Star Subiect (Agency) ... says Sharon* Star Subject (Agency) ... says Sheri* ... Star Subject (Agency) ... says Shiri* Star Subject (Agency) ... savs Susan Clavton* Star Subject (Agency) Maeazine Month YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen February Seventeen March Teen February Teen February YM March Teen March Teen March Teen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Teen February YM March YM March Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Sev enteen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Year 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 Pa~e 115 62 62 28 44 60 47 78 76 79 46 70 70 70 104 104 172 64 40 34 85 36 104 47 108 161 238 42 182 182 146 70 72 166 68 w Vt w

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Data Example Discourse Cateimry ... says Tracy Warbin* Star Subject (Agen cy) ... sa y s Warbin* Star Subject ( Ag e ncy) ... says Warbin* (2 times) Star Subject (Agency) ... says actress Anne-Marie* Star Subiect (Agency) ... says nail pro PN* ... Star Subject (Agency) ... says singer Jo* Star Subject (Agency) ... says the Southern California native* Star Subject (Agency) ... says the star of Dr. Quinn* ... Star Subject (Agency) ... says the star* Star Subject (Agency) ... says . Mally Ronceal* Star Subject (Agency) ... she (e) aoolied* ... Star Subject (Agency) ... she (e) emphasized* ... Star Subject (Agency) ... she (e) ooints out* ... Star Subject (Agency) ... she'd* say ... Star Subject (Agenc y ) ... she'll* work .. Star Subject (Agency) ... she's* aooeared in ... Star Subject (Agency) ... she's* been soending Star Subject (Agency) ... she's* doing ... Star Subject (Agency) ... she's* done Star Subject (Agency) ... she's* tra v eling ... Star Subject (Agency) ... she* adds Star Subject (Agency) ... she* admits (2 times) StarSubject (Agency) ... she* admits ... Star Subject (Agency) ... she* admits .. .. Star Subject (Agency) ... she* aoolied Star Subject (Agency) ... she* asks .. Star Subject (Agency) ... she* began Star Subject (Agency) ... she* cries ... Star Subject (Agency) ... she* did Star Subject (Agency) ... she* did .. Star Subject (Agency) ... she* didn't live there ... Star Subject (Agency) ... she* discovers ... Star Subject (Agency) ... she* does identifv ... Star Subject (Agency) ... she* explains ... Star Subject (Agency) ... she* gathered Star Subject (Agency) Maeazine Month Year YM Ma rc h 200 0 YM March 200 0 YM March 2000 Se venteen March 20 0 0 Seventeen March 20 0 0 Se v enteen March 2000 Seventeen March 20 0 0 Se v enteen March 1998 Se v enteen March 20 0 0 YM March 20 0 0 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Se ve nteen March 1998 Teen February 20 0 0 Se v enteen March 1998 YM March 20 0 0 Teen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 YM March 1998 Se v enteen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Sev enteen March 1998 Se v enteen March 1998 Se ve nteen March 20 0 0 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 20 0 0 Teen March 1998 YM March 1998 Se v enteen March 2000 Se v enteen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Se v enteen March 1998 Pru!e 103 1 03 10 7 114 64 1 6 2 16 0 225 1 82 26 2 03 2 03 203 47 1 6 4 107 53 53 5 3 132 78 115 238 238 44 1 59 172 238 182 52 28 712 160 1 6 0 40 l.;J V1

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Data Example Discourse Catel!.on Marazine . she* grew up ... Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... she* has reco ve red Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen . she* has ... Star Subject (Agency) Teen ... she* is building Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen . she* just simed Star Subject (Agency) Teen ... she* keens it Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... she* landed Star Subject (Agency) Teen ... she* landed ...... Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... she* lauehs Star Subject (Agency) Teen ... she* lends ... Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... she* loves him Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... she* meets ... Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... she* met Star Subject (Agency) YM . she* misses ... Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen . she* ooted Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... she* protra y s Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... she* puts tons ... Star Subject (Agency) Teen ... she* rammed ... Star Subject (Agency) YM . she* recalls Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen . she* recommends Star Subject (Agency) YM ... she* recommends Star Subject (Agency) YM ... she* recommends . Star Subject (Agency) YM ... she* rescheduled . Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen . she* rolled Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen . she* said Star Subject (Agency) Teen . she* sang Star Subject (Agency) YM ... she* says Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen . she* says Star Subject (Agency) YM ... she* says . Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen . she* says ... Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen . she* savs ... Star Subject (A gen cy) Seventeen ... she* sa y s .... Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... she* savs ..... Star Subject (Agency) Teen ... she* says ... ... Star Subject (Agency) Seventeen ... she* sa y s . . . . Star Subject (Agency) Teen Month Year March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 Februarv 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 Februarv 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 Pare 160 150 53 78 54 168 53 186 47 238 26 176 114 161 172 172 53 114 166 48 116 117 160 44 45 115 150 116 160 160 160 225 8 58 8 w Vl Vl

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory ... she* savs ........... Star Subject (A1?.encv) ... she* sa y s .............. .... Star Subject (Agency) ... she* sa v s ...................... Star Subject (Agencv) ... she* says ................. ......... Star Subject (Agency) ... she* savs ........ . ......... .... .... Star Subject (Agencv) ... she* sa y s ........................ ....... Star Subject (Agency) ... she* savs ...... ................... ......... Star Subject (Agencv) ... she* savs ......... ................. ............... Star Subject (Agencv) ... she* settles Star Subject (Agencv) ... she* sounds like Star Subject (Agencv) ... she* sounds like (2 times) Star Subject (Agency) ... she* sounds like ......... Star Subject (Agencv) ... she* sounds like .......... Star Subject (Agency) ... she* staved ... Star Subject (Al?.encv) ... she* takes Star Subject (Agency) ... she* threw a ... bash Star Subject (Agencv) ... she* travels ... Star Subject (Agency) ... she* underestimates Star Subject (Agency) ... she* urges Star Subject (Agencv) . she* was joel!:ing Star Subject (Agencv) ... she* washes her.. skin ... Star Subject (Agency) ... she* works tirelessl v Star Subject (Agencv) ... sisters* who try to outdo y ou Star Subject (Agencv) ... so she* does Star Subject (Agencv) ... stars* who are blossoming Star Subject (Agency) ... sueeests Chervl Renella* Star Subject (Agency) ... the 19-year-old* stars ... Star Subject (Agencv) ... the Harts* tackle issues Star Subject (Agency) ... the actress* reflected Star Subject (Agencv) ... the character* has alreadv lost ... Star Subject (Agency) ... the girl* who sat in front Star Subject (Agency) ... the 1?.irl* ... staved busv StarSubject (Agency) ... the glam girls* beat. .. Star Subject (Agencv) ... they* put Star Subject (Agency) ... thev* shine in Star Subject (Agencv) Ma2azine Month YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March YM March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen Februarv YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March Year 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 Pa2e 114 46 164 166 166 118 166 166 53 114 115 114 114 160 114 182 160 160 85 114 58 150 14 168 103 28 28 14 186 160 28 168 26 104 103 w VI

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Data Examole Discourse Catesrnrv ... this singer* escaoes Star Subiect (Aeencv) ... this star* caught. .. Star Subiect (Agency) ... three* ... are starring Star Subiect ( Aeencv) ... warns Dr. Ponton* Star Subiect (Agency) ... warns Hillyer* Star Subiect (Aeencv) ... what do you* mean ... ? Star Subject (Agency) ... what she's* doine now Star Subiect (Aeency) ... what they* said Star Subject
PAGE 365

Data Example Discourse Cate1wrv Boteler sueeests Star Subject (Agency) Christan brushed ... Star Subject (Agency) Christan created ... Star Subject (Agency) Christan* dusted Star Subject (Agency) Christan planned Star Subject (Agencv) Christine emerges Star Subject (Agency) Claire Danes talks about. .. Star Subject (Ae;ency) Claire Danes talks about. ... Star Subject (Agency) Diane Torr* starts off Star Subject (Agency) Diane* coaches ... Star Subject (Agency) Diane* explains . Star Subject (Agency) Diane* makes me Star Subject (Agency) Do you* crush ... Star Subject (Agency) Dowd says Star Subject (Agency) Dr. Berson savs ... Star Subject (Agency) Dr. Berson sueeests ... Star Subject (Agency) Dr. Debbie* savs (5 times) Star Subject (Agency) Dr. Jaliman* advises Star Subject (Agency) Dr. Jaliman* advises ... Star Subject (Agency) Dr. Jaliman* notes Star Subject (Agency) Dr. Jaliman* sueeests Star Subject (Agency) Dr. Jaliman* suee.ests ... Star Subject (Agency) Dr. Jaliman ... sueeests Star Subject (Agency) Dr. Rey-Alvarez recommends Star Subject (Agency) Felicitv rearranged Star Subject (Agency) Fonner ... Tipper Gore talks about. .. Star Subject (Agency) Hart girls talk about Star Subject (Agency) Heather Graham* fell for ... Star Subject (Agency) Kat James* recommends ... Star Subject (Agency) Katie* tucks . Star Subject (Agency) Kay says (3 times) Star Subject (Agency) Kristi Fuhrmann slips you Star Subject (Agency) Lisa and Fave* ... hangin' Star Subject (Agency) Mariah ... and Veronica share . Star Subject (Agency) Marion plays Star SuQject (Agency) Ma2azine Month Year Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 YM March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 YM March 1998 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Teen February 2000 Seventeen March 2000 YM March 2000 Seventeen March 1998 YM March 1998 YM March 2000 Teen February 2000 YM March 1998 YM March 2000 Pa2e 242 40 46 44 44 78 0 9 241 241 241 241 40 239 64 64 48 116 117 116 116 117 115 146 110 20 4 50 103 238 114 34 49 114 104 w I.I\ 00

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Data Example Discourse Cateeory Maril* jams Star Subject (Agency) Melissa* and Emily* pla ye d ... Star Subject (Agency) Melissa* stars ... Star Subject (Agency) Missy* pitched in ... Star Subject (Agency) Nancy E Dowd* sa y s Star Subject (Agency) Natasha Lynne* heats up ... Star Subject (Agency) Nicks's sister Lesley* is flexing ... Star Subject (Agency) Nicole Miller* featured ... Star Subject (Agency) Notes Dr. Jaliman* Star Subject (Agency) PNs* (4) lunge ... Star Subject (Agency) Price* focused on details Star Subject (Agency) Rachael Leigh Cook* w ho attended Star Subject (Agency) Roswell's Shirl Appleby* shares ... Star Subject (Agency) Sabrina* curled Star Subject (Agency) Selma Blair* takes on ... Star Subject (Agency) Selma* fell for Freddie ... Star Subject (Agency) She* holds ... Star Subject (Agency) She* recommends Star Subject (Agency) Sheryl Crow* and ... Arnanda* ha ve ... Star Subject (Agency) Singer Monique Powell* has adapted ... Star Subject (Agency) Singer Monique Powell* . shares . Star Subject (Agency) Tara L has acted Star Subject (Agency) The Spice Girls* nerform Star Subject (Agency) These sistahs* are heating up ... Star Subject (Agency) To what sorority does Cici* belong ? Star Subject (Agency) Tyra Banks* tells . Star Subject (Agency) Vivienne Tam* took ... Star Subject (Agency) What is Casey* cooking? Star Subject (Age n cy) Why did y ou* decid e ... Star Subject (Agency) says Do w d* Star Subject (Agency) says Kristin Moore* Star Subject (Agency) she's* corresoonding ... Star Subject (Agency) she* does Star Subject (Agency) she* sul!:l!:ests Star Subject (Agency) she* went Star Subject (Age n cy) Maeazioe Month YM March Teen February Teen February YM March Seventeen March YM March Teen February Teen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seven t een March Seventeen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Year 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 Pa2e 104 48 47 115 238 28 54 114 115 78 182 189 0 44 40 40 150 116 114 160 17 115 26 115 174 17 114 174 150 239 238 132 40 6 2 186 w VI

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Data Example Discourse Catee:on which ... college does Sidne y attend ? Star Subject (Agency) who* gives advice Star Subiect (Agency) ... Emily* thought ... Star Subeict (Ae:ency Mental Process) ... Melissa* thinks ... Star Subeict (Agency Mental Process) ... She* thought of Star Subeict (Ae:ency Mental Process) ... INina*l decides ... Star Subeict (Agency Mental Process) ... do you* ever think Star Subeict (Agency Mental Process) ... how well do they* know ... Star Subeict (Agency Mental Process) .. .lamented the NJ native* ... Star Subeict (Ae:ency Mental Process) ... she* doesn't remember Star Subeict (Agency Mental Process) ... she* realized Star Subeict (Ae:ency Mental Process) ... she* realizes ... Star Subeict (Agency Mental Process) ... they* really know Star Subeict (Ae:ency Mental Process) ... you* think .. Star Subeict (Agency Mental Process) Christina Ricci* wakes uo ... Star Subeict (Ae:ency Mental Process) Tyra Banks* remembers .. Star Subejct (Agency Mental Process) ... Aoolebv* got the call Star Subiect (Benefactive) ... she* gets ... Star Subject
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Data Examole Discourse Cateeon I dyi ti . y ou re mg or ... Star Subject (E x periencer) ... y ou* believe Star Subject (Exoeriencer) ... y ou* could Star Subject
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Data Example Discourse CatePorv ... she* threw a little fit ... Star Subject (Neeative Agency) ... Katie* never thought... Star Subiect (Neeative Agencv Mental Process) ... she'll* never have ... Star Subject (Nel!ative Possessi ve) Aooleby* never did get to ... Star Subiect (Nel!ative Volitional) ... Helen* gets fired ... Star Subject (Passive) ... Mel C. .. .is chained ... Star Subiect (Passive) ... she's* trained in Star Subject
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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory Ma2azioe . .Jen* should take ... Star Subiect (Volitional) Seventeen ... and rAmanda*l had to wear Star Subject (Volitional) YM ... ha v e v ou* had to . Star Subject (Volitional) YM ... she* gets to ... Star Subject (Volitional) Seventeen Jamie S who had to choose ... Star Subject (Volitional) Seventeen actress* who gets to .... Star SuQject (Volitiona l ) Seventeen v ou* don't have to Star Subject (Volitional) Teen Month Year March 1998 March 1998 March 19998 March 2000 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 Pa2e 161 114 28 164 20 186 54 l..,J 0\ l..,J

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APPENDIXP TEEN WOMAN AS SEMANTIC ROLE VOLITIONAL

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w 0\ V, Data Examole .... you have to ... rvou'll have to stopl and rest ... ... a young woman should have ... ... and lvou gottal show him ... ... anyone ... should ... but that doesn't mean you need ... ... doesn't mean vou don't have ... every girl should have ... ... iust because vou aren't... ... must-see movies and hotties ... must-see ... shows ... she had to ... she'd have to ... ... showing off the shoulder is a must ... thev've gotta ... ... those should begin ... we women need ... what vou must remember ... what you need to know ... what vou need ... ... what you want. .. ... vou and y our boyfriend don't have to ... ... you barelv need ... ... you both have to ... ... vou don't have to ... you don't need ... vou don't want. . ... you don't want.. .. ... vou get to ... ... vou gotta get ... you gotta have ... ... vou gotta realize ... you gotta tell ... vou have got to ... you have the right Discourse Cate1!orv Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Volitional Ma2azioe Month Year Pa2e YM March 1998 26 Seventeen March 1998 140 Seventeen March 1998 142 Teen March 1998 30 Seventeen March 1998 56 Seventeen March 2000 76 Seventeen March 2000 108 Teen February 2000 40 Seventeen March 2000 108 Teen March 1998 4 Seventeen March 1998 90 Teen March 1998 60 Seventeen March 1998 215 Teen March 1998 98 Seventeen March 1998 116 YM March 2000 34 YM March 2000 52 Seventeen March 2000 148 Seventeen March 2000 62 Seventeen March 1998 148 Seventeen March 2000 62 Seventeen March 1998 80 Seventeen March 1998 188 Seventeen March 1998 82 YM March 1998 58 Teen February 2000 36 Seventeen March 1998 84 Seventeen March 1998 84 YM March 2000 23 Teen March 1998 66 Seventeen March 1998 46 YM March 2000 68 Teen March 1998 30 YM March 2000 68 Teen Februarv 2000 36

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Data Example Discourse Cate1mn ... you have to decide Volitional ... you have to keeo and not dwell Volitional ... you have to live Volitional ... YOU have to ... Volitional ... you have to .... Volitional ... YOU have to ........ Volitional ... you just have to Volitional ... YOU know ... Volitional ... you must enclose Volitional ... you must look Volitional ... you need Volitional . you need some time . Volitional ... you need to Volitional ... you need to go back Volitional ... you need to ... Volitional ... you need to ... Volitional ... you need to .... Volitional ... you need .. Volitional ... you need .. .. Volitional ... vou need .......... Volitional ... you orobably need Volitional ... you should Volitional ... you should be taking Volitional . you should do Volitional ... you should feel... Volitional ... you should feel.. .. Volitional ... you should iust stoo Volitional ... you should listen Volitional ... you should tell him Volitional . you should . Volitional ... you should ... ..... .... .... ........ Volitional ... YOU shouldn't care ... Volitional ... you will definitely need ... Volitional . you will have to use . Volitional ... you wouldn't want him Volitional Mal!azine Month Teen Februarv Teen Februarv YM March Seventeen March Teen March Teen March YM March Teen March Teen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen Februarv Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Teen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen Februarv Year 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 Pa2e 40 38 52 188 26 61 62 44 123 91 188 76 48 148 84 138 140 142 100 26 48 188 42 78 140 142 68 68 48 153 43 82 138 138 36 w 0\ 0\

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Data Example Discourse Cateiwrv ... you'd better test vour Scream first Volitional ... you'd never know Volitional ... vou'll have susnected .. Volitional ... you'll have to scoot... Volitional ... vou'll know ... Volitional ... you'll need Volitional ... vou're going to have to take some action Volitional ... you've got to get o ver it Volitional ... vou've got to ... Volitional ... you've got to .... Volitional ... vou've gotta do it Volitional ... you've gotta go Volitional ... vou've gotta li!?.hten up Volitional 17 thin!!S vou should do ... Volitional Do you have to take Volitional Do vou have to take ... Volitional Each of you needs ... Volitional I have to ... Volitional I should have ... Volitional I'd have to Volitional Jill should skip Volitional Karen has to decide ... Volitional Karen should ask Mike Volitional You should do ... Volitional floral must haves Volitional gotta have Volitional gotta have it Volitional gotta have it... Volitional gotta-have accessories Volitional if she should ... Volitional latest gotta-have-its Volitional must have (2 times) Volitional must have music Volitional must have single (3 times) Volitional must haves Volitional Ma2azine Month Year Se ve nteen March 2000 Teen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Se ve nteen March 1998 Se ve nteen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 2000 Teen February 2000 Seventeen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Teen February 2000 YM March 1998 Teen February 2000 Se ve nteen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Se ve nteen March 2000 Se ve nteen March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 Se ve nteen March 2000 YM March 1998 YM March 2000 Seventeen March 1998 YM March 1989 Teen February 2000 Teen February 2000 Seventeen March 1998 YM March 1998 YM March 2000 YM March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Pa2e 174 60 51 140 80 216 146 36 238 30 42 4 3 44 120 110 110 80 72 72 72 117 46 46 20 104 84 60 22 12 65 60 115 11 114 36 w -..J

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Data Example Discourse Cate1wrv must haves Volitional must hear CDs Volitional must of the moment Volitional must-have music Volitional must-see flicks Volitional neither should a cirl Volitional plaid that's a major must Volitional soring's major must-haves Volitional the y had to Volitional vou can't be a crv babv Volitional you don't have to go to the l!Vm Volitional vou don't want to Volitional you get to kiss him Volitional vou gotta be able to Volitional you gotta believe Volitional you gotta tell her Volitional vou have the rililit Volitional vou have to Volitional vou have to sell Volitional vou just need Volitional vou must enclose Volitional vou need Volitional vou need to get Volitional you need to get out of Volitional vou need to know Volitional vou need to make an effort! Volitional vou need to make him aware Volitional vou need to ... Volitional you need to .......... .... Volitional vou need ... Volitional y ou reallv need one standout piece Volitional vou should Volitional you should (3 times) Volitional vou should be concerned Volitional you should curb Volitional Ma2azine Month Seventeen March Teen Februarv Teen March YM March Teen March YM March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen Februarv Teen Februarv YM March Seventeen March YM March Teen Februarv YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March Teen Februarv YM March Sev enteen March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Teen March Year 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 Paee 90 50 111 84 0 36 113 158 238 60 124 86 40 54 52 40 44 59 242 62 85 117 26 146 52 85 63 151 53 36 220 40 36 146 109 Vo) 00

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory Ma2azine you should go with ... Volitional Seventeen you should have Volitional YM you should see ... Volitional Seventeen you should think ... Volitional Seventeen you should, too Volitional YM y ou'd better keep Volitional YM y ou'd better ... Volitional Seventeen y ou'll have to ... Volitional Seventeen y ou'll onl y push her away ... Volitional Seventeen you've got to reali ze Volitional YM you've got to .... Volitional YM you've still gotta deal Volitional YM you ... need to ... Volitional Teen y our left hand should rest Volitional Seventeen Month Year March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 2000 March 1998 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 March 2000 March 1998 Februarv 2000 March 2000 Pru!e 146 42 116 116 54 23 216 174 144 48 54 58 80 126 vJ \0

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APPENDIXQ RANKING AND IilERARCHY DATA

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w -...J ...... Data Example ... better off .... better than ..... ..... ... most imoortant ... 20 hours or more ... a bi!rn:er problem ... a closer look ... a little luckier . a newer aonroach ... admire most (2 times) ... and more ... and much more . and older ... any better . are less sugary bop ... are more bootv shakin' ooo ... best bud ... best express your. ... best friend ... best friend .... .. ... best friends ... best interests ... best movies . best oair . best stuff . best thing ... best/worst ways a crush has been revealed ... better ... better boutiques ... better traction ... better ....... ... better ... stores ... boldest ... cares more ... darker locks .. deliver more nutrients Discourse Cateeory Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ranking Ma!!azine Month Year Paee YM March 1998 59 YM March 1998 62 YM March 2000 68 Teen March 1998 119 YM March 2000 66 Seventeen March 2000 142 YM March 1998 28 Teen March 1998 22 Teen February 2000 47 Teen February 2000 3 Teen February 2000 14 Teen March 1998 119 T een March 1998 61 Se v enteen March 2000 174 Se v enteen March 2000 174 Seventeen March 2000 112 Seventeen March 2000 54 Teen March 1998 49 YM March 2000 22 Se v enteen March 2000 112 YM March 2000 72 Seventeen March 2000 76 Teen February 2000 33 Se v enteen March 1998 174 YM March 1998 70 Teen March 1998 40 YM March 2000 28 YM March 1998 121 Teen Februarv 2000 33 Teen February 2000 36 YM March 1998 121 Teen February 2000 17 Se v enteen March 2000 84 Teen March 1998 107 Teen February 2000 79

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Data Example Discourse Categon ... easier for him Ranking ... even less Ranking ... even louder Ranking ... faster and longer Ranking ... feel freer Ranking ... for more Ranking ... get worse (messier, dirtier heavier) the longer v ou wait Ranking ... got older Ranking ... had better Ranking ... hotter than Ranking ... hottest hunks Ranking ... hottest shade Ranking ... hottest. .. talents Ranking .. .is a bigger problem Ranking .. .is better than Ranking .. .is better than ... Ranking ... is harder Ranking .. .is what Josh Hartnett loves best Ranking .. .it's easier Ranking .. .larger than Ranking .. .least likelv ... Ranking . less glitz and more cleam Ranking .. .less than thrilled Ranking ... less water Ranking .. .li!!hter hair Ranking .. .li!!hter hand Ranking .. .look best Ranking .. .look fuller Ranking ... more affection Ranking ... more attention Ranking ... more complicated Ranking ... more energy Ranking ... more facts Ranking ... more females Ranking ... more grown uo Ranking Magazine Month YM March Seventeen March Teen February YM March YM March YM March Teen March YM March Teen Februarv Teen February YM March Teen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Teen March Seventeen March Teen March YM March Teen March Seventeen March Teen Februarv Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Teen March Teen March Teen Februarv Teen Februarv Teen March YM March Year 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 P~e 63 215 20 83 63 43 118 68 52 79 66 109 86 67 118 118 114 45 192 102 67 114 236 34 107 203 64 64 30 30 36 65 62 64 38 l.,.J -...J N

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory ... more imoortant than Ranking ... more in common Ranking ... more info Ranking ... more info (5 times) Ranking ... more likel y (4 times) Ranking ... more re!!Ular Ranking ... more than Ranking ... more than a friend Ranking ... more than a peek, less than ... Ranking . more than a v es Ranking ... more than half Ranking ... more than just Ranking ... more the ... type Ranking ... most are Ranking ... most at risk Ranking ... most clearl y heard Ranking ... most commonly Ranking ... most comoatible with ... (3 times) Ranking ... most deli sh Ranking ... most embarrassing moment Ranking ... most fashions Ranking . most kids Ranking ... most memorable Ranking ... most notable Quality Ranking ... most of their ... Ranking ... most of us Ranking ... most of... Ranking ... most oeople Ranking ... most striking Ranking ... most. .. Ranking ~.mostly Ranking ... much better Ranking ... newest. coolest tunes Ranking ... offer much more Ranking ... older brother Ranking Ma2azioe Month Se v enteen March YM March Teen February Teen Februarv YM March Teen March Teen February Teen Februarv Se v enteen March YM March YM March Teen February Teen March T e en March YM March Se v enteen March YM March Teen February Teen February YM March Se v enteen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March YM March Teen Marc h Se v enteen March Teen March YM March YM March YM March YM March Year 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 Pa2e 80 30 62 95 67 49 52 44 112 63 66 38 105 61 66 114 67 56 47 67 238 66 69 181 161 223 58 63 98 168 70 59 84 80 3 2 w -....J w

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Data Examole ... older sister ... one more than y ours ... or darker ... ... oolled more often . show uo best ... smaller than ... so much more ... ... still more interested in ... studied more than ... ... the best ... the best adv ice ... the best are ... ... the best way ... the better the chances ... ... the better your chances ... the brighter ... the cleaner the break ... the cleaner the break . . . the more you smoke the more you want ... the most oooular wa y ... the worst thing ... thicker hair ... three or more times ... to better ... to better (v) . toughest thing ... very best friends ... what's worse ... ... who cares the most . works best ... worse is . ... you were y ounger . younger sister . y our best friend . little heavier Dis course Catel!on Ma2azine Month Ranking S ev enteen March Ranking Teen March Ranking Se v enteen March Ranking Teen March Ranking Teen March Ranking Seventeen March Ranking Teen February Ranking Se v enteen March Ranking Teen March Ranking Teen March Ranking Teen February Ranking YM March Ranking Sev e nteen March Ranking Se v enteen March Ranking Se v enteen March Ranking YM March Ranking Se v enteen March Ranking Se ve nteen March Ranking YM March Ranking YM March Ranking Se v enteen March Ranking Teen March Ranking Teen February Ranking Se v enteen March Ranking Teen March Ranking YM March Ranking Se v enteen March Ranking Seventeen March Ranking Teen February Ranking Seventeen March Ranking Se v enteen March Ranking YM March Ranking Teen March Ranking Seventeen March Ranking Teen March Year 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 Pa2e 2 3 6 68 203 119 107 192 44 114 119 70 36 28 80 76 76 38 76 76 67 66 188 101 3 3 114 61 92 76 82 30 202 82 92 66 108 64 w -...J .t:,.

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Data Example Discourse Cateiwrv 10 Fastest ways to ruin your life Ranking I 0th Annual Readers Poll : rank and then Seventeen will publish those answers with the "highest" results : best movie biggest waste lamest band, worst solo artist best movie couple worst music video best male/female star best soundtrack. worst actor/e Ranking 7 tips for best budship Ranking Best friends Ranking Best oat Ranking Best oal... .. Ranking It's best to let a crush know how vou feel Ranking Most explain Ranking NOTE : ranking system of most humiliating e xperiences from 1 to 4 stars Ranking Once again Teen special issues dish out the smartest moves about.. ... be vour best ... that matters to you most Ranking Prom : the most important party of your life so far Ranking QUIZ RANKING CATEGORIES gone too far near and far not far enoueh in all three need fundamental correction Ran.king Read more Ranking Readv for more ... Ranking These lotions and potions sloueh off. .. Ranking Want to soort ... the hottest shades ... ? Ran.king a better life Ranking a better place Ranking a better time Ranking a bit later ... Ran.king a darker hue Ranking a larger whole Ranking a little better Ranking a little deeoer Ranking a little faster Ranking a little more Ranking Ma2azine Month Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March Teen March Se v enteen March YM March Teen March Teen March Seventeen March Teen February Teen Februarv YM March Teen March Teen March YM March Se v enteen March Teen February Teen Februarv Se v enteen March YM March Teen March Seventeen March Teen March Year 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 Pa2e 148 167 57 112 57 58 40 130 24 70 91 114 85 85 28 108 8 91 112 85 22 241 92 64 239 38 w --...J Vl

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Data Example Discourse Cate2orv a little rou!!her Ranking a lot easier Ranking a lot easier ... Ranking a perfect IO fast Ranking a oerf ect stvle Ranking a whole lot more Ranking add a touch more Ranking all that and more Ranking alot more Ranking an older fil.lv Ranking any better Ranking aonear smaller Ranking are gentler Ranking are less freauent Ranking are more likely Ranking are the best Ranking arms wider Ranking as good as Ranking beating faster Ranking best bake sale Ranking best boyfriend Ranking best bud Ranking best bud's Ranking best bud .... Ranking best buddies Ranking best buds Ranking best career counselors Ranking best cheerleader Ranking best dress options Ranking best education Ranking best face Ranking best fits Ranking best for your bod Ranking best friend Ranking best friend (14 times) Ranking Ma2azine Month YM March Teen March Teen Februarv YM March YM March YM March Teen March YM March Seventeen March Teen March Teen March Se v enteen March YM March Se v enteen March Teen March Teen March Teen March Seventeen March YM March Teen Februarv YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March YM March Teen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Year 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 Pa2e 28 14 42 22 16 28 109 74 114 57 4 40 26 238 119 112 35 36 62 65 30 76 63 58 84 142 224 68 89 148 26 62 209 82 --.J

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Data Examole Discourse Category best friend (2 times) Ranking best friend (7 times) Ranking best friend .. Ranking best friend ... Ranking best friend ....... . Ranking best friend ................. Ranking best friend .... ..... . . ........ . Ranking best friend ........................... Ranking best friends Ranking best friends ... Ranking best friends ... Ranking best friends ...... Ranking best friends .............. Ranking best friends ......... ................. . Ranking best interests Ranking best joke teller Ranking best likes (5 times) Ranking best look Ranking best medicine Ranking best moment Ranking best new TV shows Ranking best of all Ranking best oal Ranking best oart Ranking best oart of living Ranking best oartv scene Ranking best possible gynecological care Ranking best remedy Ranking best resnonses Ranking best thing Ranking best time Ranking best time dancing Ranking best time ... ... Ranking best time ......... Ranking best trait is ... (5 times) Ranking Magazine Month Year YM March 1998 Teen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 2000 Teen February 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Teen February 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Teen February 2000 Se ve nteen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 1998 Teen February 2000 Teen February 2000 Teen February 2000 Teen March 1998 YM March 2000 Teen March 1998 Seventeen March 2000 Se ve nteen March 1998 Seventeen March 2000 Teen March 1998 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 1998 Se ve nteen March 1998 Se ve nteen March 2000 YM March 1998 Se ve nteen March 1998 Se ve nteen March 1998 Seventeen March 2000 Se ve nteen March 2000 Teen February 2000 Page 57060 148 148 130 84 158 47 76 80 112 3 236 142 148 59 59 30 32 103 0 158 148 192 117 110 140 76 172 40 142 192 174 174 59 w -....J -....J

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Data Example Discourse Catei!Orv best wa y Ranking best wa y (2 times) Ranking best wa y to face up Ranking best wa y to find a doctor Ranking best wa y to get mails to grow Ranking best way to get there Ranking best way to let a guy know Ranking best way to rock Ranking best way ... Ranking best wa y .... Ranking best way ......... Ranking best y ears of your life Ranking best...friends Ranking better Ranking better babvsitter Ranking better date Ranking better get Ranking better off Ranking better or worse Ranking better or worse ... Ranking better suited Ranking better than Ranking better than bare Ranking better than the best Ranking better than ... Ranking bie.e.est deal in accessories Ranking bi1?.1?.est heart Ranking bie.e.est one of the year Ranking biggest role model Ranking bie.e.est word Ranking bounce into shane Ranking bri!?.hter hue Ranking busiest heartthrobs Ranking bustier bodies Ranking call your closest buds Ranking Ma2azioe Month S eve nteen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Teen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March Teen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March YM March Teen March Teen February Seventeen March Teen March Teen February Seventeen March Teen February Seventeen March Teen February YM March Seventeen March Teen March YM March Year 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 Pa2e 114 138 203 138 109 68 80 26 64 22 36 72 146 146 23 192 64 62 138 234 235 40 114 55 192 111 30 188 47 186 33 26 194 98 43 w -...J 00

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Data Examole Discourse Catel!orv cheesiest pickup lin e s Rankine. closer to y ours Ranking closest friends Ranking closest to Ranking coolest Ranking coolest cleanser Ranking coolest couole Ranking coolest hues Ranking coolest thing Ranking cops are the best Ranking cou!!hing less Ranking craziest thing Ranking cream of the crooned Ranking create a oerfect flush Ranking crush even harder Rankine. cutest boys Ranking cutest of all primetime pla y ers Rankine. darker comolex.ion Ranking darker shades Rankine. darker side Ranking darker skins Ranking darker tones Ranking do our best Rankine. dressier 'do Ranking dressier fabrics Ranking easier to handle Ranking easier to use Ranking easiest and cheapest wa y Ranking easiest ever undo how-tos Rankine. easiest undo Ranking easiest ways Ranking either he quits dealing Rankine. even more Ranking even more thinl!.S Ranking even more unreliable Ranking Mal!azioe Month Teen Februarv Se vent een March Se v enteen March YM March Teen Februa rv YM March Teen Februarv YM March T een March S ev enteen March YM March Seventeen March Se v enteen March T een March YM March YM March Teen March YM March YM March Teen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Teen M a rch Se v enteen March YM March YM March YM March Teen March Se v enteen March Se v ente e n M a rch Teen February Se v enteen March Teen Februa ry Se v enteen March YM M a r c h Year 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 200 0 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 20000 1998 1998 Paee 5 0 148 108 90 2 6 112 3 0 107 54 142 4 0 185 233 107 4 0 3 6 45 104 111 45 2 0 5 64 115 52 111 22 4 8 3 2 0 17 38 84 48 8 0 4 8 w -...J \0

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Data Example Discour s e Catee:ory e ven worse Ranking e y es seem bi1?.1?.er Ranking fares better Ranking faster than Ranking fit the bill oerfectly Ranking flake out most Ranking fondest memory Ranking for more than Ranking for tons more Ranking fullest skirt Ranking get better Ranking get closer Ranking get comfier Ranking get faster Ranking get more Ranking get worse Ranking getting worse Ranking glammiest shaoe Ranking got more mametisim Ranking gown is less ... and more ... Ranking greatest ni!!htmare Ranking greatest show Ranking greatest woman Ranking grown closer Ranking grows closer Ranking haooier times Ranking hanniest number Ranking harder learning Ranking hardest working Ranking have more time Ranking he found the perfect wa y to show y ou how special he thinks vou are Ranking he loves nothing better Ranking he needs you more than Ranking Mae:azioe Month Tee n F ebruary Se v enteen March YM March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Teen March Teen February Teen March YM March YM March YM March Se v enteen March S ev enteen March YM March YM March YM March YM March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Teen February Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Teen March Se v enteen March S ev enteen March Teen March Se v enteen March T e en February YM March YM March Teen March Year 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 Pa2e 36 40 28 176 46 64 36 16 14 98 110 12 52 124 76 71 71 20 63 17 217 55 184 239 28 239 84 119 189 85 3 8 116 68 \.,.) 00 0

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Data Example Discourse Cateeorv he's alot more Ranking healthier wavs Ranking help ... a lot more than Ranking her best Ranking highest ooints Ranking hionest Hollvwood stvles Ranking hiooest looks Ranking hionest new music Ranking hitting . X Ranking host with the most Ranking hottest alterna-bash Ranking hottest band Ranking hottest color Ranking hottest 1rnvs ( 11 times) Ranking hottest hair Ranking hottest hair and fashion Rankine. hottest hair.. Ranking hottest hairdos Rankine. hottest hues and how to wear them Ranking hottest makeup Ranking hottest makeup ... Ranking hottest new oooks Rankine. hottest new looks Ranking hottest orom stvles Ranking hottest shade Ranking hottest singing stars Ranking hottest way Ranking hottest dreamiest dresses Ranking how can I make mv lios look fuller ? Ranking hurts more Ranking is best Ranking it gets worse Ranking it worked faster Ranking it's best Ranking it's harder Ranking Maeazine Month Year YM March 1998 Teen March 1998 YM March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 2000 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 YM March 2000 YM March 1998 Seventeen March 2000 YM March 1998 YM March 1998 Se v enteen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Sev enteen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Seve nteen March 2000 Seventeen March 1998 Sev enteen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Sev enteen March 1998 Teen March 1998 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 Seventeen March 1998 YM March 1998 Teen March 1998 Teen February 2000 Teen March 1998 Teen March 1998 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 Pa2e 30 64 12 160 64 227 152 90 90 86 116 174 18 4080 9 90 48 0 104 17 203 38 9 90 98 11 26 90 22 32 80 70 63 36 53 vJ 00 -

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Data Example Discour s e Cate2ory iobs get worse Ranking know him better Ranking know vou better Ranking largest graduation celebration Ranking last much longer Ranking lasts longer Ranking latest Ranking latest (n ) Ranking latest acting !ti I! Ranking latest and greatest footwear Ranking latest and greatest spring shoes Ranking latest craze Ranking latest eve candies Ranking latest in ... dresses ... Ranking latest look Ranking latest outfit Ranking latest popstars Ranking latest release Ranking latest soft-liooed conquest Ranking latest. . tane Ranking !attest gotta-have-its Ranking learn more Ranking least likely demographic Ranking least mature ... Ranking least oooortune Ranking less comfortable Ranking less exciting stuff Ranking less formal version Ranking less heartbroken Ranking less invasive than Ranking less kempt Ranking less likely Ranking less likelv ... Ranking less likely ......... Ranking less oil Ranking Ma2azine Month Year Teen March 199 8 YM March 1998 Teen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Sev enteen March 200 0 Teen March 1998 YM March 2000 Teen February 2000 Seventeen March 1998 YM March 1998 Sev enteen March 1998 Teen March 1998 YM March 2000 Sev enteen March 1998 Teen February 2000 Sev enteen March 1998 Sev enteen March 1998 Teen February 2000 Sev enteen March 200 0 Teen February 2000 Sev enteen March 1998 Sev enteen March 2000 Teen March 1998 Sev enteen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Sev enteen March 1998 YM March 2000 Sev enteen March 1998 Sev enteen March 1998 Sev enteen March 1998 Sev enteen March 200 0 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 1998 YM March 200 0 Paee 118 42 38 115 42 32 63 52 12 104 8 2 103 9 85 24 172 50 76 6 5 60 136 60 153 118 174 2 2 48 235 217 240 28 67 48 115 w 00 N

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Data Examole Discourse Cate2ory less than $99 Ran.king li!!hter colors Ranking lighter skin Ranking limbs moving faster Ran.king line up more Ranking longer and harder Ran.king longer than Ranking looks better Ranking lots more ... Ran.king love most Ranking loves acting best Ranking lower Ranking made it easier Ran.king made my nitlt even sweeter Ranking made them stronger Ranking make it worse Ranking make mo' monev Ranking make my lame nails look better fast Ran.king make thin!!S ... better Ran.king make you healthier Ran.king make your hair shinier Ran.king making it harder Ran.king mall nearest you Ranking matters most Ranking may the best girl win Ranking messiest friends Ran.king milder cleanser Ranking miss most Ran.king more Ranking more US tour dates Ran.king more accurate Ranking more advanced Ranking more and more extras Ranking more chips Ran.king more civil that the dartboard Ranking Ma2azine Month Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March YM March Teen February YM March Teen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Teen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Teen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March Teen March Teen March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Teen February Seventeen March Year 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 Pa2e 42 64 205 174 124 238 101 40 4 80 49 104 234 192 238 108 56 22 80 36 64 36 115 76 112 70 110 40 129 44 142 119 215 84 48 w 00 w

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Data Example Discourse Catee:orv more comfortable Ranking more comfortable ... Ranking more coverage Ranking more daring Ranking more energy Ranking more enlightened Ranking more excited Ranking more for you Ranking more freedom Ranking more freauent Ranking more girlfriend worth y Ranking more heieht than Ranking more impressed Ranking more in common Ranking more intense Ranking more interested Ranking more interested ... Ranking more intesnse Ranking more likely Ranking more likely to win Ranking more likely .. Ranking more likely .... Ranking more likely ....... Ranking more likely ........ Ranking more limited way ... Ranking more makeovers Ranking more mature Ranking more mileage Ranking more or less Ranking more overall freedom Ranking more pitiful than Ranking more pressure Ranking more productive and organized Ranking more secure Ranking more soace Ranking Mae:azine Month Teen F ebruary Teen F ebruary T een Mar c h YM March Teen February Teen March Se venteen March Teen February Se vent een March Sev e nteen March YM Ma rch Teen March YM March Se v enteen March Se vent een March Teen March Teen Februarv YM March Seventeen March YM March Se v enteen March YM March YM March Teen February Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March Teen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Teen March Se v enteen March Year 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 Pa2e 36 44 119 111 84 118 192 3 153 142 32 102 44 148 2 0 5 61 44 110 153 44 192 67 222 65 2 1 6 40 44 18 80 241 86 28 153 30 1 4 4 w 00

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Data Example Discourse Cateeory more soontaneous Ranking more suooortive Ranking more than Ranking more than a month Ranking more than a week Ranking more than haoov Ranking more than willing Ranking more than ... Ranking more than ... . Ranking more than ...... Ranking more than ..... . Ranking more than ... . ... Ranking more than . ... ... ... Ranking more time Ranking more vulnerable Ranking more ... Ranking more .... Ranking more ....... Ranking more . .......... . Ranking most ... Ranking most amazing Ranking most are Ranking most artistic Ranking most briehts Ranking most challenging asoect Ranking most common sil!ns Ranking most common ... frustrations Ranking most comnatible with Ranking most comoatible with (3 times) Ranking most compatible with ... Ranking most comoatible with ... .... Ranking most comnatible with ... ......... Ranking most crowed schools Ranking most crushworthy Ranking most cynical student Ranking Maeazine Month Teen Februarv YM March Teen March Teen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Teen March Se ve nteen March YM March YM March Se ve nteen March Teen Februarv Teen February YM March Teen March Teen February Teen February Se ve nteen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen Februarv YM March Teen March YM March YM March Teen February Teen February Teen Februarv Teen February Teen Februarv Teen March Teen February Se v enteen March Year 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 Paee 85 48 60 117 62 146 114 60 61 70 43 83 151 36 42 67 130 4 84 168 225 130 30 10 118 48 64 52 55 53 54 57 60 52 197 vJ 00 Vl

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Data Example Discourse Catee:ory most difficult oarental nil!htmare Ranking most distinguishes ... Ranking most dryers are ... Ranking most embarrassing moments Ranking most enthusiastic Ranking most ethnic diversitv Ranking most exoensive method Ranking most fanatical Ranking most fun Ranking most glamorous Ranking most hairdryers Ranking most hated movie star Ranking most humiliating e x periences Ranking most humiliating ex'D<'!riences ... Ranking most humiliating stories Ranking most imnortant Ranking most imoortant thing Ranking most imnortantlv Ranking most intergalactic drama Ranking most like Ranking most like ... Ranking most likelv (2 times) Ranking most likel y to Ranking most likel y to ... Ranking most likely to .. .. Ranking most likelv to .. ... Ranking most likel y to ...... Ranking most likelv to .......... Ranking most likel y ... Ranking most likelv .......... Ranking most lip balms Ranking most memorable Ranking most mortifving rnishaos Ranking most mortifving moments Ranking most music Ranking Mae:azioe Month YM March Seventeen March Teen February Sev enteen March Teen March Teen March Teen March Se venteen March Se v enteen March YM March Seventeen March Se v enteen March YM March YM March Se v enteen March YM March Sev enteen March Teen F ebruary YM March Se v enteen March YM March YM March Teen March Teen March Teen February Teen March Teen March Teen March Se v enteen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen February Teen February Seventeen March Year 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 Pae:e 4 239 20 0 60 60 32 74 28 89 68 186 24 14 28 52 76 56 14 167 57 67 56 57 30 57 58 58 140 82 64 36 96 96 176 t..,J 00 0\

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Data Example Discourse Catee:orv most notorious Ranking most of my friends Ranking most of the equipment Ranking most of the people Ranking most of their friends Ranking most of them are Ranking most of...buds ha v e Ranking most plan haoov Ranking most popular Ranking most oooular show Ranking most pressing Ranking most pressing ... Ranking most products Ranking most recentl y Ranking most recentl Y . Ranking most rockin' stuff Ranking most romantic celebrations Ranking most salons Ranking most serious problems Ranking most sou!tltt after courses Ranking most splitsville Ranking most stylish male Ranking most stvlish outfit Ranking most unique Ranking most unprettv habit Ranking most valuable player Ranking most will Ranking most y oung oeople Ranking mostess Ranking mostl y Ranking mostl y warm Ranking mostlv ... . Ranking mosts comoatible with ...... Ranking much better e x ercise Ranking much cooler Ranking Maeazine Month Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Se v enteen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Se v enteen March Teen March Teen March YM March YM March Se v enteen March YM March Se v enteen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen Mar c h YM March YM March YM March Se v enteen March Teen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Teen February Se v enteen March Teen March Year 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 Paee 235 63 126 161 60 130 44 192 68 86 236 46 238 49 49 24 48 48 66 197 59 252 20 18 91 63 70 60 182 236 2 3 4 238 54 80 49 w 00 -...,l

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Data Examole Discourse Cate2orv much easier Ranking much larger Ranking much more than Ranking much more than ... Ranking much nastier than the last two Ranking much stronger Ranking must know more Ranking nature's most vibrant flowers Ranking nearest beach Ranking nearest big city Ranking nearest retailers (2 times) Ranking nearest you Ranking nearest v ou ...... Ranking newest and coolest Ranking newest and easiest wav to wear makeup Ranking newest makeup Ranking newest wav Ranking newest. . ti PS Ranking no more than Ranking nothing sexier Ranking nothing's worse Ranking notice most Ranking older brother Ranking oldest Ranking oldest of ... Ranking one or more Ranking one shade darker Ranking only thing better Ranking or hi!ilier Ranking outer lashes Ranking oerfect dangling earings Ranking oerf ect dress Ranking oerfect eve shadow Ranking oerfect platforms Ranking oerfect prom nite Ranking Ma2azine Month Se v enteen March YM March Se v enteen March Teen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Teen Februarv YM March YM March YM March Teen March Teen March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March YM March Teen February Teen February T een February Teen February Teen February YM March Teen February Teen March Se ventee n March Teen March Se venteen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Year 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 200 0 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 200 0 2000 200 0 2000 2000 2000 2000 200 0 2000 200 0 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 Pa2e 60 126 160 53 112 216 46 204 76 215 95 48 92 24 107 0 26 90 58 62 86 114 65 14 47 30 17 40 65 107 192 72 219 20 219 w 00 00

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Data Examole Discourse Categorv perfect rela x ation Ranking nerfect setting Ranking perfect skin Ranking neskiest. .. problems Ranking pick a better one Ranking oouting less Ranking prettiest dresses Ranking prettiest hair and makeup Ranking prettiest nolishes Ranking prettiest prom makeup Ranking prettiest runwa v look Ranking prettiest. newest makeup and hair Ranking orom-nerfect makeo ve r Ranking quicker picker-upper Ranking ranking svstem known as cool-o-m e t er" Ranking rating system Ranking rating svstem for girl's embarrassment stories Ranking rattiest clothes Ranking scoring a nerfect 10 on prom night Ranking scoring the nerfect flip Ranking search for nerfect prom attire Rankine. seem fuller Ranking sexiest shades Ran.king she's more into him Ranking sltine the bri!!htest Rankine. simplest combo Ranking sleep better Ranking slimmest skirt-and-top combo Ranking smaller than small Rankine. smartest group Ranking softer silkier skin Ranking something trendier Rankine. steantier side Ranking sums up best. .. Rankine. s w e e ter Ranking Magazine Month Seventeen March Se v enteen March YM March YM March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Teen March Teen March Se v ente e n March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Teen March Se v ent e en March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March YM March T e en March Teen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Teen February Tee n February S ev enteen March Se v enteen March Teen March YM March Tee n March Se v ente e n March YM March YM March Se v ent ee n March YM March Se v enteen March YM Mar c h Year 2000 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 Pae:e 20 90 110 115 84 82 0 89 17 9 9 100 40 174 174 176 14 118 108 56 192 17 18 112 90 111 32 111 84 91 28 44 28 161 44 w 00

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory sweetest nart of being a friend Ranking svmtoms worse Ranking taller than Ranking taller than date Ranking that's most true Ranking the best Ranking the best ones Ranking the best price Ranking the best thing Ranking the best wa y Ranking the best. . Ranking the best ........ .. Ranking the bie.e.est problem Ranking the bie.e.est. .. skeleton Ranking the bolder the color the wower the impact Ranking the brie.htest babe Ranking the deeoer Ranking the driest Ranking the easier it is ... Ranking the longer ... Ranking the more mutual... Ranking the more vou annlv Ranking the more the better Ranking the most Ranking the most annealing thing Ranking the most romantic Pumpkin of all Ranking the nearest Ranking the newest Ranking the oerfect accent Ranking the oerfect match Ranking the oerf ect shaoe Ranking the sooner the better Ranking the witchiest putdowns Ranking the worst Ranking the worst thing was ... Ranking Ma2azioe Month Se v enteen March Teen February Teen March Se v enteen March YM March YM March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Teen March YM March Teen March YM March Se v enteen March YM March Se v enteen March Teen March Se v enteen March YM March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Seventeen March Se v enteen March Se v enteen March Teen Februarv Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Year 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 Paee 114 42 20 219 59 22 246 48 64 107 22 68 132 70 107 106 109 116 80 38 80 109 235 67 41 176 76 234 48 54 54 85 159 238 130 \.;J 0

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Data Example Discourse Catef!orv thicker ... Ranking think mostly Rankin!? this one's a million times better Ranking to be all oerf ect Ranking to feel better Ranking to function faster Ranking tons more Ranking tougher courses Ranking touRhest battles Ranking t oughest sex situations Ranking trendiest RankinR trendiest pieces Ranking trendiest prom looks Rankin!? two or more (3 times) Ranking two or more weeks Ranking unner Ranking wackiest RUV Ranking wackiest talk show host Ranking want nicer looking nails? Ranking wav more than Ranking weaker sex Ranking what could be sweeter Rankin!? what he likes best Ranking wh o's older Rankin!? widest interest Ranking widest interest . Ranking widest interest.. .. Ranking wierd him out more Rankin!? wierdest moment Ranking will you be more ... Ranking work best Ranking work better Ranking work hardest Rankin!? works best Ranking works best. .. Rankin!? Ma!!azine Month Year YM March 2000 Se v enteen March 2000 Seventeen March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 Teen February 2000 Teen March 1998 Se v enteen March 1998 Teen March 1998 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 Teen February 2000 Seventeen March 1998 Se v enteen March 1998 YM March 2000 Teen February 2000 Teen March 1998 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 YM March 1998 YM March 1998 Se v enteen March 2000 Teen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Se v enteen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Teen March 1998 Teen March 1998 YM March 1998 Seventeen March 1998 YM March 2000 YM March 2000 Teen February 2000 Se v enteen March 1998 Teen March 1998 YM March 200 0 PW?e 28 197 176 192 38 36 9 ll9 80 52 30 36 9 ll5 38 104 54 14 22 83 28 96 45 236 18 26 32 36 176 63 103 42 78 16 3 8 w \D .....

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Data Example Discourse Cate2ory Ma2azioe Month Year Pa2e works better Ranking Se v ente e n March 1998 82 worse Ranking Se v enteen March 1998 235 worsen Ranking YM March 1998 110 worst Ranking Teen February 2000 34 worst dressers Ranking Teen March 1998 119 worst moment Ranking YM March 2000 103 worst qualities Ranking YM March 1998 58 worst school oic Ranking Se v enteen March 2000 17 worst time of your life Ranking YM March 2000 36 worst washing exneriences Ranking YM March 1998 112 write about most Ranking YM March 2000 22 you deserve the best Ranking Teen March 1998 70 you want more ... Ranking Se v enteen March 1998 82 you were a little haooier Ranking Seventeen March 1998 157 you'd better ... Ranking YM March 2000 23 you're better than he is Ranking Se v enteen March 1998 12 younger age Ranking Se v enteen March 1998 223 youngest one Ranking Se v enteen March 1998 185 your best pitch Ranking Se v enteen March 2000 84 your fonner best friend Ranking Se v enteen March 2000 108

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APPENDIXR WORD ORDER PATTERNS

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w \0 +'" Data Example ... Neve, Scott. Courtnev David. Parker ... ... Robin, Peter James Angela Lori . cirl...or 1ruv ... mom and dad's ... vou like and he likes ... NOTE: in best movie couple category in the six entries the woman of the couole comes first Name Order: hers then his Name Orders : hers his Name order : hers then his cirl or 1ruv girls and 1ruvs mom and dad she or he ... A Picasso or a Gwvnth-in-training . ... Bon's choice, Angela's choice ... Bovs are ... Girls are ... Casoer Van Dien and Jane March ... Ewan. Ashley ... IN MASSIVE MOVIE ISSUE MALE STARS LISTED FIRSTMEN LISTED HERE : Casper* Matthew* . ... Peter calls me and I call him ... Romeo and Juliet ... brother/sister ... for men and women . guy and a girl ... guvs think . and girls relate ... he loves her she loves him ... he or she . ... second choice is ... for guvs but women go for ... . starring Joshua Jackson Paul Walker Hill Harper Leslie Bibb ... that in men ... and in women ... Discourse Cate1:wrv Word Order Female First Word Order Female First Word Order Female First Word Order Female First Word Order Female First Word Order Female First Word Order Female First Word Order Female First Word Order Female First Word Order Female First Word Order Female First Word Order Female First Word Order Female First Word Order Male First Word Order Male First Word Order Male First Word Order Male First Word Order Male First Word Order Male First Word Order Male First Word Order Male First Word Order Male First Word Order Male First Word Order Male First Word Order Male First Word Order Male First Word Order Male First Word Order Male First Word Order Male First Word Order Male First Maeazine Month Year Pa2e Teen February 2000 51 Teen February 2000 51 Teen February 2000 51 Teen Februarv 2000 84 Seventeen March 1998 82 Seventeen March 1998 167 YM March 2000 59 YM March 2000 60 YM March 2000 58 YM March 2000 86 YM March 2000 66 Seventeen March 1998 68 Seventeen March 2000 184 Seventeen March 2000 118 YM March 2000 60 YM March 2000 67 Teen March 1998 48 Teen February 2000 51 Teen March 1998 0 Seve nteen March 2000 80 YM March 2000 80 Seventeen March 1998 234 Teen March 1998 119 Teen February 2000 51 Teen March 1998 52 Seventeen March 1998 26 Sev enteen March 1998 161 Seventeen March 1998 119 Seve nteen March 2000 176 Seventeen March 2000 130

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Data Example Discourse CategoQ'. ... traditional bo y-gir.LI?rom thing Word Order Male First 98 Degrees's Jeff Timmons TLC's Chilli Jessica Simoson & Enri~_!glesias Word Order Male First Angel as good as Buffy ... Word Order Male First Bill was a lawyer Carol... Word Order Male First Daniel's choice Elysia's choice Word Order Male First Dude duds then Chick Pick Word Order Male First Dude ... Chick Word Order Male First Freddie Prinze Jr. and Rachel Lei~ Cook Word Order Male First George and Nina Word Order Male First Word Order Male First His loss You win Word Order Male First James and Michelle Word Order Male First Jeff Timmons. Chili Enrique Iglesias Jessica Simoson Word Order Male First Karen and Mike Word Order Male First Max and Liz Word Order Male First NOTE : in "TrendORama" out of six mini-articles the only mini-article that deals with teen women's relationship with teen men comes first Word Order Male First NOTE : female films featured after male films Word Order Male First NOTE : male first Word Order Male First Once again Teen special issues dish out the smartest moves about guys friends school fashion how to look and be your best and evervthing that matters to you most Word Order Male First Robert's choice Kerri's choice Word Order Male First a boy and a cir! Word Order Male First a iruv and a girl Word Order Male First bachelors or bachelorettes Word Order Male First boy group left girl right Word Order Male First boy group on top of ~ge, girl on bottom Word Order Male First boyfriend or girlfriend Word Order Male First boys & love reads fashion columns Word Order Male First boys and buds Word Order Male First Ma2azine Month Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March Teen February YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Teen March Teen March Teen March YM March Seventeen March Teen February Teen February Teen February Teen February Seventeen March YM March YM March Year 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 Pa2e 192 0 36 -238 59 58 60 51 28 52 43 161 88 46 80 116 48 70 70 --58 153 36 51 50 50 238 14 44 w \0 Vl

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Data ExamJ!!L -----,_Discourse CategoQ'. brother / sisterhood Word Ord e r M a l e First dude duds chick pick Word Ord e r Male First father-daughter Word Ord e r Male First J2.! him and for y ou Word Order Male First gay and lesbian Word Order Male First ~nd~rl. ...... Word Order Male First guy and girl friends Word Order Male First m.iv-girl combo Word Order Male First he or she Word Order Male First he or she .... Word Order Male First t-he or she ....... Word Order Male First he'll get or YQ!J'II get.. Word Order Male First her son ... and daughters Word Ord e r Male First his and her Word Order Male First his and her photos Word Order Male First his crew is his crew y our crew is y ours Word Order Male First his or her Word Order Male First his reaction then her reaction Word Order Male First ~ action her reaction Word Order Male First his reaction her reaction ... Word Order Male First his side her side Word Order Male First king and queen Word Order Male First local guys and girls Word Order Male First male and female models Word Order Male First male or female doctor Word Order Male First one lucky guy and girl... Word Order Male First ~ -1'.: :&rl affair Word Order Male First the king and queen Word Order Male First ties for boy~1ts for girls Word Order Male First we asked the guy s then the girls ... Word Order Male First when he read... but you have . Word Order Male First -Ma_gazine Month T ee n March YM March Seve nteen March Sev ente e n March Seventeen March Teen February Teen February Seventeen March YM March Seventeen March YM March Seve nteen March Sev enteen March Sev enteen March Sev enteen March Sev enteen March Seventeen March YM March YM March YM March YM March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Seventeen March Teen March Seventeen March YM March Teen F ebrua!}'.__ Year 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 2000 1998 2000 2000 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1998 2000 1998 2000 1998 1998 1998 2000 2000 Pa2e 6 0 59 225 80 192 51 36 192 59 217 92 84 ----150 223 152 80 225 58 59 60 46 --152 117 162 138 152 192 58 116 57 44 w \0 0\

PAGE 404

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