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Power in the land

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Power in the land home demonstration in Florida, 1915-1960
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Minor, Kelly
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Agriculture ( jstor )
Canning ( jstor )
Counties ( jstor )
Educational demonstrations ( jstor )
Extension education ( jstor )
Food ( jstor )
Food preservation ( jstor )
Home economics ( jstor )
Homes ( jstor )
Women ( jstor )
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 2005.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Printout.
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Vita.
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by Kelly Anne Minor.

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POWER IN THE LAND: HOME DEMONSTRATION IN FLORIDA, 1915-1960


By

KELLY ANNE MINOR



















A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Inspiration, criticism, and reassurance came from many people during the course of

this project. That said, any fault with what I say here is my own. I must acknowledge the

guidance afforded me by a capable committee, none more so than my advisor, Fitz Brundage,

a patient and skillful editor who helped me hone the dissertation at every turn. And I thank

my original advisor and long-time supporter George Ellenberg, for telling me bluntly that my

brilliant pre-home demonstration research ideas were not so brilliant after all. I also must

thank all those who read the prospectus and offered timely, thoughtful critiques: Melissa

Walker, Mary Hoffschwelle, Lu Ann Jones, Joan Jensen, Katherine Jellison, Rebecca

Sharpless, Jeanette Keith, David Danbom, and Pete Daniel; all generously gave of their time,

and I benefited from their expertise.

No researcher can neglect to thank the dedicated staff of libraries and archival

collections. The staff at the National Archives in Maryland, and at UF's Special Collections,

proved themselves worthy and able ambassadors for their kind. I also am grateful to my UF

colleagues, particularly Carey Shellman, who buoyed my spirits and helped me sharpen my

project, often in the midst of crafting some clever conference proposal. Finally, mere

acknowledgment does not adequately express the depth of my gratitude to my family. I

simply cannot thank enough my brother, Kevin, and my mother, Catherine. From the first

idea to the last revision, I absolutely, unequivocally could not have done this without their

guidance, support, sacrifice, and friendship. This dissertation is as much my mom's

accomplishment as mine, and I dedicate it to her.














TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

ACKNOW LEDG ENTS................ ...................................... .....................ii

LIST OF FIGURES.................. ...... ..... .. ...... ........ ...................iv

KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS AND CITATIONS................ ............................ vi

A B STR A C T .......................... .. .......... ....... .. .. .. ........................ vii

CHAPTER

1 "CAST DOWN YOUR BUCKET WHERE YOU ARE":
HOME DEMONSTRATION ON THE GROUND AND AT
LARGE.................................. 1

2 ROOTS THAT RUN DEEP: HOME DEMONSTRATION'S
REFORM PEDIGREE................................................. 26

3 INSPIRATION TO INSTITUTION: NEGOTIATING THE
PROFESSIONAL HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT...............................64

4 OUT OF THE CAN AND INTO THE FREEZER: FOOD PRESERVATION
TECHNOLOGY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION ................................111

5 "THE UNIMPROVED TOILET IS ALL TOO PREVALENT": HOME
DEMONSTRATION, ITS PARTNERS AND RURAL SANITATION.............167

6 NEW WORLDS FOR OLD: HOME DEMONSTRATION IN POST-WAR
FLORIDA........................................... 219

7 EPILOGUE: THE PRICE OF DURABILITY........................................244

REFERENCE LIST.................. .......................................... .... ..... 258

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................... 271














LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

1-1 Map of 1930 Florida and its counties.................................. ....................24

1-2 Chart of Florida home demonstration personnel 1915-1960..............................25

3-1 1966 hypothetical representation of the Extension Service from the state level
downward. ........................... ..................109

3-2 Mrs. Louis Von Hofen, Duval County resident and former home demonstration
club member, to Chairman of the Board of Control P. K. Yonge, registering her
intense displeasure with home demonstration in Duval, and Florida, 1932............ 110

4-1 "Snuffy Sm ith" on canning .............................................. ........ .........111

4-2 Cut-away view of a water bath............................................................160

4-3 Pressure cooker: a retort for glass jars and tin containers of all sizes................ 160

4-4 Home demonstration kitchen in Hillsborough County, 1918...........................161

4-5 Community canning center............ ...... ....................................161

4-6 Orange County's new canning center............................... ..................162

4-7 Mrs. W. B. Edwards in Lloyd, Florida, with her new home freezer....................163

4-8 Home demonstration exhibit booth at the North Florida Fair in
Tallahassee, 1955.................... ...... ...... ... ....... .......163

4-9 Woman accessing her freezer locker in North Carolina .....................................164

4-10 Healthy display of canned goods .......................................... ..................165

4-11 W ell-stocked pantry in modem kitchen......................................................166

5-1 M ap of areas prone to hookworm ................. ................. ...................212

5-2 Children afflicted by hookworm........................... ....................... 212

5-3 Children ofJ. D. Tillman, afflicted by hookworm.................... ....................213









5-4 "Filthy Fly" poster produced by the State Board of Health and used by HDAs and
other reformers to demonstrate the dangers of allowing flies to run amok in and
around the hom e ......... ............ ........... .............. ..................... ...214

5-5 World Health Organization hookworm slides for children's education...............215

5-6 Typical privies, designed to indicate the dangers of privies that did not meet sanitary
standards ........................ ... ......................................... ....216

5-7 Privies constructed during the New Deal.............................. ...................216

5-8 Extant privies constructed during the New Deal.................... .................... 217

5-9 Woman going into her outhouse in Bristol, Florida, 1953...............................218

6-1 Puerto Rican Gleaners, 1857 to 1945............................ ... ................... ...219

6-2 Hardee County citizens in 1947 preparing and gathering canned foods to donate to
needy families in Europe, and a Jacksonville woman's personal contribution to the
relief efforts coordinated as part of National Home Demonstration Week............240

6-3 Puerto Rico's extension newspaper, El Heraldo de Extension.......................... 241

6-4 Image: 1950s recruitment brochure for home demonstration..........................242

6-5 Qualifications: 1950s recruitment brochure for home demonstration.....................243














KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS AND CITATIONS

SC University of Florida Special Collections

SL State Library of Florida

FSU Florida State University Strozier Library

NARA National Archives and Record Administration

SC-21-4 Special Collections, Series 21, Box 4

SL-32 State Library, Microfilm Reel 32

FSU-32 Florida State University, Microfilm Reel 32

NARA-33.6-54 National Archives, Record Group 33.6, Box 54.

Ethel Atkinson, Escambia AR 1935 Ethel Atkinson, Annual Report of Cooperative
Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics
for 1935, Escambia County














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

POWER IN THE LAND: HOME DEMONSTRATION IN FLORIDA, 1915-1960

By

Kelly Anne Minor

December 2005

Chair: Jon Sensbach
Major Department: History

This dissertation examines the remarkably tensile nature, and eventual decline, of the

Cooperative Extension Service's home demonstration program during much of its tenure in

Florida. Lawmakers and reformers intended home demonstration, created by legislative act in

1914, to be a comprehensive system of rural uplift, via education among rural families. Home

demonstration functioned as one division of a three-pronged extension apparatus that also

included farm demonstration and 4-H. All extension workers utilized demonstrations as the

backbone of their educational mission. Rather than rely solely on traditional materials and

abstract ideas, however, home demonstration agents extended their own domestic science

education to women by conducting demonstrations in rural homes and communities,

organizing project clubs, and tailoring their work to community needs. Home demonstration

involved a wide range of programs for both women and girls, but participation in any program

or event was voluntary; information about new ideas, successful techniques, and agent

reliability spread largely by word of mouth.









Many historians studying home demonstration have characterized and dismissed it as

plagued by racism, sexism, romanticism, class and regional bias, and limited efficacy.

Though these conditions, to varying degrees, were persistent problems for home

demonstration, the program proved remarkably durable. Equally important as its longevity

was the impact of endurance on home demonstration's original sense of purpose. I examine

this relationship in light of home demonstration's dynamism, which fostered adaptability and,

in turn, durability in the face of internal and external change. The framework for this analysis

is home demonstration's evolution from a deeply focused, cohesive mission to an imprecise

collection of specialties. To demonstrate this dynamism-longevity-evolution connection, I

analyze home demonstration's rural reform lineage, its professional dynamics, its reliance on

technology and expertise, its cooperative health programs, and its expansive activism. The

key to home demonstration's vitality has been momentum, diplomacy, utility, and initiative,

and the key to its significance is its evolving place in the wider, international story of reform

in favor of rural women.















CHAPTER 1
"CAST DOWN YOUR BUCKET WHERE YOU ARE": HOME DEMONSTRATION
ON THE GROUND AND AT LARGE

In 1928, home demonstration Home Improvement Specialist Virginia P. Moore issued

a provocative bulletin to rural women in Florida. Her subject was home sanitation, and she

tackled the potentially delicate topic with no hint of delicacy. Moore assailed her readers with

a series of disturbing images, facts, and warnings about the dangers lurking in manure piles,

privies, and wells. Flies, their legs coated with indescribable filth, routinely landed on tables,

dishes, and food, exposing entire families to debilitating and dangerous disease.

In 1947, home demonstration women across Florida put their collective knowledge

about food preservation and nutrition to use by processing, collecting, and shipping overseas

carloads of food for those left hungry in the wake of the Second World War. Decades of

experience in Florida combined with rural women's sense of activism manifested in a

concerted effort to provide practical, fundamental relief for those far away who were less

fortunate than themselves.

In 1961, the State Council of Senior Home Demonstration Work attended a lecture

regarding the role of poverty and corruption in fostering communism in Latin American

countries. The Council's International Affairs committee resolved to "better the situation by

sending pamphlets in various phases of home economics" to a university in Brazil.' The



'Virginia P. Moore, "Questions on Home Sanitation to Make You Think," Circular No. 987
(Gainesville: University of Florida, reprint 1931); Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and
Home Economics. Report of General Activities for 1947 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing
Office, 104 1. Report ofState Senior Council ofFlorida Home Demonstration l";,rA 1961, 116. Home
demonstration was a program of comprehensive rural reform for women and families across the United
States that operated, officially, from 1914 until the 1960s, when its name changed to Extension Home
Economics, then to Family and Consumer Sciences, its current incarnation. Though it received its start










contrast in reform vigor represented in these stories is not illusory, but a marker of an

aggressive, focused force gradually collapsing into a flaccid, imprecise array of disciplines.

On their own, each of these manifestations of reform among Florida rural women is

arguably important. And clearly these cursory highlights tell only a dramatically simplified

story. But what is equally clear, equally important, is that these snapshots of home

demonstration's history in Florida, when taken together, reveal a disappointing trend. In the

little more than three decades represented in the examples above, home demonstration evolved

from a vigorous, mission-oriented program unified around a singular and ambitious goal of

rural rejuvenation into a placid, issue-oriented collection of advice and seminars. In 1928,

home demonstration programs were meaty, practical, and fundamental. In 1961, home

demonstration programs were hollowed out, superficial, and detached. Again, that is an

overly simple representation, but how did this happen?

In short, home demonstration sacrificed vitality for viability as it worked to survive

the changes in its demographic, economic, and social contexts. In its heyday, home

demonstration's durability only made it more vigorous, more substantial. But especially after

World War II, when changing demographics threatened the very existence of home

demonstration, it evolved rapidly into a more contemporary, but less ambitious, program.

And why is this important? Because when home demonstration was at its best, it

accomplished real good. So trading vitality for viability, usually unwittingly, cost not only

home demonstration, but the people it might have helped.


as informal gatherings of women and girls through canning clubs, Farmers' Institutes and the like, home
demonstration was formally created as part of the new Cooperative Extension Service by the Smith-
Lever Act of 1914 as part of a three-prong system of education for rural Americans; it also included
agricultural extension for men and 4-H for youth. Though there was much overlap between the
branches, home demonstration was compromised of female agents, agricultural extension of male
agents and 4-H of both. Funding, personnel, materials, research, etc. involved in home demonstration
came from three cooperating sources: the federal government via the USDA, state governments and
local, county sources including county commission, school boards and local businesses. Participation
in all programs was voluntary.









To evaluate the entire scope of home demonstration's evolution in this dissertation

would be impossible. Since the nature of home demonstration's evolution was determined in

great part by its efforts to remain relevant and durable, I will examine primarily the steps

home demonstration took to survive. Each chapter demonstrates both how home

demonstration secured its durability, and how its strategies either strengthened or weakened it.

The trend that emerges is that home demonstration reached the zenith of its influence,

importance, and spirit during the twenty years or so before World War II, and then began a

slow shift in the 1950s, toward a decline over the rest of the century. I am in no way

suggesting that home demonstration's declension was entirely HDAs' own doing, for quite

apart from what they could control, circumstances were changing that forced home

demonstration to either adapt or wither away. How HDAs adapted and the impact of those

choices is the focus of my thesis.

Though the bulk of the dissertation deals specifically with home demonstration's

strategies for longevity, those strategies are part of several much larger trends that are critical

for understanding home demonstration's history. First, as is most evident in Chapter 2, home

demonstration was a part of a much larger reform movement that extended back into at least

the 19h century and forward into the present day. Though early-20h century Progressives

articulated the woes that led to the call for home demonstration, the impetus for rural reform in

favor of women both antedated and outlived the Progressive's Country Life Movement. Most

historians dealing with home demonstration locate its roots within the Country Life Movement

and the subsequent Smith-Lever Act of 1914, but there is ample evidence that female agrarian

reform had been developing, slowly and fitfully, during the previous century.

Home demonstration's emphasis on practical education and demonstration, like its

agricultural demonstration counterpart, has much in common with the surge in agricultural










societies and universities that took place in the 19th century. Already by that point, women

were being included to some extent in agricultural interests and education, so that Smith-

Lever's official inclusion of female extension work in the broader extension program was not

unprecedented. And as the transition from the gritty work of sanitation to anti-communism

leaflets demonstrates, home demonstration did not suddenly stop evolving any more than it

suddenly started. This long-term picture of home demonstration is particularly valuable for

understanding how it matured and then declined.

My second major claim is that home demonstration did not accomplish the

comprehensive, socio-economic, racial and gender reform of the rural South that many

historians might have expected, indeed, what many have looked for. Moreover, home

demonstration did not intend to accomplish this. It is telling that as home demonstration

moved from more tangible, immediate efforts like sanitation into more social and moral

efforts like citizenship, it lost rather than gained a sense of purpose. As I will outline further

on, many historians critical of home demonstration base their critique on an assumption that

"reform" or "uplift" entails righting social wrongs. To these critics, it follows that home

demonstration did not "do" anything. Quite the contrary, home demonstration tackled serious

deficiencies in rural life.

Indeed, the dogged pragmatism apparent in Moore's sanitation bulletin is indicative of

home demonstration's early mission: practical improvement in daily living toward better

health, financial security, environmental comfort, and emotional satisfaction. Certainly,

conventions, regulations, and mandates from on high constrained home demonstration agents

(HDAs), but it is crucial to keep in mind that home demonstration had its own agenda, and

accomplishing that was the priority. For all their ideological talk about uplift and country life,









what agents set out to achieve was substantial improvement. Empowerment did not come in

speeches; it came in jars of canned fruit and improved privies.

My third contention is related to the second, and that is that home demonstration

accomplished tangible good in its time in Florida, particularly in the decades before World

War II. In the historians' quest for watersheds, revolutions, and paradigm shifts it is easy to

overlook the seemingly ordinary improvements in food preservation, home sanitation,

cchnolog\, clothing construction, etc. And to modem readers, the advent of the pressure

cooker or the sanitary privy hardly sounds impressive, but these mundane details were, in

many cases, the difference between life and death, want and plenty, burden and ease. At its

heart, the story of home demonstration is not about statistics, percentages, or even

ideologies-it is about people. Indeed, home demonstration's good works in the ordinary left

the most extraordinary mark; home demonstration did not leave a legacy of ousting

communism or ending segregation, but it did save lives ad ameliorate harsh living conditions.

As I emphasize in Chapters 4 and 5, that means that each improvement mattered.

HDAs advocated technologies like electricity, freezers, pressure canners, refrigerators, and

running water. In some cases, such technologies saved labor, in others they ensured better

health. Agents educated women about proper nutrition for themselves and their children,

helped install lunchrooms in community schools, organized Better Baby Clinics and

immunization drives with county nurses and the Red Cross. and encouraged families to be

tested for hookworm and tuberculosis. Agents assisted families looking for greater

convenience and comfort by distributing plans for sleeping porches to expand living spaces,

offered advice on native plants to beautify yards with minimal expense, and demonstrated

easy fixes for cosmetic aggravations. And though a plethora of services and organizations

later arose to meet a variety of community needs, HDAs were in the trenches when there were










few other allies capable of waging difficult and discouraging wars on disease, poverty, and

scarcity, and they did so on the most local levels.

My final major claim is that localism was one of, if not the most, significant

determinants of what home demonstration accomplished. Most evident in Chapter 3, HDAs'

relationship with locals was the most crucial and often the most difficult of any they formed,

but it was absolutely vital to their success. Of course home demonstration's original

manifesto was inspired by the domestic discontent "exposed" in the Country Life Movement,

and its methodology derived from Seaman Knapp's experience with the proven success of

demonstration as the ultimate teaching and reform tool. But throughout its tenure in Florida,

the home demonstration dynamic was most clearly defined by local circumstance. An

Extension Food Conservation specialist, Alice Cromartie, articulated this obligation: "A

program's only reason for existing is when those whom it serves can find a purpose for the

program to exist."2 Though funding originated with the federal Department of Agriculture,

and state governments also provided some financial backing, home demonstration ultimately

relied upon local funding to put and keep work in place. And because most home

demonstration work took place among local women and families, HDAs were dependent upon

a local audience. Historians have been inclined to cast localism as a deterrent to reform,

assuming that federal or state influences were naturally progressive and open-minded, but that

local people were inherently and arbitrarily suspicious of reform, reformers, and change.

William Link's work on Southern Progressivism embodies this argument. Link's evaluation

of public health and education campaigns, for example, reveals what one reformer called '"a

good law poorly executed.'" According to Link, "strong local opposition" limited the scope

and ruined the hopes of Progressive reformers.


2Alice L. Cromartie, Food Conservation and Production AR 1951 (SC-91B-12), 8-9.










In his larger work, The Paradox ofSouthern Progresivism. Link establishes a strict

dichotomy between traditionalists' individualistic localism and reformers' paternalistic

humanitarianism, the effect of which was to thwart positive goals in education, health,

women's suffrage, and child labor.3 Both portraits are overly simplified, and as Elizabeth

Hayes Turner points out, do not account for "the multitudes of women in small towns who

joined the woman's club movement to improve their communities."4 Indeed, Link's and

similar analyses consider reform from the perspective of federal agents in a battle with local

leaders who would not enforce reform agendas. But as Turner observes, there were other

levels of reform that operated locally, and home demonstration was a significant bridge

between federal commission reform and woman's club reform.

Home demonstration was a federal program in which most and the most important

reforms took place locally. True, in some instances local politics, social relationships, or

economics stymied home demonstration work. But in other areas, local influences were

positive and empowering for HDAs. The variation between counties' and communities'

response to home demonstration and HDAs is one of the most vital for this discussion. Not

only does it enrich the context of home demonstration work, but it helps explain why home

demonstration evolved as it did. The initial zeal of sanitation work, for instance, originated in

part from an effort to meet local communities' felt need. By the time HDAs were discussing

democratization and foreign policy, reform was less urgent and agents were scrambling for

ways to remain relevant. Without local support, home demonstration had little, if any, chance

of developing. In the effort to stay ahead of changing times, however, is where home

3 William A. Link, "Privies, Progressivism, and Public Schools: Health Reform and Education in the
Rural South, 1909-1920," The Journal ofSouthern History 54 (November 1988): 639; The Paradox of
Southern Progressivism, 1880-1930 (Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press,
1992).

4Elizabeth Hayes Turner, "The Paradox of Southern Progressi im: Review," The Journal of Southern
History 60 (August 1994): 603.









demonstration lost some of its zest, and where it drifted away from local needs that it may still

have met.

The central dynamic in this study is the impact of local determinism. For better and

for worse, local interest, need, finances, politics, and social structures determined the shape of

home demonstration's evolution. But it is impossible to understand localism's impact without

studying home demonstration on the local level, from counties to the state. Florida's home

demonstration experience provides such a context, for home extension began in Florida before

1914, and steadily developed and expanded throughout the period of this study. Florida's

extensive and in-depth record of home demonstration, then, offers ample evidence of the

program on the ground, demonstrating first, the distinctive character of any home

demonstration agenda at the most local level. Second, the mingling of local character with a

regional and national reform ethos, organization, and methodology allows us to see home

demonstration at work broadly, as well. The particulars of home demonstration vary from

state to state, but how HDAs responded to those details is suggestive of the history of home

demonstration across twentieth-century America.

Florida provides a viable base for studying home demonstration because it is

distinctive, but not exceptional. Like the other Southern states where extension began early,

Florida's home demonstration shows a steady growth pattern in both the number of agents and

the counties in which they worked. Moreover, Florida's rural population, black, white, and

Hispanic alike, underwent the same dramatic changes that other Southern states' did, as urban

development rapidly eclipsed rural growth. Finally, though Florida's economy, heavily based

in tourism, was more diverse than much of the South's, it nevertheless was characterized by a

pronounced reliance upon agriculture. A brief history of home demonstration in Florida









demonstrates both an overall pattern shared by Southern and, to some extent. national home

demonstration programs, as well as a distinct story shaped by local individuals.

By 1961, more than one hundred HDAs were at work in Florida, but reaching that

level of entrenchment was a long process. As an overall trend, the total number of HDAs

increased over the years, though the number of black agents within that total remained steady.

Time, too, saw home demonstration's catalog of programs diversify considerably, so that

agents were covering more topics, but in less depth, than in the early decades of the work.

Though the Smith-Lever Act made home demonstration, and all extension work,

official in 1914, the work was underway in Florida as early as 1909. The evolution of

extension work from a relatively grassroots initiative to an enabling bureaucracy to a hefty

government program is itself indicative of home demonstration's own evolution from a

mission to a service. In 1909, a State Agent named A. S. Merhag reported on his work with

cotton farmers in North Florida. Anticipating that the boll weevil would reach Florida by

1911, Merhag, an assistant named A. C. Johnson, and the U. S. Department of Agriculture set

about establishing demonstration farms in five panhandle counties. Not unexpectedly, the

initial reception to agricultural reforms was not particularly enthusiastic. As Merhag noted,

"the people of this state have just begun to farm intensively," diversifying their typical

pursuits in cattle, lumber, truck farming, and turpentine. In 1909, Merhag reported

cooperation from thirty-seven demonstrators, using funding from the General Education Board

and the USDA. Merhag made no mention of work among women or girls, but that soon

changed.

In fact, demonstration work was already beginning to take the shape it would hold for

decades to come. As of 1912, funding would be a combined project of the USDA and the


A. S. Merhag, Report ofDemonstration Work in Florida. 1909 (FSU-1).









State of Florida, and "some co-operation from local sources is also expected." The number of

agents and demonstrators, too, were growing. As of 1911 thirteen agents had been added

(with a plan for nine more in 1912), and more than 800 demonstrators were participating.

Work had been extended into several southern Florida counties with rising interest in doing

more with the peninsula. Most significant for this discussion, boys' corn clubs were underway

and plans were in place to begin girls' tomato clubs the next year. Together with Farmers'

Institutes, corn and tomato clubs were the direct precursors to work with rural women.

In 1912, children's club work had been given a leader, Agnes Ellen Harris, who would

be the first State HDA in Florida.6 By 1913, Harris was surveying the women supervising

girls' club work to assess how many girls were participating, what procedures they were

following, and what plans they were making. In 1914, Harris issued her report of girls'

canning work in Florida, tracking the growth of the program. Harris noted that twelve

counties had active clubs in 1912, followed by thirteen in 1913, and twenty-four in 1914. By

1913, more than 500 girls were enrolled in canning clubs. On the eve of Smith-Lever, Harris

was looking beyond canning clubs, however. In her recommendations for the 1914-1915

program of work, the future home demonstration leader named two major needs to keep the

work moving forward. First, Harris argued it was necessary to continue Extension Schools,

not only in high schools, but through homes and women's clubs. Second, Harris called for a

series of bulletins addressing not only canning, but nutrition, home care for the sick, lighting

in rural homes, and home sanitation. Harris had outlined a significant home demonstration

program, even before such an initiative officially existed.7


"Bradford Knapp, Farmers' Cooperative Demonstration Work. State of Florida. Annual Report of
Progress 1911 (FSU-1); J. J. Vernon, Annual Report ofBoys' and Girls' Club Work in Florida.for 1912
(FSU-1).

7 Agnes Ellen Harris, Report of Extension Division. Department of Home Economics. Florida State
College for I1'., ,, 1914 (FSU-1).









As home demonstration matured, the number of agents employed increased steadily.

Not unexpectedly, there were spikes in appointments in certain periods, particularly World

War I, when emergencN funds made additional work possible. As the total number of HDAs

increased, however, the numbers of black agents remained steady, at around twelve. The

contrast in extension provided for white and black rural families was most pronounced after

World War II, when the total number of agents exceeded the total number of counties in the

state. Certain counties, like Hillsborough, Duval, and Dade, accumulated assistant agents,

often as many as four or five. But the number and distribution of black HDAs remained low

and concentrated in the Panhandle, where most of the state's African-Americans lived.

Nevertheless, home demonstration work was predominantly for white and black rural women,

but eventually there were other variations. During World War I and the 1918 influenza

epidemic, home demonstration added discrete urban agents to extend a massive canning effort

among city women and to treat flu victims at military bases in Jacksonville and Miami.

Though urban women would continue to play an increased role in home demonstration over

the next few decades, there were no other significant variations in home demonstration

clientele until the 1950s. Then, in 1958, home demonstration work among Seminoles began

in Glades County.

See the chart on page 25 for an overview of the number and type of agents working in

Florida between 1915 and 1960, with additional years in which agent numbers were

remarkably high. The total number of agents includes all work with white, black, Seminole,

and urban families by representative county and assistant agents. It does not include state staff

or specialists. Urban agents are noted when they are listed separately in the personnel roster

of each published report of the Florida Cooperative Extension Service. After 1945, a number









of Florida counties were predominantly urban, so any agent working there would be, by

default, "urban."

The administrative structure of home demonstration did not change substantially

between 1915 and 1960. Except for the addition of more specialists, the state home

demonstration staff consisted of a white State HDA in charge of all home demonstration work,

a black District HDA in charge of Negro home demonstration work, and a set of three to four

white district agents who oversaw directly all HDAs working in that district's counties. The

first major administrative overhaul came in 1963, when both the location and titles of home

demonstration staff were changed to reflect the impact of integration and the broader civil

rights movement. Home demonstration agents came to be called Extension Home

Economists, and all Negro home demonstration work was moved from Florida A&M

University to Florida State University to take the place of the white home demonstration staff

that had been moved from Florida State to University of Florida, the extension headquarters.

In time, the program became increasingly specialized and officious. Eventually, the Extension

Service was fully in integrated, and Extension Home Economics became Family and

Consumer Sciences. Generally, after 1960 home demonstration underwent tremendous

surface changes, but lost depth. Before 1960, the program remained relatively static on the

surface, but was characterized by great depth in the nature of its work.

To date, few histories concerned with home demonstration have dealt with the

program in Florida. In 1982, Barbara Cotton published a slim volume analyzing the work of

black extension work in Florida between 1915 and 1965. Cotton's work, The Lamplighters.

delved into the lives and work of individual agents in a way that emphasized both their

personal struggles and triumphs. Lynne Rieffs 1995 dissertation, "Rousing the People of the

Land," dealt with five states she termed the Deep South, including Alabama, Georgia,










Louisiana, Mississippi, and Florida. Though Rieff touched on most of the important topics

related to home demonstration, her broad geographic base meant that Florida appears only

intermittently in her analysis. Still, Rieffs work remains important for its attention to a state

so often overlooked. The next work dealing with home demonstration was my own 1999

thesis, "To Make the Best Better," which focused upon three counties in the Florida

panhandle.8 Simply put, a full-length study based in Florida is tilling still-fertile soil.

In dealing with home demonstration, I am approaching it from the opposite direction

many historians have taken. Rather than faulting home demonstration for not having done

enough, or having pushed the "right" reforms, I contend that home demonstration did a great

deal, and great deal of good. It is because HDAs did so much that was worthwhile that their

subsequent evolution into something less hearty is disappointing. Thus, I am not seeking in

the dissertation to undo a certain argument, and though there are many studies whose

conclusions bear upon my own analysis of home demonstration, I am most interested in those

major works that have directly influenced my understanding, those that either I accept and

want to build upon or those that I will challenge.

Much of women's history has been written with an eye toward power inequities and

female protest. Rural women's history, so distinct from the experiences of urban women, has

been left out of feminist analysis, but a number of rural scholars have identified forms of

empowerment, protest, and even feminism within the rural woman's experience. Deborah

Fink has found in Nebraska that reform could be empowering, not limiting. Her 1992


8See Barbara R. Cotton, The Lamplighters. Black Farm and Home Demonstration Agents in Florida,
1915-1965 (Tallahassee: USDA in cooperation with Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College,
1982); Lynne Rieff, "'Rousing the People of the Land': Home Demonstration Work in the Deep South,
1914-1950" (Ph.D. dissertation, Auburn University, 1995); Rieff also has dealt with Florida extension
in essay form. See Lynne Rieff, "Impro% ing Rural Life in Florida: Home Demonstration Work and
Rural Reform, 1912-1940," in Making Waves. Female Activists in Twentieth-Century Florida. eds.
Jack E. Davis and Kari Frederickson (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003). Kelly Minor,
"'To Make the Best Better'": Home Demonstration in Escambia, Holmes and Okaloosa Counties,
Florida, 1920-1940" (Master's thesis, University of West Florida, 1999).










Agrarian Women examines women's unprecedented role in rural reforms. Fink deals with

actual extension work only intermittently, but her overall argument indicates that by the early

twentieth-century, women finally were being included in agrarian reform as vital actors, not

afterthoughts. Though agrarianism had long been a male-dominated philosophy, by the time

that the Country Life Movement developed its survey of rural America it was women's

satisfaction with farm life that reformers had come to see as the linchpin in rural revitalization.

Ultimately, the demand for women reformers to meet women's needs laid the groundwork for

the debates that culminated in Smith-Lever and women's extension as a discrete component of

the Cooperative Extension Service. Women's overt inclusion in reform was a definite good,

but Fink does not necessarily find that female extension work was welcome among Nebraska

families. In fact, where extension appears in Agrarian Women, agents often seem an

annoyance, like a nosy neighbor with too much time on her hands.9

Outside the Midwest, other historians have found evidence that reforms were at best

uneven and, at worst, damaging to the precarious balance of life in farm communities. Often,

historians have linked the impact of reform to the conditions of life for rural families. For

example, Rebecca Sharpless' study of Texas cotton farms, Fertile Ground, Narrow Choices

(1999), details the lives of women in a "reality that was bleak for many." Home

demonstration, Sharpless argues, failed to effectively serve rural Texas women because it did

not adequately address their needs. 0 Sharpless's argument is one of those with which I am

least comfortable, because it deals so heavily with absolutes. The absence of comprehensive

improvement does not necessarily mean comprehensive failure. And it is vital to consider

what home demonstration did accomplish, and, most importantly, what it could accomplish.

9 Deborah Fink, Agrarian 1I ,mare Wives and Mothers in Rural Nebraska, 1880-1940 (Chapel Hill and
London: University of North Carolina Press, 1992), 11-24, 25-26.

io Rebecca Sharpless, Fc'ri, Ground, Narrow Choices. Women on Texas Cotton Farms, 1900-1940
(Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 1999), xviii-xix, 4-5.










Local circumstances in the South also provide greater insight into the realm of

possibility within which extension agents worked. For example, black HDAs working in

Alabama enjoyed the financial and social support that proximity to and cooperation with

Booker T. Washington's Tuskegee afforded them, but that was not the case for all black

extension agents elsewhere. Texas extension, the subject of Debra Reid's 2000 dissertation

"Reaping a Greater Harvest," made its own way toward building a reputation and seizing

opportunities for reform. Though every agent was not in a position to realize just the reforms

she would have liked, Texas extension was part of a larger reform effort among rural African-

Americans that included private organizations like the Farmers' Improvement Society of

Texas. Reid argues that black agrarian reformers found they could make greater progress

because they "devised strategies that white progressives could support, but that did not

threaten engrained southern race relations." The result was that progress within the segregated

system was made, but progress in weakening the system itself was stymied. Part of what

constricted these reformers' work was their conscious choice to represent it and carry it out in

such a way that it did not draw undue attention from white critics, but that effort to get

anything done at all meant that all that might have been possible was severely curtailed."

Clearly, HDAs' and rural women's experience with reform-based empowerment was not

uniform. Such a condition only reflects the diversity of experience in the relationship between

the agents and the women. A case in point is the introduction, advocacy, and adoption of

technologies.

In virtually all work on rural Americans in the twentieth century, and earlier for that

matter, technological change figures prominently. In the twentieth century, technological

change took on a more "official" tone, stemming from government programs rather than from


"Debra A. Reid, "Reaping a Greater Harvest: African Americans, Agrarian Reform, and the Texas
Agricultural Extension Service" (Ph.D. diss., Texas A&M University, 2000), abstract.









simple market innovation."2 The Extension Service, Rural Electrification Administration, and

Tennessee Valley Authority exemplify the kind of top-down technology drive moving into

rural America. Naturally, the acceptance or rejection of gadgetry for the home played a role in

rural women's relationship with HDAs. One of the most interesting questions is why women

purchased the appliances they did, what kept them from buying more, and what ultimately

convinced them certain items were "must haves." The record of home demonstration in

Florida suggests that women purchased what they could afford, and they prioritized those

purchases. Katherine Jellison might argue, however, that to whatever extent home

demonstration transformed rural homes, it was at the expense of much-needed income, and the

result of unrealistic and ill-timed pressure agents put on rural families. However, in Entitled

to Power, Jellison does argue that rural women rejected the brand of domesticity pushed at

them by home agents, and its electrical trappings. Whatever they did adopt was meant to

enhance their productive, rather than consumptive, roles.13 Though Jellison is more critical of

home demonstration's motives than I have been, her analysis of women's ultimate control

over what changes home demonstration wrought mesh with what occurred between Florida

HDAs and rural women.

Kathleen Babbitt's 1995 dissertation, "Producers and Consumers," deals specifically

with the ways that rural women in New York struggled to adapt to changes in their productive

roles prompted by industrialization in the dairying industry. Though many critics point to

conflicts between HDAs and rural women as a result of different standards of production and



12 For examples of the impact of technology in earlier eras, see Joan M. Jensen, Loosening the Bonds:
Mid-Atlantic Farm Women 1750-1850 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986), Sally McMurry,
"American Rural Women and the Transformation of Dairy Processing, 1820-80," Rural History 5
(1994): 143-53, and Catherine E. Kelly, In the New England Fashion: Reshaping Women's Lives in the
Nineteenth Century (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999).

13 Katherine Jellison, Entitled to Power: Farm Women and Technology, 1913-1963 (Chapel Hill:
University of North Carolina Press, 1993).









consumption, and generally assign responsibility to government intrusion, middle-class

snobbery or some such generalization, Babbitt locates the conflict in women's specific

attempts to continue providing for their families by seeking wage-earning opportunities.

Babbitt argues that, ultimately, rural women found ways to satisfy both HDAs' apparently

unrealistic demands for greater consumption and women's own need and desire to provide

more tangibly for their families.'4 Babbitt's interpretation of home demonstration and rural

women provides yet another local variation. The conflicts she finds between agents and

women regarding saleable production in New York is virtually absent in Florida, where HDAs

encouraged women outright to produce handicrafts, jams, baked goods and other tourist-

friendly goods to sell to the travelers flooding into the state. The relationship between women

and HDAs clearly was not uniform, and certainly more flexible than some critics have

contended, either because the women refused to be persuaded by an intractable agent, or

because the agent was not so intractable. Three studies highlight the same local determinism I

have found to prevail in Florida.

Rural historians have been quick to note that translating national, university-based

home economics into meaningful reform and information for rural women tested the education

as much as the women. Mary Hoffschwelle examines home demonstration's impact in

Tennessee in "'Better Homes on Better Farms"' (2001), finding that women's acceptance of

reform was a multi-step process; Tennessee women exerted the same selective resistance that

Midwestern women did. Agents could sell household changes more effectively when they

linked them to a broader consumer culture, and even then rural women adopted only what they

wanted and could use from the wide selection of reforms agents offered them. Hoffschwelle

" Kathleen R. Babbitt, "Producers and Consumers: Women of the CountrN ide and the Cooperative
Extension Service Home Economists, New York State, 1870-1935" (Ph.D. diss., State University of
New York at Binghamton, 1995), abstract. See also Babbitt's article "The Productive Farm Woman
and the Extension Home Economist in New York State, 1920-1940," Agricultural History 67 (Spring
1993): 83-101.










also points out that domestic reform was not a uniform program once it moved into specific

communities, and she stresses that women forged a dynamic relationship with reformers in

that they found ways to utilize new techniques and maintain their relationship to household

and farm work.15

Ann McCleary's 1996 study of one Virginia County, "Shaping a New Role for the

Rural Woman," is remarkable not only for its attention to local reality rather than national

agendas but also her determined effort to compensate for what she argues are shortcomings in

earlier work on home demonstration. In particular, McCleary contends that historians critical

of home demonstration have depended on a top-down approach, favoring the "official"

message at the expense of any number of local ones. McCleary chronicles the relationship

between historians and their primary arguments against home demonstration, including its

constrictive gender ideals, its promotion of household technologies, its inattention to existing

communities, its use of "insensitive and paternalistic" agents to fix what never was broken,

and the hostility that agents created between rural women and themselves. McCleary differs

markedly from others in her interpretation by directly contesting the prevailing analysis of

home demonstration as social control. "What these stories overlook," she argues, "is why

rural women participated as club members and as agents."16 Indeed, women's deliberate

participation in home demonstration should be one of the key components of any analysis. As

a decisive local factor, women's voluntary participation in home demonstration in Florida

confirms what McCleary has discovered in Virginia. Indeed, as Chapter 3 will demonstrate,




" Mary S. Hoffschwelle, "'Better Homes on Better Farms': Domestic Reform in Rural Tennessee,"
Frontiers 22 (January 2001): 51-53. See also her Rebuilding the Rural Southern Community.
Reformers, Schools, and Homes in Tennessee. 1900-1930 (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press,
1998).

'6 Ann McCleary, "Shaping a New Role for the Rural Woman: Home Demonstration Work in Augusta
County, Virginia, 1917-1940," (Ph.D. diss., Brown University, 1996), 3-4, 7-12.









local women were conscious of the influence they had over installing, maintaining, or

eliminating home demonstration in their communities.

Lu Ann Jones' Mama Learned Us to Work i2((122) delivers perhaps the most nuanced

understanding of home demonstration so far. In her story of Southern rural women, she does

not discount the prevailing criticisms of home demonstration. But the everyday reality,

according to Jones, is that of a "protean" relationship, of top-down reform whose success

depended upon "support from the bottom up." Jones agrees with critics that HDAs promoted

apparently middle-class, urban, aesthetic styles, but contends that they did so in a way that

reflected rural realities of resources and economics (much like the orange crate furniture that

was so common in Florida). Most importantly, Jones reiterates a point that few other

historians dealing with home demonstration have made-women accepted and rejected home

demonstration as they saw fit. Moreover, "agents and club members collaborated in writing

the texts of lessons when they came together at club meetings. To foster interest and retain

membership, agents consulted with clubwomen as they set annual agendas of lessons to be

studied.""7 What I have studied of home demonstration in Florida bears out these three

analyses. Federal objectives were but a starting point, and they were hardly absolute. Thus,

the stream of thought on how HDAs and rural women interacted stretches from a relationship

in which women had little say except rejection to one in which women actively shaped both

the relationship and the wider home demonstration program. The best way to understand how

home demonstration worked, of course, is to study it on the ground.

What then can Florida tell us about home demonstration? Home demonstration was

still a national program that required the same reports of all its agents, arranged funding in

roughly the same way et ern \ here, employed county, district, and state agents in each state,


17 Jones, Mama Learned Us to Work: Farm Women in the New South (Chapel Hill and London:
University of North Carolina Press, 2(11C j, 18-22, 141.









and provided the overall annual objectives for agents nationwide. In every state, successful

agents were attuned to local interests, and the unsuccessful ignored or misjudged local

influence. In every state, relative wealth differed among counties, as did interest in reform.

Therefore, Florida HDAs' experiences were not necessarily exceptional. What Florida offers

is a convenient, appropriate, and rich local story to help illuminate the bigger home

demonstration narrative, particularly the experience and impact of localism. And Florida's

experience helps answer the questions underlying the dissertation-how did home extension

endure as long as it has, and what has been the price of longevity?

Uncle Sam wants YOU to hang curtains! That is the scenario I had in mind when I

first began studying home demonstration for my Master's thesis. Like many historians who

have examined HDAs' work, I approached it as evidence of a white, urban, middle-class

juggernaut steamrolling a distinct, superior rural culture until it was battered and softened

enough to remold into the faulty but preferred (i.e. white, urban, middle-class) form of

American family life. With such a presumption uppermost, the picture of home demonstration

that emerged was one of know-it-all, biased, uppity agents invading rural hamlets to impose

the will of the government, shaming good, middling folk into changing their lifeways and

dismissing good, poor folk as hopeless cases.

My opinion of these women has changed considerably over the years, however, and I

no longer subscribe to this thesis. I came to realize that there were significant contradictions

and complexities in the analysis I described above. For instance, one consistent criticism of

home demonstration has been that it ignored the poorest, most isolated people who stood to

gain the most from education and assistance. Even if that were true, what help could an

agency supposedly devoted to superficial standards of "uplift" possibly offer folks whose

primary needs were in health or finance? Other historians have argued that home









demonstration had potential value, but then essentially dismissed it because of its gender,

racial, or class inequities.

Home demonstration did what it did-not necessarily what it could have done, and

certainly not always what modem historians wish it had done. Attention to national standards

and local desires had to remain paramount. Because funds often were raised from local tax

dollars, it was rare that home demonstration could operate in a county where local support was

lacking. Second, all participation in home demonstration programs was 100 percent

voluntary. As Lu Ann Jones puts it, "women themselves were always free to vote with their

feet."'8 Indeed, home demonstration never did grow to the size it might have had participation

been coerced in some way. Third, there is ample evidence that even the particular phases of

work women and HDAs undertook year to year were determined by the participants'

preference, not a mandate from the USDA.

And to a degree, critics have been correct; home demonstration did have some serious

flaws. The program was segregated by both race and sex until the 1960s (a practical

hindrance as well as an ideological one); it was chronically under-funded (at all levels); agent

turnover typically was high; and pay was low. Assuming it had been better equipped to do so,

home demonstration might have reached and influenced a majority of rural women, of all

ethnic backgrounds. As it was, however, the majority of rural women were not involved in

home demonstration, though it is impossible to know how many learned something from a

friend who had learned it in home demonstration. On top of all these internal weaknesses

were contextual factors home demonstration could not control, such as poor transportation and

communication resources.


18 Jones, Mama Learned Us, 18.










Above all, home demonstration suffered most from the threat of obsolescence, in that

it had been created to improve farm life for women and children so that they would feel more

inclined to stay on the farm and thus reverse the swells of rural folk who were moving to more

urban areas. Even by 1920, that mission was slightly shy of a lost cause, for census data

indicated that, for the first time in American history, more Americans were urban than were

rural. Again, home demonstration might have made some demographic difference, but

possible and probable were well removed from one another, and home demonstration was

presumably working to correct a problem it had neither the time nor the resources to

effectively change. Given these conditions, it seems even more plausible that, like many

reform movements or programs, home demonstration would have collapsed decades ago. But

home demonstration's persistent efforts to adapt, negotiate, and evolve kept the whole home

extension machine going. Beyond the basics of improvement, that attention to change has

both benefited female rural reform, and cost it.

Though there were a number of reform efforts and agencies, including the Country

Life Commission, that acknowledged rural women's needs, it was home demonstration that

truly went out to meet rural women on their turf, and not just white women but also their even

more neglected black sisters. Ignored by urban-based feminists, slighted by agriculture -

oriented extension agents, and often misunderstood by historians with contemporary standards

and expectations, rural women have not had many options for expressing their voice. Home

demonstration was one way for them to do just that, because HDAs were in place precisely to

hear and speak for women when no one else would listen. Coverage and aid were neither

complete nor perfect, and seldom equitable, but home demonstration did a great deal more to

acknowledge and attempt to assist rural women than any other program or commission.










It was not necessary for home extension to change as it did in order to survive,

however, for today the world over there are grassroots endeavors that seek to build a place for

women in the modern context of rural reform. So as to recognize its accomplishments and

critique is failings, it is crucial to place reforms like home demonstration in a much broader

context than historians have been wont to do, not limiting rural reform to American Southern

history or American rural history. One of home demonstration's real strengths was not that it

was exceptional in the world, but that it was linked to similar important reforms worldwide, in

its infancy and today. The Associated Country Women of the World, founded in 1933, of

which home demonstration was a part, maintains its commitment to uniting and assisting rural

women in every corner of the world; it is today the largest international organization of rural

women. Selling Women's Stuff is one of several initiatives that focus on helping African

women farmers cope with lean seasons by coordinating the sale of their handcrafted items.

The woman who won 2004's Nobel Peace Prize, Wangari Maathia, has focused her work on

facilitating peace by empowering rural women and preserving the environment they, and we,

depend on.

The single theme that pervades this dissertation is dynamism, manifested as both

context and choice-local, state, national, and global trends, and how HDAs chose to respond

to them. That response, in turn, determined home demonstration's legacy. What emerges is, I

believe, an interpretation of home demonstration reminiscent of Rebecca Sharpless' apt title-

fertile ground, narrow choices. What HDAs were best at, however historians have interpreted

them, was making more out of a little. How they did so is what allowed them to endure in an

often imprecise role for nearly a century, and what initiated home demonstration's loss of

vitality. Home demonstration was adaptable and organic, both of its own accord and under the

influence of rural women's own autonomy. Agents came to rural counties trained in home












economics, hired by the federal government, and charged with a catalog of official reforms


and program procedures. But once they set up shop among their clients, their work was


anything but uniform or standard. Depending upon where they were stationed and among


whom they worked, agents contended with a variety of cultural, linguistic, environmental,


political, and economic pressures. Ever attuned to their own precarious position in a


community, HDAs shaped their ideals to meet local need. The eventual cost of such


adaptation is only more profound because, in the beginning, HDAs were so determined to


carry on a tradition that allowed them to do such good.





FLORIDA
CoU rTI~, PRIhCIPAL CITIES, AND RIVER


.4c -


Figure 1-1. Map of 1930 Florida and its counties. Source: United States, Bureau of
the Census, Fifteenth Census of the United States: 1930. Agriculture (Washinghn.
D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1931-1932), 663.


t
1
r
Z

C,










YEAR TOTAL WHITE BLACK SEMINOLE URBA]


1915 23 23

1917 41 33

1918 64 44

1919 51 33

1920 44 35

1925 34 26

1930 33 26

1935 44 36

1940 49 41

1945 53 43

1950 66 54

1955 79 67

1960 101 88


N/A

N/A

15

18

9

8

7

8

8

10

12

12

12


Figure 1-2. Number and type of home demonstration agents employed in Florida, 1915-1960. Source:
Florida Cooperative Extension Service Annual Reports, 1915-1961.


N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

1


WHITE


BLACK


SEMINOLE


URBA]


N


N/A

8

5

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A


YEAR


TOTAL















CHAPTER 2
ROOTS THAT RUN DEEP: HOME DEMONSTRATION'S REFORM PEDIGREE

In 1797, Finland recognized the Women's Agricultural Organization, making it the

first recorded organization of farm women. In the late nineteenth century, farm women in

Canada, Germany, Scandinavia and the United States organized themselves into simultaneous

but separate coalitions to address their own concerns. In Canada, the impetus for organization

was tragic-Adelaide Hoodless called for farm women to come together for domestic training

after her own baby died from contaminated milk. So, when O. B. Martin, an associate of

Seaman Knapp's and an early extension historian, explained in 1921 that women's extension

programs were "a new and developing work.... Perhaps a hundred years may elapse before

the novelty and freshness wear away," he was mistaken.' The Smith-Lever version of home

demonstration might have been new, but agrarian reform aimed at and led by women was

anything but novel. It is telling that HDAs themselves seemed to position themselves in time

by tracing their roots to a period well before anything we might assume as a starting point. A

pioneer HDA, Kate Hill of Texas, named the woman whom "tradition has established as the

first home demonstration agent," the Biblical Dorcas. In Dorcas, who sewed, and taught other

women to sew "under her skillful tutelage," Hill sees the "prototype of the modern home

demonstration agent, who sews and teaches others to sew, who helps to meet problems of

feeding the family, who assists in teaching how to beautify the home .. ., and who assists in





' An ()tli, ml History of the National Extension Homemakers' C, un, id Inc. 1930-1990 (Burlington,
KY: The Council, 1991), 171; 0. B. Martin, The Demonstration Work: Dr. Seaman A. Knapp's
Contribution to Civilization (Boston: The Stratford Company, 1921), 135.









problems of family living and of recreation so that all family members may be more adequate

citizens."2 Hill may be dramatic, but her point is well-taken.

The traditions that inspired and shaped home demonstration in the twentieth century

emerged long before. Indeed, home demonstration's durability, in part, came from its rich

background. Extension, and home demonstration with it, did not emerge in the early twentieth

century as a sudden, novel swell of reform fervor. Rather, they had been evolving over time,

and in many places, as agrarian reformers and innovators sought ways to get their message to

the farming population. An important feature in home demonstration's remarkable resilience

is an extended, fluid, dynamic tradition of agrarian reform spanning two centuries that

inspired, influenced and legitimized home demonstration, even before there was such a thing.

The world's agriculture has evolved through four broad stages: prehistoric, historic

through the Roman period, feudal and scientific.3 That last period, of scientific agriculture,

appeared late and has not waned; in fact, it has only blossomed further as a period of rapid and

marked change. The difference that prompted sudden and dramatic transformation after

centuries of impasse was not need, or conditions, or creative genius, but what Peter

McClelland calls a "willingness to innovate."4 That mindset and agricultural context is part of


2 Kate Adele Hill, Home Demonstration Work in Texas (San Antonio: The Naylor Company, 1958), 5.

3 Speaking of increasingly scientific agriculture, a general overview of these stages can be found at the
Advanced BioTech website, which has a History of Agriculture as part of its Soil, Plant and Crop
Enhancement information. See \\\ .dbin c'lm'-i-'nc.' :ri-hillrnn him (12 August 2005). More
traditional and thorough treatments of agricultural history that reach back beyond the Early Modem
period include Ralph Whitlock, A Short History of Farming in Britain (London: John Baker, 1965);
G.E. Fussell, The Classical Tradition in West European Farming (Rutherford, Madison and Teaneck,
Great Britain: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1972); Norman Scott Brien Gras, A History of
Agriculture in Europe and America (New York: F.S. Crofts & Co., Publishers, 1925); and two more
recent and outstanding works, Chapters from the Agrarian History of England and Wales, 1500-1750.
Volumes]-5, ed. Joan Thirsk (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990) and Mauro Ambrosoli,
The It ii and the Sown. Botany and Agriculture in Western Europe, 1350-1850, trans. Mary McCann
Salvatorelli (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).

4 Peter McClelland, Sowing Modernity. America's First Agricultural Revolution (Ithaca and London:
Comell University Press, 1997), 5.










the world that launched the Extension Service and with it, home demonstration. It is not

necessary to trace the home extension lineage as far back as Dorcas in Joppa, but it is

worthwhile to examine the evolution of agrarian innovation briefly in Early Modem Europe,

where science and agriculture coalesced into a period of potential revolution, the fervor of

which crossed the Atlantic into the colonies, through the Early Republic's agricultural

societies and into the nineteenth century when agrarian reform became increasingly

formalized.

This extended process set an important precedent for Extension work, home

demonstration in particular. It was not that reform by and for rural women was underway in

the eighteenth century, but that as agrarian education evolved, it came closer and closer to

acknowledging, then addressing and finally accepting women as part of its structure. To put a

finer point on this chapter's contribution, let me enumerate some aspects of these antecedents

that have an important bearing on home demonstration in Florida, that emerge from these

antecedents: the democratization of agrarian reform, the continued presence of women

(implicitly expected even when not explicitly addressed) in agrarian ventures, and the

centuries-old relationship between science, experimentation and demonstration and the well-

lived agrarian life. This chapter is about the momentum in agrarian reform that built up before

home demonstration, as such, ever existed.6



51 say "potential revolution" because those scholars who debate the timing and conditions of an Early
Modem agricultural revolution have yet to come to an agreement on whether or not one took place, and
if it did, when and where it did so. For a brief overview of the revolution debate, see Kelly Minor, "The
principall and only means to ripen the fruit of new hopes': Husbandry Manuals and Parliamentary
Enclosure in Early Modem England," Alpata: A Journal of History 1 (2-114:-: 97-126.

6 This may sound like a terrible case of teleology, but I want to stress that I do not subscribe to the
panacea of inevitability. In this case, there is nothing to demand that home demonstration would
emerge as it did, when it did. What I want to stress is that once home demonstration did crystallize as a
formal extension program, it had a built-in durability because the ideas that ultimately promoted it-
better rural homes, women's direct involvement in rural well-being, rural efficiency, etc.-had been
maturing for some time.









Perhaps the official inclusion of feminized agrarian reform in twentieth century

endeavors like the Country Life Movement or institutions like the Cooperative Extension

Service seems less remarkable if we cannot call it a sudden inspiration on the part of the

reform leadership. However, placing home demonstration in the widest possible context helps

anchor it more securely in the history of agrarian education and reform, and considerably

improves our understanding of its longevity. Extension work crystallized in a dynamic, urgent

period of rapid change and ambitious reform efforts. It was then a relatively short time until

rural America ceased to be dominant in the national demographic. The combined force of

reform exhaustion and a pragmatic loss of consequence, exacerbated by racial inconsistencies

and often unrealistic goals, should have undermined, even collapsed, Extension work,

especially among women, who struggled continuously to maintain funding, support and

respect in a male profession plagued by limited resources. But Extension work did not

collapse, even among women. Indeed, it evolved and carried forth. Why? Part of the answer

is that home demonstration had been a long time coming.

The Early Modem period in Europe witnessed a dramatic infusion of science and

education into agrarian lives, fueled by the Scientific Revolution and political debates about

the future of the countryside.7 In the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, husbandry was

a mix of custom, fashion, experience and ingenuity. Innovation was limited to those with

adequate financial security and time to absorb the risk of new methods advocated by strangers

who had conducted tests on strange farms. That education of those interested in and/or


7 A fine example of the sort of heated debate that agricultural change could inspire is that over
Parliamentary enclosure. The arguments sound familiar in the context of home demonstration;
proponents considered enclosure as an improvement designed to make the best use of agrarian
resources and keep the most promising farmers on the land while funneling others into alternate
occupations. Opponents decried enclosure as a blow to customary independence and access to the
commons, an incursion that alienated those most dependent on a farm living. The clashing sentiments
of Arthur Young and William Cobbett are roundly echoed among early twentieth-century reformers and
even amongst those who have composed scholarly study of Extension work and other federal rural
programs. On these debates, see Minor, "The principall and only means."










employed in farming was to be a centerpiece of reform is evident in the flurry of husbandry

manuals disseminated among learned men and profitable farmers. Over the course of the

period, custom and tradition in husbandry decisions gave up ground to experiment and

demonstration as learning and teaching tools.8 While most manuals dealt with bread and

butter topics like manure, timber and furrows, a number paid particular attention to the

sustenance of the rural home, if only to note sound architectural styles and orderly environs,

and commented upon necessary improvements.

An early, familiar example of total-farm advice is Thomas Tusser's oft-cited manuals,

Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry, first published in 1537. The book is a compilation

of verse, a lyrical "to do" list for the farm and its surroundings. Tusser's advice is rare in that

it dealt with the "huswife's" role specifically, making it clear that her participation and

particular expertise were necessary for a farm's prosperity and security. Like HDAs four

centuries later, Tusser laid out a precise calendar for the huswife that included all her duties,

organized into monthly tasks. His aim was to prevent haphazard homemaking efforts that

inevitably would fail, threatening the stability of the whole farm enterprise. Certainly, the

pressure upon rural women to succeed as wives and mothers, bring honor upon a household

and prove herself worthy of her station did not fade with time.

In addition to advice for women, later agricultural writers like Arthur Young devoted

space to evaluating rural homes and outbuildings and calling for their uplift. In 1797, Young

remarked on the sorry state of dwellings for smallholders compared to the great trouble taken

to accommodate "men of large fortune." He admitted that the prior two decades had produced



8 As representatives of an evolving methodology in husbandry, good examples of the manual tradition
include, first, a wave of agricultural writers whose advice still maintained a strong sense of custom and
sentiment: Thomas Tusser, Conrad Heresbach, Gervase Markham and John Worlidge, writing between
the 1550s and 1690s. The next major round of husbandry writers were, as I once said, short on
philosophy, long on footnotes, and big on invention: William Ellis, Richard Bradley and Jethro Tull,
writing between 1733 and 1758. See Minor, "The principal and only means."









improvement in farm houses, but that "they are still very inferior to what, it is to be hoped,

the\ may become in some future period."9 Interestingl%, some advisors addressed specific

methods of improvements around the farmstead, not just in the fields. In fact, their

suggestions for garnering support for such campaigns are strikingly similar to those the

Extension Service would employ centuries later. The prolific and popular agricultural advisor

William Marshall named some means by which men of landed property could institute

improvements on their estates, namely "by IMPROVING the MINDS of his TENANTS. By

infusing among them a SPIRIT for IMPROVEMENT." The person best equipped for such a

task was one "who has a knowledge of rural affairs, and who possesses the goodwill and

confidence of its tenantry." He recommended that the trusted proprietor connect with tenants

through personal attention, conversation and, significantly, by seeking out what he called

"leading men," those with great promise or the respect of their peers and using their

improvements as examples to inspire or shame others into action.10 This is a significant

precedent for an agency like the Extension Service that relied on personal interaction to effect

change.

Even as Marshall focused upon those with the most resources at hand, he already was

calling for a program that one day would extend education to the rural masses. In the late

eighteenth century, he made proposals for a "Rural Institute, or College of Rural Economy."

Marshall argued, "E ery other art, mystery, and profession, has the means of gaining initial

instruction ... while the art of agriculture,--more valuable, if not more difficult, than the rest





9 Arthur Young, General View of the Agriculture of the County of Suffolk (London: Macmillan, 1797),
10.

0" \ illiam Marshall, On the Landed P o 'perti ofEnglal. An Elementary and Practical Treatise...
(London: G. and W. Nicol, 1804), 301-03.










united, -- has been left to accidental tuition."" Clearly, the foundation was laid and interest

aroused for democratized reform. Thus, these works and advisors are not peripheral to this

discussion. Rather, they indicate how much context existed for agrarian reform in the United

States and how much agrarian change was linked to increasingly scientific demonstrations

conducted by "experts." And it is necessary to remember that much of the debate surrounding

home demonstration work is a derivative of the same debates that dominated Early Modem

agricultural thinkers and scientists-the meaning of the farm, the farm home, the whole

countryside, in the grand scheme of national progress and posterity. Furthermore, colonial

agricultural writers had read, corresponded with, referred to and even critiqued some of these

men's works, importing and then shaping agricultural education and experimentation to meet

colonial agriculture's needs.

Reformers seeking to extend agrarian education to more people found their cause

travel-ready, especially across the Atlantic in the colonies, where notable agriculturists like

George Washington and Thomas Jefferson lauded the prospect of agricultural extension.

Washington wanted to see a national university with a chair of agriculture, and Jefferson

conceived of a network of local agriculture societies charged with disseminating

information.'2 Washington's and Jefferson's interests also were not novel, but were part of

two trends that emerged in the colonial and early Republic periods regarding agrarian

improvement, further democratization and discrete organization. Though neither would reach

then the levels of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the process of both was clearly in

motion. In 1748, Jared Eliot composed the first American husbandry manual, Essays Upon

Field Husbandry in New England, as a serial. Over six issues between 1748 and 1759, he

" Marshall, On the Landed Pir, 1,rti. 431-32.

12 Barbara Cotton, The Lamplighters. Black Farm and Home Demonstration Agents in Florida, 1915-
1965 (Tallahassee: United States Department of Agriculture in cooperation with Florida Agricultural
and Mechanical University, 1982), 9-10.









both emulated and departed from his contemporaries in England; he urged that husbandry

techniques be adapted to the specific resources and needs of the colonies. Like other

agricultural writers, he struggled to expand his audience, frustrated that so many learned folk

continued to dismiss agricultural writing as either mean or unnecessary. Eliot argued that

neither was the case. Intellectual pursuits about agriculture had been good enough for

Solomon, Cato and Virgil, and they were certainly worthy of the time and attention of the men

around him. Furthermore, he pointed out that the colonies were woefully behind in paying

due attention to agricultural improvement by establishing societies and journals for that

purpose. Not only England, but Scotland and Ireland, had established agrarian societies,

"Pens and Hands are set to Work ... and the whole Kingdom feel the Advantage of this fine

Institution." Eliot predicted, "if something of this Nature were set on Foot in this Country, it

might be of Advantage.""13 To that end, he sought to make his own work as accessible as

possible, so that men who were not members of the many learned societies that did embrace

agriculture might still learn of improved methods and benefit by them.

Eliot did not shy from critiquing other, well-respected agrarian writers, preferring to

laud experience rather than prestige. Though learned men interested in agriculture punctuated

their rhetoric with classical agrarian wisdom, Eliot demurred, calling Cato's work on Roman

husbandry "a better piece of Poetry than a Book of Husbandry."'4 This bold depreciation of

classical advice was not limited to the antique. Eliot reported having read all the English

husbandry manuals and having been familiar with a number of their authors. Though he

respected their work, he nevertheless believed that their style limited their effectiveness. In


3 Jared Eliot, Essays Upon Field Husbandry in New England... (Boston: Edes and Gill, 1760), 2, 3,
68.

14 Eliot, Essays Upon Field Husbandry, 28. He did, however, add a footnote to his criticism: "The
above is not said to depreciate the Character or derogate from the Merits of that truly great Man; for a
great deal of our present Husbandry is justly called r irtilmg "









particular, he criticized Jethro Tull's language as serving only to exclude a good portion of

those who might benefit from his experience. Quoting a passage carefully selected for its

obtuseness, Eliot remarked "Mr. Tull has had but little Regard to the Capacity of his Reader:

Nor will it be much better understood than if it had been wrote in an unknown Tongue, here

being so many words used by him which common Farmers do not understand." The real

shame, Eliot continued, was that Tull "seems to me to have entered deeper into the true

Principles of Husbandry, than any Author I have ever read. Had he taken Pains to

accommodate himself to the Unlearned, his Book would have been much more useful than

now it is." In contrast to what Eliot called Tull's "pompous Parade of Learning," he

deliberately wrote in "plain Stile" to reach out to farmers beyond the exclusive circles of

leaned societies, "sensible, that the low Stile, the Plainness and Simplicity of these Essays, has

exposed them to the Centure of those who do not well consider for whom they are intended

and written.""15 Eliot was extending the circle of agricultural education to take in those whom

other writers had only assumed would benefit, in time, from the examples of their economic

betters. This sort of expanded access was a key component of all manner of agrarian

extension and education.

Examining this period of burgeoning extension work with a historian's hindsight,

Margaret Rossiter agrees that a shift was taking place in the manner of agricultural education

and reform. Through the 1830s or so, agricultural reform was slowly becoming both more

democratic and more organized. In fact, those conditions were mutually reinforcing. Before

1820, agricultural improvement was a consideration of the wealthy, men with time to spend

and money to risk experimenting with potential improvement. As a result, innovation came

to be linked with particular names, even regions-Samuel H. Black, John Taylor of Caroline,


"Eliot, Essays Upon Field Husbandry, 99, 4.










Stephen McCormick and, later, David Dickson, Wade Hampton and John C. Jenkins-rather

than movements.16 In the South and in the North, locally known estate owners used their own

lands to develop and test theories and then shared the results with their peers. In the rapidly

grow ing West, Hardy W. Campbell employed similar methods to develop what came to be

called "Campbell dry farming," and made Western farming viable.'7

Despite interest among such learned men and their existing societies, agriculture did

not yet have its own societies, though it was a regular topic of conversation and publication.

Such groups as the American Philosophical Society and the American Academy of Arts and

Sciences, founded in 1768 and 1780 respectively, offered the first "organized agricultural

improvement in the United States." Rossiter argues that though these societies may not have

revolutionized agricultural practice, they do reveal "a genuine interest in agriculture ., but a

very naive impression of how to go about improving it." Soon after, the first specifically


'"Margaret W. Rossiter, "The Organization of Agricultural Improvement in the United States, 1785-
1865," in The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic. American Scientific and Learned
Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War, eds. Alexandra Oleson and Sanborn C. Brown
(Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976), 279; Roy V. Scott, The Reluctant
Farmer. The Rise ofAgricultural Extension to 1914 (Chicago and London: University of Illinois Press,
1970), 4-5, 6. All but Black were Southerners; not until after the Civil War did the North take the lead
in agricultural innovation (Scott, 7). It is worth noting, however, since we are discussing
democratization of agrarian reform, that the South was not a bastion of cohesive innovation prior to
1860. This was true for slaveholding areas in particular. Charles Steffen argues, regarding the South
Carolina Lowcountry, that Southern agricultural reform lacked precisely the element that I argue
sustained agrarian reform into the twentieth century "momentum." There were "many moves, but no
movement." Steffen explains the inertia as "a relatively limited circle of men ... [who] could agree on
what they wanted but not how to get it." The issue? Was leadership to come from "planter paternalism
or white democracy"? Real change depended upon mass education, but elite associations of men,
predicated on white supremacy, precluded inclusivity. Thus, the organizations, journals and advisors
known in the North never developed in the antebellum South beyond episodic fevers of reform efforts.
See Charles G. Steffen, "In Search of the Good Overseer: The Failure of the Agricultural Reform
Movement in Lowcountry South Carolina, 1821-1834," Journal ofSouthern History 58 (November
1997): 753-756. This phenomenon makes sense in light of the reforms I describe above, especially
those prior to 1820, when the South outpaced the North by producing a good many ideas and
innovators, but only as a series of swells rather than a steady wave. The North, on the other hand,
produced a steadier, if more concentrated, agricultural reform culture. This trend also contributes to my
sense that agrarian reform was continually evolving, moving toward an eventual inclusiveness, even in
the South.


7 Scott, The Reluctant Farmer, 8.










agricultural societies emerged, the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture in 1785 and

South Carolina Society for Promoting and Improving Agriculture, both in 1785, followed by

similar organizations in New Jersey, Massachusetts, Maine, Connecticut and Kentucky.18 But

these early societies still comprised an elite membership without an effective means of

communicating information widely.

The problem was two-fold. First, agricultural reforms and experiments were best

characterized as what Russell Lord calls "spontaneous agricultural extension."'9 Until the

mid-nineteenth century, agricultural education was haphazard, with neither the funding nor the

infrastructure to support an effective widespread movement. In 1760, Jared Eliot had called

for the publication of some sort of annual report compiling the successful improvements

farmers had undertaken, and in 1796, President Washington, himself an agricultural innovator,

urged Congress to establish an office to promote American agriculture. As the nation grew, he

argued, "the culture of the soil more and more [must be] an object of public patronage.'20 By

the turn of the nineteenth century, however, there still was no American counterpart to the

British Board of Agriculture and no far-reaching agricultural publication, so members of

learned societies simply reported their trials and successes to their respective peers.21 The

second problem is related to this organizational and communication deficit, and that is the

demographic composition of agricultural improvers.





8"Scott, The Reluctant Farmer, 9-10.

'"Russell Lord, The Agrarian Revival. A Study ofAgricultural Extension (Nc\e York: American
Association for Adult Education, 1939), 20.

20 Wayne Rasmussen, Taking the I ri cr% itv to the People. Seventy-Five Years of Cooperative
Extension (Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1989), 17.

21 Rossiter, "The Organization of Agricultural Improvement," 284, Eliot, Essays Upon Field
Husbandry, 17.









As Jared Eliot supposed, the average society member and the average American

farmer were not the same man. Members of learned societies were, in the main, prominent

and wealthy men with an urban occupation and a country estate, both in New England. They

were educated and well-read (hence, the numerous nods to Cato and Virgil). However, certain

important factors were reshaping who improved and the information they expected. In turn,

the new kind of reformer propelled a shift toward a more distinct agricultural structure,

increased federal and state involvement in agriculture, and eventually, another significant

expansion of agricultural democracy. Basically, science launched this shift with the

introduction of new findings in agricultural chemistry and related subjects, creating a

grassroots demand among the agricultural public for "scientific expertise from its journals,

societies and government," which supported some new, but relatively few, positions for

agricultural scientists. This, Rossiter believes, promoted the enhanced "democratization and

'professionalization' of agricultural improvement," shifting the power base from gentlemen to

everymen, who in turn formed an "active self-interested lobbyist group." Since traditional

learned societies could neither keep pace with these changes nor meet the needs of an

expanded public, they were "bypassed" by those better suited to the new agrarian milieu.22

Peter McClelland's Sowing .\htdlrnity offers an important clue to the origins of

extension philosophy and expectations by demonstrating that the work of Jared Eliot and other

American agricultural writers preceded only slightly a boom beyond their most daring hopes.

In the 1810s, American agriculture began what McClelland terms the first of many

agricultural revolutions. Unlike historians analyzing such phenomena elsewhere, especially in

Britain, McClelland identifies revolution not with an implement or a crop, but with an attitude.

The revolution was a period in which "changes made in techniques and implements signaled a


22 Rossiter, "The Organization of Agricultural Improvement," 279.









departure from methods that for generations had been largely unchanged because their use had

been largely unquestioned." For McClelland, the revolution erupted when a single question

became "pervasive among American farmers"-"Is there a better way?" This "attitudinal

transformation," he says, occurred swiftly, in only two decades between about 1815 and

1830.23 His time frame is spot on, since the early nineteenth century witnessed a veritable

boom in agricultural education and a firm foundation for agricultural extension.

Agrarian reform became a hot topic in the nineteenth century because suddenly many

people were seeking a "better way." Agricultural societies flourished, agricultural literature

launched a whole genre in the American canon and an agricultural infrastructure finally

emerged to guide more steadily those in the throes of agricultural enthusiasm. In 1811, the

Berkshire Agricultural Society was organized, a prototype of the localized agricultural

societies most useful for mainstream farmers. It was succeeded by a number of new societies

and agricultural fairs, the brainchildren of Elkanah Watson, between 1817 and 1825.24 In

1838, proposals surfaced for the creation of a National Agricultural College (William

Marshall's ideas taking shape on this soil), and in 1852 the United States Agricultural Society

formed. By 1860, more than 900 agricultural societies were active nationwide. While they

remained largely a "boys' club," some sought to include women in their reform ideas. This

effort to address deficiencies or wants in the farm home proved a valuable opening for

including women in the coming Farmers' Institute movement. For example, Amasa Walker

outlined for the Worcester South Society in 1855 four basic goals for that organization as it

went about rural education. First, he suggested that weekly farmers' clubs should "discuss

agricultural matters among themselves;" second, they should buy, read and discuss

agricultural books; third, they should try to "establish a series of lectures on agriculture,

23 McClelland, Sowing Modernity, ix-x.

24 Scott, The Reluctant Farmer, 10.









agricultural chemistry and geology;" fourth, these clubs should conduct classes where young

farmers could study agricultural textbooks. Significantly, Walker told his audience that

women should be invited to all meetings and that some of the content should be aimed at their

needs, such as discussions of butter making.25

These groups were sharing their experiences with people and in ways their

predecessors had not. Husbandry manuals continued to appear; notable among them was

Edmund Ruffin's Essays on Calcareous Manures in 1832, based on his personal experiments

with marl fertilizer on his Virginia plantation.26 However, Ruffin's manual merged into an

already busy agricultural publication stream, again with prominent men at the helm. The first

American agriculture periodical, Agricultural Museum, appeared in 1810 and by 1840, a total

of thirty farm journals with a circulation of more than 100,000 signaled the permanence of

agriculture journalism in the United States.27 Moreover, these widely circulated journals

served as a vital conduit to carry information from experimental groups to farmers, exposing

them to new ideas in their own language, proven results of meaningful experiments, and even

examples from abroad, dwindling some of the innovation gap.28

Most significant for the future Extension Service and home demonstration, this

revolutionary period also accelerated the movement of two institutions into agricultural


25 Alfred A. True, A History ofAgricultural Extension Work in the United States 1785-1923
(Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1928), 5-6.

SScott, The Reluctant Farmer, 5; USDA, History of American Agriculture,
1.% u di daJ hiti or 2 Lt\ IIl hlim.

27 Many significant journals followed Agricultural Museum, including American Farmer and Plough
Boy in 1819, New England Farmer in 1822, New York Farmer and Southern Agriculturist in 1828,
Cultivator in 1834, and Union Agriculturist and Western Prairie Farmer in 1841. USDA, History of
American Agriculture. The thirty plus journals in circulation as of 1840 does not account for the many
more short-lived publications which marked the period. Typical of early agricultural reform, there were
many flares, but few long-burning developments. It is the steady stream, flares and otherwise, that
concerns us here.

28 Scott, The Reluctant Farmer, 20-21.










improvement the state and colleges. By 1862, these had united to create land-grant

universities, those that would serve as "base camps" for extension under the Morrill Act. As

early as 1766, George Washington had suggested that Congress establish a National Board of

Agriculture, but it was not until 1819 that such a body existed.29 That year, New York's state

legislature established the state's Board of Agriculture, the first of its kind. By 1820, as the

groundswell of those newly interested in scientific agriculture increased, their lobbying power

produced results in the federal government, first with an Agricultural Committee in the House

of Representatives and then in the Senate in 1825. More prominent federal initiatives did not

appear until 1862, but educational efforts continued to expand. Between 1825 and 1850, a

number of schools and colleges, including Columbia, Brown, and Harvard, began offering

science-based courses in agriculture, albeit unevenly, while in 1826, Maine launched the

Lyceum movement.30 The Gardiner's Lyceum was the first agricultural school, where farmers

enrolled in three years of instruction. It was a much-needed counterweight to the scattered

and usually unsatisfactory agricultural education offered at existing universities. However, the

Lyceum movement still could not overcome agrarian education's fledgling status, hampered

by farmer disinterest, academic snobbery and chronic underfunding.3" Then, in the midst of a

much greater struggle, President Abraham Lincoln signed into law initiatives which finally

would provide the support necessary to get agrarian improvement on firm footing, and extend

it to an even wider audience, including women.

Absorbed with war worries, Lincoln nevertheless put pen to paper for two agrarian

laws in 1862. One created the United States Department of Agriculture, as a cabinet-level



2' See Lord, The Agrarian Revival, 24-25 on early support for state agricultural initiatives.

3" USDA, History of American Agriculture, "Government Programs and Policy,"
www.usda.govi/history2/text 10.htm.

31 Scott, The Reluctant Farmer, 24-26.









position, and the second approved the Morrill Land-Grant Act. On July 2, the federal

government granted eleven million acres of land to the states to create colleges for the purpose

of building a better agrarian machine, to "'promote the arts and industries for a peace not yet

in sight.'" Each college was to receive a $5,000 annual grant and 30,000 acres per each

Congressional representative.32 The idea was to stabilize and standardize the quality of and

access to agricultural education, but the colleges' early years were fraught with

disappointments, as they were "badly housed and miserably endowed."33 The number of

students actually enrolled in agriculture was abysmally low, and those that did attend to learn

about the newest and best agricultural methods were often disappointed there was neither the

staff nor the expertise, nor even the science, to meet demand.

To make matters worse, the hostility toward agricultural education that had plagued

earlier attempts to incorporate it into existing colleges continued. Farmers disliked the broad

curriculum that instructed their sons in both vocational and more classical pursuits; classical

professors at these "cow colleges" scoffed at anything as manually laborious as agriculture

and professed to see little value in teaching it.34 The faculty responsible for agrarian

education, regardless of competence, suffered from a particularly unfavorable balance of work


Lord, The Agrarian Revival, 30; Gladys Baker, The County Agent (Chicago: University of Illinois
Press, 1939), 2; USDA, History of American Agriculture, "Agricultural Education and Reform;"
Cotton, The Lamplighters, 10; Scott, The Reluctant Farmer, 26-32, Donald B. Williams, Agricultural
Extension. Farm Extension in Australia, Britain and the United States ofAmerica (Melbourne:
Melboume University Press, 1968), 22..

3 Lord, The Agrarian Revival, 31.

4 Scon. The Reluctant Farmer. 27, 28-29. Part of the problem was a cultural divide. In one instance,
visiting agriculturists to Clemson University complained of the poor treatment they received from
faculty, and that "'. fr\ of the professors had shaved faces."' Scott, The Reluctant Farmer, 29. Clayton
Ellsworth, recounting these early days of agricultural education in established universities, notes that
the Country Life Commission's chair, Liberty Hyde Bailey, experienced this same frustrating reception
at Comell University. Though Bailey was a renowned horticulturist by the time he joined Comell's
faculty, he faced opposition from both farmers and collegian, to agricultural education farmers
believed a college education was unnecessary to carry out their work and professors believed a College
of Agriculture was an oxymoron. Clayton Ellsworth, "Theodore Roosevelt's Country Life
Commission," Agricultural History 34 (1960): 157.









and compensation. Many colleges attempted to maintain agricultural studies with but one

professor. Short on funds and students, colleges expected agricultural professors to be

multifunctional, supplementing their primary teaching duties with managing the college's

demonstration farm and teaching other courses more or less (usually less) related to

agriculture.35

To correct some of these deficits and expand the student base of the land-grants,

Congress passed a second Morrill Act in 1890. There were some notable improvements in the

system, at least on paper. To alleviate some of the economic strain on the colleges, annual

grants were increased to $15,000 with a gradual increase expected of up to $25,000 per year.

The most significant change was the introduction of federal funds to support land-grant

education for blacks. In 1871, four Southern states had designated a portion of their grants for

use by black colleges, but in no meaningful way had black agricultural education previously

been provided for.36 Even so, enrollment remained disappointing.

A partial explanation for the slow start in land-grant enrollment was competition.

Farmers, and their wives, interested in learning more about their craft were attending in droves

the increasingly popular Farmers' Institutes, begun in Massachusetts in 1863 on the heels of

the Morrill Act. By 1899, all but one state offered Institutes, and most were sponsored by the

state department of agriculture or state land-grant college. That year, more than 2,000

Institutes were held and more than a half million farmers attended them. These intensive

seminars ran for two to five days, with morning and afternoons devoted to lectures on a







35 Scott, The Reluctant Farmer, 32.

3 Cotton, The Lamplighters, 11-12; Lord, The Agrarian Revival, 32.









variety of agricultural and homemaking topics. Evenings were a social time, filled with

amusements deemed uplifting, such as recitations and music.37

Throughout the Institutes' history, women participated. Though many farm women

were reluctant to attend lectures, many other women were eager to give them. Women's

speakers and sessions were not segregated from men's; female speakers shared the platform

with men, at times speaking not on homemaking, but on agriculture. It is not necessarily

surprising that male institute organizers welcomed, even encouraged, female participation;

they believed that women in attendance lent delicacy and refinement to the movement, a

perception once common in Victorian America.38 With Institute successes underway,

organizers looked for more direct ways to extend education to rural women, such as

concurrent but separate cooking schools. In these classes, women learned much of what

HDAs would undertake to teach similar women, including dietary needs and food analysis. In

the late nineteenth century, several states began establishing women's clubs, "domestic

science associations," to parallel their husband's societies. In patterns similar to home

demonstration, these clubs worked by gathering together rural women within their own

communities and working with them to improve some homemaking methods.39






37 Edmund deS. Brunner and H. Hsin Pao Yang, Rural America and the Extension Service. A History
and Critique of the Cooperative Agricultural and Home Economics Extension Service (New York:
Teachers College, Columbia University, 1949), 7-8; Clarence Beaman Smith and Meredith Chester
Wilson, The Agricultural Extension System of the United States (New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.,
1930), 28-31; The Cooperative Extension Service, ed. H.C. Sanders (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-
Hall, Inc., 1966), 13-14; Scott, The Reluctant Farmer, see chapters 3-4 for a detailed history of the
development and fulfillment of the Institute movement, including the participation of women and
youth; Cotton, The Lamplighters, 14; True, A History ofAgricultural Extension Work, 14.

3 Scott, The Reluctant Farmer, 117-119; True, A History ofAgricultural Extension II ,rA4 15, 17.

3 Scott, The Reluctant Farmer, 118-20; True, A History ofAgricultural Extension Work, 18, 35. On the
continued development of Institutes after 1900, including the increased attention to children, see True,
32-41.










As they did for women, Institutes broadened agrarian education opportunities for rural

African-Americans. In many cases, blacks were officially welcome at white institutes.40

Black institutes benefited from a double source of funding and inspiration, for the legislated

support provided by Morrill was backed by the ingenuity and commitment of Tuskegee

Institute founder Booker T. Washington. Washington's concern that farmers who stood to

benefit from agricultural education were not always able to attend traditional institutes helped

launch his moveable schools, essentially institutes on wheels. The educators came to the farm

families, an important precedent for extension work.41 Meanwhile, traditional institutes

continued. In North Carolina, Mississippi, Georgia, Kentucky and Florida they were

established specifically for black participants (both from segregated racial customs and the

need for expanded audiences).42 In Florida, white institutes were held in Gainesville at

University of Florida, while black farmers were required to attend the programs at the black

land-grant, the State Normal College for Colored Students (today, Florida Agricultural and

Mechanical University) in Tallahassee. Its first Institutes, in four counties, began in 1902 with

a $600 grant from the legislature.43

Parallelling but ever closer to intersecting land-grant colleges and institutes were some

other, not yet formalized, developments in agrarian edification. Among these were the

Chautauqua, founded at Chautauqua Lake, New York in 1874. Like Farmers' Institutes,

Chautauqua extended extension, approaching the daily, hands-on access that the Extension



40 Scott, The Reluctant Farmer, 115. Scott notes that resistance to black attendance tended to be based
in Southern enclaves, in those places where sharecropping was most deeply entrenched. There,
traditions of conservative agriculture based on a "'negro and mule"' prevailed and scientific farming
could make little headway.

41 Cotton, The Lamplighters, 12, 14; Scott, The Reluctant Farmer, 115-116.

42 Scott, The Reluctant Farmer, 115.

43 Cotton, The Lamplighters, 14.









Service brought to rural families. Then, at the turn of the century, children's inclusion in

agricultural education grew into distinct clubs-corn for boys and, later, tomatoes for girls.

These clubs were the direct predecessors of the 4-H program, the oldest and most familiar

branch of the Extension system.4 Finally, reformers hit upon another key idea, the

agricultural experiment station. Though some agricultural colleges had been pursuing

experiments since the colleges' inception, experiment stations offered a concentrated solution

to a persistent problem-the dearth of science in scientific agrarianism. Experiment work

began abroad, in 1851 in Saxony, followed by experiment stations in England and France and

in some agricultural colleges in the United States.45

By the 1880s, experiment stations were operating formally in fifteen states,

developing the science that professors and demonstration agents later would take to their

respective students. However, as had been true before, funding and organizational issues

hampered progress. Educators and scientists looked to the state for funding and structure.

The state responded with the Hatch Act, which passed in 1887 with little fuss. In effect, the

Hatch Act enhanced the 1862 Morrill Act; it provided for the creation of a departmental

agricultural experiment station in each land-grant college, funded by a $15,000 annual grant.

The purpose of the stations was to "'aid in acquiring ... useful and practical information ...

and to promote scientific investigation and experiment respecting the principles and

applications of agricultural science.'" 46



44 Brunner and Yang, Rural America and the Extension Service, 5-6; True, A History ofAgricultural
Extension H.; 'rk 65-68, 43; USDA History of American Agriculture, "Agricultural Education and
Extension."

5 Scott, The Reluctant Farmer, 32. Once again, agrarian reform takes a transatlantic shape. In fact,
agricultural colleges here were derivatives of a University extension system that operated through
public libraries, a system which was itself inspired by similar ones in England, begun in 1866. True, A
History ofAgricultural Extension Work, 43.

4' Scott, The Reluctant Farmer, 33; Brunner and Yang, Rural America and the Extension Service, 5.









Agrarian reform through education seemed at the threshold of a comprehensive

system of extension. Thus far, improvement advocates had established "what" reform should

do: educate, experiment, extend. Long ago, the issue of"why" had been raised-talk of

national good, noble ploughmen, Jeffersonian democracy-but bureaucratic need long since

had taken precedence over ideological musings (those would be resurrected in 1908 with the

Country Life Movement). For centuries, reformers had been grappling with "how" to do what

needed to be done, and they were very close to the answer. When seventy-year old Seaman

Knapp crossed paths with a boll weevil in Texas, how to do the "what" fell into place.

To those connected in some way with the Cooperative Extension Service, Seaman

Knapp is only slightly short of a modern messiah. A sample of testimonials from such people

will suffice to demonstrate the extent to which Knapp is equated with rural salvation. In 1921,

Oscar B. Martin, a proponent of extension education among children and women, published a

work on Knapp detailing his "Contribution to Civilization." As one of the world's "great

benefactors," Knapp "loved the common man." A.F. Lever, co-author of the 1914 Smith-

Lever Act, introduced Martin's book with his own commendation. It was in the "fertile brain"

of the agricultural elder statesman that the demonstration method came to fruition, for which

Knapp "stands out toweringly among a bare half dozen really great agricultural leaders in the

history of our country." That he was so successful is little cause for wonder, for Knapp was "a

bold, aggressive, original thinker. His philosophy was tender and broadly sympathetic, filled

throughout with the true missionary spirit of service."47 Russell Lord has described Knapp as

a "practical man and a mystic," a reformer "who went South to make money, but he could not


47 Martin, The Demonstration Work, Preface, Introduction.









keep his mind on it... The men and women he directed literally worship his memory in the

South."48 Apparently so.

Behind the story of every giant, though, is a smaller creature, this one a bug. Without

the boll weevil, there may have been less urgency to propel Knapp's work or inspire his

followers' devotion. In 1902, Knapp accepted an appointment to the United States

Department of Agriculture, with the purpose of establishing some demonstration farms in the

South. While at Iowa State College, Knapp had helped run some similar farms with success,

but his experience in the South was less heartening. Demonstration farms were few and far

between, minimizing their impact on surrounding communities. Knapp suggested a

community demonstration farm, where that community chose its representative farmer. The

farmer agreed to pay his own way, though he was insured against loss. The first farm

established under this system was the Porter Community Demonstration Farm near Terrell,

Texas. There in 1903 Porter experimented with proposed controls of an increasingly

troublesome pest, the boll weevil, and the farm earned a sizable income from the advance

methods employed under Knapp's supervision.

The farm was a success and the publicity it garnered came just in time. That year, an

infestation of the Mexican boll weevil swept across Texas, savaging cotton crops and

threatening livelihoods as it went. The story of the Porter farm and its potential for wide-scale

control convinced the previously wary Secretary of Agriculture to fund an emergency

demonstration campaign. The purpose was to convince farmers to try newer methods by

proving to them that even in the midst of a weevil attack, cotton could be grown successfully

if Knapp's methods were in use.49 Knapp incorporated into his plan the "cultural methods" of


4s Lord, 54.

9 Brunner and Yang, Rural America and the Extension Service, 8-9; Scott, The Reluctant Farmer, 210-
212; True, A History ofAgricultural Extension Work, The Agrarian Revival, 58-64.









control the USDA and its Bureau of Entomology had proposed. These strategies (what we

now call Integrated Pest Management) were simple and effective. To retard the spread of the

weevil, Knapp and his agents encouraged farmers to plant early an early-maturing variety of

cotton, since the weevil itself did not mature into its most destructive form until late summer.

Additionally, Knapp and the USDA urged farmers to weed and cultivate thoroughly to remove

weevil habitats, bum all infected squares, and protect wildlife that preyed upon the weevil,

such as quail.50

The anti-weevil coup reassured Knapp that his ideas were viable and that

demonstration could work on private farms. Furthermore, though his immediate task was boll

weevil control, he saw farmers' vulnerability to the insect as a symptom of deep-rooted

debilitation in the rural South. Knapp long had been interested in extending agrarian

education beyond the farmer in the field, into the rural home. He saw ample room for

improvement in the rural South as a whole, where dilapidated buildings cast shadows on "the

same old mule ... hitched to a plow Adam rejected as not up-to-date."51 The whole-farm

approach would evolve into the marrow of Extension philosophy, so that the work reached out

in ever-widening circles.

Defining those circles was sticky at times. In 1906, Booker T. Washington launched

an idea formulated by his and George Washington Carver's experiences speaking with black

farmers. Since so few farmers had access to a car to attend institutes or other meetings,

Washington decided to bring the meetings to the farmers, via a moveable school. The Jesup

Wagon, named for benefactor Morris K. Jesup, began moving through Macon County,



50 Scott, The Reluctant Farmer, 212-215.

51 Seaman A. Knapp, "Farmers' Co-Operative Demonstration Work," Southern Educational Review 3
(October 1906), 50-51. See Scott, The Reluctant Farmer, 216-221, regarding the early contests for
control and authority between Knapp's agents and the scientific crowd in colleges and the USDA.
Smith-Lever would diffuse much of this jealousy by basing agents at land-grant colleges.









Alabama, stopping in one community after another. Farmers, and their wives, gathered at the

homes of the sponsoring neighbors and spent several days learning and socializing together

The Jesup Wagon carried tools, seed packets, churs, milk testers and a variety of other

improvement-oriented equipment for demonstrating. The gatherings proved popular, and

demonstrated the efficacy, once again, of taking agrarian education to the people, on their

terms.

Washington saw an opportunity for expanding and enriching this sort of extension by

combining forces with Knapp. He approached Knapp with the moveable school and

suggested that black agents add their efforts to Knapp's cause, but he demurred. Aware of

Southern racial customs, he feared that a black agent would be confined to work with black

farmers, hampering his effectiveness and increasing costs; instead, Knapp intended his white

agents to seek out black demonstrators.5 The General Education Board later convinced

Knapp to reverse his decision and to employ black agents, the first being Thomas M.

Campbell in Macon County, Alabama. On the eve of Smith-Lever, thirty-six black agents

operated in nine Southern states.5

Similar provisions were underway for youth and women. Knapp became directly

involved in the boys' club movement, then the girls' tomato clubs. Like the Country Life

Commission that succeeded him, Knapp identified a fit and content rural youth as the key to

slowing the exodus from the countryside. Whatever his reservations about adults, Knapp was

determined that African-American children be included in boys' and girls' clubs. Again,


52 "Demonstrators" were those farmers who agreed to host a single crop demonstration on their
property. Initially, "demonstration farms" were those hosting the one crop, but the term later came to
indicate any farm employing improved methods for improvement as a public model. "Cooperators"
devoted most or all of their property to improvement under agent direction. True, A History of
Agricultural Extension Work. 61.

53 Scott, The Reluctant Farmer, 233; Brunner and Yang, Rural America and the Extension Service, 114-
115; Cotton, The Lamplighters, 12; True, A History ofAgricultural Extension Work, 63.










custom drew some lines between work with white and black children, but prolonged work

with the children showed them to be just that, children, with little difference in their

enthusiasm for corn, pigs, chickens and other prized projects.54 Moreover, developing a good

relationship with children proved crucial in establishing a viable home demonstration

program. In five Southern states, the first home agents got their start with girls' tomato clubs,

for which they were recognized for their effectiveness and appointed as state and county

supervisors prior to 1914.55 In time, working with farm girls gave agents access to farm

wives, the most difficult group with whom to connect, and the foundation was in place for a

formal structure to tie the demonstration bundle together.

The 1914 Smith-Lever Act creating the Cooperative Extension Service was a victory

for agricultural reformers, demonstration pioneers and intellectual Progressives monitoring the

state of the rural union. Indeed, Progressivism indelibly stamped home demonstration and

extension work.56 Progressivism became a key source of home demonstration's longevity by


54 Scott, The Reluctant Farmer, 239-245.

55 The agents were Ella G. Agnew (Virginia), Susie Powell (Mississippi), Marie Cromer (South
Carolina), Jane McKimmon (North Carolina) and Virginia P. Moore (Tennessee). Scott, The Reluctant
Farmer. 248-49. Incidentally, McKimmon wrote an important early history of home demonstration in
North Carolina, When We're Green We Grow (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1945).
And Moore became a leading home demonstration figure in Florida during the period of this
dissertation, spearheading the state's Home Improvement campaign and working for years as the home
demonstration home improvement specialist.

56I am not going to enter the progressivism terminology fray. Whether or not an "ism" is appropriate
here is not really the issue. I am emphasizing the Progressive era as a period that provided an important
context for extension and home demonstration, including much of its rhetoric, methodology and
assumptions. That said, I believe that the relationship between home demonstration and Progressivism
is not one-sided. Elisabeth Israels Perry has written a critique of Progressive historiography designed to
point to women's marginalization within it. When women appear, she argues, it is usually in the
context of social work or social justice "municipal housekeeping," that is. And one of Perry's
recommendations for a more meaningful historiography is to expand the periodization, to think of
Progressivism by more flexible standards. Elisabeth Israels Perry, "Men are from the Gilded Age,
Women are from the Progressive Era," Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era January 2002
hjup hAo, lr 'io.per.m ._,'r- i'tn kaljga 1.1 perrn hinl 18 S August 2004), pars. 10-11, 23. With
this critique in mind, I cannot help but suggest that an excellent way to expand our understanding of the
Progressive era is to consider more fully the role of rural Americans. Obviously, the Country Life
Movement figures in most discussions of Progressive reforms, but usually only briefly, and women










providing a contemporary impetus and framework for reforms, and helping to shape its

programs and style. When we consider home demonstration, it is difficult not to see

Progressivism's imprint-dynamic, sweeping and intensive. In fact, home demonstration and

Progressivism share many hallmarks. First was an expectation of and support for

professionalism; reformers were trained, systematically advanced and organized into

affiliations. Second, both home demonstration and Progressivism incorporated multiple levels

of government involvement. Though the government had maintained an interest in

agricultural affairs and a proportion of the leadership had been particularly interested in rural

life, the Progressives expertly blended government and agrarian pursuits via research,

beginning with the Country Life Commission in 1908.57 Third, these contemporary reformers

exulted and relied upon science and academics as fundamental tools of meaningful change.58



involved in rural reforms figure not at all. For example, Michael McGerr's 2003 analysis of
Progressivism, which begins in 1870, only discusses rural America in four pages devoted to the Country
Life Movement. Michael McGerr, A Fierce Discontent. The Rise and Fall of the Progressive
Movement in America. 1870-1920 (New York and London: Free Press, 2003), 104-107. Similarly,
Anne Firor Scott's study of women's associations deals with Progressive era reformers, but "rural" does
not even appear in the index. Anne Firor Scott, Natural Allies. Women's Associations in American
History (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1991). Steven J. Diner's Progressivism
history deals with the Country Life Movement briefly, but his analysis is not particularly fresh; his
criticism of the Commission and government-based agricultural reform reflects long-standing
historiography. The most recent treatment of Country Life work is a 2004 article by Scott Peters and
Paul Morgan, which examines the Commission in light of contemporary praise and historical criticism,
concluding that the Movement was, indeed, progressive. Scott J. Peters and Paul A. Morgan, "The
Country Life Commission. Reconsidering a Milestone in American History," Agricultural History 78
(t i(.4j: 289-316. The point is that more capacious treatments of Progressivism, reform and associations
can add some meaningful and fresh insights, especially in periods where rural and urban America were
equally in flux.

57 Harold T. Pinkett, "Government Research Concerning Problems of American Rural Society,"
Agricultural History 58 (Summer 1984): 366. Obviously, the Country Life Commission was not the
first large-scale government involvement in rural life; as I described earlier, the legislature had already
passed a number of acts aimed at rural education and reform. However, the Country Life Commission
was the first intensive, state and federally funded effort to study rural life as a whole to identify its
strengths and weaknesses and recommend improvements. Moreover, the long-term impact of the
Commission's work was to inspire even more government intervention in agrarian America like the
Cooperative Extension Service.

58 Robert Wiebe has an interesting take on this scientific validation. He argues that a new,
organizational approach to reform created status anxiety among community leaders. The professional









Though Progressivism colored extension work with broad strokes, one Progressive

initiative in particular, the Country Life Movement, lent important dimension to the ongoing

pursuit of agrarian reform for women.59 Progressives shared a general sense of foreboding

about the modern world; they harbored a terrible dread that the grimy, slimy industrial gilt

covering the nation would ruin its character, born in the country, completely. To make

matters worse, country people seemed increasingly determined to flee their supposed bucolic

repose in favor of the reported opportunity and variety of the cities. Those who stayed behind,

reformers worried, would be the dregs of a rural society laid to waste. Food prices would

skyrocket, American abundance would dwindle and urban problems, like poverty and labor

unrest, would spiral out of control. How to retard and then reverse this process was the critical

question. The answer lay in the country, with the people who lived and worked the rural life

reformers wanted to save.

Though President Theodore Roosevelt is the figure we readily associate with the

Country Life Movement, it, too, stemmed from a partly international initiative. Just like




reformer did not require the pedigree associated with old "status values," and so could usurp easily his
social betters in terms of influence. The logical response was to establish new values -- professional
values -- that rewarded measurable talent and ability. See Robert Wiebe, The Search for Order (New
York: Hill and Wang, 1968). This means of establishing order out of chaos is part of what Daniel
Rodgers calls the rhetoric of social efficiency, one of the three "languages" which Progressives spoke
(including social bonds and antimonopolism). See Rodgers' "In Search of Progressivism," Reviews in
American History 10 (1982): 113-132. There is a clear connection between social efficiency and home
demonstration; much of the documentation agents submitted demonstrating their progress was in the
form of standardized, statistical forms which translated improvement into hard numbers.

5Despite the connection between Progressivism and reforms, many of which involved women,
Elisabeth Perry has evaluated the relative absence of women from Progressive historiography. Early
histories of Progressivism that did include women referred to all their work as "municipal
housekeeping." The term carried a gendered connotation, for men's work in sanitation, welfare and
other quality of life reforms were not referred to as any sort of housekeepers. Perry offers four
suggestions as a starting point for expanding and enhancing this historiography: consider not just the
history of woman's suffrage, but its consequences; rethink "moral reform" aspects of Progressivism,
including women's prominence within it; broaden the scope of "politics" to embrace women's activism;
"adopt a more capacious and flexible periodization" for the Progressive Era. See Perry, "Men are from
the Gilded Age, Women are from the Progressive Era," pars. 10-11,23.









earlier agrarian reforms had been, the Country Life Movement was transatlantic.60 An

intercontinental rural revival helped spark awareness in the United States; in the case of the

Country Life Commission. Irishman Horace Plunkett served as an important ambassador for

comprehensive rural improvement. In Ireland, Plunkett was galvanizing cooperative

organizations among ailing farmers. His desire for agricultural efficiency took shape in the

Irish Agricultural Organisation Society, itself inspired by a Danish example. Plunkett made

cooperatives an integral part of a larger rehabilitation philosophy: "Better farming, better

business, better living." To expand the reach of efficiency-based reform, Plunkett used his

seat in Parliament to push for an Irish Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction,

through which he helped create a government program for agricultural extension.

Plunkett was popular at home and abroad; he had many friends in the United States,

including Theodore Roosevelt. Eager to create a transatlantic reform network, and with ready

access to the American president's ear, Plunkett convinced him to create "a blue-ribbon

commission on the ills and needs of rural life."61 Originally, Plunkett and Chief Forester

Gifford Pinchot tried to establish a bureau of rural life within the USDA, but when presented

with the idea in 1907, Agricultural Secretary James Wilson demurred. As he understood it,

his job was to oversee the farm, not the farm family. Disappointed but undeterred, Pinchot

61 As Daniel Rodgers argues, the international example helped Southern agricultural reformers like
Clarence Poe articulate a still nebulous agrarian reform urge. In fact, Rodgers points out, Poe saw
agrarian reforms not in terms of democratization, but much as Arthur Young had in England a way to
rid the countryside of "loose ends and ragged edges." For Poe, these were mainly African-Americans
and other rural poor. Daniel Rodgers, Atlantic Crossings. Social Politics in a Progressive Age
(Cambridge, MA and London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1998), 322-23.

6' Rodgers, Atlantic Crossings, 331-334. Indeed, the USDA's Chief Forester, Gifford Pinchot,
remarked to Plunkett, "Some of these days it will be known that you are the man who stirred up the
whole movement in America." D. Jerome Tweton, "Progressivism Discovers the Farm: The Country
Life Commission of 1908," North Dakota Quarterly (Summer 1971): 58. Indeed, the connection
between American extension and global extension remained strong from the Early Moder period
through the modern era. Once home extension was in place in the United States, it expanded to Puerto
Rico and established far-flung friendships via the Associated Country Women of the World. Moreover,
the model of American extension moved to developing nations in the twentieth-century, though the
precise experience of extension workers and clients differed from place to place.










took his cue from Roosevelt's own methodology and suggested an investigatory commission

to study rural life. Impressed by the "organization" model, and aware of the need to address

rural ills in the home and community as well as the field, Roosevelt created the Commission

on Country Life in 1908 and placed Liberty Hyde Bailey, Dean of Cornell's College of

Agriculture, at the helm. Other distinguished figures rounded out the Commission: Kenyon

Butterfield, the President of the Massachusetts College of Agriculture, Walter Hines Page,

editor of World's Work and a Southern Progressive, Gifford Pinchot and Henry Wallace,

editor of Wallace's Farmer.62 In order to gather data on the status of American country life,

the Commission traveled rural America, surveying and taking testimonials from thousands of

folks. It engineered a nationwide meet-at-the-schoolhouse forum on December 5, and it

mailed over 500,000 circulars with twelve questions to households, as well as to newspapers

to encouraging those without the circulars to write in with any concerns and suggestions they

had.63

The twelve circular inquiries were relatively broad, leaving ample room for

respondents to specify concerns:

I. Are the farm homes in your neighborhood as good as they should be under
existing conditions?
II. Are the schools in your neighborhood training boys and girls satisfactorily
for life on the farm?
III. Do the farmers in your neighborhood get the returns they reasonably
should from the sale of their products?


62Bailey was a wise choice for the Commission, for both his interest and experience. As early as 1896
he had expressed concern for the quality of rural life and, in 1906, conducted a Country Life
Commission-style study of a New York county, investigating a variety of farm life factors, including
the role of farm women and the education of children. See Tweton, 59. Tweton's article is a valuable
discussion of how the Commission was established and how its internal dynamics played out. He relies
heavily on correspondence between Commission members, revealing details left hidden by other
histories. On the Commission composition, see Olaf F. Larson and Thomas B. Jones, "The
Unpublished Data from Roosevelt's Commission on Country Life," Agricultural History 50 (1976):
583-84.

"3 Larson and Jones, "The Unpublished Data," 584; Ellsworth, "Theodore Roosevelt's Country Life
Commission," 163.









IV. Do the farmers in your neighborhood receive from the railroads, highroads,
trolley lines, etc., the services they reasonably should have?
V. Do the farmers in your neighborhood receive from the United States postal
service, rural telephones, etc., the service they reasonably should expect?
VI. Are the farmers and their wives in your neighborhood satisfactorily
organized to promote their mutual buying and selling interest?
VII. Are the renters of farms in your neighborhood making a satisfactory living?
VIII. Is the supply of farm labor in your neighborhood satisfactory?
IX. Are the conditions surrounding hired labor in your neighborhood
satisfactory to the hired man?
X. Have the farmers in your neighborhood satisfactory facilities for doing
their business in banking, credit, insurance, etc.?
XI. Are the sanitary conditions of farms in your neighborhood satisfactory?
XII. Do the farmers and their wives and families in your neighborhood get
together for mutual improvement, entertainment and social intercourse as
much as they should?


"Why?" and "What suggestions have you to make?" followed each question. The circular

concluded with a final inquiry: "What, in your judgment, is the most important single thing to

be done for the general betterment of country life?" This question surely produced some

fruitful responses, but they had not been tabulated when D.F. Houston, Woodrow Wilson's

Secretary of Agriculture, had the circulars destroyed in 1915.64 Even without the answers, it is

clear that reform-minded people in positions to follow through on good intentions were

interested in the quality of life in rural sectors.


64 Report of the Commission on Country Life, with an Introduction by Theodore Roosevelt (New York:
Sturgis and Walton Company, 1911), 51-53. Larson and Jones explain briefly the internal politics that
ultimately claimed the rich, raw data upon which the Commission based much of its report. Roosevelt
allowed the Commission four months to complete its work and make its report. Feeling rushed, the
Commission never had time to delve deeply into the circular responses. Indeed, Bailey complained that
the wealth of information in the responses could never be fully analyzed, and so would have to yield
only suggesti e summaries. The report, brief and general, was published as Senate Document No. 705,
60'h Congress, 2d session for use by Congress in 1909 (Congress refused to fund a popular publication
of the Report, but in 1911 the Spokane Chamber of Commerce and a private firm in New York City
each published it for distribution in their respective regions. In 1944, the University of North Carolina
Press published the Report for wide-scale popular consumption). Before any of the Commission could
pen a fuller document, the circulars went to Secretary of Agriculture James Wilson, a man not friendly
toward the Commission or its work, which had conducted itself independently of the USDA. Taft's
administration did not continue the Commission's work, and Agricultural Secretary Houston, believing
the circulars no longer valuable, ordered them destroyed. What remained intact were papers in
commission members' private possession, the report submitted to Congress and twelve brief,
unpublished reports which summarize the findings from each of the twelve main circular inquiries. See
Larson and Jones, 586; F lls\ortnh "Theodore Roosevelt's Country Life Movement," 171.









Several of the circular inquiries are particularly notable in light of the home

demonstration program to come, including that related to farm homes, rural services and

sanitary conditions. Notably, the lead question addresses the whole farm home, a clear

indication that reformers, all men in leadership positions, were cognizant at last of the

necessity of total rural well-being. The Commission concluded its report with "The Young

Farmer's Practical Library," a bibliography the Commission believed useful for invigorating

and maintaining the countryside. Among the works was Virginia Terhune Van de Water's

From Kitchen to Garret. Housekeeping and Home-Making. The book's description does not

refer to rural homes as opposed to urban ones, but it describes a methodology for instruction

and reform that home demonstration would mirror very closely:

From Kitchen to Garret does not deal with ideal or impractical decorations, but with
the everyday care of each room in the ordinary home. It is written in simple language,
as if the writer were face-to-face with her reader and explaining to her how to conduct
her household and how to do so with the greatest comfort and least friction for all
concerned.... As one accompanies the author on her tour of the house and listens to
her advice ... one finds the care of the home simplified and the duties of the house
systematized into an harmonious whole.65

Had this description been written in 1915, and been for the rural home, it might have been

describing a HDA, and her language of "everyday good housekeeping," "systematic

housework," "comfort and convenience." This book offered advice as though the reader and

writer were "face-to-face;" HDAs and rural women were face-to-face. Home demonstration's

lineage obviously was long, but its immediate forebears, domestic science and the Country

Life Movement, clearly combined to instigate, propel and legitimize home demonstration as a

reform measure by locating it at the juncture of two dynamic and immediate movements that

both emphasized the fundamental good of the home in the greater good of the nation.


SReport of the Commission on Country Life, appendix.









Indeed, much of the motivation for the Country Life Commission was a growing

sense that rural America was decaying from within. Michael McGerr argues that seeing rural

America as less than idyllic was not easy as the century opened. Progressive-minded middle-

class reformers were absorbed with urban blight, and they tended to look to the countryside as

a moral and cultural cure. The realities, though, of farm tenancy and depopulation disrupted

the illusion of an agrarian wonderland; caught up in the fever of the time, reformers took up

the additional mission of saving the countryside. Scott Peters and Paul Morgan take a

different tack, for they see the Country Life Movement as truly progressive; its work

demonstrates "not an arrogant, technocratic agenda or a backward romanticism," but "an

emerging ecological sensitivity and a variant of Progressive Era reform devoted to key civic

and economic ideals." Of course, there is always the customary explanation, that the whole

Country Life Movement was "a complex and ambiguous concern for individualism, social-

mindedness, nostalgia for the past, morality, national integration based on science and

efficiency, and distrust of materialism and special privilege."66

Whatever motivated Country Lifers, most importantly for our story, they evaluated the

problem expansively. It was clear that overburdened, isolated women and restless children

were as critical in the formula for rural rejuvenation as transportation costs and crop yields. In

his 1960 evaluation of the Country Life Commission, Clayton Ellsworth articulated its long-

term significance. The Commission and Roosevelt "realized that merely to increase the

physical productivity of agriculture by the wonderful wand of science would not automatically

solve the great problems of farm life."67 Several of the Commission's specific findings speak




S66 Nlc.err. Fierce Discontent, 104-105; Peters and Morgan, 292, 289; Historical Dictionary of the
Progressive Era. 1890-1920, eds. John D. Buenker and Edward R. Kantowicz (New York and London:
Greenwood Press, 1989), 96.










to this holistic approach and address just the sort of battles that HDAs would wage in the near

future. These acknowledgments were not always welcome news to those affected, but they

stand out among the Country Life Commission's successes, especially as they informed what

extension would take on as significant reforms.

A key Commission alert related to rural health-respondents' evaluation of

neighborhood health was resoundingly negative. Problems prevalent in urban settings, such as

water pollution and inadequate sanitation, were also common in the country. One of the long-

term victories for the Commission was that its exposure helped launch a network of health

reformers, including the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission and home demonstration, that took

seriously the devastating impact of diseases like typhoid and hookworm and acted to bring

about meaningful improvement. Frederick Stiles, the distinguished physician responsible for

hookworm education, worked with the Country Life Commission as medical attach, then

took his findings to John D. Rockefeller's General Education Board, upon which Rockefeller

devoted $1,000,000 to establishing the Sanitary Commission for the purpose of eradicating

hookworm in the South.

The lingering problem was a pervasive ignorance about the disease. One Georgia

newspaper scoffed at Stiles' reports, crowing "Where was this hookworm or lazy disease,

when it took five Yankee soldiers to whip one Southerner?"68 Education via newspapers and

other media, newly formed county health boards and, critically, on-the-ground reformers like

HDAs was the only effective means for bringing hookworm under control. Once the

Commission faded away, Extension moved in to take up the mantle of rural rejuvenation,

especially in health. From the outset, HDAs acknowledged and tackled obstacles to rural

67 Ellsworth, "Theodore Roosevelt's Country Life Commission," 172. Of course, the "wand of
science," as I noted above, continued to be an important tool for reformers, because some of what was
wrong, like sanitary deficiencies, required hard-fact change to make a difference.

68 Quoted in Ellsworth, "Theodore Roosevelt's Country Life Commission," 171.









\\ ell-heing, making the most of the Commission's revelations. In this regard. the Country Life

Movement provided home demonstration with more than inspiration; the Commission's work

gave home demonstration a mandate, a legitimacy that went beyond pretty curtains and tomato

plants.

The report the Commission laid on the President's desk borrowed from Horace

Plunkett's rhetoric and concluded that "'better farming, better living, and better business"'

were the foundation of rural rejuvenation, and that rural people themselves were the linchpin

in the whole process. Improved farming, home beautification, school consolidation and

church revitalization were the Commission's central reform themes.69 Its report called for

three interrelated measures to initiate comprehensive uplift: first, an "inventory" of all rural

resources, including soils, plants, animals and people; second, "'some way [to] unite all

institutions, all organizations, all individuals, having any great interest in country life, into one

great campaign for rural progress;'" and third, "the thorough organization and nationalization

of extension work through colleges of agriculture." Finally, the Commission recommended

that within each state agricultural college there be a discrete and comprehensive extension

department directed to deal with not only agriculture, but also "'sanitation, education,

homemaking and all interests of country life."'70


69 In fact, questions dealing with the rural church were part of a separate report, omitted from the main
circulars in deference to Wallace's wishes. Though he agreed that the rural church was in decline,
Wallace demurred at the idea of a government investigation into the matter. Similarly volatile issues
also did not make it into the Commission's official agenda, including those dealing with race relations
and immigrant labor. Ellsworth, "Theodore Roosevelt's Country Life Commission," 163.

7o Lord, The Agrarian Revival, 53; David Danbom, Born in the Country: A History of Rural America
(Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University, 1995), 167-173; Brunner and Yang, Rural America
and the Extension Service, 11-13; Report of the Commission on Country Life, 127. The Commission
noted that some extension work was going on via agricultural colleges, "although on a pitiably small
scale as compared with the needs." Only a nation-wide, funded and systematic approach to extension
could effectively accomplish what the Commission saw as the crux of rural revitalization, "the arousing
of the people ... in terms of their daily lives." Report of the Commission on Country Life. 126. Several
historians have drawn direct connections from the Commission's recommendations to the establishment
of the Cooperative Extension Service, including Scott Peters and Paul Morgan in the most recent









For centuries, women had been an assumed part of the agricultural dynamic; likely no

serious agricultural reformer expected that a deficient home would not hinder in some way

bounty in the field. Yet, few agrarian thinkers and innovators had devoted much, if any,

attention to reforms for women, even fewer to reforms led by women. Finally, around the turn

of the century, reformers concerned with rural rejuvenation considered women and the home

to be integral to the process, and acted upon that understanding. The coalescence of home

economics' knowledge, Seaman Knapp's methodology and the Country Life Commission's

recommendations made the time right for the rural home, and feminized agrarian reform, to

come into their own. Urged to action, Congress provided official provision for rural domestic

reform and education under the Smith-Lever Act.

In 1912, the growing popularity of some plan for federally supported extension work

prompted at least sixteen bills in Congress for that purpose. Of these, a bill authored by

Representative Asbury Lever seemed most promising, and after some modifications, he and

Senator Hoke Smith of Georgia introduced what passed as the Smith-Lever Act in 1914. The

gist of the bill was that it set up the Cooperative Extension Service, a body for agricultural and

home economics extension work carried out by agents, men working with farmers, women

working with farm women, and both men and women leading children in 4-H work. The most

localized work was at the county level, then up to districts, states and finally to the national

level. Extension agents worked under the cooperative direction of state land-grant colleges



evaluation of the Country Life Movement-a 1958 call for a second Country Life Commission noted
that the first Commission had been successful partly because it had "stimulated the formation of the
Agricultural Extension Service; Peters and Morgan, 290. Even so, historians have not neglected to
point out the weaknesses in the Commission's report. Peters and Morgan offer a tidy historiography of
these criticisms, including arguments that the Commission represented the views of nostalgic outsiders
operating on little more than Jeffersonian theories. More than one critique has focused upon the
Commission and the Country Life Movement in general, as feeding the interests of an urban nation.
Peters and Morgan try to refine the critiques a bit by delineating the difference between the Country
Life Movement and the Commission on Country Life. See Peters and Morgan, "The Country Life
Commission," 294-301, 301-313.









and the USDA. The exact nature of the work was contingent on the will and need of the local

people, for extension work was entirely voluntary. The primary purpose of extension was to

disseminate to rural people information gleaned from agricultural bodies like the USDA,

agricultural colleges and experiment stations-the "collecting and diffusing [of] information"

George Washinglon had recommended in 1796.71 In the case of home demonstration, this

information represented the combined work of agricultural colleges and home economics.72

The leading principle of extension education, prior to and under Smith-Lever, was "to help

these rural families help themselves by applying science, whether physical or social, to the

daily routines of farming, homemaking, and family and community living." As Edmund

Brunner and Hsin Pao Yang describe it, Extension is "out-of-school, roadside education.... It

dares to put its teaching to the acid test of practical workability on the land and in kitchens,

home and communities."7


71 Some evidence of Extension's tensile fluid strength is its organizational development. Extension
work before Smith-Lever was carried on jointly between three offices: the Office of Experiment
Stations (USDA) from 1888-1915, the Office of Cooperative Demonstration Work and the Office of
Farm Management (Bureau of Plant Industry) from 1904-1914 and 1906-1915, respectively. Smith-
Lever, passed May 8, 1914, expanded the USDA's cooperative role and precipitated the consolidation
of all extension work in the States Relations Office (SRS), established in 1915 by the Agricultural
Appropriations Act. SRS operated out of Offices of Extension Work, one for the South and one for the
North and West, until these were combined in 1921 with the Exhibits of the Secretary's Office and the
Office of Motion Pictures, Division of Publications. These separate entities formed the Office of
Cooperative Extension Work, SRS. In 1923, this office became the Extension Service. In 1954, the
Extension Service became Federal Extension Service, then the Extension Service again in 1970. All
this time, the Service continued to operate out of the SRS. From 1978 to 1981, the Office became the
Extension Staff, Science and Education Administration. Finally, in 1981, the Agricultural Secretary
established the Extension Service once again, this time as part of the USDA. The details for all this
organizational office shifting is in Correspondence of Alfred True, National Archives and Records
Administration (NARA), Record Group (RG) 333.1 and Publications of the Extension Service and
Predecessors, NARA, RG 287.

72 Brunner and Yang, Rural America and the Extension Service, 13; Williams, 23-31; True, A History of
the Agricultural Extension Service, 100-114; Lord, The Agrarian Revival, 88-97; Scott, The Reluctant
Farmer, Chapter 11. Brunner and Yang and Williams offer detailed summaries of the Act's main
provisions. The full-text of the Act is in True, Appendix, 195-197. Williams provides, too, an
overview of post-1914 Extension development and legislation, including the Capper-Ketcham Act,
1928, which increased funding, especially for women and children's extension work. Williams, 31-34.


73 Brunner and Yang, Rural America and the Extension Service, 1.









In Florida, the first major political booster for Extension was Governor Sidney J.

Catts. Though part of a demagogic cadre of Progressive politicians who, as Wayne Flynt puts

it, were "characterized by their emotional appeals to irrational issues," Catts espoused the very

rational benefits of agricultural extension for the state. Part politics and part inspiration, Catts

supported higher learning in Florida, expanding both Florida State College for Women and

University of Florida. Specifically, Catts advocated an extension system for Florida,

encouraged by both his friendship with UF's director of Extension, P. H. Rolfs, and the

popularity of the extension idea among Floridians. In 1919, the Florida legislature approved a

state-wide extension system, and work began in earnest.74 As later HDAs would discover,

however, state-level support did not always smooth the edges from local politics.

By the time it fully blossomed in the twentieth century, home demonstration had

collapsed traditional domestic advice and agricultural improvement into one fertile seedbed of

agrarian domesticity. Home demonstration agents' work not only helped democratize agrarian

reforms, it feminized them, by putting substantial power for improvement in the hands of

women agents and women clients. Expertise was no longer the purview solely of men or elite

women. 1919 is a long way from Thomas Tusser, not to mention Dorcas but only in years.

The quest for the "better way" has been ongoing, and though women have not always been at

the center of it, they have been swept along in its wake with their fathers and husbands. Yet,

even as reform by and for women moved into the spotlight, albeit alongside their male

counterparts, agents found that challenges were only just beginning. High ideals and lofty

sentiments aside, agents had to be hired, paid, housed, transported, equipped, introduced, and

accepted-no easy task when many farm communities were isolated or farm women were




74 Wayne Flynt, Cracker Messiah. Governor Sidney J. Catts of Florida (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State
University Press, 1977), 196-197.









distrustful of strangers toting books which were not the Bible or an encyclopedia. 5 Perhaps

this was the greatest challenge of all, finding acceptance, gaining trust, earning respect. Over

nearly a century of service, HDAs found that negotiation, compromise and solidarity were

indispensable survival tools.


7 Kate Hill recalls the experiences of Edna Trigg, an early Texas home demonstration agent, who
encountered skepticism and mistrust in her first years of work. The problem was overcoming ingrained
perceptions among rural men and women. Hill writes, "Farm women of the day knew that they needed
many things to improve their living conditions, but for a woman to ride around and teach them how to
can or prepare food was a strange conception. ... The biological process of producing a child was
supposed by many to endow a woman simultaneously with the halo of motherhood together with the
knowledge and skill to feed, teach and care for and rear the child to successful maturity." Husbands
scoffed at "book learning" for their wives and women balked at an outsider's critique of family
homemaking methods passed from mothers to daughters. Hill, Home Demonstration Work in Texas. 7.














CHAPTER 3
INSPIRATION TO INSTITUTION: NEGOTIATING THE PROFESSIONAL HOME
DEMONSTRATION AGENT

Just a sampling of the Extension Worker's Creed reveals the ideals that powered the

home demonstration machine: "I believe in the sacredness of the farmer's home; in the

holiness of the country woman's love and the opportunity that home should assure to culture,

grace and power." Inspirational? Certainly. But even such moving sentiments cannot tell us

the whole of what it meant to be an extension worker. We are forcibly reminded that these

women and men were more than mere reformers and educators by another sentiment, gleaned

from agents' 1927 suggestions for Florida extension conferences. Farm agent J. Lee Smith

concluded his recommendations with a potent P.S.: "Get cushioned seats for auditorium."'

Inspirational? Not exactly. But Smith's plea serves to remind us that extension work was a

job, well-grounded in the daily grind.

The Smith-Lever Act did not just make extension official, it allowed it to become

formalized, even codified, into career work for thousands of men and women, both white and

black. It is unlikely that more than a few agents ever lost sight of the idealism that inspired

their jobs the pay and benefits alone did not warrant going into extension work if it did not

have another, more lofty, appeal. But educating farmers and their families in rural

communities throughout the United States and its territories was a massive undertaking, one

that required considerable institutionalization to keep extension operating effectively. More

important for our purposes here, the formal creation of the home demonstration agent, and her



' Flavia Gleason [FG] to Members of Epsilon Sigma Phi, 29 March 1934 (SC-21-6); University of
Florida Extension Agents Conference, 1927. Recommendations for Improvement (SC-91a-3).









male counterpart, meant that extension was evolving from mere inspiration into a formidable

institution with long-term viability.2 This chapter highlights home demonstration's durability

in terms of HDAs' dynamic professional world. The most salient feature in the process of

professionalization was negotiation; dealing with other agents, superiors, clients and local

governments taught HDAs an important lesson in bargaining, a skill that served them well

throughout their tenure in Florida, a skill that averted termination.

To a considerable degree, the rigors of day-to-day negotiation and professional

development promoted longevity by forcing home demonstration to be flexible, energetic and

committed. Without these qualities, HDAs never could have made demonstration viable in the

short term, or secured support for long-term development. The realities of an HDA's position

demanded the negotiation that promoted survival. An HDA was not simply the overbearing

representative of a white, urban, middle-class bureaucracy intent on bending the rural woman

to the government's will. Neither was an HDA a local spokeswoman for hamlet autonomy

and traditional customs. It is true there was a nationally constructed plan for home

demonstration work. However, home demonstration lived on the ground, not on high. Every

HDA worked as an intermediary between national agendas and local needs.3


2 The bulk of sources for this chapter is correspondence, because no other source reveals daily battles
and victories in so uncensored a way. For example, a report might indicate that someone had been
hired or fired, but the correspondence tells us why. Most importantly, letters and telegrams reveal
personal opinions and private conversations that would not be a part of more formal public records.

SJeannie Whayne has analyzed black extension workers' position as intermediaries in the context of
subaltern theory. Though Whayne is dealing exclusively with black farm and home agents, her point is
applicable throughout the Service. She writes, "The negotiation between agents and local populations
described by [county agent Otis] O'Neal in 1916 also continued and evolved throughout the first half of
the twentieth century. Black agents occasionally tested the limits of their authority, pushing the
perimeters as far as they could and then backing off when required to do so." Jeannie Whayne, "'I
Have Been through Fire.' Black Agricultural Extension Agents and the Politics of Negotiation," in
Afrli anv-.4-lrican Life in the Rural South, 1900-1950 ed. R. Douglas Hurt (Columbia and London:
University of Missouri Press, 2003): 164-165. I argue that Whayne's analysis for black agents can be
applied broadly to not only black HDAs, but to white HDAs, as well, who worked within a male-
dominated profession. This chapter will explore the intermediary role among HDAs dealing with both
local people and colleagues. I thank Melissa Walker for bringing Whayne's essay to my attention.










For better or worse, HDAs were governed not by decree, but by context. Every

county, every community, ultimately held the power to accept or reject home demonstration.

The State HDA in 1948, Mary Keown, reminded attendees at an Extension workshop,

"Extension work is very human; it is more than an organization chart and paid personnel.

Extension work consists of living relationships between the people who carry it on and the

individuals who benefit by participation."4 Local acceptance only created new reasons HDAs

had to be sensitive to local context-conditions such as a county's rural-urban orientation,

economic strength, infrastructure quality, racial make-up, county commission personality,

existing community organizations, school attendance and physical well-being all shaped what

an HDA did and how she did it within her county. For example, whether an HDA worked in

Hillsborough County, anchored by Tampa and active in home demonstration from the start, or

Franklin County, an undeveloped coastal county that did not even have extension until the late

1950s, is no insignificant factor. Or, consider this; Florida has sixty-seven counties, so it

seems particularly disappointing that only eight or ten counties had a black HDA at any time

during this period. However, the vast majority of Florida's African-American population

lived in the Panhandle, so it is those counties that matter when considering the extent of black

home demonstration in Florida.

Even within their own offices (those who had them), HDAs negotiated with

colleagues and superiors for travel time, equipment and clout. Those working in counties that

had both a county agent and an HDA for an extended time faced less intraoffice resistance

than those who began work with a county agent not accustomed to sharing space, resources or

authority. None of this struggle, however, should be dismissed as simply the workings of a

new agency seeking stable ground. In fact, we should be alert to the reality of home

4 Mary Keown, "Leadership-Selection, Training and Use," in The Extension Specialist. Evaluation of
the Job, Program Development, Materials and their Use, Teaching and Relationships. Report of
Workshop at University of Florida; Gainesville, Florida; March 22 April 2, 1948.









demonstration as a profession. HDAs did their job in an official capacity, with the same

expectations of expertise that Progressives had demanded of themselves. Though there was

some resistance to HDAs as government workers preaching book-learning among rural

families, many other women accepted agents precisely because they could prove they knew

what they were doing, and do so with grace, respect and, of course, diplomacy.

Home demonstration was career work, with all the attendant committees, paperwork

(a lot of paperwork), training, salary battles, resignations, transfers, appointments and

promotions.5 Moreover, though most of the relationships formed around home demonstration

were positive, there were periods of serious contention and misgiving, too. Sex, race, class

and community biases each played a part in sometimes slowing the momentum of reform.

The elaborate bureaucracy of extension work at times only heightened the need for constant

negotiation within the Service and between agents and their communities. The more home

demonstration pushed out into the countryside and nearby towns, the greater the opportunity

for contestation and power struggles. 0. B. Martin rightly observed "It requires a high order

of diplomacy to get women to improve their own condition and environment by impressing

upon them the importance and dignity of the situation in which they are to help somebody

else."6




5 A visual example of the career orientation in home demonstration work is a brochure designed to
attract women to home demonstration as a career. The brochure does mention briefly benefits such as
"help promote better individual, family and community living." But the vast majority of statements
reflect home demonstration as a job: "If you want a good salary in comparison with other careers for
women, ajob which will challenge your ability, an opportunity to use your own initiative and
originality, continuous professional improvement, satisfaction in your own growth, then you will like
being a Florida Home Demonstration Agent." See such brochures in SC-158-8. More to the point, the
job responsibilities for District Agents includes "Maintaining efficient county personnel who are
interested in Agricultural Extension Service work as a career." "Home Demonstration Work in Florida.
Duties and Responsibilities of Personnel" (SC-158-6).

6 0. B. Martin, The Demonstration Work: Dr. Seaman A. Knapp's Contribution to C,\ It-ali:,nn (Boston:
The Stratford County., 1921), 152.









Furthermore, the Extension Service itself evolved as home demonstration grew within

it, as women at every level carved out arenas of increased responsibility and leadership. At

times, they came into direct conflict with their male associates, but pushed on nevertheless,

even if it meant leaving Florida. As home demonstration grew, rural reform for women grew

with it, so that rural women had ever more say in the quality of their home and community

lives. Where women's concerns had once been peripheral at best in the agrarian reform

agenda, home demonstration made them a priority, even if male supervisors did not always

agree. Even after the number of farm women declined in the wake of a rural exodus following

World War II, HDAs shifted to accommodate the changing needs of agents and clients alike,

reinventing home demonstration as a career choice for ambitious, concerned women and its

programs as practical, uplifting advice for women in a new and busy world. Negotiating this

transformation, however, was not a simple task.

As a federal, state and county program of considerable breadth, the Cooperative

Extension Service eventually embodied a bureaucracy that would hardly surprise modern

Americans. At its inception, though, the Service was merely a formal version of the

agricultural extension and education mechanisms that had been evolving since the colonial

period. Once it became national and official, Extension had to develop standardized

evaluation techniques, secure local financial and social backing, and maintain state and

national political support. District and State agents absorbed much of the responsibility for

keeping Extension education operative and effective, supplementing their educational duties

with political, social and financial wrangling. Even Seaman Knapp's loftiest sentiments about

rural rejuvenation and the all-important farm home could neither supply agents with the

clerical help they needed nor put new tires on an old car. Putting qualified demonstration









agents in the field on a regular basis, and keeping them there, created a bureaucracy of its

own.

Basically, the Extension system was composed of a network of information and

authority flowing between the United States Department of Agriculture, state colleges of

agriculture, county school boards, boards of commissioners and others of local influence. The

final link-the men, women and children who participated in the extension work that agents

offered-was also the most important.7 Without them, there was little practical use for

extension. The simplest way to grasp the structure of the Extension Service is to see it.

The complex representation of Extension organization on page 109, as it appeared in 1966,

demonstrates the degree to which Seaman Knapp's emergency idea evolved into a fully

articulated organizational network. It is necessary to remember, too, that this arrangement

was replicated in every state, every territory and within the USDA itself. Interaction between

these levels is not insignificant. For example, in the 1960s, in-service training conferences for

agents in the Southeast often included not only Florida, Georgia and Alabama, but Puerto

Rico.8 Home demonstration was always equally local, regional and national. Within Florida,

the extension apparatus maintained the national flow-chart structure, headed by a Director,

who, during most of the period covered here, was Wilmon Newell. Both the Director and the

Vice-Director, A.P. Spencer, maintained their offices in Gainesville at the land-grant

University of Florida (UF). UF served as the official hub of extension activity, but it was then

an all-male university, so home demonstration operated out of Tallahassee's Florida State





7 Lincoln David Kelsey, Cooperative Extension Work (Ithaca, New York: Comstock Publishing
Associates, 1955), 54.

8 See, for example, The Extension Specialist. Evaluation of the Job, Program Development. Materials
and Their Use, Teaching and Relationships. For Specialists from S. Carolina, Georgia, Florida and
Puerto Rico (Gainesville: University of Florida, March-April 1948).









College for Women (FSCW). Also in Tallahassee was Florida Agricultural and Mechanical

School (FAMU), the home base for Negro extension.

So it was that one system operated out of three schools, segregated by sex and race.

The resulting headaches were not inconsequential, since everyday discussion was slowed by

the necessity of mailing almost all communication (telephone and telegraph were considered

too expensive for regular use), or by waiting until one party could drop in on the other. The

inadequacy of such an arrangement was not lost on Extension leaders. In 1927, District HDA

Lucy Belle Settle wanted to move her office from Tallahassee to Gainesville, closer to her

work in South Florida. Though there was some concern that this would cause a disruption in

communications between home demonstration staff, Director Newell acknowledged that

Settle's plan made real sense. Writing to State HDA Flavia Gleason about Settle's request, he

commented, "all of the Extension work, Home Demonstration included, is a part of the

activities of the University of Florida, and, if we were following out a logical plan in regard to

headquarters, the official headquarters of all the Extension workers would be at Gainesville."

Newell believed that the separation of extension staff was a "temporary arrangement," but

segregated policies proved persistent. In 1963, the home demonstration state staff moved

from FSU to UF, and Floy Britt came from FAMU to FSU to head up Negro home

demonstration. All three groups of staff did not share space at UF until the 1970s."'

The woman in charge of all home demonstration state-wide maintained her office at

FSCW. The State HDA answered to both the Vice-Director, with whom professional contact

was frequent, and to the Director, as situations warranted. Subordinate to the State HDA were

three white District HDAs and one black "District" HDA, as well as state subject specialists.


Wilmon Newell [WN] to FG, 15 September 1927 (SC-21-5).

"' Florida Extension Association of Family and Consumer Sciences Handbook 2' i.2-2003.
uT.P_11 -i\" .Is i il1i ull cdu pdIf-J.d,,'TT \FCSi laiJhi.lk pdJ (15 September 2005).









The black agent, in fact, oversaw all Negro home demonstration work in the state, but her

relationship to the State HDA was equivalent to her white counterparts. Each white district

agent oversaw roughly one-third of the work in the state, serving as an intermediary between

the state and county home demonstration agents. Each county HDA served under her District

HDA, though each might as easily contact the State HDA for assistance, advice, complaint, or

praise regarding her county.

Within the counties, a further delegation of duty took place. The HDA conducted the

program, but she often was supported by local leaders, clubwomen from the community who

demonstrated a clear grasp of program principles and skills and who could successfully teach

others. These women were not only helpful for the HDA, but provided vital time and

manpower during periods of crisis. Some local leaders also joined the Senior Home

Demonstration Council for their counties, and served as county delegates at the annual state

Council meeting. Comprised of members of county home demonstration clubs, the Council's

responsibility was to be the voice of Florida home demonstration nationally, in Washington,

D.C. or at national Council meetings. Within the state, the Council guided the course of home

demonstration work for the coming year by formally recommending programs, activities and

themes. Made up of both HDAs, serving as advisors or consultants, and local home

demonstration women, serving as members and delegates, the Council represented a truly

cooperative effort between home demonstration personnel and club members. These adult

positions were replicated for girls, who manned a Junior Home Demonstration Council and

served as 4-H club leaders. Maintaining this elaborate system was not cheap, however, and

the Service had to be creative, patient, and persistent when it came to funding its operations.

Everything from typewriters to travel to paychecks was a potential aggravation for an agency

which was consistently\ cash poor.









At least in theory, extension funding sounds harmonious enough; Lincoln David

Kelsey describes it as a cooperative endeavor reflecting the nature of the work itself. Indeed,

extension coffers filled with the combined resources of federal, state, county and private

funds, and each were necessary to keep the whole operation afloat." Wayne Rasmussen

provides a basic overview-the federal government provided a "base fund," state financing to

the agricultural college or other college responsible for coordinating extension work provided

about one-third of the costs, and counties or other local governments, including private

contributors like farmers' organizations, made up the remaining third of funds.12 But

especially at the county level, funding was no certainty.

The amount of money allocated for extension increased considerably between 1914

and the 1960s, and the sources for funding increasingly balanced. In 1915, a total of

$3,597,000 supported extension services; by 1954, the total allotment had climbed to

$100,617,000 for the states, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico. By 1962, the combined

allocation had reached $159,227,000. In 1915 the federal government provided more than

forty percent of the funds, the state twenty-nine percent, and the counties twenty-two percent;

by the 1960s, the burden of finance had leveled out to thirty-seven percent federal, thirty-nine

percent state and twenty-two percent county. Over time, the money shifted from a heavy


" Kelsey, Cooperative Extension Work, 57.

12 Dorothy Schweider, 75 Years of Service. Cooperative Extension in Iowa (Ames: Iowa State
University Press, 1993), ix. Under Smith-Lever, federal grants-in-aid were to be distributed based on
four factors: 1. a flat amount to every state with a minimum extension apparatus, 2. a portion based on a
state's farm population, 3. a portion based on a state's rural population, and 4. a separate fund for the
Secretary of Agriculture to distribute according to "relative need." Local funding was less
straightforward. State legislatures released funding to the land-grant institution under the direction of
the state director of extension. At the county level, either the county government or a county
sponsoring board administered funds, though in some states the county appropriations moved to the
state extension office for administration. Finally, private funds were an integral part of the extension
budget, a tradition established with the General Education Board. Those interested in c\pjnding
educational programs, as well as industrialists, local businessmen, and farm advocacy orjgni/.atins.
gave to extension as a means of furthering education among the rural populace. Kelsey, Cooperative
Extension Work. 59, 61-62.









investment in agricultural demonstration work toward building the 4-H program, farm and

home dee lopment, marketing, rural area development and forestry.'3 As extension

diversified, its personnel requirements and public accessibility had to expand, as well.

One critical impetus for planning and securing funding was the original county

budget. First, agents and local leaders devised a county Plan of Work, and constructed a

budget to match. They submitted the budget to whatever county board governed extension,

and once approved, the budgets and plans of each county traveled to the state offices, where

state directors composed a statewide plan of work and accompanying budget based on the

county plans. Once settled, the state plan and budget moved to the land-grant institution for

approval, after which they came under state legislative review. Funds agreed upon there were

set aside for the state's portion of the total extension financing. The state budget and plan then

went on to the office of the Secretary of Agriculture, and approval released federal funds for

that state's use. Once funding was in place, there were still more options for paying agents'

salaries. In some states, agents' pay came entirely from federal and state funds, while other

states required that the county sponsoring board contribute to salaries from county resources.

Thus an agent's salary depended on who signed the check federal and state salaries were set

by the state extension director, and county-inclusive salaries varied, depending upon the

discretion of the county sponsoring board.'4

So crucial was county support that its absence could forestall home demonstration

altogether. In fact, state HDA Agnes Ellen Harris in 1917 remarked, "Until a community can

make sufficient appropriations to support an efficient agent, it is probably better not to



1' H.C. Sanders, ed., The Cooperative Extension Service (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
1966), 46; Kelsey, 60; R. L. Reeder, The People and the Profession. Pioneers and Veterans of the
Extension Service Remember How They Did Their Jobs (Epsilon Sigma Phi, 1979), 99-100.

14 Kelsey, Cooperative Extension Work. 63.









undertake home demonstration work in the county."15 Appropriations varied widely,

depending on the relative wealth of the county and its attitude toward home demonstration.

Where county appropriations lagged, state money compensated, to a certain extent. This was

especially true for black agents. For example, in 1927 the best paid black HDA was Olive

Smith, in Duval County. The county provided $68 per month for her, the state $22 and the

federal government $25, so that she made $115 each month. Other counties, like Leon,

appropriated only $20, so that the state paid $85 to offset the lack.'6

Salaries tended to increase every year, though they continued to reflect the inequities

in the pay scale and the variables based on county appropriations. In 1927, the best paid white

HDA was Pansy Norton in Dade County, who earned nearly $5,000 per year, compared to

Ethyl Holloway in Santa Rosa, who earned $1,700 annually. Though black HDAs' salaries

were less than their white counterparts', the difference was not always as stark as we might

expect. For example, in 1927 Olive Smith in Duval still earned $1,035 per year, though Alice

Poole in Leon now earned more than $1,100 annually. The next year, when Negro District

Farm Agent A. A. Turner's wife Susie was hired as an HDA, she began working for $1,440

and later that year Julia Miller was hired for $1,500 annually." For many agents, white and

black, if salaries failed to compensate for the particular stresses of their jobs, they might begin

to consider more attractive offers as they came up.

The most serious consequence of low salaries was the very real threat of losing good

agents who left their positions for greener pastures. In most of these cases, state staff

negotiated aggressively to prevent personnel loss. Sometimes an agent could be saved by a

1' Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics. Report of General Activities for
1917 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1918), 62.

"' Flavia Gleason, Recommendations for appointment of Negro Home Demonstration Workers, 1926
(SC-21-5).

7 FG to APS, 29 May 1928; WN to FG, 13 March 1928; 18 December 1928 (SC-21-5).









timely salary boost. Dairy and nutrition specialist Mary Stennis seriously considered leaving

Florida for a better-paying position elsewhere, but Flavia Gleason alerted her that talks were

underway to raise Stennis' salary by $200-Gleason's pro-active stance kept Stennis in

Florida after all.'8 Stennis' value as a specialist made her a good candidate for financial

intervention, but not all agents could be saved this way, especially where counties just would

not support them any longer. In 1931, Okaloosa County HDA Bertha Henry alerted A. P.

Spencer that the county was planning to terminate its appropriation for her because it could

afford to support only one agent.19 As usual, Gleason and Spencer batted about potential

solutions, but none looked promising. The county offered to pay Henry's salary with land, but

Spencer rejected the idea because of its irregularity and the danger that any such land could be

worthless. Henry asked Spencer about the advisability of sending to the board letters from her

club women and girls, but he advised her against "anything that would indicate a political

action on her part."20

Henry's popularity was not in question; an article in the Okaloosa News Journal two

years before, when talk first circulated of ending extension appropriations, applauded her

work with rural homes. "Her value to the county," supporters argued, ".. has been decidedly

greater than her cost." Though the pro-Henry camp regarded severance as "a backward step,"

their opponents saw no choice but to terminate at least one agent in order to avoid raising

taxes to pay her salary." In the end, the termination went through. Henry's appointment

ended in 1932, and Okaloosa County did not have another HDA until 1955.



18 FG to WN, 8 December 1926 (SC-21-5).

'9 FG to APS, 27 November 1931 (SC-21-6).
2) APS to FG, 2 January 1932; 2 May 1932 (SC-21-6).

2' Okaloosa News Journal, 8 August 1930.









By no means were these salary woes isolated among women in Florida's Extension

Service. HDAs simply did not receive pay on par with county farm agents, and the

discrepancy was even more apparent among black home agents. The tenuous position

between subordination and authority was only exacerbated by inadequate financial

compensation. Expenditures for county agent work versus home demonstration work were

unequal, though the gap narrowed over time. In 1933, for instance, Florida extension spent

nearly $125,000 on white county agents, $78,000 on white home demonstration work,

$13,800 on black farm agent work, and $13,400 on black HDAs. There obviously were

discrepancies between agents based on both race and sex, but considering extension spending

overall, almost $47,000 more was devoted to agricultural work than to home work, and this

does not take into account work among girls and boys, or that extension expenditures covered

twice as many specific phases of work, such as Citriculture and Home Improvement, for men

as for women, of either race or any age.22 Excluding Service-wide expenditures, like Farmers'

Week or Publications, the difference in financial commitment between extension men and

women in Florida in 1933 was about $77,000.23

Rooted in boll weevil eradication and crop diversification, the Extension Service

remained an agriculture-driven agency. It recognized, and embraced, the need for

revitalization in the rural home and community, but in the event of a financial tug-of-war, the

weight of improved agriculture toppled the perceived lightweight needs of the family. Alert to

this reality, State HDA Flavia Gleason worked hard to secure better salaries for her agents,

especially those she believed excelled at their work, and she kept alert to equity between male


22 I do not mean by "men as for women" that these programs benefited only that group. All extension
programs were of benefit to entire communities, but at the time there was a far more distinct division of
labor and programs than would be true in later decades. So, a program like Citriculture was, for all
intents and purposes, men's work.

23 Annual Report of Director of Extension, 1933 (SC-91a-1).









and female agents. For instance, when she recommended salary increases for several agents in

1929, she noted that it had been three years since the last salary increase for the women,

though she "didn't know how these salaries compare with those in Gainesville who have

worked so faithfully in similar positions ... for the past 12 and 10 years."24 Her attitude did

not waver on the issue of race-a good agent was a good agent. Talented and devoted women

ready to work %w ith Florida's black rural families were an asset not to be wasted. For instance.

when black agents Diana Hartsfield's and Nancy Henderson's salaries were up for increases,

Gleason wrote A. P. Spencer to encourage his approval. Nancy Henderson, in particular, "is

doing a lot of work for the people of her county and she is carrying the expense of paying for

the office which was built for her use." Like many HDAs, especially black agents, Henderson

paid for many of her own materials and transportation. And when Hartsfield's salary looked

in jeopardy from shortfalls in the Negro extension budget, Gleason advised Spencer that the

white home demonstration budget could cover it.25

The complicated process of securing and administering extension funds seems an

inevitable byproduct of bureaucracy, but there was a more noble aim-accountability. Losing

the support of the local people tolled the end of extension in that area, so it was critical that the

system appeared credible and efficient, especially where taxpayers contributed to agents'

salaries and incurred expenses of their own while acting as local extension leaders. Both

professional and volunteer extension workers were, as KelseN puts it, "public servants [who]

live in a goldfish bowl." Their position depended upon the continued support and trust of the

people, for "in a democracy, it is not long before the public communicates its impressions to





24 FG to WN, 17 May 1929 (SC-21-5).

25 FG to APS, 29 January 1925; 26 October 1925 (SC-21-5).









its legislative representatives. This is democracy in action ... but it means accountability to

the people in a very direct way which asserts itself every time a budget is submitted."26

Earning credibility also required hiring and placing skilled, personable agents. Good

will and reformative fervor were useful tools while in the field, but once agents had exhausted

their battery of inspirational verse, they had to prove they were offering something

worthwhile, something tangible. As one Kentucky agent put it, "You didn't dare go out

without lead in your pencil."27 Administrative personnel in particular were well-educated. In

the 1920s, official state reports did not even include the educational background of supervisors

in its roster of extension staff. By 1958, nearly every member of the home demonstration

supervisory staff held at least a Master's degree, and some of the agricultural supervisors a

doctorate, in their field.28 Clearly, as extension settled into Florida and the demand for

professionalism increased, the Service responded by publicly advertising its agents' apparent

expertise, moving the work closer to a career orientation.

County agents typically had a B.S. in Home Economics, though some simply had

significant experience in rural reform and education.29 So it was with Beulah Shute, a strong

candidate to fill the Negro District Home Demonstration position in 1936. Flavia Gleason

believed Shute showed great potential because "she is a woman of considerable ability, has

excellent leadership qualities and excellent subject-matter training as well as good experiences


26 Kelsey, Cooperative Extension Work, 64. Other extension personnel recognized the need for a job
well-done. In a taped interview in 1975, some extension veterans commented upon the challenges of
establishing demonstration work that the people could trust, then and later. Said one veteran, "We build
on the good will of our predecessors through 50 years of Extension, and those who follow us can do the
same thing if we don't screw it up." Reeder, The People and the Profession. 13.

27 Reeder, The People and the Profession. 85.

28 Compare Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics. Report of General
Activities for 1920 and 1958 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1921; 1959).

29 For an overall job description and responsibilities review, see "Roles and Responsibility of
Personnel" (SC- 158-6).









that will be well for us to inject into the negro home demonstration program." Shute had

taught home economics courses for six years prior to her application, giving her a practical

advantage over some other candidates. Gleason was concerned, however, that Shute had

never served as a county worker, the kind she would be supervising if hired. "However,"

Gleason assured Director Newell, "she made me feel that she would be perfectly willing and

anxious to do so at any time and had been eager to go into the extension field for quite a while.

She has, too, had considerable contact with extension work in South Carolina She

impresses me as having a good understanding of the purpose of our work and the way it is

carried on."30

Sometimes the most important rationale for placing an agent was that a county wanted

one. Several counties lobbied actively for a HDA. Though not all were successful, the

women who demanded home demonstration demonstrated their commitment to it and their

willingness to speak up on behalf of their own wishes. Some county requests were more

promising than others. In 1927, A. P. Spencer wrote to Flavia Gleason that he had a request

from Hemando County officials for both a county agent and an HDA. Indeed, they were

interested enough to begin collecting information on potential salaries and financial

responsibilities.3" However, either because of misunderstanding or limited funds, many

counties appropriated for only one agent. Bradford County commissioners, when they wanted

the services of a county agent to assist with hog vaccinations, decided they would have to

terminate their contract with Bradford's HDA.32

Seldom were women involved with home demonstration pleased by such decisions,

and their dissent could be quite vigorous. During the Depression, especially, county boards

3( FG to WN, 29 January 1936 (SC-21-7).

31 APS to FG, 18 June 1927 (SC-21-5).

3 FG to APS, 13 June 1933 (SC-21-6).









became more cautious to safeguard already limited resources. But Flavia Gleason remained

determined to keep home demonstration afloat in as many locales as possible, even if one

agent worked two counties. She believed firmly that the either-or policy many counties took

toward agricultural and home demonstration agents was unnecessary and she encouraged the

Director to remedy this common problem. "I believe it would be beneficial all the way

around," she wrote him, "if it were understood in the counties that the Extension Service

includes both county agricultural agents and home demonstration agents." Home

demonstration, she intimated, was not some peripheral, throwaway program of garden clubs

and sewing circles. As she explained to Spencer in 1932, "Our work has just gone through a

very unpleasant experience in Palm Beach County where the commissioners retained ... the

county agricultural agent and a Smith-Hughes worker but did not include an appropriation for

home demonstration women work until pressure was brought to bear from the women." Until

then, the commissioners and the school board had each tried to force the other to take on the

home demonstration appropriation, so that "home demonstration work is batted around from

one to the other in a most unsatisfactory way and certainly not because of any failure on the

part of the agents to render splendid service resulting in work evidently very much appreciated

by the people.""

Women stepped in to demand respect and funding for Palm Beach home

demonstration, and they followed suit in Hillsborough and Liberty, though with varying

degrees of force. In 1933, Hillsborough County's Wimauma Home Demonstration Club

wrote to Wayne Thomas of the "Budget Board" expressing their support for home

demonstration work in general and their particular approval of HDA Clarine Belcher. Their

testimony was brief, but pointed: "We ... deeply regret your action in cutting down the Home


" FG to APS, 27 July 1932 (SC-21-6).










Demonstration work in our county... Each member feels that much of the instruction and

information given to us on Home Management, Home Improvement, etc. has been very

practical and very helpful, and it is with genuine regret that we learn it is to be cut down."34

The following year, a similar situation arose in Liberty County, but the response was less

polite-at least as the commissioners understood it. In October, A. P. Spencer wrote to State

HDA Gleason that he had just met with Liberty's agricultural agent, who delivered the news

that the county had discontinued all extension work. Spencer believed the severance was "a

result of a demand on the part of the women's club that they [commissioners] also employ a

home demonstration agent," but without the funds to do so, the board decided "with all the

controversy" it would be better to have no agents at all. The Vice-Director was rather

dismayed, for it seemed that without some additional funding, or a change of heart from the

women's club, no extension work could go forward in Liberty.35

As was often the case, the original information was not entirely accurate. District

HDA Ruby McDavid visited Liberty and assured Gleason that no one there had demanded

either a home agent or no agent, but that several men and women had indicated that, if only

one agent could be supported, they preferred an HDA, to continue the work agent Josephine

Nimmo had been doing. Indeed, as Gleason heard it, funding was not the issue. Rather,

"several reliable sources" had told McDavid that the county apparently had imposed some rule

that all agents, as county workers, had to relinquish part of their salaries to certain members of

the Board, in return for it appropriating for extension work. Not surprisingly, neither Nimmo







34 Mrs. H. R. Lightfoot and Mrs. D. M. Dowdell to Wayne Thomas, 9 October 1933 (SC-21-6).

35 APS to FG, 5 October 1934 (SC-21-6).









nor McDavid were pleased with this idea and refused to cooperate. Gleason surmised, "It may

be that this has something to do with no appropriation being made."36

Though disappointed that Liberty County looked to lose any benefits of extension,

Gleason simply shifted gears and moved ahead. Liberty had been worked along with Calhoun

County, so that each county was only required to make a small appropriation. Calhoun readily

agreed, so when Liberty balked Calhoun received the full measure of extension staff and

support for its benefit. In fact, Calhoun was so interested in keeping the work that its board

approached McDavid about securing financial arrangements so that even if Liberty decided to

appropriate after all, Calhoun could maintain its agents full time, rather than sharing them

again.37 The Liberty situation illustrates the sort of power dynamics inherent in extension

work. Local women's collective voice could coax home demonstration work from a reluctant

board, or it might cause such stir as to eliminate extension work entirely. And, though home

demonstration could not easily operate in a county which refused to appropriate for it, home

extension staff were not crippled by a certain board's disinterest. Someone else surely wanted

the work and agents were easily transferred to more welcoming counties.

These problems were frustrating, but not usually serious. There were, however, some

troubles of considerable significance in the professional life of HDAs, troubles that required

every negotiating skill to navigate and resolve with minimal damage. Most internal tension

was played out in terse letters, rather than open hostility. But that was not so for A. A. Turner

and at least two Negro District home agents. The root of the discord appeared to be about

power and control, a battle for authority.

Until 1925, Turner had directly supervised all black extension workers in Florida,

home and agricultural alike. As Negro extension work expanded, it became clear that a

36 FG to APS, 11 October 1934 (SC-21-6).

37 FG to APS, 2 November 1934 (SC-21-6).









female district agent, akin to the white district agents, would be an asset to the work. At the

same time, Turner's wife Susie accompanied him on some trips out into the country. She

talked with the women she met, informally demonstrated some ideas to them and discussed

club formation. Susie came back enthusiastic and ready to do more. Flavia Gleason was all

for it, encouraged by Susie's ideas and sense of commitment.'8 Spencer likewise approved, at

least for the time being, and in March advised Gleason to give Susie some concrete instruction

in what to discuss with the women.39 Though he did not specifically recommend officially

appointing Susie, just a few days Gleason later made a suggestion for Susie's monthly salary,

and Spencer agreed to a six-week appointment, soon extended by another few weeks.40 Over

the next two years, Susie worked through incremental appointments as the budget allowed,

establishing herself as a leader for Negro home demonstration work.4' When the state staff

began looking seriously for a more permanent replacement, Turner recommended that Susie

stay on so as not to disrupt the work. Spencer insisted, however, that Turner try to find

someone with more official qualifications, and he grudgingly agreed. The search began within

the state, but no one seemed fully ready for the job.42 In the summer of 1928, Turner enlisted

the aid ofT. M. Campbell, a field agent at Tuskegee, and he came up with Julia Miller, a HDA

in Arkansas.43

Trouble began almost immediately. Turner was uncertain how to share responsibility

with Miller; her formal position and attendant authority were very different from his relaxed


38 FG to APS, 3 March 1925 (SC-21-5).

39 APS to FG, 5 March 1926 (SC-21-5).

4" FG to APS, 8 March 1926; APS to FG, 12 March 1926; 13 April 1926 (SC-21-5).

41 FG to WN, 16 January 1928 (SC-21-5).

42 A.A. Turner [AAT] to FG, 16 July 1928; APS to FG, 19 July 1928 (SC-21-5).

43 AAT to T. M. Campbell, 18 October 1928; FG to WN, 24 November 1928 (SC-21-5).









relationship with his own wife. The territorial dispute did not abate with time, but grew more

intense. In boxes of correspondence, no other situation demonstrates the power struggles

within extension so well as that between Julia Miller and A. A. Turner. Miller's position was

an awkward one, holding a relatively new post, struggling to define its boundaries and

establish herself as a supervisor apart from, and equal to, Turner. Spencer commented to

Flavia Gleason that Turner had a habit of critiquing every small thing which Miller did that

irritated him, as though she were his subordinate.44

Miller believed that she was not receiving the respect or the responsibility that came

with her job. She wrote a personal letter to A. P. Spencer in June 1929 expressing her

commitment to her work, but her dissatisfaction with the way she had to carry it out. She

assured Spencer that she welcomed the direction and assistance of the State HDA, but "it

would be very hard for me to work under a man's supervision, who had no experience and no

training in my particular line of work. I don't feel I could get the sympathy, support and

encouragement that I could get otherwise." Echoing Flavia Gleason's plea that every county

should know home demonstration was a part of the Service, Miller stressed that everyone

should know about her appointment and that when it came to Negro home demonstration

work, she was in charge. "I have been patient and considerate," she wrote, "realizing that I am

new and that others have spent long years of service, I have given over and compromised in

many things." But, and she was as clear as possible, "I have refused to allow the District

Agent to control my work and personal affairs."45

In discussions with Gleason over the next few months, Spencer advised her that he

had promised Miller the state staff would back her up and work to resolve the problems with

Turner so that work could progress. Work did go on, though by February of the next year,

44 APS to FG, 8 April 1929 (SC-21-5).

45 Julia Miller [JM] to APS, 22 June 1929 (SC-21-5).









Miller was again complaining to Spencer that Susie Turner was -ha\ ing a little too much to do

with things right on," and that too many of the home demonstration women were devoting

their time to farm exhibits rather than home demonstration exhibits.46 Gleason remained

steadfastly behind Miller throughout her tenure, affirming her qualifications and excellent

record of service in Florida to the Director. Miller had her faults, but she was a skilled and

devoted leader, and Gleason felt "very much better about the type of work which the negro

women are doing than I have ever felt and I know this is due to Julia's work with them."47

Nevertheless, the situation only grew tenser. Her frustration mounting, Miller received a

welcome offer of relief in June 1931.

The same day that Gleason wrote to Newell assuring him that Julia Miller was the best

person to fulfill the District HDA position, Miller received additional confirmation of her

skills from another source-a job offer from the Oklahoma Extension Service, for exactly the

position she held in Florida. The Oklahoma position promised a better salary and, by the tone

of the offer letters, considerably more freedom to do her job.48 Perhaps comforted that an

alternative was available, Miller delayed any decision until the legislature made salary

announcements, for she did not want to leave Florida without achieving goals she had set.

The competition was fierce, though. For every doubt Miller raised to Oklahoma, its extension

director had a reassuring answer and the Service there remained persistent in pursuing her.49

The odds for Florida did not look good, but Gleason was determined not to lose Miller without

exhausting every resource to keep her on. As she told Spencer that fall, "It is not an increase


46 APS to JM, 24 June 1929; APS to FG, 1 July 1929 (SC-21-5); APS to FG, 19 February 1930 (SC-21-
6).

47 FG to WN, 22 April 1930 (SC-21-6).

"\orma Brumbaugh to JM, 22 June 1931 (SC-21-6).

49 JM to APS, 18 July 1931; D. P. Trent to JM, 1 August 1931 (SC-21-6).









[in salary] for Julia that I am so concerned about but the expensive loss it seems to me that it

would be to Florida to let Julia go."50 For a brief time, it looked that Gleason's own

persistence paid off. Miller wired Oklahoma that she was officially declining their offer. But

some time over the next month, something changed, and Miller resigned her position to accept

its counterpart in Oklahoma. Spencer believed that Oklahoma must have made a last-ditch

attempt to secure her and won her at last, but her devotion to Florida extension suggests that

only the combination of financial and emotional strain induced her to leave.5

The search for her replacement began in earnest, but this time the state staff was

mindful of prior problems and tried to avoid the sort of power struggle which had crippled

Miller's work and driven her away. The Director was anxious that Miller be replaced as soon

as possible to avoid the Board eliminating the Negro District Agent position entirely or

turning that supervision over to a white agent.52 But finding a suitable candidate was difficult.

In December, Rosa Ballard assumed the post as District Agent. Gleason was especially

pleased that, because of her long experience, Ballard "may be more aggressive than Julia."53

Here was a woman Gleason believed could hold her own against Turner. Sadly, tragedy

struck just as Ballard was establishing herself. In the summer of 1933, she drowned while

swimming in a lake near Tallahassee.54 Soon after, the hunt was on once again to fill the

Negro District Agent position. After a delay of nearly three years, Beulah Shute took the

helm, her experience outweighing the appeal of Floy Britt, the woman Gleason believed was



50 FG to APS, 16 September 1931 (SC-21-6).

5 APS to FG, 16 October 1931 (SC-21-6).
52 WN to FG, 30 November 1931 (SC-21-6).

53 FG to APS, 15 December 1931 (SC-21-6). For correspondence leading up to Ballard's appointment,
including recommendations for other candidates, see SC-21-6 for 1931.

54 FG to WN, 26 June 1933 (SC-21-6).









"the best qualified negro home demonstration agent in Florida." But Gleason feared that an ill

feeling between Britt and Turner would handicap her, and that she would not be so readily

accepted as a supervisor as Shute.55 Ulimaiel), Floy Britt did become the District Agent, a

post she served with great success and longevity; assuming the position in 1943, Britt was still

there in 1960, with no plans to leave in sight.56

The strain upon the Negro District Agent, especially in relation to A. A. Turner as her

agricultural counterpart, is evidence of the strain put upon the entire Service by its segregated

policies, causing logistical and personal confusion. Assuming that Florida's extension work

had been integrated from the start, the Negro District Agent role might never have been

created because the work for that position would have been covered by a regular district agent.

Alternatively, had the segregated Service created Turner's counterpart when it created his

position, much of the unpleasant mess that followed Julia Miller's appointment might have

been averted. Turner never would have been in charge of women's home demonstration

work, so he always would have shared an office and he would have been accustomed to

working on extension projects jointly. For the good of black rural Floridians, it was an

undisputed boon that Susie Turner was interested in working among them and proposing the

creation of a supervisory position akin to a white district or state agent. But for the

professional women who manned the position, the frustration of having their responsibility

and authority thwarted by internal boundary disputes was both disheartening and

counterproductive.

Like so many other battles in the service of extension, this one was won by

persistence and experience in a joint effort among HDAs to see home demonstration for black

55 FG to APS, 29 January 1936 (SC-21-7).
56 As in this case, the easiest way to track service in Florida's Cooperative Extension Service is to use
the personnel roster in each annual Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics.
Report of General Activities. Floy Britt first appears as Negro District Agent in 1943.









women succeed and flourish. When naming allies, home demonstration workers of both races

sided with one another against their male counterparts. This was not necessarily a feminist-

style protest for equal pay, but these were career women with training and experience who

shared a common concern for the state of the rural home. They believed their work was vital

and they responded to challenges accordingly. Even so, HDAs could not expend all their

energies negotiating professional borders within extension, for some battles had to be won

within the wider home demonstration community. In such cases, HDAs at every level were

called upon to be what O. B. Martin called "an ambassador extraordinary."57

In some cases, a dispute might flare up between an agent and her county. One such

"unwholesome situation" was in Volusia County with HDA Orpha Cole. In May 1932, A. P.

Spencer wrote to Flavia Gleason that he had heard rumors that Volusia County was

terminating its home demonstration appropriation.58 In the cash-poor Thirties, this was not

surprising, but over the next few months more details emerged that revealed an uglier

situation. By July Gleason was recommending to Director Newell that Cole's service in

Volusia be discontinued. Gleason cited a steady stream of "petitions and counter-petitions to

remove [Cole] from office," creating "what I consider undesirable publicity especially at this

time." Despite Gleason's and district agent Mary Keown's efforts to smooth the waters, the

situation had only grown worse. Cole's own "unsound" attitude toward the women in her

county and her superiors seemed at the heart of the conflict. One of the simplest, but most

fundamental requirements for home demonstration work, the ability to "work with people,"

seemed beyond Cole's reach.59



57 Martin, The Demonstration Work, 152.

58 APS to FG, 27 May 1932 (SC-21-6).

59 APS to FG, 27 May 1932 (SC-21-6).









Gleason composed two letters then, the first to Orpha Cole advising her to either

resign or take an indefinite leave of absence. Gleason did not mince words in her rebuke.

Since home demonstration work had become the "source of a wrangle in the county," and

"harmony, good will and confidence are essential factors in all home demonstration work,"

Cole's performance in Volusia and her professional attitude toward the state office had been

"unsatisfactory to us for some time." For whatever reason, Cole seemed "unable to make the

adjustments which I had hoped you would do following my several conferences with you."60

In a subsequent letter to the Chairman of the Board of County Commissioners Ben Thursby,

Gleason focused on damage control. She carefully expressed regret for her decision regarding

HDA Cole, acknowledging her long service in Volusia, but remained firm in her conviction

that this was the best course to preserve the long-time and "pleasant" relationship between the

Extension Service and the county.6' Regardless of the immediate fallout of the "Volusia

situation," Gleason was most concerned with the long-term impact of ill will in the county

toward home demonstration.

Whatever, or whoever, had caused the trouble, Gleason believed that removing Cole

from the county was the surest way to maintain the confidence of the people. Or maybe not.

Soon after she notified the Board of her decision regarding HDA Cole, Gleason received a

visit from a committee of Volusia women, Orpha Cole in tow, requesting that home

demonstration not be terminated and that Miss Cole be kept as home demonstration agent.

Though the Board had already sent Gleason a copy of the resolution abolishing home

demonstration work in Volusia, she assured the committee that she would discuss the matter

with the commissioners, with her first priority to encourage them to make another

appropriation for home demonstration work in general. Only after that had been secured

6" FG to Orpha Cole, 30 June 1932 (SC-21-6).

61 FG to Ben Thursby, 2 July 1932 (SC-21-6).









would she approach the possibility of Orpha Cole staying on as HDA, and that matter was the

Board's choice.62

As the summer wore on, the "wrangle" grew more tangled, to the point that some of

the commissioners favored re-instating home demonstration, but only with Miss Cole as agent,

and Gleason back-pedaled to assure them that if that was their desire she certainly would work

to ensure such an arrangement was successful. But ultimately, the Board did not appropriate,

and home demonstration work ceased in Volusia for two years. Finally in 1934, "some of the

leading women in Volusia County" met with the commissioners to discuss re-installing home

demonstration. Once Gleason had forwarded her recommendation for a new agent,

Marguerite Norton, to Director Newell, the Service was encouraged that the Volusia Board

was again willing to "cooperate actively in the home demonstration work," and hopes were

high that "the work will proceed under more agreeable circumstances and in a better

atmosphere than was the case some months back."63

Other disputes within counties arose from circumstances based on the Extension

Service's segregated policies. The resulting confusion not only hampered work, but created

discord within counties where work otherwise was welcome. Because so many counties were

cash poor, and were less likely to subsidize the salary for a black agent, black HDAs usually

received pay almost entirely from state and federal funds. On the one hand, this shortchanged

an agent in terms of her salary. On the other hand, it facilitated putting home demonstration

into counties where it could reach black residents whom commissioners were not willing to

support in this way. Such was the case in 1933 Suwannee County, where the Service had

installed a black HDA, Miss Mackenzie, for what the county regarded as "free." However,


2 FG to Ben Thursby, 8 August 1932 (SC-21-6).

' FG to WN, 19 September 1932 (SC-21-6); FG to Ben Thursby, 23 September 1932 (SC-21-6); FG to
WN, 18 July 1934 (SC-21-6).









maintaining a white home agent in a county demanded that its board help support her work

because, as Gleason explained, "no white home demonstration agent, of course, could work

for only the amount which state and federal funds provide for our county workers." Suwannee

County commissioners, however, did not understand why they could not have a white agent

for freeee" as well, if that was the case for Mackenzie.64

The resulting confusion created an uncomfortable situation for Mackenzie, the county

agent N. G. Thomas, and Negro District Agent A. A. Turner. Moreover, it threatened the

ongoing presence of Mackenzie or any other black HDA in Suwannee. Unfortunately, the

county made this a reality, deciding that if it could not have a white HDA as well as a black

agent, even if a black HDA worked at no cost to the county, it was better to discontinue her

work entirely.65 Of this decision, Vice-Director Spencer remarked, "it seems like an unusual

viewpoint they have."66

A.A. Turner took the opportunity of Mackenzie's transfer to make his own

recommendation for her new post in Alachua County. Hoping that "this will die out in

Suwannee and not spread to other counties," he emphasized the real value of supporting home

demonstration in other counties. In particular, "the Suwannee county affair" bolstered his

argument for continuing home demonstration work in St. Johns County; "the fact that the

county commissioners there will contribute to the Negro work will be good assurance that no

racial handicaps will likely occur."67 In a segregated agency in 1933, it is not especially

surprising that "racial handicaps" existed, but Turner's choice of words was spot on racial

assumptions and the resulting complications indeed could handicap otherwise valuable work.

4 FG to N. G. Thomas, 5 October 1933 (SC-21-6).

65 FG to APS, 11 October 1933 (SC-21-6).

66 APS to FG, 13 October 1933 (SC-21-6).

67 AAT to FG, 2 November 1933 (SC-21-6).









Finally, there were rare, but bitter, contests between women's groups. Normally, women

from the various clubs around Florida got along swimmingly. So it was rather unexpected

when some perceived grievance launched an exchange of rather sniffy letters between Mrs.

Von Hofen of the Englewood Women's Club and several extension staff during most of 1932.

State staff concluded the affair with the assertion that Mrs. Von Hofen was a snooty

troublemaker, but the incident does demonstrate the sort of power certain people wielded in

shaping a community home demonstration program. According to Von Hofen, Duval HDA

Pearl Lafitte had informed the Englewood Women's Club, presumably part of the Federation

of Women's Clubs, that no member could belong to both that group and a home

demonstration club. Von Hofen promptly resigned her post as secretary of the Duval County

Council of Home Demonstration Clubs and began a one-way correspondence with various

extension staff, including State HDA Flavia Gleason and Vice-Director A. P. Spencer.68 She

came armed with two main, if peculiar, charges: Pearl Lafitte had caused dissension in the

Englewood community and had misrepresented certain preferences for canning jar styles and

brands. In a letter to Gleason, Von Hofen accused Lafitte of denying her stated preference for

Kerr jars, which Von Hofen felt was "rather peculiar, don't you think? especially when, I dare

say, the majority of us would not know the kerr jar if we saw one." That grievance aired, she

launched into her next, that Lafitte had divided the Englewood women over club allegiance.

She demanded that Gleason conduct an investigation into the matter, then waited for the

expected apologies.69 None came, so she took her case to a higher power.

In an angry letter to P. K. Yonge, the Chairman of the State Board of Control, Von

Hofen repeated her charges against Lafitte, whom Von Hofen considered in violation of her

duties as public servant. I have included the text of the letter on page 110 because, aside from

68 Mrs. Louis Von Hofen [VH] to Grace Pillsbury, 16 February 1932 (SC-21-6).

69 VH to FG, 20 February 1932 (SC-21-6).




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POWER I THE LA D: H MED M TRA TIO fN FLORIDA 1 9 1 5-1960 B y KELLY A E Ml OR A DISSERTATIO PRE E TED TO T H E GRADUATE CHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA PARTIAL FULFILLME T OF TH E REQ IREME T FOR THE DEGREE OF DO TOR OF PHILO OPHY IVER ITY OF FLORIDA 2005

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A C KNOWL E DGM E NTS In s piration c ri t i c i s m a nd r e a ss urance c am e fr o m m a n y p e opl e durin g th e co ur se of thi s proj ec t. Th a t sa id a n y fa ult w ith w h a t I say h e r e i s m y ow n I mu s t a c kn ow l e d ge t h e g uid a n ce affo rd e d m e b y a c ap a bl e co mmitt e e n o n e m o r e so th a n m y a d v i so r F i tz Brun dage a p a ti e nt a nd s killful e dit o r w h o h e lp e d m e h o n e th e di sse rt a ti o n a t every tum A nd I th ank m y o ri g in a l a d v i so r a nd l o n g -tim e s upport e r Geo r ge E ll e nb erg fo r t e llin g m e bluntl y t hat m y brilli a nt pr e -hom e d e mon s t ra ti o n r esea r c h id e a s we r e n o t so b rilli a nt a fter a ll. I also mu st th a nk a ll tho se w h o r ea d th e pro p ec tu s a nd offe r e d t im e l y th o u g htful c ri t iqu e : Me li a W a lk e r M a r y H offsc h we ll e Lu A nn Jon es Joa n J e n se n Ka th e rin e Je l l i so n R e b ecca S h a rpl ess J ea n e tt e K e ith D av id D a nb o m a nd P e t e D a ni e l ; a ll ge n e rou s l y gave of th e ir t i m e a nd I b e n e fit e d fr o m th e ir ex p e rti e. No r esea r c h e r ca n n eg l ec t t o th a nk th e d e di cate d s t aff of librar ies a nd a r c hi va l co ll ec ti o n s T h e s t aff a t th e Na ti o n a l A r c hi ves in Mary l a nd a nd a t UF s S p ec i a l C ol l ectio n p rove d th e m se l ves wo rth y a nd a bl e a m bassa d o r s fo r th e i r kind I a l s o am gra t efu l to m y U F co ll eag u es, p art i c ul a rl y Ca r ey S h e llm a n w h o bu oye d m y s piri ts a nd h e lp e d m e h a r pe n my p ro j ec t ofte n in th e mid s t of c r afti n g so m e c l eve r co n fe r e n ce p ro p osa l. F in a ll y m ere ac kn ow l e d g m e nt d oes n ot a d e qu a t e l y ex pr ess t h e d ep th of m y gra ti t ud e to m y fam il y. impl y ca nn o t th a nk e n o u g h m y b rot h e r K ev i n a nd m y m ot h er Cat h er in e From the fi r t id ea t o th e l as t r ev i s i o n I a b o lut e l y un eq ui voca ll y co uld n o t h ave d o n e t hi s w ith o u t their g uid a n ce s upp o rt sac rifi ce a nd fri e nd s hip Thi s di s ertat i o n i a m u c h m y mom acco m p li s hm e nt as min e a nd l d e di ca t e i t t o h er. II

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TABL OF O T T A K WLED M T .. ..... ... .. ............... ...... .. ....... ...... ....... .. .. ................. I I LI T OF Fl URE .. ..... ................ .. .... .. ... . ..... ...... ................. ... ..... ............. iv KEYT AB BREYIA TI A D ITATION .. .. ......... .. ... ...... ...... . .. .. .... .. ... .... i ABSTRA T .. ... ................................................. .. ............ ..... ... ..... .. ..... . I I HAPT E R A T DOWN YOUR BUCKET WHERE YOU ARE ': HOM E D EMO TRA T IO O THE GROUND AND AT LARGE ...... . ...... .. .... . .. ..... ..... ......... ... ..... ...... .. .. .. .. .......... .. .. ......... l 2 ROO TS THAT R UN D EEP : HOME D E MO STRA TIO S REFORM P E DI GREE . ........ .. .... .. .. . .. .. .. .. ... .. .. ........ ........ .. .. ... .... .. .. 26 3 rN PIRATION TO INSTITUTION: EGOT IAT ING THE PROF ESSIO AL HOM E D EMO STRATIO AGENT ....... .. .. .. .. .... ... ...... 64 4 OUT OF THE A A D rNTO THE FREEZE R : FOOD PRESERVA T IO TE HNOLOGY AND HOM E D EMO STRA T IO .. .. ......... ............ .. . . .. I I I 5 THE IMPROVED TO IL ET IS ALL TOO PREY ALE T" : HOM E DEMO STRATIO IT PAR TNE RS A D RURAL A ITATTO ......... ..... 16 7 6 E W WORLD FO R OLD : HO ME DEMO STRA T IO IN POST-WAR FLORIDA .... .. .. .. ...... .......... ... .. .. . . . ...... .. ... .. ... . .... . .. .. ...... .... ....... 219 7 EP I LOGUE: T H E PRJ CE OF DURABILITY ..... ......... ....... . .... ..... ....... ..... 244 REFERE E LIST . ...... ..... ... . .. . .. . . .. .. ... .. .. .... ... .. . ... .... ...... .. ...... ..... ..... 258 BIOGRAPHICAL KET H ... .. .. .... .. . .............. ......... ... . .. ... . .. .. ........ ... .... . 271 Ill

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LI S T OF FI GU RES 1-1 M a p of 1 93 0 Florida a nd it s c ounti es . .. . .. .. . . . .... .. . . ... .. . .......... .......... 24 12 C hart o f F l o rid a h o m e d e m o n s tr a ti o n p e r so nn e l 191 51 96 0 . .. .. .. . ....... ........... 25 3 -1 1 966 h y p ot h et i ca l r e pr e s e nt a ti o n of th e E x t e n s i o n Serv i ce fro m th e t a t e l e v e l d ow n wa rd . ... ... .. ... .. .. . . . .. .... . .. . .. ... .. .. ... .... .... . .. .. . . .. . .. .. .. .. .. 1 09 3 2 M r s. Lo ui s Y o n H ofe n Du va l Co un ty r es id e nt and fo rm e r h o m e d e m o n s tr a ti o n c lub m e mb e r t o C h a irm a n of th e B oa rd of Co ntr o l P K. Y o n ge reg i te rin g h e r int e n se di s pl eas ur e w ith h o m e d e m o n s tr at i o n in Du va l a nd Fl o rid a, 1 932 . ..... .... 1 1 0 4-1 S nu ffy S mith o n c annin g ... ...... .......... .. .. .. . .... . .. . . .. ....... .. .... . .... ... 111 42 C utaway view of a wa t e r b a th . .. .. . . ..... . ... ....... .. . ... ........ .. .. .. .. ..... . 160 43 Pr ess ur e co ok e r : a r e t o rt for g l ass j a r s a nd t i n co ntain e r s of a ll s i z es .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. 160 44 H o m e d e m o n s t ra ti o n kit c h e n in Hill s b oro u g h Co un ty 1 9 1 8 .. . .... .. . ... .... .. .. . 16I 45 Co mmuni ty ca nnin g ce n te r. .. ......... ...... .......... ..... . . .. ......... ..... ..... .. 16 1 4 -6 Ora n ge C oun ty's n e w ca nnin g ce nt e r ..... . . . .. .. ... .. ... ... ... ..... . . . ... ........ 16 2 4 7 Mrs. W B E d war d in Ll o y d Flo rid a w ith h e r n ew h o m e freezer. .. .... .. .. ... ... ... 16 3 48 Ho m e d e m o n s trati o n e x hibit b oo th a t th e No rth F l o r i d a Fa ir in Ta ll a h assee 1 955 ... ... .. .. . .. . .. . ... .... ..... . .. .. . .. .. .... . .... . .... .... .. . . ... . 16 3 4 9 Wo m a n acce s s in g h e r freeze r l oc k e r in ort h Caro l in a ... .. ...... ........... . .. .. .. . ... . 16 4 4 1 0 H ea lth y di p l ay of c ann e d goo d s ..... ........ . .. .... . . ... .. . .. .... ............... .. 1 65 411 We llstocke d p a n try in m o d e m ki tc h e n ... .. . ....... .. ... .. . ... . ....... ... .... .. ... ... 16 6 5 -1 Ma p of a r ea s p ro n e t o h oo k wo rm ...... .. .. ..... .. .. ............ ............................ 2 1 2 5-2 C hil dre n a ffl ic t e d b y h ookwo nn ... . . . . .. . . ....... ...... .. .. .. . ........... .... . . . .. 2 1 2 53 hil d r e n ofJ D T illm a n af fl ic t e d b y h ookwo rm ...... .. .... ...... . ..................... 2 1 3

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5-4 "F ilthy F l y" po ter produced by the tate Board of Health and u e d by HD As a nd other refi rmer to demon trate the dan ger of allowing flie to run amok in a nd around the hom e ... .......... .. .... ... .. .. .. ........ ........ ..... ............. ......... .. ... 214 5-5 World H ea lth Organizati n hookworm s l ide for chil dr e n education ........ ....... 215 5-6 T y pical privie designed to indicate the dan ge r of privie that did not meet a nit a r y standard .. .. .. ................... .. . .. ... ..... ..... .. ............. ......... ......... ... .. .. 216 57 Privie constructed durin g th e New Deal. ............................... .... ...... ... .. .... 216 5-8 Extant privie s constructed durin g the ew Deal. ...... ...... .... .. .. .. .. .. .... ...... 217 5-9 Woman go in g into her outhou e in Bri sto l Florida, 1953 .................. .. . .... .... 2 l 8 6-1 Puerto Rican Gleaners l 857 to 1945 .... . .. .. .. . ..... .. ................................. 219 6-2 Hardee C ounty citizens in 1 947 preparin g and gathe rin g canned foods to donate to needy fam ili es in Europe, and a Jacksonville woman's personal contribution to th e relief efforts coordinated as part of ational Home Demonstration Week .... .. .. ... 240 6-3 Puerto Rico 's extension newspaper El H era /d o d e Ex t ension ... . .. .. .. .... . .... ..... 24 1 6-4 Image: 1950 s recruitment brochure for home demon s tration ..... ........... .. ......... 242 6-5 Qualification s : 1950s recruitment brochure for home demon st ration .. .. ..... ............ 243

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KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS AND CITATIONS SC SL FSU NARA SC-2 1 -4 SL-32 FSU-32 NARA-33 6-54 Ethe l Atkinson Escambia AR 1935 University of Florida Special Co l lections State L i brary of Florida Florida State University Strozier Library National Archives and Record Administration Specia l Co ll ections Ser i es 21 Box 4 State Library, Microfilm Ree l 32 F l orida State Un i vers i ty Microfilm Ree l 32 Nationa l Archives Record Group 33.6 Box 54 Ethel Atkinson Annual Report of Cooperative Extension Work in Agricu l ture and Home Economics for 1935 E cambia County

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Ab tract of Di rtati n Pr nted to the raduat cho I of the ni er ity of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the R quir m nt r the De g ree of Doctor f Philo ophy P WER I TH LAND: HOM DEMO TRA TlO IN FLORIDA, 1915-1960 hair: Jon en bach Major Department: History B y Kelly Anne Minor December 2005 Thi dis ertation examine the remarkabl y tensile natur and eventual decline of the ooperative Ext nsion ervice s home demonstration program during much of its tenure in Florida. Lawmakers and reformer intended home demonstration created b y legislati e act in 1914 to be a comprehen ive system of mral uplift v ia education among rural families Home demonstration functioned as one division of a three-pronged extension apparatus that al o included farm demonstration and 4-H. All ex ten ion worker utilized demon tration s a the backbone of their educational mi ion Rather than rely solely on traditional material and ab tract id as, however home demon tration agent extended their own dome tic science education to women by conducting demonstration in rural home and communitie organizing project clubs, and tai l oring their work to community needs Home demonstration in olved a wide range of program for both worn n and girl but participation in any program or event was voluntary; information about new ideas succes ful technique and agent r liabilit y pread lar ge l y by word of mouth II

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Ma n y hi s t o ri a n s s tud y in g h o m e d e m ons t rat i o n h ave c h arac t e ri ze d a n d d is mi sse d i t as pl ag u e d b y ra c i s m sex i s m ro m a nti c i s m c l ass a nd r egio n a l bi as a nd limit e d efficacy. T h o u g h t h ese co nditi o n s t o vary in g d egrees we r e p e r s i ste n t p rob l e m s for h ome de m o n s t ra ti o n th e p rogra m p rove d re m a rk a bl y du ra bl e. Eq u al l y i m p orta n t as i ts l o n gevity was th e imp act o f e nduran ce o n h o m e d e m o n s tr at i o n 's o ri g in a l se n se of purp ose I exa m i n e t hi s r e l a t io n s hip i n li g ht of h o m e d e m o n strat i o n s d y n a m ism w h ic h fos t e r ed a d aptab i lity and in tum du ra bili ty in th e face of i nt e rn a l a nd ex t e rn a l c h a n ge. T h e fra m ewor k for th is a n a l y s i s i s h o m e d e m o n stra ti o n s evo luti o n fro m a d ee pl y foc u se d co h esive m issio n t o an imp recise co ll ect i o n of s p ec i a lti es. To d e m o n stra t e th is d yna mi s mlongev i ty evo lu t i o n connec t ion I a n a l yze h o m e d e m o n s tr at i o n s ru ra l r efo rm lin eage it s p rofess i o n al d y n a m ics i ts r e l iance on t ec hn o l ogy a nd ex p e rti se it s coo p era t ive h ea l t h progra m s a nd i ts ex p a n sive act i v i sm. T h e k ey t o h o m e d e m o n s tr a ti o n s v it a li ty h as b ee n m o m e n t um d i pl omacy utili ty an d i n i tiative an d th e key to i ts sig n i fi ca n ce is its evo l v in g pl ace i n t h e w id e r i nt e rn at i o n a l story of reform in favo r of rur a l wo m e n V III

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" A T HAPT RI WN YO R B U K T WHERE YOU ARE": HOM E D MON TRA TIO 0 THE GROUND A DAT LARO In 1928 homed mon tration Home Improvement peciali t Virginia P Moore is ued a provo a li ve bulletin lo rural women in Florida. Her s ubject wa hom e anitation, and he ta kled the potentially delicate topic with no hint of delicacy. Moore a ss ai l ed her reader with a eries of di turbing ima ges, facts and warnings about the dan gers lurkin g in manur e piles pri ie and wells. Flie s, their l egs coated with inde cribab l e filth routinely landed on tab l e di he s, and food exposing entire families to d e bilitatin g and dan gero u s disea e. In 1 947 home demonstration women across F l or i da put their co ll ective knowledge about food preservation and nutrition to use by processing co ll ecting and s hipping over eas car l oads of food for tho e l eft hungry in the wake of the econd World War. Decades of e perience in Florida combined with rural women e n se of activism manife ted in a co n ce rt e d effo rt to prov id e practica l fu nd amenta l r e li ef for those far away who were e s fortunate than themsel es. Tn 1 96 1 the tate Co uncil of e nior Home D e mon tration Work attended a l ecture r ega rdin g the rol e of poverty and corruption in fostering comm uni s m in Latin American countrie The ouncil Int ernat ional Affair committee re o l ved to b tt e r the situation b y e ndin g pamphlet s in variou pha e of home ec onomic s" to a uni ersity in Brazil. 1 The 1 Vir g ini a P M oo r e, "Q u e ti on on Hom e anitation to Make You Think ," C ircular o 9 7 ( a in e ille : ni e r i ty of Florid a, r e print 1 93 1 ); Coopera ti ve Ex t e n ion Work in Agric ultur e and H o m e Econo mi c. R epor t a/Genera l Activiri e for 1 94 7 Wa hin gto n D .C.: o e mm e nt Printin g ffice, 1 94 ) ; R e port of r a r e e ni or o un ii of Florida H o m e D e m on /r a ti o n Work, 1 961, 11 6 Hom e d e m n tration wa a pr ogra m of co m pr h e n i ve rural r efo rm for omen and familie aero s th nited tat e th a t perated o ffi c i a ll y from 1914 until th e 1 960 , h e n it n a m e c han ge d t o Ex t e n ion H ome Eco n omi th e n t o Fam il y a nd o n um r cie n ce it current in ca rn a ti o n. Though it recei e d it tart

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contrast in reform vigor represented in these stories is not illusory, but a marker of an aggressive focused force grad u a ll y co ll apsing into a flaccid imprecise array of disciplin e s 2 On their own each of these manifestation s of reform among F l orida rural women is arguab l y important. And c l early these cursory highlights tell on l y a dramatically simp lifi ed s t ory. But what is equa ll y c l ear eq u a ll y imp orta nt i s that these s n apshots of home demonstration s history in Florida when taken together, reveal a disappointing trend In the little more than three decades represented in the examples above home demonstration evol v ed from a vigorous mission-oriented program unified around a singu l ar a nd ambitious goal o f rural rejuvenation into a placid i s sue-oriented co ll ection of advice and seminars In 1928 home demonstration programs were meaty practical and fu nd ame nt a l. In 1 961 home demon s tration program s were hollowed out, superficia l and detached. Again that is an overl y simp l e representation but how did this happen ? In short home demonstration sacrificed vitality for viabi li ty as it worked to surviv e the c h an g e s in it s demographic econom i c a nd soc i a l context In its he y day home demon s tration 's durability only made it more vigorous more substant i al. But e s pecial l y after World War II when changing demographics threatened th e very existence of home demon tration it evo l ved rapidl y into a more contemporary but less ambitiou program And wh y is this important? Becau s e when home demonstration was at its be s t it accompli s hed rea l g ood So tradin g vitality for viabilit y, u s uall y unwittingly co s t not on l y hom e demon s tration but the people it might have helped a in fo m1 a l ga th e rin gs o f w omen and g irl thr o u g h cannin g club Farm e r s' In s titut es and th e lik e, h m d e m o n s tr a ti o n was formall y c r e at e d a part o f th e ne w Coo p e rati ve Ex t e n i o n e rvi ce b y th e mith L eve r A c t o f 1914 a s p a rt o f a thr ee -pron g ys tem of e du ca ti o n for rural Am e ri c an s it a l o i n c lud e d a g ri c ultu ra l ex t e n s i o n for m e n and 4-H for yo uth Th o u g h th e r e wa mu c h ove rl a p b e t wee n th e br a n c h e h o m e d e m o n trati o n was c ompromi ed o f f e m a l e a g nt a g ri c ultural e t e n i o n o f m a l ag nt s a nd 4 H o f b o th Fundin g p e r o nn e l mat e rial r e ea r c h t in vo l e d in h o m e d e m o n tra t i o n ca m e fro m thr ee coo p e ratin g our ce : th e fed e ral gove rnm e nt v i a th DA t a t e gove rnm e n t a nd l oca l co unty o ur ce in c ludin g co un ty c ommi s ion c h o ol board a nd l oc al bu in e e P a rti ip a ti n in a ll p rogra m s wa vo luntary

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To e aluate the ntire c pe f home demon tration v lution in thi dis rtati n ould b impo ible. ince the natur f home dem n trati n' e olution wa determined in gr at part b it ffort t remain rele ant and durable I will e amine primarily the tep home dem n tration t kt urv1ve ach chapter demon trate both how h me 3 dem n tration ecured it durability and how it trategie either trengthened or weakened it. The tr nd that merge is that home demon tration reached the zenith of it influence importance, and spirit during the twenty years or o before World War TI, and then be g an a low hift in the 1950 to ard a decline o er the re t of the century I am in no ay uggesting that home demonstration' declension was entirely HDAs own doing for quite apart from what they cou ld control ci rcum stance were changing that forced home demon tration to either adapt or wither away. How HD As adapted and the impact of tho e choice i the focu of my thesi Though the bulk of the di ertation deal pecificall with home demonstration trategie for longevity those strategie are part of several much larger trend that are critical for understanding home demonstration history. F ir t as is mo t evident in Chapter 2 home demon tration wa a part of a much larger reform movement that extended back into at lea t the 19 th century and forward into the present day. Though earl -20 th century Progres i e articulated the woe that I d to the call for home demonstration the impetu for rural reform in fa or of women both antedated and outlived the Progressi e 's ountry Life Mo ement. Mo t historian dealing with home demon tration lo cate it s roots within the ountry Life Mo ement and the ub equent mith-Le er ct of 1914, but there is ample e idence that female a gr arian reform had been developing lowl y and fitfully during the pre ious century Home demon tration empha i on practical education and demon tration like it agricultural demon tration counterpart ha much in common 'v ith the urge in agricultural

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4 societies and universitie s that took place in the 19 th century. Already by that point women were bein g included to some ex tent in a g ricultural interests and education so that Smith Lever 's official inclusion of female extension work in the broader extension program was not unprecedented And as the tran s ition from the g ritt y work of sa nitation to anti-communism leaflet s demonstrates home demonstration did not suddenly st op evolving an y more than it s udd e nl y s tarted This lon g -term pictur e of hom e d e monstration i s particularl y va luable for und e rstandin g how it matured and th e n declined My seco nd major claim is that home demon s tration did not accomplish the comprehensive, soc ioeco nomic racial and gender reform of the rural South that man y hi s torian s mi g ht ha ve expected, indeed what man y h ave looked for. Moreover home d e mon s tration did not int e nd to accomplish thi s It i s t e llin g that as hom e demonstration mo ve d from mor e tan g ibl e imm e diat e effo rts lik e anitation into more social and moral effo rt s lik e citizenship it l os t rather than ga ined a ense of purpo se. As I will outline further on man y hi torian s critical of hom e d e monstration ba se their critique on an assumption t h a t r efo rm or uplift entails ri g htin g soc ial wrongs To the se c ritic s it follows that hom e d e mon s tration did not do anything. Quite th e contrary, hom e d e mon s trati o n tackled se ri o u s d e fici e n c i es in rural life Ind ee d the do gge d pragmati s m apparent in Moore s sa nitation bulletin i s indicative of h ome d e mon stra tion 's ea rl y mi ss ion : practical impro ve m e nt in dail y li v in g to war d better h ea lth financial sec urity e nvironmental comfort a nd e motion a l sa ti sfac ti o n Ce rt a inl y convent i o n regulations and m a nd ates from on hi g h co n strai n ed hom e d emon trat i on a g ent ( HDA s) but it i s crucial to k ee p in mind that hom e d e mon trati o n had it s own age nd a a nd accomp li s hin g that wa the priori ty. For all their id eo lo g i ca l talk a bout uplift and country life

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what agent et out to achieve wa ub tantial impr vement. mp wennent did n t come in peech ; it am tn Jar f cann d fruit and improved privie M third contenti n i related to the econd, and that i that home demon tration a omp li h d tangible g din it time in Florida parti ularly in the decade befi re World War IL In the hi torian que t for water heds revolution and paradigm hifl it is ea y t verlo k th eeming l y ordinary improvement in food pre ervati n home sanitation technolog lothing con truction etc And to modem readers the advent of the pre sure cooker or the anitary privy hardly sounds impres ive, but the e mundane details were, in many case the difference between life and death want and plenty, burden and ease At it heart the story of home demonstration is not about stati tics percentages or even 5 ideologie it is about people I nd eed home demonstration's good work in the ordinary left the mo t extraordinary mark; home demonstration did not leave a legacy of ousting ommuni m or ending segregation but it did save lives ad ameliorate harsh living condition As J emphasize in Chapter 4 and 5, that means that e a c h improvement mattered. HDA ad ocated technologies like electricity, freezers pressure canners refrigerators and running water. In some cases, such technolog i es saved labor in others they ensured better health Agents educated women about proper nutrition for them elves and their children helped in tall lunchroom in community schoo l s organized Better Baby Clinics and immunization drives with county nur es and the Red Cross, and encouraged families to be tested for hookwom1 and tuberculosi Agents as i ted families looking for greater con enience and comfort by distributing plans for Jeeping porches to expand Ii ing pace offered ad ice on native plants to beautify yards with minimal expense, and demonstrated ea fixe for co metic aggra ations. And though a plethora of ervices and organization later aro e to meet a ariety of community need HD As were in the trenche when there ere

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few other allies capab l e of wagin g difficult and di sco ura g ing wars on disea se, pov erty a nd sca r c ity and they did so on the mo s t local le ve l s. 6 My final major c l aim i s that lo ca l i sm was one of i f not the most sign ifi cant d e t e rminant s of what home demon s tration accomplished Mo s t ev ident in C hap te r 3 HDA relationship w ith l oca l s was the most crucia l and ofte n the most difficult of any they fonned, but it was absolutely v ital to th e ir s ucce ss. Of co ur se hom e d e mon s tration 's original m a nif es to was in s pir e d by th e dom es tic di sco nt e nt ex posed in th e Country L if e Movement and it s m et hodolo gy deri ve d from Seaman Knapp ex perien ce with the pro ve n s ucc ess of d e mon s tration a th e ultimat e t eac hin g and reform tool. But throu g hout it s t e nur e in Florida the hom e d e mon s tration d y namic was most clear l y defined b y l oca l circum tan ce. An Exte n s ion Foo d Co n serva tion s peciali t Alice Cro m a rti e articulated this obligation: A pro gra m 's on l y rea so n for existing i s when tho se whom it serves can find a purpose for the pro gra m to ex i s t. 2 Though fundin g originated with the federal D e partment of Agriculture and s t a te gove rnment s also provided some financi a l backin g home demon s trati o n ult i mat e l y re li e d upon l oca l funding to put and keep work in place. And b eca u se mo st home d e mon stra tion work took plac e among local women and families HDA s we r e d e p e nd ent upon a lo ca l audience. Hi sto rian s h ave be e n inclin e d to cast locali m as a d e t e rr e n t t o r efo nn assuming that fe deral or tate influ e nc es were naturall y pro g r ess i ve and o p e n-mind ed but t h at local people were inh e r e ntl y and arbitrarily s u sp i cio u s of r efo rm reformers a nd cha n ge William Link s work on Southern Pro g re ss i vism e mbodie s thi s a r g um e nt. Link s eva lu atio n of public h ea lth a nd e du cat ion campaigns fo r exa mpl e reveals what one refonner cal l ed a goo d l aw poorl y exec ut e d According to Link, s trong l oca l opposition limit ed th e s cope an d ruin ed the h o p es of Progre i ve reformers 2 Alic e L. romartie Food o n erva ti on a nd Pr o du c ti on AR 1951 ( -9 I B-1 2) -9

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In hi lar g r work, Th P aradox of South e rn Progr e ivi m Linke t ab I i h e a trict di h tom y b e tw ee n traditi nali t indi iduali ti c l oca li m and r efo rm e r patemali tic humanitariani m the effec t f which wa to thwart po iti ve goa l s in education, h ea lth omen' uffra ge, and child lab r. 3 Both portrait are ove rl y s implified a nd as E li zabet h Ha e Turner point out, do not account for the multitud e of wo men in mall town who j in e d th ew man club mo e m e nt to impro ve th e ir co mmuniti e ." 4 Ind ee d Link 's a nd imilar analy e con id er reform from th e per s pective of fed ral agent in a battl e with local l ea d r who wo uld not e n force reform agenda But as T urn er observes th e r e we r e ot h e r l eve l s of reform that operated lo ca ll y, and home demon tration was a significant brid ge between federal commi ion reform and woman' c lu b reform. Home demon s tration wa a federal pro g ram in which mo t and th e mo st import a nt r efo rms took place lo ca ll y. True in s ome instances l ocal politic s, s ocial r e lationship s, or eco nomic tymied hom e demon tration work. But in other areas, local influ e n ces were po iti ve and empowering for HDA The v ariation between counties' an d co mmuniti es r e pon se to home demon tration and HD A s i s one of the mo st ital for thi di scussion. ot only doe s it enrich the context of home demon s tration work, but it help s explain w h y hom e 7 demon s tration evolved a it did The initial zeal o f sa nitation work, for in sta nce originated in part from an effort to me e t lo ca l communities' felt n ee d By the time HDA s we r e di cu s in g d e mocrati za tion and foreign polic y, r eform was le ss ur ge nt and age nt s we r e scra mblin g for a to remain relevant. Without local s upport home demon tration had little, if a n chance of d e eloping. In the effort to ta y ahead of changing time ho weve r i w h ere home 3 William Link, "P ri i e Pro gre i i m a nd Publi c c h oo l s: H ea lth R efo nn a nd E du cation in the Rural out h 1909-1920 The Journal of Sourhern Hi 10, y 54 o ember 19 8): 639 The P aradox of ou th ern Pr ogressivi m J 0-1930 ( hapel Hill and London : ni er ity of o rt h arolina Pre 199-) 4 lizab th Haye Turner "T h e P arado of o uth em Progre i m : R ie, 'The Journal of South e rn Hi 1 01) 60( ugu t 1994): 0".

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8 d e mon s tration lo s t s om e o f it s zes t and wh e r e it drift e d away from l oc al n ee d s th a t it m ay s till ha ve met. Th e c entr a l dyn a mic in thi s s tud y i s th e imp ac t of lo ca l d e t e rmini s m F o r b ette r and fo r w or se, lo c al int e r es t n ee d fin a n ces, p o liti cs, a nd s oci a l s tru c tur es de te rmin e d th e s h a p e of h o m e d e m o n s trati o n 's evo luti o n But it i s imp oss i b l e t o und e r s t a nd l o c a li s m 's i m pac t w ith out s tud y in g h o m e d e mon s tr a ti o n o n th e lo ca l l eve l fr o m co un t i es t o th e s t ate. F l o r i d a's ho m e d e mon s trati o n ex p e ri e n ce pro v id es s u c h a co nt ex t for h o m e ex t e n s i o n b ega n in F l o rid a before 1 9 1 4, a nd s t ea dil y d eve l o p e d a nd ex p a nd e d throu g h o ut t h e p e ri o d o f t hi s s tud y Fl or id a s ex t e n s i ve a nd in-d e pth r eco rd of h o m e d e mon s tr a ti o n th e n offe r s a mpl e ev i de n ce of t h e p rogra m o n th e gro und d e m o n s tr a tin g fir s t th e di t in c ti ve c h arac t e r of a n y h o m e d e m o n s tr a ti o n age nd a a t th e m os t l oca l l eve l. Seco nd th e min g lin g o f l oca l c h arac t e r w ith a r eg i o n a l a nd n a ti o nal r efo rm e th os, o r ga ni za ti o n a nd m e thod o l ogy a llo ws u s to see h o m e d e m o n s t ra ti o n a t wo rk bro a dl y, as we ll. Th e p a rti c ul a r s of h o m e d e m o n s trati o n vary fro m s t a t e t o s t a t e but h ow HD As r es p o nd e d to th ose d e t a il s i s s u gges ti ve of t h e hi s t ory of h o m e d e m o n s t ra ti o n ac ro ss twe n t i et hce ntu ry A m e r ica. F l o rid a p rov id es a v i a bl e b ase fo r s tud y in g h o m e d e m o n s t rat i o n b eca u se i t i s di s tin c ti ve but n o t exce pti o n a l. L i ke th e o th e r So uth e rn sta t es w h e r e exte n s i o n began ea rl y, F l o rid a s h o m e d e mon s tr a tion s h ows a s t ea d y grow th p atte rn i n bo th t h e n u m ber of agen t s a nd th e co un t i es in w hi c h th ey wo r ke d Mo r eover, Fl o ri da s ru ra l p o pul at i o n b l ac k w h ite a n d H ispan i c a li ke und erwe n t t h e a m e d ram at i c c h a n ge th at ot h e r So u thern s tates did as urban deve l op m e nt rapi dl y ec l i p se d ru ra l grow th F in a ll y t h oug h Flo rid a's economy h ea i l y ba ed in to uri s m was m o r e di ve r se t h a n mu c h of th e o u t h it n eve rth e l ess was c h a r acte r ized b y a pro n o un ce d r e li a n ce up o n ag ri c ul tu r e A b r i ef hi s t ory of h o m e de m on tration i n Florida

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9 d m n trat both an o erall patt rn hared b y outhern and ome extent national home d mon trati n program a ell a a di tinct t ry hap db I cal indi idual B 1961 more than one hundred HDA were at work in Florida but reachin g that le el of ntr n hm nt a a lon g proce A an erall trend the total number of HOA increa ed r the year th ugh the number of black agents within that total remained tead y Time too aw home demon tration atalog of programs di r ify con id e rably o that agent r co ering more topics but in les d pth than in the early decade s of the work Though the mith-Le er Act made home demonstration and all exten ion work official in 1914 the work was underway in Florida a early a 1909. The evolution of e ten ion ork from a relatively gra roots initiative to an enabling bureaucrac to a hefty go ernment program i it elf indicati e of home demonstration own evolution from a m1 ion to a service In 1909 a tate Agent named A S. Merhag reported on his ork ith cotton farmers in orth Florida. Anticipating that the boll weevil would reach Florida b y 191 I M rhag an assi tant named A C. Johnson, and the U. Department of Agriculture s et about establishing demon tration farm in five panhandle countie ot unexpectedly the initial reception to agricultural reform wa not particularly enthu iastic. A Merhag noted the people of this state ha e just begun to farm intensi ely di ersifying their typical pur uit in cattle lumber truck farming and turpentine. In 1909, Merhag reported cooperation from thirtye en demon trators using funding from the General Education Board and the U DA. Merhag made no mention of work among women or girl but that oon hanged 5 In fact demonstration ork wa already beginning to take the shape it would hold for decade to come. A of 1912 funding ould be a combined project of the DA and the . Merhag R e p o rt of D e m o n trati o n W o rk in Fl o ri da 19 0 9 F I )

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10 S t a t e of Florida and "so m e co-operation from lo ca l so urce s i s also ex pect e d ." T h e numb e r of age nt s and d e mon stra tor s too were g rowing. As of 1911 thirte e n age nt s h a d b ee n added (w ith a plan for nine more in 1912) and more than 800 demon stra tor s were p artic ipatin g Work had b ee n ex tended into severa l so uthern Florida counties with rising int erest in d oi n g mor e with the p e nin s ula. Most s i g nificant for thi s di sc u ss ion b oys' com cl ub s were und erway and plans we r e in place to begin gi rl s tomato c lub s the n ext year. Together wit h Fa rm ers In st itut es co m and tomat o c lub s were the dir ec t pr ecu r so r s t o work w ith ru ra l wome n In 191 2 children s c l ub work h a d be e n g i ve n a leader Agnes Ellen Harri s w h o wo uld be the fir s t State HDA in Florida. 6 B y 1913 H a rri s was s urv eyi n g th e women s uper vising g irl s club wo rk to asses ho w man y g irl s were parti c ip at in g w hat procedur es they we r e fo ll ow in g a nd w h a t plans t h ey were m ak in g. In 1 9 1 4 Harris i ss u e d her report of g irl s ca nnin g wo rk in Florida tr ack in g the growt h of the program. H a rris no te d that twelve co unti es h a d ac ti ve c lub s in 191 2 fo llowed b y thirteen in 191 3 a nd twenty-four in 1 9 1 4. By 1 9 1 3 mor e than 500 g irl s were enrolled in canning c lub s. On the eve of Smith-Lever Harri s was l ooking beyond ca nnin g c lub s h oweve r. In h e r recommendations fo r the 1 9 1 4 -1 9 1 5 pro gra m of wo rk the future h o m e d e mon strat ion l eade r nam e d two m ajo r n ee d s to ke e p th e work m ov in g forward First Harris arg u e d it was n ecessary to con tinu e Ex t e n sio n School n o t only in hi g h sc hool s, but through hom es and wome n s clubs. Second, H arr i s ca ll ed for a erie s of bulletins a ddr e s in g n ot o nl y cann in g but nutri t i o n h o m e care for the s i ck li g hting in rural h o m es a nd h o m e sa nitation H a rri s had out lin ed a s i g nifi ca nt h om e demon tration pro g ram even before s u c h an initi a ti ve offic i a ll y ex i s ted. 7 6 Bradford Knapp F a rm e r s' Coo p e r a ti ve D e m o n s tration W o rk. t al e of Fl o rid a Annu a l R e p o rt of Pr og r ess J 9 J J ( F U1 ) ; J J V e rnon Annual R e p o rt of B oy a nd G irl s C lub Wor k i n Fl or i da fo r J 9 1 2 ( F U1 ). 7 A g n es E ll e n Harri R e p or t of E x r e n io n D iv i s i on. D epar tm nt of H o m e E co n o m i F l or i da t a r e o ll egefor W o m e n 1914 (F U-1)

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1 1 h m e d e m o n t ra ti o n m ature d th e n u mb r of age n t emp l oye d increa s ed teadil y No t un x p ecte dl y, th e r e w r e p ike in a pp o intm e n t i n certain pe r io d s, part i cu l ar l y Wor l d W a r I w h n m e r ge n cy fu nd s m a d e a dd i ti o n a l wo r k p o ibl e A t h e t ota l number of H OA i nc r ea e d h oweve r th e numb e r o f bl ack age nt s r e m a in e d s t ea d y a t a r o un d twe l ve. T h e co ntr a tin ex t e n s i o n pro v id e d fo r w hi te a nd bl ack ru ra l fa mili es was m o t pro n o u nced after W or ld W a r II w h e n th e t o t a l nu m b r of age nt s excee d e d th e to t a l n u m b e r of cou n tie s i n the t a t e. Ce rt a in co unti e lik e Hill s b o rou g h Du va l a nd D a d e, acc um u l a t e d assistan t agents ofte n a m a n y as fo ur or fi ve. But th e numb e r a nd di str ibu tio n of bl ack HD As r e m a i ned l ow a nd co n ce ntrat e d in th e Panhandl e, w h e r e m os t o f th e s t a t e's Afr i ca n-Am er i ca n s li ved. e e rth e l ess, h o m e d e m o n s tr a ti o n wo rk was pr e d o m i nantl y fo r w h i t e an d b l ack rura l women but eve ntu a ll y th e r e we r e o th e r va ri a ti o n s. Durin g W o rld War I a nd th e 1 918 infl ue n za ep id e mi c, h o m e d e mon st rati o n a dd e d di sc r e t e ur ba n age nt s t o ex t e nd a mass i ve can n ing effort a m o n g c i ty wo m e n a nd t o tr ea t flu v i ct im s a t milit a r y b ases in Ja c k so n vi ll e a nd Mia m i. T h o u g h urb a n w o m e n wo uld co ntinu e t o pl ay an in c r ease d ro l e in h ome d e m o n strat i o n over t h e n ex t few d eca d es, th e r e we r e n o o th e r s i g nifi ca nt va ri a t ions in h o m e d e m o n st ra t i o n c li e nt e l e un t il t h e 1 950s T h e n in 1 958 h o m e d e m o n stra t io n wo r k a m o n g e m inoles began i n G l a d es Co un ty. See th e c h a rt o n p age 25 fo r a n overview of th e num be r a nd ty p e of agen t s wo r king in Flor id a b etwee n 1 915 a nd 1 960 w ith a ddit iona l yea r s in w hi c h age n t nu mbers were r e m a r ka bl y hi g h Th e t o t a l numb e r of age nt s i n c lud es all work w i t h w h ite b lack, Semino l e a nd ur ba n fa mili es by r e pr esen t at i e co un ty a nd ass i sta n t agents. It d oes not i n cl u de state staff o r s p ec i a li s t U rb a n age nt a r e not e d w h e n th ey a r e l is t e d sepa rat e l y in the p e r sonnel roste r of each p u b Ii h e d re p o rt of th e Flor id a Coopera t i e Ex t e n s i o n ervice. Afte r 1 945 a number

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1 2 of F l o rid a co unti es we r e pr e d o min a ntl y urb a n so a n y age n t wo r k in g t h ere wou l d b e by d efa ult urb a n T h e a dmini s tr a ti ve s tru c tur e of h o m e d e m o n strat i o n did n ot c h ange su b sta nt ia ll y b etwee n 1 9 1 5 a nd 1 9 60 Exce pt fo r th e a dditi o n of m o r e spec i a li s t s, th e s t a t e h ome d e m o n s tr a ti o n s t aff co n sis t e d of a w hit e S tat e HD A in c h arge of a ll h o m e de m o n stratio n wo r k a bl ack Di s tri c t HOA in c h a r ge of Neg ro h o m e d e m o n str ati o n wo r k, a nd a se t of th ree t o fo u r w hit e di s tri c t age nt s w h o ove r saw dir ect l y a ll HD As wo rkin g in t h a t di str i ct s co un t i es The firs t m a j o r a dmini s tr a ti ve ove rh a ul ca m e in 1 963 w h e n b ot h t h e l oca ti o n a nd t itl es of h o m e d emo n s tr a t io n s t aff we r e c h a n ge d t o reflec t th e im pact of int egra ti o n a n d the broa d er c i vi l ri g ht s m ove m e nt. H o m e d e m o n s tra t i o n age n ts ca m e to b e ca ll e d Exte n s i o n H o m e Eco n o mi s t s a nd a ll Negro h o m e d e m o n s tr a ti o n wo r k was m ove d from F l or i da A&M U ni ve r s i ty t o Fl o rid a S t a t e U ni ve r s i ty t o t ake t h e pl ace of t h e w hit e h o m e d emo n s t ratio n staff th a t h a d b ee n m ove d fro m F l o ri da S t ate to U n ive r s i ty of Fl o r i d a th e ex t e n s i o n h ea d quarte r s In tim e, th e p rogra m b eca m e in c r eas in g l y s p ec i a li ze d a nd offic i o u s. Eve n t u a ll y th e Exte n s i o n Serv i ce was fu ll y in int egra t e d a n d Ex t e n s i o n Ho m e Eco n o m ics b ecame Fami l y an d Co n s um e r Sc i e n ces Ge n era ll y afte r 1 96 0 h o m e d e m o n s tr atio n und erwe n t tr e m e nd o u s s ur face c h a n ges b ut l ost d e pth. B efo r e 1 960 t h e progra m remai n e d re l a ti ve l y static o n t h e s u rface but wa s c h arac t e ri ze d b y grea t d e p t h in t h e n a tu re of i t s wo r k. To d ate few hi s t o r ies co n ce rn e d w ith h o m e d e m o n strat i o n h ave d ea l t wi th t he progra m i n F l o rid a In 1 982 B ar b ara Co tt o n p ubli s h e d a s li m vo l ume a n a l yzi n g t h e work o f b l ack ex t e n s i o n wo rk in F l o rid a betwee n 1 9 1 5 a nd 1 965 Cotton s wo r k Th e L a mpl ig h te r d e l ve d int o th e li ves a nd wo rk of indi v idu a l agen t s in a way t ha t empha ize d bo t h their perso n a l s tru gg l es a nd tri u m ph s Ly nn e R ieff s 1 995 di s ertat i on R ou in g th e P e ople o f th e La n d ," d ea lt w ith five states s he te n ne d t h e D eep So u t h i nc l udin g Ala b a m a G e or g i a,

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13 Loui s iana Mi i ippi and Florida. Thou g h Ri eff touch don mo t of th e important topic r e lat e d to h m d e mon tration h e r broad g ographic ba e m ea nt that Florida a pp ea r s o nl y int e rmitt e ntl y in h e r ana l y i till Rieff wo rk r e main imp rtant for it s attention to a state o often overlooked. The ne x t work dealin g with hom e d e mon tration was m y own 1 999 the s i s, To Make th e Be t Better ," w hi ch focu ed upon thre e co unti e in the Florida panhandl e. imply put a full-length study ba se d in F l or id a i s tilling s till-f e rtil e soi l. In dealing with hom e d e mon s tration I am approaching it from th e o ppo s it e d irec ti o n many hi s torians have taken. Rather than faulting home demon s tration for not ha v ing don e e nou g h or having pushed the ri g ht reforms l contend that home d e m o n strat i on did a g r eat deal and great deal of goo d It i s because HDA s did s o much that was worthwhile t h a t their s ub se quent evo lution into somethi n g l ess h earty is disappointin g. Thus I am no t seeki n g in the di sse rtation to undo a certa in argument and though there are m a n y s tudie s whose co n c lu sions bear up on m y own analysis of hom e d emo n s tration I am most int e rested in t h o e major works that h ave dire ct l y influ e n ced my understanding tho se that e ither I accept an d want to build upon or those that I w ill c hall e n ge. Much of women s history ha s been wr itt e n with an eye toward power in equities and female prote s t. Rural women's history s o distinct from t h e ex peri e nc es of urban women, has b ee n left out of feminist ana l ys i s, but a number of rnral scholars ha ve identifi e d forms of empowerment, prote st, and even feminism wit hin the rural woman s experience Deb ora h Fink ha s fo und in Nebra ka that reform cou ld be empowering, not limiting Her 1 992 8 ee Barb a ra R o tt o n Th e Lamplight e rs Bl ack Farm and Hom e D e m ons tration Agents in Florida 1915-1965 (Ta llaha s ee: DA in coo p era ti o n with Florida Agric ultural and Mechanical College, 19 2); Lynn e Rieff, R o u si n g th e P eop l e of the Land ': H o m e D emonstrat i on Work in the Deep outh, 1 914 -1 950" ( Ph D dis e rtation Auburn U ni vers ity 1995 ); Ri eff a l o h as d ea lt with Florida exten i o n in essay fonn. ee L y nn e Rieff lmpr o ing Rural Life in Florida: Home D emon tration Work and Rural R efo nn 19 1 2-1940," in Making Waves Female Activi t in Twentieth-Centw y Florida ed Jack D av i a nd Kari F r e d erick o n (Gai n esvi ll e: University Pre of Florida 2003). Kelly Minor '"To Make th e Be t B e tt e r "': H ome D e m o n tration in Escambia, H o lm e a n d Okaloo a Counties, Florida 19201940 (Mas t e r th es i s, U ni ve r sity of West Florida 1999)

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14 Agrarian Women exa min es women's unprecedented role in rural r efo rm s. Fink deals with actual extens ion work only intermittently, but h er overall argument indicates that by the early twentieth-century women finally were being included in agrarian reform as vita l actors not afterthoughts Though agrarianism had long been a male-dominated philosophy by the time that the Cou ntr y Life Movement developed it s s urv ey of rural Amer i ca it was women's satisfaction with farm life that reformers had come to see as the linchpin in rural revitalization Ultimately, the demand for wo m e n reformers to meet women's needs l aid t h e groundwork for the debates that culminated in Smit h-L ever and women's extension as a discrete component of the Cooperative Extension Service. Women 's overt inclusion in reform wa a definite good but Fink does not necessarily find that fema l e extension work was welcome among Nebraska fami li es. In fact where extension appears in Agrarian Wom e n, agents often seem an annoyance lik e a nosy neighbor with too much time on her hands 9 Outside the Midwest other historians have found evidence that reform s were at be t uneven and at worst, damaging to the precarious balance of life in farm communities. Often historians have linked the impact of reform to the conditions of life for rural fam ili es. For example, Rebecca S h arp l ess' study of Texas cotton farms, F e rtil e Ground Narrow Choices ( 1999) detail the li ves of wo m en in a "reality that was bleak for many ." Hom e demonstration Sharp l ess argues fai l ed to effective l y serve rural Texas women because it did not adequately address their needs. 1 0 Sharp l ess's argwnent i one of tho e with which I am lea t comfortab l e because it deals so heavily with absolutes. The absence of comprehen i ve improvement does not necessaril y mean comprehensive failure And it i vital to consider what home demonstration did accomp li sh, and, mo t importantly what it could accompli h 9 D e borah Fink, Agrarian W o m e n : Wi ves and M o th er in Rural ebras k a, 1 8 0194 0 ( hapel Hill and London : U ni er ity o f orth arolina Pr e 19 92), 11 -2 4 25 26. 10 Rebecca h a rpl ess, F e rtil Ground Narrow C h o i ce. W o m e n o n T ex as Co ll o n Farms, 19 00-/940 (Chape l Hill an d London : ni ve r s ity of orth Caro lin a Pre s 1 999), xviii' ix 45.

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L oca l c ir c um s t a n ce in th e outh al o pr ov id e g r ea t e r in i g ht in to t h r a i m of po ibili ty w ith i n w hi h e t n i o n ag nt wo rk e d F r exa m p l e bl ack HO A wo r k in g in l a b a rn a n joye d th e tin a n i a l a nd i a l up po rt th a t pr ox imi ty t a nd coo p r at i on w i th Boo k e r T. W a hin g t o n Tu k egee a ff o rd e d th e m bu t th a t wa n t th e case fo r a ll b l ack t e n i n age nt e l ew h e r e. Texa e t e n io n th e u bject of D eb r a R e id s 2000 d i ertation R apin g a r e at e r Harv e t ,' m a d e it o wn way t owa rd buildin g a r e put a ti o n a nd e 1 z m g pp o rtunit ie fo r r efo rm T h o u g h ev ry age n t was n o t in a p os iti o n t o r ea li ze j u st t h e r eform 1 5 h wo uld h a e lik e d T exa ex t e n i o n wa p a rt of a l a r ge r r efo rm effo rt a m ong ru ra l African A m e ri ca n th a t in c lud e d pri va t e or g ani za tion s lik e th e Fa rm e r Impro ve m e n t ociety of Texas R e id a r g u es th a t bl ack agra ri a n r efo rm e r s fo und th ey co uld m ake g r ea t er progres b eca u se th ey' d ev i se d s trat eg i es that w hit e pro gre i ve c ould upport bu t th a t did n o t thr ea t e n e n g r a in e d o uth e m ra ce r e l a ti o n s." Th e r e ult was th a t pro g r ess w i t h i n th e egregated y te rn wa m a d e but pro g r ess in wea k e nin g th e ys t e rn it se l f wa ty mi e d P a rt of w h at co n s tri c t e d th e e r efo rm e r wo rk wa th e i r co n sc i o u s c h o i ce t o r e pr ese nt i t a nd carry it o u t i n u c h a way th a t it did n o t dr aw undu e a tt e nti o n fro m w hit e c riti cs b u t t h at effort t o ge t a n yt hin g d o n e a t a ll m ea nt th a t a ll th a t mi g ht ha ve b ee n p oss ibl e was seve r e l y c urt ai l e d 1 1 l ea rl y HO A 'a nd ru ra l w om e n 's ex p e ri e n ce w ith r efo rm-b ase d e mp owe rm e n t was n ot uni fo rm u c h a co nditi o n o nl y r e fl ec t th e di ve r s i ty of ex p e ri e n ce in th e r e l at i o n hi p b etwee n th e age n t a nd th e wo m e n A case in p o int i s th e intr o d uc t io n a d ocacy a nd a d op t io n of tec hn o l og i e In irtu a ll a ll wo r k o n ru ra l A m e ri ca n in t h e twe nti et h ce n tury a n d ear l ie r fo r that m a tt e r t ec hn o l og i ca l c h a n ge fi g ur es promin e ntl y. In th e twe nti e th ce ntu ry, t ec hn o l og i ca l change took o n a m o r e "officia l t o n e, s t e mmin g fro m go e mm e nt pro gram rat h er tha n from 11 Debra Reid R eapi n g a Greater Harve t: frican Arn rican grarian Reform and the Te as gr i c ul t u ra l t e n io n ervice" ( Ph D d i Texa &M ni ersity 2000) ab tract.

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16 simple market innovation. 12 The Extension Service, Rural Electrification Administration, and Tennessee Va ll ey Authority exemp li fy the kind of top-down techno l ogy drive moving into rural America. Natura ll y, the acceptance or rejection of gadgetry for the home played a role in rural women's relationship with HD As. One of the most interesting question i s why women purcha se d the appl i ances they did what kept them from buying more and what ultimatel y convinced them certain items were must haves ." The record of home demonstration in Florida s u gges t s that women purchased what they cou ld afford and the y prioritized tho se purchases. Katherine Jelli so n might argue, howe ve r that to whatever extent home demon s tration transfonned rural homes it was at the expense of much-needed income and the result of unrealistic and ill-timed pressure agents put on rural families. However in Enti tl ed to Power Jelli so n doe s argue that rural women reject e d the brand of domesticit y pushed at them by home agents, and it s e l ectrical trapping s. Whatever they did adopt was meant to enhance their productive rather than consumptive, roles. 13 Though Jellison is more critical of home d e monstration 's motives than I h ave been her ana l ysis of women's ultimate control over what changes home demonstration wrought mesh with what occurred between F l orida HDAs and rural women. Kathleen Babbitt' 1995 di sertation, "Pro ducers and Consumers," d eals spec ifi ca ll y with the ways that rural women in New York struggled to adapt to changes in their produ ct i ve roles prompted by indu st rialization in the dairying indu s try. Though man y cri tic s point to conflicts between HD As and rural women as a re s ult of differ e nt sta ndard s of production and 1 2 For examp l es of the impact of te chno l ogy in ear li er eras, ee Joan M Jen en, L oose ning th e B ond: Mid-Atlantic Farm Wom e n J 7 50-1 850 ( ew Ha e n : Yale U ni ver ity Pre 19 86), ally McMurry "American Rural Women and the Tran formation of Dairy Proce sing, I 20-80," Rural Hi t o,y 5 (1994): 143-53 and Cat h eri n e Kelly, in th e New England Fashi o n : R e hopin g Wom n Li ve in 1h e in e t ee nth C e ntwy ( Ith aca: Corne ll Univer i ty Pre 199 9). 13 Katherine Jelli on, Entitl e d t o P ower: Farm Wom e n and T ec hn o l ogy, 1913-1963 ( hapel Hill : Uni er ity of ort h arolina Press 1 993).

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on umpti n, and genera ll y a ign re pon ibility tog vernment in tru ion, middle-cla n bbery r me uch g neralization Babbitt locate the conflict in worn n pecific at t empt to c nlinue pro iding for their fam ili e by eeking wage-earning pportunities Babbitt argu that, ultimately, rural women found way to ati fy both HDA apparently unrealistic d m a nd for g r eater con umption and women's own need and de ire to provide more tangibly fo r their familie 14 Babbitt' interpretation of home demon tration and rural w men provides yet a noth r lo ca l ariation. T h e conflicts she find between ag nt and 17 omen regarding aleable production in ew York is virtua ll y absent in Florida where HOA enco ura ged women outright to produ ce handicraft s, jam baked goods a nd other tourist friendl good to e ll to the travelers flooding into the state The relationship between women and HDAs c l ear l y was not uniform and certai nl y more flexible than some crit i cs ha e contended either because the women refused to be per uaded by an intractable agent or becau e the agent was not o intractable Three stu di es highlight the same l ocal determinism I have found to prevail in F lorid a Rural hi torians have been quick to note that translating national univer ity-ba ed home econom i c into meaningful r eform and i n format i on for rural women te ted the education a much a the women. Mary Hoffschwelle examine home demon tration impact in Tennessee in "'Bette r Home on Better Farms"' (200 I), finding that women acceptance of reform wa a multitep process; Tennessee women e erted the same selecti e resi tance that Midwestern wome n did Agents cou ld sell h ouse h o ld changes more effecti e l y when the linked them to a broader consumer cu ltur e and e en then rural omen adopted on! hat the wanted and co uld use from the wide e l ection of r eforms agents offered them. Hoff: chwelle 1 ~ Kathleen R Babbin "Pr ducers and on umer : Women of the ountry ide and the ooperati e xt n ion ervice Home Economi ts, e York late, 1870-1935 (Ph.D di ., tate ni er ity of ev York at Binghamton, 1995), abstract. ee also Babbitt article The Producti Farm Woman and the tension Home Economi tin ew York tale 1920-1940 ," A g r ic ultural Hi tor y 67 ( pring 199"): 3 -1 01.

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also points out that domestic refonn was not a unifonn program once it moved into specific communities and she stresses that women forged a dynamic relationship with refonn e rs in that the y found ways to utilize new techniques and maintain their relationship to household and fann work. 1 5 18 Ann McCleary's 1996 study of one Virginia ounty, "S haping a New Role for the Rural Woman ," is remarkable not only for its attention to local reality rather than national agendas but also her determined effort to compensate for what she argues are shortcomings in earlier work on home demonstration. In particular McCleary contends that hi torian s critical of home demonstration have depended on a top-down approach, favoring the official" me ssage at the expense of any number of local ones. McCleary chronicles the relationship betw ee n historian s and their primary arguments against home demonstration including its constrictive gender ideal s, its promotion of household technologies its inattention to existing commun iti es, its u se of insensitive and paternalistic agents to fix what never was brok en, and the hostility that agents created between rural women and themselves McCleary diff er markedl y from other in her interpretation by directl y contesting the prevailing analysis of home demon st ration as socia l control. What these stories overlook," she argues, is why rural women participated as club members and as agents ." 16 Indeed, women s deliberate participation in home demonstration shou ld be one of th e key components of any analy s is. As a decisive local factor women 's vo lunt ary participation in hom e demon s tration in Florida confinn what McCleary ha s di covered in Virginia Indeed as Chapter 3 will demon trate 15 Mary Hoff s chwell e, '" Better I-Jome on Bett er Farm s': Dome s ti c Refonn in Rural Tennessee ," Fronti e r 22 (January 2 00 I ): 5 153 ee al o her R eb uildin g th e Rur a l Southern Com mun ity R efo rm e rs Schools, a n d H o m es i n T e nn es ee, 1900 /93 0 (Knoxville : niver ity of T c nn e see Pr e 1998). 16 Ann M cC l eary," hapin g a ew Rol e for the Rural Woman : H o m e Dem n trati o n W rk in Augu t a ou nty irginia, I 917-1940," Ph D di s ., Brown ni e r i ty, 199 6) 3-4, 71 2.

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19 al omen ere c on c i u of th in flu nee the had o er in tailing maintaining or eliminating home dem n trati n in their communitie Lu nn Jone Mama L e arn e d U to Work (2002) deliver perhap them t nuanced und r tanding of home d m n tration far. In her tory of outhem rural women he d e n t di unt the pre ailing ritici m f home dem n tration. But the everyda realit y ac ording to Jone i that of a protean relation hip, of top-down reform who e ucce depended upon upport from the bottom up Jones agree with critic that HOA promot e d apparent! middle-clas urban ae thetic sty l es but contend that they did in a wa that reflected rural realities of resource and eco n omic (much like the orange crate furniture that a o common in Florida) Most importantly Jones reiterate a point that few other hi torians dealing with home demonstration have made women accepted and rejected home d mon tration a they aw fit. Moreover, agent and club members collaborated in writing the text of l essons when they came together at c lub meeting To foster interest and retain membership agents con ulted with clubwomen as they set annual agenda of le on to be tudied. 17 What I have studied of home demon tration in Florida bears out the e three analyses Federal objectives were but a starting point and they were hardl y ab olute. Thu the tream of thought on how HD As and rural worn n interacted tretche from a relationship in hich women had littl e ay except rejection to one in which women actively haped both the relationship and the wider home demonstration program The best wa to under tand ho home demon tration worked of cour e i to stud it on the ground What then can Florida tell us about home demonstration? Home demon tration a till a national program that r equi r ed the same reports of all i t agents arranged funding in roughl the ame wa e erywhere, employed county di trict and tate agent in each tate J o ne M a ma l e arn e d U t o W o rk : Farm W o m e n in th e ew o uth ( hapel Hill and L o ndon : niver ity o f o rth arolina Pre _QQ_ ) 1 8 -22 141.

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20 and provided the ov e rall annual objectives for a ge nt s nationwide. Jn every s tate s ucce ssfu l agents were attuned to local int e r es t s and the un s u ccessfu l i g nor e d or misjud ge d local influence In every s tate relative wealth differed among counties, as did intere st in reform Therefore, Florida HDA s' ex peri e nce s were not necessaril y exceptional. What Florida offe r s i s a convenient, appropriate, and rich local story to help illuminat e the bi gge r home demon s tration narrative particularl y the ex perience and impact of locali s m. And Florida's ex p e ri e nc e h e lp s answer th e qu es tion s underl y ing the di sse rt a ti o n how did home exte n s i o n endure as lon g as it ha s and what ha s been the price of lon gev ity ? U ncle Sam wants YOU to h a n g curtains! That is the sce nari o I had in mind w h e n I fir s t b ega n s tud y in g home demon s tration for m y Master s thesi Like man y hi s torian s who ha ve exa mined HD As work I approached it as evi d e nc e of a w hit e urban middl e -cla ss j u gge rn a ut stea mrollin g a di s tin c t s uperior rural culture until it was batt e r e d a nd softe n e d e nou g h to remold into th e faulty but preferred ( i e. white, urb a n middle-cla ss) forn1 of American family lif e. With s uch a pre s umption upp e rmo s t th e pi c ture of home demon s trati o n that e mer ge d wa one of know-it-all biased uppity agents invadin g rural haml ets to impo s e the w ill of the gove rnm e nt s hamin g goo d middlin g folk int o c h a n g in g their lifeways and dismissing goo d po or folk as hop e l ess cases. My opinion of these women ha s c han ge d co n s id era bl y over the yea r h oweve r and I n o longer ub scr ib e to this thesis I ca m e to realize that there we r e i g nifi ca nt co ntr a di ct i on s and co mpl ex iti es in th e analysis J d esc ribed above. For in s tan ce one con istent c riti c i sm of h o m e demon tration ha s b ee n that it i gno red the poor es t mo t i olated people w h o stood to ga in th e m os t from e du ca ti o n and as i tance. Eve n i f th at we r e true w h a t h elp cou ld an age n cy su pp ose dl y d evo t e d to s up erfic i a l s tand a rd of uplift pos ibl y offe r folks who e primar y needs we r e in h ea lth or finance ? Other hi storian s ha a r g u d t h at home

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d m o n tr a ti n h a d p o t nti a l va lu e, but th e n r ac i a l o r l a in quiti e e nti a ll y di m1 e d it b eca u e of it ge nd e r H m e d m o n t ra ti n did w h a t it did n o t n ee a ril y w h at it co uld h ave d o n e a n d 21 ce rt a in( n t a lw ay w h a t m o d e m hi t ri a n w i h it h a d d o n e. A tt e nti o n t o n a ti o n a l t a nd a rd a nd l oca l d e ir e h a d to r e m a in p a ramount. B ec au e fund s o ft e n we r e rai se d fr o m lo ca l t ax d o ll a r it wa r a r th a t h m e d mon tration c ould o p e rat e in a co un ty w h e r e l oca l s upp o rt wa l a kin g. co nd a ll p a rti c ipati o n in h o m e d e m o n tr a ti o n pro gra m wa I 00 p e r ce nt l u nt ary. L u A nn Jon es put s it o m e n th e m e l es w e r e a l ways free to vo t e w ith t h e i r fee t. 18 Ind ee d hom e d e mon s tration n eve r did g row to th e s i ze it mi g ht h ave h a d p a rti c ip a ti o n bee n coe r ce d in om e way. Third th e r e i s a mpl e ev id e n ce th a t eve n th e p a rti c ul a r ph a e of wo rk wo m e n a nd HD A und e rtook yea r to yea r we r e d e t e rmin e d b y th e p a rti c ip a nt s prefe r e n ce n o t a m a nd a t e fro m th e U D A A nd to a d egree c riti c h ave b ee n co rr ec t ; h o m e d e m o n s t ra ti o n did h ave so m e e n ou fl aw Th e p rogra m w a egre g at e d b y b o th ra ce a nd sex until th e 1 960 s a p rac ti ca l hind ra n ce a we ll a s a n id eo lo g i ca l on e) ; it w as c hroni ca ll y und e r fund e d (a t a ll l eve l s) a g e n t tum o e r ty pi ca ll y wa s hi g h ; a nd p ay wa s lo w. A s s umin g it h a d b ee n b e tt e r e quipp e d t o d o s o h o m e d emo n t ra ti o n mi g h t h ave r eac h e d a nd influ e n ce d a m a j o r ity of ru ra l wom e n of a ll e thni c bac k g ro und s A s it wa s h owe e r t h e m a j o ri ty of ru ra l wo m e n we r e n o t in vo l e d in h ome d e m o n trat i o n th o u g h it i i m po i bl e to kn ow h ow m a n y l earne d ome th in g from a fr i nd w h o h a d l ea rn e d it i n h o m e d e m o n s t ra ti o n O n t op of a ll t h e s e in terna l w e akn esse e r e c o nt ex tua l facto r s h o m e d emo n tratio n c o uld n ot co n tro l u c h a s poo r tran s portation a nd c om muni ca ti o n r e o ur c e 1 8 J o n e M a m a L e a rn e d I

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22 Abo v e a ll home d e mon s tration s uff e red mo s t from th e threat of obsole s c e nc e, in tha t it had b ee n c r ea t e d t o impro ve fa rm li fe fo r w om e n and c hildr e n s o that th ey wo uld fee l m o r e in c lin e d t o s ta y o n th e farrn a nd thu s r eve r se th e s w e ll s o f rural folk who w e r e mo v in g to mor e urb a n a r eas E ve n b y 19 2 0 th a t mi ss ion w a s s li g htl y s h y o f a lo s t c au se, fo r ce n s u dat a indicat e d that for th e fir s t tim e in Am e ric a n hi s tor y m o r e Am e ri c an s w e r e urb a n th a n we r e rur a l. Aga in hom e demon s tration m ig ht ha ve made s om e d e mo g raphic diff e r e n ce, but p oss ibl e a nd prob a bl e we r e we ll r e m ove d from o n e a n ot h e r a nd h o m e d e m o n s tra tio n was pr es um a bl y wo rkin g t o c orr ec t a p ro bl e m it h a d n e ith e r th e tim e nor th e r eso ur ces to e ff ec ti ve l y c h a n ge Gi ve n th e e co ndition s it se em s eve n mor e plau s ibl e th at, lik e man y r efo rm m ove m e nt s o r p rog ram s h o m e d e mon s tr a ti o n wo uld h ave co llap se d d eca d es ago But h o m e d e m o n s tr a ti o n s p e r s i s t e nt effo rt s t o a d a pt n ego ti a t e and evo l ve k e pt th e w h o l e h o m e ex t e n s i o n m ac hin e go in g B eyo nd th e ba s i cs of imp rove m e nt th a t atte nti o n to c h a n ge h as both b e n e fit e d fe m a l e rural r efo rm a nd cos t it Th o u g h th e re w e r e a numb e r o f reform effo rt s a nd age n c i es, in c ludin g t h e Co unt ry L i fe Co mmi ss i o n th a t ac kn ow l e d ge d rur a l wo m e n 's n ee d s it was h o m e d e m o n s tr a ti o n th a t trul y we nt o ut t o m ee t rural w om e n o n t h e ir tur f, a nd n o t ju s t w hit e w om e n but a l so t h e ir eve n m o r e n eg l ec t e d bl ac k s i s t e r I g n o r e d b y urban-b ase d fe min is t s li g ht e d b y agr i cu l tu r e o ri e n te d ex t e n s i o n age n ts a nd ofte n mi s und ers t oo d b y hi t o ri a n w ith co nt e mp ora r y t a nd a r d a nd ex p ec t a ti o n s rural wo m e n h ave not had man y o pti o n fo r ex pr ess in g th e ir vo i ce. H o m e d e m o n s t ra ti o n was o n e way fo r th e m t o d o ju s t t h a t b eca u se HD As we r e in pl ace p r eci s e l y to h ea r a nd peak fo r wo m e n w h e n n o o n e e l se wo uld li s t e n Coverage a nd a id we r e n ei th e r co mpl e t e n o r p e r fect a nd e ld o m e quit a bl e but h o m e d e m o n s tr a ti o n did a great d ea l m o r e to acknow l e d g e a nd atte mpt to ass i s t ru ra l wo m e n th a n a n y ot h e r p rogra m o r co m m i io n

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23 It wa not nece ary for home ext nsion to change a it did in order to urv1 ve, h w r for today the world ov r there are gra ro t endea v or that seek to build a pla c e for worn n in th modem cont xt of rural reform o a to recogni z e its accompli s hment and critique i failing it i crucial to place refonn like home demonstration in a much broader context than historian have been wont to do not limiting rural reform to American outhem hi tory or American rural history. One of home demonstration' s real strength wa s not that it a e ceptional in the world, but that it was linked to similar important reform worldwid e, in it infancy and today. The Associated Country Women of the World founded in 1933 of which home demonstration was a part maintains its commitment to uniting and a ss i s tin g rur a l women in every comer of the world; it is today the largest international or g anization ofrural women. el ling Women s Stuff is one of several initiatives that focus on helping African women farmer cope with lean seasons by coordinating the sale of their handcrafted item The woman who won 2004 s Nobel Peace Prize Wangari Maathia has focused her work on facilitating peace by empowering rural women and preserving the en v ironment they and w e depend on. The single theme that pervades this dissertation is dynamism manifested a s both context and choice local state national, and global trends and how HDA s ch os e to respond to them That response in tum determined home demonstration s legacy What emerge s i s, I belie e an interpretation of home demonstration reminiscent of Rebecca Sharples s apt titl fertile ground narrow choices. What HDAs were best at, howe er historian have interpreted them wa making more out of a little. How they did o is what allowed them to endure in an often imprecise role for nearly a century and what initiated home demonstration 's lo s s o f vitality Home demonstration wa adaptable and organic both of it own accord and under the influence of rural women 's own autonom Agents came to rural countie s tr a ined in hom e

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eco n o mi cs, hir e d b y t h e fe d era l gove rnm e nt a nd c h arge d w it h a ca t a l og of officia l r efo nn s a nd p rogra m p roce dur es Bu t o n ce th ey set up s h o p a m o n g th e ir c li e nt s, th e ir wo r k was a n y thin g but uni fo nn o r s t a n da rd D e p e ndin g up o n w h e r e t h ey we r e s t at i o n e d a nd a m o n g w h o m th ey wo r ke d age nt s co nt e nd e d w ith a va ri ety of c ultu ra l lin gu i s t ic, e n v i ro nm e n ta l p o li t i ca l a nd eco n o mi c pr ess ur es. Eve r attun e d to th e ir ow n pr ec a r i o u s p os i ti on in a co mmuni ty, HD As s h a p e d th e ir id ea l s t o m ee t l oca l n ee d T h e eve ntu al cos t of s u c h a d a p ta ti o n i s o nl y m o r e pro fo und b eca u se, in th e b eg innin g, HDA s we r e so d e t e nnin e d to carry o n a tra diti o n th a t a ll owe d th e m t o d o s u c h goo d C FLORIDA CouNTI&a, PRtNcIP.A.L C1T1Es, ~:. o R1vERS <,. 0 ,. .,. .. 2 4 Fig ur e 11. Map of 1 930 F l or i da a n d i t s cou nt ie So u rce : Unite d t ales, Bur ea u of th e Ce n s u s, Fift ee n t h Census of th e U nit e d Stat es : 1930 Agricul t ur e ( Wa hin g t o n D. .: Gove rnm e nt P rin t in g Office, 1 93 1 1 932 ), 663.

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25 YEAR TOTAL WHYTE BLACK SEMINOLE U RBAN 191 5 23 23 N I A N I A N I A 1 9 1 7 41 33 N I A N I A 8 1 9 1 8 64 44 15 N I A 5 1 9 19 51 33 1 8 N I A I A 19 20 44 35 9 N I A N I A 1 925 34 26 8 N I A N I A 19 30 33 26 7 N I A N I A 1 935 44 36 8 N I A N I A 1940 49 41 8 N I A N I A 1 945 53 43 10 N I A N I A 1 950 66 54 12 N I A N I A 1955 79 67 12 N I A N I A 1960 101 88 1 2 N I A Figure 12. Nwnbe r and type of h o m e demonstration agent s emp l oyed in Florida 1915-1960 ourc e: Florida Cooperative Extensio n Service Annual Report s, 1915-1961.

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CHAPTER2 ROOTS THAT RUN DEEP: HOME DEMONSTRATION 'S REFORM PEDIGREE In 1 797, Finland recognized the Women 's Agricu ltural Organization making it the first recorded organization of farm women. In the l ate nineteenth century, farm women in Canada, Germany, Scandinavia and the United States organized themselves into simu lt a neou s but se parate coalitions to address their own concerns. In Ca nada the impetu s for organization was tragic Ade l aide Hoodless called for fann women to come together for domestic train in g after her own baby died from contaminated milk So, when 0. B Martin, an associate of Seaman Knapp 's and an ear l y extension historian explained in 192 1 that women's extension programs were "a new and developing work .... Perhaps a hundred ye ars may e l apse before the novelty and freshness wear away he was mistaken. 1 The Smith-Lever version of home demonstration might have been new but agrarian reform aimed at and led by women was anything but novel. It is telling that HDAs themselves see med to position themselves in time b y tracin g their roots to a period well before anything we mi g ht assume as a start in g point. A pioneer HDA Kate Hill of Texas named the woman whom tradition has established as the first home demon s tration agent, the Biblical Dorcas In Dorcas, who sewed and taught other women to sew under her skil l ful tutelage ," Hill sees the "pro totype of the modem h o m e demonstration agent, who sews and teaches others to sew who helps to m eet problems of fee din g the fami l y who assists in teaching how to beautify the home . a nd who as i ts in 1 An Offi c ial Hi s t o y of th e ational Ext e nsion H o m e m a k e r o un c il I n c 1930-1990 ( Burlin gto n KY: The Cou n ci l 1 99 I) l 71 ; 0. B Martin Th e D e m on trati o n W o rk : Dr ea man A. Kn a pp on tri bution t o Civilization (Bosto n : The tratford Com pan y 1921), 135 26

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p r b l m of fa mil y li v in g a nd of rec r ea ti o n o t h a t a ll fa mil y m e mb r s m ay b e m o r e a d e qu ate iti z n ." 2 Hill m ay b e dr a m a ti c, but h e r p o int i w II t ake n. T h e t ra diti o n th a t in pir e d a nd h a p e d h o m e d e m o n tr a ti o n in t h e twe n tiet h ce ntu ry m e r ge d I n g befo r e Ind ee d h o m e d e m o n tra ti o n du ra bili ty in p a rt ca m e fro m it s r ic h b a k g r o und Ex t e n s ion a nd h o m e d e m o n s trati o n w ith i t, did n t e m e r ge in th e ea rl y t w nti et h c n t u ry a a udd n n ove l we I of r efo rm fervo r R at h e r t h ey h a d b ee n evolvi n g over t i m e, a nd in m a n y pl aces, a ag rari a n r e fonn e r s a nd inn ov at o r s so u g ht ways t o ge t th e ir m e age to t h e fa rmin g po pul a ti o n An imp o rt a nt fea tur e in h o m e d e m o n t ra ti o n 's r m a rk ab l e r es il ience i a n ex t e nd e d fl u id d y n a mi c tr a diti o n of ag rarian r e form s p a nnin g two ce nturi es th a t in p i re d i nflu e n ce d a nd l eg itimi ze d h o m e d e m o n tra ti o n eve n b efo r e t h ere wa u c h a th i n g. T h e wo rld 's ag ri c ultur e h as evo l ve d thr o u g h fo ur bro a d s t ages: pr e hi s t o ri c, hi to r ic th ro u g h th e R o m a n p e ri o d fe ud a l a nd cie ntifi c. 3 T h a t l as t p e ri o d of sc i e nt ific agr i c ul t ur e, a pp ea r e d l a t e a nd h as n o t wa n e d ; in fac t it ha s o nl y bl osso m e d furth e r as a p e ri o d of rap id a nd m a rk e d c h a n ge. Th e di ffe r e n ce th a t p ro mpt e d s udd e n a nd dr a m a ti c t ra n sfo rm a ti o n after ce nturi es of imp a se was n o t n ee d o r co nditi o n s, o r c r ea ti ve ge niu s bu t w h a t P eter Mc l e ll a nd ca ll a "w i l lin gness t o inn ova t e 4 T h a t mind se t a nd agr i c ultu ra l co nt ext i s part of 2 Ka t e A d e l e Hill H ome D e monstration Work in T exas ( an A nt o ni o : T h e ay l or Company, 1 958) 5. 3 peakin g of i n crea in g l y cie nti fic agric ul ture, a ge n e r a l overv i ew of th ese s ta ge can be found at t he Advanced BioTec h web it e, w hi c h h a a H i tory of Agric ul ture a part of its oil Pl ant and Crop Enhancement i n fo m 1a ti on. ee ,vww .a dbi o.corn/ cience / agri hi t ry.htm (12 A u gu t 2 005) More t r ad iti ona l a nd th ro u g h treat m e n t s of agr i c ul t u ra l hi tory th a t r eac h bac k beyon d t h e Ea rl y Modem period include Ra l ph Wh itl ock A Short Hi to, y of Farming in Britain (Lo n don: John Baker 1965) ; G.E Fu e ll Th e lassi ca l Tradition in W e t Europ e an Farmin g ( R ut h erford, Mad i on and Teaneck real Britain : Fai rl eig h Dick.in on ni er i ty P re 1972) ; orman cott Brien Gra A Hi s t ory of Agricultur e in Europe and Ameri c a ew York : F .. C r ft & o. Pub l is h ers 1 925); and two more rece nt a n d o u t tan d ing wo r k hap t e r from th e A g rarian H i t ory of England and Wal e s 1500 1 7 50 Volumesl-5 ed Joan Thir k ( arnbrid ge: ambridge ni er ity P r e 1990) and Mauro Ambro oli, The Wild and th e Sown. Botany and Agri ultur e in We t e rn Europ e, 13 501 850, tran ary Mc ann al atore lli ( amb r id ge: ambridge ni r i ty P r ess, 1 997) 4 Peter Mc I ll and, Sowing Mod e rnity Am e rica Fir t Agri c ultural R evo lution ( I thaca and London : ome ll ni er ity Pre s, I 997), 5. 27

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the world that launched the Extension Service and with it, home demonstration It is not nece ssary to trace the home extension lineage as far back as Dorcas in Joppa but it i s worthwhile to examine the evolution of agrarian inno vat ion briefly in Early Modem Europe, where scie nce and agriculture coalesced into a period of potential revolution the fervor of which crossed the Atlantic into the colonies, through the Early Republic 's agricultural societies and into the nineteenth century when agrarian reform became increa singly formalized 5 This extended process set an important precedent for Extension work, home demon strat ion in particular. It was not that reform by and for rural women was underwa y in the eighteenth century but that as agrarian education evolved, it came closer and closer to acknowledging then addressing and finally accepting women as part of its structure. To put a finer point on this chapter's contribution l et m e enumerate so m e aspects of these antecedents that have an important bearing on hom e demonstration in Florida that emerge from these antecedents : the democrati zat ion of agrarian reform, the continued presence of women ( implicitl y expected even when not explicitly addressed) in agrarian ve nture s, and the centuries-o ld relation s hip between science, experimentation and demonstration and the wel lived agrarian life This chapter i s about the mom e ntum in agrarian reform that built up before home demonstration as such ever existed 6 5 I ay potential revolution becau e those sc h o lar s w h o debate the timing and conditions of an Ea rly Modem agricu ltural revolution have ye t to come to an agreement o n w h et h er or not one took pl ace, and if it did when and where it did o. For a briefo verv iew of the revolution debate, see Kell y Minor, Th e principal! and on l y mean s t o ripen th e fruit of new hope : Husbandry Manual and Parliamentary Enclo ure in Early Modem Engla nd Alpata : A Journal of Hi t ory I (2004): 97-126. 6 Thi may ound lik e a terrible case oft l eology, but l wan t to st res that I do not ub cribe to the panacea of inevitability In this ca e, there i nothing to demand that home demon tration would emerge a it did when it did What 1 want to stress i s that once home demonstration did cry ta ll ize as a forma l extension program it had a built-in durability because the id ea that ultimatel y promot e d it better rural home women 's direct involvement in rural we ll-b eing, rural efficiency, etc. had b ee n maturin g for ome time. 28

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P rhap the fficia l inclu i n f femini z d a g rarian reform in twentieth century end avor l ike th ountry Lifi M v m nt r in tituti ns like the ooperative xtensi n remarkab l e if we cannot ca ll it a udden in piration on the part of the r fi rm l eader hip. However placing home demon tration in the wide t po ible context help anchor it m re ecure l y in the history f agrarian education and reform and considerably impro e our under tanding of its longevity Ex ten ion work cry tallized in a dynamic urg nt p ri d of rapid hange and ambitiou reform effort It was then a relatively hort time until rural America cea ed to be dominant in the national demographic. The combined force of reform exhau tion and a pragmatic loss of consequence exacerbated by racial incon i tencies and often unreali tic goals hould ha e undermined even collapsed Extension work e s pecially among women who struggled continuou ly to maintain funding upport and re pect in a male profession plagued by limited re ources But Extension work did not collapse even among women Indeed it evolved and carried forth Why ? Part of the an wer that home demonstration had been a l on g time comin g The Early Modem period in Europe witnessed a dramatic infu s ion of s cience and education into agrarian Ii e s fueled by the cientific Revolution and political d e bate s about the future of the country ide 7 In the ix teen th and early seventeenth centurie hu s bandry wa a mi of cu tom fashion experience and ingenuity. Innovation was limited to tho e with adequate financial s ecurity and time to ab orb the ri s k of new method s ad ocat e d b y s tran g er s who had conducted te s t s on s tran g e farm That education of tho e intere s t e d in and/or fin e ex ampl e o f th e s ort f h e at e d d e bat e that agric ultural c han ge co uld in pir e i th a t o e r Parliam nt a ry e nclo ur e. Th e ar g um e nt s ound familiar in th e c ont e t of hom e d e m o n s tr a ti o n ; proponent c on s id e r e d e nclo ur e a an improvem e nt d e ign e d to mak e th e b e t u e of ag rari a n r e o ur ce a nd k ee p th e m o t promi in g farm e r o n th l a nd w hil e funn e lin g o th e r int o alt e rn a t e cc up a ti o n Opp o n e nt d ec ri d nclo ur e a a blo w to c u tomary ind e p e nd e n ce a nd acces t o th e o mm o n a n in c ur ion that ali e nat e d tho e m os t d e p e nd e nt o n a farm Ii in g. Th e cl a hin g e ntim e nt f rthur Youn g and William obb e tt ar e round l y ec ho e d amon g ea rl y tw e nti e th c e ntury r e fi rm e r and e e n a m o n g t th e w h o ha e co mp o e d c h o l a rl y tud y o f x t e n i o n o rk and o th e r f e d e r a l rur a l pro g ram n th e e d e b a t e ee Min o r Th e prin c ipall and o nl y m ea n 29

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emp l oyed in farming was to be a centerp iec e of reforn1 is ev id ent in the flurry of husbandry manuals disseminated among l earned men and profitable farmers Over the course of the period c u stom and tradition in hu sba ndry decisions gave up gro und to exper im ent and demonstration as l earning and teaching tools. 8 While most manuals dealt with bread and butter topics like manure timber and furrows a number paid particular attention to the sustenance of the rural home if only to note sound architectural styles and orderly environs a nd commented upon n ecessary impro ve m e nt s. An ea rl y fa mili ar examp l e of total-farm advice is Thomas Tusser's oft-cited manuals Fiv e Hundr e d Point s of Good Hu s band ry, first published in 1 537 The book is a compilation of verse a l yrica l to do Ii t for the farm and its surroundings Tusser advice i rare in that it dealt with the huswife s role specifically making it c l ear that her participation and particular expertise were necessary for a farm's prosperity and security Like HDAs four centuries l ater Tusser l aid out a precise ca l endar for the hu swife that inc lud ed all her duties organized into monthly tasks. His aim was to prevent haphazard h omemakin g efforts that inevitably wou ld fa il threatening the stabi li ty of the whole farm enterprise Certainl y, the pressure upon rural women to succeed as w i ves and mother bring honor upon a household and prove herself worthy of her station did not fade with time. In addition to advice for women l ater agricultura l writer like Arthur Youn g devot e d pace to evaluating rural home and outbu ildin gs and calling for their uplift In 1797 Youn g remarked on the orry tate of dwelling for sma llh older s compared to the great trouble tak e n to accommodate men of l arge fortune. He admitted that t h e prior two decade s had produc e d 8 A r e pr e entati ves o f a n ev ol in g m e th o d o l ogy in hu s bandry goo d e x a mpl e o f th e m a nu a l traditi o n includ e, fir t a a ve o f agr i c ultural w rit e r s wh o e ad v i ce till m a int a ined a s tr o n g e n e of c u t o m a nd e ntim e nt: Th o m a Tu e r o nrad H e r es ba c h G e rva e M a rkham a nd J o hn W o rlid ge, w ritin g b etwee n th e 1 55 0 s and 16 9 0 Th e n ex t m a j o r r o und o f hu s bandry writ e r e r e, a I o n ce a id h o rt o n phil oso ph y l o n g o n foo tn o t e a nd bi g o n in enti o n : W i lliam E lli Ri hard Br a dl ey a nd J et hr o Tull w ritin g b etwee n 17 33 a nd 1 758 ee Min r Th e prin c ip a l! a nd o nl y m ea n ." 30

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1mpr em nt in farm h u but that "th are till very infi rior to what it i to be hop e d the ma b c me in ome future peri d .' 9 Int r tin g ly ome advisor addre ed s pecifi c f impro em nt around the farm tead n t ju t in th e field In fact their u gge tion for garnering upport for u c h campaign are strikingly imilar to tho e the ten ion er i ce wou ld mploy centuries l ater. The prolific and popular agri ultural advi or William Mar hall named om mean by which m n of l anded property could in s titute impr ement on their estate namely "by IMPROVING the MINDS of hi TE A T By infu ing among them a PIR.IT for IMPROVEM T The per on be s t equipped for uch a ta s k was one who ha a knowledge of rural affairs, and who po e es the goo dwill and confidence of it tenantry. He recomm e nded that the trusted proprietor connect with tenant through per so nal attention conver ation an d significantly, by seeking out what he called leadin g men those with g reat promi se or the re pect of their peers and u s in g their improvem nt s a examples to inspire or hame others into action. 10 This i s a i g nificant precedent for an agency like the Exten ion ervice that relied on per onal interaction to effect c han ge. E en as Mar hall focused upon tho se with the mo st resources at hand he already was calling for a program that one da y would extend education to the rural ma se In the lat e eighteenth century, he made propo al for a "Rural Institute or College of Rural Economy. Marshall argued "E ery other art, m ys tery and profe sio n has the mean s of gai nin g initial instruction .. while the art of agriculture,--more valuable if not more diffi c ult than th e r e t 9 rthur Youn g G e n e ral Vi e w of th e Agri c ultur e of th e County of uffolk (London: acmillan 1797) 10 10 William Mar s h a ll On the land e d Prop e rty of England, An E l e m e ntary and Pra c ti c al Tr e ati e .. (London: G. a nd W. i col I 04) 301 0" 31

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unit e d -ha s b ee n l eft to accidental tuition ."' 1 C learl y th e foundation was l a id and interest aroused for d emocra ti ze d reform Thus th ese wo rk s and a d v i so r s are not periph era l to this di sc u ss ion R a th e r they indicate how much context existed for agrarian reform in th e U nited States and how much agrarian c han ge was linked to incr eas in g l y sc ientific d e mon s tr a ti o n s conducted by "ex perts ." And it i s necessary to remember that much of the debate surrounding hom e d e mon s tration work is a d er i vat iv e of the s am e debat es that dominated Ea rl y Modem agricultural thinkers a nd sc i e nti s t s the m ea nin g of the farm th e farm hom e, the w h o l e countryside, in the gra nd sc hem e of national pro g r ess and posterity. Furthermore, co loni al agricultural writers had r ea d co rr e ponded with, referred to a nd eve n critiqued so m e of these m e n 's works, importin g and th e n s hapin g agricultural education and experimentation to m eet co lonial agriculture's n ee d s. R efo rm e r s see kin g to exte nd agrarian educa tion to m ore people fo und their cause tr ave l-r ea d y, es pe c iall y across the Atlantic in th e colonies where notable agriculturists like Geo r ge Washington a nd Thoma s J effe r so n laud e d th e pro s pect of agricultural ex ten s ion. Wa s hin g ton wanted to see a nationa l univer s ity with a chair of agricu l ture and Jeffer so n co n ce i ved of a n etwo rk of lo ca l agriculture societ i es c h a r ged w ith disseminating information 12 Washington's and J effe r so n 's int e r es t s also we r e n o t no ve l but were part of two trend that e m e r ged in th e co lonial and ea rl y R e publi c p e riod s re gar din g agrarian impro ve ment further d e mocrati zat ion and di scre te organization. Though n eit h e r wou ld reach th e n the l eve l s of th e lat e nin e te e nth a nd twentieth centu ri es t h e process of both was c l early in motion In 1 748 Ja r e d E li o t co mp ose d th e first American hu bandry m an u a l E a ys Upo n Fi e l d Hu bandr y in N e w England as a seria l. Over s i x is u es b etwee n 1748 and 1759 he 11 Mar hall On th e land e d Prop e r ty, 43 1 -32. 1 2 Barbara o tton Th e lampli g h t e r s Bla c k Farm and H o m e D e m o n s trati o n A ge nt i n F l or i da, 1 9151965 (Ta ll a h a ee : U nit ed tate D e p a rtm e nt of Agriculture in oop e rati o n with Fl rida A g ri ultur a l a nd M ec hanic a l ni v er i ty 198 2 ) 9-10 32

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b th mulat d and depart d from hi contemporarie in Eng l and; he urged that hu bandry technique be adapted to th pecific r e ource and ne e d of the colonie Lik e other agri ult11ral writer he tru gg l ed to e pand hi s audience, fru trated that so man y l earned lk ntinued to di mi agricultural writing a either mean or unn ece ary E li t argued th a t n e ith r wa th ca e. Int e ll ectua l pur uits about agricu ltur e had been goo d enough for olomon ato and Virgil and they were certainly worthy of th e time and attention of th e m e n arou nd him Furt h ennore, h e pointed out that the co l onies were woefu ll y behind in pa y in g due attention to agricu ltural improvement by establish in g societi sa nd journals for that purpo e. ot only Engla nd but Scot l and and Ireland had e tabli hed agrarian soc ietie Pen and Hand s are se t to Work ... and the whole Kin g dom feel the Advantage of thi fine In titution ." Eliot predicted if so mething of thi s Nature were se t on Foot in thi Co untry it mi g ht be of Advantage. 13 To that end, he so ught to make hi s own work as accessible a pos ible, o that men who were not member s of the many learned ocieties that did e mbrace agriculture mi g ht s till learn of improved method s and benefit b y them. Eliot did not h y from critiquing other, well-respected agrarian writers preferrin g to laud expe ri e n ce rather than pr es ti ge. Though l ea rn e d m e n int e re s t e d in agriculture pun ctua t ed their rhetoric with cla ical agrarian wisdom E liot demurred ca llin g Cato s work on Roman hu bandry a b e tter pi ece of Poetry than a Book of Hu bandry ." 14 This bold depre c iation of c l a i ca l ad ice was not limited to th e antique. E liot r epo rt e d ha vi n g read all the E n g li h hu bandry manual s and havin g be e n fami li ar with a number of th e ir authors. Though h e re pected their work h e ne ert hel e belie ed that th e ir sty l e limit ed their effecti e n es fn 1 Jared E li ot ays Upo n Field Hu bandry in ew England . (Bo ton: Edes and Gi ll 1760) 2, 3 6 14 li ot, Essays Upon Field Hu band, y, 2 H e did h owe e r a dd a footnote to hi cr iti cis m :' The abo i not aid t depreciate the haracter or dero ga te from the Merit s of that truly great Man ; for a g reat deal of our pre en t Hu bandry i ju tl y ca ll ed Virgiling. 33

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particular he criticized Jethro Tull's language as serving only to exclude a good portion of those who might benefit from his experience. Quoting a passage carefully selected for its obtuseness, Eliot remarked "Mr. Tull has had but little Regard to the Capacity of his Reader : Nor will it be much better understood than if it had been wrote in an unknown Tongue, here being so many words used by him which common Fanners do not understand." The real shame, Eliot continued, was that Tull "see ms to me to have entered deeper into the true Principles of Husbandry than any Author I ha ve ever read. Had he ta.ken Pains to accommodate himself to the Unlearned, his Book would have been much more u sefu l than now it is. In contrast to what Eliot called Tull 's "pompous Parade of Leaming ," he deliberately wrote in "plain Stile" to reach out to farmers beyond the exclusive circles of leaned societies, "sensible, that the low Stile, the Plainne ss and Simplicity of the se Essays has exposed them to the Centure of those who do not well consider for whom the y are intended and written." 1 5 Eliot was extending the circle of agricultural education to take in those whom other writers had only assumed would benefit in time from the examples of their economic betters. This sort of expanded access was a key component of all manner of agrarian extension and education. Examining this p e riod of burgeoning extension work with a historian 's hind s i g ht Margaret Rossiter agrees that a shift was ta.king place in the manner of agricultural education and reform. Through the 1830s or so, agricultural reform was s l owly becomin g both more democratic and more organized. In fact those conditions were mutually reinforcing Before 1 820, agricultural impro ve ment was a consideration of the wealthy men with time to s pend and money to ri sk experimenting with potential improvement. As a result innovation came to be linked with particular nam es, even regions Samuel H. Black, John Taylor of arol in e 1 5 E liot Es ays Upo n Fi e ld Hu sband,y 99 4 34

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t ph n Mc onnick and later David Dick on Wade Hampt n and John Jenkin s rather than movem e nt 16 In the uth and in the orth I catty known e tate owner u ed th ir own land to d e elop and te t th rie and th n hared th e re ult s with their peer In th e rapidl y growing We t Hardy W. ampbell employed imilar method to develop what came to be called" ampb I I dry fanning ," and made Western fanning viable. 1 7 De pite intere s t among uch learned men and their exi tin g s ocietie s, agriculture did n t et have it own so cieti though it wa a re g ular topic of conver ation and publication uch gro up a the American Philo so phical Society and the American Academy of Arts a nd ciences founded in 1768 and 1780 re s pectively offered the fir s t organi ze d agricultural improvem e nt in the United tate ." Ro ss iter ar g ue s that thou g h th e e ocietie ma y not ha e revolutioni ze d agricultura l practice they do reveal a genuine int e r es t in agriculture .. but a ery na"i ve impre ion of how to g o about improvin g it. Soon after the fir s t pecificall y 1 6 M a r gare t W R o s it e r Th e Or g ani za ti o n of Agricultural Impro ve m e nt in th e United State 1 7 51 65, in Th e Pursuit of Knowledge in th e Ea rl y Ame ri c an R e pub li c Am e ri c an S c i e n t ifi c and l e arn e d o c i e ti e sfrom o l onia l Times t o th e Civ il War e d s Ale andra Ol e on a nd Sanborn Bro w n (Ba ltim o r e and L o nd o n : Th e J o hn s Hopkin U ni e r s ity Pr e s, 19 76) 279 R oy V cott Th e R e lu c t ant Far m e r The Ri e of Agri c ultur a l Ex t e n s i o n t o 1 9 14 (Chicago and London : U ni ve r i ty of lllinoi Pr es s, 19 70) 4-5 6. All but Bl ack were o uth e m e r n o t until afte r th e C i ii War did the o rth take the l ead in ag ri c ultural inn ova ti o n ( co tt 7). It i s worth n ot in g h oweve r in ce we a r e di c u ing d emocra ti zatio n of agrarian r efo rm th a t th e o uth was n o t a bastion of co h e siv e inn o atio n prior to J 860 Thi was tru e fo r s l ave h o ldin g a r ea in particular. harl es t effe n argue r egar din g th e o uth aro lin a L owco untry th a t o uth e m agr i c ultural r efo rm la c k e d pr ec i e l y the e l e m e nt th at J a r g u e u t a in ed agra ri a n r efo rm int o th e twentieth ce ntury m o m e ntum .' There were m a n y m o e but n o mo eme nt. teffen exp l ain the in e rti a a "a relatively limited circle of m en ... [who] cou ld agr e e on h a t they wan t ed but n o t h ow to ge t it. The i s u e? Wa l ea d e r s hip t o co m e from "p l an t er p atema li m o r w hit e dem cracy ? R ea l c h a n g e d e p e nd ed up o n m a s e du ca ti o n but e lit e a soc i a ti on s of men, predicated o n w hit e upr e m acy pr ec lud e d in c lu i v i ty. Thu s, th e o r g a ni zat ion s, journals and a d v i or known in th e ort h n eve r d eve l oped in th e a nt ebe llum o uth beyond ep i o di c fe e r of reform effort ee harle G t effe n ln ea r c h of the Goo d Over ee r : The Failure of the Agricu ltural R eform Mo eme nt in Lowcountry o uth Caro lin a 1 82 1 1 834," Journal of Sou th e rn H i s t o, y 58 o ember 1997) : 75 3756. T hi phenomenon m ake e n e in li g ht of the r efo rm s I de c rib e above e s pecially th o e prior t o 18 2 0 when th e o uth o utp ace d th e orth by producin g a goo d m a n y id ea s a nd inno ato r but on l y a a erie of we ll s rather th a n a s teady wa e The ort h on the other hand produced a teadier if m ore co n ce ntr a t ed agric ultural r eform c ultur e Thi s trend al o contribute to my en e that agrarian r eform wa co ntinu a ll y e o l in g, mo in g t oward an e entua l in c lu i e n e e n 111 the ou th 1 7 cott Th e R e lu c tan t Farm e r 35

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agricultural soc i e ti es e m e r ge d th e Philadelphia Society fo r Promoting Agriculture in 1785 a nd So uth Caro lina Society for Promotin g a nd Impro vi n g Agriculture, both in 17 85, followed by s imilar organizations in New Jersey Massachusetts, Maine Connecticut and Kentucky. 18 But th ese ea rl y soc i e ti es sti ll comprised an elite member s hip w ithout an effective m ea n s of co mmunic a tin g inform a tion widely The probl e m was two-fold. First, agricultural r efo rm s and ex perim e nt s were best characterize d as w h a t Ru sse ll Lor d ca ll s spo ntan eo u agricultural ex t e n sio n 19 Un til the mid-ninete e nth century, agricultural education was hapha za rd with neith e r the funding nor the infra str u cture to s upp o rt a n effective widespread movement. In 1 760, Jared El i ot h ad ca ll ed for the publi ca tion of so m e so rt of annual rep ort compi lin g t h e successful imp rovements farmers had und e rtak e n a nd in 1 796, Pr es ident Washington him self an agr icultu ra l inn ovator ur ge d Co n g r ess to es t ab li s h a n office to promote American agric ultur e As the n a ti o n g r ew h e argued, "t h e culture of th e so il mor e a nd more [must be] a n object of public patr o n age." 20 By the tum of th e nin e t ee nth ce ntu ry ho weve r ther e sti ll was n o American counterpart to the British Board of Agr i cu ltur e and n o far -r eac hin g agricultural publication so member of l earne d soc i et i es s impl y r epo rt e d their trials and s u ccesses to their r espect i ve peer 2 1 The seco nd probl e m i s r e l ate d to thi s organizational and communication d e fi c it a nd that i the d emograp hic co mpo s ition of ag ri c ultural impro ve r s 18 c o tt Th e R e lu c t a nt F a rm e r 91 0. 19 Ru se ll Lo rd Th e A g rarian R ev i v al. A S tu d y of Ag r ic ul t u r al E x t e n s i o n (New York : Am e ric a n A s oc i a ti o n fo r Ad ult ducation 1 9 3 9) 2 0. 20 W ay ne Ra s mu e n Takin g th e U ni ve r sity t o th e P eo pl S eve n ty-F i ve Y e ar of Cooper at iv Ex t e n s i o n ( Ame s: Io w a tal e U ni ve r ity Pre I 9 8 9) 1 7 21 R o it e r The Or g ani z ati o n o f A g ri cultural Imp ro ve m e nt ," 2 4 li o t E ays Upon F i e l d Hu sba nd ry 1 7 36

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Jar e d liot upp e d th ave ra ge o c i e t y m e mb e r a nd th e a ve r age Am e ri ca n fa nn e r w r e n t th a m e m a n M e mb r of l ea rn e d c i e ti e we r e in th e m a in prom in n t a nd wea lth y m n w ith a n urban o cc up a ti o n a nd a co unt ry e tat e b th in New n g land T h ey r e e du ca t d and w e ll r ea d ( h e n ce th e num e rou n d t o a t o a nd Vir g il ) H weve r ce rt ai n imp o rt a nt fac tor w e r e r e h a pin g wh impro ve d a nd th e infonn a ti o n th ey ex p ec t e d In tum t h n ew kind o f r efo nn e r prop e ll e d a hift t owa rd a m o r e di s t i n c t ag ri c ultu ra l tru c tur e in c r ea e d f e d e ral a nd s tat e in vo l ve m e nt in ag ri c ultur e and eve ntu a ll y a n o th e r i g nifi ca nt e p a n i o n of agr i c ultural d e mo c ra cy. B as i c all y s c i e n ce laun c h e d t hi s s hi ft w ith th e intr du c ti o n of n e w findin gs in ag ri c u l tura l c h e mi s tr y a nd r e l a t e d s ubje c t c r eat in g a g r a ro o t s d e m a nd a mon g th e agr i c ultur a l publi c for "sc i e ntifi c ex p e rti e fro m it s jo urn a l c i e ti e and g ov e rnm e nt ,' which s upport e d s om e n e w but r e l a ti ve l y few p o ition s fo r a g ri c ultu ra l c i e nti s t s T hi s R oss it e r b e li eves prom o t e d th e e nh a n ce d d e m ocra ti za t io n a nd pro fess ionali z ation of ag ricultural impro ve m e n t hiftin g th e p owe r b ase fro m ge ntl e m e n t o e ery m e n w h o in tum fo rm e d a n "ac t ive se l fint e r e t e d l o bb y i t g roup in ce tr a diti o n a l l ea rn e d soc i e ti es c ould n e ith e r k ee p p ace w ith th e e c han ge n o r m ee t th e n ee d s of a n ex p a nd e d publi c th ey we r e b y pa sse d b y tho se b e tt e r s uit e d to th e n ew agra ri a n mili e u 22 P e t e r M cC l e ll a nd s So w i ng Mod e rn i ty offe r a n imp o rt a nt c lu e t o t h e o ri gi n of e x t e n i o n phil o o ph y a nd ex p ec t a ti o n b y d e mon s tr a tin g th a t th e wo r k of Ja r e d E li o t a nd o th e r A m e r ica n a g ri c ultu ra l w ri te r s pr ece d e d o nl y li g htl y a b oo m b e y o nd th ei r m o s t d a rin g h op es. ln th e 1 8 10 A m e ri ca n a g ri c ultur e b e g a n w h at M cC l e ll a nd t e rm s th e fir s t of m a n y a gr i c ultu ra l r e o luti o n U nli ke hi s t o ri a n s a n a l y z in g u c h ph e n o m e n a e l ew h er e e s p ec ia ll y in B rit a in M c C l e ll a nd id e n t ifi e s r evo luti o n n o t w ith a n impl e m e nt o r a crop bu t w ith a n att i t u d e T h e r e o lu tion wa a p e r io d in h ic h c h a n g e s ma d e in t echniq u e an d i mp l ement s i gna l e d a 22 Ro it e r Th e r g ani za t i o n o f A gr i c ultural l mpro e m e nt ," 279. 37

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departur e from m e thod s that for ge neration s had been la r ge l y unchan ge d be cause their u se had been l arge l y unqu est i o n e d Fo r McClelland, the r evol uti o n e rupt ed w h e n a s in g l e qu estion b eca m e perva s i ve among American farmers ""Is there a better way?" This attitudinal transfomrntion," h e says, occurred sw iftl y, in o nl y two d eca de s b etwee n a b o u t 1 8 1 5 and l 830 23 Hi s tim e frame i s s pot on since th e early nineteenth century witnessed a ve ritabl e boom in agricultural e ducation and a firm foundation for agricultural exte n s ion Agrarian reform becam e a hot topi c in th e nin e t ee nth ce ntury b eca u se s udd e nl y many people were seek in g a b etter way." Agricultural soc i e ti es flourished agricultural literatur e l a unch e d a w h o l e ge nr e in the American canon a nd an agricultural infra str u cture finally e m erge d to g uid e mor e stea dil y those in t h e thro es of agricu ltural en thu s ia s m. In 1 8 11 the Berkshire Ag ri c ultural Society was organized, a prototype of the lo ca li ze d agricultural soc i e ti es mo s t u sefu l for m a in s tream farmers It was s u ccee d e d by a numb e r of new soc i eties and agricultural fa ir s the brainchildr e n ofElkanah Watson b etwee n 1817 a nd 1 825. 24 In 1838 propo sa l s s ur face d for the c r ea tion of a Nat ional Agricultural Co ll ege (W illi am Marshall s ideas taking s hap e on thi s so il ), and in 1 852 th e Unite d S t ates Agr i c ultu ra l Society formed By 1 860 mor e than 900 agricultural soc i e ti es we r e active nati onw id e While they remained l arge l y a b oys cl ub ," some so u g ht to include wo m en i n t h e ir reform ideas. Thi s effort to a ddr ess d e fi c i e n c i es or wa nt s in th e farm hom e proved a va luabl e ope nin g for includin g women in the co min g Fa rm e r s In s titu te movement. For examp l e Amasa Walker out lin e d fo r th e Worcester South Society in 1 855 fo ur basic goa l s fo r t h at organi z ation a s it we nt abo ut rural e ducati o n First, h e s u gges ted th at week l y farmer s c lub s s h o uld di s cu s agricultura l matt e r s a m o n g themselve ;" second they s h o u ld b u y read and di s cus ag ri c ultural b ooks ; third th ey s hould try to estab li s h a se ri es of l ectures on a g ri c ul ture 23 M cC l e ll and S ow in g M ode rni ty i x x. 2 4 Scott Th e R e lu c tant Fa r m er, I 0 38

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agricultural h mi tr y and g I gy" fourth, th e e c lub h uld co ndu ct c la e w h e r young farmer could tud agricultural t x tb ok igniftcantly, W a lk e r t Id hi a udi e nc e that w men h u l d be invited to all m etings and that ome f the content h uld be aimed at th 1r n d u h a di u ion of bun r makin g. 2 5 The g roup were harin g their e peri e nce with people and in ways their pred ces or had not. Hu bandry manual s continued to appear; notable among them wa dmund Ruffin E ay on a/careous Manure in 1 832, ba ed on hi p er onal experiment with marl ferti l i ze r on hi s Vir g inia plantation. 26 However Ruffin 's manual mer ge d int o an already bu y agricultural publication s tream again with prominent men at the h e lm The fir t American agricu l ture periodical Agricultural Mu e um appeared in 1810 and b y 1 8 40 a total of thirty farm journal s with a circulation of more than I 00,000 signa led the p ermanence of agricultur journali m in the United tates. 27 Moreov e r the e widely circulated journal s erved as a vita l conduit to carry information from experimental groups to farmers, expo in g them to new idea in their own language pro ve n result s of meaningful experiment a nd e en e a mple from abroad, dwindlin g s ome of the innovation ga p 28 Most significant for the future Extension Service and home demon tration, thi s revolutionary period also accelerated the movement of two in s titution s into agricultural 25 Alfred Tru e, A Hi tory of Agricultural Extension Work in t he United State I 5-1923 (Wa hin gton D . : o e mment Printin g Office, I 928) 5-6 26 cott, Th e R e luctant Farm e r 5; DA Hi s t ory of American Agric ultur e "' w u da.gov/hi tory 2 / text 1 0.htm. 27 Many i gnifican t journal fo ll owe d Agricultural Mu e um including American Farm er and Plough B oy in 1 19 ew En g land Farm er in 1822 ew York Farmer and Southern Agri c ulturi t in 182 ultivator in I 34, and Union Agricu lturi I and We t e r n Prairi e Farm er i n 1841. D History of merican gric ultur e. The thirty plu journals in circ ul a ti o n as of 1 840 doe not account fo r t h e man y m o r e h ort -li e d publi ca ti o n s which mark e d th e p e ri o d Typical of ear l y agricultural r eform, t h ere w re man y flare but fe -. lon gburnin g d e e l o pm e nt s. It i the teady tream, flare and ot h erwi e, that o n cem u h e r e. cott, The R e lu c tant Farm er, 20-2 1 39

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improvement the state and colleges. By 1862 these had united to create land-grant universities those that would serve as base camps" for extension under the Morrill Act. As early as 1766 George Washington had suggested that Congress establish a National Board of Agriculture, but it was not until 1819 that such a body existed. 29 That year, New York's state legislature established the state's Board of Agriculture, the first of its kind B y 1820 a the groundswell of those newly interested in scientific agriculture increased, their lobb y in g power produced results in the federal government, first with an Agricultural Committee in the House of Representatives and then in the Senate in 1825 More prominent federal initiatives did not appear until 1862 but educational efforts continued to expand. Between 1825 and 1850 a number of schools and colleges, including Columbia, Brown and Harvard be ga n offering science-based courses in agriculture, albeit unevenl y, while in 1826 Maine launched the Lyceum movement. Jo The Gardiner's Lyceum was the first agricultural school, where farmers enrolled in three years of instruction It was a much-needed counterweight to the cattered and u s ually unsatisfactory agricultural education offered at existing universitie s How eve r the Lyceum movement still could not overcome agrarian education' fledgling status, hamp ered by farmer disinterest academic nobber y and chronic underfunding .JI Then, in the mid t of a much greater struggle, President Abraham Lincoln signed into law initiatives which finally would pro v ide the support necessary to get agrarian improv e ment on firm footing, and extend it to an even wider audience, including women Absorbed with war worries, Lincoln neverthel ess put pen to paper for two agrarian law s in 1862. One created the United States Department of Agriculture as a cabinet-le el 29 d 'h ee Lor T e Agrarian R ev ival, 24-25 on early s upp ort for state agricu ltural initiati e 30 DA Hi tory of American Agriculture Government Program and Policy, www u
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p iti n and the ec nd appr ed th Morrill Landrant Act. n July 2, the federa l go ernment gra nted l e e n million a re of l a nd to the tate to r ate co ll ege for the purpo e f buildin g ab tt r agrarian machine to 'promote the art and indu st ri e for a peace not yet 111 ight. ac h co ll ege wa to receive a 5 000 a nnu a l gra nt and 30,000 acre per each n g res i o n a l representative. 32 T h e idea wa to stab ili ze and tandardi ze the qua lit y of and a ce to agricultura l education, but the col l ege ear l y year were fraught with di appo intm ent a they we r e 'ba dl y h oused a nd mi erab l y e nd owed." 33 The numb er of tud nt actua ll y enro ll ed in agriculture was abysmal l y l ow and tho se that did attend to l earn about the n ewest an d be t agr i cu ltu ra l method s were often di appointed there wa n e ith er the taff nor the expertise, nor e en the cience, to meet demand. To make matter wo r se, the ho tility toward agricultura l education that had plagued ea rlier attempt to incorporate it into existing co ll eges continued Farmers di liked th e broad curriculum that in tructed their so n s in both vocatio n al and more classical pur uit s; eta ical profes ors at these "cow co ll eges' coffed at anything as manuall y l abor i ou a agriculture and profe e d to see littl e a lu e in teachin g it. 3 4 The facu l ty re ponsible for agrarian ed u cat ion regard l ess of competence, uffered from a particu l ar l y unfa vorab l e balance of work 32 Lord, Th e Agrarian R e vival 30 ; Glady Baker Th e County Ag e nt ( hica go : ni ver ity of lllin oi Pre 19 39) 2 ; U DA Hi t ory of American Agricu l ture, "Agric ultural Ed ucati o n and Reform ;" otton Th e Lamplight e rs I 0 ; cott Th e R e lu c t an t Farm e r 26-32 D ona ld B William Agri c ulrural Ext e n ion : Farm Ext e nsion in Australia Britain and th e Uni t e d Stat e of Am e ri c a (Me lb ourne: Melbourne ni er ity Pre 196 ) 22 .. 33 Lord Th e Agrarian R e viva l 3 1 34 cott Th e R e lu c tant Farm e r 27 2 82 9 Part of the problem was a cu ltur a l di ide In one in tance i itin g agr i culturi t t o em o n U ni e r ity complained of the poor tr eatment they recei ed from facu l ty a nd that few of th e profe o r had h a ed face cott, Th e R e lu c tant Farm e r 2 9 layton 11 ort h r eco untin g the e ea rl y day of agricu l tura l ed u catio n in estab li h ed uni er itie note that ountry Life ommi ion chair Liberty Hyde Bailey e perienced thi ame fru tratin g reception at om II ni er ity. Thou g h Bailey wa a renowned horticulturi t by th e time he joined Com II facu l ty he fa d oppo ition from both farm r and colle g ian to agricultural educati n farmer belie ed a co ll e g e ducation wa unneces ary t o carry out their o rk and profe or belie ed a o ll e g e of gricu l ture, a an oxymoron. layton II orth Theodore Roo e elt' ountry Life ommi s ion A g ri c ultural Hi to, y 3 4 ( 1960): 1 5 7 41

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a nd c omp e n s ation Man y coll eges att e mpted to maint a in a g ri c ultural s tudie s with but on e prof ess or. Short on fund s and s tud e nt s, c olle g e s ex p e ct e d ag ri c ultural pro fess or s to b e multifun c tional s uppl e m e ntin g th e ir primary t e a c hin g duti es w ith m a na g in g the c oll eg e s d e mon s tration farm a nd teac hin g o the r c our ses m o r e or l ess ( u s u a ll y l ess) r e l ate d t o I 35 ag n c u tur e. To c orr ec t so m e o f th ese d e ficit s and ex p a nd th e s tud e nt b ase o f th e landgra nt s, Co n g r ess p ass ed a seco nd Morrill Act in I 890 Th e r e we r e s om e notabl e impro ve m e nt s in t h e sys t e m at l eas t on pap e r. T o a ll ev i a te s om e o f th e eco n o mi c s train on the co ll eges, a nnu a l gra nt s we r e in c r ease d to $ 1 5, 000 w ith a g radu a l in c r ease ex p ec t e d of up to $25,000 p e r yea r. Th e m os t s i g nifi ca nt c h a n ge was th e introdu c ti o n o f fe d e ral fund s t o s upp ort l a ndgran t e du ca tion fo r bl ac k s In 1 87 1 fo ur So uth e rn s t a t es h a d d es i g n ate d a p o rti o n of th eir gra nt s for u se b y bl ac k c oll eges, but in n o m ea nin g ful way h a d bl ac k ag ri c ultu ra l e du ca ti o n pr ev i ous l y b ee n pro v id e d for. 36 Eve n so, e nrollm e nt r e m a in e d di s app o in t in g A partial ex pl a n a tion for th e s low s tart in l a nd -g rant e n ro llm e nt was co mp e titi on Fa nn e r s a nd th e ir w i ves, int e r es t e d in l e arnin g m o r e a b o ut t h e ir craft we r e a tt e ndin g in droves t h e i n c r eas in g l y popul a r Fa rm e r s' In s t i tut es, b eg un in Massac hu se tt s i n 1863 o n t h e h ee l s of th e M o rrill Act. B y 1 899, a ll but o n e s tat e o ffe r e d In st itut es, a nd m ost we r e spo n ore d by t h e sta t e d e partm e nt of ag ri c ultur e o r s t a t e l a ndgra n t co ll ege. T h a t yea r m o r e th a n 2,000 In s titut es we r e h e ld a nd m o r e th a n a hal f m i lli o n fa rm e r atte nd e d t h e m T h e e i nt e n s i ve se min a r s ra n fo r two t o fi ve d ay w ith m o rnin g a nd afte rn oo n s devo t e d to l ec tu res o n a 35 cott, Th e R e lu c tant Farm e r 32. 36 otton, Th e lampli g ht ers I 1 -1 2; Lord Th e Agrarian R eviva l 32. 42

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a ri ty of agricultural and horn makin g topic ve nin g were a ocia l time filled with a mu e m nt s deem e d upliRing u c h a r ec itation and mu i c. 37 Thr u g hout th e In titut e hi to ry wo m e n participated Though m any fa nn women ere r luct a nt to a tt e nd l ec tur e m a n y other wo m e n w re eage r to give t h em. Women p ea k r and ess ion were not seg re ga t e d from m e n 's; fema l e s p eake r s s h a r ed the platfonn with m n at time p ea kin g not on homemakin g, but on agriculture. It is not n eces ar il y urpri in g that mal e in s titut e organizers welcomed eve n e ncoura ge d female participation ; the belie ve d that, omen in attendance lent d e lica cy and r e fin e ment to th e mo ve m e n t, a perception once common in Victorian America. 3 With In s titut e s uc cesses und erway, organizers looked for mor e direct ways to extend e du ca tion t o rural wo men s u ch a co ncurrent but separate cooking sc hools In the se classes, women l ea rn e d mu c h of w h at HDA would undertake to teach imilar women includin g di e tary ne e d s and foo d a n a l ys i s. In th e lat e ninete e nth century evera l s tate began es tabli s hin g women's clubs d o m estic c ienc e as ociation to parallel their hu s band 's ocieties. In pattern s si mil ar t o h o m e d e mon strat ion the se clubs worked by gathering together rural wome n w ithin their ow n co mmunitie s a nd working with them to impro ve so m e hom e makin g method s. 39 37 dmund de Brunn e r a nd H H sin P ao Yang Ru ral America and th e Ex t ension Service A Histo,y and ri t iq u e of th e Coopera t ive Agricu ltu ral and H ome Economics Extension Service e York: Teac h er College, o lumbi a ni er ity 1949) 7 8 l arence Beaman mith and Mer edith he t e r ii on, The Agricultural Ex t en ion y t e m of t he Uni t ed State ew York: J ohn Wil ey and on lnc. 1 930), 28-3 1 ; Th e Coopera ti ve Ex t e n sion S ervice, ed. H. ande r ( ngle ood C li ff: J : Pr e ntic e Hall ln c., 1966) 13-14 ; colt, The R e lu c tant Farmer ee c h ap t er 3-4 for a detailed hi tory of the de e l opme nt and fulfillment of th e In titute mo eme nt including the participation of women and yo uth ; otton, Th e L amplig ht e r 14 ; True A H isto of Agricultural Extension Work 1 4. 8 cott, The R e lu c tant Farm e r 11 711 9; True A H i tory of Agricultural Exten ion Work, 15, 17 39 cott, The R e lu c tant Farmer 11 -20 ; True A Hi s t ory of Agricultural Extension Work I 35. On the onti nu ed development of In titute afte r 1900 including th increa ed attention t o child r en, ee True, "2-41. 43

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As they did for women, In s titutes broadened agrarian education opportunities for rural African-Americans. In man y cases, blacks were officially welcome at white in s titute s. 4 0 Black in s titute s benefited from a double source of funding and inspiration for the l egis lated s upport provided b y Morrill was backed b y the in ge nuity and commitment of Tuskegee In s titut e founder Booker T. Wa s hin g ton Wa s hington 's concern that farrners who s t oo d to b e nefit from agricultural education were not always able to attend traditional institut es h e lp e d l au n c h hi s m ovea bl e sc hool s, esse nti a ll y in s titut es on wheels. The e duc a tor s ca m e to the farm fa mili es an important pr ece d e nt for ex t e n s ion work. 41 M ea nwhil e, tradition a l in s titut es co ntinu e d. In North Ca rolina Mi ss is s ippi Georgia, Kentucky and Florida the y were e tabli s h e d spec ifi ca ll y for bl ack participant s ( both from seg re ga ted racial customs and th e need for expa nd e d audiences) 42 In Florida white institut es were h e ld in Gainesville at U ni ve r s i ty of Florida while blac k farmers were r e quir e d to attend the pro gra m s at the bla ck landgra nt th e State No rmal Co ll ege for Colored Student ( toda y, Florida Agricultural a nd M ec hanical University) in Tallahassee Its first In s titut es, in fo ur counties be ga n in 190 2 with a $600 gra nt from th e l eg i s latur e 43 Parall e llin g but eve r closer to int e r sec tin g landgra nt co ll eges and in titut es were o m e ot h e r n o t ye t formalized d eve l o pm e nt s in agrarian e difi cat ion Among these were th e C h a ut a uqu a, founded at C hautauqu a L a k e, New York in 1 874. Like Fa rrn e r s' In s titut es C h a utauqua extended exten ion approaching th e dail y, hand s -on access that the Ex t e n s ion 40 cott Th e R e l u c tant Farm e r 115 cot t n otes that r es i sta n ce to black atte nd a n ce tended to be ba ed in o uth e m enclaves, in tho se place s w h ere h arecropping was mo t d ee ply entrenc h ed Th e re trad iti ons of co n serva ti ve agric ultur e ba se d o n a '" n egro and mule "' pr evai l ed a nd sci e n ti fie farmin g cou ld make littl e h eadway. 41 onon Th e lampli g ht e r s, 1 2, 1 4 ; Scott, Th e R e lu c tant Farm e r I 1 5-1 1 6 42 Scott, Th e R e lu c t an t Farm e r I 1 5 43 otton Th e Lampl ig ht er, 14 44

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r v 1 br u g ht to rural famili e Th n a t th turn fth e c e ntu ry hildr e n in c lu i o n in ag ri ultural du ca tion g r e int o di tin t lub co rn fi r b oys a nd l a t e r t o m a t oe fo r g irl T h e lub we r e th e dir e t pr e d ece o r o f th e 4 H pr gra m th e o ld e t a nd m t fa mili a r b r a n h f th e Ex t e n ion sy t e m 44 F in a ll y, r e form e r hit up o n a n th e r k ey id ea th e ag ri c ultu ra l e p rim nt tali n. Th o u g h om e a gr i c ultural c oll ege h a d b ee n pur u i n g e p rim e nt in e th c oll g in ce pti o n e p e rim e nt tati o n offe r e d a co n ce ntrat e d o lut io n a p e r i t e nt probl e m th e dearth o f c i e nc e in c i e ntific a g rari a ni s m Ex p e rim e nt wo rk b ega n a bro a d in 1 85 1 in a on foll owe d b y ex p e rim e nt s t a ti o n i n E n g l a nd a nd Fra n ce a nd in o m e a gr i c ultural c oll eg e s in th e U nit e d St a t es. 4 5 B th e l 8 0 s, e p e rim e nt t a ti o n we r e o p e ratin g fo rm a ll y in fi ftee n states d e e l o pin g th e sc i e n ce th a t pro fess or s a nd d e m o n s tr a tion a ge nt s l a t e r wo uld t ake t o th e ir re p ec ti e tud e nt s H owe e r as had b ee n tru e b efo r e fundin g a nd or ga ni zat i o n a l i ss u es h a mp e r e d pro g r e E du ca t o r s a nd sc i e nti s t s lo o k e d t o th e s t a t e fo r fu ndin g a nd s tru c tur e. T h e t a t e r e p o nd e d w ith th e H a t c h A c t w hi c h p as e d in 1 887 w ith littl e fu ss In effec t th e H a t c h Ac t e nh a n ce d th e l 862 Mo rrill Ac t ; it p rov id e d fo r th e c r ea ti o n of a d epartme n ta l agric ultu ra l ex p e r i m e nt s t a ti o n in eac h l a nd -gra nt c oll ege, fund e d b y a $ 1 5 000 a nnu a l gra n t. T h e pu rpo e of th e s t a ti o n as t o '"a id in ac qui r in g ... u sefu l a nd p ract i ca l i n format i o n .. a nd t o p ro m o t e c i e ntifi c in e ti ga ti o n a nd ex p e rim e nt r es p ec tin g th e prin c ipl es a nd app l icat i o n of ag ri c ultu ra l c 1 e n ce. 46 44 Brunner and Yan g Rural America and th e Exten ion Service,5-6 True A Hi t ory of Agricultural Exten ion Work 65-68 4 3; D A Hi t ory of A m erican Agric ultur e," gric ul tura l Education and Ex t en io n ." 4 5 on, The R e lu c tant Farm er, 32. O n ce again, agra ri an reform take a tran a t lan t ic hape. I n fact agri ultura l co ll ege h e r e ere de ri at i e of a U ni er ity exte n io n y tern th a t ope r ate d t hrou g h public l ibrarie a ystem w h i h a it e l f in pired by imi l ar one in E n g land begun in I 66 Tru A Hi to, y of A ricul t ural Ex t ension W o rk 4 3. 46 on, Th R e lu c tant Farmer, 33; Brun n er and Yan g, Rural America and th e Exten i o n Sen ice 5. 45

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Ag rarian r efo rm t h ro u g h e du ca ti o n see m e d at t h e thr es h o ld of a co mpr e h e n s i ve syste m of ex t e n s i o n T hu s fa r impro ve m e nt a d voca t es h a d esta bli s h e d w h at refo rm s h o u l d d o : e du ca t e, ex p e rim e nt ex t e nd L o n g ago, th e i ss u e of "w h y h a d b ee n ra i se d t a lk o f n at i o n a l goo d n o bl e pl o u g hm e n J effe r so ni a n d e m ocracy b u t bur ea u cra t ic n eed l o n g s in ce h a d take n pr ece d e n ce ove r id eo l og i ca l mu s in gs (t h ose wo uld be res urr ec t e d in 1 908 wi th t h e Co un try L i fe M ove m e nt ). Fo r ce nturi es, r efo rm e r s h a d bee n gra pplin g w ith h ow to d o what n ee d e d t o b e d o n e, a nd t h ey we r e very c l ose t o th e a n swer. Wh e n seve n ty yea r o ld Seama n Kn a pp crosse d p a th s w ith a b o l l weev il in Texas h ow to d o th e w h a t fe ll in to p l ace. To th ose con n ec t e d in so m e way wi th t h e Coopera t ive Ex t e n s i o n Serv i ce Sea m a n Kn a pp i s o nl y s li g h t l y s h o rt of a m o d e m m ess i a h A sa mpl e of t es tim o n ia l s fro m uc h p eop l e wi ll u f fi ce t o d e m o n s tr ate t h e ex t e nt to w h ic h Kna pp is e qu a t e d w i t h ru ra l sa l vat i o n In 1 921 0 ca r B Ma rtin a prop o n e nt of ex t e n s i o n e du ca ti o n a m o n g c hil d r e n a nd wome n published a work o n Kna p p d e t a ilin g hi s Co n tr ibuti o n to C i v il izat i o n A o n e of th e wor ld s great b e n efac t o r s Kn a pp l ove d th e co mm o n m a n A.F Leve r co a uth o r of th e 1 9 1 4 Sm ith Lever Ac t intr o du ce d Ma rtin s b ook w i t h h is ow n co mm e nd a ti o n It was i n the fertile brai n of th e ag ri c ultu ra l e ld e r s t ates m a n t h a t th e d e m o n s t rat i o n m et h o d ca m e t o fruition for wh i ch Knap p s t a nd s o ut t owe r i n g l y a m o n g a b a r e h a l f d oze n rea ll y g r ea t agr i c ul tura l l eade r s i n the h is t ory of o ur co unt ry T h a t h e was so s u ccessfu l is l i ttl e ca u se fo r wo nd e r fo r Knapp wa "a bo ld aggress i ve, o ri g in a l think e r Hi s phil oso ph y was t e n de r a nd b roa dl y sy mp at h etic fi ll ed t h ro u g h o u t w ith th e tru e mi ss i o n ary p ir it of service. 47 Ru se ll Lor d h as d escribed Knapp a s a prac ti ca l ma n an d a mys t ic ," a r efo rm e r who we n t So u t h to make mone y, b u t h e could not 4 7 Martin Th e D e m o n s t r a ti o n W o rk Pr e fac e, I ntr o ducti o n 4 6

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k e phi mind n it .. Th e m e n and w m e n h e dir ec t e d lit rall y w r hip hi m e m ory in th e uth ." 4 App a r ntl y o B e hind th e s t ory r eve ry g iant thou g h i a m a il e r c r e atur e, thi o n e a bu g. With o ut th e b II wee i i th e r e ma y h a e b ee n l e ur ge n cy t o pr o p e l Kn a pp wo rk r in pir e h i t II we r d ev tion In 190 2, Kn a pp acce pt e d a n a pp o intm e nt t o th e U nit e d tat e D p a rtm e nt of gr i c ultur e, w ith th e purp e o f e t a bli hin g o m e d e m o n s tr a ti o n fa rm s in t h e uth Whil e a t I o w a t a t e oll eg Kn a pp had h e lp e d run s om e imi l a r fa rm w ith s u cce but hi e p e ri e n c in th e uth wa s l ess h ea rt e nin g. D e m o n s tr a ti o n fa rm s we r e few a nd fa r b etwee n minimi z in g th e ir impa c t on urroundin g c o mmuniti e Kn a pp u gge t e d a c mmuni ty d e m o n tra ti o n fa rm w h e r e th a t c ommuni ty c h ose it r e pr ese nt a ti ve fa rm e r. T h e fa rm e r agree d t o p ay hi s o w n w ay, thou g h h e wa in ured a g ain t lo ss. T h e fir t fa rm e t a b l i b e d und e r thi ys t e m w as th e P o rt e r C ommuni ty D e mon s tration F a nn n ea r T e rr e ll T e as. Th e r e in 190 3 Port e r ex p e rim e nt e d w ith propo e d c ontr o l o f a n in c r eas in g l y t r o ubl e o m e p e t th e b o ll weev il and th e fa rm ea rn e d a i z abl e in co m e fro m th e a d va n ce m e th o d s e mplo ye d und e r Kn a pp 's s up e rvi s ion. Th e farm wa a uc ce and th e pub l i c i ty it g arn e r e d ca m e ju s t in tim e. Th a t yea r a n i nfe t a ti o n of th M ex i ca n b o ll wee ii we pt aero Texa a ag in g cotto n crops a n d thr ea t e n i n g li ve lih oo d s a it we nt. T h e s t o ry o f th e Port e r fa rm a nd it s p o t e nti a l fo r wi d e-sca l e o n tro l co n in ce d th e pr e i o u l y wary ec r e t ary of Agric ultur e t o fund a n e m e r ge n c d e m o n tr a ti o n ca mp a i g n T h e purpo se w as t o co n v in ce fa rm e r t o try n ewe r m e th o d b y pro i n g t o th e m th a t e e n in th e mid s t of a weev il a tt ac k co tt o n co uld b e grow n s u cce sfu ll if Kna p p 's m e th o d we r e in u e. 4 9 Kn a pp in co rp ora t e d int o h is p l a n t h e' c ultu ra l met h o d of 4 Lord, 54. 49 Brunner a nd Ya n g Rural America and th e E x t e n ion S e i ce, 9 ; cott Th e R e lu c t ant Farm e r 2 10 2 1 ; True A Hi t ory of A gric ul t ural E x t n ion Work. Th e A graria n R eviva l 5864. 4 7

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control the USDA and it s Bureau of E ntomolo gy h a d proposed. These strategies (w hat we now ca ll Inte gra ted Pe s t Management) were simp l e and effective To retard th e sp r ead of the weevil Knapp and hi s agents encouraged farmers to plant early a n early -m a turin g va ri ety of cotton s ince the weevi l itself did not mature into it s mo st destructi ve form unti l lat e su mm er. Additional l y, Knapp and the US DA ur ge d farmers to wee d and cultivate t h oroug hl y to remove weevil habitat s, bum a ll infected s quare s, and prot ec t wi ldli fe that preyed upon the weevi l s uch as qu a il. 50 The anti-weevi l co up rea ssure d Knapp that hi s id eas were v iabl e and th at demon s tration cou ld work on privat e farms Furthermore thou g h hi s imm e di a t e task was bo ll weevi l co ntrol he saw farmers vu l nerabi li ty to t h e in sect as a sympto m of d ee proote d d e bilitation in th e rural South. Knapp lon g had been interested in ex t e ndin g agraria n e ducation b eyo nd the fa nner in th e fie ld into the rural hom e He saw amp l e room for impro ve m e nt in th e rural South as a whole where dil ap idat e d bui ld ings cast shadows o n the same old mul e . hitch e d to a plow Adam rej ecte d as n o t up-to-dat e 51 The whole-farm approach wo uld evo l ve into th e m arrow of Extension philosophy so that th e work reached out in eve r-widenin g circles. Defining th ose c ircl es was s ti cky at tim es. In 1 906 Booker T. Washington l au n c h ed an id ea fon nulat e d by hi s a nd George Washington Carve r s ex p eriences speak in g w it h bla ck farmers Since so few farmers had access to a ca r t o atte nd in s titut es o r o th er m eetings Washington d ec id e d to bring the m eeti n gs to t h e farmers via a moveable sc h oo l. The Je up Wagon nam e d for b e n efac tor Morris K. Jesup began moving throu gh Macon County 5 0 Scott, Th e R e lu c tant Farm e r 212-2 1 5. 5 1 Seaman A. Knapp Farmers Co-O p era ti ve Demon s tration W o r k o uth e rn Edu a ti onal R e v i e w 3 (Oc t ober 1 906) 50-51 ee cott Th e R e lu c tant Farm e r 2 16-2 2 1 r ega rdin g th e early co nt ests fo r control and au th ority between Knapp a g e n ts and t h e cient ific crowd in co lle ge a nd th e DA mith-L e e r wou ld diffu se much ofthi jea l o u sy by ba ing agent at l a ndgra nt co ll ege 48

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Alabama, toppin g in on community after another. Farmers, and their w i ve gat h e r ed at the h o m e f th e pon oring n i g hbor and pent severa l day l earn in g an d ocia li z in g together T h e J up Wa go n a rried tool ee d p acke t s, c hum milk te ter an d a v ariety of ot h e r impro ve m e nt-ori nt e d e quipm e nt fo r demon stra tin g. The gatheri n gs proved popular and d e mon trat e d th e efficacy once again, of takin g agra rian e du cat ion t o th e p eop l e o n their t e rm s Wa hin g ton saw an opportunity for ex p a ndin g a nd e nrichin g this sort of extensio n by co mbinin g forces with Knapp. H e approached Knapp with th e mo veab l e sc h oo l and u gges t e d that bl ac k agents add their efforts to Knapp s ca u se, but he demurr ed. Aware of outhem r ac ial customs, h e feared that a black agen t wou ld b e co nfin ed to wo rk wit h b l ack farmers, hamperin g hi s effectiveness and increa si n g costs; instead, Knapp intended h is w hi te agents to see k out black d e mon s trator s 52 Th e General E du c ation Board later convince d Knapp to r eve r se hi s d ecis ion and to e mplo y bla c k agents, the fir s t bein g Thomas M. a mpb e ll in Macon Co un ty, Alabama. On th e eve of Smith-Lever, thirty-six black agents operated in nine Southern sta te s. 53 imilar provi s ion s were underway for youth and women. Knapp became directly 111 o l ve d in the bo ys' club movement th e n the gi rl s' tom a t o clubs. Li ke the Cou n try Life ommis ion that s uc cee d e d him Knapp identifi e d a fit a nd content rur al yo uth as the key to lowin g th e exo du s from the countryside. Whatev e r hi s re serva tion s a b o ut ad ult s, Knapp was determined that African-American children be in c lud e d in boys and g irl s c lub s. Again 52 D emo n trat o r were those farmer who agree d to h os t a single crop demon s t r ation on their property In itial l y demon tration farm were tho e h o ting t h e one crop, but t h e term later came to indicate any fann e mpl oyi n g improved method s for impro eme nt as a p u b li c model. Cooperat o r d e o t e d mo t o r all of th ei r prop erty t o impro ve m en t und e r age nt dir ection T ru e A Hi t ory of A g ri c ultural E x t e n i o n Work 61. 53 cott, Th e R e lu c t ant Farm e r 233 ; Brunner and Yang R ural Am e ri c a and th e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i ce, 1 141 15 ; otton Th e lampli g ht e r 1 2 True A Hi to, y o f A g ri c ultural E x t e n i o n W o r k, 6 3. 49

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custom drew some lines between work with white and black children, but prolonged work with the children showed them to be just that children with little difference in their enthusiasm for com pig s chickens and other prized project s 5 4 Moreover developing a g ood relationship with children proved crucial in establishing a viable home demon s tration program In five Southern states, the first home agents got their s tart with g i r l s' tomato clubs for which the y were recognized for their effectiveness and appointed as s tat e and county supervisors prior to 1914. 55 In time working with farm girls gave agents acces s to farm wives, the mo s t difficult g roup with whom to connect and the foundation was in place for a forma l s tructur e to ti e the demon s tration bundle to ge ther. The 19 1 4 Smith-Lever Act creating the Cooperative Extension Service was a v ictory for agricultural r efo rmer s, demon s tration pione e r s and intell ect ual Pro g re ss iv es monitorin g the state of the rural union. Indeed Progressivism ind e libly stamped home demon s tration and extension work. 56 Pro g r ess ivi s m became a ke y so urce of hom e d e monstration 's longevity by 5 4 Scott, Th e R e lu c tant Farmer 239 245. 55 The age nt s we r e E lla G Agnew (V ir g inia ), Susie P owe ll (Mississi ppi) Marie romer ( o uth Caro lina ), Jane McKimmon (Nort h Caro lin a) and Virginia P. Moore (Tennessee). cott Th e R e lu c tant Farm e r 248 -4 9 In ci d e nt a ll y, McKimmon wrote an important ea rl y hi t ory of h o m e d emons tr a ti o n i n o rth Caro lina Wh e n W e r e Gre e n W e Grow (Chapel Hill: Un i ve r s i ty of ort h Caro lin a Pr ess, 1945). And Moore became a l ea din g h o m e d e mon s trati o n fi gu r e in Fl o rid a durin g the p e ri od of this di ssertatio n s p ea rh ea din g the s t a t e s H o m e Impro ve m e nt ca mp aig n a nd wo rkin g fo r yea r as the home d e m o n stration h ome improvement pecialist. 56 1 a m n ot goi n g t o e nt er th e pro gres i i m t e rmin o l ogy fray. Whether o r not a n i m" is appro pri ate h e r e i s n o t r ea l l y th e is u e. I a m e mph as i zi n g th e Pro gres i ve era a a p e ri o d that provided a n important co nt ex t fo r ex ten sio n a nd h o m e d e m o n s tration including much of it rh e t o ri c m e th o d o l ogy and ass umpti o n s. That sa id I b e li eve th a t th e relationship b etwee n h o m e d e m o n strat i o n an d Progressivi m i n o t o n eid e d E li sa b e th I raels P erry h a written a c ritiqu e of Pr ogre ive hi toriography d esigned to p oi nt to wo m e n 's m arg in a li zat i o n within it. When wo m e n appea r s h e a r gue it i u ually in the co nt ext of oc i a l wo rk o r soc ial ju s ti ce mun ic ip a l h o u ekeep in g ," th a t i A nd one of Perry s r eco mm e nd a ti o n s fo r a m o r e m ea nin gf ul hi storiograp h y i t o ex p a nd th e periodization t o think of Progre sivi m by more nexible t an d a rd E li sabet h I rae l Perry, "Men ar from the Gilded Age Women are from the Progres ive Era," J o urnal of th e Gild e d A ge and Pr og r e i ve Era January 200 2 http : // ww w hi t orycoo p era ti ve.o r g/ j o um a l s / jg a/ 1.1 / p e ny html ( I ugu t 2004) pa r I 0-11 2 3 With thi critique in mind I canno t help but u g ge t that an e cellent way to e xpand our under tanding of th e Progre ive era i s to con ider more fu ll y the ro l e of rural American O b iou l y th e ountry Life Mo ement figure s in mo t di cu ion f Progre ive reform but u ually only brieny and omen 50

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providin g a contemp rar y imp e tu a nd framework for r efo rm and h el pin g to hap e it pro gra m and tyle Wh e n we con id r h me d e mon tration, it i diffi c ult n ot to see Pr g r 1 v 1 m imprint dynamic weeping and in t e n iv e. In fact, h me d e m o n t ration a nd Pro g r 1v1 m har e man y hallmark s. Fir t wa a n ex p c tation of and upport for pro fe i nali m reform e r were trained, ys t e maticall y advanced and organized into affiliations. econd both home demon s tration and Pro g re ss i v i s m in co rporat e d multipl e l eve l s of gove rnm e nt involv e ment. Though the government had maint a in e d an int e r est in agricultura l affair and a proportion of the leader s hip had b ee n particularl y int e r es t e d in rural lif e, the Pro g r e ive expertly blended gove rnment and agrarian pur s uit s v ia r esea r c h b eg innin g with the ountry Life ommi ion in 1908 5 7 Third the se co ntempora ry r eforme r s ex ult e d and relied upon sc ience and academics as fundamental tool s of meanin gfu l c han ge. 5 8 in vo l ve d in rural reform s figur e not a t a ll. For exa mpl e, Michael McG e rr 2003 a n a l ysis of Pro gress ivi s m which be g in s in 1 870, only di cusse rural America in four pa ges d evo t ed t o th e ountry Life Movement. Michae l McGerr, A Fi e r ce Di sco nt e nt Th e R ise a n d Fall of th e Pr ogressive Mov e m e nt in A m er i ca, 1 870 -1920 (New York and L o nd o n : Free Pres 2003), J 041 07. imilarly Anne F iror co tt 's s tud y of women a oc iation s d ea l s with Progre ss i ve era r efo rm e r s, but "r ural doe n o t eve n appear in th e ind ex Anne F iror cott Na tu ra l Allie Women's As ocialion in American Hi s t o,y ( rban a a nd C hica go: ni ve r ity of Illinoi s Pr es 19 9 1 ). t eve n J Diner Progre i v i s m hi tory deal s with the Co untry Life Mov e ment briefl y, but hi s an a l ys i is not particularly fre h ; h is c riti ci m of th e Co mmi ion a nd gove rnm e nt-ba se d agricultural r eform r eflec t s longt anding hi t o ri ogra phy. The mo s t r ece nt tr ea tm e nt of Co untry Lif e wo rk i s a 2004 a rti c l e by cott Peter s and Paul Mor ga n which e amines th e ommission in li g ht of co nt e mp o rary praise a nd h is t or i ca l c rit ici m o n c ludin g that th e Movement was, inde e d pro gressi e Scott J. P e t e r and Paul A. Morgan, The o untry Life Co mmi ion R eco n id e rin g a Mile s ton e in American Hi s tory ," Agricultural Hi s t ory 7 (2004): 289-3 1 6. The p o int i that more ca pa c i o u s tr eatme nt of P rogres ivi m r eform and a ociati ns ca n a dd o m e meaningful and fresh in ights espec iall y in p e ri od w h ere rural and urban America were e qu a ll y in flu x. 57 Harold T. Pink ett, "Governn 1 e nt R esea r c h o n ce min g Probl e m s of American R u r a l ociety," Agricul tu ra l Hi t ory 58 (S umm e r 1 984): 366. Obviou l y, the o untry Life om mi ion wa not t h e first lar ge ca l e gove rnm e nt in olve m e nt in rural l ife; a I de c rib e d ea rli e r the l egi l ature had a l ready pa se d a numb er of a t a im ed at rur a l e duc at ion and reform H oweve r th e ou ntry Life om mi ssio n wa th e fir s t intens i ve, tat e and federal l y fund e d effort to s tudy rur a l li fe as a w h o l e to identify its trength a nd weakne es a nd recommend impro e m e nt s. M reover th e long-term imp act of t h e o mmi s i o n work was to in s pir e eve n mor e gove rnm e nt intervention in agraria n America lik e the oopera ti e E t e n i o n erv i ce. 5 8 R ob rt Wiebe h as an int e r e tin g take on thi sci e n ti fie ali d a ti on. He argue that a ne, o r gan i za tional a ppro ac h t o reform create d tatu an iety among community leader The prof e ional 51

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Though Progres s ivism colored extension work with broad strokes, one Progressive initiative in particular the Country Life Movement lent important dimension to the ongoing pursuit of agrarian reform for women 59 Progressives shared a general sense of foreboding about the modem world ; the y harbored a terrible dread that the grimy slim y industrial gilt covering the nation would ruin its character born in the country completely. To make matters worse country people seemed increasingly determined to flee their s upposed bucolic repose in favor of the reported opportunity and variety of the cities. Those who s ta y ed behind refonners worried would be the dregs of a rural society laid to waste Food prices would s kyrocket American abundance would dwindle and urban problems like povert y and labor unrest would spiral out of control. How to retard and then rever s e this proce ss wa s the c ritical question Th e answer la y in the country with the people who liv e d and worked the rural li fe reformers wanted to save. Thou g h President Theodore Roosevelt is th e figure we readil y associate with the C ountry Life Movement it too stemmed from a partl y international initiative. Ju s t like r e former did not require th e p e di gre e a ss o c iated with old "s tatu v alu es," a nd s o c o uld u s urp eas i ly hi s soc i a l b e tter s in t e rm s of influ e n ce Th e l og ical r es p o n se wa t o es t a bli s h n e w v alu es -pro fe s i o n a l v alu es -that r e ward e d m e a urable tal e nt and ability See Rob e rt Wi e b e, Th e S e a r c h fo r Or d e r (New York : Hill and Wan g 196 8) Thi s m ea n s of e s tablishin g o rd e r out o f c hao i s part of what Dani e l R o d ge r s call s the rhetoric of ocial e ffici e ncy one o f th e thr ee lan guag e s" whi c h Pro g r es i ves s p o k e ( includin g s ocial bond s and a ntimonopoli s m ) S ee R o d g er s' In e ar c h o f Pro gress i v i s m ," R e v i e w i n A m e ri ca n Hi s t ory IO ( 19 82): I 1 3 -1 32 There i s a clear c onn ec ti o n b e tw ee n so cial e ffi c i e n cy a nd h o m e d e m o n s tration; much of the do c um e ntation a g ent s s ubmitt e d d e mon s tr a tin g th e ir pro gre s was in th e fo rm of s tandardiz e d s t a ti tical form s which tran s lat e d impr ove m e nt into hard numb e r 5 9 D es pit e th e conn ec ti o n b e tw ee n Pro gress i v i s m and r efo rm s m a n y of whi c h in vo l ve d wo m e n E li s ab e th Perry ha s e va lu a t e d th e r e l a ti v e ab se n c e of w o m e n fr o m Pro g r e i ve hi s t o ri ogra ph y. a rl y hi s t o ri e o f Progr e s i v i m that did in c lud e w o men re fe rr e d to a ll th e ir w ork a s muni c ip a l h o u se ke e pin g. Th e t e rm carri e d a g endered conn o tati o n fo r m e n work in anita t i o n we l fa r a nd o th e r qu a lity o fli fe r e form s w e r e not r efe rr e d t o a s an y s ort of h o u se k e p e r P e rry offe r fo ur u gge ti o n s a s a s tartin g p o int for e pandin g and e nhan c in g thi hi t o ri ogr aph y: co n id e r n o t j u t t h e hi t ory of wo man s s uffr age, but it s co n se qu e n ces r e think m ora l r efo rm a p ec t of P rog r e iv i m includin g wo m e n 's p ro min e n ce w ithin it ; bro a d e n th e co p e of" p liti c t o e mb race wo m e n a ti i m ; a d o pt a m o r e ca p ac i o u a nd fl ex ibl e p e ri o di za ti o n fo r th e Pr og r e i ve ra ee P erry, M e n a r e fr m th e G ild e d Age W o m e n a r e fr o m th e Pr ogre s s i v e E r a p a r I 011 2 52

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ea rli er agrarian r form had been th ountry Lifi int re ntin ntal rural re i a l h Ip d park awaren ement a tran atlanti 60 An in the nit d tate ; in th e ca e of the unt Lifi lri hman Horace Plunk tt er ed a an important amba ad r fi r rural impr ment. In Ireland Plunkett wa ga l anizing cooperati e rgani za tion amo n g ailing farmer Hi de s ir e for agricu ltural efficienc to k hape in the lri h gricultura l Organi at ion ociety, it e l f in pi red b a Dani h example. Plunk ett made coop rati an integral part of a lar ge r rehabilitation phi lo oph y: Better fanning b e tter bu in e b tter Ii in g. To expand the reach of effi ienc ba ed r efo rm Plunk ett u ed hi eat in Parliament to pu h for an lri h Department of Agriculture and Technical In s truction throu g h which he help e d create a go emment pro gra m for agricultural extension. Plunk ett wa popular at hom e and abroad; he had man y friends in the U nited tat es, includin g Theodore Roo e elt. Eager to create a tran atlantic reform network and w ith r ea d acce to the American pre ident ear, Plunkett con inced him to create "a blue-ribbon commission on the ill and need s of rural life ." 6 1 Originall Plunk e tt and C hi ef Forester Gifford Pin c hot tried toe tabli s h a bur ea u of rural life ithin th e DA but h e n pr e e nt ed wi th th e id ea in 190 7, Agricu ltu ral S ec retary Jame Wil so n d e murr e d. A h e und e r s tood it hi job wa too e r ee the farm not the farm fami l Di appointed but undet e rred Pin c hot 60 Daniel R odge r argues, th e int e rn a ti o n a l examp l e h e lp e d o uth e m agric ultur a l r efo rm e r lik e l arence P o articu l ate a till nebulou agrarian r efo rm ur ge In fact, R o d ge r points out, Poe aw agrarian r eform n o t in t e rm of democratization, but much a Arthur Young h ad in n gland a way to rid the country id e of"loo e e nd and r ag g ed edge ." For Poe th e e we r e main! frican-American a nd ot h e r rural poor. Dani e l R o d ge r A tl anti c Crossing So c ial Politi c s in a Progr e iv e A ge ( am bridge a nd L on d o n : B elknap Pr e of H arva rd ni e r sity Pr e 199 322-23 6 1 R odger Atlanti c Cro in g s -. _, 1 -334. L ndeed the D hiefFore ter Giffo rd Pinchot, remarked t o Plunk ett o m e of th e e day it ill be known that yo u are the man who tirred up the h o m o e m e nt in America." D J erome Tweton "Progre i i m Di cove r the Farm : The ountry Life ommi ion of 190 ," or r h Dak o ta Quart e rl y ( ummer 1971 ): r Indeed the connection ber..,een merican exten i on and g l oba l e ten ion remained trong from th e Ear l Modem period through the modem era. Once home e ten ion was in place in the nited tate it e panded to Puerto Rico a nd e tabli h d far-flung friend hip i a the As oc i ate d ountry omen of the World. Morea er th e model of American e ten ion moved to developin g nation in the twentieth-century thou g h the pre i e experience of e ten ion, orker and client differed from place to place 53

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took hi s cue from Roo seve lt 's own methodolog y and s u gges t e d an in vest igatory commission to s tudy rural life. Impre sse d by th e "o rganization mod e l and aware of the n ee d to addr ess rural ill s in the home and community as well as the field Roo seve lt created th e Co mmi ss ion on Co untry Life in 1908 and placed Liberty Hyde Baile y, Dean of Cornell's Co lle ge of Agriculture, at the helm Other di s tinguished figure s rounded out the Co mmis s ion : Ken yo n Butterfield, the Pre s id e nt of th e Massachusetts Co ll ege of Agriculture Walt e r Hin es P age, e ditor of World s Work a nd a Southern Progre ss i ve, Gifford Pin c hot and H enry Wallace editor of Wallace 's F ar m er 62 ln order to gather data on the sta tu s of American co unt ry li fe, th e Co mmission travel e d rural America surveying and taking testimonials from thousands of folks. It e n g ineered a n a tionwid e m eet a t-thesc hoolh o u se forum on Decemb e r 5, a nd it mail ed over 500 000 c ir c ular s w ith twelve qu est ion s to hou se hold s, as well as to n ewspapers t o e ncoura g in g tho se without the circulars to write in w ith any concerns a nd s u ggest i o n s t h ey had 6 3 The twelve circular inquirie s were relati ve l y broad leaving ample room fo r r e pondents to spec i fy co n ce rn s: I. Are the farm hom es in yo ur n e i g hborho o d as goo d as they s h o uld be under exis tin g co nditi o n s? II. Are th e sc hool s in yo ur nei g hborhood trainin g boy s and gi rl s satisfactori l y for life on the farm? III. Do th e farmers in yo ur n e i g hborhood ge t th e r e turn s th ey r easo nabl y s hould from the sa le of their produ c t ? 62 Bailey was a w i se choice for the o mmi ss ion for both hi s in tere t a nd expe ri e n ce. A ear l y a I 96 he had expressed concern for the quality of rur a l li fe a nd in 1 906, co ndu cted a Country L i fe om mi s ion-style study of a ew York county, in vest i ga tin g a variety of fa rm l ife fac t or includin g the ro l e of fa rm wome n a nd th e ed u catio n of c hildr e n ee Tweton 59. Tweton' article i a va l uable di sc u ss i o n of h ow the omm i i o n was e t ab li h ed an d h ow it int ernal d y nami cs pla ye d out. H e reli e h eav il y o n co rr espo nd e n ce between o mmi ss i o n member r eveali n g d etai l s left hidd e n by th r hi t o ri e On th e Com mi ss ion com po ition ee Olaf F. La r on an d T h o m a B Jone "Th npubli hed Data from R oosevel t om mi s i o n o n ou n try Life," Agri c u lt ural Hi s t o y 50 ( 19 76): 583-84. 63 Lar on a nd Jone "T h e npubli hed Data 584; E ll worth, "T h eo dore Roo e elt om mi ion ," 16 3. untry Life 54

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JV Do the farm r s in y ur n e i g hborho d recei ve from th e railr ad hi g hr ad troll y lin e etc ., th ervice th ey rea so nabl y hould hav e? V Do the farmers in y ur n e i g hb rh d r ceive from th United tate p tal ervice, rural t e l e phon etc., th rvice the y r asonably hould ex p ec t ? VI. Ar e the farmer and their wive in y ur nei g hb rhood sa ti sfacto ril y organized to promot th ir mutual bu y in g and llin g int e r e t ? VII. Ar e the renter of farm in your nei g hborhood makin g a ati factory li vi n g? VIII I s th e upply of farm labor in y ur n e i g hborhood sa ti sfac tory ? IX. Are the c nditions urroundin g hired labor in y our nei g hborhood sati factory to the hired man ? X. Ha e th farmer in yo ur nei g hborhood atisfactory facilitie for doin g their bu ine in bankin g, credit in urance etc.? XI. Are the anitary conditions of farm in your n e i g hborhood atisfactory? XII. Do the farmers and their wives and familie in yo ur n e i g hborhood get to ge ther for mutual improvement entertainment and ocial intercour e as much a they s hould ? Wh ? and What s u gges tion s have yo u to mak e? followed each que s tion The circular concluded with a final inquiry: What in your judgment i s th e mo s t important s in g le thin g to be don e for the ge neral bett e rment of country life ?" T hi s que s tion s urel y produ ce d ome fruitful respons es, but the y had not been tabulated when D F Hou ton Woodrow Wilson ecre tary of Agriculture had th e circulars de s tro ye d in 1915 64 Eve n without th e answers it i s c l ea r th a t r efo rm mind e d p eo ple in po ition s to follow throu g h on goo d int e ntion s were inter es t e d in th e quality of life in rural sec tor s 64 R e port of th e Co mmi ssio n o n Coun tr y Lif e, wit h an Int roduction by Th eodo r e R ao e v e /t ew York : tur g i and W a lt o n Co mp a n y, 1 9 11 ) 5 1 -53. Lar so n a nd J ones ex pl a in briefly th e internal politic that ultimately c l a im e d the ri c h raw dat a up o n w hi c h th e o mmi ss i o n based mu c h of it report. R oo e e lt a ll ow d th om mi s ion fo ur month to co mpl ete its wo rk a nd m ake it r eport Feeling ru s hed th e mmi ion ne e r h a d time to delv e deeply int o the ci r c ul a r r espo n e Ind ee d Bailey comp l ained th a t th wea l t h of information in th e r e p on e co uld n e e r be fully a n a l yze d a nd o ou ld ha ve to yie ld nl y u gges ti e umm a ri e The r e p o rt brief and ge n e r a l wa publi h ed a e n ate Document o 705, 60 th ongre s, 2 d e i o n fo r u e by Co n g re s in 1 909 ( o n gre r efu ed to fund a popular pub li cation fthe R e port but in 191 I the pokane Chamber of Co mm erce and a pri ate firm in e York ity eac h publi hed it fo r di tribution in their r e p ec ti e r eg i o n In 1944 th e ni e r ity of orth Caro lina Pre publi hed th e R e port for wi d eca l e popular co n umption). B efo r e a n y of the ommi i o n co uld p e n a full e r document th e c ir c ul a r we nt t o ec r etary of Agric ultur e J a m e Wil on a man not friendly t o a rd th e ommi ion or it wo r k w hi c h h ad co ndu cted it e l f ind epe nd e ntly of the DA Taft admini tration did not contin u e the om mi i o n work, and A gric ultural ec r etary H o u ton belie m g th e c ir c ular n o l o n ge r aluab l ordered th m d e troyed What r e mained intact e r e pap er in ommi i o n m e mb e r s' privat po e io n th e report ubmitt e d t o ongre a nd twe l e b ri ef unpub li h e d report \ hich ummari ze the findin g from eac h of th e twe l e main ir ular inquiri e ee Lar on and J one 586; II ort h Theodor e Roo se e lt o un try L i fe Mo e m e nt, 171 55

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Severa l of the circular inquiries a r e particularly notable in li ght of the home demonstration program to come, in c ludin g that related to farm h omes, rural services and sa nita ry con dition s Notab l y, the l ead question addresses the w h o l e farm h ome, a clear indication that reformers all men in l eadership positions were cognizant at l ast of the necessity of total rural well-being The Commission conc lud ed its report with 'T he Young Farmer's Practical Library," a bibliography the Comm i ss i on believed useful for in v igoratin g and maintaining the co un tryside. Among the wo rk s was Virginia Terhune Yan de Water's From Ki t c h e n to Garre t Hou sekeeping and Hom e -Makin g. T h e book's description does not refer to rural h omes as opposed to urban ones, but it describes a methodology for instruction and refonn that home demonstration wou ld mirror very closely: From Kitch e n to Garret does not deal with ideal or impractical decorations but wit h the everyday care of each room in the ordinary home. It is written in s imple lan g ua ge, as if the wr it er were face-to face wit h her reader and explaining to her how to conduct h er hou se h o ld and how to do so wit h the greatest comfort and l eas t friction for al l concerned .... As one accompan i es the author on her tour of the h ouse and l istens to h er adv i ce . one fi nd s t h e ca r e of the home s implified a nd the duties of the house systematized into an h armon i ous who l e. 65 Had this description been written in 1915, and been for the rural home it might have been d escr ibing a HDA and her lan g uage of everyday goo d housekeeping ," "sys tematic hou sewo rk ," "co mfort and convenience ." T hi s book offered advice as thou g h the reader and writer were "face-to -face ;" HD As and rural women were face-to-face Home demon stratio n 's lineage obvious l y was lon g, but its immediate forebear dome tic science and the Co untry Life Movement, c l early comb in ed to instigate propel and le git imize home demon stration as a reform measure b y locatin g it at the juncture of two d y nami c and immediate movement that both emphasized th e fundamental goo d of the home in the g reater goo d of the nation 65 R e port of th e Co m mi ion on o unt, y Lif e, appendix 56

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Inde d much of th moti ation for the ountry Life mm1 10n wa a g rowin g n e that rural menca wa decayin g from within. Michael Mc e rr argue that see in g rural America a le than idyllic wa not ea ya the century opened Progre ss i ve -minded middle c l a r fom1 r were ab orbed with urban bli g ht and the y tend e d t look to the cou ntry id ea a moral and cultural cure. The realitie s, thou g h of farm tenanc y and depopulation di rupt e d the illu ion of an agrarian wonderland; caught up in th e fever of the time, r efo rm e r s took up th additional mi ion of aving the countryside. cott Peter and Paul Morgan take a diff e rent tack for they ee the Country Life Movement a trul y pro g res sive ; it work demon s trate s not an arrogant technocratic agenda or a backward romantici m ," but "a n emergi n g ecological en iti v it y and a variant of Pro g re ss ive Era reform de vo t ed to ke y civic and economic id ea l s." Of course, there i s always th e customary explanation that th e whole ountry Life Movement was "a complex and ambiguous concern for individuali s m ocial mind e dne s no tal g ia for the pa s t morality national inte gra tion ba e d on sc i enc and effic ienc y, and di s tru t of materiali m and pecial privile ge." 66 Whatever motivated Co untry Lifer s, mo s t importantl y for our s tory the y evaluated th e problem expansively. It was clear that overburdened i so lated women and r es tle ss c hildr e n we r e a c riti ca l in th e formula for rural r ej uv e n at ion a tran port at ion co t s and crop yie ld s In hi 1960 eva luation of th e Country Life Commi s ion C la y ton Ellsworth articulated it lon t erm significa n ce. The ommission and Roo se e lt reali ze d that merel y to in crease the phy i ca l productivity of agriculture b y the wonderful wand of cience would not automaticall o l e the grea t problems of farm lif e." 67 e era l of th e Comrni ion s specific findin g s s peak 66 McGerr A Fi e r ce Di co nt e nt I 04-105 ; Peter and Morgan 2 92 2 9 ; Hi t o ri c al Di c ti o na ry of th e Pro g r e i ve Era 1 90-19 2 0 d John D. Buenker and dward R Kanto i cz ew York and London : reenwood Pre 19 9) 96. 57

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to this holistic approach and address just the sort of battles that HD As would wage in the near future These acknowledgments were not always welcome news to those affected, but the y stand out among the Country Life Commission's successes, especially as they infonned what extension would take on as significant refonns. A key Commission alert related to rural health re s pondents evaluation of neighborhood health was resoundingl y negative. Problem s prevalent in urban settings such as water pollution and inadequate sanitation, were also common in the country. One of the lon tenn victories for the Commission was that its exposure helped launch a network of health refonners including the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission and home demonstration that took seriously the devastating impact of diseases like typhoid and hookwonn and acted to brin g about meaningful improvement. Frederick Stiles, the distinguished physician re s pon sible for hookwonn education worked with the Country Life Commission as medical attache, then took his findings to John D Rockefeller 's General Education Board, upon which Rockef e ller devoted $1,000,000 to establishing the Sanitary Commission for the purpose of eradicating hookwom1 in the South. The lingerin g problem wa a pervasive i g norance about the disease. One Georgia newspap e r scoffed at Stiles' reports, crowing Where was thi s hookwonn or laz y disea se, when it took five Yankee so ldiers to whip one Southemer?" 68 Education via newspap er and other media newly fonned county health boards and critically on-the-ground refonners like HDA s was the only effective mean s for brin g ing hookwonn under control. Once the Commission faded away Extension moved in to take up the mantle of rural rejuvenation es peciall y in health. From the out et, HDAs acknowledged and tackled ob tacle to rural 67 E ll swo rth "Theodore R oo eve lt ountry Life omm i ssion," 1 72. Of cou r se the "wa nd of science," as I noted above continu d to be an important tool fo r r eforme r becau e so m e of what wa wrong lik e sanitary d efic i encie required h ard-fact c h ange t o m ake a differenc e 6 8 Quot din E ll worth Theodor e Roo eve l t' ountry Lif e ommi i n 171 58

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w II-bein g, makin g th e mo t f the mmi 10n r eve lation In thi re g ard the Country Life Mo ment pr ided h med mon trati n with more than in piration ; the omm1 ion w rk ga e home dem n tration a mandat e, a le g itimac y that went bey nd pretty curtain and tomato plant The r port the ommi sion laid on the Pre ident 's de s k borrowed from Horace Plunk e tt rhetoric and concluded that better farming, better livin g and better busine ss were the foundation of rural rejuvenation and that rural peopl e them se l ve were the linchpin in the whole proce s Impro ed farming, home beautification chool consolidation and church revitali za tion were the Commis ion 's central reform theme s. 69 It report called for thr ee interrelated mea s ure s to initiate comprehensive uplift : fir t an in entory' of all rural r e ources, inc l uding oils plant s, animal s and people ; se cond '"so me way [to] unite all in titution s, all organization all individual s, havin g an y great intere s t in country lif e, into one grea t campaign for rura l progres s;" and third the thorough organization and nationalization of extension work throu g h colleges of agriculture." Finall y the Commi s ion recommend e d that within eac h tat e agricultural college there be a di sc rete and co mpr e h e n s i e extens ion d e partm e nt directed to deal with not only agriculture, but also "'sa nitation e ducation hom e makin g and all intere s t of country lif e.'" 70 69 1n fact que ti o n d ea lin g w ith the rural c hur c h we r e part of a se p ara t e r epo rt omitted from the main c ir cu l ar in d efe r e n ce t o W a ll ace's w i h e Thou g h h e agree d th at th e rur a l c hur c h wa in decline W a ll ace d e murr e d a t th e id ea ofa gove rnm e nt in ve li ga ti o n int o th e m atte r imilarly o l ati l e i u e a l o did n o t mak e it into th e Com mi ss ion officia l age nda includin g tho e d ea lin g wi th r ace r e l atio n s a nd immigrant l abo r. E ll swo rth Th eo d ore R oo e e ll 's Co untry Life Commi i on," 1 63. 7 0 Lord The Agrarian R ev ival 53 D a id D a nb o m Born in th e Country : A Hi to, y of R ural America (Ba ltim o r e a nd London : J o hn s H o pkin s ni ersity, 1 995), 1 671 73; Brunner and Yan g, Ru ral America and th e Ex t e nsion Service I 1 1 3 R epor t of th e Com mi sion on Country Lif e, 1 27. The om mi ion noted that ome e ten ion work was go in g on ia agric ultur a l co ll ege "a lth o u gh o n a pitiably s mall ca l e a com p ared ith the n ee d Only a nation wide funded and ystemat i c approach to e ten ion ou ld effec ti ely acco mpli h hat the ommis ion a as the crux of rural re italizati n the arou ing of the p eop l e ... in t e rm of th e ir dail y li e ." R epo rt of th e Co mmissi o n on Country Life, 1 26. e era l hi torian h ave d rawn direct connec ti on from th Com mi ion' recommendation to thee tabli hment of the ooperat i e x t en i on erv i ce, in c ludin g Scott P ter and Paul Mor gan in the mo t recent 59

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For centuries, women had been an assumed part of the agricultural dynamic; likel y no serious agricultural reformer expected that a deficient home would not hinder in so me way bounty in the field. Yet few agrarian thinkers and innovators had devoted much if any attention to refom1s for women, even fewer to reforms led by women. Finally, around th e tum of the century reformers concerned with rural reju ve nation considered women and the home to be integral to the process, and acted upon that understanding. The coalescence of home economics' knowledge Seaman Knapp's methodolo gy and the Country Life Co mmi ss ion 's recommendations made the time right for the rnral home and feminized agrarian reform to come into their own. Urged to action, Congress provided official provision for rural domestic refonn and education under the Smith-Lever Act. In 1912 the growing popularity of some plan for federally supported extensio n work prompted at least s ixteen bills in Congress for that purpose. Of these a bill authored by Repre se ntative Asbury Lever seemed most promisin g, and after some modification s, he a nd Senator Hoke Smith of Georgia introduced what passed as the Smith-Lever Act in 1914. The gist of the bill was that it set up the Cooperative Extension Service, a body for agricultural a nd home economics extension work carried out b y agents men working with farmers, women working with farm women and both men and women leadin g c hildren in 4-H work The most localized work was at the county level then up to districts s ta tes and finall y to the national l eve l. Ex ten s ion agents worked under the cooperative direction of state landgrant colleges eva lu a ti o n of the Country Life Movement -a I 958 ca ll fo r a econd Country Life omm i s ion n o ted that th e fir t Co mmi ss i o n h a d been s uc ce ful partly becau e it h ad ti mu lated the formation of the Agricultural Ex ten ion Serv ice ; Peters a nd Morgan, 290. Eve n o, hi torians h ave not neglected to point out the weak.ne e in th e Co mmi ion rep ort. Peters an d Morgan offer a tidy hi torio g raph y of these criticisms including arguments that the Commi ion repre e nt ed the v i ew of no tal gic outsider operating on littl e more than Jeffer o nian theorie More than one critiq u e has focu ed upon th e om mi i o n a nd the Cou ntry Life Movement in genera l a feeding the interest s of an urban nation Peter and Morgan try t o r efine the cri tiqu e a bit by delineatin g the difference between t he ountry Life Movement and the Commi ion on Country Life ee Peter s and Morgan The o untry Life om mi ssion," 294-301, 301-313. 60

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and the D The e act natur of the work wa contingent on the wi II and need of the local p op! for ex ten i n work wa entirely oluntary The primary purpo e of exten ion wa to di em in at to rural people information gleaned from agricu l tural bodie like the U DA agri ultural olleges and e periment station the col l ecting and diffu ing [of] information eorge Wa hington had recommended in I 796 71 In the case of home demon tration, this information repre nted the combined work of agricultural college and home economic 72 The l eading principle of extension e du cation, prior to and under Smith-Lever, wa to help the e rural families help themselves by applying cience, whether physical or oc i al, to the daily routine of farming, homemaking, and fami l y and community li v ing ." As Edmund Brunner and H in Pao Yang describe it, Extension is' out of-school, roadside education .... It dares to put it s teaching to the acid test of practical workability on the land and in kitchens, home and commu nitie s. 73 7 1 ome e idence of Exte n ion 's ten ile fluid strength i its o r ganizationa l de elopment. Exten ion work before mith-Lever was carried on jointly between three offices : the Office of Experiment tation (U DA) from 1888-1915 the Office of Cooperative Demon tration Work and the Office of Fann Management (Bureau of Plant Indu stry) from 1904-1914 and 1906-1915 re pecti ely. mith Le er, pas ed May 8 1914 e panded the USDA s cooperati e role and precipitated the consolidation of all extension work in the tates Relations Office (SRS), establis h ed in 1915 by the Agricultural Appropriations Act. R operated out of Offices of Exte nsion Work one for the outh and one for the orth and We st until these ere combined in 1921 with the Exhibit of the ecretary Office and the Office of Motion Pictures Di i ion of Publications. These separate entities formed the Office of ooperati e Ex ten ion Work RS. In 1923 thi office became the Exte nsion ervice. In 1954, the ten ion ervice became Federal E ten ion ervice, then the Extension Service again in 1970 All thi time, the ervice con tinu ed to operate out of the SR From 1978 to 1981, the Office became the Exten ion taff cience and Education Administration. Finally, in 1981 the Agricultural ecretary e tabli hed the Extension ervice once again, thi time a part of the USDA. The detail for all this organizational office hiftin g i in orrespondence of Alfred True ational Archi es and Record Admini tration RA), Record Group (RG) 333.1 and Publication s of the Extension ervice and Predeces so r ARA RG 2 7 72 Brunner and Yang Rur al Am e ri c a and the Extension S erv i ce, 13 ; William 23-31; True, A Hi 1 0 y of th e Agricul tural Exten ion Service I 00-114; Lord, Th e Agrarian R evival 88 -9 7; cott, The R el u c tant Farmer hapter 11. Brunner and Yang and Williams offer detai l ed summarie of the ct s main provisions. The full-te t of the ct i in True Appendix 195-197. illiam pro ide too an o ervi w of po t-1914 Ex ten ion de elopment and legi lation, inc l uding the Cap per-Ket cham ct, 192 which increased funding, e pecially for women and children' exten ion work. Williams, 31 34. 73 Brunner and Yang, Rural Ameri c a and the Exten ion S e r v i ce, I. 61

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In Florida the first major politi ca l bo os ter for Ex t e nsion was Governor S idne y J. Ca tts Though part of a demago g ic cadre of Pro g re ss ive politician s who, as Wayne Flynt put s it were characterized b y their emotional appeals t o irrat io nal i ss ues ," Catts espoused the very rational benefits of agricultural extension for the s tate. Part politic s and part in s pirati o n Catts s upport e d hi g h e r l ea rnin g in Florida ex pandin g both Florida State Co ll ege for Women a nd U niver s ity of F lorida. Specifically Ca tt s advocated an ex ten sio n sys t e m for Florida, encouraged b y both hi s friendship w ith LJF's director o f Extension, P H R o l fs, a nd th e popularity of th e ex ten s ion id ea among Floridians. In 191 9, the Florida l egis l a ture a ppro ve d a sta te-wid e ex t e n s ion syste m a nd work be ga n in ea rn es t. 74 As l ate r HD As wou ld di scover, how eve r s tat e -l eve l s upport did not always smooth th e e d ges from loca l politi cs B y th e tim e it fully blo sso m ed in th e twentieth ce ntu ry, home d e mon strat i o n had collapsed traditional dom es tic advice and agricultural improv e ment into one fertile see db ed of agra rian dom es ti c i ty. Home d e mon stratio n agents wo rk n o t only h e lp ed d e m ocratize agrar i an reforms it fe miniz e d th e m b y puttin g substantial pow e r for improv e ment in the h a nd s of women age nt s a nd women clients Ex p e rti se was no lon ge r th e purview sole l y of men or elite wo m e n 1919 i s a lon g way from Thomas Tusser not to m e ntion Dor cas bu t on l y in years. The qu es t for th e better way" ha s been o n go in g, a nd though wome n have not a l ways been at th e ce nt e r of it th ey ha ve b ee n swep t a lon g in it s wake w ith th e ir fathers a nd hu sba nd s. Yet, eve n as r efo rm b y a nd for women mo ve d into th e spo tli gh t albeit alongs id e their male co unt erpa rt s, agents found that c hallen ges were o nl y ju st b eg innin g. Hi g h ideal s and l ofty se ntim e nt s aside age nt s h a d to be hir e d paid h o u se d transported equ ip ped i nt roduced and accepted n o easy task w h e n m a n y fa nn co mmuni t i es were i s olated o r fa rm women were 74 Wayne Flynt, ra c k e r M ess iah Go ve rn or Sidn ey J. aft of Fl o r ida (Bato n Roug e: Loui iana tat U ni ve r ity Pre I 977) I 96I 97 62

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di tru tful of tran ge r totin g book whi c h w e r e not th e Bibl e or an e nc y clop e dia 75 P e rhap thi wa s th g r e at e t cha I I e n g of all findin g acc e ptance g ainin g tru s t earnin g r e pect. Ov e r n ea rly a centu ry of ervic HDA found that n eg otiati n c ompromi se and olidarity w e r e indi p e n abl e urvi v al to I 75 K a t e Hill r eca ll th ee p e ri e n ces of E dn a Tri gg, a n ea rl y T e as h o m e d e m o n tr a ti o n a g e nt h o e n co unt e r e d ke pti c i m a nd mi tru s t in h e r fir t yea r of wo rk Th e pr o bl e m was o e r co min g in grai n e d p e r ce pti o n s a m o n g rural m e n a nd wo m e n Hill writ e F a nn wo m e n o f th e d ay kn ew th a t th ey n e d e d m a n y thin g l o i mp ro e th e ir Ii i n g co nditi o n but fo r a wo m a n t o rid e aro und a nd t eac h th e m h ow t o a n o r pr e p a r e foo d wa a tr a n g e co n ce pti o n .. . Th e bi o l o g i ca l p roce s s of pro du c in g a c hil d a u p p o e d b y m a n y t o e nd ow a wo man imult a n eo u s l y w ith th e h a l o o f m o th e rh oo d t o g e th e r w ith th e kn ow l e d g e a nd k ill t o fee d t eac h a nd ca r fi r a nd r ear th e c hild t o ucce fu l ma tur ity. Hu ba nd coffe d a t b o k I a min g fi r th i r w i ve a nd wo m e n b a lk e d a t a n o ut s id e r s cri tiqu e of fam il y h o m e m aki n g m e th o d pa e d fro m m th e r t o d a u gh t r Hill H o m e D e m o n t ra t i o n W o rk in T ex a 7. 63

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CHAPTER 3 INSPIRATION TO INSTITUTION : NEGOTIATING THE PROFESSIONAL HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT Just a sampling of the Extension Worker 's Creed reveals the ideals that powered th e home demonstration machine: I believe in the sacredness of the farmer's home ; in t he holiness of the country woman's l ove and the opportunity that home shou l d a ss ure to culture, grace and power. Inspirational ? Certain l y. But even such movin g sentiments cannot tell us the whole of what it meant to be an extension worker. We are forcibly reminded that these women and men were more than mere reformers and educators by another sentiment g leaned from agents 1927 suggestions for Florida extension conferences. Fann agent J. Lee Smith concluded his recommendations with a potent P.S.: "Get cushioned seats for auditorium ." 1 Inspirational ? Not exactly But Smith's plea serves to remind us that extension work was a job well-grounded in the dai l y grind. The Smith-Lever Act did not just make extension official, it allowed it to become formalized, even codified, into career work for thousand s of men and women both white and black. It is unlike l y that more than a few agents ever lost s ight of the idealism that inspired their job s the pay and benefits alone did not warrant going into extension work if it did not ha ve another more lofty appeal. But educating fa rmers and their families in rural communities throughout the United States and it s territorie s was a massive undertaking, o n e that required considerable institutionalization to keep extension operating effectively More important for our purposes her e, the formal creation of the home demonstration agent and her 1 Flavia Glea so n [FG] to Member of Epsi l on Sigma Phi 29 March 1934 ( C-21-6); U ni ve r ity of Florida x ten s ion Agent Confe r e n ce, 1927 Re co mmendation for Impro ve ment ( -91 a-3). 64

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65 mal e co unt e rpart m ea nt that x t e n ion wa evo l v in g from m e r e inspiration into a form id a bl e in titution with I n g -t er m v i a bili ty. 2 Thi c hapt e r hi g hli g ht s home d emon tration's durability in t e rm of HOA d y n a mi c profe ional world. The mo t alient fea tur e in th proce of prof e ionali zat ion was n ego tiation ; d ea lin g with th e r age nt uperior c li ent a nd l ocal gove rnm e nt s t a u g ht HOA an important l e on in b a r ga inin g, a kill that erve d them wel l throu g hout their t e nure in Florida a kill that averted termination. To a con id e rabl e de g r ee, the ri go r s of d ay -to-da y n ego tiati o n a nd professional d eve lopm e nt promoted lon gev ity b y forcing hom e demon stra tion to b e fl ex ibl e, e n erget i c and co mmitt e d. Without the equalities, HDA never could ha ve made dem o n strat ion viab l e in t h e s hort tenn or ecured support for lon g -term development. Th e r ea liti es of a n HOA' position demanded the negotiation that promoted s urvi v al. An HOA was not s impl y th e over b eari n g r e pre se ntati ve of a white, urban middl e -cla ss bur ea ucrac y intent on bendin g th e rural woma n to the g overnment 's will. Neither was an HOA a local s pokeswom a n for h a ml et a u tonomy and traditional cu tom s. It i s true there was a nationall y constructed pl a n for home demonstration work. However home demonstration lived on the ground n ot o n high Every HOA worked as an intermediary between national agendas a nd local n ee d s. 3 2 The bulk of o ur ces fo r thi s c h a pt e r i s co rre s p o nd e nc e, because no o th e r so ur ce reveal daily batt l es a nd i c t o ri es in o un ce n so r e d a way. Fo r exa mpl e, a r e p o rt m ig h t indicate that s omeone h ad been hir e d o r fired, but th e co rr es pond e n ce tells u why. Mo t imp o rtantl y l etters a n d telegrams re eal p e r o n al o pinion s and pri va t e co n versa ti o n th a t would n o t be a part of more formal public record 3 J ea nni e Wha y n e h as a n a l yze d bla ck ex t e n ion worker po s it io n as int e rmedi aries in t h e co n text of ub a lt e m th eory. T h o u gh Wh ay ne i d ea lin g exc lusi ve l y wit h black farm a nd h ome agent her point i app li cab l e thr o u g h o ut the erv i ce. S h e wri t e "The n ego ti ation between agents and l ocal population d esc rib e d by [county agent Otis] O' ea l in 1 9 1 6 also continued and evo l ve d throughout t h e fir t halfof the t we nti e th ce ntu ry Black age nt occa ionally t ested th e lim i t s of t h ei r a uth ority pu h i ng the perimeter a far as th ey co uld and th e n backing off when r e qu i r ed t o do so ." Jeannie Wha y ne ," I H a e Been through Fire Black Agricultural Ex t e n s i o n Age nt a nd the P o liti c of egotiation ," in Afri c an-Am e ri c an Lif e in th e R ura l S o uth 1 900/ 950 e d R D o u g l as Hurt ( Columbia and London : ni e r ity of Missouri Pre 2003): 1 641 65 I a r gue th a t Whayne' ana l ysi for black a g ent c an be ap pli e d broadly to n o t only bla ck HDA but t o w hit e HDA s, a we ll w h o wo rk ed with in a male d o min ate d profes i o n Thi c h a pt e r w ill ex pl o r e th e int e rm e di ary ro l e a m o n g HDAs dealin g with both local people a nd co ll eague I thank Melissa Walker fo r bringing Whayne s e ay to my attention

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66 For better o r worse, HOAs were governed not by decree, but by context. Every county, every community, ultimat e l y held the power to accept or reject hom e demon stra tion The State HOA in 1948 Mary Keown reminded attendees at an Extension workshop, "Ex tension work is very human ; it is more than an organizat i on c h art and paid per so nnel. Extension work cons i sts of li v in g relationships between the people who carry it on and the individuals who benefit by participation ." 4 Local accepta n ce o nl y created new reason s HOA s had to be se n sitive to local context conditions such as a county's rural-urban orientation economic stre n gth, infra s tructure quality racia l make-up county commission personalit y, existing community organizations, sc hool atte nd ance a nd physical we ll-b eing a ll s haped what an HOA did and how she did it wit hin h er county. For example, whether an HDA worked in Hill s borou g h County, anchored by Tampa and active in home demonstration from the start, or Frank lin Co unty an undeveloped coastal county that did not even have extension until the late 1950s i no insignificant factor. Or, consider this ; Florida has sixty-seven counties so it seems particularly disappointing t h at on l y eight or ten counties had a black HDA at any tim e durin g this period. However, the vast majority of Flor id a's African-American population lived in the Panhandle so it i s thos e counties that matter when consider in g the extent of black home d e mon s tration in F l orida. Even within their own offices (t hose who had th e m ), HDAs negotiated w ith co ll eagues and uperiors for trave l t im e, equipment and c l out. Those working in counties that had both a county agent and an HOA for an extended time faced l ess intraoffice re i tance than tho e who began work with a county agent not accu tomed to harin g space, r source or author i ty None of thi s strugg le howe ve r s hould be di s mi sse d as si mpl y th e working of a n ew agency seeki n g s tabl e ground. In fact, we s hould b alert to th e reality of hom e 4 Mary Keown, "Leader hip election, Training and e," in Th e Exr e nsion Sp ec ia/i r E v a/uari o n of rh e Job Program D e v e lopm e nr Mat e rial and th e ir U se, T e a c hing and R e lationship Rep rt f Work hop at Uni er ity of Flo rid a ; Gaine ville, Florida March 22 Ap ril 2, 1 94

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dem n tration a a profe i n. HOA did their job in an official capacity, with th e ame ex p e tation f e perti e that Pro gre i had d e mand e d of th e m Ive s. Th u g h ther e wa m re i tance to HOA a gove rnm e nt worker preachin g book-learnin g among rural familie man y ther women accepted agent preci e l y becau e th ey could pro ve th ey knew what the y ere doing and do so with grace, re pect and of course, diplomac y. 67 Home d e mon tration wa care r work, with all the attendant committees pap erwo rk (a l o t of paperwork) trainin g sa lary battle resignation tran s fer appointments and promotion 5 Morea er, thou g h mo s t of the relation s hip formed around hom e demon tration were po itiv e, there were period of se riou s contention and mi g i v in g, too ex, rac e, cla a nd co mmunity biase each played a part in ometime lowin g th e mom e ntum of r efo rm The e laborate bur ea ucracy of extension work at time s only h e i g ht e ned th e n ee d for con t a nt n ego tiation within the Service and betw ee n agent and their communities. The more home d e mon tration pu h e d out into th e countryside and nearb y town s, the greater th e opportunity for co nte t a ti o n and power s tru gg le s. 0. B Martin ri g htly observed It r e quir e a hi g h order of diplomac to ge t women to improv e their own co ndition and environment by impr ess in g upon th e m th e importanc e and dignity of th e s ituation in which they are to h e lp omebody e l e. 6 i u a l e a mpl e of th e caree r orientat i o n in h ome d emon tration work i s a brochure de igned to attrac t wome n t o h ome demon trati o n as a ca r eer. The brochure d oe m e nti o n briefly benefit uch a h e lp promote better indi idual fa mil y a nd commun i ty Ii in g." But the ast majority of tatement renect h ome demon tration a a job: I f you want a goo d alary in compari on with other career for v omen, a job w hi c h wi ll c h a ll e n ge your ab ili ty a n opportunity to u e you r own initiati e and origina li ty, con tinu ous profe i o n a l impro ve m e nt a ti faction in yo ur own growth, then you wi ll lik e bein g a Florida H o m e D e m o n tration A ge nt. ee s u c h brochure in 1 58-8. More to th e point the job re pon ibilitie for Di trict ge nt in c lud e "Main t a inin g efficien t county per onnel who a r e intere ted in g ricultural Ex t e n i on ervi e wo rk as a career." H ome Demon tr at i on Work in Florida Dutie an d Re pon ibilitie of P er onne l 1 58-6). 6 0 8 Martin The Demon /ration Work : Dr S e aman A Knapp' Contr ibuti on t o Civi li z ation (Bo ton : The tratford unty. 1 921) 15 __

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68 Furthermore, the Extension Service itself evo l ved as home demonstration grew within it as women at every l eve l carved out arenas of increased responsibility and l eadership. At times they came into direct conflict with their male associates, but p u shed on ne vert hele ss, even if it meant l eav in g F lorid a. As h ome demonstration grew, rural reform for women g r ew with it so that rural women had ever more say in the quality of their home a nd community li ves. Where women's concerns had once been peripheral at best in the agrarian reform agenda, home demonstration made them a priority even if male s up erv isor s did not a l ways agree. Even after the number of farm women declined in the wake of a rural exodus following World War II HD As shifted to accommodate the chang in g needs of agents and clients a lik e, reinventing home demonstration as a career choice for ambit i ous, concerned women and its programs as practical uplifting advice for women in a new and busy world. Negotiating this transformation however was not a simp l e task. As a federa l state and county program of cons id erab l e breadth the Coopera ti ve Extension Service event u a ll y e mb od i ed a bureaucracy that wo uld h a rdl y surprise mod e m Americans. At its inception, though the Service was merely a formal version of the agricu l tura l extension and education mechanism s that had been evolv ing since th e colonial period Once it became national and official, Extension had to develop standardized eva l uation techniques, sec ure l oca l financial and social backin g, and maintain state and national political support Di s trict and State agents ab orbed much of the respon s ibility for keeping Extension education operative and effective, s upplementin g their educational du ties w ith political soc ial and financial wrangling. Eve n Seaman Knapp s loft i est ent im ents about rural r ej u ve nation and the all-important farm home cou ld n e i ther supply age nt s with the clerical help th ey ne e ded nor put n ew tires on an o l d car. Puttin g qualified demonstration

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69 ag nt in the field on a r g ular ba a nd keeping th e m there c r ea t e d a bureaucracy of its wn Ba i a ll y, th e x t e n i n y t e rn wa co rn po ed fa n e t wo rk of in formati n an d aut h or it flowing b tw e n th e United tate Departm nt of Agriculture tate colle g e s of agricu ltur e, co un ty c hool board board of commi ioner and o th e r s of l oca l influence The final link the m e n worn n and c hildr e n who p artic ip ate d i n t h e ex t e n s i o n wo rk that agents offe r e d wa a l so th e mo st important. 7 Without th em there was littl e practical use fo r ex ten ion. Th e impl es t way to gra p the s tructur e of th e x t e n s ion Service i s to see it. T h e co mpl ex r e pre e ntation of xte n ion organization o n page I 09 as it appeared in 1966 demonstrates the d egree to which ea man Knapp 's e m erge nc y id ea evo l ve d into a fully artic ul ate d organizational n etwo rk It i s nec essary to r emembe r too t hat this arrangement was replicated in every tate every t e rritory and within the US DA it se l f. Int erac ti o n between th ese l eve l s i not in s i g nificant. For exa mple in th e I 960s, inserv ice tr a inin g co n fere n ces for age nt s in the outhea t often in c lud e d not only Florida, Georgia and A l abama but Puerto Ri co. 8 Hom e demon stra tion wa a l ways eq u a ll y local regional a nd national. Within Florida the exte n s i o n a pparatu s maintain ed th e national flow-chart str u c tur e headed by a Director w ho durin g mo s t of th e p e riod cove r e d h e r e, was Wilm o n Newe ll. B o th th e Director and the V i ceDir ecto r A P Spencer, m a int a in e d th e ir office in Gaine v ill e at th e land-grant U ni ers i ty of Florida (UF). UF erve d a the official hub of exte n sion activity but it was then an all-male uni ver it y, so hom e d emo n tration operated o ut of Tallahassee s F l orida tate 7 Lincoln Da id K l sey Coop e rati ve Ex t e n s ion Work (Ithaca e York : Com s tock Pub l i hin g A ociate 1955) 54. ee, for examp l e Th e Ext e n s i o n p ec iali s t E v aluation of th e J o b Pr og ram D eve l o pm e nt M a t e ri a l s and Th e ir U e, T e a c hin g and R e lati o n hips F o r Sp ec iali t s f r o m S. ar o lina G eo r gia. F lo ri da a n d Pu e rt o Ri c o (Gai n es ille : Uni er i ty of Flo rid a, March-April 194 )

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C oll ege for Women (F S C W ). Al so in Tall a ha ssee wa s Florid a Agr icultural and M ec hanic a l Sc h oo l (F AMU) th e h o m e b ase fo r Negro ex t e n s i o n S o it was th a t o n e sys t e m o p era t e d out of thr ee sc hool s segr e g at e d b y sex a nd race 7 0 T h e r es ultin g h e ad ac h es we r e n o t in co n se qu e nti a l s in ce every d ay di s cu ss i o n was s l owe d b y th e n ecess it y o f m a ilin g a lmo s t a ll co mmuni ca ti o n ( t e l e ph o n e a nd t e legr a ph we r e co n s id e r e d to o ex p e n s i ve for r eg ular u se) o r b y wa itin g until o n e p arty c ould drop in on t h e oth e r. Th e in a d e qu acy of s u c h a n a rr a n ge m e nt was n ot l os t o n Ex t e n s i o n l ea d e r s In 1 927 Di s tr ic t HO A L u cy B e ll e Se ttl e wa nt e d t o m ove h e r of fi ce fr o m Ta ll a h assee t o Ga ine sv ill e cl o e r t o h e r wo rk in So uth F l ori d a T h o u g h th e r e was so m e c on ce rn that t hi s wo uld ca u se a di s rupti o n in co mmuni ca t io n s b etwee n h o m e d e m o n s tr a ti o n s t aff Dir ec t o r Newe ll ackn ow l e d ge d t h at Se ttl e s pl a n m a d e r ea l se n se Writin g t o S t a t e HD A F l av i a G l easo n a b o ut Sett l e's r e qu es t h e co mm e n te d "a ll of th e Ex t e n s i o n wor k H o m e D e m o n s tr atio n in c lud e d i s a pa rt of t h e ac ti v iti es of th e U n ive r s i ty of F l o rid a a nd i fwe we r e fo ll ow in g o ut a l og i ca l pl a n i n r ega r d t o h ea dqu a rt e r s th e o ffi c ial h e adqu a rt e r s of a ll th e Ex t e n s i o n wo rk e r s w ould b e a t Ga in esv ill e 9 Newe ll b e li eve d th a t th e se p a r a ti o n of ex t e n s i o n s t aff was a t e mp o ra ry a rr a n geme nt ," but segrega t e d p o li c i es pro ve d p e r s i s t e nt. In 1 963 th e h o m e d e m o n s tr a ti o n s t ate s t aff move d fro m FSU t o UF a nd F l oy Bri tt ca m e fro m F AMU t o FSU t o h ea d up egro h o m e d e m o n s t ra ti o n All thr ee g roup s of staff did n o t s h a r e s p ace at UF until t h e 1 970s 0 Th e w om a n in c h a r ge of a ll h o m e d e m o n s t ra ti o n t a t e w id e m a int a in e d h e r of fi ce a t FSC W T h e S t a t e HO A a n swe r e d to bot h t h e Vice -D irecto r w i t h w h om p rofes i onal cont a ct was freq u e n t a nd to t h e Di rec t o r as itu a ti o n s wa rr a nt e d u bor din ate t o t he ta t e H OA er e t h ree w hi te Di s tri c t HD As a nd o n e bl ac k D i str i c t H DA a we ll a s t a t e s ub ject s pec i al i s t 9 Wi lm o n ew e ll [WN] t o FG 1 5 e p t e mb e r 1 92 7 ( C 2 15). Fl orida Ex t en i o n Assoc i a 1i o n of F a mil y a n d o n s um er c i n ces H a n dboo k 2002-2003 http: // \ \ w feafc i fa .ufl e d u/p d fd oc / FEAF H andbook pd[ ( 1 5 e p t e mb r 2 00 5).

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71 Th bla c k agent in fact ov r aw a ll N g ro hom e d mon tration w rk in th e tate, but h e r r e lati n hip to th tat e HD wa e qui va l e nt to h r white count rpart ac h w hit e di trict agen t ver aw r u g hl y on third of th e work in th e t a l e, serv in g as an int e rm e diary b e tw ee n th e t a l e and c un ty hom e d e mon trati n agents. ac h ounty HOA erve d und e r h e r Di trict H thou g h ach mi g ht a ea il y contact the State HOA for a i tance advice comp l aint, or prai e re ga rdin g h r county. Within the countie a furth e r d e l egation of duty took pla ce. The HOA co ndu c t e d th program but h e often wa upported by local leader s, c lubw o men from the com muni ty who demon trat e d a c l ear grasp of pro gr am principle s and kill s and who cou ld s u cessfully teach other The e women were not only h e lpful for the HOA but provid e d v ital time a nd manpow e r durin g period s of crisis. Some loc a l l eaders also joined the Senior Hom e D emo n s tration ouncil for their co unti es, a nd serve d as county dele ga t e at the annual t ate ouncil m ee tin g. Co mpri se d of m e mb e r s of county home demon s tration c lub the Co un ci l 's r e pon ibili ty was to b e th e oice of Florida hom e d e mon s tr a tion nationall y, in Washington D . or a t n at ion a l Co un c il m eet in gs Within the tate the Co un c il g uid e d the co ur se of h ome d emo n tration work fo r th e co min g yea r by formally r eco mm e ndin g pro gra m ac ti v iti e a nd th eme Made up of both HD As serv in g as a d i so r or co n s ult a nt s, a nd lo ca l home demon tration women, erv in g as m em b e r s a nd d e l egates th e Co un c il repre e nt e d a truly cooperati e effo rt between h o m e d e mon tration p e r onnel a nd club member T h e e adu lt po ition s we r e replicated for g irl who m a nn e d a Junior Hom e D emo n stra ti o n ouncil a nd erved a 4-H c lub l eade r Maintainin g this elaborate sy tern wa not cheap howe er, and the ervice had to b e c r ea ti ve, patient a nd p e r s i s t e nt when it ca m e to funding it s operation E ryt hin g from typew rit er to travel to pa check wa a potential aggra a ti on for an ag nc hich was co n i t e ntl y ca h poor.

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72 At l east in theory exte n sion funding so und s harmoniou s enough; Lincoln David Kelsey d esc rib es it as a cooperative e ndea vo r r eflecting th e nature of the work it se l f. Ind eed extension coffers filled with the combi n ed re so urces of federa l s tate county a nd pri va t e funds and eac h were nece ssary to keep the whole operation afloat. 11 Wa y ne Ra s mu sse n provides a basic overv ie w the federa l gove rnment pro v id e d a ba se fund ," state financin g to th e ag ri cu ltur a l co ll ege or other co ll ege responsible for coordinating exte n s i on work pro v ided about one-third of th e costs, a nd counties or other loc a l gove rnm e nt s, includin g private co ntributor s lik e farmers o r ga ni za tion s, made up the r e mainin g third of fund s. 1 2 But es peciall y at the county le ve l funding was no certainty The amount of mon ey al l ocated for extension in c rea se d co nsiderabl y betw ee n 1914 and the 1960 s, and the so ur ces for funding in creasingly balanced In 1 915, a tota l of $3,597,000 s upp o rt e d extension serv ic es; b y 1954 th e t o tal al l otment had c limb e d to $ I 00 617 000 for th e s tate s, A l aska, Hawaii and Pu e rto Ri co. B y 1 962 t h e combined a ll ocation had r eac hed $ 1 59 ,2 27,000 In 1 915 the federa l gove rnment provid e d more th a n forty p e r ce nt of the funds th e s tat e twenty-nine percent a nd th e counties twenty-two percent ; b y the I 960s th e burden of financ e had le ve l e d out to thirtyseve n p e rcent fe d era l thirty-nin e percent t ate a nd twenty-two p erce nt co unty Over tim e, the mon ey s hift e d from a h eavy 11 Kelsey Coopera ti ve Ex t e n s ion Work, 57 1 2 Dorothy Sc hw ei d e r 75 Y e ars of Serv i ce Coop e rati ve Ex t e n ion in I owa (A m e : I owa tale Unive r s ity Pre s, 1993) ix U nd e r Sm ith -Lever federa l gra nt -in-aid were to be di tributed ba e d on fo ur fac t o r s: I a flat a mount to every t a l e wi th a m i nimum e t e n s ion ap p aratu 2. a porti o n ba ed on a tale s farm popu l atio n 3. a p o rti o n ba ed on a s tat e's rur a l p op ul a ti o n a nd 4. a separate fund for th e ec r e t ary of Agricu ltur e t o di tribute acco rdin g to relat i ve need. Local funding wa l ess trai g ht forward. Sta t e l egis l ature relea ed fundin g to the landgra nt in titut ion und er the directi o n of th e s tate dir ec t o r of xte n s i o n A t th e cou n ty l eve l e ith er th e co unt y gove rnment o r a cou n ty s pon so ring board adm ini s tered funds thou g h in so m e s t a t e the co un ty appropriatio n s mo ve d t the tale exte n ion office fo r ad min istra ti on. Fina ll y, private fu nd s were an integral part of th e ex ten ion bud ge t a t rad iti o n es t ab li s h ed wi th the Genera l E du cation Board T h o e intere s t ed in e pandin g e ducational progra m a we ll as indu s tria l i s ts l oca l bu ine m e n an d farm a d vocacy organiza ti on gave to ex t en i o n a a mean of furthering educatio n among th e rural popu l ace. K e l ey oo p rati ve Ext e n i o n Work. 59, 61-62.

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inve tm e nt in agr i c ultur a l d e mon trati n work toward buildin g th e 4-H pro g ram farm and horn d ev lopm nt mark tin g, rural area d eve l opment and for t ry. 13 As ex t e n ,on di e r ifi d it p e r onne l r e quir ment a nd publi c acce ibilit y h a d t expa nd a we ll. n e c ritical impetu for plannin g and ecuring funding wa th e original co un ty bud g l. Fir t agent and l oca l l eader d ev i ed a county Plan of Work and co n truct e d a budget to match They ubmitted th e bud ge t to whatever county board gove rned ex t e n i on and ne e a pprov e d the bud ge t s an d plan of each county trav e l ed to the s tat e offices, where 73 t a t e director composed a tatewid e plan of work a nd accompanying bud ge t ba se d on the ounty plan s. Once sett l ed the s tate plan and bud ge t moved to th e l and-grant in titution for a ppro va l after which th ey came und e r tat e le g i s lati ve review. Funds agreed upon th e r e were e t a ide for the s tate s portion of th e total ex ten s i on financin g. The s tate bud ge t and plan then wen t on to th e office of th e ec r e tary of Agriculture and approva l r e l ea e d federal fund for that tate u e Once fundin g wa in plac e ther e were sti ll more option for p aying age nt s' a l a ri es. In ome sta t es, agent pa y ca m e e ntirel y from federa l and s tat e fund while other tates r e quir e d that th e county s pon so rin g board contribute to sa lari es from co un ty r e ource Thu a n age nt s sa la ry d e p e nd e d on who s i g n e d th e check federa l and s tat e a l aries we r e et by th e s tat e exte n ion dir ec t o r a nd county-inclu i ve a l a ri es va ri e d d e p e ndin g upon the di c r e tion of th e co un ty s pon o rin g board 14 o c ru cia l was co un ty s upport that its absence co uld forestall hom e d e m onstratio n a lt oge th er. In fac t s tat e HDA Ag n es E ll e n Harri in 1 9 1 7 r e mark e d "U ntil a co mmuni ty ca n make s ufficient appropriat i o n s t o s upport an effic i e nt age nt it i s probably better n ot to 13 H . ande r ed ., Th e oopera tiv e Ext e n ion S e rvi ce (Eng l ewood li ffi J : Pr e ntice H a ll In c ., 1966 46; K e y 60 R L. R ee d e r Th e P eo pl e and th e Prof ess ion P ioneers and V e t e ran of th e Exten ion r vice R e m e mb e r H ow Th ey Did Th e ir Job ( p i l on i g ma Phi 1 979) 99100

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74 undertake home demonstration work in the county ." 1 5 Appropriations varied widely, depending on the relative wealth of the county and its attitude toward home demon s tration Where county appropriations lagged state mone y compensated, to a certain extent. This was espec iall y true for black agents. For example, in 192 7 the best paid black HDA was Olive Smith, in Duval County. The county provided $68 per month for her the state $22 and the federal government $25, so that she made $115 each month. Other counties, lik e Leon, appropriated only $20 so that the state paid $85 to offset the lack. 1 6 Salaries tended to increa se every ye ar though the y continued to reflect the inequities in the pay scale and the variables based on county appropriations In 1927 th e best paid white HDA was Pansy Norton in Dade County, who earned nearly $5,000 per year, compared to Ethyl Holloway in Santa Rosa who earned $1,700 annually. Though black HDAs' salaries were less than their white counterparts', the difference was not always as stark as we mi g ht expect. For example in 1927 Olive Smith in Du va l st ill earned $ 1 035 per yea r thou g h Alice Poole in Leon now earned more than $ 1 100 annually. The next year, when Negro District Farm Agent A A. Turner's wife Susie was hired as an HDA, she b ega n working for $ 1 440 and later that yea r Julia Miller was hired for $1,500 annually. 1 7 For many age nt s, w hit e and black if salaries failed to compensate for the particular st re sses of their jobs they might begin to consider more attractive offers as the y came up The mo st se rious consequence of low sa larie s was the very real threat of lo s in g good agents who left their positions for greener pastures In most of the se cases state staff n ego ti a ted aggressively to prevent personnel lo ss. Sometimes an agent could be saved b y a 1 5 Coopera ti ve Ex t e n s ion Work in Agri c ultur e and H o m e E co nomi c R epo rt of G e n era l A c ti vi ti e for 1917 (Was hin gto n D .C.: Government Printing Office 1918) 62. 16 Flavia G l ea on Recommendation s for appo intm ent of egro Home Demon tration W o rker 19 26 (SC-2 15). 1 7 FG to AP 29 May 1928 ; WN to FG 1 3 March 192 ; 1 8 D ece mber 19 2 ( -2 1 -5).

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75 tim e l y ala ry b o t. D a i ry a nd nutriti n p ec i a li t M ary t e nni s ri o u l y co n id e r e d l eav in g Fl rid a for a b tt e r-p ay in g p o iti o n e l ew h e r e but F l av i a GI a n a l e rt e d h e r th a t t a lk s w r und r way t o r a i e t e nni al ary b y 2 00 G l ea on proac ti ve l a n ce k e pt t e nni in F l rid a a ft e r a ll 1 8 t nni a lu e a a p ec i a li t m a d e h e r a goo d ca ndid a t e~ r fin a n c i a l int e r e ntion but not all a ge nt s co uld b e a ve d thi wa y e p ec iall y w h e r e co unti es ju s t wo uld n o t upp o rt th e m a n y l o n ge r. In 1 93 1 k a l oo a oun ty HOA B e rth a H e n ry a l e rt e d A. P p n c r that th e co un ty wa pl a nnin g t o t e rmin a t e it s a ppropri a ti o n fo r h e r b eca u se it co uld affo rd t o s upp o rt o nl y on e age nt. 19 A u u a l Gl easo n a nd pe n ce r b a tt e d abo ut p ote nti a l o luti o n s but non e look e d promi s in g. T h e c oun ty o ff e r e d to p ay H e n ry s sa la ry w ith l a nd but p e n ce r r e j ec t e d t h e id ea b eca u e of it irr eg ulari ty a nd th e d a n ge r th a t a n y u c h l a nd co uld be wo rthl ess H e n ry as k e d S p e n ce r a b o ut th e a d v i sa bili ty o f se ndin g t o th e b oa rd l e tt e r s fro m h e r c lub wo m e n a nd g irl s, but h e a d v i se d h e r aga in s t 'a n yt hin g th a t wo uld indi ca t e a p o liti ca l ac ti o n o n h e r p a rt 20 H enry' p o pul a ri ty was n o t in q u e ti o n a n a rti c l e in th e Oka l oosa e w J our n a l two yea r b efo r e w h e n talk fir t c ir c ul a t e d of e ndin g ex t e n s i o n a ppr o pri a ti o n s, a ppl a ud e d h e r work w ith ru ra l h o m e H e r va lu e t o th e co un ty "s upp o rt e r s a r g u e d ... h as b ee n d ec id e dl y grea t e r th a n h e r cos t. Th o u g h th e pro-H e n ry c amp r ega rd e d evera n ce a 'a b ackwa rd t e p ," th e ir o p po n e nt aw no c h o i ce but t o t e rmin a t e a t l eas t o n e age nt in o rd e r t o avo id ra is in g taxes t o pay h e r sa l ary .~ 1 In th e e nd t h e t e n n in a ti o n we nt th ro u g h H e n ry a pp o intm e n t e nd e d in 1 932 a nd O k a l oosa Co un ty did n o t h ave a n o th e r HO A until 1 955. 18 F to Dece m b e r 1 926 ( C -2 1 -5). 19 FG to A P 27 o ember 1 9 3 1 ( -2 1 6). 20 A P t o FG 2 Ja nu ary 1 93 2; 2 May 1 9 32 ( -2 1 6) 2 1 Okal oo a e w J o urnal u gu t 19 3 0

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76 By no m ea n s were th ese sa lary woes isolated among women in Florida 's Extension Service. HDAs s impl y did not r ece i ve pay on par w ith county fa rm age nt s, and the discrepancy was eve n more apparent a mon g black home agents. The tenuou s p os ition b e tw ee n s ubordination and authority was only exacerbated by in a d e quate financial compensation. Expenditures for county agent work ve r s us home demonstration work were unequal though th e ga p narrowed over time In 19 33 for in s tan ce, Florida ex t e n s ion spe nt nearly $ 1 25,000 on white co un ty agents $78,000 on white h o m e demon stra tion work $ 1 3,800 on black farm age nt work a nd $ 1 3, 400 on bl ack HD As There obviously were di sc r e panci es between age nt s ba sed on both race and sex, but considering extension spe ndin g overall, almost $47, 000 more was de vo ted to agricultural work than to home wo rk and this do es no t take into acco unt work a mon g gi rls a nd bo ys or that ex t e n s ion expe nditur es covered twice as man y s p ec ific pha ses of work s uch as C itricultur e a nd Hom e Impro veme nt for men as for women of eit h e r race or any age. 22 Excluding Service-wide ex penditur es lik e Farme r W ee k or Publication s, th e diff e r e nc e in financial commitment b etwee n extension m e n and women in Florida in 19 33 was about $77, 000 23 Ro o t e d in b o ll weevil era di ca ti o n and crop diver ifi ca tion the Ex t e n sion Service remained a n agriculture-driven agency. It r ecogn i ze d and e mbrac e d th e n ee d fo r revitalization in th e rural hom e a nd co mmunity but in the eve nt of a financial tug-of-war the we i g ht of impro ve d ag ricultur e toppl e d th e p e r ce i ve d li g htw eig ht n ee d s of t h e fami l y A l ert to thi s r ea li ty, State HOA Flavia Glea on worked hard to sec ur e b e tt er sa la r i es for h er a ge nts e pecially those s h e b e li eve d exce ll e d at their wo rk and s h e kept alert to equity between mal e 22 I do n ot mean b y men as fo r wo m e n that th ese pro gra m s benefited only that group All exten i o n program were of benefit t o e ntir e communit i e s, but a t the time th ere was a far mor e di tin ct di i i n of l abor and program s th a n wo uld be tru e in l a t er decade o a program lik e itricultur e wa Fi r al l int e nt a nd purpo se m e n 's wo rk 23 Annua l R e port of Dir ec t o r of E x t e n sio n 1 933 (SC-9 1 aI ).

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77 and fi male ag nt For in tance, when he recommended alary increa e for e era! agent m 192 he n ted that it had be n thre ear ince the la t alary in rea e for the women, thou g h h didn't kno h the e a l arie compare ith tho e in aine ille who ha e ork d o faithfully in imilar po iti n ... for the pa t 12 and 10 years." 2 4 Her attitude did not wa er on the i ue of rac a good agent was a good agent. Talented and devoted women r ad to ork ith Florida black rural familie ere an a et not to be a ted For in tance when black agent Diana Hart field and ancy Hender on s salaries were up for increa e Glea on rote A. P pencer to encourage hi appro al. ancy Henderson in particular "i doin g a lot of wo rk for the people of h er county and she is carrying the expense of payin g for the office hich as built for her u se Like many HDAs e pecially black agents Hender on paid for man of her own materials and tran portation And when Hart sfie ld 's sa lary l ooked in jeopard from hortfall in the egro extension budget Gleason ad ised pencer that the white home demon tration bud ge t could co er it. 25 The complicated proces s of securing and admini terin g e tension fund eem an m itable b y product of bureaucracy but there was a more noble aim accountability Losing the s upport of the local people tolled the end of exten ion in that area, so it was critical that the tern appeared credible and efficient, e p ciall here taxpayer contributed to agent alarie and incurred expenses of their own while acting a local extension leader Both profe ional and olunteer exten ion orker ere a Kelse put it "public ervants [ ho] Ii e in a go ldfi h bowl. Their po ition depended upon the continued s upport and tru t of the people for in a democrac it i not lon g before the public communicates it impressions to 24 FG to 17 ay 19_9( -21-5) 25 FG to P _9 January 19-5; 26 October 19_5 ( C 21-5)

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78 it s l eg i s l at i ve repr ese ntative s. Th i s i s democrac y in action . but it mean s accountabi li ty to th e peopl e in a very direct way which asserts itself every tim e a bud ge t is submitted. 26 Earni n g cred ibili ty a l so required hirin g and placin g ski ll e d personable agents. Good will and r efo rmati ve fervo r were u se ful too l s while in th e field, but once agents had ex hau sted their battery of inspirationa l ve r se, they had to pro ve they were offe rin g so m et hin g worthwhi l e, so methin g tan g ibl e. As one Kentucky agent put it You didn t dar e go o ut without l ea d in yo ur penc il. 27 Administrative p e r so nn e l in parti c ular were well-educated. In the 1 920s officia l s tat e report s did not even include the e duc a tional back gro und of s up erv i sors in it s roster of ex ten s ion s taff. B y 19 58, nearl y every m e mber of th e hom e demon stra ti o n s up erv i sory staff h e ld at l east a Master's degree a nd so m e of th e ag ricultural s upervi so r s a doctorate in th e ir fie ld. 28 C l ea rly as exte nsion se ttl e d into Florida and th e demand for profe ssio n a li s m increased th e Service r es pond e d b y publicl y advertising it s agents ap par ent ex perti se, movin g the wo r k c l oser to a career orientation. Co unty agents typical l y h ad a B.S in Home Eco nomic s, thou g h so m e simp l y h a d s i g nific a nt ex p e ri e nc e in rural r efo m1 and education 29 So it wa with B e ulah Shute a stro n g candidate to fill th e Negro Di s trict Hom e D e mon s tration position in 19 36. Fl av i a Gleason believed Shute s ho we d grea t potential b eca u se "s h e i s a wo man of co n si d erab l e abi li ty, h as exce ll e nt l ea d e r s hip qualities a nd exce ll e nt s ubj ec t-m atte r training as we ll as goo d expe ri ences 26 Ke! ey Coope rati ve Ex t e n s i o n Work 64 Other exte n sio n per on n e l recognized the n eed for a job well-done. In a taped interview in 1975 ome exte n i o n ve t e r ans co mm e nted upon the c h a llen ges of e tablishing d emo n s trati o n wo rk th at th e p eo pl e co uld tru s t th e n a nd l a t e r. a id o n e ve teran We b uild o n th e goo d wi ll of o ur pr e d eces o r s thr o u g h 50 yea r of Exte n sio n and tho e w h o fo ll ow u s can d o the ame thin g ifwe d o n t sc r ew it up ." R eede r Th e P eo pl e and th e Pr o/es ion I ". 27 Reeder Th e P eo pl e and th e Pr ofess i o n 85. 2 Compare oopera ti ve Ext e n ion Work in Agric ultur e and Hom e Economic R epo rt of Gen e r a l Ac ti vi t ies for l 920 and 1 95 ( W a hin gton, D C.: Go e mm e nt Printin g ffice 1921 ; 1959). 29 Fo r an overa ll job de cription and r e p o n ibi liti es r e iew ee R o l e a nd R e p o n ibility of P e r o nn e l ( -158-6)

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that wi ll be we l l for u to inj c t into th e n eg ro hom e d e mon trati n pro g ram ." hut e had taught hom e eco n mic c ur for i yea r prior to h e r application g i v in g h e r a practi ca l a d a nta ge o e r me oth r ca ndidat e lea n wa c ncem e d how eve r that hute had n e er erv d a a county w rker th e kind h e would b e up e r v i in g if hir e d Howe ve r ," 79 l ea n a ur d Di r ector Newe ll "s he made me f ee l that she wou l d be perfe c t l y wi ll in g and a nxi u to do at any tim e and had b ee n eager to go into th e ex t e n ion fi e l d for quit e a while. h e ha too had con iderab l e co n tact with ex ten ion work in outh aro l in a .. She 1mpre es me a havin g a goo d under s tandin g of the purpo se of our work and th e way it i carr i e d on. 30 Sometime the mo t important rationale for pl ac in g an agent wa that a county wa nt e d o n e evera l countie lobbied actively for a HOA Thou g h not a ll were s u cce fut th e women who d e mand e d hom e d e mon strat ion demonstrated th e ir commitment to it and th e ir willingness to s peak up on b e half of their own wi he s. ome county requ es t s were mor e promi s in g than others. In 1 927, A. P Spencer wrote to Flavia Glea on that h e had a requ es t from H e rnando ounty officials for both a co unty agent and an HDA. Ind ee d th ey we r e int e re ted e nou g h to b eg in collecting information on pot e ntial sa lari es and financial respon s ibilitie 3 1 How eve r e ith e r b eca u e of mi und e r landin g or limit ed funds m a n co unti es a ppropriat e d for only one agent. Bradford Co unty commissioners when they wanted th e ervices of a co unty agent to assist with ho g vacc ination decided th ey wo uld ha e to t e rminat e th e ir contract with Bradford HDA 32 e ldom e r e wo m e n in ol e d w ith h ome d e mon tration pleased by uch d ec i s ion a nd their di se nt co uld be quit e v i goro u Durin g the D ep r essio n espec i a ll y, co un ty board 3 F to 29 January 1 936 ( -2 1 7) 3 1 P t oF I Jun e 19 27( -21-5) 32 F toA P ,l3June1933( -21-6)

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80 became m o r e ca uti o u s to safeg uard a lr eady limit ed r esou r ces. But F l avia G l easo n remained determined to keep home demonstration afloat in as many loca l es as possible even if one age nt worke d two co unti es. S h e believed firmly that the eit h er-o r policy man y count i es took toward agricu ltu ra l and home demonstration agents was unnecessary and she encouraged the Director to remedy this common problem. I believe it wou ld be beneficial a ll the way around," she wrote him if it we r e understood in the counties that the Extension Service includes both county agricu ltu ra l agents and home demonstration agents." Home demonstration s h e intim ated, was not so m e perip h eral, throwaway program of garden clubs and sew ing circ l es. As s he exp l ained to Spencer in 1 932, 'O ur work ha s ju t gone through a very unpleasant experience in Palm Beach County where the co mmissioners retained .. the county agricultura l age nt and a Smith-Hughes worker but did n ot include an appropriation for home demonstration wome n work until pressure was brou g h t to bear from t h e women." Until then the commiss i oners and the schoo l board h ad each tr i ed to force the other to take on th e home demonstration appropriation, so that h ome demonstration work i s batted around from one to the other in a mo st un sa ti sfac tory way and certainly not because of any fai lu re on the part of the agents to render splendid service resulting in work ev idently very much appreciated by the people ." 33 Women s t epped in to demand respect and funding for Palm Beach home demon stratio n and the y fo ll owed suit in Hi ll sborough and Liberty, though with varying de g ree s of force. In 19 33, Hillsborou g h County's Wimauma Home Demon stration tub wrote to Wayne Thomas of the Budget Board expressing their s upport for home d e monstration work in ge n e ral and th e ir particu l ar approval of HOA C l arine Belcher. Their te timony was brief but pointed: "We ... deep l y regret yo ur action in cutting down th Home 33 FG to AP 27 July 19 32 ( -21-6)

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D mon trati n work in our co unty . ach m e mb e r feel that much of the in truction and infi rmation g iv n to u s on Hom e Mana ge ment H m e I mpro ve m e nt e tc ha been very pra ti ca l and ery helpful and it i s with ge nuin e r eg r et that we I am it i s to b e cu t down 34 Th following yea r a imi l ar ituati n aro e in Lib e rt y ounty but the re pon e was l e 81 p lit at lea ta the commi ioner under tood it. [n October A. P pencer wrote t tate HOA Glea on that h e had ju t met with Liberty agricultural agent, who d e li ve r e d the n ews that the county had di sc ontinued all exten ion work. penc e r believed the evera nce wa a re ult of a demand on the part o f the women s club that the y [ co mmi ss ion e r ] also employ a home demonstrat i on agent ," but without the fund s to do s o th e board decided "w ith all the contro ersy" it would be better to have no agents at all. Th e Vice-Director wa rather di ma ye d for it eemed that without ome additiona l fundin g or a change of he a rt from t h e women's club, no extension work could go forward in Libert y. 35 As wa often the case the original information was not entirely accurate Di st ri c t HOA Rub y McDavid i s ited Liberty and assured Gleason that no one there h a d dem ande d e ith e r a home agent or no agent but that seve ral men and women had indicated that, if o n! one agent could be s upported the y preferred an HDA to continue the work agent Josephine immo had been doing Indeed as Gleason heard it funding was not the i s u e Rath e r "severa l reliable so urce s' had told McDavid that the county apparently had imp ose d some rule that a ll agents as county workers, had to relinquish part of their sa larie s to certain members of the Board in return for it appropriating for extension work. ot s urpri s in g! n ei ther 1mmo 3 4 Mr H. R Lightfoot and Mr D M. D o \ d e ll t o Wayne Thomas 9 ctobe r 1933 ( -21-6 ). 35 P t o FG, 5 October 1 934 ( -2 1 -6)

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82 n o r Mc D avi d we r e pl ea e d w ith thi s id ea a nd r e fu se d to coo p erate. Gleaso n s urmi se d It ma y b e th a t thi s h as so m e thin g t o d o w ith no a ppropriati o n b e in g mad e ." 36 T h o u g h di sa pp o int e d th at Lib erty Co un ty l oo k e d t o lo se a n y b e n e fit s of exte n s i o n G l easo n s impl y s hift e d gea r s a nd m ove d a h ea d L ib erty h a d b ee n wo r ke d a l o n g w i t h Cal h o un Co un ty so t h at eac h co un ty was o nl y r eq uir e d t o m a k e a s m a ll a pp ro p r i at i o n. al h o u n r ea d i l y agree d so w h e n L ib erty b a lk e d Ca lh o un r ece i ved th e fu ll m eas u re of ex t e n s i o n staff a nd s upp o rt fo r it s b e n efi t. In fac t Ca lh o un was so int e r este d in k ee pin g th e wo rk th a t i ts b oa rd a ppro ac h e d Mc D av id a b o ut sec urin g fi n a n c i a l a rr a n ge m e n ts so t h a t eve n i f L ib erty d ec i ded t o a ppropri a t e afte r all Ca lh o un co uld m a intain its age n ts fu ll t im e r at h e r t h a n s h ar in g th em again. 37 T h e L ib erty si tu a ti o n ill ust r ates t h e so rt of p owe r d y n a mi cs inh e r e nt i n ex te n i on wo r k. Loca l wo m e n s co ll ec t ive vo i ce co uld coax h o m e d e m o n strat i o n wor k fro m a r e lu cta n t b oa rd o r it mi g ht ca u se s u c h s tir as t o e limina te ex t e n s i o n wor k e nt i r e l y. A nd th o u g h h o m e d e m o n s t ra ti o n co uld n o t ea il y o p era t e in a co un ty w h ic h r efuse d t o a pp ro p r i ate for it h o m e ex t e n s i o n s t aff we r e n o t c rippl e d b y a ce rt a in boa rd di s in te r es t. So m eo n e e l se s u re l y wa n ted th e wo r k a nd age nt s were eas il y tra n ferre d t o m ore we l co mi ng cou nt ies. T h ese p ro bl e m s we r e fr u s t ra tin g, but n ot u s u a ll y se ri ous T h e r e we r e, h oweve r ome t ro ubl es of co n s id era bl e ign i fica n ce in t h e profess i o n a l lif e of HD As tr o u b l e that r eq u ired every n ego ti a tin g s kill t o n av i ga t e a nd r eso l ve wi th minim a l d a m age. Most in terna l t e n s ion was pl aye d ou t in t e r se l e tt e r s ra th e r t h a n ope n h os tili ty. Bu t t h a t was n o t so for A. A. Turner a nd at l east two egro D i trict h o m e age nt s. The root of t h e d i cord appeared to be about p owe r a nd co nt ro l a batt l e fo r a u t h o r ity U ntil 1 925 T urn er h a d d ir ec tl y u perv i e d a ll b l ack exte n io n worker in Florida h o m e a nd ag ri c ultu ra l a li ke As Negro ex t e n s i o n work expa n ded i t b eca m e c l ear that a 36 FG to AP 11 O c tob e r 19 3 4 ( 2 1-6 ). 37 FG t o A P 2 o e mb e r 19 3 4 ( 2 16 )

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83 fe m a l di tri t ag nt ak in t o th e w h i t e di tr ic t age n ts, wou l d be an a et to the work At t h e a m tim e T um r w if e u i e ace mp a ni e d him o n so m e tr i p o ut in to t h e country. h e t a lk d w ith th e wo m e n h e m e t in fo rm a ll y d e m o n t ra t e d ome i dea to t h e m a nd d i c u s ed c lub fo nn a ti n u i e ca m e b ack e nthu ia t i c a nd r eady to d o mo r e. Flav i a Glea s o n w a s a l l fo r it e n co u rage d b y S u i e id ea a nd e n se of co mm i t me n t. 38 p e n cer l i kewi e ap p rove d at l ea t fo r th e tim e b e in g, a nd in M a r c h a d v i se d G l easo n t o g i ve u i e so m e co n c r e t e i n t ruction in w h a t t o di c u ss w i th th e w om e n 9 T hou g h h e did n o t s p ec ifi ca ll y r eco mm e n d of fi cia l l y a pp o intin g u s i e ju s t a few d ay Gl eas on l a t e r m a d e a s u gges ti o n fo r u s i e 's m on thl y a l ary a nd p e n ce r ag r ee d t o a s i x wee k a pp o in t m e nt soo n ex t e nd e d b y another few week 4 0 Ove r th e n ex t two yea r s S u s i e wo rk e d th ro u g h in c r e m e nt a l a p poi n tme nt s as t h e b u dget al l owe d es t a bli s hin g h e r se l f as a l ea d e r for Neg ro h o m e d e mon s t ra t io n wo r k 41 Wh e n t h e sta t e s taff b ega n l oo kin g se ri o u l y fo r a m o r e p e rm a n e nt r e pl ace m e nt T urn e r r eco mm e nd ed that Sus i e stay o n so a not to di s rupt th e wo r k. S p e n ce r in s i s t e d h oweve r th a t T urn e r try to fi nd o m eo n e w i t h m o r e offic i a l qu a li fica ti o n a nd h e gr ud gi n g l y agree d Th e s earch b ega n wit h in th e t a t e, but no o n e ee m e d ful l y r e ad y fo r th e j o b 4 2 In t h e s umm e r o f 1 928 T u rn e r e n liste d th e a id of T M C ampbell a fi e ld age nt a t Tu s k egee, and h e ca m e up w i t h J uli a Mill er a HDA in A r ka n sas 43 Troubl e b ega n a lm os t imm e di a t e l y. T urn e r wa un certa in how t o s h are r e sponsib il ity w ith Mill e r ; h e r fo rm a l p os iti o n a nd atte nd a n t a u t h o ri ty we r e very di ffe r e n t fr o m h i s re l a x ed 38 FG to AP 3 Ma r c h 1 925 (SC-215 ) 39 A P to FG 5 M a r c h 1 926 ( C-2 1 -5). 4 FG to AP 8 M a r c h 1926 ; P t o FG 1 2 March 1926 ; 13 Apri l 1 92 6 ( C 2 15) 41 FG t o 1 6 Ja nu ary 1 9 2 8 ( C2 1-5). 4 2 A . T urn er [AAT] t o FG, 1 6 J ul y 1 92 8; A P to FG I 9 Jul y l 92 8 ( C 2 15 ). 4 3 T to T M C a m pbe ll 1 October 1 92 8; F t o 2 4 o e mber 1 92 ( 2 15).

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8 4 r e l a tion s hip with hi s own wife T h e t e rritorial di s put e did not abat e with tim e, but gre w m o r e int e n se. In b oxes of co rr es p o nd e n ce, no o th e r s itu a ti o n d e m o n s t ra t es th e p o w e r s tru gg l es w ithin ex t e n s i o n so w e ll as th a t b e tw ee n Juli a Mill e r and A. A T urn e r. Mill e r 's p os ition was a n awkwa rd o n e h o ldin g a r e l a ti ve l y n ew po st, s tru gg lin g t o d e fin e it s b o und a ri es a nd es t a bli s h h e r se l f a a s up erv i so r ap a rt fr o m a nd e qu a l t o Turn e r. S p e n ce r co mm e nt e d t o F l av ia G l easo n th a t T urn e r h a d a h a bit of c ritiquin g every s m a ll thin g whi c h Mill e r did th a t irrit a t e d him as th o u g h s h e we r e hi s s ub o rdin a t e. 4 4 Mill e r b e li eve d th a t s h e was n o t r ece i v in g th e r es p ec t o r th e r es p o n s ibili ty t h at c a m e w ith h er j o b S h e w rot e a p e r so n a l l ette r to A P S p e n ce r in Jun e 1 929 ex pr ess in g h er co mmitm e nt t o h e r wo r k but h e r di ssa ti sfac ti o n w i t h th e way s h e h a d t o carry it o u t. S h e ass ur e d S p e n ce r th a t s h e we l co m e d th e dir ec ti o n a nd ass i s t a n ce of th e S t a t e HO A, b u t it wo uld b e very h a rd fo r m e t o wo rk und e r a m a n s s up erv i sio n w h o h a d n o ex p e ri e n ce a nd no tr a inin g in m y p a rti c ul a r lin e of wo rk I d o n t fee l I co uld ge t th e sy mp a th y, s upp o rt a nd e n co ura ge m e nt th a t I c ould ge t oth e r w i se Ec h o in g F l av i a G l ea o n s pl e a th a t every co un ty s h o uld kn ow h o m e d e m o n tr a ti o n was a p a rt of th e Serv i ce M ill e r st r esse d th a t everyo n e s h o uld kn ow a b o ut h e r a pp o intm e nt a nd th a t w h e n i t ca m e t o Negro h o m e d e m o n s t ra t io n wo rk s h e was in c h a r ge I h ave b ee n p a ti e nt a nd co n s id era t e ," s h e w ro te r ea l iz in g t h a t I am n ew a nd th at ot h ers h ave s p e nt l o n g yea r s of serv i ce I h ave g i ve n ove r a nd co mp ro mi se d in m a n y t hin gs.' But a nd s h e was as c l ea r as p oss ibl e, I h ave r efu e d t o a ll ow t h e Di tri ct Age nt t o co ntr o l m y wo r k a nd p e r so n a l a ff a ir s 4 5 In di sc u sio n s w ith G l easo n ove r th e n ex t few m o n t h s S p e n ce r a d v i se d h er th a t h e h a d p ro mi se d M ill e r th e s t ate s t aff wo uld b ack h e r u p a nd wo r k to r e s o l ve th e p rob l e ms w i t h T urn e r s o t h a t wo r k co uld p ro g res s Work did go on tho u g h by F e b ru ary of the ne x t ye ar 44 AP S t o FG 8 Apri l 1 92 9 ( -2 1-5). 45 J u l ia Mi ll e r [JM] t o AP 22 Jun e 1 92 9 ( C 2 1 5).

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85 Mill r wa again complaining to p nc e r that u i Turn r wa h avi n g a littl e too much to d with thin g ri g ht on and that too many of the hom e demon strat ion women were d evot in g their time t farm exhibits rath e r than home demon s tr a tion ex hibit 4 6 lea on r e main e d teadfa s tly b hind Miller throughout her tenure, affirming h e r qualific a tion and excellent rec rd of r ice in Florida to the Director. Miller had h e r faults but s h e was a killed and devot d leader and Glea on felt "very much b ette r about th e type of wo rk which the negro women are doing than I have ever felt and I know this i du e to Julia work w ith them ." 47 Neverthele the situation only grew tenser. Her frustration mountin g, Miller recei ve d a welcome offer of relief in June 1931. The ame day that Gleason wrote to ewell assuring him that Ju l ia Miller wa the be t per so n to fulfi ll the District HDA position Miller received additional confirmation of her kill from another so urc a job offer from the Ok l ahoma Extension Service for exactly the po s ition she held in Florida. The Oklahoma position promised a better sa lary and, by the t o n e of the offer letters considerably more freedom to do h e r job. 4 8 Perhap s comforted that an alternative wa available, Miller delayed any decision until the le g i s la t ure made sa lary announcements, for s he did not want to leave Florida without achieving goa l s s h e had et. The competition was fierce, thou g h. For every doubt Miller raised to Oklahoma it s extension director had a reas uring an wer and the Service t here remained persistent in pursuing her. 49 The odds for Florida did not look good, but Gleason wa d etermine d not to l ose Miller w ith out exhausting every re ource to keep her on. As she told Spencer that fall, It i s not an increase 4 6 AP to JM, _4 June I 929; AP to FG I Jul y I 929(SC 21-5); APS to FG 19 February I 930 ( C-216). 4 7 FG t o 22 pril 1 930 ( C-2 1-6 ). 4 8 o m1 a Brumbaugh to JM, 22 June 19 31 ( C-2 16). 4 9 JM to AP I Jul y I 931; D P Tr ent t o JM I August 19 31 ( 21-6)

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86 [in sa l ary] for Julia that I am so concerned abo ut but the expensive l oss it seems to me that it wou ld b e to Florida to l et Julia go." 5 For a brief time it l ooked that G l eason sown persistence paid off. Miller wired Ok l a h oma that s h e was officia ll y d ec linin g their offer. But some time ove r the n ext month something c h anged, and Mi ll er resigned h er po si tion to accept its cou nt erpart in Ok lahom a. Spence r believed that Oklahoma must ha ve made a l ast -di tc h attempt to secure her and won her at l ast, but her devotion to Florida extension suggests that o nl y the combination of financia l and emotional strain induced h e r to leave 5 1 The sea r ch for her rep l acement began in earnest, but this time the state taff was mindful of prior problems and tried to avoid the sort of power str u gg l e w hi c h had cr i pp l ed M ill er's work a nd driven h e r away T h e Director was anxious that Mi ll er be replaced as soo n as possible to avoid the Board e l iminating the Negro Di s trict Age nt position entirely or turning that s upervision over to a white agent. 52 But find in g a su it ab l e candidate was difficult In December, Rosa Ballard assumed the post as District Agent. Gleason was especially plea se d that because of her l ong experience, Ballard may be more aggressive than Julia. 53 Here was a wo m an G l easo n believed co uld h o ld her own aga in st Turner. Sa dl y, traged y st ruck just as Ballard was estab l ishing herself. In the summer of 1933 she drowned w hi le swimming in a l ake n ear Ta ll ahas ee. 54 Soon after, the hunt was on once again to fi ll the Negro Di trict Agent position. After a delay of nearl y three years, Beula h Shute took the helm her experience outweighing the appea l of F l oy Britt the woman Glea on be li eved wa 5 FG to AP 16 eptember 193 I ( -21-6). 51 AP t o FG 16 October 19 31 ( C-2 1-6) 52 WN to FG, 30 ovember 1931 ( -21 6) 53 FG to AP I 5 December 19 3 1 ( -21-6). For co rr e pondenc l eading up t o Ballard 's appointment, inc l udin g recommendation s for o th er ca ndid a t es, see C-21-6 for 19 3 1 54 FG t o WN, 26 Jun e 19 33 ( C-2 1 -6).

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87 th be t qualifi d n gro hom e d emo n stra ti o n age nt in Flori d a.' But l ea on feared that an ill feeling b etw e n Britt a nd Turner wo uld h a ndi cap h e r a nd that she wou ld n o t be o readily ac pt d a a up ervi o r as hut e 55 Ult im ate l y F l oy Britt did become th e Di trict Agent, a po t he er ed with great s u cces a nd l o n gevity ass umin g t h e po ition in 1943 Britt wa s till there in J 960 wit h no plans to l eave in ight. 56 The train upon the egro Di strict Age nt especia ll y in r e l at i on to A A. Turne r as her ag ri c ultural co unt e rp art i s ev id e nc e of th e stra in put upon the e ntir e ervic e by its segre g ated policies ca u in g logistical a nd personal confusion Assuming that F l orida s extension work had been int egrate d from th e start, the Negro District Age nt role might never have been crea t ed because the wo rk for that position wou ld h ave been covered b y a regular district agent. Alternatively had the seg r egate d Service created Turner s cou nt erpart when it created his position, much of th e unpl ea a nt mess that fo llo we d Julia Miller s appointment might have been averted Turner never wo uld have been in c h arge of women s home demonstration work so h e a l ways wo uld h ave shared an office and he wou ld h ave been accustomed to working on extensio n projects jointl y. For the good of black rural Floridians it was an undi s put e d boon that S u s i e Turner was int ereste d in working amo n g them and proposing the creation of a su p ervisory po s ition akin to a wh it e district o r state age n t. But for the professional women w h o manned the position the frustration of having their responsibility an d aut hori ty thwarted b y internal boundary di sputes wa both disheartening and counterpro du ct i ve Like o many other battle in the service of extensio n this one as won b y per 1 tence and experie n ce in a joint effort among HD As to see home demonstration for black 55 FG to AP 2 9 January 1936 ( C-217 ) 56 A in thi ca e the ea iest way to track ervice in Florida Cooperati e E ten s i o n e rvic e i t o u se the per onnel roster in each annual Coope rati ve E x t e n io n Wo rk i n Ag r ic ultu re a n d H o m e Econo mi c R e p o rt of G e n e ral A c ti v iti e. Flo y Britt fir t appear as egro Di trict A g ent in 1943.

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88 women succeed and flourish. When naming allies, home demonstration workers of both races sided with one another against their male counterparts. This was not necessarily a feminist sty l e protest for equa l pay, but these were career women with training and experience who shared a common concern for the state of the rural home. They believed their work was v ital and they responded to cha ll enges according l y. Even so HDAs could not expend all their energies negotiating professional borders within extensio n for some battles had to be won within the w id er home demonstration comm uni ty. In such cases, HDAs at every level were ca ll ed upon to be what 0. B. Martin ca ll ed "an ambassador extraordinary." 57 In some cases, a dispute might flare up between an agent and her county. One s uch unwhole so me situation" was in Volusia County with HOA Orpha Cole. In May 1932 A. P Spencer wrote to Flavia G l eason that he had heard rumors that Volusia County was terminating its home demonstration appropriation. 58 In the cash-poor Thirties thi s was not surprising, but over the next few months more details emerged that revealed an uglier s ituation. By July G l eason was recommending to Director Newe ll t h at Co l e s service in Vo lu sia be discontinued. G l eason cited a steady stream of"petitions and counter-petitions to remove [Cole] from office,' creating what I consider undesirable pub li city especially at this time. D esp ite G l eason 's and di s trict agent Mary Keown's efforts to smooth the waters the situation had on l y grow n worse. Co l e's own unsound attitude toward the women in h e r county and her s uperior s see med at the heart of the conflict. One of the imple t but mo t fundamental requirement for home demonstration work the ability to "wo rk with people ," eemed beyond Co l e reach. 59 57 Martin, Th e D e monstration Work 1 52. 58 AP to FG 27 May 193 2 ( -21-6) 59 AP t o FG, 27 May 19 32 ( -21-6)

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lea on comp ed two l ette r th e n th e fir t to Orpha ole advising h e r to e ith e r r e i g n or tak e an ind e finit e l eave of ab e n ce. Glea on did not minc e wor d s in her r e buk e. ince hom e d e mon tration work h a d b eco m e the" ource of a wrangle in th cou n ty, an d harmon y, goo d will and confidence are e e nti a l factor in a ll h o m e demon tration work ," 89 ole' performance in Volu ia and her profe ss iona l attitude t owa rd th e state office had been un sa ti factory to u for some tim e For whatever rea so n Co l e see m e d unabl e to mak e the adjustments which l had hoped yo u would do following m y seve ral conferences w ith you ." 6 0 In a ub equent letter to the C hairman of the Board of Co unty Co mmi ss ion e r B e n T hur s b y, Gleason focu ed on dama ge control. She carefully expressed regret for her d ec i s i o n regarding HDA Co le acknowledging her lon g service in Volusia but remained firm in her co n vict ion that thi s was the be s t course to pr ese rve th e long-time and pl e a sa nt relationship b etwee n the Ex ten s ion Service and the county. 61 R ega rd l ess of the immediate fallout of th e Volusia s ituation ," Gleason was mo s t concerned with the lon g term impact of ill will in the co un ty toward home demon s tration Whatever or whoever, had c au se d the trouble G l eason belie ve d th a t removing Co l e from the county was the surest way to maintain the confidence of the people. Or ma ybe not. Soon after she notified the Board of her decision re g arding HDA Cole Gleason received a isit from a committee of Volusia women Orpha Cole in tow r e qu est in g that h o m e d e mon stra tion not b e t e rminated and that Miss Co le be kept as h o m e demon tration agent. Though the Board had alread y se nt Glea so n a copy of the r eso lution abol i sh in g hom e d e mon tration work in Volu s ia s he assured the committee that s h e wo uld di sc u s the matter w ith the commissioners with her fir t priority to e ncoura ge th e m to mak e another appropriation for hom e demon s tration work in ge neral. Only afte r that had been secured 6 FGtoOrp h a ole 30J un el932( -21-6) 61 FG to Ben Thur by, 2 Jul y I 932 ( 21 -6 ).

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90 would s he approach th e po ss ibility of Orpha Co l e st a y ing on as HDA and that matter was the Board 's choice. 62 As the s umm e r wore on, th e "wra ng l e" g r ew more tangled, to th e p o int that so m e of th e co mmi ss ion e r s favo r e d re-in s t a tin g home demon stra tion but only with Miss Co l e as agent and Gleason ba c k-p e dal e d to assure them that i f that was th e ir d es ire s he ce rtainl y wo uld wo r k to e n s ur e s uch an a rran ge m e nt was s u ccessfu l. But ultim ate l y, the Board did n ot appropriate and hom e d e mon stratio n work ceased in Volusia for two years. Finally in 19 34 "so m e of the leadin g women in Vo l u s ia Co unty m e t with th e co mmi ss i o n e r s to di sc u ss re-in s tallin g hom e d e mon s tration. Once Gleason h a d forwarded h er recommendation for a n ew age nt Marguerite Norton to Director Newe l l the Service was encouraged that the Volusia Board was agai n w illin g to coopera t e actively in th e hom e d emo n s tration work and h opes were hi g h that th e work will proce ed und er mor e agreeable ci r cu m tances and in a b ette r atmosphere than was th e case so m e months back. 63 Other di s put es w ithin counties arose from circumstances b ase d on t h e Ex ten sio n Service s segrega ted poli c ie s. The r es ultin g confusion not only hamp e r e d work but c r eate d di sco rd wit hin co unti es w h e r e wo rk ot h erw i se was we l come. Because so many co unt ies w e re cas h poor a nd we r e l ess lik e l y to su b s idi ze th e sa l ary for a black agent black HDAs usually received pay a lmo st e ntir e l y from sta t e a nd federal funds. O n the o n e h a nd thi s s h ortc h anged a n age nt in terms of h e r a la ry On the ot h e r h a nd it fac ilit ate d putting home demonstration int o co unti es where it could r eac h b l ack re s ident s whom comm i s ion e r s were n ot w illin g t o support in this way S u c h was the ca e in 1 933 Suwan n ee Co un ty where the ervice had in sta ll e d a black HOA, Mi Mackenzie, for w h at the cou n ty regarded a free ." Howe ve r 62 FG t o B e n Thur s b y, A u g u t I 9 32 ( 21 -6 ) 63 FG to WN 19 S e pt e mb e r 193 2 ( 2 1-6 ); FG to B e n Thu r by 2" e pt e mb e r 1 932 ( 2 16) ; WN I Jul y 19 3 4 ( 2 1-6)

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91 maintaining a white horn agent in a county demanded that it board help upp rt h r work becau a I a on xplain d no white home demon tration agent, of cour e, could work for nl the amount which tate and federal fund pro ide for our county worker ." uwannee unty commi ion r ho e er, did not understand why they could not have a white agent for 'free, a ell if that wa the ca e for Mackenzie 6 4 The re ulting confu ion created an uncomfortable ituation for Mackenzie the county agent G. Thoma and Negro Di trict Agent A A. Turner. Moreover it threatened the ongoing pre ence of Mackenzie or any other black HDA in Suwannee Unfortunately the county made thi a reality, deciding that if it could not have a white HDA as well as a black agent even if a black HDA worked at no cost to the county it was better to discontinue her work entirely. 65 Of this decision Vice-Director pencer remarked "it seems like an unusual viewpoint they have." 66 A.A Turner took the opportunity of Mackenzie transfer to make his own recommendation for her new post in Alachua County. Hoping that thi will die out in uwannee and not pread to other counties," he emphasized the real value of supporting home demonstration in other counties. I n particular "the Suwannee county affair" bolstered hi argument for continuing home demonstration work in St. Johns County ; the fact that the county commissioners there will contribute to the egro work will be good as urance that no racial handicaps will like! occur." 67 In a segregated agency in 1933 it i note pecially urprising that "racial handicaps exi ted but Turner s choice of word was pot on racial as umption and the resulting complications indeed could handicap otherwise aluable work. 64 FG to G. Thoma, 5 October 1933 ( C-21-6). 65 FG to AP 1 I October 193 3 ( C-21-6) 66 P to FG 13 October 1933 ( C-21-6) 67 T to FG 2 ovember 1933 (SC-_ J -6).

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9 2 Finall y th e r e w e r e rar e, but bitt e r c ont es t s betw ee n wom e n 's g roup s. No rm a ll y, w om e n fr om th e v ariou s c lub s a round Florid a g ot alon g swi mmin g l y So it w a s ra th e r un ex p ec t e d w h e n s om e p e r ce i ve d g ri ev an ce l a un c hed an exc han ge o f ra th e r s ni ffy l e tt e r betwe e n Mr s. Vo n Ho fe n of th e E n g l ewoo d W o m e n 's C lub a nd seve ra l ex t e n s i o n s t aff durin g m os t of 1 932. Stat e s t aff c on c lud e d th e af fair w ith th e ass erti o n th a t M r s V o n Ho fe n w a s a n ooty troubl e m a k e r but th e i n c id e nt d oes d e m o n s trat e th e so rt of p owe r ce rtain p eo pl e w i e ld e d in s hapin g a co mmuni ty hom e d e mon s tr a ti o n pro gr am. Acc ordin g to V o n Ho fe n Du v al HO A P ea rl La fitt e had in fo rm e d th e E n g l ewoo d Wom e n 's C lub pr es um a bl y p a rt of th e Fe d e rati o n of W o m e n s C lub s th a t n o m e mb e r co uld b e l o n g t o b ot h th a t gro up a nd a h o m e d e m o n st rati o n c lub Yo n H ofe n promptl y re s i gne d h e r p ost as sec r e ta ry of th e Du va l Co un ty Co un c il of H o m e D e m o n s t ra ti o n C lub s a nd b ega n a o n e way co rr es p o nd e n ce wit h var i ous ex t e n s i o n s t aff in c ludin g S t a t e HO A F l av i a G l easo n a nd V i ce -Dir ec t o r A P S p e n cer. 68 She ca m e a rm e d w ith two m a in i f p ec uli a r c h a r ges : P ea rl L a fi tte h a d ca u se d di sse n sio n in t h e E n g l ewoo d co mmuni ty a nd h a d mi r e pr ese nt e d ce rt a in pr efe r e n ces for ca nnin g ja r sty l es a nd brand s In a lett e r t o G l eas on Y o n H o f e n a c c u se d Lafitte of d e n y in g h e r s t a t e d pr e f e r e n ce for K e rr j a r s w hi c h Yo n H ofe n f e lt was rat h er p ec uli a r d on t yo u t hink ? es p ec i a ll y w h e n I d a r e ay th e m ajo ri ty of u s wo uld n o t kn ow t h e ke rr ja r if we saw o n e ." Th a t g ri eva n ce a ir e d s h e l a un c h e d i nt o h e r n ex t th a t La fi tte h ad d iv id e d th e E n g l ewood wo m e n ove r c l ub a ll eg i anc e. S h e d e m a nd e d th a t G l easo n co ndu c t a n in ves t igat i o n in to t h e m atte r t h e n wa i te d fo r t h e ex p ecte d a p o l og i es 69 No n e ca m e s o s h e t oo k h e r case t o a h ig h e r p ower. In a n a n gry l ette r t o P K Yo n ge th e C h a irm a n of th e t a t e B oa rd of C o n tro l Yo n H of e n r e p ea t e d h e r c h a r ges aga in t L a fi tte w h o m Yo n Hofe n co n s id e r e d in vio l a ti o n of her dut ie s a s publi c serva nt. I h ave in c lud e d th e text of t h e l e tt e r o n pa g e 11 0 b e ca u s e a s i d e from 68 M.r s. L o ui V o nH o fen[V H ) t o r ace P ill bury 16F e bruary 19 32 ( -2 1-6 ). 69 VH t o F 2 0 F e bru a ry 1 9 "'2 ( 2 1-6 ).

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93 it dr a m a it r e pr e e nt th rt f c nt nti o n th a t h a d V o n H o fe n b ee n u cce fut wo uld h ave fi r e d L a fitt e a nd p o ibl y k e pt h o m d e m o n s trati o n ut of th e c un ty fo r o m e tim e a h ap p n din V lu i a. Fo rtun a t l y L afi tt wa a bl t t e m th e tid e of di e nt a ti fac t o ril y by e p tn g a n b i u mi und r t a ndin g T h e gi t wa th a t o nl y a n e t a bli h d h o m e d e m n tr a ti n c lub co uld b eco m e a m e mb e r o f th e co unt y h o m e d e m o n s t ra ti n co un c il th e rul e h a d n o thin g w h a t soeve r t o d o w ith th e Fe d e r a ti o n of W o m e n C lub s Ind ee d a L afitte e p l a in e d th e E n g l ew o o d W o m e n lub was o nl y th e n a m e a d o pt e d fo r t h a t co mmuni ty ho rn d e m on t rat i o n c lub 7 0 Di tri c t age nt M ary K eow n ass ur e d G l ea on th a t th e di se nt V o n H o f e n r e p o rt e d t o b e w id e p r ea d wa co nfin e d t o a few wo m e n a nd b y Se pt e mb e r th e m a tt er h a d wo und d ow n till G l easo n w a s di s turb e d h e wrot e t o th e Vi ce -Dir ec t o r th a t th o u g h s h e h a d o ri g in a ll y comme nd e d Mr Yo n H ofe n fo r h e r int e r es t a nd ac ti ve ro l e in h o m e d e m o n s t ra ti o n I a m con in ce d n ow th a t th e m o ti ve .. [i s ] t o go as fa r as s h e ca n w ith a n ug l y thr eat. I in ce r e l y be l ieve h e r u n w h o l eso m e a ttitud e t o b e th e m os t tro ubl e s o m e fac t o r in th e co mmuni ty .' 7 1 T h e u g l y thr eat c r ea t e d a n u g l y s i t u a ti o n a nd th o u g h it see m s a mu s in g n ow i t erve as a r e mind er th at HD A s may h av e s tr ive n t o b e in sp irin g a nd a l t rui ti c but th e ir welco m e wa s n o t uni ve r a l a n d co uld n o t b e t ake n fo r gra nt e d Ind ee d O rph a Co l e h a d a l ie n a t e d h e r co un ty t o a d e g r ee th at i t esc h ewe d h o m e d e m o n t rati o n a lt oge th e r. T h e p owe r o f a n influ e nti a l m a l co n te n t was h a r d l y in s i gn ifi ca nt a nd h o m e d e m o n s t r a ti o n s t aff h a d t o n av i g a t e d isp u te s ery ca r efu ll y. D e p it e th e c h a ll e n g e h o m e d e m o n trat i o n offe r e d s o m e no t ab l e opportu ni ti es for profe iona l d e e l opme n t a nd fe ll ow s h i p The e profe s io n a l e nu e repre s e n ted a c h anc e to 70 P e arl L a fitt e t o FG 19 M ay 1 932 ( -2 1 6 ) 1 FG t o AP 14 e pt e m b e r 19 32 ( 2 1 6 )

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94 mingle with a wider world while promoting or enhancing extension work. To begin all agents could belong to Epsilon Sigma Phi a professional fraternity chartered in 1922 to unite active and veteran Extension workers. 72 Agents also took on a variety of profes s ional tasks be yo nd what they carried out in demonstrations. This was particularly true of state and di strict agents and specialists The sort of peripheral dutie s associated with home demonstration work r e inforce the dynami s m of the organization in several ways. Not only did conferences, publications, academic s tud y and international exposure maintain a circle of contacts and influence over the yea rs but the y each represented forays into a world where home demon stra tion went be yo nd a reform initiative to become a career for agents. True to their progr essive roots agents were sought out as experts to speak and write on home exte n sio n topic s-o utsiders considered agents professionals with all the attendant training education and re s ponsibiliti es. Of course, not everyone who came calling was gree ted with equal warmth. A variety of agencies contacted the Ex ten ion Service over the yea rs see king home demonstrati o n information for or participation in stu die s related to reforn1 Whether or not agents participated depend e d on the work load required and the natur e of the r e qu est. Political favors, though p e rhap s beneficial down the road ge n era ll y were denied C laud e P e pp er, w hil e runnin g for the U nited States Senate co ntacted Flavia Gleason in 1936 for permi ion to ca mpai g n among Florida 's 4-H g irl s and their parent s. She respectfully turned him down, c itin g the Service 's inability to s uppl y li sts of the children to non-Extension petitioner though h e was we lcome to stop by her office a nd look at th e Ii t him elf. The as umption among the state staff wa that the extra troubl e of getti n g th e 4-H li st him se lf wou ld deter 72 p ilon i g ma Phi wa created in I 927 as a national hon o rary fraternity of Exten i o n per nnel. it hi tory indicate The hi tory of oo perative Exten ion i in eparably intertwined with the Ii e and profe ional career s of xtension work r Reeder Th P e ople and th Profe ion , IO

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95 P pper from pur uing tho e children and their famili a part of hi campaign 73 n the other hand, hen the hild Welfare ommittee of th Florida Legion contacted lea on eeking informati n n hild el fare in Florida and home demon tration role in ecuring children' II-being, he readil agreed Perhap it wa hairman A. Rice King own kill at gaining all ie that wa ed her. "We are imp re ed with the alue of home demon tration work a a ial agenc 'he rote to Gleason, "and are particularly anxiou to recei e your report. I a on told Direct r ewell what she had decided citing not only the immediate benefit to child welfare work but the favorable publicity her participation would generate for home demon tration 7 4 ome profes ional dutie garnered good publicity for both home demonstration and the agent in olved. lndeed, some of hat HDAs took on actually helped mold home demon tration a it e ol ed over the year keeping the female reformer and client at the forefront of change. Annual reports seem an unlikely source of uch lobbying, but they were an important enue for olidifying home demonstration influence and its place in the Exten ion ervice. Over the years, either the Vice-Director or the State HDA i sued guideline to agent for completing reports correctly but Gleason made a particular appeal to HOA for accurate reporting. Though "not as delightful an undertaking as ome things w do et it i our means and pri ilege of pre enting a de cription of the ear ork that ill aid particular! in a more permanent e tab Ii hment of home demon tration work 75 The home demonstration taff engaged in a number of projects to maintain control o er their future. Fore ample, HD contributed ideas to ard reforming the format and purpo e of their annual reports, demon trating both the profe ional and reform benefits of 3 laude Pepper to FG,.., I June 1936 toF 14Jul 1936( -21-7 ). 4 F to 31 January 1933 ( -21-6. 75 FG to all home demon tration agent 29 October 1929 ( -21-5)

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active participation in h ome demonstration planning refining its direction a nd efficacy. In 1936, the American Home Economics Research Committee embarked on a project to steer home economics on a co u rse of greater utility to educators and reformers w h o relied on its science. Jane McKimmon, the orth Caro lina State HOA wrote F l avia G l eason and other Southern state staff for recommendations concern in g new home economics research In 96 response Gleason enlisted the aid of each district agent and a number of HD As, who submitted a l ong li st of areas they wou ld l ike to have researched and organized for use in home demonstration. One of the studies th ey suggested dealt with the content and format of annua l reports specifically ways to make them more useful. Agents a l so recommended that county profiles be developed to a degree that agents had a c l ea r er idea of precisel y what resources county fami li es had available so that HDAs could tailor their programs as closely as possible to their c li ents' pecific needs and interest s. 76 Agents' wi llin gness to steer th e ir own course gave them a certa in job security by keeping home d e monstration relevant relativ e to rural fami li es' need s. This reciprocal relationship benefited both agents and rural women then, so that the interests of both became an entrenc h ed foc u s of rural reform A n other way that home demon stra tion remain e d viab l e was by keeping abrea t of rura l reform outside the immediate circles of comm un ity and state. Keeping HDAs in regular a nd expanded contact with the w id er reform and education world was a priority for home demon s tration leadership who worked to secure opportunities for study and trave l whe n ever feasib l e, as we ll as to maintain a network of relationship with 76 Jane McKimmon t o FG, 3 l March 19 36 (SC-2 1-7 ) Related to report reform wa G l ea on' particular involvement in an ea rli er attempt to re ise the annual reports at th e n ational I el. In 1930 Glea o n traveled to Washington to s ubmit her idea a nd tho e of th e Vic -Director on h ov to make the annua l reports more u efu l and more accu r ate. Plagued with confu ing term and more than en ugh room for inaccuracie report were a constant th orn in the ide of all agen t s A particular recommendation related to monthly reports, ubmitted by upervi ory taff. in ce the report were never crit iqu ed or re ponded t o, and their data wa never again factor d into exten ion accomp li hrnents, G l ea o n and p e n cer wondered that monthly rep rt hould be continued at all. ee FG to AP 30 January 1930 (S -2 1 -6).

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r l a t d profi i n a l a nd c i v i c o r ga ni za ti n ve n b e fi r e W o rld W a r 11 HO A we r e in co nt a t w ith int m a ti n a l v i itor a nd m a d v i it s ove r ea th e m e l ve s t o s tud y h o m e 97 ex t n i o n l a P owe ll fro m th e n a ti o n a l e t n i o n o ffi ce h os t e d a Mi hri t e n e n fo r a tim e in th nit e d l a t e w h e r e hri t e n e n h o p d t o I a m e n o u g h f h o m e d e m n tr a ti o n m e th o d t o b eg in a s imil a r pro gr am a t hom e in D e nm a rk U p o n h e r r e turn t o ur o p e in 1 93 0 hri t e n e n wa acco mp a ni e d b y eve ral HDA s Furth e rmor e Volu s i a HD A Orph a o l e r e turn d to wo rk a ft r a umm e r s tud y in g in E urop e h e r se lf and Di s tri c t HD A Lu cy B e ll e nl e e mb a r ke d o n a trip t o ub a t o a tt e nd a n int e rn a ti o n a l oc i o l ogy a nd p o liti ca l eco n o mi c co n Fe r e n ce. 77 l o e r t o hom e HD A e nj oye d a ty pi ca ll y pl easa nt r e lation hip w ith m e n s a nd wo m e n s c i v i c or g ani z ation s Ind ee d multipl e m e mb e r s hip s we r e e n co ura ge d fo r it a ll owe d age nt t o in gra ti a t e th e m se l ve in th e ir co mmuniti e a nd ex pand th e ir c ir c l e of a lli es. ee kin g in fo rm a ti o n o n th e ex t e nt t o w hi c h HD A we r e int e ra c tin g w ith lo ca l g roup s G l easo n ti c k e d off a l o n g Ii t of g roup s a mon g w hi c h HD A s co uld find fe ll o w s hip a nd influ e n ce: Fl o rid a H o m e Eco n o mi c As oc i a ti o n Bu s in ess a nd Pro fe s i o n a l Wom e n 's C lub s l oca l W o m a n 's tub co un ty Fe d e r a ti o n of W o m e n 's C lub P a r e nt -Teac h e r 's Assoc i a ti o n C h a m be r of o mm e r ce a nd m e n gro u p li ke Ki wa ni s a nd R o t ary S h e e mph as i ze d th e po t e nti a l be n efits of fos t e rin g r e l a ti o n hip s w ith u c h g roup i n c ludin g c h o l a r s hip s co n fe r e n ces a nd o p po rtuniti es t o pr ese nt h o m e d e m o n t ra ti o n wo r k a nd see k ass i s t a n ce a nd u ppo rt Of p art i c ul a r in te r e s t to G l ea o n was HO A in vo l ve m e nt w ith a nd ass i s t a n ce fro m l oca l c l ub s of the Federatio n of W ome n tu b H ome d e m o n s tr a ti o n r e l a t io n s h ip w ith th e Fed e ra t ion wa s y mbi o ti c a nd th e Fe d e r a ti o n m a d e every effo rt t o a d ve rti se a nd s upp o rt w h a t HD As e r e doi n g aero th e t a t e. Ind ee d i n h e r 1 936 r eport t o t h e F l o r i d a Fe d era t ion home 7 F to AP 2 January 19 0 ( -2 1 6).

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98 extension C hairman Mr s. D H Saunders concluded h e r re v i ew of home demon strat ion wo rk a nd it s o n go in g pot e ntial with a s tron g mission s tatement: "A lthou g h we ha ve mad e pro g r ess in promotin g the cause of Hom e D e mon s tration Work our work is not fini s h e d until through our efforts and cooperation there i s a home demon s tration agent in every county and th e work is made pen11anent and sec ure in all counties ofFlorida." 78 Clearly, home d e mon s tration was no lon ger just an outgrowth of th e C ountry Life Movement. Women 's gro up s intere ste d in a va riety of c i vic pro gra m s embraced hom e d e mon s tration as a s i s ter organization; b y lendin g support, the Federation beli eve d i t h ad g i ve n home demon s tr a tion "a substantial background pre stige and foundation which it o richl y d ese rves. 79 Flavia Gleason certainly was appreciative of s uch prai se and the fellowship the Federation offered and man y hom e d e mon strat ion wo men we r e members of the F lorid a Fe d eratio n th e m se l ves. Alliances were always u efu l but it would be so m e time before hom e d e mon strat ion could sta nd on its own without th e crutch of some prestigious women 's group or th e indulgence of male extension workers. In any event hom e d e mon stra tion did function as part of a profes s ional e du ca tion a l and refon11ati ve n e t work that brou g ht it agents th e benefit of au di ences a nd allies. 7 8 FG to all h o m e d e m o n stratio n age nt s, 1 2 March 1 932 (SC-2 16). Fe d era ti o n r eports a nd hi sto rie s are peppered w ith references to h o m e demon tration wo rk For in s tance, Mildred White Well s add r e se Fe d eration upport for h o m e demon s tration in a numb e r of s t ates, including A l abama, Arkansas and Mi ss i s ippi s ummin g up thi s way, Work w ith rural wo m e n through h o m e demonstration ha s been the rul e in every s t a t e (424) W e ll s a l so includ e cooperative h o m e wo rk a m o n g th e Federa ti on ac hi eveme nt s. Particularly int e r esti n g for o ur tory i s th e co mmitm e nt of the Federati o n fir t Vice Pre id e nt M r W. S. Jennings t o placing an HDA in every co un ty in the nation Jenning wa F l orida' candidate for office. Well s, Unity in Diversity : Th e Hi to1 y of th e Gen e ral F ede rati o n of Wom e n tub s (Wash in gto n D .C. : Ge n eral Federation of Wom e n lub s, 1953 ). 434 441, I 3 44344 160 424. Likewi e w h e n State HOA Mary Keown be ga n r e earc h for a h istory of Florida E ten s ion he co nt ac t ed Well s fo r information o n their work together remarking l wou ld l ike t how how the s tate federatio n a nd al o th e ge n eral federa ti o n ha s m a int a in ed an acti e intere t in ce th e be g innin g." See "Flo rid a Federation of Women's lub upport of H ome Demon trati o n ," ( C-15 l ). 79 Report of h a irm an of H o m e D e mon tra ti o n Divi i on Fl rida Federation of Wom e n lub ( 217).

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Lik e m t th e r a p c t o f ex t e n ion li fe, h oweve r prof e i o n a l d eve l o pm e nt o pp rtuniti e h Id pitfall a nd p r onal di a ppointm e nt fo r age nt On ce aga in u ccess 99 pi o t e d o n n eg ti a ti o n a nd p we r Fore a mpl e, t rave l r eq u e t va ri e d w id e l y i n th e ir p o t e nti a l r, r th e Dir ec t r a ppro a l b a e d l a r ge l y o n co t a nd b e n e fit t o F l o rid a ex t e n i n Two a mpl e t a nd ut a m o n g th e man y r e qu es t s fo r tra ve l a nd tud y w hi h co ur se d thr o u g h th e tr a m of m a il b etwee n Ta ll a h a ee a nd G ain esv ill e. Us u a ll y, th e r e wa littl e di f fi c ult y e urin g p e rmi i o n to a tt e nd co nf e r e n ces lik e th e Am e ri c an L a ndG rant A s oc i a ti o n o r H o m e Eco n om i c A oc i a ti o n b eca u e th ese we r e we ll kn ow n m ee t i n g w h e r e Fl o rid a r e pr ese nt at i e co uld min g l e to th e o vera ll b e n e fit of th e Se rvi ce h e r e s o In cases w h e r e a l e s ro utin e m ee tin g was ca ll e d a nd F l o rid a s t aff mi g ht a tt e nd th e so ur ce of th e in i tat i o n co uld m a k e a i g nifi ca nt di ffe r e n ce, a s w h e n ec r e t ary of La bor F ran ces P e rkin s in v it e d H o m e I m p ro e m e nt s p ec i a li s t Vir g ini a Moo r e t o Nas h v ill e fo r a 1 935 r eg i o n a l co n fe r e n ce o n eco n o mi c ec uri ty. Includ e d a m o n g th e a tt e nd ees we r e gove rn o r s a nd d e l egates fro m twe l ve sta t es. Th e Dir ec t o r ex pr esse d littl e h e it a ti o n in a pp rov in g M oo r e's a tt e nd a n ce. s t But o m e m ee tin g we r e t a il o r e d t o s p ec ifi c int e r es t s a nd sk ill s. In th e e cases, p r ofes io n a l d e e l o pm e nt fo r it s ow n sake was ca ll e d int o qu es ti o n eve n w h e n it co uld e nh a n ce th e qu a li ty of ex t e n s i o n e du ca ti o n in F l o rid a. Foo d a nd M a r keti n g p ec i a li s t I sabe ll e T hur b y fo r exa m p l e, l a un c h e d a n e nthu ia ti c ca mp a i gn t o att e nd a thr ee wee k a nn e r s h o rt o ur se a t O r ego n t a t e o ll ege in 1 928. Writin g t o F l av i a G l easo n to d e cribe th e co ur se a nd beg h e r s upp o rt T hur s b y expresse d e ery co n ce i vab l e r easo n w h y uc h a cour e 8 Fo r e amp l e in t h e l ate 1 920 ariou age nt we r e a ll owed to atte n d t h e La n d Grant olle g e A oc i a ti o n t h e Boy an d Gi rl l ub Co n gre th e o u t h e m R ura l lectrification onference the ational 4-H lub amp, the American Home conomic A ociation and a Tu ke g ee conference on b l ack e ten ion ork ee t o FG IO o ember 1925 FG to I pri l 19 2 6 FG to AP 4 o ember 19 2 7 and APS t o FG 8 o embe r 1927 ( C 2 1 -5) 81 France Perkin t o Vir g in i a P Moore 10 J an u ary 1 9 3 5 ; FG t o WN, 1 5 Ja nu ary 1 9 3 5 ; January 1935 ( C -2 1 7) to F 17

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100 could benefit Florida exten ion. Thursby described the quality and content of the instruction offered. 'Among many good courses offered is a series of lectures and laboratory demonstrations on fermenting, proces s ing and spicing of cucumber pickles including dil l s, and Sauerkraut for market ,' she wrote. Not only that but Dr. W. V. Cruess of the College of Agriculture, Berkele y, California, advises that the school held in Corvallis [Oregon] i s the one to attend" and it offers many excellent courses in preservation of foods for small commercial canners. Many inquiri es come to this office for information regarding cannery method s and s upplies s howing that more and more interest is de ve loping in Florida along the se line s, as you know. Thursby added the "as you know" in her own hand driving home the shrewd point she hoped s he was making the Oregon short course was not just of interest to h er per onally it was of direct good to Floridians who were themselves right then seeking more of just thi so rt of information. Thursby was wise in another way, though it ultimatel y brought her no more luck The Oregon short course, she sa id overlapped with "t he beautiful National Orange Show" in California Though her letter indicate s that she expected to attend both her d escr iption of the benefits to be gained from the Orange Show indicates an underl y ing strategy she was hed g ing her bets to improv e the odds s he could b e approved for at least one of the course To emphasize the real scientific and sc holarly value of th e Orange Show institute, Thursby concluded by reminding Gleason that Just as California ha s set the standards for canned food the world over so they have taught us all that we know about crystallized fruit i tru fruit pectin making jelly and marn1alade ." She closed on a note o earnest s h e must ha e und er tood well the line s he was walking "M i ss Glea on I beg of yo u lend a kindly ear to my petition and let 's go!" 82 82 I sa belle Thur by t o FG 7 January 1928 ( C-21-5).

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T hur by h ad e ery r ea o n to h pe t h at ew II wo ul d be d uly impre ed with th e ca li b r of t h e two in s t itu t h e de c r ib d, a nd t h ta n g i ble benefits for rural Florida. H oweve r h e a l o kn ew t h at ex t e n sio n fu n d were not li m i tle s s a n d t h at a trip acro s the o u ntry wo uld r ai e imm e di a t e fin a n cia l a l arm Unfortu n ate l y i n her ardent appeal he emp h a i ze d th e ery ort of pa rti c ul ar th at wo uld cast h er t r ip a too academic gi v i n g New II th r ea o n h e n ee d e d to d e n y h e r r e qu e t. T hur by was n ot wi th o u t a lli es, t h ough a nd h e r pros p c t s till ee m e d pro m isi n g when G l eason brought t h e m atter to the D irector I O I l ea o n a pp roac h wa a dipl o m at i c as s h e co uld m ake i t; certa in ly h e also r ecog n i z ed the Jim c h a n ces in favo r of Thur sby h ea d i n g west o n ex t e n sio n fu nd s S h e re iterate d t h e fre qu e n cy w ith w hi c h F l o ri d i a n a nd ot h e r s o u g h t T hur by can nin g adv i ce a n d instruction a dd i n g th a t M i T hur b y i s r e nd e rin g a va lu a bl e serv i ce t o th e t ate w i t h o u t be in g ab l e to receive mu c h s ub jec t-m a tt er ass i s t a n ce fro m a n y so ur ce h e r e or from the Washington office ." Afte r a ll th e Ex t e n s i o n Service pr id e d i tse l f on so u n d scie n tific i n struc ti o n a n d agents who e r e e p e rt s ; n a tu ra ll y t h ey r e quir e d m o r e t h a n t h ei r in it i a l tra in i n g t o m aintai n a hi gh s t a nd a rd of in st ru c ti o n To G l easo n th e n i t is easi l y see n t h a t t h ere i reason for he r to fee l t h e n ee d of occasio n a ll y h av in g th e p r iv il ege of taki n g a d va n tage of op p ortu n it i es affor d ed b y s u c h a co ur ea w ill b e g i ve n a t Corva lli s O r ego n ewel l did n o t agree. 83 T h e Dir ec t o r 's d e ni a l was l e n g th y but c l ear. F ir s t t h e Exte n ion budget would not s u pport s u c h a tr i p e pecia ll y i nce t h e B oar d of Co n trol was tryi n g to boost sa l arie b y c urt a ilin g trave l a t ewe ll 's suggest i o n Seco nd si n ce th e Orego n m eeti n g was a s hort cour e th e Serv i ce co uld n o t fu nd atte nd a n ce b eca u e t o d o o vio l ate d the polic y o f a g ent s furt h er i ng t h e i r e du ca t io n at t h e i r own expense. T h i r d, ewell argued ( rather nastil y) that Agric ultu ra l Exte n i o n e mpl oyees a r e p res um ed t o b e at l east fai r ly well prepa r e d for doing 83 FG to l O Ja nu ary I 928 ( -2 1 -5)

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102 the work which th ey ha ve in hand Ce rtainl y, th e sta te cannot b e ex p ec ted to pa y a goo d sa lary for a p e r so n in any po s ition and then go to th e ex pen se of severa l hundr e d doll ars in preparin g them for di sc har g in g th e dutie s of that p os ition 8 4 Together, Thur s b y and Gleason had mad e a reasonable case. Eco nomi z in g certainly wou ld keep expe n ses wel l below hundred s of dollar s,' and though Thursby was quite competent in her job s h e wan ted to e nhanc e that co mp ete nc y for th e good of the p eo pl e s h e served. Moreover Newe ll 's own r e buk e pointed o ut th at sa l a ri es were l ow, not goo d ." Finally the Ex ten s ion Service ex p ec t e d agents t o see k pro fessio n a l d eve l o pment throu g hout their t e nure to s tay abreast of the scie n ce. Ce rtainl y, Newe ll s r e minder that aca d e mic stu d y was a matt e r fo r private finance was appropriate but hi s w hol esa l e di s mi ssa l of Thursby's request s p eaks vo lum es about th e imp ac t of bureaucracy and pow e r on the forward momentum of ex t e nsion work. T hur s b y was n ot alone in mi ss in g o b v i ous opportun iti es as a result of bureaucratic priorities To u g h c hoi ces so m eti m es faced HDAs that cost th em further opportunities so th at th ey mi g ht maintain va luabl e ties a lr ea d y mad e. In th e s umm er of I 934, Flavia Gleason officially recomm e nd e d a leav e of absence for Di st rict HDA Mary Keown to travel to Puerto Ri co w h e r e she wo uld s p e nd the n ext year estab li s hin g a h ome d e m o n stration program. Director Newe ll approve d the unp a id leave but as the tim e of h e r return to Florida neared Keown aske d to stay a littl e lon ge r un w illin g to l eave the work that h ad ju s t begun to blossom. S he ass ur ed Newell of h e r lo ya l ty to F lorid a, but n ee dl e to say I am interested in m y work h e r e and it ha s b ee n an invaluable prof ess ion a l ex p e ri e nc e for m e a we ll as a pleasant o n e personally 85 Newe ll ag r ee d to extend h er l eave two month s but warned G l eason that if she a nd Keown h ad any id eas abo ut Keown r emaini n g l on ge r or continuin g to t o FG 17 J a nuary 19 2 8 ( 2 15) 5 M a ry Keown to WN 22 May 19 35 ( 2 1-7).

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upervi e the ork in Pu rto Rico while maintaining h e r duti es in Florida they hould aband n a ll uch plan 6 N II wa orrect that to traddle both position would burden Keown and might jeopardize the quality of her work An underl y ing i sue, though was con trol. ewe ll and 103 Florida exten ion had loaned Keown to Puerto Rico to fulfill an agreement. Now that t he y had done their part Keown wa to return home. Though Newell did indicate to Glea on that Keown had ome choice -" either Mi s Keown will have to be our emp l oyee xclusively or Puerto Rico exclu i ely" the fact wa that he had ultimate ay in where s h e e tabli shed her work He did not at least in the extant corre pondence a k to peak with Keown or to explore pos ibilities of an interim replacement for her. As he had with Isabelle Thursby the Dir ector directed, indicating only t h at his word was final. He ran a tight ship in Florida exten ion but his authority and dislike for loose ends pre empted further negotiation We might be inclined to a ume that shutting doors against certain projects wa the result of callous raci m, sexism or some other spite. However I think those limitation s are simpl part of the contemporary biases built into the bureaucratic priorities of the Service. Money and time were limited resources and unfortunately those furthe t from the exte n sion core black agents and all home demonstration agents received the s maller s hare s of hate er the ervice could offer. Reliance on familiar models of inequitable treatment also ob cures the realitie of local situations that are integral to the home demonstration experience. For examp l e, we might assume that a black HOA would always find her se l f crammed into a tiny ill-equipped office while her white counterpart had more room and 86 E idence of Keown continuing profe ional and per onal commitment to Puerto Ric o e ten ion ho\ e er, appear in her corre pondence Among the pile of mail Keown recei ed as tate HD a po t he inherited when Glea on re igned in 1936, was El H e ra/d o d e Ext ensio n Puerto Rico exten ion new paper. A Imo ta decade after lea ing Pu rto Rico, she kept abreast of how agriculture, home demon tration and 4-H were de eloping there. crapbook Home Demonstrati o n o rk ( C 158-6)

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104 resources at her disposal. And, we might also assume that any female agent's facilities would fall short of any male agent's However if o n e maxim is certain in studying h ome demonstration it is that we cannot assume anything. In 1 953 Hillsborough County's black HOA Sudella Ford, described her office, and tiny and ill-equipped it was not. According to Ford her office was l ocated in the Tampa Urban League Building and covered three rooms, includin g an office, workroom and kitchen The office was fully equipped with "a desk two filing cabinets, cutting table chairs, bookcase telephone magazine rack, e l ectric fan, heater and a portable sewing machine." Moreover the workroom was equally outfitted and had an additiona l typewriter mimeo grap h machine and bulletin rack. The kitchen, through the ge nerosity of the Tampa E lectri c Compa n y and county commi ion ers, was well-equipped with a G. E. electric range Kelvinator refrigerator waffle iron electric roaster built-in cabinets, a table c h a ir a nd kitchen s tool a pressure cooker, and a can sea l er. Hom e demonstration owned everything but the kitchen sink, which was the property of the Urban League The kitchen also wa tocked with cooking utensil and di he donated b y home demon tration club member and other int e r ested in the project. ot only did Ford have the equ ipment he needed s h e had what a ll agents dreamed of and plead e d for an efficient, competent, productive part-tim e ecretary. The office was neat and orderly a demonstration in it elf ." 87 Hillsborough agents, w hi te and black benefited from working in a county with a ub tantial population (so l arge that up to four HOAs worked with it ), a s ub sta ntial rural and urban ba e, and ub sta ntial r esources. Home demonstration work there wa well-entrenched ; HOA had been in the county ince at l eas t 1922 a nd continued working there unabated throughout the yea r s I am co e rin g here 8 7 ud e ll a Ford, Hill borou g h R 19 53 ARA-33.6-57) 4.

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105 Not all agent were o fortunate. Wh e n whit agent Miriam d war d began new work in Fra nklin ounty in 1 953, h e had mu c h of t h e eq uipm ent hen ded but none of the n e ni e n ce. h e a nd th e ag ri c ultural age nt h ared an of fi ce i n th co un ty court h ou e. Th u g h t h e I ca tion wa n o t unusual the room t h ey had u e of wa the Grand Jury room and the ag nt s h a d to vaca t e it twice a yea r when the ju ry was in ses ion One aRemoon each k, th e hi g hwa patrolman also u d th e office. The t hr ee sha r e d a ingle torage clo t. o c l e rical h e lp wa available, o th e agent d i d all th a t work them e l ves in c ludin g goi n g t a n o th r office t u e it s mim eogra ph ma c hine. Fortu n ate l y by 1957 agent Ann J eter co uld r port that the agents had ga in ed the assistance of a part-time ec r etary and the y had create d a n e tora ge s t m for their bulletin s. Though they s till tored t h em in the court h ouse w itn e room, th ey h a d b ee n a bl e to build s h e l ves for th em rather than keeping them in boxe a nd huntin g for th e m before eac h u e. 8 I n contrast to Hill s borou g h Cou n ty Franklin was sma ll a nd und e e lop e d hom e d e mon s trati o n wo rk was n ew and un famil i ar and the county did n o t h ave th e financial re so urce s or in c lin a tion yet to pro vi d e m o r e comfortab l y for exte n ion agent Being white did n ot privi l ege E d war d s o r Jeter in this situation That i not to say th at bia s had no impact for it did hind e r programs a nd cause unn ece ary d e l ays. But mor e was at wo rk th a n mi ogynist tendencies o r viru l ent raci m ome battle were personal but m ost often the e l aborate negotiating and hedging were the r ult of e eryo ne h av in g to a n wer to omeone e l e. P ower strugg l es too re eal a remarkable capac i ty for di sc r et ion a mon g ervice personnel. o matter h ow frustrated an y o n e a g ent became he or h e offic i a ll y maintained a politicall y a tute per pecti e knowin g that diplomacy cou ld n ot w in e ery battle but it might win the war. Most HOA includin g F l a ia Glea on understood that that their work impl y wa not t h e fir t priori ty of the e rvi ce. 8 Miriam Edward Frank l i n R 1 9 53 ARA33. 65 6) 3; nn Pi e rc e J e ter Franklin AR 1 957 ( RA33. 65 6) 2.

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106 That sa id Gleason was not co nt e nt to le ave HDAs o n th e fr in ges. On th e contrary, s h e d efe nd e d hom e d e mon stra tion w h e n ever s he felt i t had b ee n s li g hted in so m e way. In true moth e r-bear fashion in 19 34 Gleason wrote to J. Francis Coo per in charge of publi city fo r F lorid a ex t e n s ion demandin g to know why home d emo n stra tion work had been o mitt e d from a r ece nt Agricu lt ura l News Sh ee t r egar ding an upc o min g Farmers' Institute. There was n o mistaking h e r ton e as s h e outlined with nary a com m a t o ca t c h h e r breath her disappointment a nd r ese ntm e nt: I would so ap pr ec i a t e it and it wo uld be so much more h e lpful t o a ll of u s a nd h e lp u s m a intain a mor e coopera ti ve sp irit if care would a l ways be taken t o in c lud e our part of th e work wherever both pha ses of the Extension Service are repr ese nt e d For in sta nce Mrs Taylor worked with Mr. Moore in tarting th e in st itut e and members of our s taff were ri g h t there to h e lp with it la st year. I know becau se I was there myself a nd severa l others were and I know too that seve r a l of our m e mb e r s will be there to h e lp w ith it thi s yea r a nd ye t as we look over this art i c l e n o m e ntion w h atsoeve r is m a d e of o ur part .... I don't, of course lik e to mention these things a nd 1 on l y do it for th e goo d of the work a nd I do kno w how ea rn est l y our p eo pl e are wo rkin g t o make thi s parti c ular in s titut e a s ucce ss ful and mo s t worthwhile one to attend Parti c ul a rl y exa p era tin g was that thi s di sco urt esy was not the first ; G l easo n bega n h e r l etter b y notin g that I a m always as k e d why thi s i s when o ur part of the work i s om i tted. 89 T h e fight for full r ecog nition as a permanent part of the Extens i o n Service was o n going but it was particularly a ppropri a t e that G l easo n was defending h er age nt s agai n st being di mi ed durin g a Farmers' In st itut e. The e in s titute s had b ee n a nin etee nth cen tu ry ve nu e fo r ru ra l m e n a nd women to seek advice a nd e du cat ion t oget h e r ; wo m e n 's persistent atten d a n ce at them in pired th e c r eat ion of ess i o n s designed for and by women Thoug h h o m e demon tration had decades a h ea d of it st ill in a way Gleason s 1 934 d efe n se represented a climatic moment. The o n goi n g que s t to m ake agrar i a n r eform co unt for women h a d reached a cr it ical i f unassuming juncture a mom e nt w hi c h the State HO A e i zed t o d e mand r espect D r home demon s tration an d promote it s continued evo lut ion As a te sta ment to the tr e fut pace and 89 FG to J Franci s oope r 2" July 19 34 ( C-21-6).

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107 mpl arra n g ment f e ten ion work A.P pencer c ncluded a l etter to Fla ia lea n in 36 with an ardent d ir : l h ope, omeday we w ill get over thi ru h of thing s and act li ke n nnal p op l e." 90 pen er l ament reflect just the sort f dynami m powering the Exten ion ervice T h e daily grind of exte n ion work reveal it to be more than a refonn world of lofty id a l and noble entim nt. That all exi ted but it was only the in piration pas ed down from age of rural th ri ts refonners and finally the ountry Life Movement and eaman Knapp. n e of the ea rl y teps that kept exte n sion alive was its evol uti o n from in pi ration to in titution o that it did not li ve and die as a refonn urge a l one. HD As became more than ju s t progres i e-minded do-gooder concerned with the state of Jefferson feminine yeomanry The HOA learned from h er hom e economics training and combined it with her rural interests to become a professional r efo nn er a nd e du cator. Ind ee d h ome demonstration personnel had ear li er tie to profe siona l venues than th eir male agricultural counterparts. For example the Journal of Hom e E c onomi c began in 19 09 and eventually became the Journal o f Famil y a nd Con um e r Sciences in thel 990s. In contrast the Journal of Ex t e n ion the official professional outlet for extension personnel did not begin until 1 963 in the midst of a decided effort to entre n ch profe ionali m w ithin extension. Though the Journal of E x t e n s i o n ha s a s much to do wit h home extens ion a with agricultural, horn demonstration' ties to a broader profes ional r efonn network via home economics meant t h at its professional context was in place well before the ooperati e Extension ervice made a concerted mo e in that direction. Agrarian refonn became in creasingly democratic and feminine o er time because refonner educato r an d c li ent operated on the bet ief that t h e problems home demonstration addre ed ere immediat ; to wait for ideal support wa simply not an option The long-tenn 90 P to FG, 19 March 1936 ( -217 ).

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10 8 impact r eac h es beyond hom e d e mon s tration itself. As age nt s co ntinued to evo l ve as professionals, th ey so lidifi e d their own permanence in th e reform syste m This m eant, in tum, that HDA s could offer rural women r e li a ble allies and a co mmitted vo ic e for their concerns. Over time, hom e demon s tration 's borders became mor e fluid em bracin g women not n ecessa ril y part of th e original pro g ram. This m ea nt not only that black women h a d a much n ee d e d outlet for th e ir n eeds but that over time urban low-in co m e, Native American a nd immi gra nt wo men all came und er the h o m e demonstration umbr e ll a, even as it cont inu ed to work for m ea nin gfu l impro ve m e nt in rural life. W o m e n th e m se l ves becam e a mor e central co mpon e nt of the rural r efo rm dynamic, which had been ch urnin g for centuries w ith wo m en o nl y o n it s p er iph ery HDAs' in c r ease d sk ill in professional preservation proved u efu l when it ca m e tim e to navigate c h anges w ithin h ome demonstration programs. Though certain phases of wo rk lik e foo d preservation, r e main ed ce ntr a l t o the home exte n s i o n c urri culum eac h und erwe nt s i g nifi ca nt c han ges over th e co ur se of thi s stu d y. Ju st as h ome d e m o n strat i on had d e mon s trat e d an aptitude for n ego ti a tion HDA s d e mon stra t e d a s imil ar w illin gness to a d ap t their expec t at i o n s, teaching a nd sk ill s to m atc h the sh i fts in preservation technology t h at took place as traditional ca nnin g gave way to freezing. In doing so, HDAs ensured n ot o nl y their ow n relevance as e du cators, but h e lped th eir c li e nt e l e ac hi eve and retain greater contro l over fundamental r eso ur ce

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A HJ,"G0rel t ffl O ,s,"1 SJto-,/~ lll t ootf., .,.,,. ,,._, Dl i .. dN inul )ipar"lio,, \.~ff''"'lCUII t i POU. CO~ .,-n D0f'C'1'(MII OIi AACCIAT!DdtECJ'011 1-------------i I o ~ ----~ ---------~-------~ --- ~ ------~-------~,------LJ 109 Figure 31. A 1966 h y poth e tic a l r e pr ese ntati o n of t h e Ex ten s i o n Service from th e s t ate l eve l d ownwa r d. o ur ce: Th e oopera ti ve Ex t e nsion Servi ce, ed. H. C. anders (E n g l ewoo d Cliffs, NJ: Pr e nti ce -H a ll 196 6), 42.

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Jacksonville, J'l.or1da, P. o. Jox 1093 April 12, 1932 Dr. P. JC. Yonge, Cha1J-nie.n State lloard of Control Pensacola, J'l.orid&. Dear Sir : In as much aa more than nine weeks have elapsed aince rq register ing a complaint, in behalf of the Englewood Woman Clul>, with the State Rome D81110nstrat1on .A&ent, both verbally and written and I have not re ceived any word whatsoever from ~iaeGleaaon I am taki?ig the libert1 of placing tb.ia 11111tter 1n your bands, for action and a report. 1 1 0 I am not at all surprited in not huing received a reply from Kin Gleaaon for this 'breaoh of etiquette eeems characteriatic and. prffal.ent in the Rome Demonstration Department for, I am told, a previoua complaint reghtered 'by another club evidently received the aame treatment and the local agent to take Jll"ide in boaeting that BrtT such complaints 1ent to 'l'allahaaeee were merel7 referred back to her and of coar1e no ac tion taken 1n the matter; this accounts for r,q go1ll; to TallehaHee tor an 1ntervi8" with Mi11Gleuon prior to rq writing her. low, as a citi zen of Du.val Count;r, I em ent.itled to, and demand the 00\lrtesiH of ao knowle
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HAPT E R4 OUT OF THE CAN AND fNTO THE FREEZER: FOOD PRE SERVAT I ON T E HNOLOGY AND HOM E D EMON TRA TI N Figure 4-1. o ur ce: John R o e, "S nuffy Smith," Gain e svill e Sun 7 Jul y 2005 This "Snuffy Smith" cartoon may represent a caricature to so m e people; he r e a ppar e ntl y i s a woman so backward he think s co rd s of wood a nd canned food are the same as in s urance In fact, thi s cartoon per fect ly illu stra te s just that -cann in g wa s insurance! In some way howe ve r canning did see m like a techno l ogical ha s -b een t o man y Florida fam ili es with w hom HDA mad e contact. Though canning, e ither in g la ss jar s o r in tins, had been a foo d preservation main stay for decade s, b y the mid-twentieth ce ntu ry its popularity was fa l teri n g in the face of a n ewe r and see min g l y cooler technology, freez in g HD As fo und that they had quit e a battle on their hands fightin g to keep wo men pre servi n g and fighting to keep th e m se lve s ahead of rapid changes in pre servat ion technology. Home d emo n strat ion proved capable of n av i gati n g th e changes in food preservation to stay both resourceful an d relevant r e mainin g a d y namic as th e t ec hnolo gy Food pre se rvation pro v ide s u s with a v ital clue in th e home extensio n longevity riddle. Home d e mon s tration s food conservation wo rk continued to anchor it wit hin a truly ancie n t a nd e n era bl e, tradition H ow food tuffs h ave been conserved has evo l ved with our knowledge of c i e n ce a nd technology our need fo r certain nutritional benefits and our po l itic s an d ocial c u toms. But the co re principle upon which food preservation i s based has no t111

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waste not want not. Pr eserv in g food reinforced h ome demon s trati o n 's r e l eva nce becau se food pr eserva tion it se lf had not l ost r e l evance. 1 112 But reinforcin g relevanc e a nd ensuring r e levanc e i s not th e sa m e thin g, a nd HDA s faced a p a rticular c h a ll enge as food te c hnolo gy evo l ve d Pri or to about 19 50 h o m e demon s tr a tion did not have exce ptional diffi c ulty convincing wo m e n that pre servation was a necessity world wa r s and economic depres sio n mad e that quit e c lear. 2 But after this period c ircum s tance s changed considerably, and women 's options for stoc kin g the pantry ex p a nd e d makin g home demon s tration 's role in quality of life i ss ue s le ss appare nt. G i ven that c hallen ge, thi s chapter's prima ry focus i s on th e period fo llowin g the end of the Second World War. In addition to county agent r e port s, I am utili z in g mo s t often th e po st -1 945 a nnu a l 1 1 agree w h o l e h earte dl y w ith P e t er Coc l a ni s' b o ld assertions regarding th e ce ntr a l importance of food hi s tory in und ers tandin g hum a n hi tory Everyo n e h as to ea t someti m e, afte r a ll. In cover in g t h e crucial tr e nd s a nd d eve l opmen t s in American foo d hi s t ory, Coc l a ni cites with p art i cu l ar di smay the co mpl e t e o mi ss i o n of d eve l op m e nt s in foo d pro cess in g a nd preservation ." An ob l igatory n o d to Gustavus Sw ift d oes n ot cu t it. P e t er Coc l a ni s, "Food C h ai n s: The Burdens of the (Re)Past," Agricultural Hi tory 72 ( 1 998): 660-674. Me li ssa Walker ha ap tl y differentiated betwee n certain phases of h o m e d e m o n trati o n wo rk as e ith er impractical and unreali stic o r practical a nd reali s tic food co n servat i o n fe ll int o th e l a tt e r category. U nlik e h o m e impro ve m e nt w hi c h had some ambiguous m o ti va ti o n s, m e th o d s a nd impli ca ti o n s, food co n servat i o n met a very tangible need an d recognized rura l wome n 's "ce ntr a l role in the fami l y eco n omy." See Walker 's All W e Kn ew Was t o Farm Ru ral Women in th e Upcounh y South, 1919-1941 (Ba ltim ore a nd London: John Hopkin U ni ve rsity Pre ss 2000), 1 26. Poignant proof that food preservation h as been more about n ece s ity than luxury is in Margaret Hagood 1 937 s u rvey of o uth em tenant women. Quite ofte n Hagood found that bare l y adeq u a t e h o m es, l ack in g extra pace c upb oa rd s o r s h e l v in g, we r e n eve rth e l e s s t ocked with canned foo d ja r s of fruits a nd vegetab l e stacke d in b edroo m a nd kitchen comer Margaret Ha goo d, M o th e r s of th e South. Portraitur e of t he White T enan t Farm Woman (C h apel Hill a nd London: Univers i ty of ort h aro lin a Pres s, I 939 I 996), 98. 2 Katherine Je lli so n n otes that eve n in the Midwe t, w h ere m any fann wome n were uspic i ous at best, and h ost il e at wor t toward s h ome demon st ration durin g World War I many of tho se ame women came to see HDA s a r e p ec table and u efu l. In Jelli so n example th e hift in attitude ca me becau s e home extension staff l eft off pu hin g home appliance acqui ition in fa r of food pr duction a nd con ervat i on in other\; ord hiftin g from im practical, unwant e d advi t o timel y, con tructi e e ducation The fee lin g did n o t per s i s t emphasiz in g the t e nuou po s iti o n h m e dem n !ration h Id in man y communitie. Katherine Jelli o n E ntitl e d t o Pow e r Farm Women and T, c hn o l ogy. 1913 1963 ( hapel Hill and London: niver ity of orth arolina Pre 199 3), 24.

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1 I 3 r eport f l orida' va riou food co n ervation peciali t who e analy r evea l tr e nd and 1 u affect in g the e ntir e t a t e. 3 HOA navigation of fi o d pr eserva ti o n tec hn o l ogy potlight two of home d emo n trati n s fundamental s tr e n gt h s o mmi t m e nt to co r e principle s and mastery of h a n g in g ci rcum s t a n ce onservation wa a co r e principle of h ome d emo n tration's' Li eat-Home" matrix and for both th e ir b e n e fit and t h e benefit of Florida 's rural and urban familie HOA kept abreast of evo l vi n g m e thod s a nd e n co u rage d wome n to become familiar w ith a nd u e them a l so. That i s not t o say that rural wo m e n h ad n ot canned before h ome d e m o n s tr a tion a nd that man y did not co ntinu e to ca n wit h out a n y in vo l ve ment in home d e mon tration HOA s d i d not ha ve a monopol y o n sk ill experie n ce o r resou r ceful n ess. Ind ee d it was women s r eso ur ce fuln ess that gave hom e d e mon strat ion a b oost. In some cases, HO As we re ab l e to t eac h wo men the ba s ic s of food pre servation an d start them in it s practice fo r the first tim e. Ju ta often, HDA s si mp l y we r e h e lpin g women r efine existing technique s, h e l pin g them to do more b y d e mon s tratin g eas ier faster m e thod s or h e l p in g them to do better b y t eac hin g th e m about pre servat ion 's sc i e ntifi c underpinnin gs. 4 Ind eed, part of home 3 The peciali t in c lud e Grace eely ( 1 949 -1 950), A li ce ro m artie ( 1951-1954, 1958-1959) and Lena turge s ( 1955-1957). 4 Lu Ann Jone cites a n examp l e of rural women's own ability t o adapt what t h ey had t o fit what t h ey n ee ded. Women wo rk ing o n tobacco farm in eastern orth Caro lin a ofte n employed the heat from curing fire and the time pent t endi n g them to iron clothes, cook m eat, b a ke br ead or boil water in iron pot fo r ca nnin g fruit. Jones remark the image of wo m e n canning cooking and ironing in barn neat l y capture th e int erdepen d e n ce of farm and hou e h o ld economie and of women's resource:fulnes L u A nn Jo n e Mama L earned Us t o Work Farm Wom e n in th e ew South ( Chapel Hill and London: n i e r s ity of o rth aro lin a Pre ss, 2002) 1 2. Jone s' analy is i s part of an o n going di cussion about the imp ac t ofrefo nn lik e h ome d e m on tration on rural wo m e n p lace in the farm economy pecifically becau e m o t twentieth-century refo rm e r t e nd ed to a d ocate r ole that reinforced the eparate sp here s phi l o o ph y pre a l e nt i n urban fam il ies. o o n e could argue that h ome d emon tration ou ld undo the re ourcefulne s of rural women by co n fi nin g them to completing household dutie in the hou se, not in the barn But 1 am ce rt ain t h at a ide from gender di i ion and their implications home demon tration' impact on rural women ia foo d p r eservation would ha e been positive in the barn or the kitchen more and better canning meant more and better meal s for familie That i n o t t o ay that a woman' on l y role in the farn1 e ono m y was a chef and nutritioni t but ther i no denyin g that putting foo d on the tab l e wa a centra l concern of mother and-. i e

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114 demonstration's durabili ty ca m e from capita li z in g on what wo m e n a lr eady were capab l e of and refining it. Since I have now mentioned wome n and technology and I even titled the dis s ertation after a REA film it wo uld seem natural t ha t I wo uld emp h asize e l ectrification. But I will not except for it s impact o n preservation technology Historians a lr ea d y have provided capable treatments of rural e l ectrificatio n More to the point, t h ey have dealt w i th technology s particular impact on women and women s impact on technology Katherine Jelli s on Ronald Tobey Audra Wolfe Ruth Cowan and Ronald Kline provide more than enough anal y si s to a ll ow us to zero in o n technology in a different l ight. 5 Most of the historiograph y on technology especia ll y in the rural South focuses upon two main themes e l ectrific a tion and farm mechanization. Both connote progress ," newness and a departure from contemporary work patterns and lifeways T h o u gh I agree that these implications are appropriate I hope to l ook at technolo gy th roug h a very precise a nd l ess co mm on, l e n s For example discussions about fannhou s e e l ectrification typ i ca ll y focus on the most so u ght after and heavily advertised e l e c tric labor saver s such as irons or washing machines or the introduction of the biggest l abors a ve r o f a ll running water ; in contrast I want to focus sole l y on food pre s ervation technol ogy th a t did not depend up o n e l ectrificat i on but technology that e l e ctrificatio n profoundl y alt e r e d. 6 That is not to say we h ave aba nd o n ed power in this chapter for food conserva t ion i s al l a bout 5 On t e chno l o gy in ge neral se e A l an T. Marcus and H o w a rd P egal, Tech n o l ogy in A m e ri c a A B ri ef Hi s t ory (Ne w York and Lond o n: H a rc o urt Brace C oll ege Publi s h e r s 1 9 9 9 ) 6 4 On ew D eal e r a e l ectrifi c ation and technolo gy, see Rona ld Tobey T ec h no l ogy a F reedo m Th e New D ea l a n d t he E l ec tri c al M o d e rn iz ati o n of th e A m e ri c an H o m e ( B e rkel e y and L o ndon: U ni v er s i ty of a l ifo mi a Pr e 1996 Tobe y's b o ok i s one of th e b e t for explorin g not j u s t th e mechanic s of New D e ale r a e l ectrifi c a ti on but it s ocio-cultural moti v ation s and imp li cati o n s. Re g ardin g wo m e n and t ec hn o l ogy s ee Jelli s on 's En t itl e d t o P owe r ; Ronald Kline, Co n s um e r s i n th e Co unfl y. T ech n o l ogy a n d oc i a l han ge in Rur a l Am e ri ca (Ba ltim or e and L o nd o n: J o hn Hopkin s U ni v er s ity Pr ess, 2 00 0); Aud ra W o lf e, '" Ho w ot t o E l ec tro c ute th e Farmer ': A sse s in g Attitud es T ow ard s E l e ctr i fi ca ti o n o n Am e ri c an F a rm s, 1 92 0-1940 ," Ag ri c ultu ra l Hi s t o y 7 4 ( prin g 20 00): 5 1 5 52 9 6 For a n ove rvi e w o f fo o d t ec hn o l ogy' hi t o ry ee R J Fo rb e Th e R.i e of F o d T ec hn o l ogy ( 1 5001900 )," J a nu s 4 7 (2): IO 1 -27 a nd (3): 1 39 -1 55

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po er pow r in e perti e and pow r o r re ur e that tran c nd the literal curr nt of tri ity. Before I get into the d tail of who pre erved what and how let me di cu the I l 5 relation hip betwe n women and technology in general e pecially in term of labor relief. Hom demon trati n wa acutely aware of the a erage rural woman's work load. Th ugh a HD could recomm nd tim a ing hou ework plans or help a family delegate re ponsibility both home demon tration orker and rural women often looked to ome device or other a technology to alleviate arious labor s. 7 The intense labor demands of much rural ince I am o freely u ing th term t chno l ogy," I will clarify my meaning. I am using the term primaril in it anthropological en e, a a body of knowledge or skills available to a people. Though acrual machine figure into thi di cu ion the pre sure cooker or freezer fore ample, I think the mot important ense of technology here is experti e, kill and cience In a eminal 1966 book, Brooke Hindle called for an integration of cience especia ll y ocial cience with a hi tory of technology But Hindle noted pairing cience and technology was not easy, partly becau e they eemed to ha e little in common. Hindle e plained ," cience and technology ha e different objectives cience seeks basic under tanding idea and concept u ually exp r es ed in lin guistic or mathematical terms Technology eek mean for making and doing thing It i a que tion of proce a l ways expres ible in term of thre -dim n ional 'thing .' Modem American ha e the oppo ite problem eparating cience and technology Wherea during the Middle Ages the great technological ad ances owe d little to cience or to tho e who pur ued cience, .. tho e engaged in the pace technology of the pre ent [Hindle o r our ] ar ometime at a lo to draw a line between the cience and the technology they u e." ee Hindle e ay "The Exhilaration of Early American Technology," reprinted in Earl y Am e ri ca n T ec hn o logy. Making and Doing Thing from th e Colonial Era t o 1 50 ed. Judith McGaw hapel Hill and London: ni er ity of orth arolina Pre 1994) 42. In her introductory e say to Early Ameri c an T ech nolo gy, editor Judith McGaw peculate on why the history of technology in the nation 's earlie t pa t ha garnered o littl e attention. he u pect that technology just did not appear rele ant to any di cu sion of early American Ii fe and de elopment. In contra t modem technology appear highl y rele ant gi en the po t-1960 academic a arene of technology' "grea t ocial, en ironmental and cultural challenge .' Moreo er, McGa, argues that hi torian of the modem era are more likel y to embrace technology b cau e they Ii e it e eryday. s Hindle had argued, technology as in part a ati fying emotional experience ." Thu McGaw rea on that o many cholar ha e written about t hnology pace ehicle balli tic mi ile nuclear power plant tele i ion airplane automobile computer automated fa iii tie or modem hou ehold technology becau e it pro ided them ith a emina l emotional e perience.' ee McGaw's e say in Early American Te c hnology Making and Doin g Thing from th e Colonial Era t o I 50 ed. Judith McGa ( hapel Hill and London : ni ersity of orth arolina Pre 1994) 2-3. I am inclined to agree we are comp lied to under tand and exp l or hat already eems most familiar, and likely mo t historian of m o dem America ee little in the butter chum, or pressure cooker that i relati e to their own Ii e Howe er, in pired by Joan Jen en' ork thi i ju t the sort of technology link I wi h to make in thi chapter. There ha e been critical technological hange (again, peaking anthropologically), ofte n to do with mundane dome tic chore that ha e had profound effect on the Ii e of tho e in ol ed in the e e eryday ta k Jen en' book, Loo ening the B ond, on midtlantic farm" omen in the late colonial and early national period e plore the impact of change in butter-making technology upon farm women' role in thee onom and ub equently, in their Ii What i mo t fa cinating about J n en

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116 housekeeping proved an ongoing challenge for reform e rs tryin g to convince families to r e main in the countryside Electrification in particular see med the answer to lightenin g drud gery and promoting well-being 8 Not only could electricity reliev e a woman of th e ph ys ical burden s of s uppl y ing her own power to accompli s h everyday tasks, but it could empower h e r b y makin g h e r time flexible if she wanted to dela y her sew in g until evening s he could, without th e traditional fear of lo s ing h e r li g ht. Indeed technolog y like electric power appeared to hold th e k ey not ju s t to ease, but independenc e. Despite the promi ses of domestic freedom made b y the REA TV A and other e l ec tric pro v iders and appliance companies it is not difficult to see th a t flexibility did n o t in fact n ecess aril y m ea n a li g ht e r work load. A woman s impl y had mor e time in h e r da y, a nd n o t a n a l ys i s i s that s h e foc u ses upon a t ec hn o lo gy that m os t wo uld n o t co n s id er technological at all! o p owe r but human mu sc le and in ge nui ty was at work ; butter c hurn s were n o t going to power team h ips or build railro a d s or fly to th e moon Likewise, I h o p e t o e mpha s i ze th e pro cess of foo d pr eservat i on as a n every d ay task with pro fo und implications for rural fam ili es a nd HDA s. See Joa n Je n en Loo e ning th e Bond s. Mid At l an t i c Farm Women 1 7 50-1850 ew H ave n a nd London : Ya l e University Pre s, 19 86). I also am in sp ir e d by P e t e r McClelland s Sowing Mod e rnity Am e rica 's First Agricultural R evo luti on. McClelland d ea l s in detail s, the s upp ose dl y mundan e intricacies of agricu ltura l c h a n ge via it implements and pro ce dur es Sowing Mod er nity d ea l s with farm ma c hinery th e way most hi s t o ri a n s lookin g a t "fa m1 m ec hani za ti o n do not not as th e battl e between m ac hin e and d ra ft animal or machin e and human but at th e s ubtle c han ges in actual implements that r ea p e d big imp ac t s. For exa mpl e, in th e Middle Ages, th e advent of th e m e tal pl ow became o n e of the most cmcia l d ve l o pm e nt s of th e p e ri od, for it e n s ur e d a much m ore sec ur e, much l arge r h arvest, w hi c h led to a d cline in hun ge r then a p o pul a tion s ur ge McClelland di sc u sses th e ame sorts of ap p are ntl y innocuous c han ges T h ei r s i gn ifi cance li es in th eir m o ti vation ("Is there a b etter way"?) and in their c umul a ti e effec t an agric ultur a l r evo luti o n w ith s u ch great ramification McClelland ha left th ei r full e ploration to a eco nd book 8 In Britain Th e Electri c al Ag e for Women journal advoca t e d ed u cated an d a d verti d t o women about th e many benefit of an e l ectric h o m e Published by the l ectrica l soc i atio n for Women th e journal tr a t ed women a e du ca t ed, rational and influ en ti a l co n s um e r s of a ll things e l ectric Moreo er it did n o t d e mur w h e n it ca m e to m ak in g th e m ost of a n e l ectrica l h ook -up Rather than t ri p and s tr ang l e o n num ero u co rd h a n g in g a b o ut th e room from a s in g l e fixture (as m a n y American rural hom emake r did ) th e journa l encouraged women to h ave as many o utl e t s a po ib l e in eac h room ee, for exa mple The ditor H ow Many 'O utlet s Ha e You in Your H o me ?" Th e Elec tr ical Ag e for W o m e n I (April 1928) : 289. Britain lectric upply Act of 1 926 en ured t h at the current wa flowin g mu h ooner there than here in the ni ted tate s, w h ere the Depre sion prompted wideca l e ele trification v i a th e REA and TV A In ru ra l America, m ak in g th e every da y ea ier for women wa m o r e th a n j u t c r eating convenience it wa part of a wider initiati e to make th e country ide Ii a b!

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117 n c sa ril y fi r I i ur e 9 Hom d e mon tration wo rk in the e l abo ra in g c h em fo ll ow e d mu c h the a m part m and promi e d th e sa m e dom e ti c ut op i a r educe d work in c r ea s ed a ti facti n who l e ome mod e rnity But te c hnol gy, a I h ave stre e d was not j u s t devoted to l ec tri ca ll br eez in g through the hou ewo rk. And I am confident that though h u ework ga d g try had ambiguou i g nifican ce for rur a l women, tho se t ec hn o l og i e related to foo d pres rvation were of unqu es ti nab l e, co n tructive importance for these techno l og i es t rul y could e mpow e r wome n. It wa critica l that HOA kept women in vo l ved in afe foo d pr eservation practices to e n ur e that "L i ve -at-Hom e" principle s did not deteriorate a nd the s t ab ility of the rural h ome with th e m But HDA s found that the y had to overcome certain imp e dimen ts to pr ea din g thei r m essage For examp l early work with rural women mad e it c l ea r to HD As that sc i e n ce was not equally appea lin g to everyone. As we s aw with th e women Hagood enco un te r e d and the thou a nd of yea r s of people before them pre servat i on could b e d o n e without any forma l trainin g or sc ientific und e r s tandin g. S u ccess was not un co mmon w ith easily processed foods lik e tomatoe s. E arly HDAs ran up a ga in s t thi s c la s h between tr a inin g and expe ri ence as they b ega n demon s tratin g pr eserv ation ; agents, es peciall y n ew o n es felt bol stere d b y their education but women often were unimpre sse d by the ran ge of agents knowledge. 10 H ome demon s tration s ucc es depend e d on impr ess in g women w ith not only knowledge, but genuine co nc e rn tact a nd friendline ss. Once th ey ga ined an audience, HDAs co uld enhance their own 9 Juli e W o k ha s tudi e d th e r e l a ti o n h i p between wome n and th e machine especia ll y a r ep r esented i ually. h e ca uti o n that th e ery id ea of wo m e n being transformed b y machines s ome tim e s need r e thinkin g and qualification e e l ec tri c a ppli ance were lauded as lab o r a er that cou ld tran fo rm a h a rri e d hou ewife int o a l o in g, ome n bubbling o e r ith mirth a n d jo y "' In reality it becam e o b i o u s t o ob erve r s that fa t e r wo rk m ea nt more time t o d o more work ; the e new mac hin e s oft e n o nl y en tr e n c hed wo m e n m o r e d eep l y int o th e d ome tic phere an d a dded to t h e ta k t h ey w ere expecte d to p e r fo rm ." Juli e W o k W o m e n and th e Ma c hin e. R e pr ese nt a ti o n f r o m th e Sp i nn i n g Whee l t o t h e E l ec t r o ni c Ag e (Ba lt imore a nd London : John H opkin Un i e r ity Pre 2001 ), x 1 Fo r a n exa mple ee Jone 111.

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standing by gearing talks to ways that women could do as they always had done but more easi l y 118 Under the best circumstances however preserving foodstuffs was not necessarily easy and not a ll wome n who can n ed did so u s in g w h a t HDAs stressed were up-to-date methods. To convi n ce women to preserve in sufficient quantities HDAs had to help them l earn ways to m ake canning l ess of a c h ore. T h ere were two dangers; first women might can incorrectly and risk spoilage and seco nd women might stop canning a lt ogether as other demands on their time lik e work outsi d e the home mounted The difficulty inherent in preserving some foods is evident in a bulletin on meat cann in g. In 1929 food co n s ervation spec i alist I sabe ll e T hur sby warned canne r s that since pressure cookers were widely availab l e it was imperative that they be used for canning meats. Fa il ing to do so created a significant risk of bacterial growth a nd spoi l ed food. However, Thursby understood that even for commercial canners, meat preservation was among the most difficult procedures. 11 Once freezers became ava il ab l e e ith er privately ow n ed or at community lockers it is not surpr i sin g that the amo unt of meat preserved increased quite sign i ficantly HD As believed they co uld keep wo m en informed of c h anges in food technolog y that worked in their favor making canning easier and faster. The immediate benefit was that more women can n ed more food t h e lon g -t en n effect was putting women back in control of their fami li es resources by putting them back in control of the necessary technology. If wom e n did not fee l overw h elmed by the procedures and principles of food preservation the y were much more li kely to stay with it. HDAs then served as condu it s to tran s mit new developments a nd re-ground core principles reinforcing t h eir own relevance and assisting women eeking greater security. 11 I abelle S Thur by H o m e C annin g of M e at Bulletin 5 1 ( Ma y 1 929), 5.

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119 It wa increa ingly the ca though that HOAs not rural women found them elve outdi tanced by change in food te hnology Yitai to th ir urvival howe er they worked to k ep apace and continue erving as educat rs to tho e whose wn exp rti e wa completely lacking We will e that by the 1950 food technology had moved o far beyond ba ic canning and commer ially a ailable foods were wide pread that many working in home economic and horn ten ion had little if any training in food preservation Florida worn n demand for uch instruction, however did not disappear As HDA s disco ered, l aying by" never really goes out of tyle. The twentieth century demand for a reliable way to ecure foodstuff: wa not new but part of a long history of food pre ervation techniques and developments. The actual hi tory of food pre ervation give us an important clue to home demonstration s own long landing in the field. 0 er time trial and error gave way to increasingly science -b ased preservation technologies enhancing the place of the trained professional in the scheme of successful preser ation. This reliance on indeed expectation of expertise carved out an ideal niche for the HDA. Agents acted as expert in canning to train women in the correct method of harve ting preserving and preparing food. It is little wonder that food preservation technology influenced the dynamism of the home demon tration program since the technology it elf was so dynamic. To modem con umers a gla jar full of tomatoes does not conjure up vi ion of technological advancement. But how those tomatoes were pre erved i all about technology. Mrs Von Hofen who h ad so vehemently criticized Du a l HDA Pearl Lafitte may not ha e known a Kerr jar when she saw one but it and its Ma on and Ball companions were e set for change. anning peaks olume about progre and ad ancin g technology. Pre ure canners were the tool of choice for demon tration agent and the encouraged women ither to purcha e one or make u e of community canners A the contemporary "P ," they were far ad anced beyond more traditional pre ervation in brine or

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120 eve n th e water bath method l ong u se d in New Eng l a nd But even bas ic canning ha s not a l ways been t h e preservation m e an s of choice. The time b etwee n pot s a nd pre ss ur e cookers witne sse d a remarkable per s i stence in efforts to more effect i ve l y pre se rve and so conserve food. With their attent i on to both fami li ar and new methodolo g i es and their commitment t o sec urity and health HDA s wou ld hav e b ee n at hom e in a n y food pre serva tion era for th ese principle s did not change over tim e. Proof that pr eserv in g foodstuffs h as ever b ee n about techno l ogica l c han ge is evi d e nt in th e hi s tory of pre se rvation Why p eo ple stored food to avert famine, reduce malnu tr ition and pro v id e variety in the diet did not change mu c h but ho w th ey sto r ed food sa l tin g, curing brinin g, dryin g, pottin g cel l ars jar s, cans freezers and irradiation certain l y did The primary moti va tor see m s to ha ve come s trai g ht from P e t e r McClelland's thesis: I s th e r e a better way?" The ear li est a nd simp l est wa y human s s tored th e g lu t for th e famine was dr yi n g. Successfu l dryin g d e p e nd e d entire l y on c lim actic co ndition s but it was possib l e in a variety of c lim ates. As primiti ve a dryin g was burial goo d for both m eat and dairy foods Bu ry in g foods de e pl y kept th e m safe from pr e dation and air-borne bacteria and coo l e n oug h t o prevent mi cro bial g rowth Another opt i on for early civ ili zat i o n s was fire-based b y parching cereals and s mokin g fl es h It i s worth notin g that th ese s impl e ancient a nd Iron Age tec hniqu es are s till u se d in some part s of the wor ld today a t es t a m e nt to their ba sic ef fi cacy. 12 Significant a d va nc e ment in pre serva tion techno l ogy came with n ew in gre di e nt s an d b etter vesse l s. The w id es pr ea d ava ilabili ty of sa lt w h e n a dded to fl es h spe d up t h e drying proce a nd al l owe d the m ea t to b e dri e d furth e r s mok e d o r pr eserve d in a broth By the Middle Ages, air-t i g ht 12 For example as l ate as the 1940 ti h ermen o n the Faroe I land hun g their fi h t o d ry in th e co ld air and buried cod in the co ld eart h and o m e Chinese co ntinu e t o air-dry duck . nn Wil on, "P r e erving Food to Pre serve Life : The Re s pon se to Glu t and Famine from Ea rl y Tim t o the nd of the Middl e Ages," in Wa t e No t Want No t Food Pr e e rva t ionfrom Early Tim es to th Pr e nl Da e d C. Anne Wil on (Edinbu r g h : Edinburgh Univer ity Pr e 19 9), 6-15

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121 v e l ranging from kin a nd b l adder to pi e-c ru t a nd p ttery we r e in u e to prevent co nt a min a tion f food and allow for I n g-te rrn safe t orage 13 Until th e i x t ee nth ce ntu ry, and for a n exte nd e d p e ri d afterwar d s, th e r e r e m a in e d a m a J r flaw in food pr e e r va ti n h w ve r th e technol gie in exi t e n ce were de igned for meat, g r a in and dai ry, n t fruits or vegetable ome fruits in ome c lim ates, co uld be dried, but u ga r pro ve d th e be t way to keep raw fruits acces ibl e over time 14 By the 1 660s, though, a n th rad ance wa in th ew rk thi time throu g h fruit bottling though pre erve r did not a lw ay r ecogn i ze that boilin g fruit in a corked bottl e to achieve t er ility was a n advance. R eci p es for u c h pr e e r va tion appeared a t le as t as ea rl y as the I 660s, compiled by scientist Rob rt Bo le whose cohorts in the Ro ya l Society had b ee n wo rkin g for some tim e on impro ve d pr e ervat ion practic es Then, in 1 795, the F r e nch Ministry of Int erio r offered a prize for d eve lopin g a pr e erva tion pro ce s that allowed foods to be transported an d pre erve d over both di sta nc e and tim e A chef, di s till e r and confectioner Nicholas Appert, 13 Wil o n 1627; P e t e r Br ea r P ot fo r Potting: E n g li h Pottery an d Its Role in Food Pre ervation in the Po t-Medieval P e ri o d ," in Was t e No t Want No t F ood P reserva t ion from Early Times t o the Presen t Da y, e d C. A nn e Wil o n (E dinbur g h : Edi nbur gh U ni ve r ity Pre s 1989) 32. Brear note that by 1569 u s in g p ottery ve e l wa o widespread and effec ti ve that a ll airti ght food pre ervation came to be ca ll e d p ott in g," ju ta we tend to refer to a ll air-tight food preservation today a "canning." 14 Pre erve r s h a d attempted keeping raw fruit fr e h and afe by bu ry in g (layi n g in aw du s t h ay or oa tm ea l ), dryin g, refrigeration (immer e d in co ld s tr ea m ) pi ck lin g ( u se wi n e beer a nd vinega r ), coa tin g it in wax a nd p otti n g (a p ote nti a ll y u cce sfu l method i f the fruit was very c l ean). Where and when ugar, a a ai l ab l e, fruit cou ld be preserved a ca nd y (more u gar t h an fruit) a nd marmalades or who l e fru it jams (twice o r thrice boiled fruit com bin ed wi th a yrup or je ll y to se t without de tro yi n g the fruit) The jam method in particular we r e quite ucce sfu l and mirror modem meth odo l og ie s, though in the six t eent h century pre ervers did not yet understand -. hy their attempts worked. Jenni fer tead ,' ece itie a nd Luxurie : Food Pr e ervatio n from the Elizabethan to the Georgian ra ," in Wa t e o t Want ot Food Pr eserva tion from Early Tim e to th e Pr e e n l Day ed. nne Wil on (E d i nbur g h : E dinbur g h Unive r ity Pr e 1 989) 88-90 ln h er tudy of co l onial ew Englander fo d pre erva t ion, arah McMahon argue t h a t co ld -ce ll ar storage r ema in ed commonplace until the mid nin e t ee nth ce ntury a familie so u g ht way t o gain g r ea t er co ntr o l ove r the security of s tore again t the e l eme nt s an d seaso n a l variety. It wa clear th at a d a n ce in pre erva ti n technolo gy were crucia l for "a l ong as fa mili e relied eit h er o n ce ll a r s fo r co ld torage or on picklin g method of pre erving for their bulk sto r e of food, food pr e ervat i o n wou ld r main a n uncertain l ink in the food proce ." arah M Mahon Laying Food By : Gender, Di etary Deci i on and the Technology of Food Pre ervation in ew Eng l and Hou eh Id 1750-1 50," in Early Ameri c an T ec hnolo gy. Making and Doin g Thing from th e olonial Era to I 50, ed. Ju dith A. McGa ( h apel Hill and Lond o n : Uni e r iry f o rth arolinaPre s, 1994) I 0I.

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b ega n a nd co mpl e t e d th e c h a ll e n ge. Buildin g on t h e b o il e d b ott le tec h no l ogy, Appert eve ntu a ll y d eve l o p e d w h a t we h ave co m e t o kn ow as ca nn i n g p reserv in g foods by sea l ing th e m in g l ass j ar s a nd b o ilin g th e m Mos t imp o rt a nt A p pe rt s work i nc lud e d a variety o f fr ui ts a nd vege t a bl es as we ll as m ea t s j a m s a nd d a ir y 122 Wh a t Ap p e rt acco mpli s h e d was p rec i se l y th e co ntr o l ove r r eso u rces th at HD As a d voc at e d ; in 1 809 th e F r e n c h p a p e r Courri e r d e / Europe p ra i se d Ap p e rt s wo r k as "' t h e a rt of fi x in g th e seaso n s ; h e m akes s prin g su mm e r a nd fa ll l i ve in bott l es simi l a rl y to the ga rd e n e r prot ec tin g hi s t e nd e r pl a n ts in gree nh ouses aga in st th e pe r i l s of t h e sea s o n s "' O n M a r c h 1 5 1 809 t h e Soc i e t e d E n co u rage m e n t p o u r l Indu strie Na ti o n a l e ap p rove d Appert s ca nnin g as a s u ccessfu l a nd v i a bl e p r eservat i o n process P e t er Du ra n d of B ri ta i n the n p a t e nt e d ca nnin g in tin ; tin l a t e r b eca m e th e vesse l of c h o i ce a m o n g co m me r c i a l ca n ner s and m a n y HD As, fo r it s l ow cos t a nd ease of u se Du ra nd s a p pre n ti c e W illi a m U n de r wood b ro u g ht t h e ca nn i n g p rocess t o th e Unite d S t a t es in 1 8 1 7 In Bo s t o n U n derwood tutored T h o m as K e n se tt in ca nnin g a nd in I 82 5 Ke n sett r ece i ve d t h e firs t Ame ri ca n pate n t fo r ca nnin g. 1 5 Fro m th at p o int forwa rd ca nnin g was a s i gnifica n t com m e r cial a s we ll a s h ome indu s t ry Pro of of in c r eas in g l y pro f ess i o n a l s t a nd a rd s i s ev i de n t in P rogress i ve era atte m p t s to e nh a n ce t h e safety a nd uni fo rmi ty of ca nn e d goo d s T h e actua l c onstruct i on of ti n can n in g vesse l s evo l ve d t o beco m e as sa ni tary a s p oss ibl e, by refi n i n g th e co n s tr u c t ion mater i a l s and p ro ce s s a nd min i mi z in g hum a n co n tac t w i th t h e vesse l s at every sta g e B y 1 896 commer c ial ti n were created s t art t o fi n is h wit h o u t ever h a v i n g be e n tou c h ed b y h uman hand s. T h ese t in s ca m e t o b e c a ll e d sa ni tary ca n s. P u r ity wa s c ru c i al in pre se r v ed food s (e spe c ial l y a fte r 1 5 I t was n o t o nly th e Fr e n c h a rm y th a t r e q u ir e d imp rove d ra t i o n s ; unti l tinn e d m ea t b eca m e a v a il a bl e i n th e ea r l y nin e t ee nt h ce n tury the n g li h a rmy a n d n avy co mp l a i n e d of l e than a ti factory foo d s t o r es. t ea d 92 96 ; Ali n a S urm a cka zce niak Th e i c h o l as App e rt M e da l i t A R e fl ec ti o n of t h e Growt h o f Food S c i e nc e a nd T ec hn o l ogy F ood T ec hn o l ogy ( S e pt e mb e r 1 992): 144-4 5 ; Mar c u a nd ega l T ec hn o l ogy i n A m e ri c a 6 4.

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1 23 th m ea t-p ac kin g h o rr r r vea l e d b y U pt o n in c l a ir ). T o e n ur e th at qu a l ity ta nd a rd e t e nd e d a ro th e n a ti n ca nnin g ce nt e r ca nn e r d eve l ope d tr a d e a cia ti o n a n o th e r link b t wee n fo d pr du c ti n c on umption a nd pr ese rv a ti o n a nd Pr og r e siv i m tra d e m a rk p rofi i o n a li m. 16 till sa nit a ti o n a nd uniformit y ac hi eve m e nt s did n o t pe ll th e e nd t o h a n g in co n erva ti o n t ec hnolo gy, o HDA a nd rural wo m e n li ke pro[ e s i o n a l ca nn e r co uld n o t y t r e l ax. In th e ce ntu ry th a t fo ll owe d foo d pr eserva ti o n t ec hn o l ogy co nt i nu e d to c h a n ge s om e tim s o rapidl y th a t s cho o l e d pr ese rv e r s h a d diffi c ul ty kee pin g up T h e a uth o r of a 1908 Ge rm a n g uid e t o pr e e rvin g fruit s vege tabl es a nd m ea t s r e p o rt e d d e l ay in g publi cat i o n b eca u se th e c ontinu e d introdu c ti o n of impro ve m e nt s in th e l ast few y e a r s pr eve n te d an ex h a u s ti ve r e port b e in g dra w n up .' A noth e r co nt e mpora ry n o t e d hi s atte mpt in hi ow n vo lum e t o r e fl ec t th e pro gres m a d e; fo r hi s third e di t ion h e" ubj ec t e d [ th e g uid e] t o a th o rou g h r ev i s ion and [h a d] w ee d e d o ut every thin g th a t ha b ec om e a n t iqu ate d ." Th a t wa in 1 9 1 2. 1 7 K ee pin g up w ith c ontinuin g c han ge pro ve d a c h a ll e n ge t o th e e ntir e h o m e d e m o n s t ra tion ta ff throu g hout o ur p e riod but i ts a bili ty t o do o was n eces ary t o r e m a in r e l eva nt a nd h e lpful. B y th e tim e th a t HD As we r e teac hin g rural wo m e n t o ca n w i t h pr e ur e cooke r s the l a t e t t ec hnolo gy that t ec hnolo gy w a s see min g l y irr e l eva nt a t l eas t in th e h o m e. Co mm e r c ial c ann e ri es we re c rankin g out in ex p e n i ve a nd w id e l y ava il a bl e m eat vegetable a nd fr uit eve rythin g that a rural h o m e mak e r was puttin g up h e r e l f H o m e age n ts r ecog n ized 16 Tra d e as oc i a t io n fo r ca nn e r a tt e mp te d t o unit e th e majo r ca nn i n g cen t e r o n e in alifomia and the o th er o n t h e Ea t oa t b etwee n B a ltim o r e a nd ew J e r ey, a nd th ir o m bi n ed wo r k fo r ce of 50,000 peop l e. oc i a t io n s i n c lud e d th e A oc i a ti o n of A m e r ica n Foo d P roce o r founde d in 1 882), t h a t iona l ociation of a nn e d Foo d p acke r ( I 90), and th e at i o n a l Ca nn er As ciatio n (1907) a r cu and ega l T ec hnology in Am e ri c a 18 I ; 182 1 7 W ag n e r R ecipe for the P re e rving of Frui t V ege table and M ea t s. tra n harle a l ter (Lo nd o n : cott, G r e n woo d & o n 1908), ; H a u n e r Th e Manufa c tur e of Pr e erved F ood and we tm ea t tr an rt hu r Mo rri a nd Herb rt R ob o n (Lond n : cott, Green ood & on, 1912),

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124 it wou ld be difficult at times to conv in ce rural women to can what many could buy. As early a s 1928 conservation specialist Isabelle Thursb y articu l ated thi s frustration: Man y women have not l earned the satisfaction that comes year after year from replenishing the pantry shelves with home-grown products furnishing the famil y with a more healthful and varied menu nor have many women appreciated the opportunities that the great tourist trade offers to the women who make cann in g an art ." 1 8 To HDAs business sense preservation made good ce nt s, providin g a source of income as well as food As is true today attractively packaged jars of tasty jam s and je lli e s o r candied fruits sold very wel l amon g tourists seeking a taste of Florida to take home with th e m Even for stap l es lik e vegetab l es and meats canning not onl y saved money for the family but it earned mor e than elling fresh food products. In 1933 the s tate 's hom e d e mon s tration mission statement re g arding preservation reported one such ex ample ; Holme s County familie s might fetch two to thr e e cents per pound for cattle on the hoof but 106 animals ki ll ed cool e d and canned sold for thirty-five cents per tin can. 19 Undeterred by women's initial ambivalence HD As reinforced their Live-at-Home philosophy and rea s sured women that the one-time expen se of home cannin g equipment and the labor involved in fi llin g shelve s seemed a small price to pay for the r e turn in self sufficiency s e curity pride accompli s hment s kill even beautification 20 And in thi s tim e 18 I ab e ll e S Thur s b y, Save th e S urplu s Bulletin 5 0 (U ni ve r s ity o f F l o rid a, 1 928) 6 19 Coo p e r a ti ve A g ri c ultur a l E x t e n s i o n erv i ce (Co un ty Age nt a n d H o m e D e m o n tr a ti o n W o r k). It s Mi s i o n a nd Acco mpli s hm e nt s ( U niver s i ty of Florid a, 1 933 ) 3 9-40 20 Lu Ann Jon es ha s adroitl y captured th e s ense of prid e women f e lt t o ward their c a nnin g in h e r r e t e llin g of one N o rth C aro lin a woman 's kill in keepin g up with pr ese rvati o n with o u t mu c h h e lp o r appr ec i a ti o n fr o m h e r c hildr e n and hu b a nd Thi w o man fir t tru gg l e d t o sec ur e e ery th i n g h e n ee d e d for ca nnin g, lik e s u ga r a nd fruit lar ge l y b e cau se h e s tru gg l e d t o co n v in ce h e r famil y t h at h e r e ff o rt we r e wo rth b o th tim e a nd m o n ey, eve n th o u g h b o th we r e in h o rt uppl y. Wh e n foo d wa fin a ll y o n th e t a bl e th e l a b o rin g m o th e r did n o t re ce i ve ac c o l a d e fo r h e r e ffi rt b ut m r e co mpl a int D es pit e thi h e r o n r eca ll e d h e "swe ll e d w ith prid e a h e s u rveye d h e r h a nd iwo rk b eca u e h e kne\ th a t hu b a nd and c hildr e n co unt e d o n h e r t o put th e v ittle o n th e t a bl e thr ee tim e a da y."' J o n e M a m a L ea rn ed Us 1 21 3. F ri e ndl y co mp e titi o n a m o n g h o m e d e m n t ra ti n c lub wo m e n a b o ut t h e

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125 Fra m m a rked b tw rid war and a depr ion anything a rural famil co uld d I ca r fi r it e l f and m ee t th d mand f nationide ca ll t o on e r at i o n a of grea t co n quence. II the e ffort ho r ould ha e been tunted if th e ca nnin g a not carried ou t prop rl Th mor fi od pre ervation b eca m e abou t ien e, th e m re tho e trained in t h i nc of fo d pre er ation had to offer rural omen. B the twe nti eth e ntu ry, ome n int re ted in more ec ure and fruitful food pre ervation had a r e liable ource of information o n hi h to r I Throu g h orld ar II HOA ben e fit e d from a potent combination of ir um tance requirin g pre ervatio n a nd their own tatu a women-i nthe -kn ow with daily a ce to tho e seeking assi tance impl put pre ervation required experti e, and HOA \: e re the ex pert on hand Agent first job wa to teach omen to can ba icall and effecti el to a ert the di appointment, e en di a t e r of poiled tore Though the principle a ociated ith canning had been known at l ea t ince Appert de e lop ed them in the ear l y nineteenth century, e en ell into the twentieth ce ntu ry a ignificant proportion of rural women did not can. Though ome did not know ho o th er belie ed the practice created foodstuff unfit for con umption not urpri in g, ince man women canned wi th unpro en method and equipment, o the re s ult cou ld be tasteless mush or orse rancid. Canning might ha e been amo unt and quality of th e ir canning i i gn ifi ca nt on it ow n a a n example of pride, but a Jone exa mpl e make clear, e mu t not o e rl ook the m o r e mundane, but more i mportant, reason home d emon tration and o th e r \J o m e n put up ja r afte r jar of foo d to feed their familie I cannot but tre once again the in aluable b enefi t of ec uri ty again t hunger. Pre rving any amount as orth\ hile but ome wome n lamented that th ey co uld not pr e erve enough each year to see their familie through. Their mi ed prid e a nd anxiety r ei n fo r ce th e n o ti o n that pre rvation' first and mo t ignificant purpo e as t o in ure again t carcity Margaret Hagood met omen i n the 1930 \ ho were di appointed that one fac t o r o r another time, in ect uppl ie h a d limited the quantity they had been a bl e t o co n erve, o that e nough foo d h ad n o t been e t aside fo r the winter. In ariably ho\ e v er once co mplaint had b ee n lod ge d and di appointment ackno e d ge d th e co n er ation turned again to pride. Hago d wrot of o n e o man eager to h ow off h e r ware a nd h e r ki 11. Many a oman hen peaking of canning added 'a nd I didn t have a ingle o n e to poi I la t i nt e r or I' e ne er lo t but t\ o quart of tomatoe "' H agood i qui k to point o ut the ignificance of uch ucce gi en the \ om n' limited re ou r ce ; the e ere impre i e record hen one con ider that only a very few of them ere memb r of h ome demon tration club o r h ad an notion of a pplied bacteriology ." Hagood M o th e r of th e South I 03-0-L Hago d' comments point to the indi idua l trength of rural \\Omen and of home demon tration that, hen co mbin ed, were formidable

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an art, but it was an imperfect one. HDAs introduced to rural women two things that improved their chances of successfu l preservation advice and technology. 126 It was most important that canne r s be painstaking and conscient i ous," following a ll directions exactly and exercising caution in their procedures 21 Much canning was relatively simp l e, but it could be time-consuming; HDAs warned against an "asse mbly lin e" method, insisting that on l y one jar be processed at a time. HD As regarded and advocated tomatoes as a fruit of innumerable uses so I wi ll u e their basic preservation method as an exa mple here Tomatoes are washed dipped in boiling water to aid in removing the skins, and then cored The raw tomatoes are packed int o a clean g l ass jar filled to w ithin one-half in ch of the top Sa lt is added, and the lid s a r e sea l ed. Then the jars go immediately int o a water bath ( takin g into account sea-level for cooking time) and once processing is comp l ete, they are r e mov e d rapid l y coo l ed, allowed to stand undisturbed for twenty-four hours then carefully labeled and stored 22 Acid foods lik e tomatoes fruits and pickled beets could be preserved safe l y usin g a water bath. However most vegetab l es lik e corn, pea s, squash and asparagus and red m eat poultry, an d fish were processed in a pressure cooker to ach i eve the high temperature necessary for sterilization. With someone to demonstrate the proces step-by-step and the benefits so readil y apparent, canning caught on among rural women and agents could begin demon stra tin g the late s t and most efficient way to pre serve foods the pre ss ure canner. These preciou s" 21 Thur by ," av e th e urplu ," 4. 22 U DA, anning in C la s Jar s in c h oo l and In s titut ional Kit c h e n s. Fruit s and o th e r A id Fo o d (Wa h ington D C .: United tat es Government Printin g ftice 19 51 )

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co ker were pr ciou ind ee d but far mor e co mpl ex in their m ec hanic th a n a basic wate r bath 23 127 A id from th e ir intimidatin g bell and whistles, pr es ur e c oker were mu c h more pen and very often women u ed th e m a part of community ca nnin g proj ect at a c ho o l or at the h ome of a c lub m e mber The g rowing popularity of canning among women wa match e d b y the inten ification of th e connection betw ee n food pre servat ion and cience. ot onl y did agent h ave to know how to can, but th ey had to b e ab l e to explain the proce w h y certain mi s take caused certain re s ult s and what foods worked we ll together. Puttin g up increa in g l y became a part of the growing food technolog y, an award for w hich would co me to bear Appert s name Food pre ervation became the final and one of the mo s t imp o rt a nt elements of this new scie n ce. 2 4 HD As took very serio u s l y the nece ss i ty of sc ience in rural life and n eve r mi sse d an opportun i ty to remind rural women of the danger s of not being as State Agent Flavia Gleason put it in 19 28, up to date ." For both family use and for sale, canned goo ds had to meet certain tandards. G l eason opened a bulletin on food pre serva tion with a paraphrase of Erner on: If a woman make t h e best l oaf of bread prepare the best bottle of nect ar, o r put up th e be s t jar of preserve s the world wi ll beat a path to her door thou g h s he live in the center of 23 In Arthur Rap e r s tud y t e nant s who go t pressure coo k e r s ofte n mi spro n ou n ced th e n ame and called th e m preci o u coo k e r s. Jud g in g b y the p o pulari ty of ca nnin g and it r etu rn the n a m e i fittin g ee R a p e r T e nants of th e Al mi ghty ew York: Macmillan 1 943) 237. 2 4 ee, fo r exa mpl e, Forbes, Th e Ri e of Food T ec hn o l ogy" 1 39-155. The roster of th ose who ha e \ o n th e Appert m e dal dem o n trat es th e ex t e nt to w hich science a nd technology ha e m e r ged i n t h e que t to c r ea t e b e tt e r sto r e of food. ome of th e winners bet\: ee n 1942 a nd 1 960 include t h o e wh o s e finding dir ec tl y affecte d the afety of pr e erve d foo d s u c h as amuel Pre cott establ i hment of mi cro b e as th e ca u e of poila ge (A pp ert h a d ca ll ed th e pro ces ing "fermenting," mu ch ea rl ier pr e erve r had i d e ntifi e d p o ila ge a the r e ult of r ee t i n g. This i not unlike h ealth r eforme r linkin g di ea e t o "m i as ma b efo r e the ge rm th eory) In 1 948, Co nr a d E l ehjem identified trace mineral in fo d that h a d imp orta nt effec t on nutrition a l quality in c ludin g the under tan di ng that itamin B-3 co uld pr e e nt pellagra a d i ease link e d to malnutriti o n that c rippl ed many in the rural o uth ee zcze niak "The icho l as Appert Medalists ,' 148-49 E ery ne\: fin din g i n turn influenced h o w HDA t a u g ht wo m e n t o con erve foo d and reinforced HD s own ense ofpurpo e, i n thei r eye and in th e eye of tho e who paid th e ir alarie

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128 the Everglades." A rural wife co uld be a homemaking dynamo but in order for a woman to achieve an y mea s ur e of s uccess ... s he must emp l oy improv e d m e thod s; she must be painstakin g and conscientious; and she must do h er work accordin g to sc ientific principle s 25 In what a modem hi s torian mi g ht read as a subtle comment on ge nder conservation s pe c i a li st I sa belle Thursb y rea ss ur ed-cha ll engedhom e canners that their work s hould not be "a n y l ess sc i e ntificall y don e or that th e home canner should b e any le ss ca r e ful ... than th e man who make s canning hi s profession. 2 6 Not a ll wom e n were involved directl y in home demon strat i on club work, not a ll hom e d e mon s tration women had ad e quate canning mat e rial s at hom e, and not a ll wo men wante d to can a l one, so community canning centers se rved to pro v ide r eso ur ces, facil iti es and camaraderie for wo m e n and m e n int e re s t e d in preserving th e su rplu s Ca nn i n g centers boomed durin g th e world wars when th e re was s uch a pow e rful n at ional inter est in food conservation. Moreover, th e r es trictions of food rationin g made it imp e rati ve that families save whatever the y cou ld s inc e there was little t h ey could h ave in abundance. Durin g these peak periods of food n eed, and in l ess dramatic c ir cumstances, a wel l ca nnin g centers serve d 15 Thursby, Save th e Swp lu s, 4. 26 Thursby Save th e Surp lu s 5. There is, too, an i ss u e r e lat e d t o wo m e n a nd thi n ew-fang l ed cann in g: th e co ntinu e d r e l a ti o n hip b etween, a Juli e Wosk puts it wo m e n a nd th e machine. Rural women in Florida we r e part of a l a r ger mili e u that saw the ri se of publication lik e Th e El ec tri c al Handbook f or Wom e n a nd th e journal The E l ec t ri c al Ag e for Wom e n The connect i o n was n atura l ince so m uc h n ew t ec hn ology, lik e pressure cooke r was d e i gne d fo r d o m es ti c u se The U nit ed l a t e h ad become in c r ea in g l y m ac hin e-o ri e nt e d so th at th e r ev it a li za ti o n of th e co w1try s id e co uld not but in c lud e th e m ac hin e Katherine J e lli o n h as arg u e d effec ti ve l y that th e r e l ationship b etwee n fann wo m en an d technology was n o t a l ways w h a t th ose wo m e n h a d e n vi i o n e d In h e r tudy ofMidwe tern Fann Be l t wo m e n li v in g i n the mid t ofa t ec hn olog i ca l r evo luti o n J e lli so n n o t es th a t fann women endor ed the Progressive Era p r o pa ga nd a th a t upp o rt e d fa nn techno l ogy They believed th at a d op tin g techno l ogica l impro ve m e nt s o n th e fa m1 wo uld m ake th e ir a l ready und erva lu e d but l abo ri o u farm wo r k ea i er. Mid wes t e rn fann wo m e n h a d n o int en ti o n of s h ed din g th e ir fam1 producer ro l e, a nd were critical o f th e und e rl yi n g me age" in technology propaganda, which implied th a t machinery could free women from field work a nd in tead allow th em t o confonn m ore closely to the ro l e of fu l l-time homemaker. J en e n argues th at mo t fann \ omen did not see thi a a worthwhi l e goal. They a lu ed their work a fann producers an d for rea on of economics a nd fam il y po s it i on wanted t o retain that po s ition In other wo rd s fam1 women h e ld an a lt emati e v i io n of modem farm li fe one in whi h their work a fann producer wa central. Jelli on En t it l e d t o Pow e r. xxxi.

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129 the wide r co mmunit y by a i tin g wo m e n without the n eces ary art i cles to ca n at home. Many women took advantage of canning ce nt e r s p o n so r e d b y h o m e demon tration famil i es, w h ere th e horn d e m n tration c lub m em b ers ca nn e d foo d co mmuni ty member s b roug h t to the fa ilit y In a r a w h e r e goo d relation hip s ex i ste d b etwee n l oca l growers a nd hom e d emo n trati n m e mb e r s, ca nnin g ce nt ers pro v id e d a m ea n s to r e m ove qu a l ity s urpl us" from m ar k e t s and mak e it r ea dil y avai l ab l e to Florida famil i es. ln this way, ca nnin g cente r s were a n idea l olu ti on for sav in g th e s urplu for th e greate t numb e r of p eop l e. 27 After World War II howe ver, l oca l intere s t in using ca nnin g ce nt e r s dec lin e d a nd the fac iliti es deteriorat e d Many funded by counties were closed But within a few years, home demonstrat i on r ecog ni ze d a "fe lt n ee d fo r n ew ca nnin g ce n ters ; cont inu e d emp h as i s on food conservat i o n apparent l y was pa y in g off. A numb er of n ew centers were built or o ld er o n es r e -op e n e d for community us e. E li za beth Dicken se n Orange Co un ty's HDA in 1 949, reported with prid e th e immin e nt grand opening of a n ew, state of -the-art canning ce nt er. T h is facility, constructed b y county commissioners for a bout $15,000 is a most modern kitchen w ith new equipment." When the center officially opened in January 1 950, some of th e guests o n hand were two origina l Orange C ounty tomato c lub g irl s, who d e mon s trated to t he audience ca nnin g tomatoes w ith an "o ld wa t e rbath ca nner the y u se d ba c k in 1 9 1 6. Du va l 's white HDA Pearl Lafitt e, m a d e a s imil a r r eport in 1950 lauding t h e county 's n ew ce nt e r w h e re women cou ld get up-to-dat e on th e late s t m et h ods.' The new center was in fact a comp r e h e n sive demon strat i o n facility, w ith a k itchen can nin g cente r a nd an office. Du va l c l ea rl y had both need and r eso ur ces for community food preservation facilit ie s; th i s n ew ce nter brou g ht th e number of canning centers in th e county to s i x. 28 an nin g ce nt ers were a n import a nt co mpon e nt of the hom e d e m o n tration m atrix; by making canni n g 27 Grace ee l y Gardening a nd Food Conservat i on AR 1949 ( C-91 B-4 ) 5. 28 E li za beth Di cke n en, Oran ge Cou n ty AR 1 949 ARA-33.6-72), 2, 1 3; El i zabet h Di c ken se n Orange o un ty A R 1 950 ARA-33.6-5 ), 1 5; P ear l Lafitte, Du va l County AR 1950 ARA-33.6 55) 1 7 -1 8.

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130 r eso ur ces accessib l e to everyo n e eve n tho se without home demon stratio n affiliation wo uld be e ncoura ge d to save th e su rplu s and emp l oy safe method s However cann in g was not t h e on l y preservation ga me in town An o ld e r colder pre servat i on technolo gy was makin g a comeback, this tim e via e l ectric freezers. Food preservation was int en d e d to provide sec urity against sca rc ity ; ironically it was hard tim es that pr ec ipitat e d another major shift in pr eserva tion t ec hnolo gy and p atte rn s Eco nomic co ll apse, rat h er than abunda n ce, fostered widespread e l ec trification in rural America Frank lin Roo seve lt s pro-acti ve New D ea l programs, includin g the Te nn essee Va ll ey A uth ority ( TVA ) a nd Rural E l ec trifi ca tion Administration (REA), pumped power into hom es pre v iou s l y i so l a t e d from w h at Ron a ld Tobey ca ll s ocia l modernization How e l ectr ici ty s ur ge d into rural hom es is l ess import a nt for our s t ory than the significance attached to e l ec trification Ind ee d man y of the id eo lo gies associated w ith electr ificati o n mirrored tho se HDA s espo u se d These sa m e philosophies are also those that infu se d food preservation t ec hnolo gy wit h extra m ea nin g n a mel y the confluence of tan g ibl e increases in food tore a nd nutrition a nd int a n g ibl e in c r eases in sec uri ty, o rd e r a nd precision Ro osevelt Tobey argue was a bl e to bridge a ga p b etwee n Pro g r essive dr ea m s and th e tangible eco n omic c ri s i s of the 19 30s with e l ec tri ca l mod e rni za tion Ro oseve lt e quat e d dom estic e l ec tri ca l m o d ernization w ith soc ial mod e rni za tion so that Pro g re ss i ve soc ial modernization m eant m o r e th a n the mat e rial impro ve m e nt of li ves. It meant also th e moral impro veme nt of li fe as a matter of soc i a l jus ti ce through techno l ogy ." 29 When the ew Deal fai l ed to ga in s upp ort for TVAl ik e co n s tru ction in other r egio n s th e REA emerged in 1 935 to conduct e l ectricity aero the cou n try part i c ularl y int o th e cou nt rysi d e. By h e lpin g farmer create l oca l e l ectri c coopera ti ves a nd impo ing r eg ul atio n s to keep prices low for the co n s u mer th REA ignificantl y in creased the rate of rural e l ectr ifi cat i on The re ult manife ted it elf inju t tw '9 Tob ey, T ec hn o l ogy a Fr ee do m 95

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de ade o nl y ne-fifth f Am rican h ome wer l ectrica ll y mod m in 1 933 by 1 955 l e th a n o n e -fourth f h m we r e s till w ithout power 30 A Im o t every rural home had gone l ec tri by th e 1 960 dram a ti ca ll y a lt er in g th e ways people li ve d a nd worked. 31 In rural Florida, e l ect rifi cat i n trend we r e eq uall y tunning wit h t h e greatest 1 3 1 in rea r, !l owing W rid War II. In 194 7 the Florida ooperative Extension er ice created a n w po t Fann E l ctr ificati o n peciali t to h e l p rural fam ili es navigate t h ei r newl y charged en ironm nt. A of that yea r 50 percent of Florida farm had electr i c i ty m o t t hrou g h t h e RE The numb e r of e l ec trifi e d farm ur ge d over the next decade e e n after taking into account a declining numb er of farms following a 1 950 cens u s redefinition of 'fa rm. By 1 956 a lm os t 91 p e r ce nt of Florida farms h a d e l ectricity. 32 And by 1 956, many formerly rural Floridians were Ii ing in uburban or urb a n areas, so e l ectr i city wa a familiar resource throughout the s t a t e Though mo st hi s tori ans d ea l with e l ectr ifi cation s imp act on a home 's ob iou features, lik e l abor-savers for hou sewor k running water l ighting, h eating and in 30 Tobey Technology a Freedom 20 A l an I. Marcu and Howard P. egal, Te c hnology in Am e ri ca 19. 31 A number ofhi torian ha e pointed out that thoug h e l ectricity may ha e been widely a ailable and pervasi e, how rural con umer emp l oyed it wa enti r ely a matter of preference ltimately rura l con umer c r eate d w h at R o nald Kline calls "i ndi vi du a l modemitie ," rather than blind l y accepting the promi e of adverti e m e nt and th e appa r e nt ex p ec t at i o n that a ll -e l ec tri c meant all-good. By t h e mid1960 the common wi dom wa th at rural co n um eri m wa a n un toppable, irre s i tible force, but t hat \ a not the case. Women did not in ta ntl y buy into or buy at all whate er wa 'new and impro ed. Katherine Jelli on emp h a ize Midwestern farm women' clear commitment to their producti e ro l e and their gene r a l rejection of the po t-war h ou ewi fe-con ume r adverti er promoted. Women electi ely cho e the technologies they wanted o r aw a truly r ele ant to their need Kline cite a telling e ample: though many farm women were attracted to the new electric ranges, they re i ted abando nin g their o ld er coal sto e particularly becau e coal s to e served a kitchen heater as e ll a cooki n g appliance per i tent wa th reaction t o a lle l ectric stove that manufacture fina ll y created a hybrid e l ectric-coa l sto e. See Kline 278, 1 97, 205; Je lli on, 182. 32 The percentage of e l ectrified farm increa ed a folio : 1947-50 %; 194 -65.4 %; 1949-76 5 %; 19503 2% 1951-80 %; 1952-79 .2%; 1 953-81.7%; 19545.3%; 1955-8 8% 1956-90 .7%. ubre y M. Petti Farm lectrification AR 1 947 ( -91 B-7) 5; A. M Petti Farm Electrificat ion R 194 ( -91 B7), l ; M. Petti Farm Electrification AR 1949 ( C-9 IBI) I ; A M. Petti Farm lectrificati o n AR 1950 ( -91 B-5) 4; M. Petti Farm Electrification AR 1951 ( -91 B-9 5; A M Petti Farm l ectrifica tion AR 1952 ( -91B-13), 5; . Petti Farm lectrification AR 1953 -91B-1 7),10; M Petti Farm lectri fication R 1954 ( C-91 B-22) IO; M. Petti Farm le ctrification R 1955 ( -91 B-2 ), 12 ; M Petti Farm Electrification R 19"6 ( -918-33) 14

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132 tim e, cooling, e l ec trifi ca tion a l so had a profound effect on our ancient n eed to pr ese rv e food Though co ld s tora ge v ia ce llar s, i ce bo xes and th e n r efr i gera ti o n h a d not been un co mmon mean s of pre serva tion none of the se method s provided lon g -t e rm storage. Ca nnin g h a d t h e c le a r advantage for lon g -term co n servat ion becau se once sea l e d correct l y th e vesse l s we r e airtight and completely ste rile prohibitin g the growth of bacteria and microorganisms Food could be s tored for month s rath e r than da ys, far lon ge r than in an ice bo x or even a refri ge rator. E l ectr ifi ca tion created another option, one with canning 's ability to s tor e food for very l ong periods Freezers were not created as part of th e New Deal 's e l ectrifica ti o n programs, but freezers as a food pr ese r va tion t ec hn ology ben efi t ed mi g htil y from the gove rnm e nt 's l a r gesse As mor e hom es r ece i ve d e l ectricity mor e families purchased and u se d freezers as a means to s tor e foo d Other fa mili es took a d va nta ge of community freezer l ocke r s, just as they had commu ni ty ca nnin g ce nt e r s. Freezing 's advantages were n o t h a rd t o id e nti fy a freezer h el d a goo d d ea l of food for a goo d l e n gt h of t im e, and processing foo d s for free z in g was l ess time co n s umin g and easier than for ca nnin g ; thi s was es peciall y true for m ea t as ev id e nced b y grea t leap s in m eat pr eserva tion. But freezers we r e n o t a p e r fec t s t o ra ge sol uti on their dependence on e l ectr i c it y mad e their co nt e nt s vulnerable to spo il age; a ll but the largest freezers which mo st families co uld not affor d did not hold the sa m e quantity of food as mi g ht be ob tain e d b y ca nnin g; a nd freezers cost mor e th an ca nnin g equip m e nt. All the same, freez in g ca u g ht on lik e w ildfir e (o nl y co ld e r ) among pr eserva tion-mind e d women so HDA s ada pt e d th ei r conservation program s to m eet n ew int erests a nd n ee d s. HD As' firm proc l a mati o n s that ca nnin g was h o ldin g its ow n against freez in g belie freez in g s rapid takeover. In 1 949 food co n se r vat i on spec i a li t Grace ee l y r e marked that We st ill h ave a nd w ill co ntinu e to have many families cann in g, curi n g, and taring th e ir h ome food Most fa mili e w i t h freezi n g fac iliti es a r e sti ll can nin g ome food ." On it own

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1 33 thi t a t e m e nt ee m t co nfirm ca nnin g o n go in g s upr e m acy a t l east v i ta l ity I n co n text, th o u g h ca nnin g wa wag in g a fi e r ce b att l e. Ju t b efo r e Nee l y int ro du ce d th e yea r 's w rk wit h ca nnin g h e di c u e d th e b om in freez in g. T h e in c r ease d acce t o e l ectr i ci t y h ad pro p el l ed a n in r ea e in fr eeze r ow n e r hip and u e a m o n g h o m e d e m o n stra ti o n c l u b m e m bers p art i c ul a rl y w hit e fa mili e A bout 1 ,0 0 0 fa mili es ta t ew id e re p o rt e d ow ni ng a freezer, and m o t of th ese w e r e k e pt l oa d e d t o ca p ac i ty." o m e fa mili es ow n e d a freeze r but m o r e th a n ,500 of th e m r e nt e d a l oc k e r in c ommuni ty faci li t i es, a we ll. M os t te llin g i s th e s t at i stica l in r ea e in freez in g; 69 p e r ce nt of fa m i l ies u se d freez in g fo r a t l eas t part of t he i r co n servation. o t o nl y wa thi p e r ce nt age s ub s t a n t i a l it r e pr ese nt e d a 59 p e r ce nt in c r ea e ove r t h e p reviou yea r o mpilin g numb e r s a nd m a kin g o b se r va ti o n s l e d ee l y a nd ot h e r H DA to a c l ear co n c lu s ion : Fr eez in g as a m e th o d of fo o d pr eserva ti o n h as b eco m e very pop ul a r Nee l y did n o t ove r s t a t e fr eez in g's bo o min g populari ty. B y 1 9 5 5 th e numb e r of h o m e freeze r s in u e by h o m e d e m o n s tr a ti o n fa mili es h a d g ro w n t o 1 0, 000 s t a t ew id e. A nd th ose to t als do n ot acco u nt for co mmuni ty l oc k e r u se o r fo r n o nc lub fa mili es. F r eez in g's s a fe -t e mp e ra tu r e s l oga n "Zero B e t ," h a d t a k e n on n ew s i gn ifi ca n ce 33 S ubtl e d eve l o pm e nt s i n c on se rv a ti o n t r e nd s a r e revea lin g a b o u t freezi n g's growi n g p o pul a ri ty a nd u se. F o r exa mpl e, in 1 950, Fl o rid a's 4 H Cl ub Co n gress r ep r esentative earned th e hi g h es t sc or e po ss ibl e fo r h e r fr o ze n fo o d e nt ry It was th e fi r st ever s u c h d esig n a ti o n In 33 Grace ee l y, Ga rd e nin g an d Foo d o n ervat i on A R 1949 ( C-91 B -4) 4; Le n a turges, Foo d on ervat i o n AR 1 955 (SC-9 1 B -32), 2 Froze n foods h a d o nl y rece ntl y overcome con iderab l e pub l ic d i gust to b eco m e a n acce pt a bl e, eve n d e i ra bl e, so ur ce of foo d s tu ffs. In it i ally, foo d s were frozen low l y, c r ea tin g so m e un fort un a t e aest h et i c m ala d ie th a t o nl y r e in fo r ced th e p ub li c's su picio n t h at froze n foo d co uld ca u e foo d p oison in g or wa so m e h ow ot h erwi e u nfi t for consump t ion. In the ca e of meat s l ow freez in g ca u se d two co nd itio n ca ll e d bum a nd d rip;" bum referre d to t h e perfectly afe bu t un a pp ea lin g d ry in g-o ut t h at l eft some port i on of the meat s h ri eled an d o hard they were in e dibl e ; dr i p m ea nt th e un see ml y b l oo dtai n e d ooze th at dri p p e d from thawing meat, caused by ce llul a r ruptur e w hil e th e m ea t froze. ot o nl y was dri p un appetizing i n a p pearance, its cause also destroyed mu c h of th e tla o r t ex tu re an d nutriti ve co nt e n t of th e meat. C l arence Birdseye's work with q ui ck freezi n g r emed i e d t he e p roblem so th a t wit h p ersisten t ad ertisement and patience, a wary public came t o accept an d appreciate froze n foo d s a a n everyday option ot only did Birdseye de e l op q u ick froze n foods, b u t h e c r eated t h e freezers nece sary to keep foods frozen until the con u m er was r ea d y to t h aw t h em. Sue S h epha r d Pi c kl e d Pott e d and Cann e d. Th e St o y of F oo d Pre erving (Lon d o n : H ea dlin e Book P ub l i h i n g, 2000), 297-305.

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1 34 1 95 5 a n o utof -print bull e t i n o n co n serv in g F l o rid a fis h was rewr i tte n a nd re i ss u e d thi s t i me foc u s in g o n freez in g ra th e r t h a n s m o k i n g o r ca nnin g A l so in 1 9 5 5 fr oze n foo d s b ega n a pp ea rin g as fa ir ex hibit s Sa nt a R osa Co u nty s HO A wo r ked wi th Esca mbi a Co u nty s to s et u p a n int egra t e d foo d b oo th at t h e P e n saco l a Int e r s t a t e F a ir hi g hli g ht i n g ca n ni n g a nd e mph as i z in g freez in g, b eca u se th ey fe lt i t b ette r r e fl ecte d a F l o ri da fa mil y s co n servat i o n effo rt s th a n wo uld a c annin g o nl y b oo th In th a t sa m e yea r co n servatio n s p ecialist Le n a S tur ges n o t e d th a t th e r e we r e t e n f ewer c annin g ce nt e r s in Flor id a lik e l y c l ose d b y t h e ir r es p ec ti ve co unti es w h e n u sage d rop p e d to s u c h a l eve l tha t keepi n g t he m ope n was n o l o n g er cos teffec ti ve O n e l as t exa mpl e b es t illu stra t es th e s hi ft in g b a l a n ce of p owe r in co n se r va ti o n As ea rl y as 1 949 age n ts b ega n n o ti c in g t h a t as freez in g in crease d ca nni ng quali ty d ec r ease d S om e indi ca to rs of freeze r-u se were l ess s ubtl e In 1 956 Vo lu s i a Co un ty w h e n w h i t e 4 H g irl s s i g n e d up fo r th e ir nu tr iti o n proj ec t s two c h ose ca nnin g a nd t hirt ee n c h o s e freez i ng. In 1 950 F l o rid a h o m e d e m o n s t ra ti o n m e mb e r s froze 3 5 4 423 pi nt s of fru i t a nd vege t ab l es ; i n 1 9 5 8 1 ,334 304 pint s of fruit a nd vege t a bl es we r e froze n a lm ost th e sa m e a m o un t as wa s ca nn e d th at yea r. 3 4 For HO As w h o h a d m a d e a ca r ee r of a d voca tin g a nd de m o n strati n g ca n n in g w h at di d Zero i s Bes t m ea n fo r th e ir wo rk ? Not so m uc h as we mi g h t expect n o t because t h e s hift fro m ca n t o freez e r was in sig nifi ca n t bu t b eca u s e HO As s u ccessfully n av i g ate d it. An d le st we ass um e t h at HO As we r e so l e l y a n d co n sc i o u sly res p onsi bl e fo r mak i ng t h e fr e e z er cra ze wo rk fo r th e m it i s wo rth n o tin g th a t so m e of w h a t h e lp e d HD A s wa s th a t the cra z e wa s n e ith e r uni fo rm n o r uni ve r sa l. But l e t m e di scuss first w h at HDAs di d co n s cio u s l y d o t o k e ep pace I n t h e i r m ea s u re d r espo n ses to t hi s n ewest c h a n g e i n preservat i o n techno l ogy, HOA 3 4 Gra ce e e l y o mpi l e d Fo o d s A R 1 95 0 (S C 9 1 B8) 42 6 ; L e n a tu rge Foo d n e rv at i o n A R 19 55 (SC 9 1B32) 3 5 67; E t h e l Atki n o n Esc ambi a Co u n ty A R 1955 (NA RA3.>.6-57) I ; E dn a by V o l u s i a Co un ty A R 1 9 5 6 (NARA -33 .6 -65), 25; A l i ce C ro m a rti e, Foo d o n erva t i o n A R 1 95 (SC9 l 85 1 ) 2. The e t o t a l acco un t fo r p r e e rvation a r e p o rt ed b y b o t h bl ac k a nd w hi te home d e m o n tr a ti o n m e mb e r s.

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135 to k e ral tack Fir t and mo t ob iou l y, th ey ducat ed women about freezin g effec ti vely and afel ond th y made fr ez in g widely available in the ame way they had fo r canning by p n rin g community freezer lo c ker s Third, th ey co ntinu e d to ad ocate canning and fo u ed e peciall y on improved quality for canned goo d Fourth they extended education to their own rank employing ine rvice trainin g to brin g agents up to peed on change in and in ome ca e the basics of canning in particular and pre se r vatio n in general. Finally HOA continued to expand their circle of influence often by simply em bracin g th e urban women who ought exten ion a sista n ce to extend pre servat ion philosophies to those not in olved in home demonstration Likewise HOAs adapted their approach to r eflect changes in people expectation life ty l es and background s. Some agent report s seem to indicate a ense of ambivalence towards freezing as it mo ed into a po ition of prominence over canning but s ince their job was to educate, HD As did not hesitate to teach women about the be s t ways to freeze the s urplu s. True to their extension b y the people for the people philo sop h y, HDA s u s uall y di scusse d freezing once their club member s broached the subject. As women's interest in and need for in formation about freezing g rew so did HDAs attention to the topic In 1954 conservation specialist Alice Cromartie identified a particular need for information among home demon stration om n ot only was information from HOA rapidly inundating women but also from omen ma gaz ines salespeople, commercial demon s trator s, and t he m edia. Cromartie belie edit was exten ion job to help women sort out the h ype and s upplem e n t it with 'more complete direction s' or the latest U .. O .A. information based o n research whic h gi e a afer ur e r method of conservation.' More o than had been true with canning freezers were big-ticket item with big brand nam e attached part of the 1950 consumeri m boom In other realm HOA worked with women to help them b eco m e w i se r con umers in clu din g clothing election appliance purcha es in s urance and in grocery tore The purcha e and u e of a

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freezer was a significant techno l ogical shift, and HDAs found they could parti c ipate b y informin g women 's decisions. 35 136 The surest way to dis se minate information to a wider audience, including tho se not involved in home demon s tration was to hold community demonstration s and exhibit at fairs. In 1954 a county health unit approached Cromartie about conducting a freezer demon s tration There was no home demonstration pro g ram in the county, but the hea l th personnel were interested in e l evating its people 's nutritional st andard s W e lcomin g the ge n era l public, Cro martie conducted this and four other s uch demonstration s, with a l a r ge tum-out and "g ratifying re s ults ." Equally important g iven home demonstration 's commitment to pro v iding hot lunches in every school, conservation s peciali s t Lena Sturges co nduct e d a demonstration on p ac kaging foods for fr eez in g and fre eze r mana ge m e nt at a m eet in g of 500 school lunch supervisors. 36 In addition to providing educational support and co n s um e r g uidanc e, HDA s found they could make themselves u se ful by opening freezin g pre serv ation t o the ge neral publi c a nd tho se home d e mon s tration member s without freezers of their own, j u st as hom e dem onstration had done with canning. To that e nd HDAs h e lped s pon so r freezer lockers th e counterpart to canning centers. HDA s worked cooperatively with lo c k e r plant o p e rator s t o e limin a t e problem s and es tabli s h hom e d e monstration wo rker s as a w illin g so ur ce of information and assistance to lock e r u se r s. By 1955 more than 6 000 hom e demon s tr at ion fa mili es u se d community locker plant s to s tor e s urplu s foods man y in a ddition t o th e freezers t h ey owned. 37 Whi l e HDAs actively pur s u e d e duc a tin g women a bout free z in g as a via bl e preservation 3 5 Alice Cro m art i e, Food Co n se rvation AR 1 949 (SC-91B-26) 2. HDA s a l so tri ed to police food hype fo r nutr it i o n al purp o es ; o n e of th e ir m ajor goa l s was to help women overcome food faddism 3 6 A li ce Cromartie, Foo d Co n serva ti o n AR 1 954 (S -91826), 2 5 Lena turges, Food on ervat i o n AR 1 955 (SC-918-32) 9 37 Grace ee l y, Gar d e nin g a nd F od Co n erva tion AR I 949 ( C-9 18-4) 17 ; Lena tur ges, Food o n serva ti o n AR 1 955 (SC-9 1 B -32), 2

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137 te hnique, th al continued to ad ocate canning a an qually iable and in many way preferabl pr ervati n option H we er, th ir approa h hifted ince a family food upply did not nece arily depend o l ely on canning after W rid War II HOA r doubl d their can nin g adv cacy in term of quality rather than quantity canning d clined among women the quality of their canned goods tended to decline, a ell fair xhibit made thi painfully cl ar. L on aunty white HOA ellie Daughtry new to the aunty remark d in 1949 that h e could not help but notice that canning quality wa uffering e e n among the be t pack women entered in fairs he acknowledged that more women were freezing rather than canning, but "judging from the quality of food exhibited at the annual fair there i much to be done in teaching good home canning standard Daughtry a tu tel identified the cau e of this deterioration. It has been assumed that since the b ginning of Home Demon tration Work was cann in g ," he mused,' that the homemakers ha e grown tired of this ubject and know all they need to know .' This assumption was false he argued for the yo un g homemakers n eed to be taught good method and the older homemakers need to keep informed on changing method of home conservation 3 Gadsen's egro HOA Glady Wilkins, noticed a different problem with the same re ult In 1949 she, too, remarked about the declining quality of home canned food but named o erenthu ia tic can nin g a the culprit. Many homemakers conserve large quantitie of food but it ha been found that the quality of the canning i not quite up to par he rote. To remed this Wilkin determined to de ate e tra attention to the correct procedure for filling jar remo ing air bubbles and proper u e of the pressure canner .' Quality canning took time and patience, and HDA earlier had warned against working too fast trading preci ion for output. 39 3 ellie Daughtry Leon ounty AR 1949 ARA-33.6-70) 19 39 Grace eely GardeningandFo d on ervation R 1949 ( -918-4 ), 1 3

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138 Poor canning quality was not necessaril y th e re s ult of inattention caused b y starry eye d de vo tion to freezin g, o r impreci se ab und ance caused b y canning zea l ; s om e tim es, ca nning did not come out its best because women were using imperfect but comfortable methods out of habit rather than i gnorance Conservation s pecialist Alice Cromartie not e d that change in practice s co me slowly but progress is bein g made with the rural a nd non-farm families toward u s ing improved method s for cann in g. Leon County HDA Nellie Mill s provided a perfect examp l e. As late as 1950 th e county s top wh it e canning d e mon stra tor was sti ll preserving vegetab l es and m eats u s in g a water bath canner. F inally thou g h after thre e yea r s of int e n s ive education cajo lin g a nd persua s ion Mills was a ble to co n v in ce this wo m a n to adopt safer method s, exchanging h er poor practice s for correct o n es ." 40 B y r efoc u s in g th e ir attention on canning quality HDA s re affi rm ed th e ir own ex p e rtise and th e ir pl ace in the food preservation dynamic. When women strayed from t h e ba s i cs, HDAs we r e on hand to help reinforce th e m One a ge nt de sc ribed her approach to r efi nin g preservation a m o n g h e r members in 1954 "No fancy pack s, but more attention g iv e n to de gree of maturity sy rup water le ve l s in jars ty p es of jar s, lid s, e tc ." 41 Ironicall y, it wa not always home d e monstration club m e mber s in n ee d of refresher courses but hom e d e mon s trati o n age nt s. As the amount of com m e r c iall y -availabl e food expanded attention to food pr eserva tion contracted a ll across the broad spectrum of hom e makin g educator The re ult wa that if HD As were go in g to ju tify their job s ba se d on the so rt of assistance I just di sc u sse d it was nec es ary that th ey knew what they were doin g And some did n ot. P a rti c ularl y among very g r ee n and very expe rien ce d agent b ot h ba s i c and new t ech n o l og i es related to food pre serva tion were a m ystery. ew agents were ill-p re p a r e d by their fonna l h o m e eco nomi cs tr a inin g a nd older age nt s were not k ee pin g pace with th e rapid c h a n ge in 4 0 l ice Cromartie, Food on ervation AR 1 952 ( -91 B-16) 6. 41 A li ce romartie,Food o n erva ti onAR 1 954( -9 1 8-26),9.

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139 pre rvation. o, one of the way that horn d mon tration re ponded to evolving pre er ati n technology wa to train, r train and train again it agent Following World War II, it becam increa ingly ob iou that too many agent had too little training to be effective food pre ervati n ad ocate and educator t everyone was heading to Piggly-Wiggl y t re o inerv i ce training was ritical if home demon tration wa to remain relevant to the many families int re ted in an d dependent upon home conservation. Some in-service training wa neither unu ual nor particularly indi cati e of gaps in e pertise Since club l eaders and project chairwomen were responsible for passing along their own expertise to th ei r fellow member they often met with HDAs and spec i al i sts to learn of new method and r efi n e old ones. HDAs themselves attended conferences and seminars to l earn what was new in the field and exchange id eas and experiences. And the specialist regularly received bulletins and papers detailing whatever new research scientists at the Experiment Station and in the USDA were conduct in g 42 What was le ss e nc ouragi n g and more indicative of the assumption that home conservat ion was lo s in g gro und was a n untimely deficiency in educator training for conservation. Just as agents and other educators seemed l ess capab l e of assisting women with pre ervation these women's interest in it suddenly surged The coincidence of these two conditio n s ga e inervice training a new urgency. In 1954 A l ice Cromartie applauded HOA wi llin gnes to co ndu ct ca nnin g demonstrations in public schools' home economic s cla se But why wou ld a home economic teacher ca ll upon a home demonstration agent to teach omething o ba ic to the economics of homemaking? Home economics teacher romartie said, were' not equipped to teach con ervation and ha e come to depend upon the home demonstration agent for up-to-date method ." Di couraging facts indeed but Cromartie 42 For example of the e regular activitie ee Grace eel y, Gardenin g and F o o d Co n rv at i o n AR 1949 ( C-91 B-4), 14; Grace eely Compi l ed Food AR 1950 ( C-9 lB), 40 41; Ali e r o marti e, Food on ervation R 1953 ( C-91 B-21 ) 12.

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140 soon was making a similar comment about HDAs. In 1958 extension staff in nine counties requested workshops in food preservation because the training given Home Economics students in college today includes very little subject-matter or experience with the various aspects of food conservation Therefore those who go into Extension Service work la c k security in this area." In addition to ill-prepared new agents, some experienced agents transferred to Florida and had to become familiarized with foods and practices to which many were unaccustomed Finally,' there are constantly coming from Food Processing and Research Laboratories new and improved methods in food conservation in which agents ne e d to be trained. Cromartie voiced the same concern about unprepared agents in I 959, but at least could report that efforts were being made to correct the defi c iency. "Lect ure demonstration and laboratory methods all were employed to help the Agents gai n security a the county leader s in food conservation." Unfortunately, this sort of agent training had only been pos s ible on "a very limited sca le thus far. 4 3 It was vital that as agents urged their expanding client ba se to get and stay up-to-date in food preservation, they do the same. What some agents lacked in training they made up for in reputation an increa s in g number of families outside the home demonstration circle ought home demonstration assistance on a variety of topics including food preservation. By e mbracin g these newcomers HDA s found a whole n ew audience. HDAs incr easi n g l y reported r equests from urban and suburban women for as istance. When it became obvious that thi was a tr e nd rather than an isolated phenomenon home demonstration agents made the non-club publi c a re g ular part of their work. As Leon County agent Irie Mae C lark put it, Home Demon tration work is no lon ge r thou g ht of as b e ing restricted so l e l y to the rural areas. More urban familie 4 3 A li ce r omartie, Food Preservation AR 1 954 ( SC-91B26), 5; A li ce romartie Food Pre ervati n AR 1958 (Sc-91 B-51 ), 3-4; A li ce romartie, Food Preservation AR 1 959 ( -91 B-57) I, 1 2.

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141 hav e gra p d the li v e -at-home atmosphere. 44 With Ta ll aha s e e at i t c or e, L e on unty wa quite urban In ome countie th urban population wa ev e n more pronounced uch wa th ca in Du v al ounty where Pear l Lafitte and thel Powell found th e m el v e s e rvin g a l ar g ely urban cl i ent le of both white and b l ack familie s. Lafitte had a c l ear g ra p of th e imp rtance the e non-traditional clients had for home demon tration ; the i z e of t he urb a n population and it disconnect from any farm program made it very nece ss ar y that a cordial public relation be maintained at a ll time s." Lafitt e lik e l y aw in urban famili es th e n ex t wave of club member espec i a ll y a the traditional rural population that once had formed the backbone of home demonstration was markedly diminished in countie s like Duval. When t he urban fo lk many new to F l orida n eeded in formatio n on soi l plants lawns shrubbery tree s and egetab l es they tum to the Extension ervice. 4 5 Rather than ignoring thi s clear opportunity to adapt home demonstration to new c li entele and so carry on the work HDA s wi e l y welcomed the chance to make themselves u efu l to a who l e new generation of w o men and families Moving into this new era of extension work, HD As availed them elves of both new patrons and new approaches to them When it came to food preservation the increasin g variety of Floridians proved incentive to keep the work fresh. Alice Cromartie r e marked on this growing diversity in 1 950 citing fami li es of comfortable means on lar g e farms fami l ies with limited incomes on small acreage urban families farming outl y ing re g ion s migrant laborers and winter tourists as among those considered in developing the food conservation program 46 We will see with nutrition that agents had to adju s t their ad v ice to fit what as po sible and practical. For examp l e most families in urban area could not keep li v e s tock 44 Irie Ma e Clark Leon County AR 19 5 1 ARA33 6-5 3), 7 4 5 Pearl Lafitte Du al County AR 1950 ARA33. 6-55) I 3 -14 4 6 lie romartie Food Pre ervati o n AR 1950 ( C -91 B8) 12

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142 limitin g their access to hom e-based dairy an d poultry and many families h ad only a smal l space for vegetable garde n s, limitin g the amount they cou ld produce for preservation purposes. And w ith mor e and more women working outs id e their homes many did not have adequate time to devote to large-scale food preservation any l onger. So HDAs made a point of emp h asiz in g not only home preservation but wise cons umpti on, as we ll depending on local needs and circumstances. Demonstration planners a l so recognized that expectations and lifestyles were changing, o that HDAs continued relevance depended on talking to people about what mattered to them not what Seaman Knapp had once said, or the out l ook of rural women in 1925 or the structure of the family in 1940. In 1 958, Alice Cromartie r eported her staff intention to revise the canning and freezing programs for the purpose of devi s ing Food Conserva tion Projects which better fit the needs of present day li ving." Most te llin g ofHDAs' se n sitivity to shift in g circumstances is the late-1950 trend of redefining demonstration work it elf based on women 's education. From its inception home demonstration had been ju t that demonstration work The method demonstration and result demonstration were de igned to how not tell women how and how well, a procedure worked, not explain why it worked. T h ough pure demonstrations did not fa ll out of favor agents did change their a pproach to working with women In 1 959, A li ce Cromartie exp l a in ed Keeping pace with the ri s in g educational l eve l of Florida familie the utritioni s t have for the past couple of yea r de emphasized the how-to .. and have emphasized instead more of the~ of food and nutrition as a sc ience. Cromartie believed that thi s hift wa a colorful tep into the cience of nutrition in stead of the traditional demonstrated-di s h way of teaching. 4 7 o what i o important about thi s need-change-r es ponse story in food preservation? 4 7 li ce romartie Food Pr e ervat i on AR 1 958 ( -9 1 B-51) 3-4; A li ce r omartie, Food Pre erva ti o n R 1959 -9 lB-57) 910

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m e of th e imp ac t link d to fo d co n ervat i n t ch n o l gy i not surpr i ing. It is p erfec t! a ppropri a t e t o e p t and t find that h ome demon tration w rk with fo d pr erva ti n incr a e d food t o r e ar i ety a nd nutr i ti n for man fami li e a ros Florida 143 l h ave e mpha i ze d thr u g h ut th e di erta ti n numb er are n o t the m ost imp orta nt m ea ure of hom e d e mon tration s ucce ss, failure or imp rtance. E e n if relatively few fa mili es took to h ea rt hom e d m n strat ion r eco mm e ndation s r ega rdin g food pr e ervation, nutrition and ec urity are not quantifiable indicator s of w h et h e r or not hom e d e m on tration wa "good" or "ba d Moreover, even if very few families parti c ipat e d in and benefited from home d e mon tration-in pired food preservation, numb e r s alone cannot ex plain h ow s u c h an a ppar e ntl y ineffe c tiv e organization mana ge d to carry on for th e past n i n ety yea r s. Eve n no Family and on umer Sciences in c lude s as part of its expa nd e d and updated program e du cat ion about and work with food conservation. Th e r eason i s the same it was thi rty or fifty or e e n ty yea r s ago-saving food ne ve r r ea ll y goes out of fashion, even as the means to do o change 4 Work with food conservation meet s a fundamental n ee d. But the average Florida fa mil y, e e n b y 1960 could s impl y procure their food from a grocer o r s upermark et, so why both e r with either the effort or the expe n se of preserving foods at home eve n goi n g to the ex tra trouble to raise so me of that food at home too? The answers tell us a lo t about why 48 The nature of ea h co un ty s FC work di ffe r b ase d o n as a l ways fu ndin g an d local in t e r e t For e ample Hill borough Cou n ty enti r e exten i o n program remains a sort ofpowerhou e and it fo o d work repre e nt th e co ntinuin g commit m e nt to core principles adapted to meet changing need and circu m tance Fo r in tan ce Hill borough s FC program inc lud e both a general Food and utriti o n ectio n and an Expan d e d Foo d and utrit ion ec ti o n t h e l atter de oted ent ir e l y to t h e need s o f low income familie Both ection d al ith tretching the foo d dolla r a nd i th maximizing nutrition, and the F taff h as incorporated a great deal of information on food pre ervation includin g cannin g for fruit egeta bl e and m eats, freezing food and dehydrating food For example ee food preservation in tru c ti o n and r ecipe at http : // edi if as. ufl eduffOPI annin g F ood and g eneral Food utrition and H alth a t. http ://h ill b o rou g hfc .i fa ufl .e d utriti on/ FNH %2 0 ain %20 p age .htm l.

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hom e d emo n s tration s u rv i ve d as it did Let m e sta rt wi th one a n swe r from the midl 950s when hom e d e mon s tration was fir s t ge tting s tarted in Franklin Co unty. 49 144 Franklin Co unty in 195 3, when it s fir st agricultural and home demon s tration age nt s a rri ve d was s imil ar to w hat mo s t Florida counties had b ee n four decades ea rli e r dilapidated home s poor health women 's time s hort and disor ga ni ze d. The co un ty sits in a nook of the Florida panhandle with th e Appalachicola National Forest in it s north comprising m ost of t h e land in th e co un ty, and th e Appalachicola Ba y and the Gulf of Mexico to it s so uth. No t s urpri s in g l y, mo st re s ident s pur s u e d fi s hin g, and by ex t e n s ion huntin g and fi s hin g -b ased touri s m as a livelihood. Franklin's coastal soi l was pr e dominantl y what all Florida so il was (a nd i s)-sa nd Agriculture in the co un ty was limit e d to so m e h o n ey production a littl e truck farming a nd a few li vestock T h o u g h man y p eop l e li ve d in rural a r eas, very few li ved in actual fa rm hom es. In 1 953, about 5 000 people lived in the co un ty; mor e than 3,000 of them liv e d in Appalachicola th e co unty sea t. Most wo m e n wo rk e d outside the hom e, particularl y in oyster packin g plant s. The work was difficult d a n gero u s an d n ot h a nd so m e l y r ewarded. E duc a tional l eve l s co un ty-w id e were quite l ow, though its first HO A, Miriam E d wards, wa quick t o point out that th ere we r e so m e we lle du cate d fo lk throu g h o ut p artic ul arly among the women li v in g w ithin Appa l ac hi co la Fra nklin dinn e r tables were h eavy o n seafood an d l ight on vege tabl es or fruits. 50 Co ndition s s impl y we r e n ot ye t favorab l e fo r lu sh h ome gar d e n s pantries stocke d wi th hom e -pr eserve d foo d s a nd tables set with a va ri ed, nutritious di et b a e d o n the ba 1 c eve n ." Like o th er HDAs in other cou nti es ear li e r Frank lin HDAs had to begin at the 49 umter Co unty whe r e h o m e d e mon strat ion work b egan in 1949 e p e rienc e d mu c h th e ame ort f basic introduction int o ex t e n i o n work b eg innin g with fi od co n ervatio n wit h gi rl s, w h o m the ag nt ex pected wou ld pa ss a l ong impro ve d m e thod s t o t h eir moth e r Moreover, the g irl s began by canning tomatoes, j u s t as th ey had in th e t o mato c lu bs" that preda t ed home demon tration ee ee l y, o d o n erva tion 1949 20, 2 1 50 Miriam E d wa rd Frank l in ounty AR 1953 ( ARA "3 .6 56). ub quent agent r epeat many f E dward ob ervations, bu t h r brief in itial r epo rt ap tl y de rib e the nditi n i n the county.

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145 beginning fam ili arizing re id nt with w h at home demon stration wa and how an HOA could h Ip them a e in g l oca l need and condition and then haping program to meet loca l intere t ore amp l e, each of th fir t three agent identified nutrition a the key need in the county, but a ll recognized that women there were mo t interested in clothing work, to make lothing for their ch ildr en and save t h e mon y they might have pent having to buy garments o home demonstration began wit h c l ot hin g. When attention cou ld be devoted to foods, HDA s helped women expand their preparation fo r their seafoo d taple a nd tried to help them start home gardens and teach them ba ic preservation technique 51 In 1 954 Miriam Edwards noted that food preservation was 'a lm ost nil in many fam ili es in the counties.' F r eezers for many were too expensive so agents focused o n canning. T h ere was co n s id erab l e room for home demon tration assistance, because many women did do some can nin g, but by back-breaking methods and not always getting a good-qua li ty product. Another Franklin agent, Ann Jeter described the efforts of a M r s. Walker w h o had b een cann in g for some time but in "a n old iron wash pot which was ery discouraging as it r e quir ed hours of h ard labor." Edwar d s believed that conservation could be increased and enhanced throughout the county if only the women knew and emp l oyed the new practices a nd methods of freezing and canning which save time, energy and torage space yet produce a goo d quality pro du ct." To that e nd Edwards in v ited con ervation pecialist A li ce Cromartie to give two day-long meetings on preservation. The meetin gs were well attended, primaril y by ladies whom Edwards suspected were' more 51 nn Pierce Jeter Franklin ounty AR 1957 (NARA 33 6 56), 9 Jeter' d e cription of omen s ga rd e n reflect the tartin g-from cratch nature of h ome demonstration, ork in the county and it unique situation. For example, the women were rightly concerned that the oil wou ld not upport any so rt of ga rden but Jeter demonstrated the u e of compost to enrich the soil, and to compensate for the la ck of a nimal fertilizer in the fishing-oriented county.

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14 6 c uriou s p e rhap s th a n int e r este d at th e moment. She was confident how eve r that the women we nt away impr esse d and e n co ura ge d to try co ns ervi n g foods. 52 It was es p ec iall y important that the HDA s teach women to preserve food th emse l ves, b eca u se eve n wise co n s umption h ad limited va lue g i ve n Franklin 's grocery s ituation Un l ike a mu c h lar ge r mark et, lik e Tampa Orlando or Jacksonville Franklin Cou n ty did not attract a var i ety of s tor es, so that eve n b y the lat e 1950 s, there were no lar ge competitive s up er market s." The result was not e n co ura g in g for nutritional impro ve m e nt. First the cost of food was quit e hi g h becau se th e r e was so little locall y grow n Second when fresh produce was ava ilable th e quantity was limit e d a nd the quality was poor 53 So it was that Franklin HDAs in th e late I 950s were e mpha s i z in g core principles co mbin e d wit h the n ewest technique s to carry them out, in a cou n ty w h ose r eso urce s diff ere d dramaticall y from many of those in which hom e d e mon s trati o n had b ee n o peratin g fo r d ecades No HDA worth h e r salt was go in g to s hru g off hom e pr eservat ion in Franklin Co unty just because so m a n y other F lorid a co untie s had access to s up e rmark e t s and lar ge truck farms. It also i s crucia l to r e m e mb e r that eve n in co unti es w h ere h o m e dem onstratio n was well-established all h o m e d e m o n stra tion club m e mb e r s did n ot have the same ex p er i ence with preservation technol og i es Age nt s h a d to s hap e the co n serva tion pha se of the ir work to what th e ir c li e nt s mo st n ee d e d w h e r eve r th ey were in the pr eservation process. Freez in g's ap p are nt takeover of ca nnin g is o nl y a va lid assess m e nt if we ignore uni q u e l ocal realities For exam pl e, in 1956 Volu ia Co un ty, both w hit e a nd Negro h o m e d e m o n strat i on work was e ntr e n c h e d. H oweve r the bl ack fa milie s w ith whom HOA Id a P e mb erto n worked n ee d ed far mor e atte ntion p a id to ca nnin g th a n to freezing eve n if it was a ll th e rage e l sew h ere. Few 52 Miriam E dward Franklin ounty 1 954 AR (NARA 33.6 57), 9; Alice romart i e, Food Con erva ti o n 19 58 AR ( -9 1 B-51 ), 4 53 Barbara Daniel Franklin unty AR 1955 ARA 33.6 57) 9 very agent made thi ame comp l a int and o ee m ed to quickly decide that h ome production and pre rvation wa the key nutriti on and ecurity o luti o n

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fami li owned a fre eze r thou g h inter est wa grow in g s P em b e rt o n did n o t con d uct an d mon tration for t h e ad ult memb e r s p ec ifi ca ll y a bout freezing Among 4-H gi rl 147 P mb e rt n und an id ea l opp rtunit y to r ei n force the era ll pr servat i o n message r egar dl e of r e ou r ce O n g irl s fami l y owned a freezer and wanted to har e information about the to I with h e r fe ll ow 4-Her P e mberton helped h e r l ead a d e mon s tration on pr epa rin g and fr z in g grap fruit. T h ough e eryone was inter este d P e mberton fo ll owed up the d e mon tration wit h o n e o n o th e r wa y th e g irl c ould u e or pr e erve grapefru it m aking sure th ey under s tood that it wa not n ece ary to have a freezer o r acces to o n e, to preserve foods for the family. 54 Pemberton s kill fu l na v i ga tion of th e changi n g technolo gy wate r s served the grea te t goo d keepin g the futur e homemakers up-to-date a n d empowering th em t o make t h ir h omes better wit h w h at th ey had Acc es to freezing was a littl e di fferen t in Hill s borou g h Co unty where only a few black fami li es owned a freezer but shared t h eir u se wi th fri e nd s a nd n e i g hb ors. With re ady access to free ze r s age nt S ud e ll a Fo rd s c lub women demon s trated such int e r es t in freezing t h at h e thought it wise to be g in h o ldin g demonstration s on the s u bject in 1955. B y 1956 d e fini te information" wa circu l ating about freezing and mor e wo men a re fre ezi n g foods than ever before ,' so much so that F ord cou ld tabulate the tota l amount of frozen foods produc e d by her m e mb ers 55 U nlike the very s l ow mo ve into fre ez in g in Vol u s ia Co un ty o r t h e udden swell in Hill sboro u g h Co un ty freezing a mon g Alachua Co un ty home demon stration members white and black wa we llentre n ched Agent Leontine William s s impl di sc u sse d freezing as s h e 54 Id a P em b e rt o n Volu i a Co un ty AR 1956 ARA-33 6-65) 7 ; 15 [ wou ld e pect that a s finance a ll owe d Volu ia wo m e n o uld e mplo y freezer more often b ecause th ey were ea ier to u e t han pre ure cookers Only abo ut half of P e mb e rt on c lu bwomen knew h ow to use th e pre u re cooke r ; in d eed, ome of the 4-H g ir l we r e a bit afra id to u e o n e. Proce ing foods for freezing wa not o nl y l e ti r e o m e but l e s intimidating 5 udella For d Hill borough o un ty AR 19 53 ARA-33 6-57 ), 11 ; ud e ll a F o rd Hill s b o rough ou nty AR 1955 ARA-33 6 -6 1) 12 ; udella For d Hill borough Cou n ty AR 1956 ARA 3 3 6 61 ), 11-1 2.

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148 discussed canning as something her members did regularly and with success. She is not specific about freezer ownership only notin g that many of the rural and urban fami li es a r e u in g their hom e freezers to a grea t advantage." Nor does s h e exp lain how women fee l abo ut freezers only that "c anning freezing sto rin g a nd cur in g are the . m ethods used for con erving food by h omemakers in the county." 56 So, there were definite trends among women active in h ome d emonstrat i on t h roughout Florida Freezer use and ownership were rapid l y expanding, often to the detriment of t h e qu a ntit y a nd quality of canned goods but to the impro ve m ent of conservat ion in gene r a l and meat storage in particular. Within the entire home demonstration membership black women owned and used freezers mu ch l ess than their white counterparts; on l y about h alf of the counties employing a black HOA were act i vely involved in freezing. But among black women the l eve l of int e r est in a nd expe ri e nc e wit h freezi n g va ri e d s i gn ifi ca ntl y by cou n ty. Yes freez in g was growing in popularity state wide and many wome n had shifted their efforts to embrace th e coo l new preservation a l ternative. But each agent was sensitive to what her community needed and could do and responded appropriate l y. Local situation demanded that h ome demonstration co ntinu e to customize reform, rather t h an base it so l e l y on broad trends A seco nd answer to the "w h y not Piggly Wiggly ?" qu es tion i s based on th e weather. Florida families found that pre serva tion in general was a goo d choice for increa ing th eir ecurity and l owering food costs, and that free zers were a convenient a nd relativel y ea y way to sto re food. But freezers dependence on e l ectrica l power made them, and their u er vu ln erab l e in the eve nt of a power fai lur e. And in F l or id a, power fai lur e h ave been common especia ll y in hurricane ea on. In thi s case, HDA s were wi e to continue teaching worn n not ju t to conserve food, but to continue includin g canning in their regimen. But a we aw 56 Leontine William Alachua o unty A R 1957 ARA3" .6-55) 5; Leontine William lachua ounty R 1953 ARA33. 6-55) 2.

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149 ea rli r, a nnin g was fa llin g by th wayside, many new h me exten ion workers were poorly trained in it method or n t trained at a ll home economics teacher were virtually clueles ab ut canning, and home economic programs at universities had practically left off teaching it. The a umption that freezers and refrigerator could meet al l of a fami l y preservation need proved fa ul ty, and ju ta home demon tration and home economics looked about t n g l ect ca nnin g, women called them back to it. Women reminded the r eformers of t h e ir ow n relevance. In 1 958, conservat i on peciali t Alice Croma rti e noted, wit h some pleasure, that ca ll s to the state and county offices for cann in g a istance h ad increased dramatically after "catastrop hi c freezes" devastated crops a nd tourism, creat in g a "genera l eco n omic s lump ." Food preservation overa ll including freezing, h ad increased, but Cromartie was quick to point out that this all t im e high for frozen fruits and vegetables was' only s li ght l y hi g h er than the number r eported stored by canning. Duval Co un ty Nellie Mills reported a sim il ar can nin g swell, "o n e of the busiest canning seaso n s in June, July and August. . ince the war yea r s," afte r unusually l arge spri n g and summer crops. And South Hill borough HDA Virginia Hill reported putting specia l emphasis on freezing vege t ables but c lub wome n had shown an increased interest in canning. 57 Canned or frozen home-preserved foods did not l ose their place as a fundamental of secure li fe, eve n whe n it appea r ed that HDAs expected conservat i on to continue its decline Cromartie this time so undin g a bit chagrined, remarked in her 1958 report that the 'shift of emphasis thi year to more food conservation demonstrates the greater reliance of the people upon the basic sk ill s of family li v in g. P e rh aps it indi cates that as Nutritionists work with ag nts in formu l ati n g plans to h elp fam ili es ... m ore help s h ou ld be given in the proper role of conservation. 5 Dade Co un ty's HOA Eunice Grady reported in 1951 that food 57 Alice romartie Food on ervation AR 1958 ( -91 B-51 ), 1-2. romartie 1958, 3.

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150 c on s ervation work had not e ven b e en included on the hom e demon s tration cal e ndar but that s h e h a d r ece i ve d man y c all s for pr ese rv a tion a ss i s tanc e es p ec iall y fr om th e non-m e mb e r public 59 Frankl y it see m s that HDA s were cau g ht off g uard b y th e s ur ge in fo o d pr ese rv a tion int e r est in ge n e ral a nd in c annin g in p a rticul a r. A qui c k r es pon se k e pt HDA s a float. Ev en s o that r ev i va li s t s pirit w a s i g nited alm os t fifty ye ar s ago; ho w d o e s th a t ex pl a in w h y F C S pro gra m s s till in c lud e pr ese rvation and s till in c lud e c annin g? Eve n in our t e chnolo gy e nthrall e d world th e po we r s till g o es out o ccas i o n a ll y, a nd we reali ze that technolo gy c om es in many fom1 s A case in p o int c om es from a ve ry re ce n t and very tryin g, s umm e r h e r e in F lorida Be se t b y n o fewer th a n fo ur d eva s t a tin g hurri canes in 2 004 F loridian s we nt w ithout pow e r to so m e d eg r ee o r a n o th e r fo r mu c h of th e s umm e r a nd so m e fo lk s fo r mu c h l o n ge r th a n th a t. A mid s t ca ll s fo r ass i s t a n ce t o p ower c omp a ni e s FE MA a nd o th e r e m e r ge n cy se r v i ces, s om e ca ll s we nt o ut to th e traditi o nal go to service t h e lo c al ex t e n s ion o f fi ce H e r e in North Ce ntral Fl o rid a a s i g nifi ca nt numb e r o f wo m e n c all ed o n th e ir lo ca l FCS age nt fo r a d v i ce r eg ardin g ca nnin g. Yes ca nnin g wa t e r ba th s pr ess ur e cook e r s, th e whol e pa c ka g e So m a n y c all s c a m e in in fa c t that Al ac hu a and Levy Co un ty FC S age nt s h e ld a ca nnin g c lini c to m ee t th e d e mand. Wh y th e s udd e n s ur ge in ca nnin g int e r es t ? B eca u se w hil e c l ea nin g out freezers full of s p o il e d foo d "' A l ot o f u r e m e m be r ed . th a t th e r e we r e so m e go od r e a so n s t o pr efe r ca nnin g ove r freez in g," as A l ac hu a age nt Br e nd a Willi a m s put i t. o t everyo n e a tt e ndin g t h e c lini c s wa t h ere j u t t o th wa rt n a tu re h avoc so m e al so we r e int e r es t e d in pr eserv in g h e r b o un ty a nd Willi a m s b e li eves '" t hi s p a rt of o ur h e rit age. "' Pro of th a t thi s see min g l y quaint t e chn o l ogy (a l oca l n ew s p a p e r r e p o rt e r r efe rr e d to ca nnin g a a n c i e nt ) r e m a in s p e rtin e nt a nd th a t it s t eac h e r r e m a in r e l eva nt l i e s in s om e o f t h e r e a s o n s c lini c atte nd ee s h owe d u p a t a l l. O n e wo m a n wante d to try can n in g, omet h in g 59 u ni ce Gra d y, Dad e o u n ty R 1 9 5 1 ARA33 6 -5 1 ) 1 2

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1 5 1 s h e h a d h a r e d w ith h e r gra ndm o th e r a a c hild to k eep o n h an d o d t h at di d n ot agg r avate h r n a ll e r g i e A n o th e r wo m a n wa int e r e t e d i n refre hin g h er ca n n i ng k i ll becau e m e th o d s h e h a d l ea rn e d o n ce did n o t ee m to wo rk a n y l o n ge r Atte n dee learne d for xa mpl t h a t th e p o pul ar a nd oft ca nn e d t o m ato h a d to b e ca n ne d a li tt l e di fferent l y Mode m co n s um r d e m a nd a l e ac idi c fr uit a nd growe r s h ave r es p o nd e d by c r eati n g t o m ato a ri ti w ith l e bit e, co mprom i in g th e ac idi ty th a t o n ce h a d m ade tomatoe ideal fo r impl e wa t e r b a th ca nnin g 60 lt tum o ut th a t n a tur e, sc i e n ce a nd t ec h no l ogy were com bi n i ng o n e aga in t o d raw l ea rn e r s t o exte n s i o n teac h e r s. H o m e d e m o n s t ra ti o n m ai n ta i ne d r elevance in foo d pr e e r va ti o n wo rk b eca u se co nditi o n s ac ro ss F l o rid a n eve r we r e u n ifor m an d b ecau e in F l o rid a, th e wea th e r ca n ou tw i t ju t a b o ut a n y t ec hn o l ogy Of c our se a ft e r m y imm e d ia t e exc it e d r eac ti o n t o th e n ews t h a t ca nn ing was n ot a d ea d a rt o r c i e n ce, I as k e d th e sa m e qu es t io n w h y n o t ju s t bu y ca nn e d foo d s a t t h e grocery s t o r e a nd set th e m as id e in a nti c ip a t io n of s t o rm s? Asked l ike so m eone w h o h as n e er canned o b v i o u s l y. M y qu es tion h a d v iol a t e d th e prin c ipl e of foo d conservat i o n save the s u rp l us. Y es ca nn e d vege t a bl es pur c h ase d fro m a Publi x o r a W a lMart u percen t e r would s u ffice to m ee t fo od n ee d in th e eve nt of a p owe r o ut age. But a n yt hin g I a l so h a d in t h e freeze r woul d s p o il a nd th a t wo uld wa t e foo d Ca nnin g s urpl us foo d s wo u l d co n serve th e food in any eve n t. But w h a t a b o ut p eo pl e w h o d o n ot h ave a freeze r fu ll of foo d t o l ose? T h ey ought to b e j u ta sat i s fi e d w ith co mm e r c i a ll y ca nn e d p ro du c t s, a nd m ost of u s are. But some people till ca n o r h ave b egu n t o ca n eve n th o u g h i t n o l o n ge r is technically cost effective it i a t ea m y l o n g jo b a nd th e e quipm e nt takes up roo m in a lr ea d y c ram pe d h omes Desp i te the ap p are nt di sa d a nt ages, ca nnin g yet h as m ea n i n g, eve n for m o d e m consume r s ontro l ove r in gre d ien t s ( h ow m a n in ec t l eg d oes t h e F D A a ll ow i n a ca n of gree n bea n s?) not being the 60 Gain esv ill e Sun 1 1 May 2005.

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l eas t of ca nnin g's app e al. Tho se intan g ible qualiti es brin g us back to thi s chapt e r 's ce ntral th e m e, th e r e lati o n s hip b etwee n hom e d e mon s tr a tion a nd fo o d c on se rvati o n t ec hn o l ogy 152 A s ide from continu e d r e l eva n ce for HD A s a nd th e lit e ral accumulation o f foo d s tor es a mon g F l o rid a famili es, I se e fi ve impli c ati o n s in th e ev olution o f fo od techn o lo gy, parti c ularly that s e g m e nt w her e food mo v ed out o f the can and into the fr eeze r. S ome c han ges brou g ht lo sses in ind e p e nd e nc e, nutrition and aes th e tic s But c han ge also e ncoura ge d d e mo c rati za tion and in c r e a se d wo m e n 's contr o l ove r th e ir r eso u rces. Fir s t th e s hi ft fro m p rese r v in g primaril y b y cannin g to fr eez in g repr ese nt s a ce rt a in lo ss of ind e p e nd e n ce As we s a w abo ve, d e p e nd e n ce o n a n e l ec tri ca l d ev i ce put p eo pl e see kin g fo od sec uri ty a t t h e m e r cy o f th e w ea ther. Th e whol e point o f food pr ese rvation w a s to s a ve the pl e n ty in anti c ip a tion of th e famin e to fi x th e seaso n s H av in g t o r e pl ace s poil e d s tor es w ith s t o r e -bou g ht foo d d efea t s th e purp ose of L i ve -at-H o m e eco nom y a nd fo r tho se w ith o ut fund s t o s h o p for foo d s p o il e d s tor es c ould s p e ll th e s am e l a p se in sec uri ty as n o t pr eserv in g a t a ll. HD As e n c oura ge d wo m e n t o c ontinu e ca nnin g a lon g w i t h t h e ir fr eez in g, but as Esca mbia age n t Et h e l Atkin s on bluntl y r e m a rk e d in 19 5 1 Aft e r wom e n h ave ex p e ri e n c ed th e re s ult s o f hom e freez in g b o th for th e ir h o m e fr eeze r s a nd th e ir r e nt e d l ocke r s p ace th ey d o n ot r etu rn t o ca nnin g exce pt produ c t s that a r e b es t fo r ca nn i n g." 61 R e l a t e d to thi s probl e m i a l oss in nutrition. In a dditi o n t o wa rd i n g off l ea n tim e HD As a d voca t e d foo d pr ese rv a ti o n so th a t a va ri ety of foo d co uld b e a va il a bl e a nd co n u rned a t a ll tim es. Vit a min s w e r e n o t s uppo se d t o b e a t r ea t j u s t fo r th e w int e r t ru c k sea o n. In th e ea rl y 1 950s A li ce Cro m a rti e b ega n t o r e p o rt co n ce rn b ased o n "s cie n t i fic r e ea r c h ," abo u t a r i s in g d e fi c i e n cy in v it a min s A a nd as we ll as ca l c ium a m o n g Fl o ridi a n M i lk co n s umpt io n had b ee n a n o n go in g batt l e es p ec i a ll y am o n g a dul t b ut th e d ec lin e i n ce rt a i n v i ta min s co in c id e d wi th th e ri e in freeze r u s a nd t h e new ea e of pr eservi n g m eat a n d 6 1 th e l Atkin on E cambia ounty AR 1951 ARA33 6-52), 14

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153 th d crea d number or h m garden a familie moved out of rural areas. The e force c mbined to decrea fruit and egetable consumption, and create a r ultin g lo in certain itamin HD s re ponded by encouraging more fruit u e and con ervation, pr mpting a li g ht in rea e in canning betw en 1953 and 1954 6 2 Vitamin deftci ncie al o are linked to an ae thetic lo ss in the transition from can to fre z r. ln g la s jars, cann d goods could be quite trikin g. But the ae thetic appeal of canned g od the ort of distin tion fair ntrant till covet, al o meant increa ed nutrition HDAs were well-aware of vitamin and mineral s and that fruits and vegetables were critical in the daily diet. Dazzling color photograph of canned food demon trated both the aesthetic and health benefit s of a varied store of foods. Today, scientists growers gardeners and retailer are lauding the benefits of plates full of color. The darker and more colorful vegetables are, the more antioxidant th ey contain. One food in particular one that did grow and does grow well in Florida, ha s caught the attention of tho e intere ted in the connection between color and health Blueberrie 'r ich hue what the Wild Blueberry Association of orth America ha labeled the "Powe r of Blue," ma carry the power to battle cancer dementia and heart di ea e. Beyond the blueberry, consumers hould eek and expect to find more familiar food in unfamiliar (but actually old) arieties. For example, the everyday (baked) white potato has great nutritional va lue but when those potatoe are orange, red or purple the y pack a punch of up to four time the anti oxidant zeaxa nthin and lutein as white potatoe ." HDA s likel y were not bandying about terrns like lutein antioxidant flavonoid s and phytochemical but they may ha e made the diet and Ii es of tho e they erved healthier than even the late t home economic curriculum 62 lice Cromartie Food on ervation AR 1953 ( -91 B-21 ), 3; lice Cromartie Food on ervation R 1954 ( C-91B-26), I, 4. The prime reason canning increa ed lightly as that familie found that th ei r freezer could n o t hold enough food o canning became a upplement.

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154 cou ld h ave predicted so decreased fruit a nd vegetab l e consumpt ion had significant 63 repercussions Evo l vi n g preservation technology did not mean a ll disappointing results h owever. Increased access to knowledge equipment and foods i s indicative of one of the sub-themes for the who l e dissertation the democratization of rural reform amo n g women. There was a time when Americans of fewer means railed agai n st canned goods as t h e stuff of the l eisured c l ass, avai l ab l e only to those who cou ld afford to do wit h out. In the ea rl y nineteenth century so me Amer i cans de cr i e d the apparent sacr ifi ce of democratic principles and th e integrity of t h e yeomanry for indul ge nce in European-style pretension s of c l ass and privile ge. One of the aristocratic l ean in gs that caught critic attention wa the growing market for canned foods. Remember that Thomas Kensett had patented American canning in tin in 1 825. Though the unassuming containers did not raise any s u spic i ons, and the technology did not cause concern, the contents seemed decidedly undemocratic Kensett and other canners began by p r eserving New Eng l and seafood, suc h as l obster and oysters, and selling them to consumers in the nation 's interior Such foods were expensive, and critics comp l ained that on l y the wealthy could buy them a nd that the wea lth y did so just because they cou ld As Alan Marcu and Howard Sega l argue, the canners had every right to se ll their goo ds to a see min g l y e li te market the problem was that such a market even existed What respectable American yeo man whom the majority of Americans were s upposed to be had any need of or de ire for canned lobster? 64 Given this initial concern about the undemocratic nature of canned foods it i int e re st in g that home demonstration s efforts actually helped democratize food consumption 63 For m o r e on co l orful food and health see Kathryn Barry ," o l orful P otatoes ffer utTition Variety," Agricul tu ral R e ea r c h 49 (October 2001 ): 6; 'T hink Health Think Color Think Blue ," Fro ze n Food Di ge I 17 (Ap ril-M ay 200 I) : 20; the number of arti l e avai l ab l e in the l a t few year o n blueberrie i many publi h dine eryt hin g from Tim e to Pr epared Fo ods to P sycho l ogy Toda 64 Marcu s and ega l T ech n o l ogy in Am e ri ca, 64.

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155 a nd nutriti o n a l h a lth No thin g c r ea m ed p overty li ke p e ll ag r a' jau ndi ce d l et h argic v i ct i ms ; fru i ts a nd ege t a bl e a a il a bl e yea r-round made a wor ld of d iffere n ce i n t h e h ealt h of fam il ie utili zi n g th e ir ow n o r a co mmuni ty's foo d pr eserva t io n r eso ur ce s. Foo d h a a l ways b een lin ke d w ith c l a a nd pr ese r va ti o n was n o di ffe r e nt. Eve n ea rl y p r e ervat i o n tech n iques we r e n o t u e d b y e eryo n e b eca u e n ot everyo n e h a d t h e tim e o r i n gre di e nt s, uc h as uga r o r in ga r t o pr e erve i gn i fica nt qu a ntiti e o f foo d. ve r t im e, p r eserva ti o n rec ip es came to be a im e d a t middl e c l a hom e m a k e r wo m e n w ith b ot h th e t im e an d n ee d to take a d vantage of t h e m H o m e d e m o n s tr at i o n t h o u g h assoc i a t e d foo d p reserva ti o n most often with b asic nutriti o n a nd eco n o m y rath e r th a n lu x uri es. Eve n m a kin g j e lli es a nd ot h e r treats was ofte n fo r m a rk e tin g as a way t o i n c r ease cas h in c om e It i s t ru e th a t at an y given tim e, t h e m ajor i ty of wo m e n w h o o th erw i se we r e ca ndid a t es fo r h o m e d e m o n s t ra ti o n p rograms were not p a rti c ip a tin g, a nd so ma y n o t ha ve b e n e fit e d fro m it s m essage a nd expert i se An d not every p e r so n int e r es t e d in foo d pr eserva ti o n co uld affo rd a pr ess u re c o o k e r o r a freeze r. T h a t does n o t m ea n h oweve r th a t o nl y a se l ec t few e nj oye d th e b e n e fit s co n servatio n offered. B efore co mmuni ty ca nn i n g ce nt e r s op era t e d wo m e n s h a r e d u se of ca nn i n g eq uip ment ow n e d by e ith er a HD A o r o n e of th e fa mili es And b o th ca nnin g ce n te r a nd co mm u ni ty freezer l ocker s erve d th o u a nd s of p eo pl e It i s p a rti c ul ar l y te llin g th at at a t im e w h e n cann in g was declini n g a m o n g Fl o r i d a fa mili es, t h e age n ts w h o co n t in ue d t o a d voca t e p rese r at i o n mo t hearti l y were th ose wo rkin g w ith lo we r in c om e fa mili es, w h o h a d l ess cas h to s p e n d o n store boug h t foods F in a ll y we co m e t o th e h eart of t h e m a tt e r. Foo d pr eservatio n is abo u t control, abo u t power. H o m e d e m o n tr a ti o n gave wo m e n th e t oo l s n o t ju t t o cope bu t to be comfortable. I n 1 936 w hil e Fl o r i d a was d ee p in it s D e pr essio n H o lm es Co un ty age nt B ettie Cau d le declared prou dl y t h e r e is n o u e to worry abo ut ge ttin g hun gry i n Ho lm es Co un ty. P a n tr i es there

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15 6 we r e lin e d w ith mor e th a n 27, 000 qu a rt s of food r e port e dl y put up th a t yea r a lon e 65 Wh a t eve r oth e r l aye r s m a d e up th e c annin g st ory, th e m os t important was th e m os t o b v i o u s a full lard e r full s t o m ac h s h ea lth y bodi es, a ll y e a r l o n g. Co n se r v a t ion s p ec iali s t Grace Nee l y a r g u e d th a t h o m e co n se r va ti o n b y ca pturin g foo d s' b es t fl avor a nd p eak v it a min co n te n t gave ru ra l fa mili es th e grea t est p oss ibl e c ontr o l over foo d qu a nti ty, quali ty a nd ove rall h ea lthfuln ess 66 Ju s t b e n ea th thi s l aye r of tan g ibl e we ll-b e in g was th a t of prid e i n sk ill a nd fri e ndl y ri va l ry in th e a m o unt ca nn e d as we ll as th e a tt r ac ti ve n ess of w all s of co l o rful j a r s B e l o w a ll th ese l aye r s w e r e d ee p e r fin e r on es, s h a p e d b y t i m e wo rn inn ova ti o n s in pr ese rv a ti o n t ec hn o l ogy a nd Pro g r ess i ve phil oso phi es of effic i e n cy h ea l t h expe rti se a n d pro gress N atur a ll y a ll th e e id ea l s fel l o p e n to i nt e rpr eta ti o n a nd age nt s freely c u s t o mi zed th e m t o m ee t t h e n ee d s a nd pr efe r e n ces of th e wo m e n wi th w h o m th ey wo r ke d T h is seg m e n t o f th e foo d pr eserva ti o n s t o r y m a rk e d b y th e r e l a ti o n s hip b e t wee n HD A s fa mili es t ec hn o l ogy a nd sc i e n ce was a du a l s u ccess s t ory, n e ith e r r ejec t e d n o r imp ose d C audl e's d ec l a rati o n 2 0 0 4 s F l o rid a c annin g r es urr ec ti o n t h e evo luti o n fro m b u r i al t o p o t s t o b o ttl es, th e ph o t o b e l ow a ll t e ll u s w h y foo d pr ese r vat i o n h as n ever q ui te l ost it s a pp ea l a nd w h y HD As b y s t ay in g i n vo l ve d a l e rt a nd up -tod a t e, n eve r l ost th e i r ap p ea l. Th e k ey i s c onn ec ti v i ty Eve n in th e 1 950s, th e wo rld was grow in g l ess a n d l ess o r gan i c M ac hin es, h a rd sca p e a nd s t a inl e s t ee l d e fin e d d a il y lif e's bo und a r ies Mo r e F l o r i d a fam il ies li ve d in urban o r s u b urb a n a r ea l ess co nn ec t e d to a n yt hin g farmli ke t h a n t h ey eve r had been b efo r e. O n th e s u rface, i t ee m s co m fo rt i n g t o b e ab l e to pur c h ase w h a t we n ee d fro m t he l oca l s up em 1 arket p e rh a p occasio n a ll y s t o ppin g in to a fa rm e r 's m a r ket for some fre s h er p ro du ce a nd a "co unt ry li fe m o m e nt. Y e t ru ra l a n d u r b a n fa mil ies co n t inuin g i n t e r e t i n foo d preserva ti o n t e ll s u s th at l ay in g b y m ea nt saving n ot on l y th e u rp lu but av i n g t h e l ink 6 5 Bettie Caudle, Holm e o unty 19 36 R (F -29) 7 66 ee l y 1949 2.

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b tween p ople and th e ir pr ducti n co n umpti n a nd pr e ervation. Knowing intimately h r e fi d ca m e fr m mor e imp rtantl y, where it wa g ing t o come from in c r ea ed 15 7 m e n e n f control r th e ir familie liv e th e ir h ea lth their r e ource Pr e ervi n g udd n c han g r en 1 late as 1959 conservation p ecia li t Bonni e McD nald r ema rk ed that worn n int re tin canning and pre serva tion thou g h dimini h e d from it h ey da y, wa n e e rth I an' a uran ce that fami l food production an d co n erva tion at home i till orth hil and po ibl ." 67 The ame re a on p eo pl continued then a nd continue now to can ( or d ry o r freeze o r a lt ) i the sa me r easo n food pr e erva tion i s wo rth tudying at all. Wendell B erry, e er cri t ical f the machine in th e garden caution again t the increa s in g t e nd e nc y to b arrica d e oursel e from th e natural world whether fro m fear, convenience or r e pul sio n Ca nnin g, especially for tho e women in ol ed in raising their food, dela ye d th e proce ss of becomin g, as B erry put s it e il e d from biological reality. 6 8 The technolo gy of food pre serva tion though it po ed certain c hall e n ge to hom e demon tration 's lon g r e lationship with rural wo men al o d e mon trate s the importance of d e t ai l s. HDA s made a li v in g and ec ured th e ir future s, by knowing ho w food pr e ervation orked e e n as the mechani s m and cience rapidly evolve d Th e education they pa e d on to ome n empowe red th e m b keeping them in the loop For any of us st ill asking "so w h at?' 67 Bonnie McDonald Foo d on erva ti o n AR 19 59 ( -91B-57), 16. 68 Wendell Berry, The Pl a ure of at in g,' in Our Su tainabl e Table e d. R obert l ark ( an Franci co : ort h P oint Pr e 199 0), I 7 Lynette Hunt er al o e pl ore our co nn ection t o what -.: e eat an d h y e co ntinu e to pr e erve foo d in ce 'we d o not technically need to do o fo r urvi al o r nutriti on, and there a r e many c h ee rful co mm e r cia ll y-prod u ce d bottle around." h e pecu l ate th a t perhap e are drawn t o pre ervation for no talgia pride or preci e knowledge of h at e a r e ea tin g (remember the \\Oman ho e on had food a ll ergie ?) Like Berry Hunter ee omething e l eat v.ork Pre erving bring th ge n e r a l dome tic cook clo er to the ubtletie of ooking than o ur mundane ooking normall allo ." ee L ynette Hunt e r ,' in e t eenthand Twentieth-Century Trend in Food Pre erving: Frugality, utrition or Luxury "Wa t e ot Wanr o t ." Food Pre ervationfrom Earl y Tim e to th e Pre en t Day ed. nne ii o n (Edinb ur gh: E dinburgh ni er ity Pre 1991) 153.

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158 let me repeat the core is s ue where food preservation is concerned. The fundamental principle of pre serva tion like its technology may seem outdated even inconceivable, today for thousands of years, creat in g and maintaining a store of safe nutritious food was critica l for warding off literal starvation and di seases associated with malnutrition. The advent of groce r y s tore s and drive-thrus did not automatically end food concerns, for not everyone co uld afford to rel y on these conveniences. Food preservation however it was done ha s on l y re ce ntl y become a choice, even a hobb y for most of its hi s tory it was a keystone of survival. Often the poorest co uld not preserve food usin g the best easiest or safest method s, but the y pre serve d neverthel es Proo f that what so me have re ga rded as a luxury was in fact a n ecess ity i s in Margaret Hagood s experience s tud yi n g white tenant farm women Hagood s portrait of one woman divorced with five children, no dom es tic h e lp and a full work load in excess of her hou sekeep in g duties d e mon s trates the central importance of canning. This woman though she w ork e d a ll da y w ith the owner's tobacco crop and often staye d up at ni g ht to maintain the fire in the c urin g barn, also s pent time at night canning food for her family. 69 So, whatever faults home demonstration had whatever s hortcomin gs its HDA s brought to their wor k th eir consistent effort to assist women and families to save th e s urplu s were in va luable and imp erat i ve. In the sa me way, the lin ks b etwee n education pow e r a nd control pro ved v it a l for h ea lth reform Theori es of rural sa nctity and urban dom es ti c i ty held no sway again t t h e biological r ea litie s of di sease, malnutrition and co ntamination Large sca le h ea lth operations lik e the State Board of H ea lth were effective but not acce ible or embe dd ed the way HD As were. U rban ren ewa l and city c l ean -up efforts did not ex t end to any sign ifi cant degree into the co unt ry ide Local h ea lth facilities were scatte r ed und er s taffed and unable to provide the c riti ca l co mbination of advocacy infonnation and physical ass i sta nce that ex ten ion taff 69 Hagood M o th e r s of th e S o uth 57

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159 mad a ailable er da Like fo d pre ervation, health r form at it s c re wa not a luxury i ue Our n talgia for uthou e a quaint reminder of a imp I r time doe not begin to gra p how ery critical the de ign and u e of anitary facilitie really wa o much of w h at wa wrong with outhem rural health was the re ult of ign rance kno ledge bred power, and p wer bred health HDAs once again earned their keep b y dealing in detail to educate and o empower women to take control of their familie 'a nd their own beleaguered health.

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WA l'Ell-UATH CA~ER .\11y l a rg sto ck pot, l ard can, or boil 1 may b u se d fur a water-balh 1am1er It mu s t b d p noug h to p e rmit wat e r lo r eac h 1 or 2 in c h s ove r th tops of the j ar s and to allow a little ex tra space for boiling S wdi .. t>ot fi l1t .. d for n h r lw1h ('a nuin g. 160 Figure 4-2 A cut-av ay view of a water bath Source: Bertha F. 01 en, Canning in Glass Jars in School and In sti tuti ona l Kit c hens : Fruits and Oth e r Acids U.S. Department of Agriculture Agriculture Handbook o. I I (January 1951 ). Figure 4-3 A pre s ur e cooker; a retort for g la ss jars and tin container of all i ze ource : anning in Glas Jars in Community anning e nt e r s. U nited tales Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook o 44 ( Jul y 1952)

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1 6 1 F i g ur e 4 4 A h o m e d e m o n s tr a ti o n kit c h e n in Hi ll s b oro u g h Co un ty 1 9 1 8. o t e th e clea r atte n t i o n to o rd e r. o ur ce : Flo r i da Coo p e ra t i ve Ex t e n i on e rv ice AR 1 9 1 8 ( G a in esv ill e : U ni ve r sity of Fl o rid a 1 9 1 9) 86. Fill'. 7. 'annin g cent<-r, such a., thi. opcrat~d throughout the :, at e, hclpin'l' both rum ] nnrl urb a n families to conserve needed foods. F i g ur e 4-5. A co mmuni ty c annin g ce nt e r a c ro ss b e tw ee n a h o m e opera ti o n an d a comme r cia l plant. u c h ce nt e r p ro i d e d s pa ce, e quipm e nt and c am a r a d e ri e for Flo rid a c ann e r s. o ur ce: Coopera t ive Ex t ension Work in Agri c u lt ure and H ome E co nomi cs R e por t o/Genera/ A c ti vi ti es/o r 1944

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162 Countu S u Canninn Kitcl, n ('a Figure 4-6. This ce m e nt block s tru c tur e r e pla ced a n "o ld b a rn with sawe d-o ff barre l s instead of s ink s" as the community canning center for Orange Co unty The center was de s i gned so that anyone, regardle s of ex p e rience could mo ve fro m t al i o n t o s t a ti o n can nin g their foods. Use r s o nl y had t o m ake a n appointment t o u se the ce nt e r ca p ab l e of accommoda tin g fifteen t o twenty-five people a t a tim e, bring their own foo d to ca n a nd pay a small fee to cover the co t of the tins provided b y the center. So ur ce: O ran ge Co un ty An nu a l Report, 1950 (NARA-33 655), 26 28.

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163 Figure 47. Mrs. W. B dward in Lloyd Florida with her new home freezer. ource : photographer unknown 1957. Florida P h otographic Collection, Genera l Co ll ec t ion A E I t\ f Fi g ure 4. Home demon tration exhibit booth at the orth Florida Fair in Tallaha see, 1955 o ur e: Red (Benjamin L.) Kerce, "Home demon tration club booth on freezing Florida Photographic ollection Red Kerce ollection.

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Figure 4-9. This TV A photo taken between 19 33 and 1945 s how s a woman acce s in g h e r freezer locker in North Carolina. ource: Library of Congress, Print s and Photograph Di v i ion, F A-OWi ollection, [LC-USW33-015601-ZC DLC] 164

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Figure 410 A h ea lth y di pla y of ca nn e d goo d s. So ur ce: Cann in g in Florida (Ta ll a h assee: Florida Departmen t of Agriculture, 19 42). 70 165 0 Though this photo i n ot in co l or, its ingredient offer some clues to it s original ibranc y Ke y t o thi di play (mo in g left to right and top to bottom): I pear mince meat 2. gua as 3. orange marmalade 4 grapefruit pre erve 5. lem o n marmalade 6. swee t cucumber 7. cabbage pickle 8. peach butter 9. bread and butter pickle 10. ketc hup 1 1 mixed pickles 1 2. plum jam 13. l emon and orange marmalade 14. tra, berries 15. grapefrui t 16 orange jelly 1 7. grapefruit marmalade 18. peach jam 19 pickled peache 20 com 21. our cucu mb er pickle 22. pear butter 23. citron pre erves 24. dill pickles 25. beet 26 app l e butte r 27 pear 28. pickled pears 29. pickles 30. pear 31. blueberrie 32. egg p l ant 33 pepper reli h 34 kumquat preserve 35. c hil i r e li sh 36. squash 37. snap beans 38. sauerkrau t 39 tomatoe 40 Engli h pea 41. turnip roots 42 u ccota h 43. s pin ach 44. pumpkin 45 pear conserve 46. field pea 47. carrot 4 turnip gree n 49. quash 50. mixed pickle 51. pork roast 52. beef teak 53 tomato oup 54. carrot 55 sweet potato 56. l ar d (ugh! 57. baked bean 5 Iri sh potato 59 butter bean 60 beef t ak 61. pickled pig feet 62 beef heart 63. beefroa t 64. spare rib 65 giblet Cannin g in Fl o r i da 79.

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166 Fi g ur e 4 -1 I Thi s v i s u a l Th e o utput o f a F l o rid a h o m e ki t c h e n ," d e m o n s trat es t h e id ea l r es ult of h o m e d e m o n stra ti o n L i ve a t H o m e ca mp a i gn: a h o m e -p ro du ce d we lls t oc k e d we ll-plann e d h ea lth y l arder. Sou r ce : Canning in Florida ( T a ll a h assee : F l o rid a D e partm e nt of Agric ultu re 1 942)

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HAPTER 5 "THE MIMPROVEO TOILET I ALL TOO PREY ALE T" : H MED MON TRATIO IT PARTN R AND RURAL A lTATl "The unimproved toilet i all too prevalent." Home lmprovement specialist Virginia M or made thi a e sment of rural Floridians sanitary facilities in 1934 a part of the F deral Farm Housing Surve 1 Her brief comment cuts to the essence of home demonstration s work in anitary health reform: the danger were endemic and the device for reform wa nothing more pectacular than a sanitary toilet. Moreover HDAs contribution to anitation work a una urning. Wherea programs uch a nutrition food preservation and clothing had their own specialists and operated a di crete pha e of work, anitation work appeared under a variety of rubrics inc l uding hea l th home improvement and rural engineering. 2 How did that impact home demonstration 's own longevity? Did HOA neglect anitation work perhaps in fa or of more appealing pha e like nutrition? I do not belie e so. But neither did home demon tration make sanitation its highest priority Though HDA s regarded sanitation reform a important, they did not necessarily champion them as omething unique l y re l ated to home demonstration. Thi tory i as much about the environment of home demonstration s sanitation work a th work it elf. That period of intensi e work from before mi th-Le er until 1940 and reformer mission to ameliorate and hopeful! eradicate hookworm and malaria is the ore of thi chapter. anitation work is not important in this tudy becau e it was omething HDA s 1 irginia P. Moore "Fe deral Fann Hou ing urvey ummary Report Florida Part I 21-7, 5. 2 Ind ed o often did anitation ho up under Home lmpro ement that Virginia Moore' s Home [mpro ement peciali t report make up the bulk of primary home d e m o n tration ource for thi chapter. 167

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168 a tt ac k e d w ith H e r c ul ea n effo rt s a nd s u ccee d e d w h e r e c ountl ess ot h ers had fa il e d Q ui te t h e o pp os it e, h o m e d e mon s trati o n 's wo r k w ithin sa nit a ti o n r efo rm was s i g nific a nt b eca u se H D As we r e no t t h e k ey pl aye r s th ey we r e a k ey pl aye r p a rt ic ip at in g in a co ll abo ra tive ca m paig n T h e ir co n t ri b uti o n was n o t w inni ng t h e wa r aga in s t affl i c ti o n b u t p rovi din g u n i que weapo n s t o imp rove th e fi g h t. I ro ni ca ll y HD As in vo l ve d th e m se l ves in c ru c i a l r efo rm s t h a t t ack l e d concrete imm e di a t e d a n ge r s t o ru ra l fa mili es h ea l t h bu t b eca u se they did n o t gla m o ri ze t h ese reforms hi s t o ri a n s h ave n o t p a id th e m mu c h a tt e n t i o n I s u spec t t h at mu c h of th e hi s t or i ca l c ri tic i s m h o m e d e m o n stra ti o n h as d raw n h as bee n m ot i va t e d b y w h a t h o m e d e m o n stra ti o n i tse l f d evo t e d t h e m ost overt a tt e nti o n t o, t h ose a pp are ntl y s up e r fic i a l aest h e ti c r efo rm s t hat c r itics h ave t ake n as ev id e n ce of a flu ffy o r ga ni za t io n imp osing o u ts id e r s fl u f fy sta nd ar d s on ind e p e nd e nt and l ess -th a n-flu ffy wome n A n d u n li ke food p r eservat i o n whe r e HDAs we r e co ntinu a ll y a t th e fo r efro nt in sa nit a ti o n wo rk HD As ofte n were i n t h e b ackgro u n d or so m ew h e r e in t h e mid s t of a jumbl e of r efo rm e r s. But th ese r efo rm s we r e qui te se r io u s ; J am e mph as i zi n g th e m h e r e b eca u se i f h o m e d e m o n s tr atio n d i d n ot m ake i ts ow n case for its role in sa n i t a t io n wo r k th e n I wi ll make it for th e m T h o u g h I a m n o t in c lin ed t o d raw a ha rd lin e abo u t aes th e ti c o r cu l tural reforms that h o m e d e m o n s tr a ti o n a d op t e d o r e nd o r se d I am e qu a ll y a d a m an t a b o ut i ts i mporta n ce in health refo nn s. T h e g l oba l s i gn i fica n ce of sa ni tary h ea l t h serves as a grim r e mind er t h at not a ll r efo rm s h ave b ee n fr i vo l o u s. To d ay 1. 3 billi o n peo pl e o n t hi s pl a n e t do n ot h ave acces s to c l ean dri nk in g wate r ; by 20 1 0 th at n umb er w i l l reac h 2 5 bi lli o n As of 2002 2 6 bi ll ion peo pl e m ore t h a n forty p e r ce nt of t h e wo rld 's pop u lat i on l acked access to im proved s a ni ta ti o n In t h e n ext twe n ty-fo ur hou r s, 4 000 peop l e, m o t of them children unde r the age

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169 of fiv e, wi ll di e fa pr ventab l e water-b m e di ease 3 Hi s t ri a n can a r g u e e ndl ess ly about th e ultural rac i a l g nd e r and oci -economic ramification s of rural women haulin g water ve r u a e in g it from a pout in the kitche n but a c l ea n co n i tent wate r s uppl y a nd appr pri a te afe sa nitary faci liti e are not ju t matter s of conve ni e n ce. I f b e in g free of ho kworm wa a w hit e middle-cla s urban tandard s o be it. Thou g h HDAs work wit h health reform did h e lp e n s ure agents pro fess ion a l surviva l the ability t endure was not the result of so me supernatura l abi li ty HDA s co uld n o t l eap tall pri v i e in a in g l e bound Their health work mattered becau e HDA s we r e wor kin g cooperative l y with in a m atr i x of concerned reformer s attempting to brin g under control a number of perva ive and debilitatin g h ea lth deficiencies Health reform was n o t o nl y about th e economic future of the South the sign ifi cance of rac e and ge nder or the imp ac t of the tate in modem America it was about being able to prevent t h e l et h a r gy illness and d e bilitation cau e d b y a gut full of worms. Lon gev ity take on new significance w h en we consi d er the debilitatin g di seases a nd cond iti on hom e demonstration workers attempted to rectify Di sease was n oth in g new in the outh, and it per i s ted in s ome form or other well aft e r h ookworm and m a l aria had been brou g ht under co ntr o l. But sa nitation represented the mo t urgent mo s t tang i ble probl ems facing rural outh e mer s fo r much of th e last century Health conditions in the South including Flor id a, revealed a disturbing reality the rural So u th was much more akin to a de ve lopin g nation than to the ultra-modem indu tria l powerhouse ew o u t h booster h a d e n i s ioned Hookworm and malaria as well a s typhoid, tuberculosi and cabies were d eep n irony h e n e think a bout o ur co mmitmen t t o spot l e ca r a nd prid e-of the -n eighbor h o o d l a n uch di he a rt e nin g tatistics o n water s horta ges, u e and co ndit ion s can be found at \,\'\\ u : orld\ at rday org and th e World H ea l th Organization's (WHO) si t e, Water sanita ti on a nd hygiene l ink t o h ea lth ," \,\Wv v h o.i n w a ter s anitati o n health with figure updated to o ember 2004. My qui c k tatistical check came fro m Caro l e Rubin Ho w t o G e t Your la w n 0 ./f Gr a A or th Am e ri c an Guid e to Turning Off th e Wa t e r Tap and Going a t i ve (B ri t i sh Co l u m bia, a n ada : H a rb o ur Publi hin g 2002) 11 1 3

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170 e mb e dd e d in th e South's p eo pl e, with little r ega rd for rac e or age, and barel y l ess for incom e In a d e quat e sa nit ary facilities we r e the n o rm n o t a perversion s p ec ific to th e poor. Ind ee d sa nitar y problem s pla g u e d Am e ri ca n s throu g hout the country b eca u se sc ien ce and under s tandin g took so lon g to overcome co mmon practi ce and infrastru ct ure s simply did not exist on a sca le adequate to m ee t the needs of boomin g population s, or of rural communities on the waysides of moderni za tion. P a rti c ul a rl y c h a ll e n g in g was th at h ea lth practices in ge n era l and rural access to impro ve d re so urce s were rudimentary at be st. In 1931 Leon Co un ty's black HDA, Alice Poole lamented the s tate of her county's home s tead h ea lth It i s re g retted that as important as Health Home and Sanitation i s it s hould b e so sa dl y n eg l ec t e d in the rural di st ri cts s h e wrote. Prop e r toil ets, water s uppl y and livin g conditions in and around the hom es a r e se ri o u problems ." 4 Though Pro gres ive r efo rm e r s h ad d evoted co n s id e rabl e attention to h ea lth and sa nitation mu c h of their effo rt s had b ee n in urb a n area and even th e r e co ndition s we r e hardl y optimum. Ideall y rural Americans would hav e known not to walk bar efoot n ea r dilapidat e d pri v i es (o r in the a b se nc e of pri v ie s) or i g nor e pool s of sta ndin g water. But the reality was that rural folks s uff e r e d from a n unfortun a t e co mbination of dimini s h e d re ource in adequate knowledge a nd dan gerous but comfortable h ab i ts Many co n ce rn e d reformer s un fa irl y bl a m e d ru ra l dw e ll e r s outright for what ailed th em cit in g moral c ultu ra l or racial d ev ianc e (or a ll thr ee) as th e s uppo se d ca u se of co mpromi ed h ea lth. I f HD As s h a r e d thi s view they d i d not make it public. Perhaps the y under tood better dealing w ith fa mili e on a r egu lar basis in th e ir h o m es a nd co mmuniti e that the plagues on rural h ea lth were often very se ri ous and their remedie w hil e not elu s ive were problematic. Ironically r efo rm had made a n impact in rural commu ni tie but n ot alwa y for 4 A li c e W. Poole Leon AR 19 3 1 ( L2 1) 7

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171 p pl Pro g r e i e fanner accinated their liv e t c k again t ho g c hol e ra and c hi ck np ox but th e Fanner 'c hildr n wer exp ed with a lannin g fr e qu e nc y to d bilitatin g, and u u a ll y pr v ntable di ea e. Th u g h poor health a per a ive aero th outh th e iron y of Florida health wa m re pronounced To man y from ut ide and within the tate Florida was an eart hl y paradi e, an ev r-blo min g vibrant f e rtil e Eden. Much of th s tate wa b a utiful and ut id r loved the balm y' climate Indeed in 1 889, Jame David s on compo ed a g uid e b ook of Fl rida "fo r touri t and ettlers" in which he de cribed the prevalence of malaria (but di counted the theory that it wa transmitted b y pani h mo s ), but a l so elaborated upon the healthful c lim ate and its "sa nitar y qualities .' David so n cites the prai se of a Dr. Ken worthy on Florida climatic effect on broken health. From hi ob ervations around the wo rld and in Florida, Ken worthy reported I have been forced to notice the infrequency of chronic di sease and broken health in Florida. Though Kensworthy favored the climate's r e la x in g effect, th e tropical heat rain and humidity that mark Florida 's weather pattern s also made it a perfect e n ironment for malaria and hookwonn The rate of malaria for example, wa s i x time that of the national average in I 939 5 Despite the gravity of the problem and their potential impact upon it HD As s p e nt little time ca llin g attention to their work, but it s value i s clear in the way others d escr ibed th e 5 Jame W oo d s Da idson Th e Florida of To-day : A Guide for Tourist and S e ttl e rs ppleton 18 9) 52-55, 57; Federal Writ e r Proje c t Th e WPA Guide t o Florida ew York: Pantheon Book 1939) I 07. Florida pr e alence fo r di sease, h owe e r m ay ha e prompt e d the s t a t e r e ear h int o hook'. o rm t o m o e in a dir ec ti o n diff e rent from the r e t of th e n a ti o n Hiram Byrd noted in 1910 th a t th pre i o u s decad e h a d b ee n d e o t e d to ho o k wo rm research amo n g cienti t phy ician and oc i o l og i t m os tl y tudi e ba e d o n a m e di co -biolo g ical a n a l y i of the di sease. But B yrd e pl a in e d "two plac e in th e world . Porto Rico a nd Fl o rida ," had been s tud yi n g hookworm fr m a ocio l ogica l p e r pecti ve, tud y in g th e li fe o f th e ho t rath e r th a n the par a it e Wh e ther Florida and Pu e rt o Ri co' foc u mad e any difference or n o t is unknown h ookwo rm wa till pre a l en t in both place t lea tin 1910 F l o rida wa uniqu e in a n o ther ay. Where it wou ld be a hard hip for a family to p ay fo r h oo k -wo rm treatm nt th e tate B oar d of He a lth wo uld co e r the cost, the on l y place in the o rld h e r e th at i d o ne ," ai d Byrd ee Hiram Byrd "Hookwo rm Di ea e: A H andbook of ln fom1ati n fo r II Who Are Int e r e ted '(F l o rid a tate Archi e Record Group 810 erie 905 Box I)

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172 challenges of sanitizing rural life. In 1910 the State Board of Health's Dr. Hiram Byrd addressed the possible and the probable mean s of controlling hookworm in Florida. 6 The challenge, he said, was making the possible probabl e. The eradication of hookworm s on paper is one thing; in the field it i s another," Byrd cautioned. In theory eradication could be done completely and quite easily: prevent soil pollution, treat all the sufferers, ha ve everyone wear shoes. In reality these theoretical considerations ," how eve r sound, could not account for everything necessary to win the hookworm war. Be yo nd theory "o ur success must finally rest upon the co-operation of the people at l arge; for who can prevent so il polluti o n unless the peop l e will it to be so? Who can treat the sufferers unles s they choose to be treated? Who can force shoes upon the chi ld ren, if they and their parents do not elect that the y sha ll wear them?" Byrd expected that the most convi n ci n g reformer s would be those who could approach sufferers with compassion, intelligence and sensitiv ity who co uld d ea l with the public on the most l ocal terms 7 Byrd shrewdly anticipated the nature of education required to sec ure the pub li c's cooperation, the mo st important part of the crusade." "T he great work of the da y," he wrote is winning others to the cause, s preadin g the ferment ... unti l every part has been affected. But how people were won depended on who the y were. Working top down "we are dealing with a more and more incredulous public as we d esce nd and we must accord in g l y produce stro n ge r and stronger evidence before we will even be believed. HDAs were perfectly suited to this so rt of education because producing proof was their pecialty. Byrd argued that though l iterature and lectures" had been effective among the hi g h er social and intellectual 6 The State Board of Hea l th was created in 1889 to combat a ye ll ow-fever e pidemic prim ar il y throu gh quarantines. Fe d era l Writers' Project, Th e WPA Guide to Florida 1 05. 7 Byrd 49-50 55. Byrd was careful to advi e reformer that it wa imperati ve for th e m to re pect t h privacy of a n yone they exam in ed especially to avoid ingling anyone out of a gro up and effecti ely announcin g to the com munity that someone had hookworm. Byrd 54.

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173 trata," h okworm campaigns had mad e their way to th e low e r trata, in which per onal contact and th tr atm nt of t h indi v idual mu st be the dominant fi ature ." Moreover thi wa the tratum that d e mand not pi tu res of thew rm but the worm themselve ; not the t r y of th c hildren that ha ve been r e l iev e d but c hildr e n in their own community hildr e n that the y hav known from birth mu t be relieved and se rve a bject lessons ." Byrd under tood th enormity of the cha l len ge, and ca l led for community-wide action for the amelioration of the hookworm trouble is too lar ge for any one man ; too larg e for an y in titution . t o l arge for anything short of a united effort on the part of the w hole people in the infected territory." 8 Home demonstration wa in it s infancy when Byrd called for this type of education but within a hort time home demonstration would become official and HD As would develop the kill and acces neces ary to do just what Byrd predicted. Unlike m y approach in other chapters here I will refer more frequently to n o nxtension reformers because sanitation work wa collaborative and to other Southern examples because in matters of health F l orida was very Southern bu ggy, muggy undeveloped and un anitary But the principal reason for not dealin g with Florida excl u sive l y in matt e r s of health i s that health reforms were the re s ult of multistate and multi-organization effo rt Health reform broug h t together a di ve rse range of organizations and initiati ves to tackl e health problem from grassroots efforts lik e National egro Health Week to bureaucratic bodies like the Florida State Board of Health to organizations somewhere in betwe e n like home demonstration. I argued before that home demon stration endured in part because it wa willing and able to cooperate with other agencies. ow her e i s that more important than in hea l th reform. In fact each of the stre n g th s I ca n identify for h ome demon tration is in pla y in sanitation ---c ooperation realism negoti atio n a d aptabi li ty 8 Byrd 52, 51

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174 education, mobilization femi ni zation, democratization. Of course, those big themes are the hi storia n 's perspective, but w hat moti vated HDAs operating in real tim e to talk about privies and flies? A first exp l anat i on for HDAs' concern for rural health was altruism. The most potent examp l e co m es from B. T. Pompey, a black HDA in A lab ama. In h er 1933 report, she c ri ed "My people are dying from a want of knowledge ." 9 Her words cut to the heart of t h e matter for many HDAs rural people were not just statistics or l aborers they were t h e agents people, their n eighbors and friends Especia ll y for black agents, watc hin g already disadvantaged families strugg lin g und er the add iti ona l burden of ill health was disheartening How co uld these people ever get ahead when they cou ld n ot eve n get through the day? A second cause for HDAs worry was ideological. Especially early on, home demonstration was sti ll tied very much to the Co un try Life Movement 's ideal of a revitalized countrys id e that actua ll y fit the picture of bucolic v ibran cy so often painted of it. It was difficult to find strapping young l ads and comely maidens in areas wracked by hookworm. Third HDA s after World War I were caught up in an international h ea lth fervor that wed notions of modem h ea lth and national progress to rural hygiene Fourth, buttre ss ing t h ese altruistic and ideological concerns were practical ones, namely t h e economic fa ll out of widespread di sease among rural Southerners. A 1 925 Georgia Board of Health bulletin on malaria warned, "T he erious economic effect of malaria .. cannot be too great l y emphasized. Wherever malaria ex i sts farm l abor is inefficient causing crops to be below normal. At the very time of year when farm labor is most n eeded a great deal of thi l abor i s incapacitated as a result of attacks from malaria. 9 Pompey quoted in Mary Kyes tevens '" By Our S urr o undin gs Ye hall Know U ': A labam a Black H o m e Demon tration Agents and the Co mple x iti es of Moral and c ial Up lift 1 9281 936," (M A the i arah Lawrence Co ll ege, 1999) 5.

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T h point w a impl e th e c o t of e radi c ati o n of m o qui toe c mp a ri n w ith th e cos t of m a l a r ia." 10 in co n eq u en ti a l in r HDA a ll th e indi v idu a l m o ti a ti o n a dd e d up t o n e co m preh n i e goa l. 1 7 5 F l o rid a's H o m e Imp rove m e nt p ec i a li st Vir g ini a M oo r e umm e d i t u p n ea tl y i n h e r ow n 1 933 r p o rt : rural hom e impro ve m e n t co uld c r ea t e h o m es b e tt e r th a n o m e s lum i n a ci t y Of c ur e, in th e o f fi c i a l 1 933 Ex t e n ion e rvi ce r e p o rt w ritt e n for publi c co n s um p t io n Moore a lt e r e d th e t o n e of h r goa l s : To h ave rural hom es th a t a r e c l ea n o rd e rl y, co n ve n ie n t a n d a ttra c ti ve . l ea d s t o th e de ve lopm e nt of h a pp y, he a lth y, pro gres i ve a nd d e p e nd a bl e rura l c iti ze n s." 11 U nfortun a t e l y, it i s ju t that kind of sta t e m e nt th a t h as l e d hi to r i a n s to b e li eve th at hom e d e mon tration wa s in v olv e d in littl e mor e than a rural A m e ri ca n publi c r e l at i o n s 10 M os quit oe and M a l a ri a l Co ntrol ," E n g in ee rin g Bull e tin o. 2, G eo r g i a S t a t e B oa r d of H ealt h (May 1925), 4. 11 V ir g ini a P M oo r e, H o m e Impr ove m e nt A R 1 933 (SL 23), 4 V i r g ini a P M oo r e, H o m e lmp ro e m e nt ," Florida Coopera t ive Ex t e n sion Service A R 1 932 (Ga in esv i lle: U ni e r ity of F l o ri da 1 933), 87. R ace furth e r co mpli ca t e d th e m o ti ves fo r anit a ti o n r efo rm. HD As d i d not exp r es a n y rac i a l th eo ri e of di ea e, th o u g h th ey did und e r sta nd th e i mp ac t o f ra ce o n di sease pr eva l e n ce a n d u ffe rin g. In 1 9 0 9, Th o m as S t e dm a n p ro m o t e d a th eory of r acia l co n tam in a t io n as cause fo r t h e h oo k wo rm e pid e mi c, a r gu in g th a t bl ac k A fr i ca n s brou gh t t h e d i ea e to Am erica and po llut e d the soil up o n v hi c h th ey, and un s u s p ec tin g w hit es, wa lk e d R ac i a l d e i an ce, h e sa id m a d e bl acks u n Ame ri can b eca u e th ey" erve d 'a br ee d e r of th e wo rm and sowe r of it see d s, t o t he l asti n g in jury of t heir w hit e n eig hb o r ."' S t e dman 's v i ews we r e n ot uniqu e. In Jac k o n v ill e, th e S t ate Board of H ea l t h 's City H ea lth Office r C h a rl e E. T e rry argue d th a t b la c k s jeo p a rd ize d w hit es' h ea lth Th e "race d ange r wa th e re ult of i nt e ra c ti o n b e t wee n w hit e e mpl oye r s a nd bl ac k e mpl oyees. T ho u gh Terry's attitude i r e pu gna nt t o a m o d e m r ea d e r hi s fea r o n b e h a l f of w hi te r es id e nt s ac tu a ll y c r eate d so m e good for bl ac k wo rk r s. Th e el uti o n t o th e pr ese nt thr ea t ," h e wr o t e, was wi d e pr ea d e mpl oymen t of black nur e a nd 'carry in g int o th e h o m es a nd in t i tu t i o n s of th e e p eo pl e ... t h e t eachi n gs we ha e too long r e erve d fo r o ur se l es ." T erry's h o p es we r e n o t hi g h that h ea lth reforms wo uld make muc h progre s amo n g thi a li e n race," but argue d n e e rth e l ess th at "a n y r e du c ti o n of m orb i d i ty ... among t h e m .. \ ill be acco mp an i e d in so m e d egree, b y a l esse nin g of o ur own i n fect i ons." See' tate B oard of Heal t h ubj ec t Fi l e -Ja ck o n v ill e-exce rpt s fro m ea rl y B oar d of H ea lth r e p orts ca. I 916" (Florida tate r c hi es, R eco rd Gro up 8 10 899, B ox 4 Fo ld e r 4 2). HD A d i d n o t e pr e s the ame orts of"race i n fec ti o n th eo r ie Terry es p o u se d A a gro up HD A we r e co n ce rn e d fo r th e sta t e of t h e n at i on, b u t th ey did n o t c h a ra c t e ri ze th e ill as d e i an t and th ey did n o t b l a m e o n e gro u p for t h e m a l ad i e they all s h are d Th o u g h hi t o ri a n s d ea l i n g w ith t h e o uth are in c l i n e d t o thi nk of race in term of b l ack and w hit e, Fl o rida p o pul a ti o n wa m o r e d i e r se than th a t a fac t no t l o ton ome h ookworm r e earcher H ir am B yr d d i d see r ace as a fac t or in h ow h oo k wo rm pr ead and t h o u gh he te n ded to b l ame black F l o r i di an fo r h am p rin g p rogress i n era di ca tin g it h e aw th e e min o l e as i tim of hookworm th e m e l e th e las t of th e grea t r ace of hum a n ity t o h a e ha d it thru t upo n [them]." Byrd 40 and on rac i a l imp e dim e nt to p rogre aga in t h ookwo rm see B y rd 3 52.

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176 campaign. Moore may not have represented the gravity of the s itu ation, or the tangib l e good home demonstration might do but the reality was every bit as stark as the rh etoric was ambig uou s. 12 There is little sense in going on talking about hookworm a nd malaria without first elaborating on w hat they are, h ow they are transmitted and how they are cured and prevented. Before 1 900 most Amer i cans had n eve r heard of hookworm and those who knew of it had 1 ittle und erstan din g of its s i ege upon th e rural South Today too I s u spect that few Americans know exact l y w h at hookworm i s or h ow it affects the body. Fortunately, the vast majority of us will never endure an infestation. The same i s not true for the rest of the wor ld Hookwom1 is stil l common wor ldwide, in any warm moi t climate, and the para ite 's survival and spread depends upon an unsanitary environment. The disease has been known, if n ot exp li cit l y, si n ce antiquity a nd today as much as twenty-five percent of the wor ld 's population may be infected at a n y one time. 1 3 The parasite comes in a va riety of fonns, and though most infect anima l s, two serious l y infect humans 14 One of these is endemic to the 1 2 Thi chapter be ga n as a confe r e nce pap er / course as ignm e nt. A peer read and re v i ewe d the paper and wa utterly di s mayed by the extent of d e tail I had provided about disea se, pri vy con truction, etc But detail a r e nece ssary becaus e they save li ves, by exp l aining why a change is neces ary. Furthermore, detail are real. ldealized notions of buc o li c fel i c ity are ambiguous wom1 are not. Sanitizing anitat i on erves no purpose worthy of r ea l change, and 1 will not d o that here. Faint of heart bewar e. 1 3 A c la sic treatment on hookworm Clin i c al Parasitology describe hookworm as seco nd only to malaria and malnutrition in produ c tion of human mi ery and eco n om ic lo It is worth n oting that worldwide and once in Florida, the three maladie s often co-exis t in a s in g l e ufferer. ee D. W. T C rompton and L. Stephen on, "Hookwom1 Infection N u tritional Statu a n d Produ ctiv i ty," in H ookworm Dis e as e : Curren t Status and N e w Dir ec t ions, ed G. A c had and K. S Warren ( London and ew York: Taylor and Franci 1990) 231. 14 It i s po ible to contract an animal para ite by coming into contact with oil infected by anima l wa te but such an infection i locali zed a nd tr ea t ed with r e lati ve ea ee the c hildr e n 's book by Gai l Jarrow H ookwo rm ew York and London : Kidl-la n Pre 2004) 20-2 1

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177 m ri a n outhea t a t or amer i ca nu Am rican killer." 15 An infe tation though not n ece sa ril y fatal, l ea d to se ri ou m e dical on e qu e nc es. There i s no c ur e p r e, for hookw rm th u g h r arche r con tinu e to wo rk toward a vaccine. Eve n if a n infected person i tr ea t e d and th e infe tation pur ge d re-infection i a clo e a the n ext barefoot contact with infected oil pr eve ntion is the on l y real c ur e. Both th e para ite and the di ease a r e so see min g l y inn ocuous that o uth emers initially made littl e connection b tween them Eggs incubat e in th e oi l hatch o ut as l arvae w h e n t h e oil be ome damp a nd in about s i x weeks are capable of in fect in g a human Eve n at that point the para si te i s n ea rl y in i s ible to th e naked eye. Infection can occur w h erever kin i ex po ed to contam in ated s oil but u s u ally happen s on the s ole s of the feet w hil e wa lkin g o n in fecte d so il. The parasite bore s into the skin, causing a sma ll ra s h at the entry s it e, what out h e m e r called "gro und itch o r dew itch ." Before any other sy mptom s appear th e rash u s uall y has faded and doctor s assumed that hookworm and ground itch we r e se parat e co ndition s. In fact, o n ce inside the bod y, t h e h ookworm l arvae tr ave l thr o u g h the blood tream to the h ea rt and th e n int o the lun gs Th e re ultin g irritation promotes coughing, so that th e ho t bring s the larvae into th e throat swa llo w t h e m and passe th em into th e sma ll i nt esti n e. Ian I. Marcu mak es an int e r e ting argument r e l ated to h ookwo nn and nationa l identity. When the di ea e an d it m e th o d oftran mittal were fina ll y identified in 1 905 physicians took the para ite s o uth ea tern o ri e ntati o n a a ign th at o uth e rn er we r e un-American. Doctors had l ong assumed the di ea e was a tran plant from so uth e rn E ur o pe brou g ht to th e U ni te d tates an d s pr ead by foreigner But in 1 900 an anny ph ys ician in Pu e rt o Ric o fo und that a ign ifi ca n t portion of the island' s people a l so e r e infected That di co ery wa followe d b y s imilar o n es in the We t lndie and the Philippines Aware n ow that h oo k wo nn wa e ndemic to t h e Western H emisphere phy ician decided that h ookwo nn wa e idence of what th ey h ad l o n g s u s p ec t e d th a t poor, hit e among wh o m h ookv o nn a m o t co mm o n we r e un -A meric a n Th e medical co mmuni ty explained hook\.vonn prevalence among the ou th e rn rur a l poor as ev id e n ce of d eviance A l ack of cleanliness n o tably dirt eating, ee m e d t o d octo r s th e prim ary r oo t ofhookwo nn u cept ibili ty a t h eory th at though in acc ur a t e tran fe rred de ia n ce from soc ial co mm entary t o medical intervention Once the y mad e the connec ti o n bet\ ee n 'gro und itch and h ookwo nn m e di ca l re ea r c h e r were poi ed to ad ocate effecti e way t o pre e nt infe tation. ee I an I. Marcus "P h ysicians Open a Can of W o nn merican ationa li ty and H ookwo nn in th e U nit e d tates, 1893-1909 ," Am e ri c an Stu d i e 30 ( 19 9 ): 103-121; B yr d H ookwo nn Di ea e 23 24

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1 7 8 Ther e, th ey l a t c h ont o th e int est ina l wa ll a nd fee d o n bl o od. Ma turi ty in s t iga t es a b attery of sy mpt o m s, in c ludin g a bdomin a l p a in d ecrease d o r unu s u a l a pp e ti te, di a rrh ea we i g h t l oss a nd fin a ll y pro g r ess i ve l y wo r se nin g a n e mi a. Whil e in t h e int es tin e, a fe m a l e l ays th o u san d s of eggs every d ay. Eggs ar e p asse d from th e h os t durin g e limin a ti o n w hi c h o f cou r se r e co nt a min a t es th e so il and the cy cl e b eg in s a n ew. A dult s m ay li ve and r e p ro du ce w it h in a human int es tin e for as lon g a s fo urt ee n yea r s, m a kin g li fe l o n g inf ec ti o n a very rea l p oss ib il i ty T h e onl y way to e nd a n in fes t a ti o n i s b y t es tin g s t o ol for eggs th e n a dmin is t e rin g a pu rgative t o rid th e bod y o f th e wo rm s. B ec au se h ookwo nn s c ontinuall y s u ck bl oo d a n e mi a i s t h e m ost d e b il it a ti ng sympto m o f th e di se a se. HD As we r e p a rti c ul a rl y co nc e rn e d for c hildr e n in w h o m h ookwo rm can ca u se h ea rt probl e m s and d e la ye d m e ntal ph ys i ca l a nd sex u a l d evelo pm e n t. If th e di sease is caught a nd era di c at e d ea rl y o n it i s lik e l y that a c hild eve ntu a ll y w il l ca t c h up to h ea lth y pee r s' m e ntal a nd ph ys i ca l s t a tu s ; i f l e ft untr ea t e d h ookwo rm 's effec t s p rove irr eversi bl e. Ho o kworm i s ce rt a inl y fa tal in infant s, and ca n p ro ve so in c hildr e n a nd a dul ts as we ll b eca u se th e ir w eake n e d sys t e m c ann o t fi g ht sec ond ary in fect ion s H o okw o rm b eca m e so w id es pr ea d th a t i t s ph ys i ca l m a n ifes t at i o n s ca m e t o b e r ega rd e d as th e k ey fac t o r s in id e nti fy in g th e ru ra l So uth e rn er: ye l low i s h sk i n, l ist l ess n ess, and th e c l ass i c pot b e ll y a nd a n ge l s w in gs," juttin g s h o uld e r bl a d es ca u se d b y e m ac i at i on a n d s lumpin g. Mos t o b v iou s w as th e unu s u a ll y s m a ll s t a tur e of h ookwo rm v i ct im s p artic ul ar l y ev id e nt i n c hildr e n w h o h a d b ee n inf ecte d m os t of t h e ir l i ves Case fi l es of h ookwonn s u ffe r e r s, t a k e n b y th e Fl or id a B oa rd of H ea lth revea l t h e h os t of symp t oms ofte n ev i de n t i n e n t ir e fa mili es. Magg i e B rya nt a ge thr ee of P o l k Co un ty suffe r e d fro m m a r ked anem i a pot be ll y a nd d ry h a ir ;" h e r o ld e r broth e r s L a n g l ey age twe l ve a nd A l bert age ix t een, d e m o n s t rate d th e l o n g -t e rm effec t s of li v in g w ith h ookworm A lb ert e pec i a ll y, wa i n dire

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179 c ndition wh n do c t r e x amm d him and h e form the pi c tur e of the quint esse n t i a l ru ra l uth e rn r w rack e d b y illn e : h av in g u ffe r e d "g round it c h very ye ar for twe l ve years," A lb rt uffi r d fr m an e mi a, und e r i ze d p o t b e ll y, dry hair pain in a bd o m e n o n pr ess u re, ea t dirt r ag hor e f ee d t c." 1 6 It wa ju s t thi o rt of d e bilit at i n t h at HD As wo r ke d w i t h th e ir partn e r to co rr e ct a nd hop e full y pre ve n t. om e tim e water quality wa le s d a n ge rou s than wat e r quanti ty. ta ndin g wate r i s a n id a l br ee din g g round fo r mo s quito es a nd mo s quito es s p e ll m a lari a. U nlik e h ookwo rm m a l a ria w a and till i s, r e co g ni z ed a s a e riou s di se a s e but i s s o c ommonpl ace th at m a n y mi g ht b e in c lin e d to p ass it off a s a tropical di s ea se d a n ge rou s o nl y t o un wary a d ve ntur e r s an d ufferin g mi ss ionarie Inde e d in th e earl y tw e ntieth-century South m e di c al p e r so nn el a e rt e d th e ir att e ntion from m a laria t o de v ot e tim e to controllin g o th e r di se a ses that a pp ea r ed a nd s w e ll e d in appar e nt pla g u es, like hookworm and p e lla g ra. H o w eve r m al aria 's fa t a l pot e nti a l r e quir es c on s i s t e nt se riou s exa mination t r e atm e nt and pre ve nti o n Th oug h th e di e a e w a e s e ntiall y e radicated from Florid a in 194 8, and fr o m th e U nit e d S ta t es b y t h e mid-l 950 s malaria i s s till a g lob a l killer dri v in g home th e point t h at th e he a lth wo r k in w h ich hom e d e m o n s tration wa s in v ol ve d w a s not r e l eg at e d to rural odditie s o f a b ygo n e d ay. As of o e mb e r 2 004 1 .3 million p e opl e di e o f mal a ria a nnu a ll y, nin ety p e r ce nt o f w h o m are a ga in c hildr e n under fi ve Ironic a ll y, impro ve m e nt c ontribute s to malari a outbr ea k s, fo r irri ga ti o n d a m s and th e like a dd t o e x po se d s till w at e r s our ce, a nd tow n-bu i ld i n g l ogg in g a n d minin g di s rupt tropical for es t a nd l eav e b e hind ditch e d ea rth w ith o ut a n e c o ys t e m to a b orb a t e r. 1 7 In rural Florid a, m a laria occ urred m os t co mm o n ly w h e r e wa t er was l eft t a nd ing i n 16 t a t e B oa rd of H ea lth H oo k wo rm Ca e Fi l e "(F l o rid a ta t e A r c hi e R eco rd Gro u p 894, 905, B ox I ). Th o u g h th e e y mpt o m we r e co mm o n t h ey we r e n o t uni e r al e p ec i a ll y i n mil d case 1 D o n o a n W e b te r "Ma l a ri a Kill O n e hild Every 30 eco nd ,' mi 1 hsonian 3 1 ( ep t embe r 2000): 36. W eb t r n t e two ot h e r fac t o r s co n tri bu ti n g t o r e ur gence i n m a l a ri a worl d wide: it re istance to dru gs a nd a l ac k of a f e, effec ti e affo rd ab l e i n ec t icides DD T t h oug h wi d ely u e d to eradicate

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180 drainage ditches, puddled in yards, or trapped in neglected receptacles. One estimate of malaria deaths in Florida, Alabama a nd Georgia between 1922 and 1931 reveals more than 2,800 deaths in Florida, almost 2,700 in Alabama a nd about 4 400 in Georgia. Though t h e number of deaths declined over that period, mortality spiked in eac h state in 1928 and 1929 killing between 500 and 700 people each year. More white than black Southerner succumbed to malaria but the rate of death per l 00,000 people was often double or triple for African Amer i cans, usually because they suffered even greater exposure to malarial conditions and h ad eve n l ess access to m ed i ca l care than their w hit e neighbors 18 Because malaria spreads by mosquitoes that first have bitten an infected per on, the more people in an area with malaria the faster it spreads. Four species of parasites can cause malaria but it is transmitted only by the Anophele mosquito. Once bitten b y an infected mosquito a person h osts the malarial parasite in the liver where they multiply rapid l y and spread into the bloodstream. Once inside red blood ce ll s, t h e parasites multipl y even more quickly and w h en the ce ll s erupt, symptoms begin to appear, usually ten days to four weeks from the time of infection Symptoms at first can be flu-like including head and body aches malaria in the United States, ha since b ee n banned in many areas because its environmenta l co t ha s been too hi g h. Moreover, many malarial areas do not ha ve access to the sorts of ocioeconomic and geogra phic benefit s that Americans did in the early twen ti eth century. Historian and ph y ician Margaret Humphreys ha s argued, in fact, that in the United State DDT was overkill intention a l a nd accidenta l hou s in g changes and health refon11S had already brou g ht malaria und er control by the time the U.S. Pub li c Health Service be ga n s prayin g in the 1940 Inde ed, by 1943, malaria ca e had become o sporad ic that eradication campaigns focu ed n o t o n th e di ease, but on the mo qui to. The continued fear of malaria wa based, in part, on a belief that the disea e a ppear ed cyc licall y, and that the South was long overdue for another major outbreak The apparent ab ence of malaria in the arly 1940 malario l ogi ts feared, was the calm before th e next storm. See Humphrey article Kicking a Dying Do g: DDT and the Demise of Malaria in the American o uth 1942-1950 ," I is 87 (Ma r ch 1996) : 1-2 9, and her book, Malaria : Pov e rty Ra ce, and Publi c H ea lth in th e United Stat e (Baltimore: John Hopkin s U niver sity Pres 200 I ). 18 Modem sta ti tic s can b e found at Univer ity of Florida ooperative Exten ion Service ite ""w" e di s .ifa ufl .e du and at ww ho in t/wate r anitation he a lth, the World Health Organization ite tati stics contemporary t o this study a re in Frederick L. Hoffman LL.D ., Malaria in Florida, Georgia and A l abama (Newark J : Prudential Pre s, 1932). ee al o Edwa rd H Beard ley A Hi s t ory of eg l ec t : H ea lth Care for Bla c k and Mill Workers in th e Tw e nti e thCentu,y outh (Kn x ille: Univer ity ofT nne s ee Pr es, 19 7), 19-21.

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181 fe er and nau ea. entually malaria cau e intennittent cyc l e of chill and high fi ver. D p nding on the para ite that au ed the infection the effect range from moderate to 1 thal. It a l o i p ible to be re-infected man y time o that a victim build up a relati e tol ranee that a ert fata lit y. Like hookwonn malaria was simp l e, if not ea y, enough to control, a urnin g that ba ic ducation r ached those in danger and step were taken to as ist them in safeg uarding them el es. 19 The advi ed measures today are basicall y the same HDAs advocated in the interwar period: draining tagnant water, using netting and installing screen and rapidly eeking treatment for infection. Becau e humans cannot contract malaria from animals, only from another infected person ia an infected mo quito, all that was necessary to avoid malaria wa to avoi d mosquito bite How ironic that someth in g o simple proved so deadly. The relative simp li c i ty, h owever, of contro llin g di eases like hookwonn and malaria meant that there was hope that home demon tration cou ld make a difference. But r efonning practices related to sanitation and hygiene, however wa more comp li cated than throwing together a privy or tacking up some screen. Improvement cost money examina tion s required cooperation, and habits required changing. Cognizant of these challenges HDAs helped c li ents fight for their h ea lth with four int erconnected strategies : mental preparation and education physical c h ange and construction, interagency cooperation and national invol eme nt. Mental preparation and education meant that rural folks had to be 19 Hookwonn and malaria were not the on l y anitation-oriented disea se afflicting rural Floridian cabie what outhemers ca ll ed th e itch ," wa a nonfatal but terribly uncomfortable and un ightly di ease contracted and perpetuated entire l y by hygiene habit It is found orldide, i contagious and pread rapidly in crowded and unsanitary communities. imple and effective h ygie ne is fundamental to a oiding cabie o acce s to clean ater i paramount. Typhoid, a bacterial infection of the inte tinal tract and blood tream a much more erious. Typh o id fe er i contracted by eating food or drinking, ater that ha been contaminated by sewage bearing the bacteria. The best defen e i proper di po al of e age, proper hygiene like hand-washing and proper food handlin g. Hepatiti though rarely deadly can occur in areas v ithout a clean water upply-infection occur the ame way as for typhoid and pre ention i ba ed on the ame measure ee wwv.-.\ orldwaterday.org and ww\, .edi .ifas.ufl.edu.

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182 convinced to take the nece ssa ry steps to control danger s. Re s tructuring idea s about sa nitation howev e r did not apply only to rural families, but to exten ion workers, as well. Educating the public required a shift in how the Service categorized sa nitation work. Prior to I 920 h ea lth work appeared as a brief mention in state report s, and agents did attend annual conferences at which health issues were on the pro g ram But the food production and conservation demand s of world war consumed the majority ofHDAs attention. By th e end of World War I howe ve r Florida 's HDA s were grappling more overtly w ith sa nitation problems and so lution s. For example Hill sboro u g h Co unty had d eve lop e d a co unty council and de vote d one of it s committees to publi c health At the sa m e tim e, agents b ega n recordin g impro ve ment s made in sc hool s. 2 0 Even s o in the early 1920 s th e county agricultural agent not the HOA tallied ph ys ical sa nitation improvements s uch as th e number of hom es s creened and th e number of sa nitary privies built but agricultural agents did not de sc ribe the work in th ei r n a rrative s. Rather home demon stration report s continued to discuss health work as part of their Foods and Nutrition narrative s. Though it was goo d that both m a l e and female agents were invol ve d in sa nitation work in ome way the ge nder line s had to be blurr ed further to accomplish mor e s ub s tanti ve ga in s. Certa inl y, th e connection b etwee n women and h ea lth was not unheard of but wome n 's activism in th e h yg i e n e arena was mor e recent .21 Parti cu larl y va luabl e for rural 20 Sara h W Partrid ge, R e port of th e Di s tri c t Hom e D e mon st rati o n Agent for East and o uth Florida Coop e r a ti v e Ex t e n sio n Work in Agr i c ultur e and H o m e Economi c s R e por t of G e neral A c t iv it i e for I 9 1 8 (Ga in e v ille : U ni ve r s i ty of Florida 1 9 I 9), 89; H a rriette B Layton ort h and W e t Fl o rida Di trict AR 1 9 1 8 (Gainesvi ll e: Un i ve r s ity of F l orida, 1 92 0 ) 87; Agne I. Web ter out h a nd Ea t Florida Di trict AR 1 9 1 8 (Ga in e ille : ni ve r s i ty of Fl o rida 1 92 1 ), 77, 78. 2 1 T h e r e lati o n s hip b etwee n wome n an d h e alth ha s b ee n probl e mati c, for b o th wo m e n a nd t h e m e dical co mmunity Two imultane o u e ample d e mon s trat e what wo m e n ex p e ri e n ce d in t h ei r r e l a ti o n hip to h ea lth Fi r s t as in th e ca e o f T y phoid Mary ," wo m e n s ex p ec t e d an d rea li ze d d a il y co nt ac t wi th foodst u ffs a nd th e h ome mad e th e m tar ge t for h ea lth pra c titi o n e r wi hin g t o prot ec t th e publi c. Th o u g h ba c t e riol ogy h ad m a d e it cl ea r that microb e we r e r e p o n ib l e fi r di ea e ge nd e r ed ubj ec ti e e ntim e nt we r e wo e n int o the fabric of publi c h ea lth eve n durin g th e ery year \ h n th e n ew c i ence . ee m e d t o b e pu hin g th e field in th e dir ect i o n of greate r objec ti ity." t th e a rn e tim e w men

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1 8 3 fa mili e w a th p a rti c ip a tion of bl ac k wom e n in h ea l th ca mp aig n s. u a n L m i th exa min e h a Ith wo rk b y a nd fo r A fri ca n-Am e ri ca n s a nd h as di cove r e d a n unb roken l i ne of b l ack wo m e n h ea lth ac ti v i m in ce a t l eas t t h e I 90 T h ose act i vi t s we r e a di ve r se gro u p a n d th e in c lud e d h m e d e m n tr a ti o n age nt 22 Wipin g o ut di ea e, a m o n g b ot h bl ac k a n d w h ite o uth m r wa m o ti ation ind ee d fo r th ese a c ti v i s tage nt t o b eco m e m o r e dir ect l y in vo l e d in anit a tion work B y 1 92 4 h om e d e mon s tration r e p o rt s in c lud e d h o m e h ea l t h a nd a nit a ti o n a p a rt of Hom e Impro ve m e nt. F i n a ll y it a pp e ar s th a t sa nit a t io n an d p u b l i c h ea l t h h a d m o e d int o th e r ea lm o f "wo m e n 's w or k.' M a l e ex t e n s i o n a ge nt s, h oweve r did n o t a b a nd o n th e wo rk th e m se l ve wo m e n 's i n c r e a se d i n o l ve m e nt did n o t pe rp etuate a o n e id e d pro g ram i t e nhan ce d a coop e rati ve on e. 23 Onc e s ani t ation work was r es ituat e d as a hom e d e mon s tr a ti o n a nd co mm u ni ty r e p o n ibili ty th e t as k of e du c ati o n c ould b egi n in e arn est. But HD As we r e n o t wo r k i ng a l o n e o r o ve r unt es t e d t e rrito ry. Hom e d e m o n s tr at i o n was c a rry in g o n a we lles t a b lis h e d tr a dition in sa nit a t i on a nd hea l th wo rk Su an S m i th 's unbrok e n lin e." I n 1 90 4 Anna T we r e findi n g ave nu es of r es p ecta bili ty a nd a uth ority i a c i e n ce. Th ro u g h domes t ic science omen fo und a ro ut e to r ecogn i ze d p rofess i o n a li za ti o n In dee d d ome t i c sc i e n ce was wi d e l y calle d s a n itary c i e n ce' a nd i t in co rp ora t e d di c iplin e imp o rt a nt i n t h e wake of Progressi v e co n ce rn : p ubl ic heal t h c h e mi stry nutriti o n h o m e eco n o mi c a nd oc i o l ogy. O n t h e t e n sio n e p erience d b y fe m a l e p h y sicians ee R eg in a Mara nt z, Fe mini s m P rofe i o n a l i m a nd Ge rm s : A tud y o f th e Tho u ght of Mary Putnam J aco b i an d E li za b e th Bl ac k\ e ll ," i n Wom e n and th e Str u c tur e of S oc i e ty S e l ec t e d R e s e ar c h.from th e Fift h B e rk hir e Conf e r e n ce o n t h e H is t o ry o f Wom e n e d s B ar b ara J Ha rri an d Jo nn K Mc amar a ( Durh am . : Duk e U ni e r s i ty Pr es 1 98 4 ): 1 70-188. ee J u di t h W alze r L ea i tt Gendered x p ec t at i o n s: W o m e n and Ear l y T we nt ie thCe n tury Publ ic H ea lth ," in U S. H i t o r y a s W o m e n s H i s t o1 y: e w F e minist E s sa y s e d L i nd a K e r be r Al i ce K ess l e r-H a rri s a nd K athry n K i h klar ( hap e l H i ll a n d Lo nd on : ni e r ity of o rth arol in a Pr ess, 1 995): 1 471 49 Ellen Fi t zpatrick, En dle s C ru ad e: Wom e n S oc ia l S c i e n ti t s and Pr og r e s iv e R ef orm (Oxfor d an d ew Yo r k : O xfo rd ni er s ity Pr e 1 990) 15 22 u an L. mi th Si c k and Tir e d of B e ing i c k and T ir e d : B la c k Wom e n s H e alth Ac t iv i s m i n Am e r i c a I 90-1950 ( Phil a d el phi a : n i e r i ty of Pen n sy l a ni a Pr es, 1995 ) 1 2. 23 a r ah W P a rtrid ge t a t e H o m e D e m o n stra ti o n A R 192 1 (Ga i n e s vil l e: Uni e r i ty o f F l o rida 19 22), _7 ; P pe n cer i ce -Dir ec t o r an d o un ty Age n t L ea d e r A R 1 922 ( Ga i ne il le: U n i ersity of Flo r i d a 1 923 ), 27 F l a ia Gleaso n tate H o m e D e m ons tr a t io n AR 1924 (Gaine ille : n i er ity o f Flori d a I 925) 7 1 72 26.

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184 Jeanes a Quaker philanthropist used a million-dollar donation to launch a campaign to improve black schoo l s The women who carried out her work came to be cal l ed Jeanes teachers ," and part of their task was to enhance the quality of education by stressing the need for cleanliness. On the heels of the Jeanes fund came anot h er philanthropic organization, the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission (RSC). The RS C's initial and primary objective was to raise awareness of and eradicate hook worm in the So u th. Like the Jeanes teachers, RSC workers believed that the health battle required not just treatment but education the one true cure was prevention. In North Caro lin a, especia ll y, the RSC was s u ccessfu l because it collaborated with the Woman's Association for the Betterment of Public Schoo l Houses, founded in 1 902. The combi n ed influence of that a soc i at i on, the RSC and the Jeanes teachers was vital to the reform of Southern healthways in that they helped estab li sh a mass education framework. Home demonstration was able to pick up where these organizations left off, especial l y as the RSC went international and bring health education into numerous rural home 2 4 Once home demonstration was in position to attack sanitation deficiencie s the first step in mentally preparing rural families was a lt ering some fundamental beliefs. Even a basic understanding of disea se had to be re s haped By no means wa this a challenge pecific to rural communities We are fami li ar with has come to be ca ll ed the "ge rm theory of dis ease; 2 4 For a quick o erview of these early twenti et hce ntury health c ru ade ee Sue ll en H oy hosin g Dirt : Th e Pur s uit of American l e an/in e (Oxford: Oxford Univer ity Pres 1995) 1 2 9-13 2. A bri e f u efu l tudy of the RS C i in J E ttlin g, "T h e Role of the Rockef e ll e r Foundation ," in H ookwor m Di sea e: Curr e nt Statu s and N e w Dir ec ti o n s e d s. G. A. Sc h ad and K . Warren (Lo ndon and ew York : Taylor ad Harri 1990), 3 -16. ttling describe s the tran s ition that tran formed the R from a relati ve l y local pro g ram to an international o n e. In 191 3, it began work a the Int e rnati o nal Health om mi i o n a nd (pa rtl y for political r ea n ) stopped a ll th e l oca l work underway in 1 9 I 5. ttlin g, 3, 1 2.

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1 85 w e ass o c i a t e th e pr e ad f ge rm with th e s pr ad o f illn e 25 In co n tras t t h o e in tere te d i n a nitati o n in th e nin e t ee nth ce ntu ry b e li eve d t h a t mi a mi c p o lluti o n e ss e n t i a ll y b a d g a e s or va p o r c au e d illn e 26 Th o e wh o b e li eve d th at m ia m as a ffl ic t e d t h e m o m e tim e s a rr an g e d th ir s anit ary pr ac ti ce in u c h a w a y that o d o r s we r e o ut o f s i g ht o u t of s m e ll a nd so a t a afe di t a n ce eve n i f that m e ant e mptyin g chamb e r po ts into th e tr ee t or m ov in g a pr ivy fa r from a d o rw a y but n e ar a mor e di s tant wat e r s our ce R o n a ld Barl ow a n o uth o u se r e s ea r c h e r it e on ex ample of th e c ommon thinkin g r e l a t e d to prop e r sa nit a ti o n. I n th e e i g ht ee n t h a n d e arl y nin e t ee nth ce nturi es doct o r s obj ec t e d t o the to ta l c l ea n s in g of t h e s tr eets a n d gu tt e r s b eca u e th ey b e li eve d it wa b es t to l e a ve s ome ph ys i ca l filth a round t o att ra c t th ose putr e ce nt particl es whi c h ar e eve r pr ese nt in th e a ir c r ea tin g e fflu v ium-b ase d a ir fi l te r s As a r es ult fa mili e built pri v i es m a jor impro ve m e nt s ove r s lop jar s a nd o p e na ir t o i l ets b ut pl ace d th e m n e ar th e kit c h e n to k ee p th e h e arth s ide sa n i ta ry 27 Indo o r bathroom s w e r e eve n mor e probl e m a ti c for man y rural fo l ks. T h o u g h m a n y p eo pl e b a th e d in th e hou se, the y r eg arded reli ev in g th e m se l ves as so m e thin g n a turall y s ui te d 2 A early as 1 9 10 e dit o ri a l s in th e J o u r n a l of H o m e E c o n om i c we r e ca llin g fo r a ce a ti o n to t h e r a r e fo rm of i n an ity b ro u g ht o n b y th e a p p li ca ti o n of a l i ttl e kn ow l e d ge of b ac t e ri a t o every p h a s e o f l if e E dit o ri a l J o urn a l of H o m e E c o n o m i c s 2 (Fe bru ary 1 91 0 ) : 97. Wh a t i m ost r e m ar k a bl e is h ow q u i ckl y th e b ac t e ri a care see m e d t o h ave s pr ea d a m o n g th e publi c o n ce b ac t e ri ology b eca m e accepte d B y th e e nd of th a t yea r th e JH E wa in c ludin g a rti c l e o n Teac hin g B ac t e ri o l ogy to Mo th e r s 26 1n h e r t ud y of fe m a l e ph y s i c i a n s a t th e tum of th e ce ntury R eg in a Morantz n ote t h e t ensi o n s b etwee n o ld a nd n ew th eo ri es of di ease S h e wr it es O n e of th e mos t bew ild e rin g con tr o ver i e t o t\ e nt ie th -ce ntu ry o b erve r r e m a in th e r e lu c t a n ce of m a n y nin e t ee nthce ntu ry ph y s i cia n s an d p u bli c h ea lth a d oca t es t o acce p t th e d i s coveries of th e bacterio l ogis t s. H ow co uld s u c h m e n a nd women p e r i t in p ea kin g o f 'e fflu via ,' mi as m a and 'fi lth w h e n t h e pr eci e ex p e ri mentat i on o f P as te u r K oc h a nd th e ir fo ll owe r s h a d . u s h e r e d in th e co n ce pt o f s p ec ifi c et i o l ogy? T h e pr o bl e m wa not i gnora n ce but co n ce ptu a li za ti o n th at b ac t e ri o l og i ca l co n ce pt s calle d in to q uestio n an older an d deep l y int e rn a li ze d i ew of di ea e th a t wa h o li t ic in i t sco p e, m ora l i ti c in it s im pl ica ti o n an d fu ndam e nt a ll y r e li g i o u i n it p o int of d e p artu r e Mo r antz 172 27 R o n a ld B a rl ow Th e V anishing A m e r i c an Ou th o u e. A H i t ory of Co un t y Plumbin g ( El a j o n : Wi ndmill Publ is hin g o mp a n y, 1989), 81 82 2 M Ja y t ottman Ou t o f ight O u t o f M i nd : Pr ivy A r c hit ec tu re a nd th e P e r ce pti o n of a nit a ti o n ," H i t o ri c al Ar c h aeo l ogy 3 4 ( prin g 2 000): 3 9 61 ; Bria n D. Cra n e "Fi lth G arb age an d Rubbi s h : R efu s e Di s p o a l a ni tary R eform an d in e t ee n th Ce n tury Yar d D e p o it i n W as hin g t o n D C. H i t o ri c al Ar c ha eo l ogy 34 ( pri n g 20 00 ): 2 038

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186 to the outdoors. Depositing exc r ement inside the house even in a bathroom with faci li ties that removed the waste just did not seem to make sense. 28 Other people refused to use an indoor bathroom a s a matter of principle in c ludin g one A l achua County woma n s father-in-law After she convinced her husband that they needed a bathroom to g o with the running water they already had her father-inl aw refused to use the bathroom for any reason ; to him it was a frivo l ous waste of money and effort Finally however Alachua agent Grace Warren met the woman and her family in town and noticed that the fatherin-l aw was l ook in g quite sharp healthier than h e ever had l ooked before "Well I finally got him in the bath tub ,' the woman exp l ai n ed 'and ... he found that bathing made him feel and look better so now he bathes regularly ." 29 O ld h ab it s die hard and they remained one of the great challen g e s to HD A s' work in san it ation But HDA s knew that bacteria microbes and parasites carried disease and that the y g rew in any number of unsavory places and that an y number of unsavory or g an i ms might carry them to skin c l othing water and food 30 It was critical that health educators pas s a l on g this knowledge so that rural fo lk s were better prepared to get we ll. For examp l e pub li cation s from both the Geor g ia and Florida State Boards of Health attacked the mi s conceptions that malaria cou ld be caught from breathin g night air drink i n g bad wat e r or eatin g the wron g foods The F l orida bulletin advised r e aders Prot e ct y ours e lf when out in th e ni g ht air and 28 On thi s and o th e r c ondition l imitin g anitation refom1 ee R o n a ld Klin e, Co n s um e rs in th e Co u n t ry. T ec hn o l ogy a nd S o c i a l C h a n ge in Ru r al Am e ri c a (Ba l tim o re and L o ndon : John s H o pkin U niv e r i ty Pre ss, 2000) 2 052 07. My mother 's gr andmother thou g h h e liv e d quit e comfortabl y in h e r hom e in Wi s c o n s in until her d ea th in 1969 n eve r in s talled an indo o r bathr oo m 29 Gra ce Warr e n Ala c hu a AR 19 33 ( SL23), 8 -9 30 S u e ll e n H oy di c u e th e gro win g awa r e n ess of b a ct e ri o l ogy in t h e o nt ex t of Hull H o u se wo rk e r s a se s m e nt of a 1 9 0 2 o utbr ea k o f ty ph o id f eve r. in ce th e o utbr eak fo ll owe d a m a -c l e anin g of mia s mi c p o llu ta nt s th ey kn ew t h r e h a d t o b e an o th e r o ur ce of th e d i ea thi tim e th ey l oo k e d in th e drain s fo r th e c au e o f th e di a t e r. B y th e n mi c robi l ogy and immun o l ogy h a d mad e co n s id e rabl e h e adw ay ex pl a inin g v h o go t i c k and w h y Th e hift b ga n in th e I 0 a nd b y I 90 th e n ew und e r t a ndin g h a d cry t a lli ze d H oy, 10 4 -107

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187 wh n in the wamp from th e a lw ay pr e nt mo quito, a nd you w ill r e main free from malaria in pit e of all the ni g ht air and bnoxiou s odor yo u ca n br ea th e into your lun g ." 3 1 Armed with ba i kn wledg hom d mon tration worked with other organizations e t nd it t a man y familie a po ibl e Kn w l e d ge wa p w r a nd wa a c riti ca l r e ource r familie fi g htin g di ea e and illne e pecially where man y rur a l familie a c pt e d p t lik e mo quitoe a a matter of cour e." 32 In 19 28, Virginia Moore n ote d the impact e ducation wa havin g on anitation work. "T h e r e i more interest in H o m e anitation,' he wrote. I be l ieve it i because we are s tre s in g the educational ide and getti n g th e ital fact before the people in uch a way that father and mother s a r e r ea ll y believing that it i s nec e ary to ha ve sa nitary premises and home s urroundin gs ." 33 Much of the anitation rhetoric focused on cleanliness; flie s became the po s ter child for filth and inf ect ion ea rnin g them the title ge rm with leg ." As part of a Home Impro ve ment se ri es in 1931, Moore compiled a que s tionnaire called Question s on Home Sanitation to Mak e You Think.' In it s h e addressed location of water s uppl y, sc reening priv ies, clean s urroundin gs, co m po t heap whitewashing and mo s quito es In a batter y of que tion de igned to inform inspire and s hock read e r s Moore atte mpt e d to h eig ht e n their understanding of ju s t how filthy the untended rural hom e could b e a nd provoke them into remedyin g th e s ituation To her credit Moore did not pull punche jumpin g ri g ht in with Do y ou realize that yo ur wel l ma y be gett in g the draina ge from the toilet th e pi g pen or th e tabl e?" and Are yo u ure that yo ur well is free from dead 31 Mo quit es and Malarial Co ntrol ; Graham H en on, M.D., E. Yan Hood M.D., and W. Warren M D ., M a l a ria : Lt Pr e e nti o n and Co ntrol ," Publi ca t io n 84, tate B oa rd of Health of F l orida ( Jun e 1911 ), 17 32 irginia P. Moore Home lmpro e m e nt AR 1929 ( L-16) 33 Yirginia P Moore Home lmpro e m e nt R 1928 ( L-14) 9-10

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188 frogs birds or animals ?" Unsettling questions indeed but a blunt approach was more likel y to encourage rapid changes in habits when it came to the risks posed by contaminated water. The questions only got more pointed as the bulletin went on especially as Moore made direc t connections between the privy and the kitchen : do you know the common house fl y .. lay s its e ggs in horse manure the outdoor toilet and door yard filth? Where the fl y laid eg g s wa s bad enough, but what happened next was worse: Do you know where the fly that crawls over the food or falls into the milk pitcher came from the last tim e he lighted ?" 3 4 Inciting alarm and disgust was only the first step. Moore and the Service al s o provided resources to Swat the Fly and his unsanitary brethren. HDAs believed that education went beyond hock to knowledge. That meant that education wa s two-fold including both practical how-to advice and scientific detail. In addition to providin g bulletin s like Mosquito Proofing Your Home ," Moore also used the Malarial Catechism that included infomrntion on the life cycle of the mo s quito HD As understood that becau s e m a n y rural folks were not well-educated did not mean they were dumb Education was not ju s t for adults either. For e x ample 4-H campers in 1931 s pent time s tud y ing the life cycle s and br e eding preferences of the fly mosquito and hookworm. 35 Understanding wh y s cre e n s and s anitar y privie s were nece s sary paved the way for phy s ical r e fonn and construction Two primary goals s haped the composition of a cleaner countryside : puttin g up barrier s between pe s ts and people and providin g clean water on demand First in order to c ontrol mosquito and fl y population s and the di s eases the y carried HDA s followed the l e ad of medical s cience and s tre ed screenin g windows door and porches Screen s w e r e an es p e cially important fixtur e becau s e another of the fundam e ntal rules for g ood he a lth HD A 3 4 H oy 1 32 33 ; Vir g inia P. M oo r e, Qu es ti o n s on H o m e anit a ti o n t o Mak e Y o u Think ," ir c ul a r o. 987 ( G a in esv ill e : U ni ve r i ty of Fl o rid a r e print 1 93 1 ). 35 M oo r e Qu es ti o n s o n H o m e a nit a ti o n ; Vir g ini a P M oore H o m e Impro ve m e nt oo p erat i ve x t e n i o n erv i ce AR 1 93 1 (Ga in esv ill e: U ni v er s i ty of Fl o rid a 1 932), 11 7

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189 tout e d wa pl nty f fr e h air ia p n windows 6 HOA a l advocate d a practice d e i g n d to top m quito br e din g in th fir t pla ce In mar h y area pr ne to mo quit o inf esta ti o n comm n aero Fl rida, agent r commended fillin g fe rtili ze r ack with aw du t and a turatin g them ith u ed ma hin e oil, weighting th m and inkin g them in th e boggy area Th r ult wa a film of oil on th water that pre e nted mo s quito es from bre din g and li v in g th r nd a e p ec t e d agent ad i ed rural families to dit c h and drain the land as n ee d e d to pr e e nt n ew breedin g g round 37 The eco nd major ph y ical r efo rm wa the con truction of water sys tem s and anitary pri i e both de igned to protect the water uppl y from co ntaminant s and promot e cleanline s. Like man y technolo g i es r e lated to rural reform s hi s torian s ha ve tended to see water y t e rn s in t e rm of ge nder e d labor and mod e rnization Fore a mpl e, th e photo b e low ca ll s to mind p erce ption of runnin g water a a laborsave r and certainly that was true But th e r e i s another i s ue at work. The more difficult it was to procure a uppl y of fresh, clean water, the l e s lik e l y that a family would maintain a more healthful lev e l of cleanliness. Even a impl e water y tern could be a g reat boon to both convenience and health but water syste m aried great l y in th e ir co mpl ex ity and co t A s impl e system that r e quir e d littl e in the way of material and labor might cost as little a $26, while a family could ex p ec t to s pend as mu c h a 3 00 fo r mor e e laborate sy tern 3 Though it wa pos s ible to ha ve a co mplete water yste m with 36 li en Le o ir Lonny Landrum o rth and We t Di tri c t AR 1 922 (Ga in e vi ll e: ni er ity of Florida 1923) 73 On the fre h a ir /bad ai r debate ee Pet er C. B a ld w in H ow ight Air Became Good 1r 1776-1930 Environmen t al H isto1 y 8 (July 2003): 412-429. 37 Thi a d vice a pp ea r in e era o ur ces including Virginia P Moore "Q u es t io n o n H ome a nit a ti o n .' Pro of th a t fa mili actua ll y we r e following u ch r eco mm en dati on can be found in li ce P oo l e' r e port for Leon ounty. As p a rt of ational egro H ea lth W eek, o me L eo n familie took a a project t o r e m edy th e m o quito e ii," and o m e of th e m ecu r e d u ed o il from filling tation and u ed it t o atura t e bag of a\ du t ecu r e d from l oca l mill Then, ju ta recommended they unk the ba g in tanding pond li ce W P oo l e, Leon AR 1 930 ( L1 9), 7. 38 Running water a by no m an uni er a l in merica' rural home but there v a av ide di parity between th e p e r e nt age of h o m e "ith runnin g wa t er i n the outh and in the rest of the country I n

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190 running water for both kitchen and bath including a sink, toilet and bathtub a family might have easily accessible water via an arrangement as simple as a hand pump to fill a barrel and a pipe to connect the barrel to the kitchen sink. Of course, both HD As and rural families were inventive when resources were limited but interest was not. In 1928 Holmes County, a Mrs. Murphy had made exterior improvements to her home and was interested in next adding running water. She ran out of funds and could not afford to bu y a bathtub but she did own a "goo d cypress coffin, stored away awaiting her death. As Vir g inia Moore related Mrs Murphy's decision "s he decided to use that coffin for living instead of for dying "' and converted it into a bathtub. 3 9 The single most important sanitary project a rura l family could undertake was installation of a sanitary privy Though so me desi g n s were prohibitivel y ex pensive many were simple and within the m ea ns of most families. Where funds were limited agents had only to argue that no one could afford not to construct a privy. 40 B y the mid-1920s HDA s had begun to spearhead the privy-construction campaign on the ground. In her 1924 report Eas t and South district agent Lucy Belle Sett l e laid out a series of recommendations for the following year. Two of h e r four Home Improvement measures involved pri vies: "the removal of all unsi g htly material s including outhouses improperl y located "a nd the building of 19 20, thirty percent offa nn h o m e in th e ortheast, e le ve n percent in th e Midwest and twenty-six p erce nt in the Far West reported havin g nmnin g water, compared to three percent in the ou th. Before I 950, the percenta ge in the South b a r e ly mo ve d increasing to s ix percent in 1930 and eig ht percent in I 940, compare d with ti ftyix p ercen t in the ortheast. ln 1950 out h em farm h ome with water jumped to twenty-two percent, but by th en the rest of the country wa up to between fifty an d ixty p e rc e nt. By 1960 fortyix percent of So uth e rn farm home had water while eightyi percent of those in the ortheast and the Far West and i xty-fou r percent of th o e in th e Midwest reported running water. See Kline 289 3 9 Virginia P. Moore Home Impro vement AR 1928 ( L-14), 8. 4 Frazier Roger Wat e r and ewe ra ge S y t e rn for Florida Rural Hom Bull tin 46 Gaine ill e: ni er ity of Florida 1926) 1-1 I.

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1 9 1 sa nit ary o uth o u e in c ludin g t o il e t ." 41 A n y p r ivy wa a n i m m e di a t e i mpr veme n t over the pr ac ti ce of m a n y ru ra l o u t h e m e r w h u e d a s l o p jar an d t h en to ed i t co n tent out th b a k d o r o r impl y a n we r d n a tur e s ca ll i n w h ateve r pa rt of t h e o p e n outd r i n w h ich th ey fo und th e m e l ves. With th at in mind o n e of t h e fun d a m e n ta l rul es a ll san i tat i o n refo rm e r in c ludin g HD As a tt e mp te d t o in gra in in ch ildr e n was to "a l ways u e t h e pr i vy ." 42 O n ce fa mili e we r e wi llin g t o co n sis t e n t l y u se a p ri vy, i t was c r it i ca l t h at the faci l ities were pro p er l y pl ace d co n s tru c t e d a nd m a int ai n e d Ma n y rud i m e n tary pr i vies we r e simp l y pit in th e ea rth cove r e d b y a s impl e woo d e n fra m e s h e d open in th e back. The p i ts mi ght h ave b ee n lin e d w i t h b oa rd s or b a rr e l s t o fac ilit ate c l ea n i n g w hi c h occ urr e d us u a ll y w h en the p it wa fu ll -depe ndin g o n it s d e pth excava ti o n s m i g ht be yea r s apart. I n stea d of c l eani n g th e p it a n ow n e r co uld j us t b ac kfill th e h o l e, pi ck up t h e s h e d cover a nd m ove to a n ew s i te a few yar d away. A dditi o n a ll y, m a n y fa rm e r s in s i s t e d o n u s in g fres h ni g ht soil as fe rt il i ze r but h ea l t h offic i a l s we r e a d a m a n t t h a t s u c h a p ract i ce was "a false eco n o m y w hi ch may r es u l t i n l oss of hum a n li fe." 4 3 Bu t w h a t m a d e a sa nit ary pri vy" sa n it a ry? T h at ta nd ar d evo l ved as science caught up w ith ge rm s a nd di sease, but m a n y pri v i es we r e haph aza rd a t b est a nd fa r from safe. I n 1 908, a p a mphl e t d evo t e d t o H o m e San i t at i o n a nd H ygie n e" d esc r i b e d p l a n s for sa n itary pri i es th a t m e t a ll th e r e quir e m e nt s fo r sec uri ty a nd h ea lth a nd were i mple e n o u gh for a t ee n age d b oy t o build w i t h minim a l ex p e n se A t th e t im e, th e bull et i n s u ggested u in g a tub ca nd y b u cket o r wate r-ti g ht b a rr e l as a r ece pt ac l e, b u t in s i te d th a t a n umber of creened e n ti l ato r be in s t a ll e d ( t o prom o t e a i r c ir c ul at i o n a nd d eter fli es), t h at seats h ave l i d s an d t h at 41 Lucy Be ll e ett l e o u t h and as t Flo r ida Di trict A R 1924 ( Gaine vi ll e : ni ersity of Florida 1 925) 8 1. 4 ? Deanne t e ph ens u we r "T h e I mporta n ce of Wearing hoe : Hookworm Di ea e i n Mi s i ss ippi ," Mississippi H i to, y ow Feature 31 (http : // m hi t ory.k l 2. m s u / fe ature / feature3 l /hookworm.htm l ) 4 3 B arlow 6, I O I

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192 any other openings have doors or screens. It also recommended an alternate and s u pposedly better solution for excavation than allowing waste to accumulate or be care l essly disposed of, opti n g instead for emptying receptac l es week l y and l etti n g the co nt ents stand covered for a sufficient time to kill ge nns through fennentation. The bulletin 's author cautioned that sc ience had not yet been ab l e to detennine how l o n g "eggs and spores" of parasites cou ld survive. As a result it was best to bum or boil excreta, and then bury it away from water so urce s. 44 By the 1920s ana l ysis of waste and its co ll ection had become considerab l y more scientific and certain. In 1922 and again in 1928 the USDA issued a thorough bulletin Sewage and Sewerage of Fann Homes ." T h e bulletin described the details of what constituted sewage ( namel y, the contents of "a ny spittoon, s lop pail sink drain urinal pn vy, cesspool, sewage tank or sewage di s tribution fie ld "), the potential dangers of sewage, and precise m e thods of sewage management. The bulletin drew clear di s tinction s between th e kinds of avai l able privies and t h ei r relative safety beginnin g w ith the barely suitable pit privy I described above. 45 According to the USDA, the next step in evolution" is the sanitary pri vy, the standard for w hi c h the bulletin allow little compromise A pri vy could on l y be regarded as sanitary if its constructio n .. [is] such that it is practical l y impossible for filth or ge rm to be spread above ground to escape b y percolation underground or to be accessible to flies vennin chickens or anima l Furthennore (a nd we thought an outhouse was ju s t an outhouse), 44 Home anitation a nd H ygie n e" in Ronald Bari w, The Vanishing American Outhou e A Hi t ory of Co unt ry Plumbin g) E l ajon, CA: Windmill Pub Ii hing ompany, I 989), 101-103 45 ewage and ewerage of Farm Home ," Farmer Bulletin o. 1 227 ( I 922, 192 ) in Ronald Bari w Th e Vani hin g Am e ri c an Outh o u se. A Hi t o 1 y of Country Plumbin g) E l ajon A: Windmill Pub Ii hin g Company, 19 9) I 07

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193 It mu t be car d for in a cleanly manner e l e it cea e to be sa nitary ... T he c ntain e r for a anitary privy may b e mall fore ample a ga lvani ze d iron pail o r ga rba ge can, to be removed from tim e to time b y hand ; it ma y b e lar ge, a a barr e l r m e tal tank mount d for movin g; or it may be a tationary under g r und metal tank or ma onry vault. The e e ntial requirem nt in the r ece ptacl e i permanent water-tightne to prevent pollution of ii and well Wo d e n p a il or bo xe which warp a nd l eak, hould not be u ed." an one who ha e r camped or u ed a chemical toil e t knows, treatin g excre m e nt i as important and a unplea sa nt as containing it. The USDA bulletin outlined thre e possible m thod s for neutrali z in g wa te including dry earth, chemical and disinfectant. For all their attractive attributes, howev e r anitary privie had one major weakness Their sa nitary quality d pended heavily on u er con i tent upkeep. Where r es ource allowed the optimum syste m for mana g in g waste from all so urce s was runnin g water that drew waste from th e home to a permanent treatment facility outside ideall y a septic tank 4 6 As Virginia Moore 's s imple s tatement on the sa nitary options in rural Florida attests, and th ese de criptions d e mon trate outhouse were not quaint cute, charming or any of th e other precious qualities we assign them today Ju t like pre s ure canners were, sa nitary pri i e were relati ely modem evo lving technolo gies with the potential to save li ves an d increa e ecurity. Many of the forces working to en ure that more families relied up o n a anitary privy and other h yg ienic tool did not have direct and dail y acces to tho e p eop le but HOA did. uddenly the raw number s of home reportin g privy in tallation o r new water ys t e m s under home demon tration guidance eem much le s routin e. HD As did not have ju s t access thou g h the y had a plan. As reformer and federal en oy they perfectl y s uit e d th ta k of dis eminating the information contained in U DA and Board of Health bulletin s. HD As and their demon tration methods proved a vi tal link i n the anitation war. Federal and s tate agencie wrote a bulletin HDA s di s tributed and 46 e\ age and e, e r age ," I 14-123, 126.

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1 94 ex pl a in e d th e bull e tin ru ra l fa mili es fo ll owe d th e bull e tin a nd p ro ve d th at th e m et h o d s wo rk e d a nd m o r e rural fa mili es d ec id e d to a d o pt n ew p rac ti ces to o Eve n m o r e imp o rt a n t, HD As ea rn e d fa mili es' tru st, so m e thin g few oth e r r efo rm e r s co uld h ave d o n e w i t h th e access a nd tim e ava il a bl e t o th e m Sa nit a ti o n i ss u es o ft e n we r e pr etty pri va te m a tt e r s and we mi g ht im ag in e th a t m a n y wo m e n wo uld b e r e lu c t a nt t o di sc u ss t h e ir h a bit s a nd fu n c ti o n s w i t h a n yo n e n o t a m e mb e r of th ei r ow n fa mil y or a d oc t or. But I h ave b ee n s tru c k b y wo m e n s a pp a r e nt tru s t a nd r es p ec t fo r HD As in sa n i t a ti o n m a tt e r s. Am o n g a ll fa mili es tru s t w as v it a l fo r h ea lth wo r k t o ta k e plac e in a n y m ea nin g ful way. Es p ec i a ll y i n bl ack co mmuni ties w h ere res id e nt s were m ore re m ove d fro m an d wary of w hit e admini s tr a ti ve p e r so nn e l HD As we r e in a c ru c i a l p os it io n t o o p e n mind s t o a nd e n gage fa mili es in pra c ti ces th a t c ould r es t o r e v it a li ty. 47 In c l ose kn it co mmuni ties, H D As we r e n ot ju s t h o m e d e m o n s t ra ti o n age nt s but res p ec t e d m e mb e r s of a l ea d e r s hip u s u a ll y d o min a t e d by l ocal p asto r s No thin g h e lp e d a n HO A w in ove r h e r fa m i li es lik e th e r i n g in g e nd o r se m e nt of l oca l c l e r gy, and th a t coo p era ti ve s pirit pro ve d m os t va lu a bl e fo r h ea l t h work. Loca l o r ga ni zatio n s s u c h as c hur c h es a nd c i v i c c lub s h a d co n s i s t e n t l y assis t e d HDAs b y promot i ng h yg i e n e e du ca tion. F l o rid a s age nt i n c har ge of Negro ex t e n i o n A A. T urn er p r a i sed the wo r k of l oca l p as t o r s w h o e n co u rage d th e m e n a nd wo m e n of t h e ir co n gregat i o n s t o atten d ex t e n s i o n sc h oo l s a nd fo ll ow r eco mm e nd a ti o n s for c l ea nlin es a nd h ea lth 48 H D As co ul d n o t h ave a k e d fo r m ore r e li ab l e a nd effec ti ve p a rtn ers i n hea l t h refo rm. HO A a l o fo und th a t as w ith m os t of th e ir p ro p o e d r efo rm s c hil d r en were m ore receptive t o n ew i d ea th a n t h e ir pare n ts we r e. Ma n y age nt wo r ke d with chi ld ren i n a way th a t n o t o nl y fos t ere d th e ir ow n b e tt er h a bit s b ut e n co u rage d t h e m to take t h e i r new pract i ces h ome a n d i nspi r e t h e i r farn il ie to d o l ikew i se. The ea i e t way to infl ue n ce the mo t c h ildr n 4 7 mi th 92-9 3. 48 A A Turn e r eg ro t e n ion W o rk AR 1 922 ( Gaine ille: ni e r it y o f F l o rid a, 1 923) 9 3.

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19 5 wa to b gi n anitati n work in c hool 49 In Okaloo a ounty, Bertha H enry h el p e d launch a fullcale c h ol anitation ca mpai g n In l 924 n o c ho ol in the cou n ty had a privy But a s part of H e nry l ea n c hool ampaign b y 19 26 ten c hool s had m et h ygiene s tandard s, in ludin g in sta llin g anitary pri v i e B y 1 927 sc ho o l s in Okaloo a had embarke d o n a more ambitious Health ru ade that focused on a safe water s uppl y pr eve n t ion and cure of scabies privy in sta llation and p es t e limination. Toward t hat e nd H enry m a de a co n s i s t e nt effort to di tribut e bull e tin to both white and bla c k sc hool teachers and e ncoura ge them to s har e t h e information with th e ir s tud e nt s. A yea r later H e nry prai se d th e county s wo rk an d declared it a v ictor in th e C ru ade And ju ta s h e had hoped the newl y sa nitary sc hool s h a d become mod e l s for their communities. so Mary Todd Ma c ken zie also found that sc ho ols were v ital link s b etwee n the diff e r e nt components of h eal th work. Durin g National Negro He a lth Week in 19 34 Mack e n z ie noted va riou s proj ects sc hoolchildr e n undertook to put the h ealt h cause b efore th e public in c ludin g po s t e r co nte s t s a health honor roll a nd a door-to-do o r canvas led b y 4-H m e mb e r s and teacher s s 1 Whil e working with sc hool s, HDA s accomplished more than sett in g goo d examp le s. C hildr e n dir ect l y b e n e fit e d from health exa mination s sc ho o l lun c h es and immunizations. Health c linic s ba se d at schools tar ge t e d and tr ea t e d hookwonn and other d efects," and di s tribut e d information int e nded to prevent re-infection. Immunization s against s mallp ox 49 Hir am Byrd r ecognized th e power of sc h oo l s in inspiring comm uni ty c h a n ge in 19 J 0 Scho o l r e pr e ented b o th gra e dan ge r and great promi se w h ere h ookworm wa s concerne d the dense co ll ec ti o n of tudent a nd th e abse n ce of sa nitary fac ilitie s m ea nt t h at even one infected pupil could tart a chai n reaction in w hi c h h ookwo rm infe tations wou ld multipl y expo n e nti a l l y. But s chool al o r e pr e ented an opportu nity to ga th er e duc ate an d a id a l a r ge body of rural comm uniti e m o t tractable people Then, rather than th e c hildr e n s pr ead in g h ookwo rm thr o u g h th e c h oo l s they wo uld p r ead health thr ough their fami li e What a s tr ateg ic point in t h e h ookworm cru ade! Byrd crowed. B y rd 37 54 50 Bertha Henry Okaloosa AR 1 922, (SL) 25 ; Henry Oka l oo a AR 1926 (SL) 8; Henry Okalo o a AR 1927 ( L) 12-13 5 1 Mary Todd Mackenzie Alach u a AR 1934 (SL-25) 6

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196 typhoid and diphtheria sponsored by the State Board of Health and county nurses protect ed hundreds of children from further illne ss. In black communities, immunization s were especially important. In 1931 alone, more than 800 African-Americans in rural Florida reported havin g been immunized. The same pre ve ntive mea s ure s were benefiting white communities, in almost as great a number. 52 And HDAs did not relegate sanitary reform to sc hool s and private home s So important was it that everyone had access to and use sanitary facilities that HDA s mad e sure th e ir own offices had sanitary restrooms and running water and made them available to the public. 5 3 These local alliances and leaders were indispen sable to what HDAs hoped to accomplish in rural sanitation reform, but they also depended upon and involved themselves with larger national bodi es, including the USDA, National Negro Health Week National Health Con te st and the New Deal. HDAs could enhance their work with a feature that critics have been quick to see as wholly intru s i ve, but proved an asset in sa nitation reform s Not only were HDAs familiar with and part of lo ca l communities where they earned trust, they were member s of a fe deral agency, which gave them access to resources Money remain e d limited as always, but a bureau crat ic infra st ructure balanced red tape with access to research, media serv ice s and manpower. The mo s t important commodity in sa nitation reform was information and HDAs po s ition h e lped them conduct information much more directly between r esearchers, reformer and families. Like the USDA there were other agencies with national cope and in titutionalized efficiency, s uch as the Anti-Tuberculosis Society and State Boards of Health, and HD As did not declin e to work with th e m There were certain advantages to working with co ld er, l e s personable agencie s lik e the Board of Health For examp l e, the Health D epartment cou ld 52 Julia Miller egro Home Demon tration AR 19 3 1 Gaine ille : Uni e r ity of Florida, 1932), 144 53 Web s ter 7

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19 7 r t i ev HDA f orne f the rn r e e n iti v exp l a n at ion abut an it a ti on thou g h HD A s ne v er hi d away fr rn tr e in g the n ee d fi rand p a th to r efo rm e d a nit at ion habit In E carnbia o un ty littl e a nit a tion wo rk wa don e until th e cou n ty nur e a nd th e Board of Health b ecame in vo l v din 1926 Part of th d e l ay to b e ur wa age nt Flor esa ippr ell' r el u ctance to pr a n s iti e pro gra m on un w illin g demon trator Once the B oa rd of H ealt h had pr e nt e d women with th e g ritty d e tail s, age nt s co uld re-enter the process a advi or a nd confidante 54 That important po s ition as normalizer s m a d e HDA s a ll t h e mor e va luabl e i n t h e a nit at i o n reform proc e HDA a l s o filled a ga p in a predominantl y mal e med i cal world. A women HDAs co uld build on the caretaker tr a dition and promote action among other wo m e n D esig ned fo r t affe d b y and l i ve d b y women, home demon s tr at ion was a fittin g partner fo r the ational egro H ea lth W ee k (NNHW). B egu n b y Booker T. Wa s hington i n 1 9 1 5 to ga l va ni ze h ea lth ca r e b y and for bla ck Americans, the mo ve m e nt was female-powered o n the grou nd even as m e n s teer e d it nationa l l y 55 Indeed NNHW was it se l f ro o ted in the ea rlier effo rt s of African American c l ubwomen 's sa nitation campaigns, in which the y e ncoura ge d black fa mili es to take c h a r ge of their h ea lth and ca l led for increased attention to and resources fo r families on the p e riph ery of health pro v i s ion Whate ve r Wash i n gto n 's moti va tion s, p e r so n a l a nd political t h e wo m e n w ho brou g ht the national campaign for black h ea lth to th e p eo pl e often w i th the 5 4 ee F l oresa ippre ll Esca mbia AR 1 926 (S L# ), 6 ; Floresa ippr el l Escam b ia AR 1925 ( SL # 1 7 .. Home demon tr a ti o n pi o n ee r Jane McKimmon noted s u ch a proces in o rth aroltna w h ere Health official d e li e r ed information a b o u t di ea es lik e cancer and sy phil is, then HDA s tepped in t o help women m ake e n se of it all. ee Jane S. McKLmmon Wh e n W e r e Gr ee n W e Gr ow ( h apel Hill and London: U ni ve r s ity of o rth Caro lina Pr ess 1945) 251. 55 W wa h eadquarte r ed at Tu kegee In titute from 19 1 5 until 1930, w hen the . Public H e alth ervice t ook o e r a nd m a d e the Week int o a yearl o n g program. in ce NNHW wa s begun in the era o f Jim Crow Wa hin gto n r es p o nded t o o ut s id e pres ur e by foc u mg th e campaign fo r bl ack health with cal l for federal a istance based o n n eed rather than "rights. In practice th e d y namic ofNNHW t en d ed to foste r i nt e rr ac i a l a nd in traracia l cooperatio n I u pect the wo rk of female acti i t like club \ ome n and HD A had a goo d d ea l t o d o wi th this. ee S u an L. mith Si c k a nd T i r e d of B e in g S ick and Tir e d : Bla c k Wom e n 's H e a lt h A c t i v i s m in A m e ri c a 1 90 1950 (Phi l id lphia : ni er ity of P nn y l ania Pr e 1 990) 33 39

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198 assistance of HD As, put black Southerners in a position to benefit directly from the combined determination of national and l oca l activists working specifically for c l ients nonna ll y on the fringe. Yet again HDAs were a link between a home or a neighborhood and the outside world. In A l abama Washington's plan for uplift meshed well with the Cooperative Extension Service after 1 914 home demonstration cou ld apply and extend Washington s miss i on w hil e agents enjoyed th e added credibi li ty and flexibility that Tuskegee provided. In a period w h en Jim Crow stunted refonn work for black Southerners t h e mutually reinforcing efforts of Tuskegee and the Extensio n Service provided crucial access to improved health. 56 In Florida agent Ju li a Miller noted the real-time benefits of the NNHW in conjunction w ith l oca l home demonstration and state efforts hundreds of new privies to ward off hookworm hundreds of homes screened against filthy fl i es and dangerous mosquitoes and immunizations to protect thousands of children from debilitating illness. 57 Black HDAs active l y encouraged t h eir c li ents to participate in NNHW for both it s practical and socia l va lu e. Mary Todd Mackenzie, Alachua County s Negro HDA reported with pride her county s work toward health in 1934. As part of the overa ll emphasis on health she and the farm agent sent out a series of letters to local families urging them to celebrate NNHW b y concentrating on their health not just for one week but for fifty-two 58 Another nationwide event, the Nat i onal Health Contest inspired rural women to fin e tune their own health and hygiene habits In 1929 Florida agents predicted that girl s and women throughout Florida wou ld be far more interested in health work after the National contest was won by a Florida representati v e Florence Smock and another Florida girl pl ac ed 56 See Ste ens 7 57 Jone s, 1 5 4S S ; Mi ll e r 19 2 9 IOl ; Mi ll er 19 3 1 144 ; Miller 19 32 87 58 Mary Todd Macken z ie A l a chua AR 19 3 4 ( L25), 6

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199 econd H alth conte t not nl buo ed local r fonn effort through competiti ene s but fo t r d a en e of b I n g ing by broadening narrow experi nee and exposing rural familie to hat HD called merican condition "of healthful Ii ing. 59 A final national agenda, the ew Deal mad e ignificant contribution to HOA anitation ork. o agencies were more prominent in their practical cont ribution to home demon tration anitation r forms than the Work s Progre s Administration WPA) and Federal Emerg nc Relief dmini tration (FERA). ot onl did federalizing some of the sanitation work increa e funding and per onnel in ge neral the influx of funding and stan dardization al o effecti el le eled the qua l ity of hea l th programs around the tate. 60 In Depres ion-wracked Florida, dwindling funds had slowed, but not ha l ted, sanitation work like privy construction. Man ew Deal relief effort made their way into rural Florida with notable y ield s For example, agent Ethel Atkinson recorded FERA's impact in Escambia County, where relief worker pent time on drainage projects iphoning away tanding water to reduce mosquito population Their efforts paid off by 1939 Atkinson reported only a very few cases of typhoid or malaria among rural Escambians. Most remarkable was the WPA's wo rk as an acti e component of Florida's Malaria Department helping with wide scale creemng campaign 61 ationwide, the WPA constructed or reno ated more than two million privies, each meeting federal standards ith a concrete base airtight seat and screened entilators. Locall too Florida re idents experienced the pri vy boom. For example in a typical year Escambia County re idents in tailed fewer than I 00 anitary pri ies but in 1939 more than 160 ne 5 9 Cooperati e E ten ion ervice AR I 9-9 72 ; Cooperati e Exten ion ervice AR 1922 46. 60 Beard le 41 156 61 ee "Malaria carnbia ounty, January-June 1938 Di i ion of Health ubject File Box 4 Fo lder ?. Record Group 10 erie 99and" alaria E cambiaCounty l93 7"( Florida tate Archi e Divi ion of Health ubject File Box 4 Folder 46. Record Group 810, erie 99).

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200 back.hou ses dott e d th e land sca pe According to Atkinson, th e WP A built sa nitary privie s for a n yo n e w illin g to furnish e ith e r th e mat e rial s or $5 62 Home d e mon s tration 's ex p e ri e nc e w ith the WP A refle cts the b e n e fit s to b e g l ea n e d from coo p era tin g with agencies be yo nd the Exte n s ion Service The ability to put l ocal refonn s in a national co nte xt, as HDAs did with NNHW a nd th e National H ea lth Co nt es t fortified their e mpha s i s on community and nation a l r espo n s ibil ity a nd rural folks' own se n se of a plac e within a lar ge r h ea lth mo ve m ent. The mor e rural families saw impro ve d sa nitar y fea ture s around th e m the m o re in s pir e d they b eca m e to create the sa m e sort of e n v ironm e nt fo r themselves. One Alachua Co un ty woman r eported t o h er agent in 1 933 th at afte r r e turnin g hom e from a r e li ef m eet in g s h e was s truc k by the diff ere n ce between h er fac iliti es and those di sc u ssed at meetings When . I saw my un s i g htl y o ld open toilet I just cou ld n ot sta nd it any lon ger she wrote. "T h e next morning m y siste r and I tore it down and w ith th e help of an in ex p e ri e n ce d carpenter we soo n h a d a sa nitary toilet built acco rdin g to th e instructions of the State Board of Health. The lon g -t en11 effec t was not ju s t on this woman's h ea l th but on h e r se n se of dignity : Wh e n the c lub m et th e n ext time th e meeting was a t m y h o u se and it gave m e a fee lin g of pride to be able to s h ow the m em b e r s m y ni ce n ew sa nitary t o il et. 63 Of co ur se, a n influ x of funding durin g the New Deal a l o presented some problems r e l ated to the quality of sa nit ary impro vements As part of her Home Impro vement work Virginia Moore h a d catego ri ze d F l orida rural hom es b y th e ir l eve l of comfort efficiency a nd sanitary features T h e c h a ll e n ge s h e saw arising in the wake of New Deal a id was a dramatic in c r ease in m ax imum hou s in g that m a nif es t e d o nl y minimum tandards For examp l e a 62 E thel Atkin on E ca mbia ounty AR 19 3 4 ( SL ), 17 ; th e l tkin o n Es cambi a C o unty AR 19 39 ( SL ) 1 8; Barl ow, 22. 63 Grace Warr e n Ala c hu a AR 19 33 ( L23 ) 9

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201 fami l mi g ht have a new h ome wit h an ind oor bathroom, and u e th e bathtub to tore coal or d 6 4 00 It i littl w nd er that ani t ation and rural health ca u g ht HOA s' attention, but what impact did h me demon tration really have on sanitation reform, and it on home dem n trati n? um erou agencies were a lr ea d y involved or became involved in these reform o HOA w re not the l ast be t hope for rural an it ation reform. Howe ve r given th e prevalence of disease in F l orida and the o u th, whatever assistance home demon s tration cou ld pro ide wa essentia l particularly becau e HOA could reach reform 's audience on a daily ba i In the case of the ew Deal-era reforms HD As h ad been reaching that audience for quite some time. Virginia Moore ever mindful of h ome demonstration 's potential twice made it c l ear that HDAs li ke her had been in the trenches before the ew Deal. First, in 1934 Moore n oted that before the Federal Fann Housing S u rvey was commissioned, she had previous l y made many of the same recommendations it ultimately did. Then, in 1939, when cata l oguing for extension si l ver anniversary the numb er of sanitary privies co n structed (583 in 1929) he noted that these accomp li shments preceded the W. P.A. project. 65 It is worth noting, too that home demonstration a nd the officia l Extension apparatus emerged in time to fi ll a gap in the health crusa d e. The Rockefeller Sanitary Commission which h ad pearheaded the hookworm eradication effort since 1910 l eft the South in 1914 to 64 Yirginia P Moore, Home Imp rovement R 1938 (SL-32) 2-3, 4. The h o u si n g le vels Moore defined a "mi nimum ": tho e frame hou es which are unceiled with wooden shutters, no con v en i ence a nd which are urrounded with tubble fie ld andy yar d with an o utl ook of cut-o er timber land wa hing gu llie of the tenant fanner, and the mall l and owner of the northwest Florida;" "me d ium": "i a little better, with g la windows and ce iled wa ll s but w ith no thou g ht of real comfort, con enience or beauty;" and maximum ": the hou se is u ually painted and sc re e ned and more comforts and con enience ha ve been added with better exte rior urroundin gs. In area ofnorthwe t, central and the deep outh of Florida where truck farming and dairyin g pre ailed, and where farmer Ii e d in or near town the home e re much bett e r u ually '\ ith running wa t e r e lectri c li ght bath room ith heated water by a un hine Water Heater. The" pani s h type ofhou es" common in so uth Florida Moore found la cki n g in goo d plannin g their tile roofs s he aid, ere too prone to leaks. 6 5 Virginia P Moore Home Imp rovement AR 1934 ( L-25) 18; Virginia P. Moore, Home lmpro eme nt R I 939, Hi s torical Data Relati e to H o me Improvement Work in Florida" ( L-34) 9.

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202 go g l o b a l as th e Int e rn a ti o n a l H ea lth Co mmi ss i o n Th e n th e d e mand s of W o rld W ar I co n s um e d g o ve rnm e nt r eso ur ces a nd tim e. Aft e r t h e wa r h ea lth l ea d e r s l i k e th e RS C, U. S. Publi c H e alth S e rvi ce a nd s t a t e B o ard s o f H e a l th foc u se d o n urban a r eas a s mor e m a n agea bl e a nd cos te ff ec ti ve th a n ru ra l n e i g hb o rhood s. 6 6 P rogress i ve sty l e r efo rm in th e co unt rys id e was ubdu e d until th e r efo rm bo o m of th e 1 93 0 s, m a d e p oss ibl e b y t h e New D ea l. So w h e n S mi t hLeve r p asse d in 1 914 th e t im e was rip e fo r a n in fus i o n of r efo rm a d voca t es alert to rur a l n ee d s and so l uti o n s, with th e g round-l eve l access n ecessary t o e mp o w e r indi v idu a l s a nd co mmuni t i es T h a t access ra i ses so m e m o r e ex p a n s i ve i ss u es r e l a t e d t o h o m e dem o n s tr a ti o n a n d sa ni ta ti o n r efo rm T h e h ea lth story i s o n e c riti ca l in s tudi es of h o m e d e m o n s tr a t io n becau e i t hit s a ce n tra l n erve in th e sc h o l a r s hip as hi s t o ri a n s co ntinu e t o d e b a t e th e exte nt t o w hi c h h o m e d e m o n s tr a ti o n was e ith e r in vas i ve a nd c ontr o l lin g o r a m e li orat i ve a nd o b l i g in g By n ow, r ea d e r s p ro b a bl y ca n g u ess m y t ake o n thi s d e b a t e. T h o u g h th e ac tu a l p rograms di ffere d in s i gn ifi ca nt ways th e imp l i cat i o n s of sa nit a ti o n refo rm a r e s trik i n g l y s imil ar t o foo d pr ese r va ti o n B e in g s i c k b ut n o t kn owi n g w h y or h ow to get we ll cost ru ra l fam i lies th e i r tim e, m o n ey a nd se n se of sec uri ty Fra nk ly I a m l ess co n ce rn e d w ith t h e imp ac t of ru ra l Fl o rid a s h ea lth o n th e eco n o m ic we ll-b e in g of th e So u t h o r t h e n a t io n t h a n I a m w i t h the imp ac t illn ess a nd we lln ess h a d o n fa mili es d a il y li ves. P eo pl e d eserve to b e we ll. As I stresse d w ith foo d pr eserva ti o n th e fu nd a m e n ta l r e l a ti o n sh ip i n h ea l t h a n d s an it atio n wo r k wa t h a t betwee n know l e d ge an d power. ec u r i ty m eant contro l for rural fa mili es a nd co nt ro l co uld n o t be ga in e d w ith o u t t h e know l e d ge t o fi r st ga in secur i ty No p a mphl e t n o a ddr ess fa il e d t o s tr ess th e abso lu te n ecess i ty of ge tt i n g informatio n to th e peop l e a nd sec ur i n g th e ir coope r a ti o n i n e m p l oyi n g i t. Ho m e d e m o n strat i on wa u nique l y 66 H oy 1 32; B e ard l ey 2 1

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203 uited to do both. That ab ili ty and th ir w illin gne s to follow through ga v e HOA 's anitation ork a tangibl n e of promi e. Unlike the ambi a l ent tandard for home decor l a nd aping r ewing work the direct connect i on between sanitation and di ea e meant one ry imp rtant thing ery fly trap, e ery privy every creen counted In ev it ab l y omeone will co unt er that there were not enough privies fly traps and creen to make a real" difference, t hat home demonstration did not actually do' anything becau e not enough wome n were directly involved. I have as little patience with that theory a s I had wit h simila r ones about food preservation. If our standard for health reform wa s total participation total change an d tota l eradication all without offending anyone locally then no h ea lth work wo uld be underway Malaria i s pandemic and not all children have been saved hould the WHO Red Cross Peace Corp and their partners quit and go home because the y have not been able to do anyt hin g? Sanitation and h ea l t h a r e n ot the sorts of standards we can who ll y quantify More than just compi l ations of pri ies and screens sanitation work wa abou t giv in g people t h e chance to tak e control of t h e ir own health by providing them w i th the information and tool necessary to take ac ti on if they saw fit and gi ing them the jolt to ensure they wou ld see fit. Of course th e ideal outcome of health reforms is that everyone at risk can be helped and ants to be helped. But the details of the sorts of diseases and affliction borne in bad water remind us that any progress is good progress. A little girl less than five y ear old suffering with malaria and mo t likely dying ? A ixteen y ear old boy who will spend the re s t of his life looking and thin.king like a ten year o ld because hookworm robbed him of his health ear after year ? Modem reformers remind us that these diseases are almo t entirely pre entable if only education, funding and personnel can be ecured. HDAs were hardl y the

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only or even the perfect refonners working to improve access to safe sanitation, but their contr ibution was esse nti al. 204 So, aside from helping people in need gain access to c l ean water and san i tation, what a WHO Director-General has ca ll ed Health 101 ," what did their involvement in sanitat i on reforms mean for HDAs own longevity? 67 As I said at the chapter's start, making that connect i on is not as simp l e as it was for a program like Food Preservation or another health program lik e Nutrition. Nutrit i on, fo r examp l e, a l ways had been square l y wit hin HDA s' purview and expertise, a nd the program did not change dramatically though it did evolve, over home extension's ninety year tenure in Florida. But sanitation reforms transcended extension-on l y personnel they were heavily concentrated in a relative l y brie f period and they were not initially associated wit h female reformers, extension and otherwise. What make s sanitation's imp act on home demonstration 's durability evasive however implicitl y tells us that the longevity issue is not related to a direct connection between HDAs choices and their end uran ce. Instead it was w h at HDAs were doing and how t h ey approached sa ni tation reforms that highlight the inherent strengths in home demonstration. Those strengths, in tum promoted resilience. Even when HDAs were not active l y advertising their own involvement choice and chance collided to reinforce home demon s tration as collaborative and accessible. Extension personnel both male and female and both white and black cooperated in varying ways to craft a more unified approach to sanitation refonn Rather than relegatin g all privy construct i on to agricu ltu re agent-led Rural E n g in eering and a ll scree nin g to HDA-led Home Impro vement, a ll mann er of sa nitation work dr ew the invo l ve ment of a ll extension workers Beyond the Exte n s ion Service agents coo perat ed with a host of a ge n c i es and organiza tion s to advance th e 67 Health IOI comes from Director-General Dr. Lee Jon g-woo k Q u o t e available a t WHO' ite www.w h o.i n t/wa t e r san it a t io n h ea lth ( 15 Augu t 2 005).

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205 anitation cau e. the e bodie came together they each contributed m thin g th e other could not more money more infra tructure or in the ca e of HDA s more acce s. W uld hookworm and malaria have been brought under control without home demon tration invo l vement in the campaign again t them? Probably hind ight tell u Other agen ie had knowledge, they had educational tool and they had personnel. And if tho e had not been effective the government still would have used their new "' atomic bomb of the in ct orld '' DDT to at least wipe out malaria. 6 But on the eve of World War 11 HDA brought to the work an unprecedented l evel of access and familiarity with local people and local conditions that ea ed sanitation reform into family discussions and accelerated the progress in tigated by outside agencies. Duval County' black HOA, Ethel Powell remarked in 1950 The Extension Service has done much to improve rural health in the county as it reaches people as no other organization does. 69 ot all of what worked in favor of home demonstration was by choice, but by chance. As I noted HD As' work came along at just the right time. The confluence of other health agencies moving outward from the South and an international swell in health reform made the time ripe for HDAs involvement. Being in the right place at the right time reinforced home demonstration s image as a timely relevant and capable source of aid education and advocacy. Just before and just after the sanitation work peaked in Florida world wars created an ideal situation for HDAs to make themselves useful in other ways including health Indeed health did not cease to be a concern for HDAs after hookworm and malaria came under control. Health work evol ed to meet changing attitudes and new plagues -----c ancer teen pregnancy dri ing safety and obesity among others represented the new shape of home 68 Humphrey "Kicking a Dying Dog ," 1 2. 69 E thel Po, ell Du al AR J 950 ARA33. 6-55) 5

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206 d e m o n strat i o n h ea lth p rogra m s O nl y p o li o, a n e pid e m ic i n i ts ow n r i g ht ga rn e r e d t h e sort of act i o n th a t c h arac t e ri ze d h eal th r efo rm s in th e int erw ar p e ri o d And HD As st ill t a lk e d a b o ut sa nit a ti o n wi th th e ir c li e n ts, in c ludin g p ri vy constr u ct i o n sc r ee nin g a nd w at e r syste m s. T hi s was p a rti c ul ar l y t h e case a m o n g bla c k H DAs. In 1 956 Vo lu s i a age nt Id a P e mb e rt o n d esc rib e d h e r h ea lth wo rk in c lud i n g tub e r c ul os i s screen in g, nutr i ti o n a nd coo p e r a ti o n w i th t h e co un ty h ea lth u ni t. A l o n g wit h th ese n ewe r e m p h ases was a s udd e n int e rj ec ti o n th a t ca ll e d t o m i n d h ea l t h wo r k fro m d eca d es b efo r e. In the co u rse of t a lkin g w i t h fa mili es, Pe m be rt on di scove r e d a few thin gs [I] was n ot awa r e of concern in g the wa t e r p ro bl e m. T hr ee fa mili es' wa t e r s uppli es we r e co nd e mn e d b y t h e Hea l t h Depart m e n t." A r ea l se n se of ur ge n cy p e rm eate d P e mb erto n 's r e p o rt as s h e co n ti nu e d : "A l so, th rough t h e c lub m ee tin g d isc u ss i o n s of h ea l t h p ro bl e m s o n e fa m i l y was re p orte d not h aving a n y ty p e of t oi l et. Now t hi s fa mil y i s b e in g wo r ke d w ith in o rd er to s h ow t h e m t h e d a n ge r t h ey a r e in Seve n c hildr e n a r e in thi s fa mil y." Fo rtun a t ely, th ese in s t a n ces we r e in c r easi n g l y rare a m ong rural fa mili es, a b e n e fit of HD As' co ntinu e d v i g il a n ce F o r exa mpl e b y I 956 H il l sboro u g h HDA S ud e ll a Fo rd re p orte d t h a t a p prox im ate l y nin ety pe r cent of h o m e d emo n stration fam i lies h a d b ot h scree n e d h o m es a nd safe wa t e r su p p li es. 70 In th e l a t e 1 950s, wo r k w ith a n o th e r set of Flo r id i a n s pro m pte d HD As to co n t i n u e a tt e nti o n o n b as i c sa nit a ti o n Wh e n h o m e d e m o n s t rat i o n work began amo n g Se m i n o l es ass i sta nt age n t E dith B oe hm er fou n d th at s h e h a d to bac k track somew h at to a d d r ess san i tatio n n eeds. T h oug h h e r wo r k was m o r e c h a ll e n gi n g as a resu l t of language and cu l tura l di ffe r e n ces a nd Boe hm e r 's r esponse t o th ose d iffere n ces, s h e was ab l e to empha s ize the need fo r sa ni tary p r i v i es (o r a n y pr i vies) a nd th e desirabi l ity of h aving ru n ning water. 71 T h e 70 Ida Pemberton Vo l usia AR 1956 (NARA-33.6-65), 8; ude ll a Ford, Hi ll sborough AR 19 53 (NARA33.6-5 7) 1 2. 71 dith Boehmer Seminole lndian AR 1 956 ARA-33.6-65), 6

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207 e limin a ti o n of n di ea e did n ot m ea n t hat th e n ee d fo r c l ea n li n e s wa e li minated too A m e nti o n d m a n y p age ago in th e Intr du ct i o n h m e de m on tra ti n h ad a l o n ger s he l f li f e th a n we mi g ht h ave ex p ecte d p a rtl y b eca u e it wa n o t a ll abo ut one r efo rm ne prob l em or o n e o luti o n H oo k wo rm wa a c ri i b u t a ni tat i o n was th e b igge r p i c tu re T h e r e we r e bi gge r pi c tur es r e l ate d t o h o m e d e m o n tra t ion s a ni ta t io n wo r k too lt was va lu a bl e in th e imm e diat e ca mp a i g n s a ga in st di sease, in p romoti n g a m o r e h ea l t h fu l e n v i ro nm e nt overa ll a nd in h e lpin g h o m e d e m o n s t ra ti o n m a in ta in i ts r e l eva n cy Bu t there are r e l a t e d i ss u es th a t d o n o t n ecessa r i l y d e fin e h o m e d e m o n stra ti o n s exac t co n t r ibut i on to a nit a ti o n r efo rm but d o re l a t e t o th e sta t e of ru ra l h ea lth in ge n era l. T h o u g h home d e m o n tr a ti o n eve ntu a ll y wo r ke d w i t h urb a n fa m i li es to a s i g n i fi ca n t d egree fo r m os t of its hi s t ory it was co mmitt e d t o ass i s t i n g rural fa mili es, a ll t h e m o r e i m p orta n t beca u se most r efo rm s we r e d evo t e d to urban a r eas Hi st ori a n M a ril y n H o lt h as exa min e d t h e d is p a r ity b etwee n ru ra l a nd urb a n h ea lth co nditi o n s, a nd h ea lth ca r e, in th e ea rl y twent i e th ce n tury. B y th e 1 920s rural Am e ri ca n h ea lth "co mp a r e d un fav orabl y w i t h t h a t of u rb a n centers p a rti c ul a rl y in access t o m e di ca l a id a nd in r e du c in g in fa nt m orta lit y B u t t h e h ea l t h gap did n o t d raw p a rti c ul a r a tt e nti o n As a r es ult th e wo r s t in urb a n l ife was pu t u n d e r a magnifying g l ass a nd g r ea t s trid es we r e m a d e in br i n g in g i mpro ve m en t s [b u t] rural communi ti es were left a l o n e t o gra ppl e w ith di sease a nd d ea th pr etty mu c h as th ey h a d bee n from t h e ti me of sett l eme n t. 72 o un try L i fe-sty l e in te r est h a d e bb e d co n s id e rabl y, a nd m a n y wo uld-b e rura l refo rm e r s p ro b a bl y ass um e d th a t o n ce S mi t h -Leve r was i n p l ace ru ra l n eeds were being met a d e qu ate l y. T h e di pari ty b etwee n rural a nd urb a n h ea lth did n ot e nd i n t h e 1 920s or in t h e d eca d es t h a t fo ll owe d A t th e e nd of th e twe nt ie th ce ntu ry e q u i ty d e b a t es carried on. For 72 Ma r i l yn H o l t Lin o l e um, B e tt e r Babi e and th e Mod e rn F a rm W o m e n ( Albuquerque: ni ve r i ty of e Mexico 1 995), 97 98.

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208 example, in an essay on equity in rural health care Sam Cordes argues that health care concerns for rural Americans are justified because r esea rch indicates that rural areas h ave greater h e alth ca re needs but fewer resources to meet those needs than do urban areas. Part of th e problem accordin g to Co rde s i s that myth s about rural America continue to influ e nc e policy-makin g and resource allocation. Even in l 920, as Marilyn Holt di sc u sses, images of rural Americans as robustly health y were false Re ga rdle ss, that ima ge per s isted for the r est of th e century, despite dramatic changes in rural areas of the nation. Co rdes id e ntifi es those m y th s that have had th e mo s t adverse affect on rural health care includin g the notion that rural America i s s hrinkin g ( in fact as the American population ha s grow n so ha s the rural and n o nmetro proporti o n of it ), rural America is equated with farming (ac tuall y, fewer Americans farm than eve r before ), rural Americans li ve outside m a in st r eam America and e njo y s table communities as a result rural Americans are a homo ge nous peopl e with homo ge nous needs and rural Americans are overwhelmingly health y and happ y ( in fact homicide and s ui c id e rates are high driver safety is low and a number of health di sor d e r s are more prevalent in rural areas than in urban ones). 73 Given the prevalence of mi sco n cep tion a nd a prevailin g l ack of inter es t in rural h ea lth over the la s t century HDAs acces s t o rural families a nd int e r est in their h ea lth proved all th e mor e vital. In no way was hom e d e mon st ration eq uipp ed to m eet all of rural Floridians health need s, but bein g able to e ducat e them about ways to h e lp th e m se l ves allowed them to weather national n eg l ect with more ease 73 Sam M Co rd es, Qu es tion s of E quity in Health Ca r e a nd Oth e r Ame n ities of th e ou ntry ide ," in E thi cs a nd Agric ultur e ed. h a rl es V Blat z (Moscow, ID: Un i ve r ity of Id a h o Pr ess, 1991 ), 22 1 22_ 228. See a l o Mary Go r e Forr es ter "So m e o n s id e ration of Ju tice in Rural H e alth are D e l ivery, in E thi cs and Agricul tur e ed. C h ar l es V. Blat z (Moscow, ID : U ni ve r i ty of Id a h o Pr ess, 199 1), 232-240. O n r ea l di ve r ity ve r s u s p e r ce i ve d h o m oge n eity in rural h ea lth see Tim Size, Rural Min o ri ty He al th : H ow D o W e R es p o nd to a Voice of Audacious a nd U nju tifi e d H o p e?" in Journa l of Fami l y and Co n wn er Sciences 9 1 ( 1 999): 27 29. On g l oba l di p a riti e between rural a nd urban h ea lth ca r e, in c ludin g a nit a ti on t ec hn o l ogy, see ai m c r o s' e ay. Accordin g t o WHO s tati ti c in 19 70 fi~y-four p e r ce nt of urb an ve r s u nin e p e r ce nt of rur a l dw e ll e r we r e erve d by anita ti o n facil iti e; by 1 9 5, th o e p e r ce nt age had r ea h e d fifty-nin e an d fifteen p erce nt r e p ec ti ve l y. aimcro 305.

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en it pot ntial to influ nee rural health and it pra c ti ca l contribution to the h okwonn and malaria ampatgn what mor mi g ht hom e d mon tration h a e d n e, a nd where did it fall h rt ? lt i worth addre in g th connection betwe e n po erty and anitary that work d in tandem to keep many outhemer ill and unprodu c ti ve. ritic 209 can ri g htl y argue that home demon tration attacked sa nitation without s u cces fully attacking po erty. Like mo t contemporarie home demon tration id e ntifi e d the connection between phy ical and conomic vitality in the outh, and lik e mo t contemporarie they focused o n the immediate remedy (health) rath e r than the underlying malad y ( tenancy) 7 4 A I argued about other wider refonn po s ibilitie ( uffrage segregation, etc.), HDAs were neither equipped nor in c lined to attack tenanc y it se lf. But more so than in mo t other home dem o n strat ion pro g ram in anitation and health HOA actually could affect the impact of pov erty and, to a le s r degree poverty itself by concentrating on helping families regain their health And what about the efficacy of actual sanitation work? Like all home demon st ration program anitation was not perfect in it s scope or administration If s anita t ion had been a di crete phase of work, for in tance even more mi g ht ha ve been accompli hed, a wa the ca e for other health pro g rams Or if all sanitation work had come under hom e d e mon stra tion rather than being shared between a g ricultural and home demon tration HOA mi g ht ha e been able to influence more familie s to adopt sanitary measures like pri v ies. But all of that a um e too much that on it own home demon tration had the time and re so ur ces t o adopt a fullca le anitation pha e, and that it was free to make san itation a phase at all. ot on l y mi g ht the USDA have detennined that sa nitation wa not a suitable phase of ork fo r women to ta kle holly on their own, female clients ma y not have felt inclined to make sa n i tati on a 7 4 Fo r amp l e, Margar t Humphr y n o t e of th e DD T-base d m a l a ri a e r ad i cation campaign of th e early 1940 that th e technological inno atio n of DDT offe r ed a pov e r ful a nd economica l new eapon to era di cate malaria o n ce an d for all an d v ithout a ddr e ing the intractable problem of po erty. Humphr e "Ki king a D in g D og 2.

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210 ce ntral proj e ct and th ey ultimat e l y d e cid e d what home demon s tration would a nd would not fo c u s on e a c h ye ar. Mor e o ve r makin g s anitation work sol e l y hom e d e mon s tration 's w ould h av e ne ga t e d th e r e al ity o f ho w th e w ork was ca rri e d out. Mor e s o than m a n y oth e r pro g ram s, s anit a ti o n w a s a whol e -famil y a ffa ir. I f th e work w a s r e pr ese nt e d a c ro ss th e ex t e n s ion s p e ctrum it i s mor e likel y th a t ex t e n s ion w ork e r s c ould se ll it to famili es who m ay not ha ve ca r e d fo r h o m e d e mon s tration but tru s t e d th e ir a gr i c ultural age nt o r h a d no n ee d o f an a g ri c ultural age nt bu t wa s famili a r with th e ir HDA or had no inter es t in adult e x ten ion but had c hi l dren in 4-H. Her e a ga in both lo ca l a nd nation a l age nda s ca m e t o b e ar on w h a t HD As did a nd did n o t d o And w e c ann o t ru l e out th e likelihood that for a t l eas t s om e HDA s, s anita t ion w or k j u st was n o t a s a pp e alin g as o th e r ph ases, a nd th ey promot e d it se l ec ti ve l y P e rhap s s om e agree d w ith m y co ll eag u e a bout sa nit a tion b e in g "gr o ss H oweve r di s t as t e ful sa nitation d e tail s a nd t ec hn o lo g i e ac tu a ll y m a k e a co mp e llin g a r g um e nt fo r r efo rm in both con c r e t e t e rm s and s om e important int a n g ibl e o n es. F o r every a mbi g uou s reform hom e d e mon s tration und e rtook for e very l o fty id e olo gy it es p o u se d fo r every a pp a r e nt di sc r e p a n cy b etwee n th e o ry a nd pra c ti ce, th e r e h ave b ee n c ri t i ca l ini t iat ives th a t ha ve s p o k e n mu c h m o r e c l ea rl y a bou t w h a t h o m e d e m o n t ratio n did ." H ea l t h refo n ns a r e th e m os t imp o rt a nt o f th ose initi a ti ves R e mindin g u s o n ce aga in th at d ece n t hea lth co ntinu es t o eva d e m a n y p eo pl e aro und th e wo rld th e WH O h as b o il e d d ow n t h e r e l a ti o n s h ip b etwee n th e pra c ti ca l a nd th e int a n g ibl e: S a ni ta tion a nd t h e m ea n s to p rac ti ce h yg i e ni c b e h av i o r s y i e ld dir ec t b e n e fit s in te rm of h e alth e du ca ti o n a n d ec on o mi c p ro du ct i v i ty Lack of access t o thi s m o t b as i c of n ee d s i s a n assa ult aga in s t hum a n di g ni ty." 75 7 5 a n i t a ti on: T h e Co m pe llin g ase to Ad d re th e r i i ," water ani tati on h ea ltl publication ( I O J u l y _QQ5)

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211 Home demon tration wa not the fir t, la t, or only organization invol v ed in health car r education. But it brought to the movement embedded worker with training concern and a ce and willingne to get down and dirty in s ome of the lea t pleasant topic the y w uld addre in their career Perhap mo t important agent could make refonn s eem afe and de irable by building on persona l trusted relation hip with familie who were far removed from, and often wary of the authors of undry pamphlets and official reports, man y of whom blamed the ufferer for their illness The combination of these factors with HDA s' larger refonn mission gave them unique access to rural families and perpetuated home demonstration's own relevance as a refonn mechanism. anitation took home demonstration into a world outside its own borders HDA s worked cooperatively with a number of other agencies and movements, so that home demon tration 's story in sanitation is deep l y integrated with the others Other refonns HD A s undertook al o drew them into a wider world of activism, especially after World War II. By reaching out to new people, like Puerto Ricans and embracing new themes like Cold War nationali m home demonstration continued to re-invent itself in order to ward off ob olescence and continue its core work As the twentieth century progressed home demonstration became ever less distinct and ever more integrated into the broader reform and education world. Ultimately this became cause for concern among traditionalists, but it al s o he l ped ensure that home extension had something to offer.

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. ~ . : . .. . "~} ... mDPlC..C# W.RIC.QAN .' .:,, NECATOR AM[RI C ANUS .. 2 1 2 0 Fig ur e 51 Map illu s tra tin g th o s e a r ea s p ro n e t o h ookwo rm I ro ni c a ll y th e "A m e r ica n ki ll er" proved n ot t o b e s o l e l y A m erican So ur ce : 'T h e Im po rt a n ce of Wea rin g S h oe s," Mi ss i ss ippi H i s t ory Now http : // m s hi s t ory k l 2 m u s / fea tur es / fea tur e3 l /hookwo rm wo rld h t ml (A u g u s t 22, 2 005 ) Fi g u r e 52. Pi c tu r e li k e thi s ar e c omm o n i n hi s t o ri ca l di c u s i o n of h oo kworm Th e l ittl e g irl i e l eve n yea r s o l d a n d w e i g h s but t h irty-two p o un d In t h e eco n d p h o t o t h b oy o n th e l e ft i s a h ea lt h y fo urt ee n yea r o l d Hi co mpani o n s u ffe r fr o m h oo k wo rm ; h e i i t ee n yea r o ld a nd h as a e ri o u l y dimini s h e d m e nt a l age o ur ce:? ; E d wa rd H B ea rd l ey A Hi t ory of e g l ec t : H e a lth Ca r e /or Bl a c ks a n d M ill W o rk e r s in th e T w e nti e th e ntu, y So uth ( Kn oxv i ll e: U ni ve r i ty o fT e nn e ee Pr e 1 987), 50.

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2 1 3 t i I/ I _, I '''"' Fig ur e 5-3. Fo ur c hildr e n of J D Tillm an, L eo n Co un ty Fl o r i d a, Jul y I 1931. ac h u ffe r from h ookwo rm a nd t h e ph o t o h a b ee n m a rk e d w ith th e c hild re n age an d weig h t: "L -R : Le R oy Ti ll man (age 8, 4 1 lb ), Geo r ge (age 1 2, 6 1 lb s), Jo se ph (age 1 5, 67 l b), M ildr e d (age 1 6 72 l b)" ou r ce: F l o rid a Ph o t ogra ph ic Co ll ec ti o n. F l o rid a ta te Libr ary a nd A r c h ives

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214 l 'II. ~J :, .., .. \i ... l '.'i . -.. ~T ., Figure 5-4. A "F ilth y Fly" poste r produced by th e State Board of Health and used by HDAs and other r efo rm ers t o demonstrate t h e d a n ge r s of allowing flies to run amok in and around th e home Source: R o nald Bar l ow, The Vanishing Ameri c an Outhous e (E l Cajon, CA: Windmill Pub l i s hing 1989), 105.

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2 1 5 O i ela a mal au vent re ii a la d 1a rr hee 01ela marche pieds nu s d a n s la boue pour tuer le s vers Toute l a famille utilise un bon cabonel La fa mille retrouve le b on h eur .. F i g ur e 5 5 Th is i s p a rt of a e ri e o f lid e d es i g n e d t o e du ca t e c hildr e n a nd th e ir fa rnil ie abou t pr eve ntin g h oo kw o rm Thi se t co m e fro m th e m o d e rn D e m oc rati c R e publi c of th e Co n go, b ut c hildr e n in th e int e rv ,r ar o uth we r e g i ve n irnilar p a mphl e t to teac h th e m w h a t ca u e d h ookwo rm a nd h o-. th ey co uld ge t an d t ay b e tt e r. 1n b ot h ca e th e lin c hp i n was t h e san 1 e: s h oe and p ri ie o ur ce: WHO H oo kw o rm lid e a t http : // ww\\.v.ho.in wom1control / education mate r ia l s / congo / en/eng french hookwormslides pdf ( 15 ugu t 2 0 05)

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216 Figure 5-6. Th ese d e pictions of the typica l privy are designed to indicate the dan ge r s of privies that did not meet sanitary standa rd s. Source : U. S. Department of A g riculture ewage and Sewerage o f Fam, Homes, Bull e tin 1 227, in Ronald Barlow Th e Vanishing Am e rican Outh o u s e (E l Cajo n CA: Windmill Publishin g, 1 989). Figure 57. Th ese photo d oc um e nt th e co n truction of a nit ary pit pnv1e in Tampa F l orida a p art of a 19 3 5 FERA project. Thi p roject was lik e l y for urb a n r es id en t o r a labor camp ou r ce : F l orida Ph otogra phi c Co ll ec ti o n Florida tate Library an d Archive

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217 Figure 5These privie s are the only ones of their kind s till standing in their re spec ti ve co unti es. The privy on the left, photographed in 1994 was built by the WPA in Orange County. The pri vy on th e right, photographed in 1985 wa built by FERA in the 1940 s on the Funston Mann farm, B aker ounty Florida. ource: Florida Photographic ollection, Florida tate Library and Archives.

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218 F i g ur e 5 -9. W o m a n go in g int o h e r o uth o u se in Bri s t o l F l o rid a, 1 953 So ur ce : R e d ( B e nj a min ) K e r ce Fl o rid a Ph o t ogra phi c C oll ec ti o n Fl o rida St a t e L i brary and A r c hi ves

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HAPTER6 EW WORLD FOR OLD: HOME DEM rN POST-WAR FLORIDA TRATl N Figure 6-1. ource: Joselina Y. Irizarry, Ten Years of Home Demonstration Work in Puerto Rico" (M.A the i Florida State College for Women, 1945), 1 81. Jo elina Irizarry one of Puerto Rico 's first six HD As, included in her thesis this apparently unassuming photo of a Puerto Rican home demonstration woman. Though the sce ne depicting improved home making practices is common to man y HOAgenerated photograph the photo is nevertheless striking: the paintin g on the wall i s Jean Francois Millet's The Gleaner (1857) widely con idered by art and ocial historian s to be an archetypal representation of rural women. It can hardl y be coincidental that it hangs in the h me of a rural Puerto Rican woman in I 945, for this reproduction conveys a singular i ion 219

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22 0 of rural wo m e n Th e ju x t a p os iti o n in Iri za rry s ph o to of w om e n se p arate d b y a ce ntu ry a nd a n o ce an s a ys mu c h about h ow hom e d e mon s tration sa w rura l w om e n a nd th e se n se o f h e rit age HDA s a ss um e d for th e m se l ves a nd b e li ev ed th ey c ou l d imp a rt to rural wom e n t o e nh a n ce th e ir ow n se n se o f purp ose. But thi s hom e ma ke r i s so m eo n e n e w t o th e h o m e de m o n stratio n mili e u T h e Pu e rt o Ri ca n wo m a n i s a n import a nt link b e t wee n t h e h ey da y of h o m e d e m o n s t ra ti o n r efo rm s th ose th a t ca ptur e d t h e d e t e rmin e d s pirit of i t s r efo rm a nd e du catio n pro g r a m s-a nd th e n ewe r h o m e d e m o n s trati o n th a t was m o r e pro fess i o n th a n refo rm H o m e d e mon s tration 's ex p a n s i o n int o Pu e rto Ri c o w a s a pro g r ess i ve m ove b y th e U SD A, b eg un in 1 93 4 th a t took h o m e d e mon s tr a ti o n int o n ew a r eas w hil e m a in ta inin g i t s co r e co mmitm e nt to fundam e ntal r efo rm s. Bu t th e ex p a n s i o n pr ece d e d a m a j o r s hi ft in HDA s' r e l a ti ons h ip to bot h r efo rm s a nd c li e nt s fo ll ow in g W o rld W a r II. O n th e s u rface th a t s h o uld n ot s urp r i se u h o m e d e m o n s tr a ti o n h a d b ee n c h a n g in g s in ce it sta rt e d u s u a ll y wi th b e n eficia l r es ul ts for c ru c i a l r efo rm s lik e foo d pr ese r va ti o n a nd sa ni ta ti o n a nd fo r age n ts' ow n caree r s. In thi s n ew co nt ex t HD As co ntinu e d to s killfull y a dju s t h o m e d e m o n st r a ti o n 's pro gra m s a nd mi ss i o n p a rti c ul a rl y b y di ve r s i fy in g th e ir c li e nt b ase a nd s i gn ifi ca ntl y w id e nin g th e ir p rogra m c urri c ulum But th e r e ult we r e m o r e co mpl ex. T h o u g h c h a n ge a ll owe d h o m e d emonstration t o r e m a in v i a bl e b etwee n 1945 a nd 1 960, t h e n a tur e of t h e c h a n ges co mp ro mi se d h o m e d e m o n stra ti o n 's p o t e nti a l for in d e p t h fu nd a m e nt a l r eforms E ndu ra n ce bega n t o t ake its t o ll Ind ee d HD As face d a r g u a bl y g r e at e r c h a ll e n ges to t h e ir ef fi cacy a nd re l eva n ce after t h e Seco nd Wo rld Wa r th a n a n y tim e b efo r e it. R a pid a nd sp r ea din g ur ba ni za ti o n co n ti n ued to s hri nk th e p oo l of tr a diti o n a l c li e n te l e, a nd th e corres p o ndin g d e m a nd fo r ru ra l reforms; the co mbin e d effect of d o m est i ca ti o n a nd di ve r s ifi cat i o n in wo m e n 's li ves lik ew i se decreased th num be r of wome n ee kin g h o m e eco n o mi cs d eg r ees a nd those tu rn ing to home d emo n tratio n as a career o pt io n ; th e p r io r ity issues of th e day in c r easi n g l y had l e to do with e ery-da

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22 1 g d-h u k eping" the br ad and butter of homed mon tration The decad fo ll owin g World War II brought not only change unlike tho e HOA had fa ed befi re but aw a g ent r ponding differently, a well. Wherea HOA ear li er had made adj u tment w ithin their i ting program aft r 1 945 they m ed and adju ted b ey ond familiar program The evid nee ugge t that HO As had abandoned rural rejuvenation a their primary reform agenda and instead were focu ed upon re ha ping home demon tration for the re t of th e twenti th century ; a ll ource indicate that HOA were fa hi oning a program that wa leek modem, in c lu ive a nd expan i ve. To do this, HOAs created or experienced three major hift in the po t-war wor ld F ir t they embraced in a variety of way the intemationali m of the old War era Second HOA undertook or underwent significant changes in their pr fi ional world. And third HOA as urned a more diver e educational role. In each in tance, co nt ext wa once agai n the defining e l ement in home demonstration 's evolution One of the most critica l co nt exts in which HD As fou nd themselves after World War II wa a new F lorid a For refom1er c har ged with impro v in g rural li fe even reformers who had been embracing urban fami li e for some time Florida wa s hardly an ideal l ocation Though Florida s enti r e population wa growi n g steadily, by 1 960 it was primaril y urban and that population was grow in g at a far greater rate than its rural cou nt erpart Between 1960 and 1970 fore amp l e, the urb an p opu lation increased more than 49 percent, but the rural population increa s ed by on l y about 2 percent. Furthermore the greate t population sur g e wa in mall town between 2 500 (the top margin for rural area ) and 25,000 people and in large metropolitan a r ea of 1 00 000 or more In 1920 Florida s rural people made up 63.5 percent of it population and its urb an people 36.5 percent. In 1970 the proportion was 80.5 percent

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222 and 1 9.5 percent in favor of urban folks. 1 Certain co untie s ex peri e nced g rowth in unique ways. For exa mpl e, Esca mbi a Co unty 's population swe ll ed but it was concentrated in th e so uth e rn half n eares t Pen acola and Pen saco l a Naval Air Station, whi l e th e north e rn rural part of the county s talled Farm in g d ec rea se d and the rural population b ec ame a minority Dad e Co un ty's growt h a l so was due in part to defense expansion A major cha ll enge facing the county be ca me the dramatic incr ease in sc hool chi ldr e n and th e n ee d for more and l arger sc hool s. HOA E unic e Grady r e m a rk e d that 4-H fe lt the effec t s of sc hool population pr ess ur e b eca u se it l os t its s p ace for me et in gs. P er h aps th e mo s t uniqu e growt h s purt happ e n e d in Br eva rd Co unty where the population skyroc ket e d lit era ll y. In 1 962 t h e s tat e Ann u a l Report d evoted a three pa ge pi ece t o th e impa ct of the S pa ce Age on the s mall agricu ltu ra l county Brevard exper i e n ced th e industrialization popu l a tion in c r ease, d e mo gra phi c s hift s, rural slow do w n s a nd sc h oo l pr essu r es of other co unti es but to an ex tr e m e B y 1 960, Brevard 's sc hool enro llm en t wa mor e than the total co un ty popu l at i on h a d b ee n a d eca d e b efo r e. In ten yea r s, the popu l at i o n in crease d 37 1 percent the m e dian age of r es id e nt s dropp ed t o l ess than twe n ty-seve n the numb e r of c h oo l s ro se from e i g ht to forty-five a nd th e tot a l co un ty ex p e nditur e rose near l y 500 percent. A s th e art i c l e put it One ca n eas il y see that w hil e the population h a soa red a nd th e rocket s roared taxes l a nd prices a nd the ge n era l co t of li v in g h ave soare d proportionate l y.' 2 T h e co mbin at i o n of ri s in g popu l a ti o n s urb a ni za tion indu st ria li za tion and d e mo g rap hi c s hift s m ea nt that thou g h many of the princip l es as s oc i ated wit h h ome d e mon s tration r e main e d app li ca b l e HDA s cou l d no l o n ge r tout t h e m se l ves a s p ur e l y rural 1 U. Bureau of th e Cens u s, Ce n u s of th e P op ulation : 1 970 Volum e 1 hap t e r A Numb er of inh abi t ant Final R e port P C (1) A 1 I Fl o rida (Was hin g ton D . : ove mm ent Printin g ffice 1 97 1 ) 4 -5, 7 2 E th e l Atkin o n E camb i a AR 19 5 1 (NARA -3 3 6 -* ) 2-4; uni c Grady, Dad e AR 1 95 1 RA 33 6 -52 ) 23; R eso ur ce D e v e l o pm e n t : Florida Agri c ultu ra l Ex t e nsion Servi ce Annual R e po rt (Gai n esv ill e: Florida Agric ultural Ex t e n ion erv i ce, 1 963) 3-5.

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223 ducator and exp t to rec iv upport. And th y could not rely on a tactic of incorp ratin g urban familie into e i ting program like food pr ervation e w trat e gie were nece ary if h me d mon trati n wa going to remain viable in the po t-war era HDA tarted thinking further outside the home demon s tration bo x than the y e v er h a d b fore The program did not abandon the ba ic but it did adopt even embrace an ag g r ess i ve new approach to it relation hip with Floridians. Early sign s of this strategy an a c tivi t international mind et appeared on the eve of war and rapidly matured during and after it. Activi m took a number of fonns that varied in sophisticat i on and significance. In s ome ca e home demonstration women simp l y held abstract discussions regarding war and peace. In others they took to expanding their own global education via International Affair s programs in c ludin g guest l ectures by visit in g international students, dinner s built around international foods and skits demonstrating foreign dress and mannerisms. They often turned a new empathy with the world s (democratic ) poor into CARE package s and relief dri v e Man y home demonstration women made citizenship and preparedness part of their agenda matter-of-factly di cussing ways to survive nuclear holocaust. The most significant internationalization efforts were those in which Florida s home demonstration literally reached out to other rural women around the world, most notably when the USDA established home demon tration work in Puerto Rico a process begun in 1934 In each case the point is not really whether the e activities did" anything ; it is unlikely that home demonstration women 's lo a l relief drives aved thousands of children or that their self-education in international wa ys qualified them to become ambassadors. The point i in fact that in a time of considerab l e uncertainty and real fear Florida women did not react a we might expect. Post-war political event s particularl y the gro wt h of communism might a ea ily have pushed Florida women toward a xenophobic but

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2 2 4 c om forta bl e, in s ul a ri ty. Eve n m o r e t o th e p o int HD As cou ld h ave ur ge d a r e turn to no rm a l cy t o th e fa miliar d ays of ca nnin g a nd pri v i es. But s u c h an a pproa c h w a s n e ith e r p rac ti ca l n o r b e n e fi c i a l. On ce agai n th e c l eares t ev id e n ce th a t wo m e n we r e int e r es t e d in th e wi d er worl d com es fr o m th e pro g ram s that t o ok a n int e rnati o n a l tum lik e a ll hom e d e m o n s tr at i o n pro g ram s, th e w om e n h a d h e lp e d c r ea t e th e m H o m e d e mon s tr a ti o n e n co ura ge d thi s effort t o t ry t o und e rstand a nd particip a t e in th e wid e r world makin g int e rn a tion a li s m in va ri o u s form s a n every d ay co mp o n e n t of e nh a n ce d li v in g. It w a s, p e rh a p s, t h e m ost sig nifi ca nt step in h ome d e m o n s tration 's evo lution sec urin g i ts r e l eva n ce in a n ew wo rld b y b eco min g a p a rt of i t. In th e bro a d es t se n se, h o m e d e m o n s trat i on was n o t ju s t co o pt i n g wo rld n ews fo r its mee t i n gs so wo m e n in F lorid a co uld fi g ht S ov i e t c ommuni s m H o m e d e m o n stra ti o n 's s hi ft to i n c lud e so m e thin g b eyo nd p ract i ca l e du cat ion fo r every d ay goo d-h ousekee p i n g indi ca t es t h at i t was a n o r ga ni za ti o n ca p a bl e of o utl as tin g it s initi a l refo rm age nd a. Wh a t i s m o r e, hom e d e m o n s tr a ti o n was e ntr e n c hi ng wo m e n ur ba n a nd ru ral, i n t o a lar ge r nati o n a l m ove m e nt o ffe mal e Co ld W a r ac ti v i s m A numb e r of hi s t o ri a n s, i n c ludin g S u sa n W a r e, Jo a nn e Meyerow it z, E l a in e Ty l e r May, a nd He l e n Lav ill e have a r g u e d that t h e happ y hou se wi fe" ima ge B etty Fr e id a n "ex p ose d a nd A m e ri ca n a d ve rt ise r s pe rp etuate d was j u s t th a t a n im age. Ma n y A m e ri ca n wo m e n in th e 1950s ind ee d were h o m e m ake r s an d dom es ti ca ll y in c lin e d But th e ir se n se of d o m es ti c d uty was larger th a n cooki n g t he perfect p ot roas t. W o m e n we r e i n te r es t e d in c r ea t i n g p r i va t e a nd pu b l ic h o m es th at were afe haven fo r d e m ocracy a nd int e rn a ti o n a l p eace. T h e ir s t a nd a rd s mi g ht h ave bee n base d o n Amer i can id ea l s, but th ey we r e fa r fro m intr ove rt e d i n e ith er t h e ir r eflec ti o n s or th e i r act i ons. Indeed, wo m e n fe l t li tt l e se n se of co nfl ic t betwee n ac ti v i s m a nd d o m estic i ty, for t hey saw t h e m as mutu a ll y re in fo r c in g Lav ill e p o in ts o u t, th o u g h th at h is t o ri a n s r e exam in i n g women Co l d Wa r mind se t s a nd ac ti vit i es st ill d o so in th e co n text of t h e pr i va t e and p u b li c d ome ti city.

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225 That i th ey do not a e how th e women adopted old W a r int e rnation a li m e xce pt to di c u Amer i ca n w men ca tin g th e m e l v a nd b e in g ca t b y other a y mb I of d e mo c r a ti c up e riorit y. T h u g h Lavi li e i wary of id e nti fy in g an in ternati nal i terhood among worn n he doe s firml y place Am e ri ca n women in the co nt ex t of int ernationa l activi m. 3 One of the ke y venues for women 's e ntrance into old War activi m wa s vo lunt ary association Though Lavi ll e identifi es mor e traditional and politi ca ll y astu t e, a ss ociations li ke th e l eag u e of Wom e n Voter th e YWCA and the Int e rnational Federation of U ni vers it y Women a ex ample of int e rnationali s m amo n g Co ld War women her argument t hat wo m e n 's o lunt ary a soc i ation erved as "a brid ge betwe e n pre-war pro gress i ve activities of women r efo rmer and the in v olvem e nt of women civ il ri g ht s, a nt i-war and fe mini s t m ove m e nt s in t h e 1960 rin gs tru e fo r home demon str ation. Inde e d hom e demon s trati o n 's pro fess i o n al r oots reach ba k to E ll en Richard 's home econom i cs, a cadre of women dra w n from s uffra gettes and other activi t s Indeed Martha Yan Rens se l aer the woman who founded Co rn e ll U niv e r s ity 's hom e economics co ll ege, the fir st of it s kind was her se l f n a m e d o n e of the twelve greatest women in America b y the League of Women Voters in 19 23. 4 B oth h o m e demon stra tion activi t reformer root s and it s una ss umin g dom es ti c sty l e place i t w ithin La v i li e concept of Co ld War activism Sh e argues that voluntary associations gave wo m en nonu s p ec t access to politic a nd a wider world b eca u se assoc i at i ons avo id e d a dir ect challenge to cu ltur al trope s which placed women within the d o m estic and ou t side the pol i tical s ph e r e." Finally o lunt ary association provided women w ith a context for acting on a 3 Helen La ille Co ld War Women: Th e Int erna tional Activitie of American Wom e n s Organi a t ion (Manc h e t e r and ew York: ni ve r sity of Manche t er, 20 02) 3-5, 8. 4 Ii o n chneider It s o t Your Mother Home Eco n o mi c ," Th e Chronicle of Hi gher Edu c ation October 13 2000 (http : // hronicle .com/ free / v4 7 / i0 7 / 07a0180 I html ( 1 7 October 2000).

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service ideal appealing for both its ethical satisfaction and practical entrance to male dominated concerns. 5 226 Though home demonstration women are not part of any Cold War analyses so far, their activities place them squarely within that context. Their experiences, though were not tho e of their sisters joining politics but much more akin to what Elaine Tyler May describes as a domestic revival. Certainly, home demonstration women had not fled from domesticity but May identifies a confluence of Cold War culture and domesticity as evidence of Americans' reliance on family as a psychological fortress." May's analysis reflect s what HDAs had been arguing for decades : the Cold War (or Depression or world war) family, bol s tered by scientific expertise and wholesome abundance . might ward off the hazards of the age." 6 Home demonstration women combined their organizational experience, sc ientific dome ti city, and global concerns into a distinct form of activi m intended to boo st both domestic security and make sense of international tension s. Particular strategies for digesting a new world order began with tho se women in the State Council. As the body established to steer the course of home demonstration in Florida the State Council, made up of local women with HDA advi ors was in a unique position to s peak out about and plan for post-war needs, both practical and phi lo ophical. Florida women's experience with war alerted them to the need for mental as well as practical preparedness. Fresh uncertainty regarding world events n ew bodies like the United ations and Soviet Union and disconcertin g alerts about bomb s helter s and communism provided hom e demon strat ion with an opportunity to continue expanding it s clientele, and it purpo e, b y offering mean s toward making se n se of the onslaught of information circulating in Laville Cold War W o m e n 1 2, 1 5. 6 Elaine Tyler May H o m e ward B o und : Am e ri c an Fami/i e in th o ld War Era e, Y o rk : Ba ic Book Inc., 19 ), I 0-1 I.

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227 merican n ew H m e d e mon tration effort in food conservat ion ould n ot have urpri ed m a ny p ople fami l i ar with exten ion 's hi tory but a d e partur e into c urrent eve nt s e du cation pro ed that hom e demon tration wa comfortable d eve l oping n ew roles and di sc u ss in g n ew u e and hrewd enough to ca pitali ze n n ew circum tances. D e pite th e outward ga i ety of the 1950s hom e d e mon s tr a ti o n women apparently kept abreast of th e world s political upheaval and incorporated what the y saw a so lution s into the e i ting ro t e r of committee and program s Quoting a past pr es id e nt of the Associated ountry Women f the World (AC WW ), th e 1953-1954 Co uncil de c lared "t h e fo ur wa ll s of the home no lon ge r repre ent the full responsibilities of a country woman s li fe, and that s h e n ow know he mu t do ome community hou sekee pin g fo r the sa ke of the h o m e it self." 7 Alert to Floridians' se nse of impending Cold War crisis, home demon s trati o n emphasize d citizenship as part of it s re g u l ar program Naturally there were di sc u ss ion s of d e mocra cy and under s tanding of how government works; the 1951-1952 International Relation s committee of th e tate ouncil made a st ud y of the differences between communism, fascism and democrac y" and encouraged each club to do the sa me. Be yo nd di sc u ss ing the spirit of democracy HDA s also encouraged women to do omething that had not come up o ertly in home demon strat ion to that p o in t vote The 1 9 1 8 War ollege for Women had included discu ssio n s of s uffra ge but s in ce 1920 vo tin g had not been an e plicit topic for di sc ussion In the 1950s citizenship committees deemed it n ece sary to' intere t women in ass umin g their re pon s ibilitie s as inform e d citizens a nd they ac ti e l y encouraged women toe ercise their ri g h ts a nd b eco me active in organizations like the League of Wom e n Voters. It is worth notin g that th e Co un c il were predominantly wh it e and th a t di cu ions of the vote a relat e d to black women did not s urfa ce ( thou gh they might h a e 7 H ome Demonstration Co uncil R eport 1953-54 ," Florida Cooperat i ve Exten ion ervice. H o me Demon tration R eco rd 19 I 2I 986 ( -158-2).

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228 been taking place privately) Moreover black HDAs' reports indicate that aga in on the s urface suffrage was not discussed. Democracy was not co ntro versial; black enfranchisement pre s umably was 8 Other responsibilities too became intertwined with citizenship. Amid st the talk of world peace and tolerance were the very real threat s of the worst case scenario, and home demonstration women utilized their existing club-style organization and method d e mon st ration technique s to add bomb s helters home nur s in g, and plane s pottin g in th e Ground Observers Co rp to an already full curriculum. Civi l defen se program s relied on home demonstration as a mean s to encourage women to r e main a l ert and prepared Broward Co un ty women participated in the nation-wide "Operat ion A l ert" fo ll ow in g a mock bomb attack Orange County, in a strategic area," took Civil Defen se to heart and 150 hom e d e m o n s tr at ion women ther e completed a Basic Civi l Defense Trainin g C our se, followed b y courses to train them for s pecific emergency action. Suwannee Co unty mad e provision for di saste r by taking on a role as headquarter s for a tri-count y disaster area, converting it s co li se um into a storage area and 1 30-bed hospital. 9 De s pite the fear of a nucl ear attack, HD As r e minded families that Civil D efe n se was preparation for any di sas ter in cluding tho se lik e l y in a s tat e urround e d b y wann tropi ca l waters Brevard Co unty home demon s tration hand e d out to it s member s a n E mer ge nc y Food po s ter to provide g uidance in preparin g for any di sas t er, man-made or natural. The 19581959 Counci l committee on C ivil Defen se conducted a workshop focused on p repa r e dn e fo r 8 Cou n c il Report 1951-52; "Home Demonstration ouncil R eport 1950-51. Florida ooperati e Ex t en ion ervice H ome Demonstration Record I 9 I 2-1986 ( C-15 -2 ), 52 9 Co un c il R epo rt 19 53-54 58 ; Co un c il R epo rt 1952-53 61; o un c il R eport 1956-57 ; " oun c il R eport 1959-60 97

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multiple cenario including hurricane, deva tating fire, tornado xplos i on or po ibly atomic attack. 10 229 Po t-war need al o ga e home demonstration w men and their neighbor s an occa 1On to f, rge traditional kill and new insight into practical activi m To build empathy for women beyond A m erican hore an d highlight the va lu e of American extension to American women, International Affair work a l so included foreign aid programs of varying degree s of commitm nt. Particular attention was devoted to distressed people s oversea ." At their 1946 h ort ourse, 4-H gir l s collected c l ot hin g and canned hundr ed of container of food for ending to these di tressed folks, and in 1947 i ndi vi du al count i es launched efforts to feed the hungry with food drives. Hardee Co un ty men and women canned and donated "a solid car l oad of beef and vegetab l es to the starv in g people of Europe" as part of the United Nat i on Relief a nd Rehabilitation Administra tion (See Figure 6 2). 11 Home demonstration 's new international activism was not oriented solely to immediate relief. Extension's specific role in planting and harvesting democrac y wa artic ul ated by the Un i versity of Florida's Provost for Agriculture J Wayne Reitz. His speech, America's Role in t h e Development of Foreign Agriculture, proved enlightening to councilwomen in attendance, w h o recalled he showed us wherein bui ld ing a better world certa inl y must start w ith the individual and wha t we ca n cont ribut e in the areas where there i 10 ouncil R e p o rt 1958-59, 58, 1 09; "Co uncil Report 1957-58, 66. The e mph as i on natural di aster wa wise gi en the prepond e r a nce of hurricane in F l o rida hi tory Between 1914 and 1960 thirty-ei g ht hurricane s affected Florida, in c ludin g the de a tating 1928 Lake Okeechobee hurri cane and the 1935 Labor Day hurricane. In the aftermath of the 192 8 sto rm, the Red Cros noted its gratefu l acceptance of home demon s tration aid in distributing egetable eeds for families trying to regroup after the torm American ational Red ross, Th e W es t Indi es Hurri ca n e D isas t er, S ep t e mb er J 92 Th e Offi c ial R e port of R e li ef Work in Porto Ri co th e Virgin i slands and Florida (Wa s hington D .C.: merican ational Red ro 1929 ), 73. 11 oopera ti ve Ext e n sio n Work in Agri c ultur e and H o m e E co n o m ic R epo rt of General Activitie for 1946 (Wa hin gto n D .. : Go ernment Printin g Office, 1947) 54 ; oo p e r a ti ve Exten ion Work in Agri ultur e and H ome E co n o mi cs R epo rt of G e n e ral A c ti vi ti es fo r 1947 (Washi n gton D .C.: G ernment Printin g Office, 1948) 62.

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230 poverty sickness and illiteracy ." Echoing the hope of the Marshall Plan Reitz called for sending out agricultural and home demonstration missionarie s, but "o nl y where we are invited." By these means ," he predicted "we hope we can help overcome communism." 1 2 Home demon st ration women's efforts perhaps were unsophi s ticated but they accompanied other, more far-reaching mo ve ments The Senior Council took an important step by officially joining the ACWW and Co untry Woman's Council (CWC) in 1952. Membership involved home demonstration women in an internati o n a l bod y devoted to reform for rural women, and it allowed them the opportunity to travel well be yo nd their borders and meet women like themselves hailing from around the world The first triennial conference that Florida home demonstration delegates attended was in Toronto, followed by a no t her in Ceylon. B y 1953 the Council had established a fom1al committee on the ACWW and the CWC, with a primary goal of maintaining contact between themselves a nd other members around the world. 1 3 Not only did Florida women in vo l ve themselves in national and g lob a l concerns, but extension itself expanded its borders. In fact, home demonstration 's most significant expansion began well before World War II with the establishment of home demon stration in Puerto Rico Assistant State HDA Mary Keown arrived on the island in July 1934 after spending time preparing for her mission with extension administration in Washington D.C Agricultural exte n sion work was already underwa y in Puerto Rico so Keown joined its director Dr. M F. Barrus to become the 12 With th e same expectation in mind, h o m e d emo n strat i on foreign aid took many other form includin g UNESCO co up o n s, CARE packages and Pennies for Friendship ( to provide fund for the ACWW) In 1954 Leon Cou n ty c lub members tackled a va r iety of aid idea includin g donation t o the United ations Appeal for Chi ldr en, to w hi c h c hur ches sen t c l ot hin g, soa p needles pins, tape, croc h et thread and ot h er nece s aries to Korea Chi ldr e n participated by collecting the se article from n eighbors o n Halloween rather than th ei r u s ual Trick-or-Treat s. "Co un ci l R e port 1 954-55," 27 "Co uncil Report I 950-51 ," 1 2. 13 o un ci l Report 19 52 -53 ;"" ounci l Report 1955-56 ," 33; ounc il Report 19 5''-54," 39.

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231 A i tant Dire c tor f th e Agricultural Ex t e n ion rvice th re. 14 In late ove mb e r Keown s nt hom e to Florida h r fir t r e port on th e d eve l o pment of Puert Ric a n home d emon tration. H e r p ri e nc e th ere hed li g ht on the familiar bl e nd of t ea d fa t attention to wha t worked and qua! atte ntion t what had to b e diff e r e nt. Hom e d e m o n trat i o n alway had maintained a poli y of local-ne e d det rmini m but the lan guage and cu ltural di ffe r e n ce in Puerto Ric o d e m a nd e d th e mo s t diplomatic approach po ss ibl e From the fir s t Keown and her colleagues s tro ve to curry favor among their n ew nei g hbor working to g ain tru s t before bombardin g them with a wave of recommendations Aware of her initial s tatu as a newcomer Keown so u g ht advice on customs from U ni versity of Pu e rto Ri co faculty, s uch as Maria T. Or casi ta the head of th e Home Econo mi cs d e partment. K eow n wa alert to cultural diff e r e n ces and took them i nt o account when plannin g hom e demon s tration work. For example, se lectin g the first HDAs pro ve d di fficu l t for se era! rea so n s. Keown hoped to hir e women who were old e nou gh to demon strate maturity and experience, but not ye t so old as to have grown adamant. Furtherm o re she look e d to women who see med the least likely to s hock Puerto Rican s w ho we re unaccu stomed to women tra ve ling about alone or working in public po si tion s. 14 mith-Le er allotment for ex t en i o n ex t e nd e d to Pu e rt o Ric o in 1 93 1 v i a Se n a t e Act 5524. Howe e r political di ffic ulti e o n t h e i s land h a d s t a ll ed funding pr oce dur es for home dem o nstr a ti o n wo rk In r e p o n e, a numb e r of U ni ve r s ity of Puert o Rico offic ial and faculty w ith the a id of ome l egi lator l obbied for h o m e d e m o n strat i o n wo r k. F in a ll y by the ummer of 1 933, l egi la tion pro iding l oca l funds to m a t c h federal o n es was p a se d. ee Iri zarry, I 0 -11. I am s ti ll sea rching for information abo ut the timi n g of th e mith-L eve r exte n ion a nd why Keown was chosen for the position V ery little inform a tion especia ll y in E n g li sh, is available regardi_ng th e estab li shment of Puerto Rican exte n i on, but I suspec t th at logi tics had much to d o with the deci s ion to send a Florida age nt t o Pu e rt o Ric o. Ind ee d i_n th e uc cee din g years, Pu erto Rico exte n sio n appear to ha e become r egarde d as part of a lar ge r out h eastem ex t ens i o n district. A n i nservice training o r kshop held a t U ni ers i ty of Fl o rida in 1948 included So uth arolina Georgia Florida, an d Puerto Ric o. The connectio n between F l ori d a and Pu erto Ri co was particularly pronounced. In fact a imilar o rksh op h e ld a lm o t the ame week in Georgia included o nl y out h Caro l ina, Geo r g ia, and Florida. Compare The Exten ion Speciali t R epo rt of Workshop at U n iver ity of Fl orida, Cain e vi ll e, Florida Mar c h 22 April 2 1 948 an d Extension Specialist : Workshop R epor t March 25 Apri l 6 194 Ath e ns G eorg ia In later year Puerto Rico co ntinu ed t o be r epre ented at outhem ex ten ion orkshop ofte n held in Te a rather than Florida.

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232 Even more so than in the rural United States men s approval and willingnes s to participate was vital. Early meetings to explain home demonstration s purpo e were attended solely by men who explained that their wives belonged at home too busy to be out ocializing. As one of the first HD As explained a decade later the Puerto Rican native rural man is the recognized ruler of the household and is jealous as a husband but at the s ame tim e he is intelligent hospitable respectful and cooperative when he realizes the v alu e of an y movement which aims to improve rural family life. 1 5 With that in mind, to as s ure resident s that home demonstration had some tangible benefit for them Keown and other s were careful to orient their frequent publicity toward what extension could do and how it worked but avoided naming specific development s until they could offer omething concrete. 1 6 The joint efforts of Keown and local HD As paid off for Puerto Rican families responded enthusiastically to extension overtures Keown decided that beginning with individual women and children was preferable to trying to start clubs right awa y but it wa not long before women themselves requested club work. Having learned a valuable le ss on in how reform moved throu g h communities Keown and the home demon s tration te a m be g an club organization amon g children or g anizing Club es 4-H and tran lating the 4-H motto into Spani s h. Once children s work had been officiall y accepted home demon s tration turn e d to adult women and helped them fonn Club es d e D e m o n s tra c i o n d e / H og ar. 17 1 5 Mary K eo wn H o m e D e m o n s tr a ti o n Work in Pu e rt o Ri co," 1 93 4 Annu a l R e p o rt ( 2 17). Jo s elina Iri z arry wryly r es pond s to Pu e rto Ri c an m e n 's ar g ument about th e ir w i es bu s y sc h e dul e, It wa s tru e that b e in g in c har ge ofa famil y o f s ix or ei g ht and bein g ab o lut e l y re s p o n s ibl e fo r a ll t h e hou e hold j o b with o ut any h e lp fro o th e r family m e mb e r a nd w ith th e l ea t c o n ve ni e nt wo r k in g fa c iliti es w o uld k ee p a h o m e m a ker bu y Howe ve r th e men w e r e ex pl o rin g th e fi e ld b efo r e a l lowi n g th e ir w i ve t o go t o m ee tin g Iri z arry Ten Y e ar s of H o m e D e m o n tr a ti o n W o rk i n Pu e rt o R ico ," ( M.A th e i Florid a St a t e a ll ege for W o m e n 194 5) 2 122. 16 K eow n A nnual R e p o rt 28 1 7 lri za rry T e n Y ea r of H o m e D e m o n tr a ti o n W o r k ," 22.

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The new home demon trati n team also made every effort to adju t to l if e on t h e i land rath r than up rimpo ing ery-da Am rica upon it. Becau e the majorit y of 233 re ident pok pani h K own learned to read it and all publicity and bulletin were printed in pani h. 1 A F l rida home demon tration had learned communitie with a stro ng religiou life needed and home demon tration benefited from, a close as ociation with local clergy a re ult of early HDA fforts to serious l y include hurch di g nitarie s in exten ion plan the Church remained a con i tent supporter of home demon tration work, providing pace for meetings addressing congregations about food production and conservation and contributing labor to building and re l ief projects In order to continue bui l ding confidence, e ery new HDA wa a Puerto Rican not an imported American. The effect of this deci sion wa profound in two ways. Home demon tration had always attempted to match communities with a like-minded agent to faci l itate reform ; the ame was true in Puerto Rico. Additionally, Puerto Rican agents, some of whom had been raised in citie and had been educated in the United tates or Europe, brought a remarkable enthusiasm to their work in that the y eemed to connect with their own homeland. Sofia Brenes a first time agent in 1934 wrote, I don't like to write reports, but I am so wel l influenced with the Agricultural agent 's cooperation the beautiful country, delighted conversations of the housewives, the ideas that are behind the se people and the reason that I came, that I couldn t help to write this time. 19 Even a a newcomer Keown approached her work with a willingness to learn that a l lowed her to develop an affection for the island enhancing her work there and helping to 18 uch a mo e wa wi e Joan Jen en ha tudied the impact ofHDAs who were willing to learn and o rk within the cu tom of their client including peaking their language, as oppo ed to tho e who treated all client as a uniform group Jen en' conclusion are not urpri ing: adaptable, re pectful HD made ignificant progre in their reform those le accommodating found their work eriously hindered. ee Joan Jen en,' Cros ing Ethnic Barriers in the outhwest: Women Agricultural Exten ion Education, 1914-1940 ," Agri c ultural Hi tory 60 ( pring 1986): 169-181. 19 Keo n Annual Report 19

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234 facilitate it s growt h Though A. P. S p e nc e r referr e d to Pu e rto Ri ca n s as tho se nati ves," Keown's l etters indicat e h e r grow in g comfort working in Puerto Ri co and h e r desire to s t ay o n as lon g as po ssi ble. I don t know exac tl y what I ex pected ," s h e wrote in an open l etter t o F lorida ex t e n s ion age nt s, but it was a s urpri se to find a University with a n e nrollm e nt of mor e than 3, 000 s tudents and to tra ve l over mountain s 4,000 feet hi g h covered with tropical grow th ." Keown see m e d both s urpris e d and d e l i g hted b y th e diff e r e nces in land scape a nd people. The i s land 's m o untain o u s terrain ca m e to represent a sort of alteration in Keown h e r se lf : "S uch crooked narr ow a nd s t ee p roads make tra ve lin g quit e differ e nt than we find i t in Florida, a nd I am not at all s ur e m y Fo rd can keep to th e s trai g ht and n a rrow p at h afte r its ex p e rien ces here ." 20 The pl easa nt s urpri ses Puerto Rico offered Keown r e infor ce d the pl eas in g rate at w hi c h hom e d e m o n strat i on work there matured, a c l ea r sig n that Keown 's att itud e and policies were wo rkin g. In l ate November 19 34 s h e wrote Spencer of so m e particularly promi si n g d eve lopm e nt s und e r way includin g t h e rapid in c r ease in the number ofHDAs. The hom e d e mon s tration ranks g r ew from s i x original age nt s in 1 934 to e l eve n in 1 935. By 1 944 the number of HD As had risen to thirty-three. These numb e r s only include r eg ul ar HOA n ot e m erge n cy age nt s, spec i a l age nt s or ass i sta nt s. Depending o n the situat ion t h e overa ll ranks mi g ht swe ll temporarily with age nt s hired fo r a spec ifi c purpose s u c h as ca nnin g. In 1 940, r eg ular a nd ass i s t a nt HD As were join e d b y eleven ca nnin g ass i s tant s, appointed b y the Pu erto Rico Recon truction A drnini stratio n 21 Keown's ow n e nthu s i asm for the wo rk a l so was evident w h en she wrote Director Newe ll in May 1 935 see king a n extension for h er l eave of abse n ce. F l orida admin i trators fe lt 20 APS to Mary Keown 18 eptember 1934; Mary Keown to A ll Exte n ion Agent in Florida 2 ovember 19 34 ( C-2 1 7) 21 Iri zarry, Ten Year of Hom e Demon tration Work 1 57-171.

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235 Keown h a d fulfill d h er ob li gat i on to Puerto Rico, but her own correspondence indicates that work ther was not a temporary pri rity for her. eed l es to ay," he to l d ewell [ am int re ted in m work here and it ha been an inva l uab l e profes ional exp rience for me a w II a a pleasant ne personally for r have developed a real affection for the people here w h o have been exceeding l y kind to me." 22 We saw ear li er that the i sue of an exten ion for K own re ea l d a power truggle between adm in i trato r s and agents We ee here too that work begun beyond famil i ar surro undin gs could be a powerful re-invigoration for the reform m1 10n rucial to the issue of exte n sion l o n gevity, Keown's experiences in Puerto Rico tell u that tran border reform built n ew communities refreshing the reform agenda creating a new cache of cliente l e and expanding t h e ultimate utility of home demonstration itself. In the grand scheme of extension educatio n exten din g extension into Puerto Rico directly situated home demonstration in a g l oba l reform context. Their exper i e n ce in Puerto Ri co convince d American extens i onists that it was possible, even de irable, to expand their work and influ ence beyond American shores But Puerto Ricans a l so had taught Americans an imp orta nt l esson: American extension was not the only extens i o n. In 1945, Jose! ina Iri zarry, the inaugural HDA who create d that potent photograph e a lu ated how the experience of start in g fresh a program of such scale might impact thee tension of home demonstration elsewhere Mo t importantly he recommends that a ll ub equen t programs fo ll ow the procedure that worked so well on the i l and of soliciting advice, cooperation and good will of agenc i es and individuals locally. 23 Particularly after World War II, American extensionists had ample opportun i ty to apply Irizarry s ad ice and the lessons of their own experience 22 Mary Keown to 22 May 1935 -217 23 Irizarry, "Ten Year of Horne Demon tration Work, 147.

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236 Indeed as American sty l e extension spread around the wo rld it took on a new shape to meet the needs of a w h o l e new range of c li ents. The initi a l imp etus fo r g l oba l extens i on had been to emu l ate t h e Marshall Plan 's reform-for-peace program Over time the impetus for exte n sion became more simp l y humanitarian but more politically a nd social l y comp l ex For example, in 1972 the Food and Agriculture Organizat i on of the United ations issued an Extens i on manual for American workers moving into new areas of the world. T h e manual's author, Addison Maunder noted that extension traditionally had been limited mainly to the more highly developed cou ntri es." T h e m a nu a l made c l ear that the ti m e was ripe for extended extension, but that worker had to be alert to the ways that these new areas differed from those to w hi c h extension was accustomed. New nation s with l arge rura l population s, food shortages combined with population booms and a new philosophy of governme nt [that] changed from one of exp l oitat i o n of the masses of rural people to one of recognition of a respon s ibili ty for their welfare." These c h anges prompted a demand for "a var iety of rural serv ices and institutions including agricultura l extension services." 2 4 As had been the case with successful American extension new global exten 10n acknow l edge d the need for sens it ivity to l oca l circumstance Although the basic principles of extens i on education have ga ined acceptance throughout the wor ld ," Maunder cautioned their app li cation in effective pro gra ms must necessarily vary with the circumstances in eac h country and with the s ituation in eac h local com munity ." Maunder noted for in tance that the traditional extens i on organization might not be appropriate given a country' governmental structu re and that traditional method s of organizing and carrying out extension work might not s uit a community 's soc ial mor es. 25 Ce rtainly that had been the case in Puerto Rico where 24 Addison Maunder Agri c ultural Ext e n ion : A R eference Manual ( Rome : Food a nd Agriculture Or g anization of the Uni t ed Nations, 19 72), xi. 25 Maunder Agricu ltur a l Ext e n ion x i

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237 Mary Keown and her team had recognized differences and adapted ext n ion to fit them The mo e toward e panding what home demon tration women believed th y could and h ould be doing in a wider world context wa both hrewd and beneficial for agents and c lient alike, but HOA were finding that a new world order was developing within their own ranks a well. The econd post-war strategy HDAs employed to weather upheaval wa to re-orient them elve from reform women to career women. Though HD A s had alway been on the job, the context of their work wa still decidedly reformist. The attempt to reinvent home demon trati n however proved more difficult than anyone involved may have ima gi ned. Furthermore the tensions that erupted in the proce s were detrimental to both the work and the career. The first problem was in securing personnel. B y the early 1950s, state HDAs h a d begun lamenting the shortage of qualified and willing women to serve as agents. The prime culprit was the decrease in the numbers of college women majoring in and graduating wit h home economics degrees. In the 1950s more women were abandoning college plans to marry and by the 1960s ideas about women and the home changed rapidly in the wake of femini m. Home demonstration was hard hit on both accounts-women interested in homemaking were not interested in doing so professionally, and women critical of homemaking regarded home extension and home economics as the enemy. To lure the remaining pools of candidates, extension worked for pay increases improved benefits, and greater opportunities for professional development in short, emphasizing home demon tration as a career, rather than a movement. The career reformer image is evident in the brochures designed to attract women to home demonstration work. The pamphlets emphasized a HDA's per so nal skill intelligence education and training and remarked upon the rewards an agent might expect, including both meaningful work and a competitive salary. The home demon strat ion agent outlined in I 950

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r ec ruitm e nt lit e ratur e s u gges t s a woman s ome w h e r e b e tw ee n B etty C ro c k e r and B etty Fr e id a n indu s triou s, a ttr ac tiv e p e r s onabl e, capabl e and ind e p e nd e nt. 238 Ce rt a inl y, th e im age of th e hom e demon s tration a ge nt w a s a n appealin g o n e, but it did not n ecessa ril y wo rk t o a ttr ac t i gn ifi ca nt numb e r s of n ew wo m e n in to h o m e d e m o n stra ti o n wo rk As I outlin e in th e E pil og u e, in t h e fe mini s t c lim a t e of th e l 960s, p rofess i o n al h o m e eco n o mi cs wa s s till hom e eco n o mi cs, and HD As fo und th ey co uld n o t m ove forwa r d wit h r es p ec t. In c r e a s in g l y v i s ibl e ti es t o h o m e eco n o mi cs t e nd e d t o di sc r e dit eve n th e m eat i est r efo rm s in which hom e exte n s i o n wa s s till en gage d P a rt o f t h e problem t o b e s ur e, was that th ose ea rl y effo rt s we r e ec lip se d m o r e a nd m o r e b y th o e t h at ofte n traded g rit fo r g l a m M o r e so afte r W o rld W ar II t h a n a n y tim e b efore h o m e d e m o n s tr a ti o n i n volve d i tself w ith n o n-tr a diti o n a l t o pi cs th e t hi r d s tr a t egy fo r p os twa r r e l eva n ce. T h o u g h th e p h ases of wo rk we assoc i a t e w ith h o m e d e m o n stra ti o n s u c h as foo d p reserva ti o n co n s um er ed u cation a nd h ea lth r e m a in e d HO A E H Es a nd F CS A s a ll s i g nifi ca ntl y ex p a nd e d th e ir co n ce p t i o n of wh a t w a s a ppropri a t e for th e m t o a ddr ess. Thou g h HDA s prim a ri ly foc u se d t h e ir ex p ans i o n o n Co ld W ar int e rn a ti o n a li s m a nd c iti ze n s hip th ei r s u ccesso r s turn e d th e ir a tt e nti o n to mo r e d o m es ti c m a tt e r s th at h a d l ess t o d o wit h rural r ev it a li zat i o n a nd m o r e t o d o w i th socia l r efo rm To so m e ex t e nt wo rkin g o ut s id e th e b o rd e r s of tra d i ti o n a l h o m e d e m o n strat i on pha ses was n o t unpr ece d e nt e d Th e c h a ll e n ges b eyo nd th e every -d ay-goo d-h o u e k eep in g th a t d e fin e d th e bul k of h o m e d e m o n s trati o n wo r k we r e n o t un i qu e to post wa r F l o r i d a Ind ee d HD As h a d b ee n gra pplin g w ith a var i ety of c ri ses s in ce th e start of t h e ir wo r k i n the ta t e in c ludin g th e 1 9 1 8 influ e n za p a nd e mi c th e foo d s h o rt ages a nd co n serva ti on ca ll of b o th wo rld wa r s a nd t h e eco n o m ic trai n of t h e D ep r e i o n n ot t o m e n t i o n in vo l vement i n p art i cu l a r agr i c ul tura l c r i e u c h a in festa ti o n of Me di terra n ean fru i t fl y or o ut b r eak of

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hog chol ra But home e t n ion went b yond th term refi rms that did not fit xi ting model 239 emergency action to del v e into lon g Fir t e ten ion w rker enhanced familiar program to fit changing times lothin g con truction and canning ntinued but HDA added to these lessons tho eon wi econ umer ch ice Vague di u s1on on family time evolved into pecific e aluation of and ad ice about childhood de elopment family power dynamics challenge facing newlywed s and mpty-n ter even mild ex education for teenager Enhancing the relation s hip between women and technology remained at the forefront of home demonstration s agenda, and it kept pa e with changing gadg try pres ure cookers, e l ectricity automobiles and much later computer Health program expanded to include cancer awarene and driver safety As more famil members worked and consumed outside the home extension agents devoted increa ed attention to debt management, wise use of credit (and later credit counseling for tho e who missed the wi e u e talk). Agents also he l ped families navigate the everyday legal matter they were likely to face including insurance wills and loan A the e topics atte t home extension was till capable of ignificant reforms. But after 1945 those reforms looked ever more like tips and advice. Comprehen ive change wa s lo ing ground to specia l ized seminars True home extension agents were keeping up by ta ing contemporary attuned to local desire ju t as they had been for three decade s. But a shift clearly was underway. That extension responded was admirable but it chose to respond in a y s that further undermined its original zealous determination Extension agents choice and their con equences, after I 960 most clearly demon trate the final tage of home demon tration s evolution from a mission to a career and the attendant losse for tho s e who once ere it benefi iarie

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240 F igur e 62. Hard ee Co un ty c iti ze n s in 1 9 4 7 pr e p a rin g a nd g ath e rin g c ann e d foo d s t o d o n a t e to nee d y famili es in E urop e, and a J ackso n v ill e wo man s p e r so n a l co ntributi o n t o th e r e li ef effo rt s c o o rd i n ate d a s p a rt o f Na ti o n a l H o m e D e m o n s tr a ti o n W eek So ur ce : C o o p e ra t i v e E x t e nsi o n W o rk i n A g r ic u lt u re a n d H o m e E c o n o m i c s R e po rt of G e n e ra l A c ti vi ti e s for 1 94 7, 62 ; Far m a n d Li v e s t oc k R ec ord (?) 8 Ma y 1946 H o m e D e mon s trati o n S c rapb oo k (SC -15 8 -6 )

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::;~ ''AR't ;:co,u !:-ATE. IIO'J L OtM A~ lT T;.LLA H ASSEE, fLOR IDA UNIVERSIOAO OE ,uERTO ~,co fl HER~L~XTEDSIDU rtBLl (' \1) 0 1' 01 lL , a, 1 r 1 0 IH ,rr ,,w, \1,IIH0U on {111 11 11) IH \hlllll l T IK\ \ ,an, '(t("H'-" 01 L \ l '"' "'IIHI) lh l'tl aTO ftl ('O. ., lOOl f'MU 10\ (I" II ltf t' lllT\)IIHll Ill \(,IU( IITIK\ Il l r,T,m,..; ,mo"' f o L t CON Rf.SPECTO AL 1RA TO DE COLONOS NUEVOS n Ex p1d~ ~ot a la "' \\, .. l.11 "n,h.1 l1 :s1i. Ju,1 11 c., \,\\ IIUll\n ... If 111ltnlt t.. on<'lN ,,.,,., ,1, I.a. \.d,ft1,1,1u ri-'\a d" \Jut, Arr\f'e 1 ...,., J .. "-l,,,..1t1.r1~0 m-::ltt"rrule ,1uCI' ,._,._ ~ra, IJP Jll'r-Clnll 11w ll .., 1H, t.. 1..-,"-' u"'rn 11, l r, IIU ., ,, -~ .t.. 1,. "''-, .,_,,_ EL PERSONAL OE CAMPO DEL SERVI CID OE EXTENSION SE APRESIA A AYUOAR A LOS ALfiOOONEROS SendH ,cun i onc-s celebr .adas en lubel .1 p .an utudiu los m cj orcs m t todos d e cluificaciOn M ~-ldO 4t La\uu .~ u~ 4l4d 111 ... :,,l,H jlll)r 1 .. i1 u;:)lf"o .,. '4H'Nm~111,1111,"'"'lkl ....... .,.. IIt'Otl :M>ldlt'I lam,. .. itrkullo: ""'" '"" -P., hh .. , .,lfl1Y:lo'ftlfl d .. a.. <'ut, I 11,,,., 1111 1 n ~,1(111, QI. .. 1 l_.. :111 .. "'~ .. 1rr,.11ulu .. i.l .u4 d ., ..,,, H fr ..,.. Ill" (I iia fof "4 ,1 .. ,do ~ ,,., Ill, 1t11,lo '"""' .tl~ut.<'l'I '" ,I , .. b.i, '- ..,ru ,, '~" II ,u ...... ~,. ui1, C"nftl,1 tmWluia~ l"' au r fHrlHWII ~-r,11 (I ,;. .. 1,111 1 ,j lu...!1).i tl,af!W'..,N>Cn.m fedll '"-llo 1 ,I de r,n:au1u11 DO o --' lat.. t H t.1 ~me., per.e dd :,,.,..r, d.-_ 1.,, .. r, ,u, .~l!,r,n,,, ,n p1iNUo l.J t .llhU t .. f'f$1 o.. 'lll,n,.4o 11 lr.ufa. 11.IC'rn.W..'" c-,1,I"" .. L it ,r1h,,.. ,,, .... ~>11.an..i... a,l,nn t...-"-" .... -~.. Nie,, r J -~ 11(114'12 41 Fi g ur e 6-3. T hi s Ex t e n s ion n ew paper from Pu e rt o Rico i s d a t e d 1 940 ; Mary K eo wn co ntinu e d t o r ece i e it in F l o rida l ong after s h e r e turn e d t o t h e s tat e in 19 35 an d b eg an h e r tenur e as tate HDA in 19 3 6. H o m e D e m o n tration c rapbook ( C15 8-6)

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A good s alar y 1n comp a ris o n w, t h other c a re ers f or wome n A 10b which wtll c halle nge your ab il i ty Continuous pr o fessional 1 mproveme n 1 S a1 1 sf c1 c t1on in your ow n gr o w1h Then You Will Like Being A ... FOR MORE INFORMATION WRITE OR CAU : M ss Anna Mae S,kes Sta t e H o m e Demon s tra t on Agen t Flor. d e S tat e University Ta ll a h a ss ee Fl orida 242 . Figure 6-4 With her sty li s h dress bu s in ess -like portfolio and car, thi s woma n defines the career-agent who e m e r ge d in exte n s i on lit erature after World War II Home dem o nstration r ec ruitm en t brochure (SC1 58-8).

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Jf 1(,u llte11t1t A '111t1t be1t111tJt,.1ti11t A1e11t YOU WILL NEED .. A co ll ege d egree I n Home Econorn,cs with un dergradua t e o r graduate p re se r vice tra i n in g fOf Home Demonstra t i on Work An avtomob ile of y our own (travel a lot men t wil l be prov i d ed) Enthus i a sm and energy t o p l a n or ganize and carry out a program of work i n the county Good heo l th A keen sense of respons i bility in teg r i ty lo lty tocl A genuine liking for people nd a sense of humor A neat we ll-gr oomed appeara l"\U Ab ili ty 10 teach effec1,-oly bot h adu lts and youth lo lead b ut not boss to speak a nd w r i te well lo cooperate w ith Others t o keep on l ea rnin g YOU Will. .. Be m em be r of he Flo ri do Ag nc v r u a l Extemo1on Serv ic e with faculty s uu u s at rhe U n ivers i t y of Flonda and Flor i da St at e Un 1 v er s1ty Work wit h hom emaker s arid 4 H C l vb g i rls in develop i n g programs t o meet rhe1 r needs and i nterests H a ve the help of supervisors and spec, al i from t h e S10 10 Home Dem o n s t r at io n O ffic e to help yoo or ga ni ze and m a ke yovr work e ffecti ve Hd ve an office at th e coun ry seal whe r e you WOf w ith th e Ag ricu hura l Age nts in a u n ifie d c o unty Extens i o n p r ogr am Hav e ret 1 r e me and grou p medical pro1 ec t1 on; annual vacat io n l eave and !> 1 c k leave whe n n e c es!H! ry 243 Figure 6-5. Thi 19 5 0 r ecruitment brochure highli g ht s w hat the Ex ten ion Service ough t in its female age nt and what the y mi g ht expect from a career in extension work Brochure rega rdin g h ome d emon tration ( C-158-8)

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CHAPTER 7 EPILOGUE : THE PRICE OF DURABILITY From 1915 to 1960 home demon s tration underwent s ignificant chan ges in its objectives p erso nnel administration sty l e, and program s But throu g hout that period HDA s and their immediat e successors remained for th e mo s t part intensely committed to th e wor k the y saw as a mi ss ion In the forty years since then, home exte n s ion work ostensibly h as been g uided b y the same principle that g uided it since its inception to e ducate families so that th ey mi g ht h e lp themselv es improve th e ir overall s t a ndard of livin g But that objective n ow seems ge neric b eca use the mi ssio n th a t gave it fl es h has been hollow e d o u t. The zeal the v i go r the detennination th e blunt r ea li s m that c haract e ri ze d Virginia Moore s sa nit a ti o n bulletin is go ne. Ce rtainly context has mad e a differ e nce in what hom e ex t e n s ion could a nd co uld n o t do over the years. That wa s no le ss true after 1960 of course But home exte n s ion weathered th e contextual changes it faced in s u c h a way that it l eft b e hind what was no longer effic i e nt main s tream or cos t effec tiv e rural families rural h ealt h care rural e duc atio n a ll those p eo pl e and n eeds that onc e had dri ve n home d e mon stra tion To be r e l eva nt hom e extension s hift e d to working with p eop le an d o n projects that th o u g h worthwhile could be ca red for by any numb e r of o r ga ni zat ion s that were crea t e d for just s uch a ta sk. Yes mo st Floridians lik e mo st Americans a r e n ot rur a l a nd it makes better sense perhaps fo r home exte n s ion to d evote i ts atte nt ion t o this new majority But h ome exte n s ion wo rk no t only n eglects i ts rural roots th e nature of it s work has d evolve d into a l oose co ll ec tion of se minar s, bull et in s, and we b s it es. Hi g hl y specia li ze d t hinl y pread and l a r ge l y imp e r sona l mod e m hom e ex t e n s i o n r etai n s littl e if anyt hin g of it s predece or 244

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2 4 5 1mpr e co mmuni tyri e nt e d e l m e n ta l mi i o n a r y -in p ir e d natu r e H ow d i d t h i happen ? T h a n we r li e l a r ge l y w ithin th e r efo nn-t o-ca r ee r proce i t e l f for i n it p ur ui t of pr ofi s i o n a l l eg itim acy h o m e ex t e n i o n b ac k e d i t e lf int o a n un fr i e ndl y co m e r. P a rt of it ub e qu nt r e d e mpti n d ea lt w ith p a nd i n g i t c urri c ulum i n to t ime l y, even co n trover ia l pr bl e m but unlik e r efo nn of th 1 92 0 s a nd l 930 th e e n ew e f forts were l it tl e more than n m o r e vo i ce in a n a lr ea d y l o ud ro o m T h fir s t p o t-1 960 h o m e ex t n s i o n m a k eove r began w i t h a dmin is t ra ti ve c h a n ge initi a t e d b y po we rful oc i e t a l c h a n ges In 1 9 6 3 as p a rt o f th e b ro ad e r c i v il r i g ht s m ove m e n t Fl o rid a ex t e n ion wa r e o r ga ni ze d S t at e h o m e d e mon s tration s t aff m e mb e r s we r e tra n [e rr e d fro m F l o rid a t ate U ni e r it y to U ni ve r ity of F l o rid a a nd Fl oy Britt wa tra n fe rr e d fro m F l o rid a A & M t o F l o rid a t a t e. H e r titl e a egro D istr i ct Age nt wa c h a n ge d t o Ex t e n s i o n Hom e Ec on o mi st Sp ec i a l P rogra m And HD As b eca m e E H Es: E t e n i o n H o m e Ec onomi c age nt Th e n in 19 68 fe m a l e di s tri c t age nt pos it io n s we r e d e l e t e d a nd r e p l ace d b y p ec i fic p ro g ram ass i gnme nt s. Th e tate l ea d e r b ecame t h e A i tant D ea n fo r H o m e Eco n o mi c a nd co un ty dir ec t o r s we r e c r ea t e d t o ove r see all co un ty p ersonnel. ln 1 97 1 th e A ss i s t a nt D ea n of Ex t e n s i o n H o m e Eco n o mi cs b ec am e th e Assis t a nt D ea n of Hum a n R e o ur ce D eve l o pm e n t, a nd th e n b eca m e th e Assista nt D ea n of Ex t e n s i o n Home Eco n o mi c o n ce aga in. 1 h o uld thi s co n so lid a ti o n r eas i g nm e nt and r e -titlin g see m co n fusi n g i t i worth re m embe r i n g th at th e i mpli cat i o n of a ll th e e c h a n ges we r e eq u a ll y if n ot mo r e problematic For l og i t i ca l purp o e th e co n so lid a ti o n of p e r so nn e l at two rat h e r th a n t hree uni v e r ities wa a n i mpro ve m n t. Fo r et hi c al purp oses, th e weake n e d d i tin ct i o n between exten ion staff b a e d o n race a nd ex a l o we r e a n impro ve m e nt. Fo r pr ofe i o n a l purp oses t h e n ew t i tle for 1 Fl o rida E x t e n i o n A o c iati o n of Famil y and Con s um e r S c i e n ce H a ndb o ok 20 02 200 3 (http : // f ea f c i fa .ufl. e d u/ pd f -d oc E F Handb oo k pd 0 ( 20 Augu t 2005 ).

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246 extension women, linkin g them mor e directl y with both the home eco nomic s profe ss ion and the extension pro fess ion was an impro ve ment. B y a ll appearances, then, ex ten s ion wor k was mo v in g toward a more integrated, le ss compartmenta li ze d future But a t the sa m e time though p erso nn e l rosters no longer se p a rated w hit e and bla ck agent they did d e mot e a ll but se nior agents. The 1963 report, for exa mple named eac h county 's per so nnel notin g that name s in blu e denot e d th e county and home d e mon stra tion agents. But the only name s in blu e we re tho se of white agents eve n in co unti es where black agents were st ill work in g Th e ad mini s trati ve manife tation of l ogistica l and l ega l conso lid ation therefor e, boded we ll for more sea ml ess wo rk and th e appearance of e qui ty, but l ess so for t h e s tatu s of individua l workers. In fact, t h e b l u e name s repr ese nted not o nl y white agents, but also only those wor kin g as a l ea d agent not an ass i sta nt so both bla ck HDA s and w hit e ass i sta nt agents a pp ea red to s lip into b e ni gn a non y mi ty in the r e p o rt s produc e d for public co n su mpti on. 2 When HD As were not anonymous, they faced ho s tilit y, another dra w b ack of th e increa se d professiona li s m of th e hom e d e mon stra tion monik e r. True Exte n s ion Home Eco n omists connoted a more preci se se n se of w ho HD As were and w h at they d id. Affi li ated w ith the profe ssio nal wor ld of E l e n Ri c hard s' hom e eco nomi sts but distinguished from them by th e informal e du ca ti o n of the Ex t e n s ion Service Exte n s ion Home Eco n o mi s t s appeared p e rfectl y poi sed to a s um e a m o r e r ep utabl e position as r efom 1 ers a nd co mm an d a greater s har e of r espect from both the public a nd other exte n sio n personnel. U n fortu n ately, HD As b eca m e E H Es at precise l y the wrong time T h e ir a ppar e nt int e r e t in impro ved d o m esticity ca u g ht the attention, and the wrath of fem ini sts w h o i g n ore d h o m e eco nomi cs' an d i t s affil i a t es' hi s t ory of reform as we ll as the indep e nd e nt image of th e prof es iona l age nt in t h e brochure s. Betty Fre id a n c har ged hom e eco nomi t wit h perpetuating women s serv itude M 2 1963 Annua l R e port of th e Florida A g ri c ul tu ra l Ex t e n s i o n S erv i ce (Ga in e ille: Florida gricu l tural Ex ten ion ervice 1964)

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2 4 7 dit o r R o bin M r ga n in 1 972 ca ll e d h o m e co n o mi t th n e m y" to t h i r fa c s, a nd Di e r dr e E n g li s h a nd B a rb a ra hr e nr e i c h publi h d a n e nti re boo k i n 1 978 l am b a s t in g "e xpert advice t o wo rn n Th o u g h h o m e eco nomi t had e m e r g d fr o m th e rank of oc i al c i en ti s t s an d u ffra g et t e th ei r d o m e s ti c p e r o n a ove r s h a d owe d th e ir acade mi c in te l l i g e n ce 3 No t nl y did HO A b ec om e eve n m o r e a ffi li a t e d w i t h t h e upp o e d l y s ill y as a r e u lt of a m r e o rt a lli a n ce b etwee n th e m se l ve a nd h o m e eco n o mi cs, t h e y we r e ab o r be d m ore full y int o th e w id e r home ec onomi cs ar e na ju s t a h o m e eco n o mi cs itse lf was und e r going an id e nti ty c ri i tun g b y th e ba c kl as h fr om c ri t i cs l ik e Fr e id a n h o m e eco n o mi s t s ought wa ys t o r efa hi o n th e m e l ves as m o r e r e l eva nt prof ess i o n a l and e du cate d In t h e 1 980 s a nd 1 990s h o m e eco nomi t s laun c h e d int o a full -sca l e a tt e mpt t o sec ur e l egit im acy part l y b y c h a n gin g th e ir nam e Th o u g h hum a n eco l ogy eve ntu a ll y b eca m e th e umbr e ll a t e nn fo r h ome eco n o mi cs fa mil y a nd c on s um e r s ci e n ces, a nd a ho s t o f s imila r pro gra m s tr a d i ti o n a li s t r ega rd e d it a s a bad om e n th a t e du c a t or s and r efo nn e r s w ith t h e ir p e di gree we r e pla y in g at o m e thin g as ridi c ul o u s as a n a m e ga m e. On e d ea n o f hum a n eco l ogy regar d e d t he se m an t ic m a k eove r as a n ass ault o n hom e ec onomi s t s o ri g in a l id e nti ty 4 Wh e n th e du s t finall y se ttl e d th e fallout wa s w or se t h a n a n y b e n e fi t gleane d On th e s ur face h o m e eco nomi cs a nd ex t e n s ion h o m e ec on o mic s wi th it a pp ea r e d m ore professiona l a nd th e r ea li ty of hum a n eco lo gy trainin g i s a n yt hin g but tr a diti o n a l. Co rn el l 's Co ll ege o f Hum a n Eco lo gy in c lud es everyt hin g fro m t h e m os t-m o l ec ul ar l ife a nd p hy s i ca l s c i e n ce s to oc i a l sc i e n ces t o d es i gn a nd fine art s s aid it s d ea n in 2000 Bu t te r eoty p es d i e h a rd an d t h e publi c a t l a r ge was n ot co n v in ce d C riti c a nd th e c a s u a l ob serve r a l ike co nti n u e d to r ega rd h o m e eco nomi cs as littl e m o r e th a n T upp erwa r e p a rti es knitt i n g b ee an d h ig h schoo l 3 Ii on chnei d e r I t o t Yo ur M o th e r Ho m e E co n o m ic ," C hr o n icle of H i g h e r E d u ca ti on ( 13 Octo b e r 2000) I th ank o n e of Fl o rid a c urr e nt Fami l y a nd Co n um e r c i e n ce a g e n t s fo r brin g in g t hi s article to m y a tt e nti o n 4 c hn e id e r It o t Yo ur M ot h e r s H o m e Econo mi c s," 5

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248 recipes for choco l ate c hip cookies. As a re s ult fewe r students so ugh t careers in h ome economics, for th ey could not imagine any us e for s uch a degree except in teachin g, or ma y b e extension work. A s intere s t declined so did the already waning support of uni ve r s ities see kin g to reallocate re so ur ces Even at univer s itie s lik e Co rnell where h o me eco n o mi cs ce l ebrated it s centenn i al, funding is being c ut and home economics pro g rams are in real danger of e limin ation. 5 Perhaps even worse, within home economics and among FCS personnel as well home eco nomist s qu es tioned th e ir own co lleague s purpo se a nd benefit to home economics For, as s tudents l ess often sought home economics d egrees, other degree s came to domin ate in the field such as so ciolog y, c h emistry, and public health. Most within the pro fessio n p raise d thi s interdi sc iplinary approach but others argued that it d ete riorated th e effectiveness of h ome eco nomic s as a broad educatio n a l force, and fractured both it s ranks a nd it s vis i o n Many i n th e field re ga rded themsel ves not as a hom e eco nomi s t but as a m e mb e r of a di sci plin e. 6 Exte n sion personnel agreed on both co unt s; interdi sc iplinary s tren g th s had always be e n a face t of extension work b ecause nearl y a ll agents had been equipped and ready to h a nd le nearl y all program s. The n ew emphas i s in contrast, c reat e d a Service of s pe c iali s t s agents ca p a bl e of dealin g with only se l ect topic s. Though the s hift from r efo nn to career h a d grea t potential for revitaliz in g hom e d e mon s tration it mor e often backfired b y frag m e ntin g a n a lr ea d y belea g uered force. Sti ll the atte nt ion to a wider variety of di sci pline s a nd a w id e r scope o f wo rk did h ave p o t e nti a l b e n efi t s. Though in so me cases po st -1 960 hom e exte n s i on took it n ew s p ec i a li za ti o n s a nd app li e d them t o old work, as often it s impl y a dded it efforts to th e a lr ea d y swe llin g ranks of soc ial r efo m1 ers. 5 Sc hn eider It 's o t Your Mother Home Eco n omic ," 2 6 chneider It 's o t You r Mother Home Economic ," 5

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249 Fir t r e fl ec tin g th e co n ce rn of oci ty-at-large, E H E sou g ht ways to make th e m e l u efu l to n eg l ec t e d eg m e nt of F lorida popul at ion In 1 964, E H Es atte nd ed an inervice tr ai nin g fi r ,,; ork in g wit h I w ocio-eco n omic l o ridi an Leaders pointed out that ex t n ion a l way h a d been int ere t din and wo rk e d wit h fa mili es w h ose in come are inadequate t o m ee t th e ir li v in g ne e d ,' but this n ew training was de igned to t each agents h ow be t to d a l with low-in co m e familie fro m a va ri ety of setti n gs primarily urb a n In ter agency o peration was once again key but th e ro ter of participant reflected a wor ld out s i d e rural haml e t s, includin g the Public Hou ing Administration a nd ta t e D epart m e nt of Welfare. The e act natur e of th e progr a m s de ve loped i s le ss s ignificant th a n the co nt e n t and tone of t h e training it e l f. The ve h e m e n ce of rural reformers lik e Virginia Moore had been supp l ante d by eq uall y outraged s p eake r s r e fl ec tin g on th e very fact of p overty in a prosperous co unt ry. Though s p eake r s se ldom differ e ntiated betw ee n the urban and rural poor th e ir r e mark s clear l y reflected a n at ion a rmin g itself for a War on Po verty 7 In the 19 70 and 19 80s, home exte n s ion de vote d attention to the aged ( n o t surp ri s ing in Florida), women's liberation si n g l e -parent families and teen pregnancy What particularly caught their eye was hom e le ss ne ss P er hap s as a program once de vo t e d to improving home lif e the absence of one was particularly s trikin g More so than h a d been true in the pa s t e tension wo rk e r s and hom e eco nomi sts were w illin g to i nt erve n e in policy making T h e Journal of H ome Econo m ic argued th a t they had three way to h e lp the homeless including technical sk ill r esearc h ski ll s and advocacy. Ad ocacy ex tended beyond a caring han d into evaluating an d a ttemptin g to influ e nce policymaking r ega rdin g resources fo r the homeless Ex t e n ion p e r so nnel becam e invol ve d in refining existi n g r eso urc es as we ll such as Food Stamp and s h e lt er The attention to hom eless n es did not pass away wit h time Delores 7 W o rkin g with L o w S oc io E c onomi c Famili e s and Gr o up s I n-S e rvi ce Tr a in i n g for E x t e n sio n H o m e E co n o mi t April /3-1 1964 I 12-15 I 24-33

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250 Truesdell from Florida State University's College of Human Sciences described in 2001 the Food Stamp Nutrition Education Initiative in which college students working toward nutritionist degrees worked within the shelter system to provide more adequate meals for the homele ss. 8 These programs and efforts were valuable, of course, but the y increa s ingly drew home extension into what was current (urban poverty for example) and away from those that might have benefited from a combination of current concerns and traditional reforms (the rural poor, for example). Most clearly indicative of how home extension embraced current context are those issues that were controversial for the public. Though home demonstration had not been inclined to deal with hot-button issues FCS ha s. In the la s t five years the Journal of Famil y and Consumer Sciences has devoted space to articles on same-sex relationships ("we in the profession have embraced a definition of family that addresses di verse family structures "), battered women sy ndrome and family v iol e nce ("e lements of ritual abuse include multipl e victims and perpetrators very seve re physical and sexual abuse, dru ggi ng and ... terrorism "), internet safety for children, and stem cell research. In the wake of September 11, articles addressed globalization the Columbine shootings prompted numerous articles on schoo l violence, and increasing environmental crises framed articles on s ustainability. In every case, th e articles addressed not only the issue but what FCS could do to affect it. 9 H ere again these 8 See for exa mpl e, P eggy S. Ber ger and Kenneth R. Tremblay, Jr. "Home l essness: Strateg i es for E ducation Advocacy and R esea rch ," Journal of H ome Economics 81 (Fa ll 19 8 9) : 27-32; Delor e True s d e ll "N utrition Ed u cat ion and Food fo r the H o m e l ess-Un i versity Outreach ,' J ourna l of Family and Consumer S c i e n ces 93 (200 1): 37-41. 9 For exa mpl e, ee S hirle y L. Baugher "Sa m e Sex Relationship s,' J ourna l of Family and Consumer S c i e n ces 92 (2000): 38 39; B Marie Brady "A m e ri ca in C risi s: Mind Co nt rol/Ritual Trauma/Battered Woman Syndrome and Family Violence ," J o urnal of Famil y and Cons um er Sciences 95 (2000): 17-19; Int e rn e t Safety and hildr en," Journal of Famil y and Consu m er Sciences 93 (2 00 I ): 22; Da v id A Prentice "Science and Eth i c : The Int ertwi n ed Debate on tern ells,'' J o urnal of Family and Co nsum e r Sciences 95 (2003): 67; Mary Andrews Globali z ation : The Role ofF in hapin g th e ew World Commun ity ," J ourna l of Family and o nsum e r Science 95 (20 03) : 4-8; Martha Karen Lovell and Bernice Richard on "Fam il y and Con umer cience E ducator s an Pla y ignificant R l e

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a r e w i g h ty i u but x t e n i n trea tm e nt of th e m l ack t h we i ghty r e p on e o n ce indi a ti e of h o rn d em n tr a ti n r efi rm M o r eove r th e e a rt ic l e r ep r e e n t t h e n ewe r b a tt ery a ppr ac h t r fi rm m a n y i u e wi th m a n y u r ry t r eat m e n t o, g i e n th e m y a nd n o t a l ways fr uit f ul p ro fi i o n a l h u fflin g a nd th e 2 51 o n i d e r a bl e di e r ifi a ti n f th e r efo rm age nd a fo ll ow in g W o rld W a r II w h a t h as b een th e i g ni fica n ce of h o m e e t e n i n in th e p o twa r wo rld ? l ea rl y e l a b o r a tin g up o n w h a t h ome x t e n i o n a lr ea d y was acco mpl i hin g h as b ee n a bo o n fo r age n ts dur a bil ity a nd t h e good th ey h a e b ee n a bl e t o do a m o n g n ew c li e nt s th ey mi g ht o th erw i e n eve r h ave m et. T h e d iffic ul ty li e in d e t e rminin g w hi c h prin c ipl e a nd o pportuniti e h o uld h ave b ee n para m o un t. T h e inh e r e nt ub jec ti it y of s u c h a d ete rmin a ti o n h oweve r m akes a c l ea r a n swe r e lu s i ve. L i kew i e th e prof ess i o n a l hi ft fr o m r efo rm t o ca r ee r a p pea r to ta k e h o m e d e m o n strat i on away fro m it s co mmitm e nt t o impro ve ment but w i t h o ut om e m ea ur e of p rofess i o n a l a d a pt a tion p e r s onn e l mi g ht h ave s hrunk to s uch a n ex t e nt th at all wo r k cease d Th a t sa id th e c on tant ad a pt a tion afte r 1 9 4 5 s h ea r e d away too mu c h of w h a t h ome e t en i o n wa b es t at. Th e e ndur a n ce of hom e ex t e n sio n i s co mp e ll i n g, b u t i t had two co n e q ue n ces F ir s t h o m e d e m o n tr a ti o n t h e n ex t e n i o n h o m e eco n o mi cs p u r sue d pro fe s i o n a l l eg itim acy a t th ee p e n se o f pro fess i o n a l int eg ri ty. H oweve r m a n y ways we mi g ht d e fin e r efo rm th e in crease d se manti c a nd pro fes i o n a l t ies t o h ome conomics put too mu c h d is t a n ce b e t wee n th e r efo rm e r s and th e c li e nt s. Fo r d eca d es c riti cs h a d accuse d HD A of b e in g o ut of t o u c h t oo co n s um e d w ith th e ir uni vers i ty e d ucat i o n s to un d ers t a n d r ea l p eo pl e s n ee d A nd fo r d eca d es c ri t i cs we r e wro n g. HD As took th e ir e du catio n s into th e tr e n c h es a nd m a d e th e m wo rk fo r th e p e opl e a round th e m. Th e ir t o p pri o r ity was a d oca tin g for e du ca t i n g, a nd e mp ow rin g ru ra l wo m e n a nd fa mili e w h o had few other i n urbing Viole n ce ,' Journal o f Famil y and C o n um e r S c i e n ce 93 ( 200 I): 2 4-27 ; u an Winchip reen De ign for a Hea lt hy and afe En ironme n t ," Journ a l of Famil y and o n um er c i e n ce 95 (2003) : 6 3 _

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252 r eso urc es at th e ir di s po sa l to practic a ll y impro ve their l ot. But t h e increased li nk to u ni ve r sity orien t e d professiona li s m effec ti ve l y s ubverted th e h o m e demon stra tion r efo rm to the hom e econom i cs ca r ee r. lnd ee d th e r e i s littl e distinction between them The J ournal of H om e E c onomi c s b eca m e the Journal of F amit y and Con s um e r S c i e n ce s ; th e wo rd exte n s ion do es not eve n appear in th e Fami l y and Co n s wner Sciences t itl e Sad l y th e effo rt to esta bli sh profe ss ional l eg itima cy did not eve n pa y off. FCS p e r so nn e l h ave the sa m e problem th e ir pred ecesso r s did e ith er the pub) i c is tot a ll y i g norant of who agents are and what th ey do or the y di s mi ss what the y do as e ntir e l y s up e rficial. Seco nd hom e ex ten s ion 's effo rt s to in corporate n ew i u e into it s pro g ram s wa s laudabl e, but th e e nd r e ult was a much wide r but far l ess in-d e pth age nda. That trend b ega n ea rl y. A 1955 brochure o n h ow hom e d e mon s trati o n h a d c h a n ge d si nc e its inc eption compared th e di visio n of age n ts t im e In 1 925 HDAs worked on six major pro gra m s ; by 1955 th e numb er of pro gra m s h a d doubl e d cutting th e tim e for eac h in h a l f. 10 The brochure purpo se was to d esc rib e home d e mon strat ion as a pro gress i ve a mbitiou s program much m ore than littl e o ld l adies canning s qua s h The r ea li ty was that as th e work b eca m e more di ve r e agents had l ess tim e to d evote to makin g eac h phase s u ccessfu l an d the w h o l e program began to r ese mbl e an assortment of se minar s rather than a unified co mpr e h e n sive mi i o n. Coopera ti ve extens ion wo rk i s r ep l ete w ith spec i al i ts w h o h ost a particular aspect of ex t e n s i o n but few age nt s are ski ll ed in comp r e h ensive refom1s atura ll y, thi i s n ot s imp l y the fa ult of the exte n s i o n wo rk ers Not on l y did th e urban-rural ba l a nc e c h a n ge b ut the d y nami c of c li e nt s daily li ves did as we ll. Many wome n n o l o n g e r had time fo r or i nt ere tin o r ga ni ze d c lub m ee tin gs or regu l ar d emo n s tration s And m a n y of th e new cl i ent s, li ke business owners had no use fo r a d vice beyond th e particular. 1 C h a n g in g Sty l e s i n H o m e D e m o n r ra ri o n W o rk ( U. D e partm e nt o f A gr icultur e 1 955 ).

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253 F agent till ub rib to the exten ion phi lo ophy f gu ided elf-help but lik e the di ipline-oriented home conomic major agent work i narr wly defined That i not to ay that the education and a i lance agents offer tho e they meet with is not invaluable but it i true a ome agent wil I atte t that F cover territory al o covered by a multitude of rganization e pecially in the wake of ocial reform movements from the 1960 and 1970 nward There wa a time that home demonstration truly filled a void in reform and aid That no lon ge r i th ca e. F till relevant but so are many others, so that perhap s F would be better suited to concentrating its efforts in areas that remain neglected like rural communitie There are many uch communities in Florida, not the least of which are com po ed of farm laborers Farmworkers have the benefit of advocacy group to peak for th m but ome of the conditions that draw advocates attention are preci se l y those that home xtension could help workers improve upon. Would or could extension agents brin g an e nd to the exp l oitative systems that govern farmworkers lives? Likey not that is what the advocacy groups are for. But home extension agent could apply their original ze t for practical reform to the everyday danger and discomfort farmworkers endure and help them impro eat least that lot. As for other potential reform ince there are so many competitor F and it potential clients might be better served by agents zeroing in on a select few program that they can build maintain, and carry out better than anyone else. That of course, i my opinion in light of the past ninety years of home exten ion hi tory in Florida Tho e who work in extension now are better able to predict it future than I am. To ga uge current F personnel 's sense of what lies ahead for them I sent them a brief que tionnaire Of the sixty-four ent, I received responses from about 40 percent of th e recipient Their answer are revealing for both how exten ion has changed (and how it ha not) and how it own worker ee their future. Within th F ranks the va t majority of

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254 personnel are female, and most still are white. Hispanic women are joining but there are not many more African-American women today in home extension than there were before the Service was integrated. What is encouraging is that about 30 percent of County Extension Directors are women, and women have served as directors of the entire Extension Service in the state. In contrast the client base has changed dramatically. Depending on the county there are programs that have no rural base whatsoever and others that have a sizeable mix of rural and urban Moreover many FCS personnel work with either an equal number of men and women, or almost entirely men. For example, one participant deals almost exclusively with men usually inmates awaiting release and homeless ve terans. Every woman who responded emphasized the goals of FCS as empowerment for people to gain knowledge and use it to better their everyday lives. That essential objective has not changed from home demonstration's inception nearl y a century ago. But the impact of applying the old mission to new people is not always for the best according to some agents. One participant laments that one of the casualties of moving forward is that we don t have that relationship between the fanning families with FCS anymore Samantha Kenned y in Manatee County agrees that FCS is becoming ever more urban because the clientele is, but she predicts that there will be very few problems with being able to evolve to clientele need s." Nearly every respondent would have agreed with their predecessors about the obstacles facing extension work: ne ve r enough time money or visibility Nearly a century after home extension work began in Florida, current FCS personnel are waging the same public relations battles that HDAs did decade s ago. A recurrent complaint in FCS i s a la ck of knowledge about Extension (a nd the how and whys of our ex ist e nce )" amon g the publi c and "a lack of commissioners and community leaders see ing u s as a resource. Though it did not

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255 appear often, there i too a concern that F is overshadowed b y agricultural exte n ion "w hen on mention Exten ion people [are] thinking Ag." A for the futur of in Florida respondent opinion are di vide d between so lid optimi m ome concern, and outright gloom. One agent, at work in exten ion for more than twenty years, predicted that F would be increasing over the next few decades that it s programs are reaching a diver e audience ." Moreover, it program s are in demand ," particularly nutrition and parenting. A colleague agrees that demands for F subject matter will increase but that organized clubs will decrease as a method of invol vemen t as "wo rkin g women with young families' struggle to balance the demands on their time. These women are interested in FC education, but "t hey do not want strings attached." Diana Converse, of Hillsborough County FCS, cites an additional challenge in retaining "traditional audiences" People are getting information via the computer now even thou g h much of it is questionable a to accuracy." After decades of building on a reputation as a reliable and informed source of information "Ex tension ha to compete with so many others." But, like their predecessors, these FCS agent are willing to adapt in order to compete There is more than a little concern, however among FCS agents about what lies ahead. Allen fears that declining enrollment and tightening budgets will see us resorting to fee-for-service programs. Additionally, she is concerned that FCS will move away from it s family-based clientele to a "foc us on bu iness / industry / associations etc. due to their political clout/power. The little old lady who is told what food to throw out after the hurricane is not going to have the resources to fight our fight." The outlook as her colleagues see it is even direr. Asked about the future of FC one participant sees it declinin g and perhaps being replaced with the different areas of the program. The joint impact of specialization lack of publicity, and declining participation has one result according to a participant: FC w ill move

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25 6 int o "a d ow n wa rd s pi ra l. Fo r h e r th e m a jor p ro b l e m s a r e m o r e int e rn a l t h a n exte rn a l. Fo r in sta n ce, in fo rm a ti o n fro m t h e uni ve r s i ty i s too e l e m e n tary [it] wo uld b e a n i n su l t t o p a rti c ip a nt s." Mor e o ve r p e opl e writin g pro g ram m a t e ri a l s [a r e ] n ot in t o u c h w i t h t h ose of u s in th e tr e n c h es. Ex t e n si on h as b eco m e a c a ste syste m w hi c h d oes n ot se rv e t h e publ ic we ll. P e rh a p s th e k ee n es t eva lu a tion co m es fro m o n e l o n g -tim e a ge n t's p e r ce p t i o n s: FCS as a p rofess i o n is s tru gg lin g to s u rv i ve .. It 's st ill see n as a wo m e n 's p ro fess i on a nd ha s sec ondc l ass s t a tu s. A lth o u g h FCS Ex t e n s i o n is s u rv i v in g in Flo rid a b etter th a n so m e o th e r s t a t es we s u ffe r fr o m b e in g a n "a dd o n t o ag r ic ultu re. Or p e rh a p s we ha ve s ur v i ve d b eca u se o f it ? As h as b ee n tru e fo r t h e p as t nin ety yea r s, h o m e ex t e n s i o n i s n o t a n im pe n etra b le r efo rm fo rtr ess m o d e m age nt s a r e und er as mu c h pr ess ur e to k eep a h ea d of c h a n ge as the ir p r e d ecessors we r e, a nd th ey face th e sa m e co n se qu e n ces if th ey fa il obso l esce n ce, in s i g nifi ca n ce, a nd e limin a ti o n But w h at w ill t h e co n seq u ences be of eve n grea t e r fr ag m e nt a tion ? I s a "fee for serv i ce" se min a r t o bu s in ess m e n w h e r e F CS wa n ts to b e? Th e futur e i s un ce rt a in but th e p as t fo r fe m a l e exte n s i o n h as b ee n l o n g a nd i n m any ways s u ccess fu l, a nd it i s w ith th e l o n g -t e rm s i g nifi ca n ce of h o m e d e m o n s tr a ti o n t h at I wa n t to e nd th e di sse rt a ti o n H ow it m a n age d to e ndur e fo r so l o n g h as as mu c h t o d o w i t h w h a t it d id as w ith h ow i t d i d it HD As' sk ill s in n ego ti a ti o n a d a p ta ti o n a nd e du catio n served the m we ll but h o m e d e mon s t ra ti o n was m o r e th a n an o ve reage r age nt ta l k in g to wa ll s. Wo m e n a n d fa mili e responded a nd t h e ir p a rti cipa t io n co uld m ake o r break h o m e demonstra t ion at any p o int in th is s t ory. U ltim a t e l y, a ll t h e co n t ributi o n s a nd co n tra di ct i o n s of h ome d emo n s t rat i on bo il d ow n t o two si mpl e es e n tia l s. F ir t h o m e d e m o n trat i o n h as bee n one of t h e few l arge m ai n trea m progra m s t o dir ec tl y a dd ress ru ra l wo m e n 's n ee d s a n d a pi ratio n Seco nd by br i n g in g b as i c e du cat i o n a nd s upp o rt t o num ero u fa m i li e first r ural a nd t h e n u rban too HD As e m powere d t h e m to take co n tro l of th e ir r e o ur ce t h e ir h ea l th, a n d t heir e n e of well being. Granted h ome demon tration 's r eform did no t change t h e fact of tenancy or Jim

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r w r ge nd e r ubordination but w ithin tho se co n traint h o m e d e m o n tration made a di ffere n ce. My c ritiqu e of mod e m F i b a e d in part n w h a t h orn demon trat i on ace mp li h e d decade ago. American female exte n ion w ill l ikely never again capture the n r gy the ur ge n cy, a nd the promi e of the d ecade HD As p e nt wo rkin g with women to pr erve foo d or build privies The n ee d was so grea t th e o lu tions so limi ted that HDAs work h a d a profound l y fundamental quality that gave it a la s tin g importance. 257 Pri v i e m atte r e d not b eca u se they save d populations, but because they saved peopl e. o amount of rac ial or ge nd e r a nal ysis i s goi n g to change th e fact th at hookworms thrive in o nt a minated soi l. J. D Ti llm an 's c hildr e n te st i fy to that. o e l a b orate a r guments abo u t the intru ion of th e tate a re go in g to change the fac t t hat preserved vegetab l es a r e in s uran ce aga in s t illn ess and in sec uri ty. B ett i e Ca udle mad e that c l ear. Home demonstration was ne ve r about spectac ular r efo rm s or swee pin g soc ial c han ge, o historians and HDAs l ooki n g fo r both ha ve been di sa ppointed. It i s unfortunate p e rh a p s that in th e effort t o stay relevant home d e mon strat ion so u g ht the pectacular a nd th e sweepi n g afte r all. But power was e l ementa l not extrao rdin ary. That truth e nc a p ul a t es w h a t home d emonstrat i on' did a ll t h ose yea r for d es pit e a ll th e ir talk about rural r e n ewa l a nd th e fine a rt of living," HDA s actually accomp l i hed mu c h mor e In th e e nd w h at HDA s ac h ieved was to m ake the unimproved toilet a littl e l ess prevalent.

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REFERENCE LIST Advanced BioTech. Soil, Plant and Cro p E nhanc e m e nt: History of Agriculture http ://www.a dbio.com / sc ience / agri-history html (A u g u st 2005). Ambrosoli Mauro The Wild and th e Sown. Botany and Agricu ltur e in W es t e rn Europe 1350-1 850 trans. Mary McCann Salvatorelli. Ca mbrid ge: Cambr id ge University Pr ess 1997 American National Red Cross Th e West Indi es Hurrican e Disast e r S ep t e mb er J 928 Th e Offi c ial R e port of R e li ef Work in Porto Rico th e Vi rgin I slands and Florida Washington D.C.: American National Red Cross, 1929 Andrews, Mary Globalization : The Role of FCS in Shaping the New World Co mmunity ." Journal of Family and Consumer S c i e n ces 95 (2003): 4-8. Babbitt, Kathleen R "Pro ducer s and Co n s umer s: Women of the Cou ntry si de and the Coopera ti ve Extension Service Home Econom i s t s, New York State 1870-1935 ." Ph.D di ss., State University of New York at Binghamton 1 995. "The Productive Fam1 Woman and the Exte n sio n Home Economist in New York State 1920-1940. Agricultural Hi s to ry 67 (Spri n g 1 993): 83-101. Baldwin P eter C. ''How N i g ht Air Became Good Air 1 77 6-1930 ." Environm e nt a l Hi tor y 8 (July 2003) : 412-429 Barlow Ronald Th e Vanishing Am e ri ca n Outhous e. A Histor y of Country Plumbin g. E l Cajon CA: Windmill Publishing Co mp any, 19 89. Barry Kathryn "C olorful Potatoes Offer Nutrition Variety ." Agricultural R ese arch 49 (October 200 1 ): 6 Baugher Shirley L. Same Sex R e lation sh ip s." Journal of Famil y and Co n s um er S c i e n ce 92 (2000): 38-39 Beardsley Edward H. A Hi s tor y of Neg l ec t : H e alth Care for Bla c k s and Mill Wor k er in th e T we nti e th -C e ntury South. Knoxville : Un i versity o f Tennessee Pr ess, 19 7. Berger P eggy S and Kenneth R. Tremblay Jr. Homelessne : Strategies for Education Advocacy and Re earch ." Journal of H o m e E co nomi 81 ( Fall 1989 ): 27 32. 258

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B rr y, W e nd e ll. "T h e Pl ea ur e of a tin g In Our Su t ainabL TabL ed. Robert lark 1 25131 an Franci co : orth Point Pr e 19 90. Brady, B Mari "A m e ri a in ri i : Mind ontrol/Ritual Trau m a/Battered Woman y ndrom e and Fa mil y Violence." Journal of Fam il y and on s umer S c i e n ces 92 (2000): 1 7 -19 Br a r P e t e r. Pot for Pottin g: n g li h Pott ery and It s Rol e in Food preservation in 259 th e Po t-Medieval Period ." In Waste Not Want No t : Food Pr e e rvationfrom Earl y Tim t o th e Pr e en / Day ed. C. Anne Wil so n 32-65. E dinbur g h: E dinbur g h Univer ity Pre ss, 1989 Brunner E dmund de and H. H s in Pao Yan g Rur a l Am e ri c a and the E x t e nsion Service A Hi s t ot y a nd Criti qu e of th e Coop e r a ti ve Agri c ultural and Home Econom i cs Ex t en i on Serv i ce New York: Teacher College, Co lumbi a U ni versity 1949 B y rd Hiram. Hookworm Di sease: A Handbook oflnformation for All Who A r e Inter e ted F l orida State Archives, Re co rd Group 8 10 Series 905. Canning in Florida Tallahassee: Florida D e partment of Agriculture, 1942 Changing Styles in H om e D e m o n s tr a ti o n Work. U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1955. Chap t e r s fro m th e Agra rian Hi tor y of England and Wales l 500-1750 Volumes 1-5 ed. Joan Thir k. Cambridge: Cambridge University Pre ss 1990. oclanis, Peter. Food C hain s: The Burden s of the ( Re)Pa st." Agri c ultural Histo ry 72 (1998): 660-674 Coop e ra t iv e Agricu ltural Ex t en ion Service (Co un ty Agent and Home D e monstration Work ): It s Mis ion and A c complishm e nts U ni ve r s i ty of Florida 1933. The Coopera ti ve Ex t e n ion Service ed. H C. Sanders. Englewood C li ffs J : Pr e ntice-Hall Inc. 1966 oop e rative Extension Work in Agr i cul tur e a n d Hom e Economic Report of Stat e Offices and Cou n ty Ag e nts 1909-1944 Florida State L ibrary Include s tate di s trict county, and s p ec ia l ist r e port s. Coopera ti ve Ex t ensio n Work in Agricul tur e and Home Economics R e por t o f Stat e Office and County Agents I 944-1960. R eco rd Group 33 6. In clude state district co un ty and s p ec iali t rep o rt Cooperative Ex t en ion Work in Agri c ulture and Home E c onomi c R e por t of General Activi ti e for 1 917 Wahin gto n D .C. : Go emment Printin g Office 1 9 1

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Walker, Melissa. A ll W e Knew Was t o Farm Rur a l Wom e n in th e Upcoun t ry South 1 9 1 9 -1 94 1 Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkin s U ni ve r si t y Pr ess 2000 W e b s t e r Dono va n. "Ma l ar i a Kill s One C hild Every 30 Seconds Smith sonian 31 (Se pt e mb e r 20 00 ): 32 38, 40 42 44. 270 W e ll s, Mi ldr e d White U ni ty in Di vers i ty : Th e Hi s t ory of th e General Federation of Wom e n s C lub s Wash in g ton D C.: Genera l Federation of Women 's C lub s 1953 Wha y ne J ea nni e. "' I Hav e B ee n throu g h Fire' : Black Agricultural Extension Agents a nd th e Politics of Negotiation In Afr i can A m e ri c a n Lif e in th e Rur a l South 1 9001950 ed R Dou g l as Hurt 15 21 88. Co lumbia a nd London: U ni ve r s i ty ofM i sso u r i Pr ess 2003. Whitlo ck, Ralph A Shor t Hi s t ory of Farming in Britain London : John Baker 19 65. Wiebe, Rob e rt. Th e Sear c h for Ord e r New York: Hill a nd Wan g 1 968. W illi a m s Don a ld B. Agr i c u lt ural Ex t e nsion : Farm E x t e n s ion in Aus t ralia Brit ai n a n d th e Uni t e d Sta t e s of Am e ri c a Me lb ourne: Melbourne U ni ve r s i ty Pr ess 196 8. Wil so n C Anne Pre se r v in g Food to Pre serve L i fe: T h e R es pon se to G lu t a nd Famine from Ea rl y Times to the E nd of th e M iddl e Ages." In Wa s t e Not Wan t Not : Food Pr ese rvation.from Ear l y Tim e s t o th e Pres e nt Day e d. C. A nn e Wilson 5 3 1. E dinbur g h : Ed inbur g h University Press 19 89 Winchip S u sa n "G r een D es i g n for a H ea lth y a nd Safe E n v ironm e nt. Journal of Famil y and Con s um e r S c i e n ces 95 (2003) : 26 32 Wolfe, Audra. How Not to E l ectroc u te the Fanner': Assessing Attitudes Towards E l ect rifi ca ti on o n A m e ri can Fa nn s 1 920 -1940 ." Agri c ultural Hi t or y 74 (Sp rin g 2000): 5 I 5 -5 29 Workin g wi th Low So c io-E c onomi c Famili e s and Group s in -S e rvi ce Trainin g for E x t e n ion H om e E c onomi s t s Apri l 1 3-17 1964 Wosk Julie. Wom e n and th e Ma c hin e : R e pr ese ntation s fr o m th e Spinning Wh ee l l o th e E l ec troni c Ag e. Ba l timore and Lo ndon : Johns Hopkins U ni ver i ty Pre 2001 www.e di s .i fa ufl e du (28 Septem b e r 2005) www.hill s b o roughfc ifa .ufl. e du (30 Sep t e mb e r 2005) www.wo rld wa t e rd ay.o r g ( I O Ju l y 2005) Yo un g Arth ur. G e n e ra l Vi e w of th e Agri c ultur of th e Count y o f Suff o lk. London : Macmi ll an 1 797

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BI RAPHI A L S K ET H Afte r K e ll Min o r g r a du a t e d fro m N i ce ill e Hi g h c h o l in 1 992, h e bega n he r co ll ege ca r ee r with a n A o c i a t e' d eg r ee at Okalo o a -W a lt o n ommuni ty o ll ege, and t h e n c ompl e t e d a b ac h e l o r s d eg r ee in Hi s to ry E du ca t i on at U ni ve r s i ty of W es t F l or id a in P e n aco la U W F pr ove d a m os t r ew ardin g co ll ege c hoi ce, fo r th e r e s h e m e t a nd l ea rn e d from t a l e nt e d int e r e t e d fac ul ty w h o h e lp e d g uid e h e r t owa rd h e r c urr e nt r e ea r c h i n rura l r efo rm h e d ec id e d t o ea rn h e r m as t e r d eg r ee tow ard t eac h i n g a t th e co ll ege l eve l a nd c h ose to stay a t U WF fo r it. Th e M .A. in Hi s t ory co mpl e t e in I 999 s h e pur u e d h e r Ph D ., th is t im e a t U ni ve r i ty of Florid a in Ga in esv ill e. It i s th e r e th a t h e r r esea r c h m a tur e d und e r t h e g uid a n ce of F it z Brund age and th e in va lu a bl e co ll a boration o f h e r p ee r s. T h e a uth o r ea rn e d h e r d oc to ra t e in Hi s to ry, w ith a s p ec i a li z ation in Am e ri ca n a g rari a n r efo rm in 2 0 05 27 1

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I certify that I hav e read thi s study and that in m y opinion it conforms to acceptable stan dard s of scho larl y presentation and i s full y adequate, in scope and quality as a dissertation for th e degree of Do c tor of Philo so ph y. Jon Ser(tbach Associate Profes s or of Histor y I certify that I hav e read thi s study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly pre se ntation and i s full y adequate, in sc ope and quali ty, as a dissertation for the d eg ree of Do c tor of Philo sop h y. 4).F.~ W Fitzhugh Brundage Professor of History I certify that I have read thi s study and that in m y opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of sc holarl y pre se ntation and i s full y adequate, in sco p e and quality as a di ssertat ion for the de gree of Doctor of Philo so ph y Associate Professor of History I certify that I have read thi s study and that in m y opinion it conforms to acceptable s tandard s of sc holarl y pr ese ntation and is full y adequate in scope and quali ty, as a di ssertatio n for th e d egree of Doct o r of Philo so ph y. ~a.Jll~J ~McKni g ht Professo r Emeritus of History

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I certify that 1 hav e r ea d this s tudy and that in m y op ini on it conform s to acceptable sta ndard of ch l a rl y pre entat i on and i s full y adequate, in scope and quality a s a di s ertation forthe de g re e of Doctor of Philo ophy ,,:;;:; j MvAz ~ -== Louise New man Associa te Professor of History I certify that I hav e r ead thi s stu d y an d that in m y op ini on it conforms to acceptable standards of cho larl y pre se ntation and is fully ade u ate, in sco p e and quali ty as a di ssertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. nne Jone s Visiting Professor o I certify that I have read this stu d y and that in m y opinion it conforms to acceptable standar d s of scholar l y presentation an d is fully adequate in scope and quali ty, as a di ssertation for th e de gree of Doctor o f Philosophy ~ 1"=--. \JCW 1 c ~ Melissa alker Associate Professor of History and Poli t ic s This di ssertat ion was s ubmitted to the Graduate Facu l ty of the Department of History in the Co llege of Liberal Arts and Sciences and t o th e Graduate S c hool and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor o f Phil oso phy. December 2005 Dean Grad u ate School

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