Experimental manipulation of dependency motivation and its effects on eye contact and measures of field dependency

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Experimental manipulation of dependency motivation and its effects on eye contact and measures of field dependency
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Dependency motivation and its effects on eye contact and measures of field dependency
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Nevill, Dorothy Dell Dobbins, 1935-
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Thesis--University of Florida.
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Bibliography: leaves 63-67.
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by Dorothy Nevill.
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Vita.

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Experimental Manipulation of Dependency Motivation and
Its Effects on Eye Contact and Measures
of Field Dependency


















By

DOROTHY DOBBINS NEVILL


A DISSEVATION' PRESENTED 10 THE SRPADUAT COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVjERSSITY OF FAiRWiDA :. PART IAL
FULFILLMEiN OF TIHE REQLZUKEMN FOR. TiE DECREE OF
DOCTOR OF ?:!LQSoGC2


UNIVERS10 OF 7LORIDA
1971








































To Gale















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I gratefully acknowledge the invaluable aid of Dr. Irwin Silverman,

chairman of my supervisory committee. His suggestions and assistance

during many hours of work have formed an indispensable part of this

these i s.

I am also indebted to the other members of my committee, Drs. Vernon

Van De Riet, Audrey S. Schumacher, Norman N. Market, and Wiliiam W. Purkey,

for their timely criticism and advice.

Thanks are also due to Jean Rosenbaum for her assistance in the

collection of the data and to Bill Eshleman and Cale E. Neevill, Jr.,

for their w;orik in judging the video--tLi>es.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


ACK JNOWLEDGMENTS................................................. i ii

LIST OF TABLES.................................................. vi

A STRACT ................. vii
ABSTRACT........................................................

!NTRODUCT!N .............................................................................


Theory and Definition of Dependency..........
Socialization in Childhcod...............
Definition of Dependency.................
Dependency Motivation........................
lelationship of Dependency and Eye Contact...
Measures of Eye Contact..................
Retarionship of Dependency and Measures of
Field Dependency.........................
Theory of Differentiation...............
Iriterreiatic i.hi p Between Perceptuial
resures of Field Differentiation
and Social Behavior of the Individua
Effect of Dependency Arousal on Field
Dependence .........................
Re~ltiocnhip Between Field Differentiation
and Cye Contact..........................


Sex ifer-cs........ ..............................
e Co:tact...........................................
Sex of c: A Possible Confounding Factor..............
Sie)d Dependency .....................................
e'pa: ; dc Ancy Arousal .................... .... .... ........
i 0iu; i seS .................. ................................

'1! i" HDS ..................................... .................


SLucts.......................
Sr'c du re ...... ............
A, '3 sis of D.ta................


ESULTS ........................................................


1 .. . .


.................


...........












TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)

Page

D ISCUSSION....................................................... 38

Hypothe s s ........................................... 40
Hypothesis 2........................................... 42
Hypothesis 3 ........................................... 47
Hypotheses 4, 5, and 6 ................................ 48

SUMMA RY ......................................................... 51

APPENDICES....................................................... 54

A. INSTRUCTIONS GIVEN Ss ..................................... 55

B. ANAGRAMS USED FOR THE EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS............. 62

REFERENCES....................................................... 63

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................. 68















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1. Initial Setting of Rod and Frame for Each Trial of
the Rod and Frame Test..................................... 29

2. Mean Scores on Measures of Frequency of Eye Contact
Per Three Minutes by Group and Sex (N = 80)................ 32

3. Analysis of Variance for the Effect of Group and Sex
on Frequency of Eye Contact (M = 80)...................... 33

4. Mean Scores on Measures of Duration of Eye Contact
in Inches Per Three Minutes by Group and Sex............... 33

5. Analysis of Variance for the Effect of Group and
Sex on Duration of Eye Contact (N = 80)..................... 34

6. Mean Scores on the Embedded Figures Test by Sex,
Group, and Order .......................................... 34

7. Analysis of Variance for the Effects of Sex, Group,
and Order on the Embedded Figures Test (N = 80)............ 35

8. Mearn Scores on the Rod and Frame fest by Sex, Group,
and Order (N = 80)......................................... 35

9. Analysis of Jarirnce for the Effects of Sex, Group,
a:d Order on the Rod and Frame Test......................... 36

10. Listing of Correlatico Coeffcicints of the Four De-
penency Measures Across All 30 Ss ......................... 37

i'. A Test of Differences Between Variances of the
Cp-.'-dc;.,cy Arousal Group and Control Group on
ir:,,rec s of Frequency and Duration of Eye Contact.......... 41













Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

EXPERIMENTAL MANIPULATION OF DEPENDENCY MOTIVATION AND
ITS EFFECTS ON EYE CONTACT AND MEASURES OF
FIELD DEPENDENCY

By

Dorothy Dobbins Nevill

August, 1971

Chairman: Dr. Irwin Silverman
Major Department: Psychology


The present study attempted to investigate the effect of the

experimental manipulation of dependency motivation upon two measures

of dependence: (a) social dependence as measured by increased amounts

of eye contact, in terms of both frequency and duration, and (b) field

dependency as measured by the Rod and Frame Test and the Embedded

Figures Test.

ihe following hypotheses were tested:

1. Ss under dependency arousal conditions will be more socially

dependent as measured by greater amounts of eye contact than will control

Ss.

2. Ss under dependency arousal conditions will be more field

dependent as measured by both the RFT and the EFT than will control Ss.

3. R.gyardless of experimental conditions, social dependence will

be positively correlated with measures of field dependence.













4. Female Ss '/,il engage in more eye contact than will male Ss.

5. Female Ss will be more field dependent, as measured by both

the RFT and the EFT, than will male Ss.

6. There will be an interaction effect between sex of subject and

levels of dependency. It is expected that dependency arousal will have

a greater effect on both (a) social dependency as measured by greater

amounts of eye contact and (b) field dependency as measured by both the

RFT and the EFT for females than for males.

Ss were 40 male and 40 Female students enrolled in undergraduate

psychology courses at the University of Florida. Half of the female

Ss and half of the male Ss were randomly assigned to the control condi-

tion in which they received help for 20 minutes while trying to solve

a difficult a~-agram. The remaining Ss were assigned to a dependency

arousal condition in which they were given help for the first 10 minutes

of the problem-solving activity and then had this help withdrawn for the

remain:ier of the 20-minute session.

The first hypothesis received partial support. The dependency

arotsal group engaged in significantly greater a-mo:nts of eye contact

tha., did thz control group. There .vas no significant difference on

fr-qI'c;-,c'y m.res. However, due to the possibility that frequency

countss niqct be Tmeasuring another attribute than dependency, such as

an.1r ty, it was concluded i:lat duration measures were by far the clearer

eeosu pohess re s'rcia epemendency.

bhe second hypothesis received strong support on both measures.


vi i













The third hypothesis received partial support. There was a

strong correlation between the two measures of field differentiation

an' between them and the measure of duration of eye contact When

frequency measures were concerned, there was practically no correlation

whatsoever with any of the other measures.

The fourth hypothesis was substantiated for the duration data.

Female Ss spent a greater amount of time looking at the E. However,

a possible confounding factor was present based on the sex of the E.

With the presence of a female E, male Ss conversed in opposite-sex

pairs and female Ss in like-sex dyads.

The Fifth hypothesis received partial support. On the RFT

there was a clear and significant difference between the sexes with males

being more field independent. On the EFT, although they did not reach

significance, the differences were in the expected direction.

The sixth hypothesis was supported in only one instance, the

RFT.

Based on the above results, it was felt that this study offered

strung experimental evidence for the relationship between social de-

,;dcr,.-, as measured by eye contact, and field dependency, and clearly

oencnrstrated that both were affected by the momentary state of depen-

dency neid of the individual.















I NTRODUCT i ON


The purpose of this present research is to examine the effect

of the experimental manipulti f detiation of depe motivation pon two

measures of dependence: (a) social dependence as r-easured by increased

amounts of eye contact and (b) field dependence as measured by the

Rod and Frame Test and the Embedded Figures Test. Although several

other issues shall be investigated and other hypotheses raised, the

above shall incorporate the main thrust of this dissertation.


Thery and Defnit ion of DependeL c


Ssciaiizati n in Childhood

The process of socialization Irefers to the "adoption and inter-

nalization by individuals of values, beliefs, and ways cf perceiving

the world i.hat are shared by a group" (Jones and Gerard, 197, p. 76).

Al though all memberss hoping to enter a new group are required to adjust

to the new standards of that group, the te-in socialization as it is

co I"rnly used in psychological liei raLure deals primnri ly with the

social factors involved in child development. Thus, it is Lo this

itcratLure that this paper will nowV turn.

In 1~38, M'-:ray postulat.,d a need hierarchy which included:

Su.ccorance: To have one's needs g-atiFied by the syrpa-
thtric aid of an allied object. To be nursed, supported,
sus ailed, s-urrounded. protected, oi'Jed, advised, guided,
!ndulged, forgiven, consoled. To reTain close to a devoted
protc:tor. To al,;a's have a supporter. (p. 174)


I






2





Since then a nurturant'attitude on the part of an adult toward a child

has generally been accepted as a significant component both in the

development of dependency in children and in implementing the social-

ization process in general (Bandura end Walters, 1959; Sears, Maccoby

and Levin, 1957). Many investigators of different orientations have

attempted to describe in detail the parent-child interaction which

Facilitates the development of dependency in children.

One such author, Bugjelski (1961), operating from a learning

theory framework, pointed out that the nurturant behavior on the part

of the parent occurred regularly and repeatedly during the time that

the child experienced a state of drive reduction. About one inter-

action he wrote:

Consider a feeding situation where a -mother fondles the
baby while holding the bottle, and cruons a,-ay to the
child, frequently saying, "that's a nice baby," "what a
good, good baby," "wonderful baby," etc. How many
thousands of times does a baby hear the words "good,"
"nice," "wonderful," before it gives up the bottle.
Assuming that the milk is a drive reducer in its own
right we might and do find that the bottle (and the
mother) also becomes a treasured item. We can presume
that the terminology of endearment might also become
associated with responses involved in drive reduction,
such as relaxing. The bottle and the words have be-
co'mi: secondary reinforcers which can then operate out-
side the original learning situation ard strengthen
responses made to other drives. (p. 219)

In turn Jones and Gerard (1967) postulated that the dependency

of the child upori the adult takes two forms: effect dependence and

i or;or;-a :r a dependence The former is based primarily upon the parental

ability to provide or with'!old reinforce'-ments ar:.d is responsible for













the internalization of values. For example, Aronfreed (1964) found

that children began to develop self-criticism when an adult criticized

their behavior at the same time the punishments associated with Lhat

action were terminated. The latter, information jdpendence, is based

upon the child's dependence on others for information about the nature

of reality and results in cognitive socialization.

Focusing on the parent, Beller (1955) hypothesized that parents

and their behavior constituted a complex stimulus situation for the

infant. He assumed that certain aspects of this situation occurred

regularly and repeatedly when the child experienced drive reduction and

therefore acquired reward value by association. He selected certain

parental behaviors which he regarded as essential to the :'ve.-lopment of

an acquired drive for dependency: physical contact, proximity, help,

attention, and recognition in the form of parental praise. These

actions on the part of the parent resulted in the acquisition of

secondary drives on the part of the child: striving for physical con-

tact, seeking for proximity to others, desire for attention from others,

insistence on help from others, and striving for recognition fron others.

Welier found a high correlation between these five aspects of dependent

behavior in clhidr.n and concluded that they were components of a gen-

erai depenJency drive in young children.

co.,ever, a description of the possible processes involved in

the development of de;endency in children is not a sufficient basis

upo-a which to rest an- investigation of the effects of dependency.












Instead what is now needed is a consensus opinion or definition of

what constitutes dependent behavior.


Dei:nitIio- of Deenndencv

Dependent behavior has been defined in many various ways such

as the ability to obtain attentive and ministering responses from others

(Bandura and Walters, 1963), desire for physical contact, or being

capable of obtaining social reinforcement (Hartup, 1963). Although

studies such as that of Beller (1955) mentioned above have found

positive correlations between the various attributes described as de-

penndent behavior in children, there are many sources of possible con-

fusion involved in determining dependent behavior.

Since dependency is culturally defined, behavior that is re-

garded as dependent within one cultural framrev.ork might not be so

defined within another. For example, behavior regarded as excessively

dependent in an adult might be viewed as merely appropriate in a young

child. Furthermore, not only must the social climate under which the

behavior in question is exhibited be taken into consideration, but also

the appr-oariatcness of th: response in regard to the position of the

per'ron to 'h.;',i the behavior is directed. One is required to act dif-

FIe-'n:'l y t.' .,;.rd;' one's c:imploy,-nt superior, say, tha:i towards a co-

,:rk,-. 't diion, the soc al consequences of dependent behavior

s l:cl be oted. Sociopaths frequently use a dependency relationship

as -3~ans of ski ifu7ly n;anipulating the other person.












In spite of these complications all definitions appear to

involve at least one common component, namely, reliance on others for

help, approval, and attention. Perhaps the best summary statement was

made by Sears, Whiting, Nowlis and Sears (1953) who stated that

dependency "refers to a learned motivational system, the behavior

manifestations of which are, help seeking, attention seeking, and

approval seeking" (p. 14).


Dependency Motivation

Although the attributes of dependency have been studied exten-

sively, few studies have attempted to manipulate dependency motivation

directly. A survey of the literature would reveal t.o groups of

studies which have made an attempt to arouse dependency motivation.

3oth of these studies, which are of particular important in the

development of this paper, were based on the hypothesis that the with-

ornp.l of pro; tId help would result in more dependent behavior than

,.olJd the continuation of assistance.

The first of these was a series of experiments by Beller

(1959a; 1959) who wcrked with children. After entering a room in

..-ich there .;as a .ude variety of atcractive toys out of cte child's

reach the E assisted the child by obtaining the toy upon the child's

Cequest. The second time they entered the room, however, the E em-

.arkec cn other tasks and refused the child's requests for help by

:stating, '"!n too busy now." Assuming that this withdrawal of help

.!would increase the level of the child's dependency motivation, Beller












used as a ieasure of dependency the percentage of time spent looking

at the experimenter rather than at the surrounding room. He found

thaL the child's perceptual orientation toward adults wns increased

following dependency arousal. Hle also found that this situation held

true in a naturalistic setting as well as an experimental one. He in-

vestigated behavior displayed by children during therapy sessions that

were characterized by separation experiences with the therapist. The

criteria of separation were the therapist's canceling, postponing or

being late to a session. He found that dependent behavior in the form

of requests for help from their play supervisor increased in children

under this circumstance. Thus Beller's work stands as evidence that

levels of dependency can be aroused in children and that dependency

motivation is increased if, while receiving assistance from an adult,

this help is somehow withdrawn.

Tongas (1964) attempted to devise a procedure similar to Beller's

wh-ich could be used with adults. Two groups of Ss were required to

solve a series of four anagrams, the last of which was extremely diffi-

cult. in the "withdrawal of help" condition, the E assisted the S with

the First three anagrams and for ten minutes during the last one. lie

then left the S to continue alone for ten minutes. In the "help" condi-

Ltio'. te E also aided the S for the first three anagrams, but continued

to hi'!; on the last anagram for the entire twenty ,-inutes. At the con-

cilusicn of the experiment each S in both groups was given TAT cards and

was ,-e:.iesTed o write stories about them. There were significantly













more dependency themes written in the "withdrawal of help" condition than

in the other group. On the basis of Lhese results, Tongas concluded

that this technique was a valid one for arousing dependency motivation.

Thus we see that for adults as well as for children it is possible to

increase the motivation for dependency if, during a period of work, help

is withdrawn. This technique as developed by Tongas was the method of

dependency arousal utilized in the present study.

Having obtained a somewhat clearer definition of the independent

variable of this investigation, i.e., dependency, and a technique for

manipulating it, the next step in the development of this discussion

will be an examT-nation of the relationship between dependency and the

two dependent variables: social dependency, as measured by eye contact,

and field dependency.


Relationship p of Depetndency and Eye Contact

On the Lba-is of our discussion of dependency, it cculd be con-

cluded that the individual who is highly motivated for dependency would

be character zed b;y a strong need to attend to the environi',:'t and to

:e!y upon others for guidance, approval, -.nd support. Consequently,

L!tar person's attention would be focused outward and would be directed

to the various cues that others would emit giving directions on how

to behav~.. One of the most important means of communication in the

irur.verbal r-ealm is that of eye contact. The movements of the eyes

perform r number of essential functions ii, social interaction, of

whii one of the most important is gathering feedback on the other

person's reactions.












Argyle (1967) reports an experiment by Argyle, Laljee, Cook and

.atane which strongly supports the hypothesis that looking behavior is

used to gain information :n the other's response. In this study indi-

viduals w re seated opposite each other in situations which trade it

increasingly more difficult to engage in eye contact, i.e., the viewed

individuJi was seen with dark glasses, a mask with only eyes showing,

and both mask and dark glasses. Under these conditions Ss became pro-

gressively more uncomfortable and desired incros!ng amounts of infor-

mation about the other's response.

Other studies demonstrate that increased amounts of eye contact

are found in individuals who are considered to be more socially depend-

ent. Ex;ine (1963) found that persons who were high in n affiliation

enaged in significantly more mutual glances than did those who were

less affiliative. Beller (1958) found that children who were high

in dependency spent more time looking at the teacher during the nursery

schoci day. Exiine, Gray, and Schuette (1965) found that duration of

l;itual glarn.es was higher in those who were independently judged to have

a hiqh desie to establish warm interpersonal relations. Mobbs (1968)

Fo'nd that extroverts, cathecting the outer world and desiring social

approval, engaged in more locking behavior than did introv'rts, who were

pri::arily c-on:crned with the inner world an-d did rot need as much feed-

back front others. The results reported above suggest that persons who

re- more socially dependent would engage in a greater incidence of shared

glances.

This paper shall atcenmpi to obctin experimental evidence for the

relationship between dependency and eye contact by manipulating dependency












and observing the effect upon eye contact in a subsequent independent

situation. It is hypothesized that increasing amounts of eye contact

will be seen with higher levels of dependency motivation.


measures of Eve Contact

The exact method of measuring eye contact has differed in the

studies mentioned above. In general, however, ticre are two primary means

of assessing eye contact: duration and frequency. Duration measures

refer to the total amount of time spent in looking at another individual.

Frequency measures refer to the number of times the S glanced at another.

A brief perusal of the literature shows that duration measures have been

related to many characteristics that are similar to dependency, for

example, n affiliation (Exline, 1963) and desire to establish warm inter-

personal relations (Exline, Gray, and Schuette, 1965). In contrast

there is much in the literature to suggest that frequency is related to

other processes than dependency. For example, Day (1964) theorized

that eye movement is associated more with Tode of attention and levels

of anxiety. Hodges and Fox (1965) have investigated frequency of eye

contact as a function of arousal and intelligence. Dizney, Rankin,

aid Johnston (1965) found that eye movement was significantly related

to a.n.iety in college females.

In addition, the relationship between frequency of eye contact

&ad toLal duration of eye contact is a complex one. For example, an

i:divid::.l who stared constantly at the E would receive a high duration

score, but ;I latively low frequency score. Conversely, a S who rarely












looked at the E would receive a low duration score, but :would receive

approximately the same frequency score as the above individual.

Although both measures, frequency and duration, .,.ere used in this

study, it was felt that the latter is by far the n-ore valid measure.


Relationship_ of Dependency and
L'easures of: Field Decendenc


1Theory of Differentiation

Within and his associates (Witkin, Dyk, Faterson, Goodenough,

and Karp, 1962) have, after extensive investigation, proposed the

existence of a dimension of psychological functioning which they have

termed "differentiation." Included in this concept are such factors

as analytical ability in both perceptual and intellectual activities,

structuring of experience, articulation of the body, and the nature of

psychological controls and defenses. They postulated that progress

toc;ard differentiation (Field Independence) would be characterized by

ircr:e-sed ability to analyze and structure experience, a more clearly

defir:ed body concept, a growing sense of separate identity, Iand the

development of specialized defenses. In contrast, individuals with

a r,.oorly di ff'rentiseed cognitive style (Field Dependence) would have

a .o;re glo:al perception of the world, a less articulated sense of

t'eir ,-own individuality, and would utilize a less sophisticated method

of epriratin emotions from thought and perception.

w'it'kin's research and that of many other investigators have

shewn his di:.ensioi of field-dependence field-independence to be












) valid personality variable. They have found that field-independent

(i!) individuals consistently view their environment as delineated and

structLred. Parts of a field are seen as discrete and the Field as an

organi 'id w.hole. These individual', are characterized by activity and

i;.dependennce in relation to the environment. The field-dependent (FD)

irdividuai is defined as one who consistently experiences the environ-

ment in a more diffuse manner. The organization of the field as a

',whole dictates the manner in which its parts are experienced. This

person is characterized by passivity in dealing with the environment.

The characteristic that best discriminates between these two personality

types is the better ability of the FI individual to separate an item

from its context, as demonstrated by the Rod and Frame Test (RFT) and

the E:,beddeJ Fig,:res Test (EFT).


Inter:el tic c':hio between Ferce tlual Measiures of Field
Di ffe entiat: in and Sicaai ,ehaivior of the individual

The particular aspect of different iaion with which this paper

shal prima-rily deal is the stronger feeling of sep-rate I'(-;.tity

which distingu ishes the Fi person frori the fiF one. This ,r',:wing sense

cf sCparate identity is the "'ouLcore of a person's develCopIent of

a.'.ar .ess of his :Jw,: needs, feelings, and attributes, and his identi-

fi.:ation of th-se as distinct from the needs, feelings, and attributes

of ochers' (Witkin et al., 1562, p. 134). It implies that the indi-

vidual has available certain internal frames of reference which are

utilized in defining the self a'd in reacting to the surrounding g

milieu. itl-i hypothesized that there were two general areas of

behavior in which this sense of separate identity was manifest.













Fi rst, he proposed that,due to the existence of inner frames of

reference, an individual ho had a highly developed sense of separate

ide.titi (Fi) would be capable of functioning in a social situation

with relatively less dependence upon others for guidance and support.

In contrast the FD individual vould more readily seek approval from

others.

Research investigating this ability to interact in social

situations in an independent manner is extensive. Witkin et al.(1962)

have found that children with a relatively global field approach (FD)

tended to seek the guidance of the examiner in a relatively unstruc-

tured testing situation significantly more often than did children with

a more differentiated mode of field approach (FI). Using a modified

Thurstone-type scale, Gordon (1953) found that FD individuals tended

to judge themselves and to be judged by others as socially dependent.

Another approach to dependent attitudes was used by Pemberton (1952)

who, in a factor-analytic study, ascertained a positive relationship

between dependent attitudes and perceptual performance. FI individuals

tended to be "ambitious" and "logical" while FD Ss were classified as

"dependent on the good opinion of others." Bell (1955) developed

a scale of related clusters of attitudes. Her hypothesis that those

with a diffuse cognitive style (FD) would score near the other-

directed pole of the scale and that Ss with a more articulated cogni-

tive style (Fl) would score near the inner-directed pole of the scale

was confirmed.

Two studies (Meresko, Mandel, Shoutz, and Morrow, 1954; Bieri,

1360) have attempted to show a connection between authoritarianism and













field differentiation. In general, they found positive correlations

between field-dependency and categories such as "acceptance of

authorityy" "traditionalism,' ano "intolerance of ambiguity."

Secondly, Witkin hypothesized that FI individuals, relying to

a greater extent upon their own inner frames of reference, would be

less susceptible to influences from other individuals and would,

therefore, be less prone to imitate their behavior. Furthermore,

since they wouid be more dependent upon their own self-view than upon

the example set by others, their behavior would be relatively con-

sistent in a wide variety of situations. In contrast, individuals

with a less well-developed sense of separate identity (FD), relying

more on external cues, would be more likely to pattern their behavior

after those around them.

Support for the proposition that FI Ss would be less apt to

copy the behavior of others comes from two main sources. First, there

are the studies which deal with the confonnance to group pressure by

individuals varying along the field-independence field-dependence

continuum. A comprehensive study by Linton (1955) found that individ-

uals with a global cognitive style (FD) were more prone to change their

judgment about the autokinetic phenomenon in order to agree with the

judgment of a planted confederate. In an extension of this study, it

was found that Ss who changed their opinion when it conflicted with

that attributed to an authority were significantly more FD than Ss

who showed no change (Linton and Graham, 1959). Rosner (1957) inves-

tigated the relation between performance in an Asch-type group pressure












situation and field differentiation as measured by the EFT. Conforming

Ss tended to be more FD. M"akamura (1958) measured the ability to solve

insight problems requiring restructuring in a group of college students.

On the basis of this test he designated Ss as either high or low FD

and engaged them in a Crutchfield group pressure situation. He found

a significant relationship between low levels of field differentiation

and extent of conformity for men, but not for women.

Two other studies which should be mentioned in this context

have to do with the susceptibility of individuals to modeling in a less

structured manner. Rudin and Stagner (1958), using rating scales

adapted from Osgood's Semantic Differential, had individuals perceive

th::nselves in each of four different situations and to rate themselves

accordingly. FD _Ss tended to fluctuate more widely in their self-views

in the different contexts. FI Ss were less influenced by changes in

the imaginary settings. Another study (McFall and Schenkein, 1970)

attempted to relate field differentiation as measured by PFT and a

Concealed Figures TEST (CFT) with experimenter expectancy effects on

a photo-rating task. Ss who were ranked as highly FD on the CFT

showed significant expectancy effects.

The evidence gathered so far indicates that there is an inter-

relationship hetwoen the perceptual measure of field differentiation

3nd the social behavior of the individual. The FI individual tends

to int-ract in social situations in an independent manner and to be less

prone to imitate the behavior of others, while the FD individual reacts

in a nore dependent manner. Witkin contends that such a relationship












between perceptual modes and social behavior exists because the sane

factors are involved in the perception of the social aspects of the

field as in the perception of its physical properties. Thus, it would

be expected that an individual's cognitive style would be related to

other aspects of social behavior such as dependency in general, which

is an essential premise for the development of the hypothesis to follow.


Effect of Dedendenc Arousal on Field Dependence

Witkin has suggested that the cognitive style of the individual

is a stable and unchangeable characteristic. He has based this con-

clusion on two main areas of research. The first are longitudinal

studies which have been conducted primarily in his laboratory. College

students were administered a battery of perceptual and personality

tests and then were retested three years later. Test-retest correla-

tiors were quite high, ranging from 0.66 to 0.97 (Witkin et al., 1962,

p. 370). Another approach to the study of the stability of field

approach is found in the attempt to bring about changes in the type of

field differentiation through experimental manipulation such as the

ajministraticn of drugs or the utilization of special training. After

sLrv2.'yr,. the studies which had been rone up to that time, the authors

ccncluced that "the studies of the effect of drugs, stress, and train-

i,, suLaest that the mode of field approach is, on the whole, resistant

co change by experimental means, and thus appears to be a stable charac-

teristic of the person" (Witkin et al., 1962, p. 373).

However, subsequent research has tended to negate this hypothe-

sis and has een s'ccessfu1 in altering the level of field dependence.












Cie of tihe earliest was a study of Jacobson (1966) .-who demonstrated

that brief sensory deprivation would act to increase perceptual field

independence in female ar... male college students. Other environmental

effects were seen by As~rup (1968) who tested two groups of student

miners on the RFT both before and after a shift underground. She

found that those who had longer previous mine experience were more

field independent than those who had only had brief exposure to such

an environment. Furthermore, although the performance of the experi-

enced miners did not change between the two tests, the naive group

scored significantly higher on the second test. She concluded that

the environment was effective in producing a change in the test per-

formance of the second group.

Special attention has been focused on chronic alcoholics who,

as a group, manifest a particularly high level of perceptual field

dependence. Goldstein and Chotlos (1966) have found a decrease in

field dependence in this group during a three-month period of hospi-

talization and treatment. JaobLson (1968) Found a significant reduc-

tion in field dependence in alcoholics after a brief period of

perceptual isolation. Another study (Kristofferson, 1968) investi-

gated the stability of mode of field approach when alcohol was ingested

by nonalcoholic Ss. She found a significant increase in perceptual

depe(.',ce for the experimental group (alcohol), but not for the control

group (no-alcohol).

Thus, there appears to be ample evidence to suggest that the level

of p.erceoptLl differentiation is resprosive to situational pressures.













In a second aspect of this study the effects of dependency arousal upon

field differentiation ,,ere evaluated for two purposes:

(1) To obtain experimental evidence for the relationship be-

tween dependency and field dependency, and

(2) To assess whether field differentiation is effected by

the momenitary state of dependency need of the individual.


Relationship Between Field Differentiation
and Eye contact

One area of investigation has centered around the looking be-

havior of individuals varying along the field-dependence field-independence

dimension. In general, it has been found that FD individuals attend more

closely to the faces of those around them. Beller (1958) studied the

relationship between field differentiation and the attention shcwn to

an individual upon whom one is dependent. Observations were made of

nursery school children in several situations: highly structured (meal-

tire), ;u'odrately structured (work-time), and relatively unstructured

(play-time). Measures were taken of the focus of the children's gazes.

It was found that children who were high in field dependency tended to

look more in the direction of the teacher during all the various situa-

tions. This phenomenon was stronger for girls than for boys. Another

study (Konstadt and Forman, 1965) found that,when taking a test under

stress condi-tions, children who were FI spent relatively less time

looking at the teacher than those who were FD. Moreover, Crutchfield,

\'corworth, and Albrecht (1953) demonstrated that adults with a global

f:"ld approach (FD) were better able to identify the pictures of officers












with who:- they h:d previously spent time. Further evidence that FD

individuals spend more time in looking at the persons with whom they

are interacting comes from a study by Messick and Da.marin (1964) who

showed that, when the material consisted of human faces, FD Ss showed

larger amounts of incidental learning than did FI Ss. However, the

opposite condition was found when nonhuman material was used (Witkin

et a)., 1962).

Because cf this demonstrated relationship, one of the conclu-

sions of this pa:pr would be that field dependency is directly related

to magnitude of eye contact.


Sex Differences


Eye Contact

In previous studies it has generally been shown that females

en;gage in more Iooking behavior than do males. In two early studies

(;xline, T;:;baut, Brannon, and Gumpert, P961; Exline, 1963), it was

fou-id ,hat women looked significantly more at one another then did men

;n 1 1 three conditions of speaking, being spoken to, and during mutual

cover' at .'r,. E, n ine and W iters (1965) found that females engaged in

:ckxing be-,avior some 25 per cein of the total time while speaking and

94 per cent of the time while listening, whereas males looked 16 per

*enrt while -peaking and 82 per cent while listening. overve, it must

'e e, phasized that all of this i-.i-s-arch was done with same sex pairs

andi with the interviewer being instructed to gaze constantly at the S.












Additional evidence for sexual differences in eye contact was

found by Argyle and Dean (1965) who used same sex pairs and opposite

sex pairs. In both situations it was found that female subjects con-

sistently exhib:ced rore frequent and more lengthy amounts of eye con-

tact than did males although the differences were nonsignificant.

Several variables have been suggested to influence the looking

behavior of each sex. During conditions in which the interaction is

rupleas nt, -boh males and females tend to decrease their looking

behavior, but females more so (Exline, Gray, and Schuette, 1965).

While speaking to evaluators, women tend to increase their looking

behavior with the preferred evaluator and decrease it with the non-

preferred evaluator (Exline and Winters, 1965).

Based co this data it is expected that this present investiga-

tion will replicate the often observed phenomena of greater amounts of

ey' contact for females than for males.


Sex of E: A Possible Confoundina Factor

Two female Es conducted this study. The first E presented a

series of .naarams to each individual S and then either continued

gi'.v;ng help or withdrew help in the same p;anner as Tongas (1964). The

second E interviewed the S and then collected the data. Since female

is were used, !.ale Ss were engaged in opposite sex pairs, while female

Ss worked in like-sex dyads. This difference should have had an effect

on perforrni'cnce by male and female Ss.












Stevenson and Alen (1964) found in a marble-sorting task that

opposite sex pairs of college age students resulted in both better

performance and higher anxiety levels o, the part of Ss. The same

effects w.ere found by Stevenson and Knights (1962), using the same task,

Ahen thel 5s '.ere mentally retarded, averaging an IQ of less than 60.

Argyle and Dean (1965) have shown that there is considerably more eye

contact in like sexed pairs than in opposite sex pairs. Two studies

(Friedman, 1964; Katz, 1964) have shown that like sexed pairs exchange

more than twice as many glances as opposite sex pairs. Consequently,

it was anticipated that it would be difficult to sort out how much of

any differences between the sexes found in this study would be due to

sexual difference and how much would be due to a difference between

like ard opposite sex pairs. In this study then there was a possible

confounding factor of sex of on both frequency and duration measures.


;ield ..". nde endcn

A consistent finding in the investigation of individual dif-

ferences has been that women tend to be more field dependent than men

on any of the standard measures. In an early study, Wlitkin (1949)

utilized a battery of perceptual tests which included (1) EFT, (2) RFT,

(3) The tilting room-tilting chair tests, (4) A test of ability to

stand straight without swaying in a dark room with a luminous cube

swaying ba ci arnd corth, (5) A test of ability to balance on a platform

wiLlh the luminous cube moving as the only visual field, (6) A test of

Obiiicy to locate the direction frjm which a story comes as the sound












is moved from where E is reading to the other side of S's head. Using

a sample of adult ren and women, he found that women did less well on

all tasks. Confirming data vere also found by Witkin ( 950). Tlhe

Gottschaldt Figures which required the S to find a simple design

er:bedded in a more complex design were given to 51 women and 51 men,

all of college age. Females on the average took more time than men

in finding the figure and were more likely to be unable to find it

within the five-ninute time limit. Women .were slightly more variable

fromi trial to trial. Further studies (3ieri, Bradburn, and Galinsky,

1953; Gross, 1959; Vaught, 1968; Boersma, Muir, Wilton, and Barham,

1969; Vaught, 1970) have confirmed the earlier findings of greater

field dependence for women. However, the differences are small when

compared with variations within sex.

Thcse findings have been generalized to other cultures. New-

bigging (11'h) using the EFf reported significant sex differences in

the expected direction for a group of English Ss. With the same popu-

lation, but usiC, the RFT, Bennett (1956) also found women to be

si;ni ficantly ;ore Field dependent than men.

Hc;ever, using perceptual tests similar to the RFT and EFT,

Crudden (1l;;) suggested that there is no difference in perceptual

differe.ntiati'n; between girls and boys younger than eight yearsof age.

Tl-ere is also eviHence to suggest an abse,.ce of sex differences in

g-riatr-ic groups (Sch-wartz and Karp, 1960)

Sincc the population chosen for this study is a college age one,

it is expected that the usual greater an.ourts of field dependency for

fe-in les than; f1or rnaies will be replicated.












Diende-ncy Arousal

Individuals who are highly dependent tend to be greatly responsive

to the environment and to seek approval, guidance, and aid from others.

Thus, they would be apt to closely attend to the communications of the E,

to rely upun any assistance obtained and be greatly affected when such

help was term.1nated. However, in contrast, the low dependent person,

relying to a greater extent upon internal motivation and controls, would

make less use of the assistance of E and would be less susceptible to

changes in effect when that help was withdrawn. Thus, the two groups,

i.e., high dependent and low dependent individuals, would be differ-

entially affected in the dependency arousal condition. Since previously

mentioned studies have shown that females tend to be both more socially

and perceptually dependent, it could be expected that they would be m-re

susceptible to a dependency arousal condition and would tend to have

differentially increased amounts of eye contact and dependency scores

on the RFT and EFT than males under such a situation. Some support for

this position is seen in Tongas's (1964) study of the effects of depen-

dency motivation on persuasibility when he Found that the dependency

arousal condition increased persuasibility for high but not for low

dependent Ss.


lyothe~'ses

rhe specific hypotheses of the present study are as follows:

1. S- under dependency arousal conditions will be imore socially

dcrpendent as measured by greater amounts of eye contact than will control

S',.












2. Ss under dependency arousal conditions will be more field

dependent as measured by both the PFT and the EFT than will control Ss.

3. Regardless of experimental condition, social dependence will

be positively correlated with measures of field dependence.

41. Female Ss will engage in more eye contact than will male Ss.

5. Female Ss will be more field dependent as measured by both

the RFT and the EFT than will male Ss.

6. There will be an interaction effect between sex of subject

and levels of depe,.dency. it is expected that dependency arousal will

have a greater affect on both (a) social dependency as measured by

greater ai-oui:ts of eye contact, and (b) field dependency as measured

by both RFT and EFT for females than for males.















METHODS


Subjects

Ss were 40 male and 40 female students enrolled in undergraduate

introductory psychology courses at the University of Florida. Their

participation in the experiment fulfilled one of the requirements of

the psychology courses. Ss were seen individually and were divided

into experimental and control conditions with an equal number of males

and females in each. This stipulation resulted in four groups of twenty

Ss each: female experimental, female control, male experimental, and

mile control. Ss were assigned randomly to each experimental condition.


Procedure

The experiment was conducted by two Es. The first, El, assigned

each individual S to one of the four conditions and administered the

experimental manipulation. The second, E2, who knew nothing of the

nature of the experim-nnt and had no knowledge of the experimental con-

dition assigned to each S, collected the data from each individual S.

After entering the experimental room and being seated, each S

.'as told that th' experiment consisted of a series of problem-solving

t-skis which w.,cd take approximately one hour and that the experiment

w.s di.'ideJ :n:o two parts, the current experimenter conducting the

first part and another experiimenter, the second. (For detailed instruc-

tions for entire experiment, see Appendix A.)












All Ss were given a series of four anagrams devised by Tongas

(1964) and were instructed to put the words together as quickly as possi-

ble in order to make a sensible sentence. (For anagrams, see Appendix B.)

The first three were simple sentences which were relatively easy to solve.

Tongas found that all Ss were able to solve them in no more than three

minutes. The fourth anagram, a long and complicated sentence taken from

a psychology book (Bugelski, 1961, p. :-0), was very difficult to solve

and necessitated the assistance of El vwho complied by furnishing the S

the next word in the sentence at the rate of one word per minute for

ten minutes. Tongas found that no S was able to complete this anagram

in the allotted time.

It is at this point that the treatment of Ss under experimental

and control condi';ons differed. The control group continued to receive

the help of El in the previously mentioned manner for ten additional

minutes. The experimental or dependency arousal gruup was interrupted

oy a phone caii activated by El by means of a concealed button. El

an:;'.;e-cd the phone, after apologizing to the S, and engaged in a con-

.ersation' which made it obvious that El did not wish to leave the

testing situation, but must. After expressing regrets and telling the

S to continue, El departed and left the S to work on the problem for

an a'Jdtlionl ten minutes. After this period of time, El returned to

,lh-e experimental room. For both groups, at the end of the twenty--minute

working period on the fourth anagra-m, El noted that the time was up and

insr.i-!cted ihe S to discontinue working on the problem. E1 then left

the ro;:", returned with F2: and introduced her to the S as the person













who would conduct the second part of the experiment. E2 then proceeded

to collect the data.

The first measure made was that of eye contact. E2 began a con-

versation which included the following questions:

1. How do you feel about taking tests like these?

2. What did you feel like taking the test that you just finished?

3. What made you choose this particular experiment rather than

another?

4. Have you ever participated in experiments of this nature

before? (If the answer is yes) How many? Please describe one of them

to me. (If the answer is no) Please tell me about the psychology class

that you are taking.

Akditicnai coi:.:ents were made at E2's discretion in order to ensure that

the conversation flowed smoothly. This conversation continued for three

minutes and was filmed by a SONY Video-Tape placed on the viewing side of

a one-way mirror and operated by El.

The next two tests were an attempt to measure any differences be-

tween the two groups in measures of field dependency. The tasks adninis-

tered were the Rod and Frame Test (RFT) and the Embedded Figures Test

(EFT). Since there was no indication for what length of time an indi-

vidual miiht stay in a state of dependency arousal after the experimental

manipulation, the next two tasks, being each rather lengthy, were alter-

nated- so that one-half of the females and cne-half of the males in both

the dependency arousal and the control group received the EFT first and

the RFT second. The renaininig Ss received the tests in the reverse order.












The EFT was adrinisterd in the following manner. Each S was

required to find simple geometric figures in a series of complex designs.

The test materials consisted of three sets of cards: two sets of twelve

cards with Complex Figures, numbered consecutively in order for test pre-

senta-ion, and a set of eight cards with Simple Forms, designated by letters

A to H. There was also one Practice Complex Figure card and an accompanying

card with the Simple Practice Form. The EFT used was a standardized set

devised by Witkin and sold by Consulting Psychologists Press. Through

the extensive use that has been made of the test, considerable evidence

has accumulated on its reliability and validity and ways have been sug-

gested of shortening the test and reducing the time required for its

administration (Witkin, 1969). In place of the original format of twenty-

four figures with five minutes' search time allowed per trial, it has been

shown to be clearly adequate to use only twelve figures (the first twelve

of the original series of twenty-four) and a three-minute time limit per

trial without affecting the test's reliability. This shortened form was

the one that was used in this experiment.

The procedure used was to first present the complex figure for

fifteen seconds, then the appropriate simple figure.for ten seconds,

and finally, the complex one again, with instructions to locate the simple

figure in it. One practice item was allowed before the actual testing

began. The S was timed in this task and the score recorded was the time

taken to locate the simple figure. There was a three-minute time limit

per trial. The S was required to trace around the outline of the figure













in order to demonstrate that the simple figure had indeed been seen.

While searching for the simple figure, the S was allowed to reexamine

the copy of it as ofcen as desired. However, the complex figure and

the simple figure were never seen simultaneously and the S was dis-

couraged from taking more than ten seconds for each reexamination.

Any time taken for reexamination was not included in the final score.

The RFT was conducted in a second experimental room. A Marietta

18-10 Rod and Frame device was used which consisted of a 43-inch square

frame mounted on a black shield and a 41-inch rod. The angle orientation of

both the rod and frame could be operated either separately or together through

the use of controls placed in back of the shield. Both the rod and the

frame were covered with flourescent paint which was activated by an ultra-

violet licht source located five feet in front of the device. A flat

black background was provided for the rod and frame.

The S was escorted into this room and was prevented from seeing the

experimental apparatus by a screen. After being comfortably seated in a

chair 80-inches from the rod and frame, the S was requested to remain with

eyes closed and covered with a mask in order to become dark adapted. The

lights were then turned off so that the experimental room was completely

darkened. The S was required to remain for four minutes with blindfold

in place before the first trial was administered. During this period E2

read the instructions for the test. E2 sat behind a shield, out of sight

with respect to the S, and in a position which rendered easy access to the

controls. At the end of the four-minute time period, the S was requested

to remove the blindfold. The S was then given a series of eight trials












under the conditions seen in Table 1.


Table I

Initial Setting of Rod and Frame for Each Trial
of the Rod and Frame Test


Frame Setting Rod Setting

Trial 1 280 28

Trial 2 280 3320

Trial 3 3320 3320

Trial 4 3320 280

Trial 5 280 280

Trial 6 280 3320

Trial 7 3320 3320

Trial 8 3320 280



At the e,:d of each crial the S was required to lower the mask while E2

recorded the angular placement of the rod.


Anal)_sis of Data

The video-tape of the three-minute conversation between E2 and

the S .-s scored at the conclusion of the experiment by two judges,

using a:i event recorder to measure both frequency and duration of eye

contact. No atte:.,ot /as made to differentiate between eye contact

while .listening or speaking., One of the judges w.as a graduate student

in engineering; the other, a professor. Neither of the judges had any












,kno.wledge of the experimental condition assigned to each S. Frequency

datawere obtained by counting the number of times that the S looked

at E2. The duration data weie oL'tained in the following .mnner. Since

the three-minute conversation was equivalent to 18 inches on the event

recorder, it was decided to record as the duration score the cumulative

amount of time spent in eye contact as measured linearly by the event

recorder. Consequently, the reporting of duration of eye contact was

done in inches, not minutes. For example, a duration score of nine would

mean that one-half of the time was spent by the S in looking at E2.

Pearson Product Moment Correlations were computed on the ratings

of the two judges from the 80 Ss in order to determine reliabilities of

the frequency and duration measures.

Computation of field differentiation measures was relatively

straightforward. The S's score for the EFT was the sum of the times

taken to locate the simple figure in all twelve complex designs. The

S's score for the RFT was the total number of degrees of angular dis-

placement found on all eight trials.

Hypothesis 1, which stated that Ss under dependency arousal con-

ditions would he more socially dependent as measured by greater amounts

of eye contact than control Ss,and hypothesis 4,which stated that female

Ss would engage in more eye contact than male Ss, were tested by 2 x 2

analyses of variance for sex and dependency arousal using both the

measures of frequency and duration of eye contact.

Hypothesis 2, which stated that S under dependency arousal con-

ditions would be more field dependent as measure by both the RFT and the












EFT than control Ss, and hypothesis 5, which staCed that female Ss

would be more field dependent as measured by both the RFT and the EFT

than nale Ss, were tested by 2 x 2 x 2 analyses of variance for sex,

test order, and dependency arousal using the scores of both the RFT and

che EFT.

Hypothesis 3, which stated that regardless of experimental con-

diticn, social dependence, i.e., eye contact, would be positively cor-

related with measuresof field dependence, was tested by correlating

the various measures of each to each other.

Hypothesis 6, which stated that there would be an interaction

effect between sex of S and levels of dependency in that females in

the dependency arousal condition would be nore greatly affected than

males on all four measures, was tested by the interaction effects in

the various ANOVAS.














RES U LTS


Pearson Product Moment Correlations computed on the ratings of

the two judges for the 80 Ss for both the measures of frequency

(_r = .9561) and duration (r = .9865) were highly positive. Consequently,

it was felt permissible LO pool the readings of the two judges on each

S and to use the obtained means as the frequency and duration scores

for each S.

A 2 x 2 analysis of variance was utilized to determi-,e the effect

of sex and group on the measure of frequency of eye contact. Group

effect refers to the division of Ss into the dependency arousal group

or the control group and sex effect refers to the sex of the S. Table

2 presents the mean scores and Table 3 presents the analysis of variance.


Table 2

Mean Scores on Measures of Frequency of Eye Contact
Per Three Minutes by Group and Sex (N = 80)


Sex
Fema le Male

Dependency Group 27.88 31.30

Control Group 24.41 27.20






33





Table 3

Analysis of Variance for the Effect of Group and Sex
on Frequency of Eye Contact (N = 80)



Sum of Mean
Source Squares df Squares F

Group 192.2620 1 192.2620 2.12

Sex 286.4488 1 286.4488 3.18

Group X Sex 1.9845 1 1.9845 .02

Error 6849.6994 76 90.1276



A 2 x 2 analysis of variance was utilized to determine the effect

of sex and group on the measure of duration of eye contact. Definitions

of main effects were the same as in the frequency analysis. Table 4

presents the mean scores and Table 5 presents the analysis of variance.




Table 4

Mean Scores on iMeasures of Duration
of Eye Contact in Inches Per
Three Minutes* by Group and Sex


Sex
Fema e Male

Dependency Group 12.23 8.86

Concrol Group 10.84 7.50


-Three minutes = 18 inches.












Table 5

Analysis of Variance for the Effect of Group and Sex
on Duration of Eye Contact (" = 80)



Sum of Mean
Source Squares df Squares F


Group 224.3599 1 224.3599 25.02*

Sex 37.8247 1 37.8247 4.22**

Group X Sex .0046 1 .0046 .00

Error 681.6539 76 8.9691



*p < .001

**p < .05



A 2 x 2 x 2 analysis of variance was utilized to determine the

effect of sex, group, and order on the EFT. Group effect refers to the

division of Ss into either the dependency arousal or the control group,

sex effect refers to the sex of the S, and order effect refers to

whether the RFT or the EFT was presented first. Table 6 presents the

:.an scores and Table 7 presents the analysis of variance.


Table 6

Nhr:an Scores on the Embedded Figures Test
by Sex, Group, and Order

Sex
Female Male
EFT-RFT RFT-EFT EFT-RFT RFT-EFT
Dep-indaecy Group 694.5 500.8 232.2 435.8
Control Group 253.1 273.0 364.2 270.9












Table 7

Analysis of Variance for the Effects of Sex, Group,
and Order on the Embedded Figures Test
(N = 80)



Sum of Mean
Source Squares df Squares F


Sex (A)
Order (B)
Group (C)
AX B
AX C
B X C
AX BX C
Error


116205.0125
39117.0125
831300.3125
35574.6125
42090.3125
170662.8125
197110.5125
4120211.3000


116205.0125
39117.0125
831300.3125
35574.6125
42090.3125
170662.8125
197110.5125
57225.1569


*p 4 .001


A 2 x 2 x 2 analysis of variance was utilized to determine the

effect of sex, group, and order on the RFT. Definitions of main effects

are the same as in the presentation of EFT data. Table 8 presents the

-ican scores and Table 9 presents the analysis of variance.


Table 8

Mean Scores on the Rod and Frame Test by
Sex, Group, and Order (N = 80)

Sex
Females Males
.....EFT-RFT RF__,. T-.EFT_ EFf_-_RFT RFT-E.FL
p2:cdency Group 32.3 26.6 17.5 16.2
Control Group 11.9 15.8 11.6 14.3


2.03
.68
14.53*
.62
.73
2.98
3.44












Table 9

Analysis of Variance for the Effects of Sex, Group
and Order on the Rod and Frame Test
(N 80)


Sum of Mean
Source Squares df Squares F

Sex (A) 911.25 1 911.25 6.10*

Order (B) .20 1 .20 .01

Group (C) 1901.25 1 1901.25 12.72**

A X B 12.80 1 12.80 .09

A X C 684.45 1 684.45 4.58**-

B X C 231.20 1 231.20 1.55

A X B X C 39.20 1 39.20 .26

Error 10759.60 72 149.44


.025
.C01
.05


Correlation studies which compare the four dependency measures

among themselves are presented in Table 10.


pP












Table 10

Listing of Correlation Ccefficients of the Four Dependency
Measures Across All 80 Ss



Embedded
Figures Rod and Frame Frequency Duration

Embedded Figures 1.0000 .4139* .0035 .2231**

Rod and Frame 1.0000 .0293 .3037*

Frequency 1.0000 -.0236

Duration 1.0000


*p < .01

-'*p < .05















DISCUSSION


As was stated in the introduction, che primary purpose of the

present research was to examine the effect of the experimental manipu-

lation of dependency motivation upon two measures of dependence:

(a) social dependence as measured by increased amounts of eye contact

and (b) field dependence as measured by the Rod and Frame Test and the

Embedded Figures Test. Hypothesis 1 pertained to the former and

Hypothesis 2 to the latter. The finding that both social dependency

and field dependency were significantly affected by the manipulation

of dependency motivation is considered to be the major contribution of

this paper. Consequently, Hypotheess I and 2 shall be discussed in

some detail. However, since the relationship between the measure of

frequency and duration so strongly affects any of our conclusions

concerning social dependency as measured by eye contact, the correla-

tional stqdic-: relating these two measures shall be presented first.

A zero order correlation was found between the two measures

of eye contact: frequency and duration. A possible explanation lies

in t!0e complex relationship between the two measures. The amount of

movement of the eyes, though certainly affecting the duration measure,

does not do so in any systematic manner. In some cases the correla-

tion could be positive. For example, if the S engaged in frequent,

but very brief glances away from the E, the result would be both a high

frequency score and a high duration score. Another way in which the two












treasures would be positively correlated would be if the S stared fixed-

ly away from the E. In this case both the frequency score and the

duration score would be very low. However, in other cases the correla-

tion between the two measures may be negative. For example, if the S

stared fixedly at the E_, the frequency score would be low and the dura-

tion score high. A high frequency, low duration score could be obtained

if the S made frequent, but exceedingly brief,glances at the E. Thus,

these two opposing effects may have yielded the zero order correlation

found in this study.

If these two measures are not correlated to each other, it is

conceivable that they are not measuring the same attribute. Several

studies mentioned previously (Day, 1964; Hodges and Fox, 1965; Dizney,

Rankin, and Johnson, 1969) have suggested that frequency of eye con-

tact, rather than revealing a state of dependency, is a measure of

traits similar to anxiety.

If frequency data might be measuring something other than de-

pendency, what evidence is there that duration data are indeed measuring

dependency? There are two sources of evidence. First is the clear

linkage of duration measures to characteristics that are similar to

dependency such as n affiliation (Exline, 1963) and desire to establish

warm interpersonal relations (Exline, Gray, and Schuette, 1965). The

second source of evidence stems from the nature of dependency and the

hypothesized function of looking behavior. If dependency is indeed

manifested by "help seeking, attention seeking, and approval seeking"

behaviors (Sears, Whiting, Nowlis, and Sears, 1953, p. 14), then one of












the aims of interpersonal cunmunication should be to obtain this needed

help, attention, and approval. Since the eyes serve as one of the

primary means of establishing contact (Tomkins, 1963), they can best

meet the needs of help, attention, and approval by gathering visual

cues as to the other person's responses. This can only be accomplished

by actually gazing at the individual. Consequently, it can be reasoned

that the total percentage of time spent looking at another individual

is a very effective measure of the dependency state of the viewer.

The evidence mentioned above suggests that frequency and duration

measures are not equally potent means of assessing dependency. Since

the evidence tends to suggest that duration measures are by far the more

valid method of determining the state of dependency of the individual.,

any subsequent discussion or conclusions concerning eye contact will lean

rore heavily on duration than on frequency data.


Hypothesis 1

The first hypothesis of this study was that Ssunder dependency

arousal conditions would be more socially dependent as measured by

greater amounts of eye contact than control Ss. No significant dif-

ferences were found for the frequency measures, but strong support was

found for duration measures.

The fact that effects were found with the duration measure, hut

not the frequency measure, led us to consider that the higher duration.

scores shown by the experimental group were achieved in two ways; by

constant staring or by frequent looking back and forth. If this were













actually the case, then the experimental group should show greater

variance in their responses than the control group on the measure of

frequency, but not duration. Tu test this possibility a post-facto

analysis of differences between variances was used (Hays, 1963). The

results are seen in Table 11.


Table 11

A Test of Differences Between Variances of the Dependency
Arousal Group and Control Group on Measures of
Frequency and Duration of Eye Contact



Variance N F


Dependent Group Control Group

Frequency 109.1912 66.9130 80 1.63*

Duration 9.0874 13.5646 80 1.49


*p < .05


The experimental group was significantly more variable than controls

on frequency, while on duration the trend of this difference was re-

versed, which provided support for the aforementioned interpretation.

One speculation from this finding is that although the different chan-

nels of non-verbal communication have separate functions, they are inter-

related and influence each other. For example, the anxiety level of an

individual might be shown by the frequency of movement of the eyes, but

the fccus cf the gaze could be determined by the dependency state of the













individual. A low anxious, high dependent individual might be one who

stared constantly at the examiner, whereas a high anxious, high depen-

dent subject would glance frequently back and forth.

Duration measures clearly supported the first ;ypothesis in

showing that Ss under dependency arousal conditions spent a greater

percentage of time looking at the examiner than did Ss in the control

condition. These results suggest two important conclusions:

(1) Duration of eye contact is related to dependency in general,

and

(2) Duration of eye contact is situation specific.

Regarding the first conclusion, the basis for this relationship

and the descriptive data that have been compiled to support it has

been discussed in the introductory section. The datd of the present

study, however, are, as far as the author's search of the literature has

revealed, the first experimental demonstration of the dependency-eye

contact hypothesis.

Regarding the second conclusion, it would appear that,although

there may be a general affiliative communicative style (Argyle, 1967)

manifested in extensive eye contact, this disposition is also strongly

affected by situational factors such as represented in the experimental

manipulation of the present study.


Ijyothsis 2

The second hypothesis of this study was that Ss under dependency

arousal conditions would be more field dependent as measured by both

the RFT and the EFT than would control Ss. There was strong, unequivocal













support for this hypothesis. Subjects who were in a state of dependency

arousal scored significantly higher on both measures of field dependency.

These findings suggest the following two conclusions which shall be dis-

cussed in subsequent paragraphs:

(1) Field differentiation is related to dependency in general,

and

(2) Field differentiation is affected by the momentary state of

dependency need of the individual.

The relationship between field differentiation and dependency

in general was first hypothesized by Witkin et al. (1962) who suggested

that one of the important personality dimensions was that of a sense

of separate identity. This term was used to describe a person's develop-

ment of awareness of self as distinct from others. Dependent behaviors

of the individual were related to the perceptual measure of field dif-

ferentiation and were manifested by the seeking of guidance and support

from others. Such a relationship between perceptual modes and social

behavior existed because the same factors were involved in the perception

of the social aspects of the field as in the perception of its physical

properties. Thus, it would be expected that an individual's cognitive

style would be related to dependency in general. This paper yields

strong experimental evidence for the relationship between dependency and

field dependency. Individuals who were more dependent, in this case

through experimental manipulation, did score as significantly more field

dependent. This clear linkage between dependency in general and field

differentiation suggests one possible reason why earlier studies were













unsuccessful in altering the level of field dependence. In general,

earlier experiments measured the effects of drugs, stress, and training

on ,node of field approach (Witkin, et al., 1962). These factors may be

of only peripheral importance to the concept of field differentiation

while dependency may be of central importance.

Based on the present demonstration of the relationship between

dependency in general and field differentiation, it appears reasonable

to surmise that other data showing altered levels of field differentia-

tion may be attributable to dependency manipulation. For example,

several experiments (JacoLscn, 1966; Astrup, 1968; Goldstein and Chotlos,

1966; Jacobson, 1968) have shown that various forms of sensory depriva-

tion have acted to increase perceptual field independence. If one con-

siders a sensory deprivation experiment as one in which the individual

is forced to focus inward and to become less dependent on the external

situation, then it could be possible that the crucial factor in increas-

ing field independence is not the absence of external cues, but the

decreased state of dependency of the individual.

The second consideration raised by the successful manipulation

of field dependence through dependency motivation is that field dif-

ferentiation is affected by the momentary state of dependency need of

the individual. This suggests that the level of field articulation can

be greatly affected by variables found in the experimental situation.

Thus, we could ask the extent to which field differentiation is situ-

ationalLy determined as opposed to a stable mode of orientation.













Witkin et al. (1962) contend that mode of field approach is a stable and

unchangeable characteristic. The present data, however, provide a con-

trastirg view.

There is a methodological implication in these data, as well.

As psychologists, we have viewed the S as a passive, rather than as an active,

agent. We have assumed that all that is necessary as experimenters

is to set the correct conditions, keep the S unaware of what is going on,

administer whatever experimental manipulation or device we have selected,

and then gather our clear, undefiled data. But just how clear and un-

defiled is this data that w- collect? Schultz (1969) succinctly poses

this problem:

No matter how thoroughly we attempt to control and
standardize the experimental situation, it is, in fact,
neither controlled nor standardized to the subject.
The resulting situation is one that is not intended,
and, more importantly, not known to the experimenter,
and one that will vary among subjects. (p. 222)

In previous research work we have assumed that any contribution of the

S other than that measured or carefully controlled by the experimenter

was random and was simply included in error variance. However, it is

increasingly becoming clear that the experimental situation is one of

social interaction, not mere passive participation on the part of the S.

Rosenthal (1966) speaks to this point:

The social situation that comes into being when an
experirenter encounters his research subject is one of
both general and unique importance to the social sciences.
Its general importance derives from the fact that the
interaction of experimenter and subject, like other two-
person interactions, may be investigated empirically with
a view to teaching us more about dyadic interaction in
general. Its unique importance derives from the fact












the interaction of experimenter and subject, unlike
other dyadic interactions, is a major source of our
knowledge in the social sciences. (p. 401)

This present paper has experimentally demonstrated that the behavior

of the experimenter and the experimental situation itself can strongly

effect field differentiation scores. Thus, we may conjecture that labora-

tory measures of field dependence may be strongly confounded by variables

such as the S's involvement or motivation in the experiment. This may

differ between experimental situations, experimenters, Ss, and in some

cases, conditions of the same experiment. The present data suggest that

situational variables are probably contributing artifacts in field dif-

ferentiation studies both in terms of comparative baseline means, and,

perhaps, in many experiments, between conditions.

Another consideration raised by these data is the possibility of

generalizing to other personality characteristics that are also assumed

to be stable and pervasive. Field differentiation has been hypothesized

to be more than a perceptual style. It is considered to be a distinct

and total life style (Witkin et al., 1962). This paper gave clear

evidence that mode of field approach can be manipulated experimentally

and has suggested that it is affected by aspects present in an experi-

mental context. If this is the case, could not other personality

dimensions, such as repressing-sensitizing or leveling-sharpening,

likewise assumed to be stable, be hypothesized to be situation specific

and subject to aspects of the experimental situation? This view that

so-called global response styles are a function of the experimental













environment as well as stable personality characteristics of the individual

is supported by Rosenthal (,966):

Most of this complexity o_ huian behavior may be in the
nature of the organism. But some of it may derive from
the social nature of the psychological or behavioral
experiment itself Some of the complexity of man as we
know it frcmn his model, the research subject, resides
not in the subject himself but rather in the particular
experimenter and in the interaction between subject and
experimenter. (p. vii)

Before leaving this discussion of the second hypothesis, it should

be noted that no order effect was found. It did not matter whether the

RFT or the EFT was presented first. The effect of the dependency manipu-

lation was essentially the same for both orders of presentation. There-

fore, it was assumed that the effects of dependency arousal were not

tempered by time during thr experiment.


Hypothesis 3

The third hypothesis of this study was that regardless of experi-

mental condition, social dependence, i.e., eye contact, would be posi-

tively correlated with measures of field dependence. There was a

significant correlation between measures of duration and both the EFT

and the RFT. The correlation between frequency of eye contact and measures

of field dependency was not significant. Since the former measure was

considered to be the clearer measure of social dependency, it was felt

that this thesis offered strong experimental support for the theory that

social dependency, as measured by eye contact, and field differentiation

were related. -urthermore, by demonstrating that field dependency is












directly related to magnitude of eye contact, we have provided some evi-

dence for the operation of a dependency factor which is expressed across

behavioral modalities.


Hyotheses 4, .and 6

These hypotheses relate to any differences between sexes found on

measures of eye contact and field differentiation.

Hypothesis 4 stated that female Ss would engage in more eye con-

tact. This hypothesis was proposed because previous studies have generally

found that females engage in more looking behavior than males (Exline,

Thibaut, Brannon, and Gumpert, 1961; Exline, 1963; Exline and Winters,

1965; Argyle and Dean, 1965). No significant differences were found

between sexes on measures of frequency. Both sexes looked at the experi-

menter approximately an equal number of times. However, there was a

clear difference between the sexes on duration of eye contact.

Since the duration measure was considered to be the more valid

rmesure, it was felt that the hypothesis was substantiated. Females were

shown to engage in more eye contact. This finding suggests that females

are more sensitive to social situations and rely to a greater extent on

feedback from the human environment. They particularly seem to notice

the facial characteristics and expressions which provide ready clues to

the other person's moods and attitudes. There is little evidence that

these perceptions are any more accLrate, but it does appear that females

attend more to the interpersonal aspects of events.












Hypothesis 5 stated that Female Ss would be more field dependent

as measured by both the RFT and the EFT than would male Ss. On the RFT

there was a clear and significant difference between t.e sexes with males

being more field independent. On the EFT, although they did not reach

significance, the differences were in the expected direction.

The methodological point, however, made previously may be applied

here. Females, who usually score as more field dependent, may be more

dependent only in the experimental situation based on greater involvement

or will to do well. It might be that in an actual life situation females

would not exhibit the usually found greater levels of Field dependence.

Some support for differences in female behavior in an experimental

versus a natural situation is given by Silverman (1968). He gave the same

attitude change measure as both a psychology experiment and a student-

sponsored survey and found that female Ss exhibited more compliance than

males in the laboratory situation.

From another point of view, the finding that the sexes did not

differ significantly on the EFT, but did on the RFT, supports the notion

of Sherian (1967) that sex differences in cognitive styles are specific

to three-dimensional space perception rather than representing a general

difference between the sexes in analytical abilities. She based her con-

clusion on the findings that the sexes do not differ on measures of body

steadiness and brightness consistency, although they do differ on the

R-T. Differences on the RFT could result From the greater emphasis given

by our culture to the development of mechanical abilities in males, rather

than froi any inherent differences between the sexes.













The sixth hypothesis dealt with an aspect of the interaction of

tw :o of the variables under consideration in this study: sex of subject

and levels of dependency. I. was expected that dependency arousa:

would have a greater effect on both (a) social dependency as measured

by greater amounts of eye contact and (b) field dependency as measured

by both RFT and EFT for females than for males. This expected inter-

action was found for only the RFT. From an inspection of the table,

it appears that, although both sexes have higher scores in the depen-

dency arousal group, females are more greatly affected by the Panipu-

lation than are males. Since the expected interaction was found for

only one of the four measures, hypothesis six received only partial

support. This finding lends some support to the notion that females

were more affected by dependency arousal; perhaps, as previously sug-

gested, because of their greater reliance on external sources of

support and assistance.














SUMMARY


The present study attempted to investigate the effect of the

experimental manipulation of dependency motivation upon two measures

of dependence: (a) social dependence as measured by increased amounts

of eye contact, in terms of both frequency and duration, and (b) field

dependence as measured by the Rod and Frame Test and the Embedded

Figures Test. The experimental manipulation was one developed by Tongas

(1962).

The following hypotheses were tested:

(1) Ss under dependency arousal conditions will be more socially

dependent as measured by greater amounts of eye contact than will control

Ss.

(2) Ss under dependency arousal conditions will be more field

dependent as measured by both the RFT and the EFT than will control Ss.

(3) Regardless of experimental condition, social dependence will

be positively correlated with measures of field dependence.

(4) Female Ss will engage in more eye contact than will male Ss.

(5) Female Ss will be more field dependent as measured by both

the iFT and t.e EFT than will male Ss.

(6) There will be an interaction effect between sex of subject

and levels of dependency. It is expected that dependency arousal will

have a greater effect on both (a) social dependency as measured by greater

,,mounts of eye contact and (b) field dependency as measured by both RFT

and EFT for females than for males.













Ss.were 40 male'and 40 female students t-rolled in undergraduate

psychology courses at the University of Florida. Half of the female

Ss and half of the male Ss v.:re randomly assigned to the control condi-

tion in which they received help for twenty minutes while trying to

solve a difficult anagram. The remaining Ss were assigned to a depen-

dency arousal condition in which they were given help for the first ten

minutes of the problem-solving activity and then had this help withdrawn

for the remainder of the twenty-minute session.

The first hypothesis received partial support. The dependency

arousal group engaged in significantly greater amounts of eye contact

than did the control group. There was no significant difference on

frequency measures. However, due to the possibility that frequency

counts might be measuring another attribute than dependency, such as

anxiety, it was concluded that duration measures were by far the clearer

measure of social dependency.

The second hypothesis received strong support on both measures.

The third hypothesis received partial support. There was a strong

correlation between the two measures of field differentiation and between

them and the measure of duration of eye contact. When frequency measures

were concerned, there was practically no correlation whatsoever with any

of the other measures.

The fourth hypothesis was substantiated for the duration data.

Female Ss spent a greater amount of time looking at the E. However, a

Possible confounding factor was present based on the sex of the E. With

the presence of a female E, male Ss conversed in opposite-sex pairs and

female Ss in like-sex dyads.













The fifth hypothesis received partial support. On the RFT there

was a clear and significant difference between the sexes with males being

more field independent. On the EFT, although they did not reach signifi-

cance, the differences were in the expected direction.

The sixth hypothesis was supported in only one instance, the RFT.

Based on the above results, it was felt that this study offered

strong experimental evidence for the relationship between social de-

pendency, as measured by eye contact, and field dependency, and clearly

demonstrated that both were affected by the momentary state of depen-

dency need of the individiai.





































APPENDICES














APPENDIX A


INSTRUCTIONS GIVEN Ss


"Hi, _i(Name of Subject I'm Dorothy Nevill. Won't you come

on it and sit down?"

S was taken into experimental room and seated at a desk opposite

El and a one-,way mirror.

"This is an experiment in which I'm going to ask you to work on

a series of problem-solving tasks. It'll take about one hour and is

divided into two parts. I'll conduct the first part and then another

experimenter will conduct the second. I won't be able to answer any

questions that you do have about tha experiment now, but '11 be glad

to answer any questions that you do have at the end of the experiment.

O.K.?"

"The first task will be for you to solve a series of four

anaraims. I want you to put the words together so that they make a

sensible sentence and write them down as quickly as possible. Please

don't leave any words out. To start off with please just do the first

three anagrars. Any questions?"

The First three anagrams were administered.

"As you noticed, the first three anagrams that you were asked

to solve were fairly easy, and we've found that most college students

can do them. The fourth anagram, however, is a very difficult one and












only a few people can solve it. For this reason I will help you.

Every minute I'll be giving you the word that goes next in the puzzle;

the word that you'll be looking for. Now begin and work as fast as

you can. Try to do your best."

1! gave help at one-minute intervals for ten minutes by point-

ing out the word that was to follow in the sentence. If the S errone-

ously included words in the sequence, El simply said, "This is the word

that goes after this one," implying that the S should disregard the

erroneous words, but making no critical comments about it. For the con-

trol group this help was continued for 20 minutes. For the withdrawal

of help group, the following conversation took place at the end of

10 minutes:

R III IIIIIIII NG

"Oh, dear." (To S) "Just keep on. I'll be right back, O.K.?"

El left room to answer phone. Conversation could be heard, but

not seen by S.

"Hello. This is Dorothy Yes Oh, dear Oh,

I didn't realize Right now? Uh, I guess I can Yeh, I'll

come on over."

El returned to room.

"I r; sorry I've got to go for a few minutes. Just go on

and finish working and I'll be back as soon as I can."

El left.












El returned at the end of 10 minutes, reentered the experimental

room and sat back down at the desk. Both groups were treated the same

from this point on.

"Well, that's all the time we have for this part of the experi-

ment. Let me go get Jean and she will do the second part."

El left the room, returned with E2 and introduced her to the S.

E2 sat in the seat previously occupied by El and began a conversation

which was filmed and included the following questions:

"How do you feel about taking tests like these?

What did you feel like taking the test you just finished?

What made you choose this particular experiment rather

than another?

Have you ever participated in experiments of this nature before?"

(If the answer is yes) "How many? Please describe one of them to me."

(Ifthe answer is no) "Please tell me about the psychology course that

,you are taking."

The above conversation took approximately three minutes. Addi-

tional comments were made at E2's discretion in order to ensure that the

conversation flowed smoothly.

For those Ss for whom the RFT followed, the instructions were as

follows:

"The next part of the experiment will necessitate going into

another experimental room."












After being led into a second experimental room, the S was seated

in a chair. A screen prevented the S from seeing the experimental

apparatus.

"I'll also need for you to wear a blindfold."

"Would you please close your eyes and put the mask in place."

(Does so with assistance of E2.) "Are you comfortable? I will need

for you to sit here for a few minutes until your eyes get used to the

dark."

S remained with the mask on for four minutes while E2 read the

following instructions:

"In this test we want to find out how well you can determine

the upright--i.e., the vertical--under various conditions. When you

open your eyes, you will see a square fra.re and within this frame you

will see a rod. Except for the frame and the rod the room will be in

complete darkness. It is possible for me to tilt the frame to the

left or the right. I can also tilt the rod to the left or right. I

can tilt the frame alone or the red alone; or I can tilt them both at

the same time, either to the same side or to the opposite side. When

you open your eyes at the beginning of each trial, I want you to tell

me whether the rod and Frame are straight up and down--i.e., vertical--

or whether they are tilted. In other words, tell me whether the rod

and frame are straight with the walls of this room or whether they are

tilted. Are there any questions?"

"It is of the utmost importance that you keep your eyes closed

at all times except when I specifically ask you to open them and to












remove the mask. Also; when I ask you to close your eyes and to replace

your mask, please do so promptly."

The S next received eight trials under the following conditions.

"Raise your mask and open your eyes. Can you see the frame and

the rod? What is the position of the rod and the frame?"

If the subject said the rod was not vertical, the E said, "I

will now turn the rod slowly until you think it is straight with the walls

of this room. As I said, I will turn it slowly, and after each turn,

tell me whether it has been turned enough or whether you want it turned

some more. Just say 'more' or 'enough' after each turn. Please make

your decisions quickly and don't be too finicky. Which way shall I move

the rod to make it vertical--clockwise or counter-clockwise?"

If S on any trial gave a deviation larger than 280 or sent the

rod in a direction opposite to the frame, E2 ran her hand across one

side of the frame in the dark and said, "Do you see my hand moving

across part of the frame? Is that the top, bottom, left side, or right

side of the frame? In other words, is it nearest the ceiling, the floor,

theI left wail, or the right wall of the room?"

if S took more than 5 seconds on any trial before saying "more"

or "enough," E2 said, "Please make your decisions quickly." If S re-

peatedly said "more" or "enough" before the turn of the rod was completed,

E2 said, "Please wait until I have completed the turn."

E2 moved the rod approximately 30 at a time opposite to the di-

rection in which the S said it was tilted, until the S reported "enough."












On only the first trial E2 said, "Is the rod now vertical--that is, is

it straight with the walls of this room? In other words, is it straight

up the way the flagpole outside is?" If the S said the rod should be

moved more in either direction, E2 did so. At the end of each trial,

E2 said, "Please close your eyes and replace your mask."

E2 recorded the position of the rod and continued the subsequent

trials in the same manner.

Instructions for the EFT were as follows:

"I'm going to show you a series of colored designs. Each time I

show you one, I want you to describe it in any way you wish. I will

then show you a Simple Form which is contained in that larger design..

You will then be given the larger design again, and your job will be

to locate the Simple Form in it. Let us go through a practice trial

to show you hcw it is done."

E2 showed the Practice Complex Figure for 15 seconds. She then

covered it by placing the Practice Simple Form over it. After 10 sec-

onds she said:

"I will now show you the colored design again and you are to find

the Simple Form in it. As soon as you have found the Simple Form let me

know, and start tracing the Simple Form with this stylus. When you are

tracing, do not let the stylus touch the surface of the card."

E2 then exposed the Complex Figure again by removing the Simple

Form and turning it over. E2 started timing from zero. As soon as the

S said that the Simple Form was seen, E2 noted the time.













"This is how' we will proceed on all trials. In every case the

Simple Form will be present in the larger design. It will always be

in the upright position, so don't turn the card around. There may be

several of the Simple Forms in the s.me design, but you are to find

and trace only one. Work as quickly as you possibly can, since I will

be timing you, but be sure that the form you find is exactly the same

as the original Simple Form in shape, size, and proportions. As soon

as you have found the form, tell me at once and then start to trace it.

If you ever forget what the Simple Form looks like, you may ask to see

it again, and you may do so as often as you like. Are there any

questions?"

E2 then presented the first Complex Figure and proceeded as

above on this and the remaining 11 test items.














APPENDIX B


ANAGRAMS USED FOR THE EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS



1. for, the, started, an, we, country, early, at hour.

(We started for the country at an early hour.)


2. to, asked, paper, my, teacher, correct, I, my, grammatical, for,

errors.

(I asked my Leacher to correct my paper for grammatical errors.)


3. a, defends, dog, good, his, bravely, master, always

(A good dog always defends his master bravely.)


4. organisms, matter, to, processes, interactions, the, tracing,

new, on, environments, mechanisms, be, end, their, of, many,

in, seqenr.ce, appreciation, the, and, subject, of, basic, performs,

and, behavior, with, organism, its, beginning, from, primary, and,

with, may, the, psychology, but, the, these, interactions, to,

b-ginni'ns, endless, of, involves, the, of, which, interiactions,

of, the.

(Tnie i! ntactions of organisms with their environments may be the

b&ic ard primary subject matter of psychology, but the tracing

of these interactions from beginning to end, and on to new begin-

nings in the endless sequence of behavior involves the appreciation

of r:any mechanisms and processes with which the organism performs

its interaction.)














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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


Dorothy Dobbins Nevill was born on August 9, 1935, at Houston,

Texas. After graduating from Lamar High School in Houston in June,

1953, she attended Rice University where she completed her undergraduate

work. S'.e received the degree of Bachelor of Arts with honors in

English in June, 1957. During the next several years she was an elementary

school teacher in the Houston and Palo Alto, California, school systems.

She then taught History of Art on the high school level at Saint Mary's

Hall, a private girls' school in San Antonio, Texas. She began her

graduate work in Psychology at the University of Florida in September,

196 She pursued her work toward the degree of Master of Arts on a

traineshi p from the United States Public Health Service, receiving the

d,' ree in March, 1968. Since then she has been a Graduate Council

Fellow ,*. iile fulfilling the requirements for the degree of Doctor of

Ph;!osophy. She completed a year of internship in clinical psychology

at the 1Univrsity of Florida Teaching Hospital and Clinics in February,

1971, s.rvirg !s a Social Rehabilitation Services Trainee.

Dorothy !evill is the former Dorothy Dell Dobbins and is married

-o Gile Erwpin Nevill, Jr. She is the mother of two scns, David Erwin

!v Il: l ancd Robert Nolan Nevill. She is a member of Phi Beta K~ppa,

Ps Chi, F;-. Kappa Phi, Amcricr n Psychological Associatior, and South-

eastern Psychological Association.










I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a disserfttion for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.



Irwin Silvewian, Chairman
Professor of Psychology


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation For the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.



Vernon Van De Riet, Co-Chai rn:an
Associate Professor of Clinical
Psychology and Psychology


I certify that I have read th s study arnd that in my opinion t
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presenLation and is fulii
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.

;' ,- ... .- .- % -- ..
Audrey S. Schumacher
Professor of Psychology


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.



Nornan N. Market
Associate Professor of Psycholo3y


I certify that I !iave read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope, and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Pi-ilosophy.



ill iam W. Purk '.
Professor rf Education










This dissertation was submitted to the Dean of the College of Arts and
Sciences and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial ful-
fililment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

August, 1971





Dean, College of Arts aid Sciences



Dean, Graduate School
/



Dean, Graduate School







































































UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


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