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A comparison of the inferred perceptual characteristics of elected legislators and public school counselors identified as most and least effective
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Thesis--University of Florida.
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By Ann Marie O'Roark.
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A COMPARISON OF THE INFERRED PERCEPTUAL CHARACTERISTICS
OF ELECTED LEGISLATORS AND PUBLIC SCHOOL COUNSELORS
IDENTIFIED AS MOST AND LEAST EFFECTIVE














By

ANN MARIE O'ROARK


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL
FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY









UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1974





















To Marie, De,
Ame, Freddy,
And Carolyn


"Thinking is taking a risk."


John Dewey

















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Completion of the present study represents a

unique experience of support, challenge, and perseverance.

The author-researcher wishes to acknowledge appreciation

to:

Dr. Arthur W. Combs, chairman of the doctoral

committee, whose hours of consultation helped shape con-

tent, form and style.

Dr. Mary McCaulley, Dr. William W. Purkey, and

Dr. Arthur O. White, members of the doctoral committee,

whose insights, suggestions, and support were invaluable.

Dr. Hal G. Lewis, Dr. John M. Newell, and Dr.

William B. Ware, consultants and advisors, whose knowledge

and graciously given assistance were vital contributions.

Carolyn Maurer, Nichole Lauawert, Mary Horn, Tom

Fauquet, Alan Johnston, Dulaney O'Roark, Sr., and Mary Van

Meer, special research assistants, whose skills and friend-

ship made possible this undertaking.

And to the colleagues who provided continuing en-

couragement and confidence.


iii

















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .......................... ........... iii

LIST OF TABLES ...................................... vi

ABSTRACT ........................................... viii


CHAPTER I.





CHAPTER II.







CHAPTER III.









CHAPTER IV.







CHAPTER V.


STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM .............
The Problem ........................
Definition of Terms ................
Importance of the Problem ..........
Purpose of the Study ...............

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE .............
Interpersonal Effectiveness ........
Recent Studies Pertaining to
Elected Legislators and Public
School Counselors ................
Perceptual Psychological
Effectiveness Research ...........

DESIGN OF THE STUDY ..................
Hypotheses .........................
Subjects ...........................
Instrumentation ....................
Pilot Study ........................
Protocol Preparation ...............
Protocol Scoring ...................
Statistical Analysis ...............

ANALYSIS OF THE DATA .................
Results of the Analysis ............
Results Relevant to Research
Hypothesis 1 .....................
Results Relevant to Research
Hypothesis 2 .....................
Interjudge Reliability .............

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS .........
Results ............................
Implications .......................
Limitations of the Study ...........
Recommendations for Further
Studies ..........................


10
10


26

31

50
50
53
57
59
63
64
66

69
70

72

76
81

83
84
88
100

102













APPENDIX A


APPENDIX B



APPENDIX C


SUBJECT IDENTIFICATION ..........
A-i Instructions to
Nominators ...............
A-2 Research Assistant's
Contract .................

SUBJECT PARTICIPATION ...........
B-1 Letter of Invitation .....
B-2 Informed Consent .........

PERCEPTUAL DIMENSION SCALES .....
C-1 Adequate Inadequate ....
C-2 Able Unable ............
C-3 Internal External ......
C-4 Open Closed ............
C-5 Larger Smaller .........


REFERENCES .........................................

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ..............................


105

106

107

108
109
110

111
112
113
114
115
116

117

125













LIST OF TABLES



Table Page

1. Perceptual Studies Correlating Evalu-
ated Effectiveness and Inferred Per-
ceptual Characteristics Among Helping
Relationship Professionals and Para-
Professionals ............................ 37

2. Model for Perceptual Research on
Effectiveness ............................ 49

3. Interjudge Reliability Training Ratios ... 61

4. Sample of Protocol Presentation
Schedule for Judging ..................... 64

5. Judges Sequence of Protocol Scoring ...... 68

6. Factorial Design ......................... 66

7. Comparison of the Perceptual Dimension
Scale Means for Most Effective Elected
Legislators, Least Effective Elected
Legislators, Most Effective Public
School Counselors, and Least Effective
Public School Counselors ................ 71

8. Contrast Coefficients and F-Statistics
From Multivariate Analysis of Variance
Among Most Effective Elected Legisla-
tors, Least Effective Elected Legisla-
tors, Most Effective Public School
Counselors, and Least Effective Public
School Counselors ....................... 74

9. Univariate Tests of PDS Ratings Compar-
ing Most Effective with Least Effective
Groups and Comparing Elected Legislators
with Public School Counselors ............ 75

10. Multivariate Comparison of Most Effec-
tive Elected Legislators with Least
Effective Public School Counselors and
of Least Effective Elected Legislators
with Most Effective Public School
Counselors ............................... 80














Table Page

11. Interjudge Reliability Percentages
Calculated According to Number of
Agreements Within the Two Point
Limit on Study Protocol Ratings ............ 82


vii












Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate
Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



A COMPARISON OF THE INFERRED PERCEPTUAL CHARACTERISTICS
OF ELECTED LEGISLATORS AND PUBLIC SCHOOL COUNSELORS
IDENTIFIED AS MOST AND LEAST EFFECTIVE



By



Ann Marie O'Roark

August 1974



Chairman: Dr. Arthur W. Combs
Major Department: Foundations of Education


Purpose of the Study

Interpersonal effectiveness has not been clearly

described in terms of traits, behaviors or situations.

Investigations based on perceptual psychology indicated

perceptual characteristics can discriminate between most

and least effective individuals in helping professions.

Similarity between the helping professions and elected

legislators in a democratic system has been suggested.

This study explored two general hypotheses and

five perceptual hypotheses:

H1: Perceptual orientation, as described by five

inferred perceptual characteristics, discriminates between


viii












individuals identified as most and least effective in two

professional groups, elected legislators and public school

counselors.

H2: The perceptual orientation of elected legisla-

tors, described by five inferred perceptual characteris-

tics, is similar to the perceptual orientation of public

school counselors, described in the same manner.

The perceptual hypotheses were:

H3: As inferred by trained judges and recorded on

the Perceptual Dimension Scale adequate inadequate, the

effective individual sees himself as basically adequate,

able to cope effectively, as like, wanted, worthy, and in

essentially positive ways.

H4: As inferred by trained judges and recorded on

the PDS able unable, the effective individual sees others

as able to deal with their problems, as capable, respect-

able, friendly, and in essentially positive, optimistic

ways.

H : As inferred by trained judges and recorded on

the PDS internal external, the effective individual per-

ceives from an internal, subjective frame of reference.

He is sensitive to how others feel about and see things,

using this in determining his own behavior.

H6: As inferred by trained judges and recorded on

the PDS open closed, the effective individual perceives












from an open view of the world, seeing confrontation of

differences and alternatives as positive and helpful, and

valuing the widest possible sources of information.

H7: As inferred by trained judges and recorded on

the PDS larger smaller, the effective individual's pur-

poses are larger, broader. He perceives implications be-

yond the immediate and specific.



Design of the Study

Subjects. A sample group of 40 individuals was

identified by a key informant technique from lists of city,

county and state legislators and elementary, middle and

secondary school counselors. Four groups of ten individu-

als were identified: most effective elected legislators,

least effective elected legislators, most effective public

school counselors, and least effective public school counse-

lors. Subjects were double coded for anonymity and "double-

blind" research conditions.

Data Collection. A significant incident method was

used in thirty-minute, nondirective, taped interviews with

each subject.

Data Analysis. Protocols, consisting of the second

ten minutes of each interview, were rated by trained infer-

ence judges on Perceptual Dimension Scales corresponding to

the perceptual hypotheses. Averaged PDS ratings were the












basis of multivariate analysis of variance tests of hypo-

theses. Where indicated, follow-up univariate tests were

used.



Results

Most and Least Effective. Perceptual orientation

was found to discriminate as predicted between most and

least effective groups (p<.05). Follow-up tests showed

each of the perceptual hypotheses discriminated as predicted.

The order of significance of variables was; open closed

(p<.01), larger smaller (p<.01), internal external (p<.025),

adequate inadequate (p<.10), and able unable (p<.10).

Legislators and Counselors. Perceptual orientations

were overlapping, but not completely alike. The most effec-

tive individuals in both professions had more positive PDS

ratings. The groups were alike in three dimensions: adequate

- inadequate, able unable, and larger smaller. MANOVA

indicated significant difference (p<.05) between the profes-

sions which were found in two dimensions: open closed (p<

.025) and internal external (p<.10).



Conclusions and Implications

Findings from this study support the perceptual pre-

diction that inferred perceptual characteristics are related

to effectiveness. Implications for interpersonal effectiveness,

elected legislators, public school counselors, and perceptual
psychology are discussed.


xii


















CHAPTER ONE


STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM




Effectiveness is a major concern in the current

educational and governmental emphasis on accountability.

Effectiveness is investigated in the present study from

a perceptual perspective. The purpose of the study is

to investigate the perceptual orientation of individuals

involved in two professional groups, one in education and

one in government, to determine the extent to which per-

ceptual orientation is associated with effectiveness in

the two professions.

The study also compares the perceptual orientation

of the educational group, public school counselors, with

the perceptual orientation of the governmental group,

elected legislators, to determine the extent of similarity

in perceptual orientation. A similarity is suggested by

Combs:

Legislators may be brilliant or stupid, rich
or poor, saints or devils; but all the success-
ful ones I met had one thing in common -- a
sensitivity to people. As a psychothera-
pist, trained to respond this way in my own












profession, I found myself understanding
and understood by these men and women.
We were tuned in on the same wave length.
Sensitivity to the feelings of people was
our stock in trade [1957, p. 120].


The Problem

While objective studies of legislators (Fenno,

1973; The Citizens Conference on State Legislatures, 1971;

Wahlke, Eulau, & Buchannon, 1969) and of educators (Ryans,

1960a, 1960b; Soar, 1972) provide extensive descriptive

information regarding specific objective traits and behav-

iors associated with effectiveness, "there is a failure of

much of this [kind of] information to translate into know-

ledge useful in specific areas of application [Scott

& Spaulding, 1972, p. 3]."

One variable that may relate to effectiveness for

both elected legislators and public school counselors is

the perceptual orientation of the individual. If a func-

tional relationship exists between perceptual orientation

and effectiveness as an elected legislator and as a public

school counselor, then subjective studies of perceptual

orientation can provide valuable information for assessment

of and development of effectiveness in individuals in these

two professions.

A simlilarity in selected characteristics of the

perceptual orientation of elected legislators and public












school counselors could provide evidence to support the

suggestion that both groups share a common sensitivity

to people. Such evidence could contribute to the under-

standing of and development of democratic leadership.

In order to investigate effectiveness in elected

legislators and public school counselors from a subjective,

internal approach, the present study compares the percep-

tual orientation of individuals identified as most and

least effective in each of the two professions. Based on

perceptual psychological theory (Combs & Snygg, 1959) and

perceptual research findings (Brown, 1970; Combs et al.,

1969; Dedrick, 1972; Jennings, 1973; Vonk, 1970), the re-

search hypothesis predicts that the most effective elected

legislators and public school counselors have similar per-

ceptual characteristics which indicate they see themselves

as adequate, they see others as able, they have an internal

frame of reference, they are open to experience, and that

they have larger purposes.

In contrast with the most effective elected legi-

slators and public school counselors, the least effective

elected legislators and public school counselors are pre-

dicted to have similar perceptual characteristics which indi-

cate they see themselves as less adequate, they see others as

less able, they have a more external frame of reference; they

are more closed to experience, and that they have smaller purposes.













Definition of Terms

An elected legislator is operationally defined

as a citizen of one particular state county, elected to

public office during the 25 years preceding the study,

and who served at least one year as a "member of a group

within a political system whose members are formally equal

in status, whose authority derives from the belief that

they represent the other members of the community, and

whose functions include proposing, deliberating, and decid-

ing about public policy [Wahlke & Patterson, 1972, pp. 6-7]."

For purposes of the present study the political system

groups are limited to city, county, and state legislative

bodies.

A public school counselor is operationally defined

as any person who has been hired by one particular state

county (the same county as that of the elected legislators)

school system, and who served at least one year as a full

time counselor in public elementary, middle, or secondary

schools.

Perceptual orientation is defined as the unique

perceptions an individual has of himself and the world

[Combs & Snygg, 1959].

Perceptual characteristics refer to the relatively

distinct perceptions that constitute the perceptual orien-

tation of the individual. For definitions of the five






5





perceptual characteristics of interest in the present

study, see Appendix C.

Perceptual dimension refers to the bipolar range

of a perceptual characteristic. For purposes of this

study the dimensions are expressed on a seven point con-

tinuum. (See Appendix C.)

Internal is used to refer to the subjective, per-

sonal meaning field of an individual as contrasted with

external, which refers to the objective interpretation of

an individual's behavior.


Importance of the Problem

Research relevant to the effectiveness of an in-

dividual dealing with other individuals has provided no

clear understanding of what characteristics or conditions

lead to effectiveness.

Although many authors have spoken to the concept
of leadership, the basic predictive theory has
eluded all who attempt to define it [Scott &
Spaulding, 1972, p. 1].

No clearcut criteria for determining effectiveness

was found in recent reviews of studies regarding counselors

(Aubrey, 1973) or in studies regarding legislators (Fenno,

1973). Both authors reviewed objective, behavioral studies

and suggested that the difficulty stems from differing

opinions regarding the primary responsibility of the pro-

fessional.













Legislative research has developed new descrip-

tive data and developed new research methods, but has

failed to produce a "cumulative explanation of legislative

behavior [Patterson & Wahlke, 1972, p. 5]."

Ryans' (1960a) analysis of the traditional trait

approach to effectiveness in educational situations estab-

lished the limitations of that approach. The more recent

observational approach to understanding effectiveness in

education was reviewed by Soar (1972), who commented that

". a significant portion of this review has been con-

cerned with discrepant findings [p. 198]."

LeFevere (1967) concluded that the greater possi-

bility of productive investigation into effectiveness would

be found in the methods of perceptual psychology.

Combs (1965) suggests that the problem of under-

standing effectiveness is the result of a confusion of

symptoms with causes of behavior. If behavior is seen as

a symptom that is caused by the individual's purpose, be-

lief, or perception, then a description of the individual's

perceptual orientation is necessary in order to understand

the individual's behavior.

The series of perceptual studies conducted during

the past thirteen years (Brown, 1970; Choy, 1969; Combs et

al., 1969; Dedrick, 1972; DeMott, 1972; Doyle, 1969; Jen-

nings, 1973; Vonk, 1970) support the suggestion that the













key to effectiveness lies in the nature of the perceptual

orientation of the individual.

In light of the almost universal failure to
find objective behavioral criteria which
differentiate "good" and "poor" professional
workers, correlations of the magnitude ob-
tained in [these perceptual studies] assume
a very great significance These find-
ings suggest that what we have failed to
define objectively we may be able to distin-
guish perceptually [Combs et al., 1969, p. 26].


Purpose of the Study

The present study extends the body of perceptual

literature. It is the first study of public school coun-

selors since the study by Combs & Soper (1963a) which was

the initial perceptual investigation. The present study

is the first to include elected legislators in perceptual

research.

The purpose of the study is to answer the follow-

ing questions:

1. Do perceptual orientations discriminate between most

and least effective elected legislators as inferred by

trained judges on Perceptual Dimension Scales?

2. Do perceptual orientations discriminate between most

and least effective public school counselors as inferred

by trained judges on Perceptual Dimension Scales?

3. Are most effective elected legislators and most effec-

tive public school counselors alike in their perceptual













orientations as inferred by trained judges on five Per-

ceptual Dimension Scales?

4. Are least effective elected legislators and least

effective public school counselors alike in their per-

ceptual orientations as inferred by trained judges on

five Perceptual Dimension Scales?

5. Do the most effective elected legislators and public

school counselors see themselves as more adequate than

the effective elected legislators and public school coun-

selors see themselves as inferred by trained judges on a

Perceptual Dimension Scale?

6. Do the most effective elected legislators and public

school counselors see others as more able than the least

effective elected legislators and public school counselors

see others as inferred by trained judges on a Perceptual

Dimension Scale?

7. Do the most effective elected legislators and public

school counselors have an internal frame of reference

greater than that of the least effective elected legisla-

tors and public school counselors as inferred by trained

judges on a Perceptual Dimension Scale?

8. Do the most effective elected legislators and public

school counselors perceive from a more open view of the

world than do the least effective elected legislators and

public school counselors as inferred by trained judges on

a Perceptual Dimension Scale?













9. Do the most effective elected legislators and public

school counselors have larger purposes than the least ef-

fective elected legislators and public school counselors

as inferred by trained judges on a Perceptual Dimension

Scale?

10. Is the difference between the most effective elected

legislators and the least effective legislators as inferred

by trained judges on the five Perceptual Dimension Scales

similar to the difference between the most effective public

school counselors and the least effective public school

counselors as inferred by trained judges on five Perceptual

Dimension Scales?

Although research on traits, characteristics, and

behaviors has not provided a clear, consistent insight into

effectiveness, perceptual studies have indicated an asso-

ciation between effectiveness and perceptual characteristics

in a variety of professions. To contribute to the empirical

data base of perceptual research, the present study examines

two groups of professionals, whose effectiveness is consid-

ered to involve an emergent leadership base associated with

sensitivity to others.



















CHAPTER II


REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE




Four bodies of literature relevant to the present

study will be discussed: (a) interpersonal effectiveness

theory and research, recent research pertaining to (b) leg-

islators and (c) counselors, and (d) perceptual psycholog-

ical effectiveness research.


Interpersonal Effectiveness

Effectiveness in influencing others has been exam-

ined from several theoretical orientations: field theory,

behavioral theory, cognitive theory, psychoanalytic theory,

and transorientational theory. Effectiveness information

has also been summarized according to types of variables

observed by the study: traits, behaviors, functions, and

situational conditions.

Field theory. The classic prototype for leadership

studies in the twentieth century is the Lewin, Lippitt, and

White (1939) study which found democratic leadership to be

the most productive form of influence. Groups of boys were













observed in group activities that were similar except for

an adult's leadership behavior. One group included an

adult who performed in a democratic leadership manner;

another group was supervised by an autocratic adult leader;

and a third group involved a leader using laissez faire

leadership methods. The boys in the democratic setting

were able to maintain both organization and productivity

when their leader was absent, while the other two groups

could not.

Since the time of the Lewin, Lippitt, and White

research, two major types of leadership behavior have been

studied. These types are called by various labels: auto-

cratic versus democratic, or authoritarian versus nonauth-

oritarian (Shaw, 1955); supervisory versus participatory

(Preston and Heintz, 1949); task oriented versus human re-

lations oriented (Katz and Kahn, 1952); directive versus

non-directive (Shaw and Blum, 1966); initiation of struc-

ture versus consideration (Halpin, 1955); and distant, con-

trolling, managing versus psychologically close, permissive

(Fiedler, 1964). Of these researches Shaw and Costanzo say:

Experimental findings concerning the effects
of these two styles of leadership have been
inconsistent. Some investigators reported
autocratic, directive, controlling leaders
to be more effective, but the opposite was
sometimes found, and often no statistically
significant differences were observed [1970,
p. 316].













More recently, The Annual Review of Psychology

(1973) cites a study by Mead (1967) which found "dominance"

produced higher morale among Hindu groups. Another study

(MacDonald, 1967) showed "dominant" behavior produced

quicker changes in groups and that "democratic" behavior

came later in group life.

French and Ravine (1959) developed a frequently

used set of categories of the bases of influence.

The set includes: expert power (the extent of
knowledge possessed by a person), referent
power (the extent of identification or close-
ness others feel toward a person, legitimate
power (stemming from internalized values that
others have in relation to the right of a per-
son to be influential), reward power (the extent
to which a person is viewed as having ability to
give rewards), and coercive power (the extent to
which a person is viewed as being able to punish
others [Schmuck and Schmuck, 1971, p. 28].

Millet (1973) made a study of the social power

bases in the classroom setting. She found referent

power to be the most powerful base from which a teacher

could function. This finding held over all combinations

of race and class.

Behavioral theory. Social reinforcement is the

basis for effectiveness in Homans' (1961) theory of econ-

omic exchange and distributive justice. Homans' postu-

lated influence effectiveness to be a function of rewards

one can give another and of internal feelings of fairness

about cost and profit in the transaction.












Thibaut and Kelley (1959) developed the most test-

able form of Homans' concepts. They posited two standards

by which dyadic relationships are evaluated: the compar-

ison level (CL) and the comparison level for alternatives

(CLalt). When a person has no previous experience or con-

cept of an alternative to outweigh or overrule a present

influence, he will follow that present influence. Effec-

tiveness in influencing others depends on presenting a

stronger or novel relationship to those being influenced.

Empirical research generated by Thibaut and Kelley's model

has been moderately supportive (Sidowski, Wyceff & Tabery,

1956; Rabinowitz Kelley, & Rosenblatt, 1966).

It appears that the hypothesis that individuals
will adopt behavior exchanges resulting in
maximum rewards for both persons is consistent
with experimental data only under certain condi-
tions [Shaw and Costanzo, 1970, p. 102].

Adams and Romney (1959) studied effectiveness in

influencing others in terms of operant conditioning. Their

reciprocal reinforcement notion has little supportive evi-

dence. Mulder, Van Dijk, Soutendijk, and Verhagen (1964)

were able to show that liking relations in the group in-

creased as a function of the magnitude of the power pos-

sessed by the most powerful member.

Psychoanalytic theory. Bion (1959), Bennis and

Sheppard (1956),Sarnoff (1960), and Schutz (1955) developed

theories of influence effectiveness based on psychoanalytic







14


theory. Little experimental evidence has been generated

for any of the theories other than from the Fundamental

Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO) schema proposed

by Schutz. The three main postulates are: (1) patterns

of interpersonal behavior develop relative to three basic

interpersonal needs present in each person: inclusion,

control, and affection, (2) the consequences of those pat-

terns effect group compatibility and effectiveness, and,

(3) the three needs are related to group development and

resolution. Yalom and Rand (1966) looked at compatibility

and cohesiveness in outpatient therapy groups using FIRO-B.

They found high compatibility groups significantly more

cohesive and better satisfied than low cohesive groups (Shaw

& Costanzo, 1970). Influence is seen to depend upon how one

person meets the inclusion, control or affection needs of

another person or group of persons.

Cognitive theory. According to Shaw & Costanzo

(1972), cognitive approaches appeal to central processes

such as attitudes, expectations, knowledge, and ideas to

explain effectiveness. Heider (1946), Osgood and Tannen-

baum (1955), and Festinger (1964) represent the most sophis-

ticated work undertaken from this orientation. Heider's

p-o-x theory is concerned with the sentiments of a person

(p) toward another person (o) and a third element (x) re-

lated to o. When there is any stress in the p-o-x unit,













change will move the unit toward a balanced state. The

positive or negative characteristics of the elements in-

fluence the direction of the change. Effectiveness in

influence under these conditions will depend on exhibiting

the appropriate positive or negative characteristic to

move the unit in the desired direction. This all-or-noth-

ing attitude change model did not prove realistically use-

ful.

Osgood and Tannenbaum developed a model for measur-

ing and predicting attitude change taking gradations of

change into consideration. Although they provided a method

for making precise mathematical predictions of the direc-

tion of change, the formula fails to predict the degree of

change and gives no understanding of the nature of the

change agent's positive or negative influence. The seman-

tic differential technique, developed by Osgood Tannenbaum

and Suci (1957) was developed to explore internal meaning

structures, but no connection has been made between the at-

titude change formula and meaning structures.

Festinger conducted experimental field studies to

test a cognitive dissonance theory. A much publicized

study (Festinger, Rieken, & Schachter, 1956) of a group of

religious zealots, convinced that the world would end on a

certain day, found the zealots took a stronger proselyting

position when their prophecy failed. The zealots resolved













their dissonance by determining that their faith had

saved the world. A later, similar study failed to repli-

cate the findings (Hardyck & Braden, 1962).

Transorientational theory. Cattell (1948) and

Stogdill (1959) explain effectiveness by pulling together

several theories. Cattell endowed the group with charac-

teristics and qualities analogous to the personality of

an individual as examined by psychology. Cattell called

the personality of the group syntality, and the total in-

dividual energy available to the group synergy. Effective-

ness of a group would be assessed in terms of measures of

synergy and syntality, but few predictions about group

behavior are made. Most of the research has been directed

toward identification and classification of group charac-

teristics. The suggestion is that the strength of the

satisfaction each person gains from the group, the direc-

tion of these satisfactions, and the relative value of the

satisfactions in comparison with other groups the individual

is concerned with could be measured and are additive. Total

synergy would be determined by multiplying the sum by the

number of persons in the group. Empirical support for this

theory has not been obtained.

Stogdill developed a theory of group achievement

out of learning theory, expectation theory, and interaction

theory. His model is reminiscent of Hull's mediational













model for learning. Performances, interactions, and ex-

pectations are used to describe group behavior. The

variables are member inputs, mediating variables, and

group outputs. Shaw and Costanzo (1970) explain the

lack of experimental support for these two complex models

as a problem of measurement.

Biddle and Thomas (1966) investigated role theory

across the disciplines of sociology, psychology, and anthro-

pology. Since the concepts of role theory are easily gen-

eralizable, there have been many empirical investigations

using roles as dependent, independent, or "interpretive"

variables. This very generalizability has made comparison

and replication of the many studies practically impossible

(Shaw and Costanzo, 1970, pp. 341-342).

Other studies of effectiveness are more appropri-

ately classified by the type of variables selected for

investigation: traits, behaviors, functions, or situational

conditions.

Trait studies. Scott and Spaulding (1972) reviewed

106 trait studies found in ERIC (1966-69) and in The Educa-

tion Index (1959-69). They found that only about 5 percent

of the traits appeared in four or more studies. Although

trait studies describe leadership effectiveness through

biographical studies, psychological tests and measurements,

factor analysis, psycho-analytic techniques, simulation













exercises, and everyday observations, only six traits have

fairly clear support:

1. Leaders are somewhat more intelligent than
the average of their followers.
2. Leaders are well rounded in interests and
aptitudes and are adaptable to many situa-
tions.
3. Leaders have a facility with language.
4. Leaders have an inner drive to strive for
accomplishment.
5. Leaders realize the importance of cooperation.
6. Leaders rely on administrative skills rather
than technical skills [Scott and Spaulding,
1972, pp. 5-6].

Ryans (1960a), in an often cited summary of teacher

characteristics, catalogues the extensive efforts to pre-

dict effectiveness from various behavioral traits or static

conditions which characterize teachers. He concludes:

Prediction of overall teacher behavior would
seem problematical. Certainly it is possible
only to the extent that some general agreement
can be reached regarding the dimensions com-
prising such behavior involving of course,
acceptance of a common set of educational
values) and how they should be combined to
form a composite; and such a criterion by its
very complexity limits the likelihood of dis-
covering significant predictors [1960a, p. 377].

Behavior studies. Ryans' own research (1960b)

involved studying what teachers do in classrooms. He sys-

tematically observed, described, and classified the behav-

iors of 6,000 teachers in a six year study that included

almost 100 separate research projects. Statistical inter-

correlations of the observational data yielded some rela-

tively homogeneous clusters of behaviors which were polarized













as dimensions of teacher behavior. Significant dimensions

were: "friendly versus aloof behavior; systematic versus

unplanned behavior; and stimulating versus dull behavior

[Macomber, 1961, pp. 11-12]."

Schedules and systems have proliferated in the

last fifteen years, refining and clarifying methods for

making classroom observations to determine effective be-

haviors and patterns. Three levels of observation systems

are in use: a point-time system (where behaviors observed

are checked on a prepared schedule every few seconds), a

sign system (where a longer period of observing proceeds

the checking of a prepared behavior schedule), and a cat-

egory system (where mutually exclusive behavior categories

are listed in 3 second intervals; a more generalized level

of inference).

Soar (1972) summarizes the findings from observa-

tion studies:

In general these trends [in the larger view of the
research of the past decade] indicate that growth-
producing classrooms have a number of character-
istics -- they are low in criticism of pupils;
pupil ideas are praised, accepted, and used by
the teacher; and there is a minimum of restrictive
direction and control by the teacher [p. 198].

Soar's survey indicates that too much freedom and

too little criticism result in decreased pupil gain and

increased anxiety. The findings suggest that creating more

structure and direction is helpful for the learning of













simple tasks, while more freedom is needed for the complex,

abstract tasks. The criticism level, however, does not

shift with the complexity of the learning objective.

Other studies reviewed by Soar indicated differ-

ences in pupil gain associated with pupil characteristics.

Soar explains:

Although a significant portion of this review
of studies has been concerned with discrepant
findings, the purpose was to integrate these
findings into a consistent picture [1972, p.
198].

In light of seemingly discrepant, unrelated find-

ings, effectiveness stems from an optimal teaching style

dependent upon interaction of pupil characteristics and

learning objectives. Optimal style, involving teacher

flexibility, is also suggested by the ASCD Commission in

Criteria for Theories of Instruction (Gordon, 1968).

Approaching effectiveness from an entirely dif-

ferent context, Sparger (1973) studied the leadership

behavior of prison inmates. Judges viewed video taped

prisoner meetings and'interpreted behavior with Bales'

(1950) Interaction Process Analysis. Sparger found inmate

leaders: (1) talked more, (2) addressed more questions to

individuals and the group than the other group members did,

and(3) received more positive statements from others than

they transmitted. The study concluded that prison inmate

leaders were the same as leaders in other organizations or

systems.













A series of 17 dissertations, known as the Florida

Leadership Studies, were completed at the University of

Florida in 1958 on the effectiveness of school principals

(Grobman, 1958). In these studies 77 percent of the index

of principal acceptance (total teacher-pupil-parent reac-

tions to the school) could be accounted for through test

measurements, the size of the school, the years in rank of

principal, and the income level of the community. Two

thirds of the accounted for variance (51.1% of principal

effectiveness) was accounted for by observational measure-

ment of the democratic operating pattern of the principal.

Functional studies. The most complete and complex

functional theory is Fiedler's contingency model (1964,

1967), the outgrowth of many years of experimentation on

leadership and group effectiveness. Shaw and Costanzo ex-

plain the model:

The general theoretical model assumes that the
type of leader that will be most effective
depends upon the favorability of the situation
to the leader, which in turn depends upon af-
fective leader-group relations, task structure,
and the leader's position power [1970, p. 315].

Fiedler assumed that interpersonal perception re-

flects attitudes which influence effectiveness. He there-

fore inferred leadership styles from measures of interper-

sonal perception. These measures are the ASO (assumed

similarity of opposites) and the LPC (least preferred co-

worker) scores. The subject thinks of the person he most













preferred as a coworker, and the person he least preferred

as a coworker. These persons are described by the subject

on semantic differential scales of polarized adjectives

(i.e. friendly -- unfriendly). The more democratic lead-

ers tend to see even a poor coworker in a positive light

(a high LPC score).

Studies exploring the relationship of derived LPC

scores with leadership effectiveness found high negative

correlations in basketball teams (-.69) and surveying

groups (-.51). Studies of bomber crews found correlations

ranging from -.33 to .60. This surprising evidence pre-

cipitated the conclusion that the direction of the rela-

tionship depended upon the leader's affective relations

with key group members. Later studies added another con-

sideration when findings showed that leaders in powerful

positions behaved differently from those in less powerful

positions. These three factors served as the basis for

the contingency model.

In functional studies, "leadership acts are the

same as needed group functions [Schmuck and Schmuck, 1970,

p. 27]." Effectiveness variables are social prestige,

legitimate authority, performance of duties in a role, and

the emotional relationship between the leader and the fol-

lowers.

Two general categories of group functions, task and













social emotional, are defined (Benne & Sheats, 1948).

Task functions (initiating, information seeking or giving,

clarifying, summarizing, consensus testing, Schmuck &

Schmuck, 1970, p. 42) carry forward the work or subject

matter aspects of a situation. Social emotional functions

(encouraging, harmonizing, gate keeping, expressing feel-

ings, setting standards, compromising, Schmuck and Schmuck,

1970, p. 42) facilitate positive group cohesion and inter-

personal feelings.

Helmreich, Bukeman, and Scherwitz (1973) conclude

that although thousands of experimental studies have been

conducted, little new information has been gained about

group process variables. They suggest the problem lies in

the methodology of naturalistic studies and indicate needs

for a better coding system of natural phenomena, study of

longitudinal data, and development of systematic observa-

tion techniques. They predict that Path Analysis infer-

ences from correlational data will be favored in the next

few years.

Simmons (1972) conducted a natural setting study

of committees. She investigated the assumption that ef-

fectively functioning social systems deal with both instru-

mental tasks and socio-emotional tasks. Findings showed

the most effective committees had leadership team members

(a chairman and a staff person) who were rated high on both












instrumental and socio-emotional scales. Instrumental

and socio-emotional ratings of the leadership team were

made by trained judges. Global inferences of the judges

were better predictors of the group's effectiveness than

the reported perceptions of the leadership team, of the

other group members, or of special process observers.

Situational studies. Situational approaches to

leadership effectiveness are mainly investigated by so-

ciologists in industrial settings. Meyer (1972) studied

254 city, county, and state departments of finance to

assess the effectiveness of authority and influence struc-

tures. After a detailed investigation of differences in

vertical and horizontal organizational structures, Meyer

concludes:

Authority or imperative coordination is
central to organizations. Changes in
organizational structure may give rise to
changes in authority patterns, but other
modifications occur which tend to restore
coordination. Any single change is thus
hypothesized to have complex and contra-
dictory effects, at least in the short
run [p. 117].

Hemphill (1949) conducted an extensive comparison

of group situations from a psychological point of view.

He distinguished two major dimensions on which groups dif-

fer: viscidity (the feeling of cohesion in the group), and

the hedonic tone (the degree of satisfaction of the group

members). He attempts to measure the impact of the group














leader by these criteria (Scott and Spaulding, 1972).

Wiles (1955) expressed the educator's view of

situational leadership:

concerning the qualities of the
leader, I am taking the position that
leadership behavior depends very, very
heavily on the situation in which he
finds himself, and I am arguing that ad-
ministrative leadership can be learned
[Scott and Spaulding, 1972, p. 8].

Myers (1954) reviewed leadership literature, draw-

ing six generalizations from situational studies:

1. Leadership is a value in society.
2. Leadership exists in every group.
3. Leadership is a group role.
4. Leadership is an educative function.
5. Leadership is authority rendered by the group.
6. Leadership is service to the group.

Summary. Interpersonal effectiveness has been

studied from a variety of disciplinary and interdisciplin-

ary perspectives. Results of these studies provide little

consistency in information and a lack of useful knowledge

(Scott & Spaulding, 1972). The traditional approach to

understanding effectiveness has been through self reported

traits, and, more recently, through observation of behaviors.

The major conclusion of observation studies indicates effec-

tiveness to be a function of several factors: the nature

of the individual, the nature of the others in the situation,

and the nature of the task (Soar, 1972).












The effective individual's awareness of others'

needs, attitudes, and characteristics and of the nature

of the task or situation are indicated in diverse research

approaches: Fiedler's contingency model of leadership

(functional); Schutz's ICA theory (psychoanalytic); the

well rounded interests and aptitudes, the adaptability, the

realization of the importance of cooperation, and reliance

on administrative skills characteristics of leaders found

by Scott and Spaulding (trait); and Homans' reward-cost-

profit theory of economic exchange (behaviorism).

These indications of the nature of effectiveness

are supportive to the perceptual approach, which suggests

the effective individual is one who sees himself as ade-

quate, sees others as able, is concerned with how things

seem to others, has an open view of the world, and has

larger, more comprehensive purposes.


Recent Studies Pertaining to Legislators and Counselors

Legislators. The Citizens Conference on State Leg-

islatures (1971) assembled and compared the technical cap-

abilities of the 50 state legislatures in the United States.

The study sought to focus attention on disabilities that

limit the effectiveness of legislatures. State by state

evaluations and recommendations were presented. The criteria

for effectiveness included: ability in collection, analysis,












and application of information; ability to represent ef-

fectively the various interests and values held by a

state's citizens; ability to contribute to formulation

and review of state policies; and, ability to conduct

activities necessary to function as a legislative body.

The study also considered the ability of constituents to

hold legislators and legislatures accountable for their

action.

Patterson and Jewell (1973) note the shift in

legislative research from the individual and role theory

to emphasis on structure, committees, and decision mak-

ing. The Wahlke, Eulau, and Buchannon (1962) study of

legislative behavior was the last comprehensive approach

to role. Campbell (1966) studied the voting behavior of

legislators relevant to their constituents' attitudes and

the legislators' perception of the constituents' attitudes.

The smallness of the constituent sample clouded the valid-

ity of the study.

Recruitment studies gathered characteristics of

legislators. Findings indicate that legislators tend to

be of higher economic status and to have been born in the

state they represent (Mannley, 1970).

Saloma (1969) analyzed the time spent by legisla-

tors' staff personnel in various activities. The case

work (service to people) activities consumed 24.7 percent

of the work time.













Fenno (1973) described effectiveness of legisla-

tors in terms of two criteria: (1) effectiveness in case

work, and (2) effectiveness in legislative activity. He

concluded that legislators were effective in one or the

other, but not both categories. The legislator's category

of effectiveness was interpreted as a function of the

preferences of the constituents.

The diversity of research approaches and effec-

tiveness criteria illustrate Wahlke & Patterson's (1972)

conclusion that no common theory or set of concepts is

accepted in current legislative research.

Counselors. Recently the public school counselor

is being conceptualized as a force of change. The role of

the public school counselor is defined as a counselor-con-

sultant who helps the school "become open, flexible, and

human -- a place for total human development through learn-

ing [Carlson, 1973, p. 83]." Aubrey (1973) sees the abil-

ity of the counselor to effect change not as a delegated

authority, but as stemming from persuasion and acquired

supportive audiences.

Boy (1972) concludes that "many school counselors

are still uncertain regarding their primary service [p.

170)." He cites five studies which found conflicting role

priorities for counselors. Three hundred principals saw

counselors primarily as co-ordinators; 312 teachers saw














them as counselors of students; 70 counselors saw them-

selves with a pupil, parent, teacher focus, in that order.

Educators, principals, teachers, and counselors

have no common, agreed upon criteria for evaluating the

effectiveness of the counselor. A review of the 1973-74

researches listed in the Dissertation Abstracts Interna-

tional indicates 43 studies have explored the effective-

ness of various counseling methodologies. In these studies

28 obtained positive results, 11 obtained negative results,

and 4 had mixed positive and negative results. Since no

commonality in methodology or design was found, no conclu-

sive criteria can be suggested for effectiveness in coun-

seling.

A taxonomy of objectives for counselor education

was designed by Dagley (1973) which has not yet been used

in empirical studies. Much of Dagley's taxonomy stems

from effectiveness criteria suggested by Carkhuff and

Truax (1966).

Truax and Carkhuff devised measurement scales to

evaluate the counselor in terms of empathy, congruence

(genuineness), and positive regard (warmth). In a review

of the research relevant to successful therapy outcomes

and the three facilitative conditions, Truax and Carkhuff

(1967) reported findings consistently showed "empathy,













genuineness, and warmth characteristics of human encount-

ers that changed people -- for the better [p. 141]."

Methodological problems clouded the conclusions

from research on facilitative conditions. "The question

of the relative contribution of client and therapist to

the core facilitative interpersonal skills is still not

completely resolved [Truax & Mitchell, 1971]." Failure

to confirm the predictive validity of measurement scales

and use of raters who may have known the general purpose

of the studies limit the value of the research findings.

Although clinical and social psychologists have

a relatively long history of empirical research in the

tradition of Lewin (1939), psychotherapy and counseling

practitioners have only recently become research oriented.

The theoretical aspects of most traditional
psychotherapies involved elaborate and com-
plex sets of relationships among theoretical
constructs in vast nomological networks.
Often there were few empirical referents, and
the relationship between these referents and
the nomological network was often not readily
observable. The traditional psychotherapist,
it appears, was neither reluctant to remain
in a world of abstract thought nor preoccupied
with problems of operationalism [Goldstein &
Simonson, 1971, p. 157].

One group of psychotherapists, the perceptual

psychologists, have been developing a body of empirical

research literature. Rogers (1967) has investigated the

relationship between the self and the ideal self. Research













by Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) explored the effect of

others' expectations on individual behavior and perform-

ance. Coopersmith (1967) investigated self esteem. Pur-

key (1971) consolidated findings relevant to self concept

and school achievement. Of particular relevance to the

present study are perceptual studies into the nature of

effectiveness.


Perceptual Psychological Effectiveness Research

Perceptual psychologists have conducted a series

of studies over the last thirteen years which look at

effectiveness in terms of internal causes of behaviors.

The internal approach assumes:

behavior at any instant is the result
of (1.) how the person sees himself, (2.)
how the person seesthe situations in which
he is involved, and (3.) the inter-relations
of these two [Combs, 1965, p. 12].

Significant correlations have been found in eleven of

thirteen perceptual studies of effectiveness. The studies

explored the internal perceptual characteristics of indi-

viduals involved in helping relationship jobs.

Macomber, 1961 Doyle, 1969
Combs & Soper, 1963a Brown, 1970
Benton, 1964 Vonk, 1970
Gooding, 1964 DeMott, 1972
Usher, 1966 Dedrick, 1972
Dickman, 1967 Jennings, 1973
Choy, 1969

Nine studies were completed at the University of

Florida, two at Colorado State University (Choy, 1969;












Doyle, 1969), and one at the University of Northern Colo-

rado (DeMott, 1972). All were designed to test hypotheses

derived in a series of seminars held at the University of

Florida with members of the College of Education faculty

and graduate students.

Out of a concern for understanding the nature of

effectiveness in those who facilitate growth and health

in others, the seminars first investigated the common char-

acteristics of helping relationships. "Instantaneous re-

sponse" was identified as the basic ccmnrnality (Combs et

al., 1969). Perceptual Dimension Scales were suggested

at a later seminar to serve as hypotheses for testing the

characteristic orientations of individuals.

The original 41 Perceptual Dimension Scales have

been expanded to 64. Trained judges record their infer-

ences of a subject's perceptual characteristics on PDS

selected by the researcher.

A total of 568 individuals have been described in

terms of their inferred perceptual characteristics. Eleven

studies involving 468 individuals found significant rela-

tionships between evaluated effectiveness and inferred per-

ceptual characteristics.

Populations. Three studies examined counselors:

Combs & Soper, 1963a, school counselors; Benton, 1964,

ministers; and Jennings, 1973, residence hall para-profes-

sional counselors. Nine studies looked at teachers:














Macomber, 1961, student teachers; Gooding, 1964, elementary

teachers; Brown, 1970, and Vonk, 1970, elementary and sec-

ondary teachers; Dedrick, 1972, Junion College teachers;

Usher, 1966, Choy, 1969, and, DeMott, 1972, examined col-

lege teachers. One study examined student nurses; Dickman,

1967.

Most pertinent to the present study are the three

studies that examined counselors. Combs & Soper (1963a),

the first of the series of studies, looked at 29 school

counselors who were in a special year long Guidance Insti-

tute at the University of Florida. Twelve PDS scores were

rank ordered and correlated with ratings of effectiveness

determined by the subjects' faculty and supervisors. Sig-

nificant correlations, ranging from .394 to .641, were

found with all 12 scales. A recommendation for future

study suggested identification of effectiveness by persons

other than faculty and supervisors (Combs et al., 1969).

The present study incorporates this suggestion.

Benton (1964) studied 32 Episcopal priests, compar-

ing effectiveness in the pastoral counseling role with per-

ceptual characteristics. Nominations of most and least

effective from a population of 146 priests were made by

three bishops. Significant chi square relationships were

found between five PDS scores and most or least effective

classification.













Jennings (1973), the most recent study in the

series, extended the range of target populations to in-

clude para-professionals. He examined university housing

residence hall assistants comparing effectiveness in ad-

vising and perceptual characteristics. Multivariate analy-

sis of variance found significant correlations between six

PDS scores and effectiveness as rated by the subjects'

advises.

Hypotheses and Perceptual Dimension Scales. Empir-

ical studies have tested 31 of the 64 PDS hypotheses. The

most frequently tested PDS is the hypothesis that the ef-

fective individual involved in a helping relationship will

see himself as closely identified with others. The PDS,

expressed as a bipolar continuum is set up in the follow-

ing manner:


identified with others.................. apart from others
1 2 3 4 5 6 7


Ten of eleven tests of this hypothesis found the

judges' inferences at the identified-with-others end of

the continuum to be correlated with greater effectiveness

as hypothesized: Benton, 1964; Brown, 1970; Choy, 1969;

Combs & Soper, 1963; DeMott, 1972; Doyle, 1969; Gooding,

1964; Jennings, 1973; Usher, 1966; and Vonk, 1970. One

study, which failed in all of its findings, did not support

the hypothesis (Dickman, 1967).













The second most frequently tested hypothesis states

that the effective individual sees others as able to deal

with their problems. Eight of nine tests found significant

correlations.

The third most frequently tested hypotheses states

that the effective individual has larger rather than smaller

purposes. Seven of eight tests found significant correla-

tions.

Other relevant hypotheses include: adequate inade-

quate view of self; internal external frame of reference;

and open closed view of the world. The only two studies

conducted using the adequate inadequate PDS found signifi-

cant correlations (Dedrick, 1972; Jennings, 1973).

Six of seven studies of the internal external frame

of reference found significant correlations between the

internal frame of reference and effectiveness (Choy, 1969;

Combs & Soper, 1963a; Dedrick, 1972; DeMott, 1972; Gooding,

1964; Jennings, 1973). Macomber (1961) failed to find

significance, only a tendency. His original analysis

counted behaviors. When this failed to produce correla-

tions, he reanalyzed the data by global inference which

proved more successful.

Two of three studies of the open closed dimension

found significant correlations between openness and effec-

tiveness (Doyle, 1969; Vonk, 1970). The third study













(Dickman, 1967) included the scale as a behavioral dimen-

sion and it failed to find significance. However, a re-

lationship was found between openness as a behavioral

dimension and the three perceptual dimensions examined.

A complete summary of the PDS hypotheses tested

in effectiveness studies is present in Table 1.

Effectiveness Criteria for Sample Selection. In

the thirteen perceptual studies, criteria for effective-

ness have included: supervisors' ratings (teachers, prin-

cipals, bishops, coordinators, and practicum supervisors),

self ratings, peer ratings, student ratings, external

evaluators, number of publications and research projects,

and number of community service activities.

Sample selection included: (1) ranking of the

total population (Combs & Soper, 1963a; Dedrick, 1972;

and Jennings, 1973); (2) volunteers from the total popu-

lation in rank order or in good-average-poor categories

(Choy, 1969; DeMott, 1972; Doyle, 1969; Macomber, 1961;

Vonk, 1970; and (3) most effective and least effective

classifications (Benton, 1964; Dickman, 1967; Gooding,

1964). One study (Brown, 1970) compared most effective

with a random sample.

A key informant approach to effectiveness identi-

fication (Pelto, 1970) has been used in all thirteen

studies since no recognized, agreed upon criteria for












TABLE 1

PERCEPTUAL STUDIES CORRELATING EVALUATED EFFECTIVENESS
AND INFERRED PERCEPTUAL CHARACTERISTICS AMONG HELPING
RELATIONSHIP PROFESSIONALS AND PARA-PROFESSIONALS


Hypotheses Studies

Perceptual Dimension Researcher(s), date, result
Scales relevant to view
of self


1. Identified with Combs & Soper, 1961, S;
People Apart from Benton, 1964, S; Gooding,
People 1964, S; Usher, 1966, S;
Dickman, 1867, NS; Doyle,
1969, S; Choy, 1969, S;
Vonk, 1970, 1970, S; DeMott,
1972, S; Brown, 1970, S;
Jennings, 1973, S


2. Enough Not Enough Combs & Soper, 1961, S;
Gooding, 1964, S.


3. Trustworthy Not NM
Trustworthy


4. Liked Not Liked NM


5. Wanted Not Wanted Gooding, 1964, S; Usher,
1966, S.


6. Accepted Not NM
Accepted


S Significant Correlation
NS No Significant Correlation
NM Not Measured
* Indicates hypotheses added to the original 41 described in 1959.
#1-5 indicates hypotheses of interest in the present invest-
gation.












Table 1 -,continued


Hypotheses Studies

Perceptual Dimension Researcher(s), date, result
Scales relevant to view
of self


7. Feels Certain Feels Brown, 1970, S.
Doubt


8. Feels Aware Feels NM
Unaware


9. Self Revealing Combs & Soper, 1961, S;
Self Concealing Gooding, 1964, S; Choy,
1969, S; DeMott, 1969, S.


10. Adequate Inadequate Dedrick, 1972, S; Jennings,
1973, S.


11. Positive Self Concept Dickman, 1967, NS: Doyle,
Negative Self Con- 1969, S; Vonk, 1970, S.
cept


12. Able Unable Gooding, 1964, S; Usher,
1966, S.


13. Dependable Not Gooding, 1964, S.
Dependable


14. Worthy Unworthy Gooding, 1964, S; Usher,
1966, S.


15. Self Acceptance No Dickman, 1967, NS; Doyle,
Self Acceptance 1969, S.


16. Internal External Combs & Soper, 1961, S;
Macomber, 1961, NS; Gooding,
1964, S; Choy, 1969, S;
Doyle, 1969, S; Dedrick,1972
S; Jennings, 1973 S.


1. *



*




*



*



*



*












Table 1 continued


Hypotheses Studies

Perceptual Dimension Researcher(s), date, result
Scales relevant to view
of self


17. Growth Oriented NM
Controlling


18. Meanings Facts Gooding, 1964, S; Usher,
(Events) 1966, NS; Vonk, 1970, S.


19. People Things Combs & Soper, 1961, S;
Gooding, 1964, S; Choy,
1969, S; Doyle, 1969, S.


20. Hopeful Dispairing Brown, 1970, S.


21. Causation Oriented NM
Mechanics Oriented


* 22. Person Task


* 23. Immediate Causation -
Historical Causation


Gooding,


* 24. Sensitive to Others
Insensitive to
Others


Dickmani


1967, NS.


* 25. Rich Available Per-
ceptions in Subject
Area Lack of Same


Doyle, 1969, S.


Perceptual Dimension
Scales relevant to view
of others

26. Capable Incapable NM


1964, S.












Table 1 continued


Hypotheses Studies

Perceptual Dimension Researcher(s), date, result
Scales relevant to view
of others


27. Trustworthy NM
Untrustworthy NM


28. Respectable No NM
Account


29. Worthy Unworthy Combs & Soper, 1961, S;
Gooding, 1964, S; Usher,
1966, S; Choy, 1969, S;
DeMott, 1972, S.


30. Unthreatening Brown, 1970, S.
Threatening


2. 31.


Able Unable


Combs & Soper, 1961, S;
Benton, 1964, S; Gooding,
1964, S; Usher, 1966, S;
Dickman, 1967, NS; Choy,
1969, S; DeMott, 1972, S;
Dedrick, 1972, S; Jennings,
1973, S.


32. Facilitating Not NM
Facilitating


33. Dependable Combs & Soper, 1961, S;
Undependable Gooding, 1964, S; Usher,
1966, S; Choy, 1969, S;
DeMott, 1972, S.


* 34. Friendly Not
Friendly


Combs & Soper, 1961, S;
Gooding, 1964, S; Choy,
1969, S; DeMott, 1972, S.













Table 1 continued


Hypotheses Studies

Perceptual Dimension Researcher(s), date, result
Scales relevant to view
of others


* 35. Relates to Others As
Persons As Objects,
things


5.
*


*














5.


Benton, 1964, S.


36. Internal External Gooding, 1964, S; Usher,
Motivation 1966, S.


37. Helping Hindering Gooding, 1964, S.


38. Acceptance of Others Doyle, 1969, S.
Others Not
Accepted


Perceptual Dimension Scales
relevant to view of the
Task, Purposes, or Methods


39. Purpose is helping NM
Dominating


40. Purpose is Larger Combs & Soper, 1961, S;
Smaller (Broader Gooding, 1964, S; Usher,
Narrower) 1966, NS; Choy, 1969, S;
Brown, 1970, S; Vonk, 1970,
S; DeMott, 1972, S; Jenn-
ings, 1973, S.


41. Altruistic Combs & Soper, 1961, S;
Narcissistic Gooding, 1964, S; Choy,
1969, S; DeMott, 1972, S.


42. Purpose is Understand- NM
ing Condemning












Table 1 continued


Hypotheses Studies

Perceptual Dimension Scales Researcher(s), date, result
relevant to view of the
Task, Purposes, or Methods


43. Purpose is Accepting NM
Rejecting


44. Purpose is Valuing NM
Integrity Violat-
ing Integrity


45. Approach to the NM
Problem is
Positive Negative


46. Approach to the Prob- Dickman, 1967, NS, (de-
lem is Open to Experi- fined as a behavior not a
ence Closed to perceptual dimenstion),
Experience Doyle, 1969, S; Vonk, 1970,
S.


47. Approach to the Prob- NM
lem is Process
Oriented Ends
Oriented


48. Approach to the Prob- NM
lem is Relaxed -
Compulsion to Change
Others


49. Approach to the Prob- NM
lem is Awareness of
Complexity over-
simplification












Table 1 continued


Hypotheses Studies

Perceptual Dimension Scales Researcher(s), date, result
relevant to view of the
Task, Purposes, or Methods


50. Approach to the Prob- NM
lem is Tolerant of
Ambiguity Intoler-
ant of Ambiguity


* 51. Disclosing -
Concealing


* 52. Facilitator -
Evaluator


Vonk, 1970,


Brown, 1970, S.


53. Helping NM
Manipulating


54. Permissive NM
Authoritarian


55. Cooperation NM
Competition


56. Acceptance Usher, 1966, NS.
Rejection


57. Open Communication NM
Closed Communication


58. Giving Withholding NM


59. Vital Lifeless Brown, 1970, S.
Active Passive












Table 1 continued


Hypotheses Studies

Perceptual Dimension Scales Researcher(s), date, result
relevant to view of the
Task, Purposes, or Methods


60. Acceptance NM
Appeasing


* 61. Freeing -
Controlling


Combs & Soper, 1961, S;
Benton, 1964, S; Gooding,
1964, S; Usher, 1966, NS;
Choy, 1969, S; DeMott, 1969,
S; Jennings, 1973, S.


62. Involved with People Benton, 1964, S.
Uninvolved with People


63. Uniqueness Conformity Vonk, 1970, S.


64. Students' Ends Own Vonk, 1970, S.
Ends












effectiveness existed for any of the professions investi-

gated. This form of basic inquiry was used by Binet in

developing intelligence norms for designing intelligence

tests. It was also used by Warner & associates (1939) to

identify social class groupings, and by Freed (1963) in

examining the caste hierarchy of an Indian village.

Onestudy (Usher, 1966) derived a weighted score

from ratings by students, supervisors, and records of

publications, research, and community activities. The

objective scores from publications, research, and com-

munity activities failed to produce significant correla-

tions. Three studies (Choy, 1969; DeMott, 1972; Doyle,

1969) derived average effectiveness scores from ratings,

categorized into good-average-poor classifications, were

significantly correlated with perceptual characteristic

scores.

Data Collection. Protocol behavior samples have

included (1) written human relations incidents, (2) writ-

ten descriptions of significant professional incidents,

(3) written responses to pictures, (4) observed profes-

sional activity, (5) interview by judges, (6) taped and

typed interviews involving responses to structured prob-

lems, (7) and written responses to particular questions.

Two studies employed the interview method of col-

lecting protocol data (Benton, 1964; Gooding, 1964).












Benton taped the interview and transcribed it for scoring. -

Significant correlations were obtained. Gooding's judges

interviewed subjects and made PDS ratings following the

interview. These scores did not correlate with effective-

ness classifications. Results suggest that personal inter-

action of the judge with the subject and/or scoring of all

PDS at one time could result in a "halo" effect and/or

invalid inferences.

Instrumentation. Seven of the perceptual studies

use a projective variation of the critical incident tech-

nique (Flanagan, 1954). Rather than examining a subject's

description of a critical or significant incident for the

behaviors and situational conditions involved, the total

response of the subject is used by the judge in inferring

the subject's perceptual orientation underlying the be-

havior.

Dedrick (1972) used a Human Relations Incident,

in which the subject described a situation in which he was

involved with one or more persons. Dedrick concluded that

the HRI was too broad and open to elicit the most adequate

protocol data.

Vonk (1970) employed a Critical Incidents in Career

instrument. Subjects focused on problems related to their

careers. Jennings (1973) was also successful in eliciting

adequate protocol material with the CIC in his study of

residence hall assistants.












Scoring Perceptual Dimension Scales. All thir-

teen studies used trained judges to infer the perceptual

characteristics of the subjects. Inference measurements,

found to provide a different insight into the personality

of individuals than is provided by self-report information

(Combs, Courson, Soper, & Park, 1963), are based on the

self-as-instrument concept. This concept expresses the

validity and reliability of evaluations made by

an intelligent human being using himself, his
knowledge, and the resources at hand to solve
the problems for which he is responsible
[Combs, 1965, p. 8].

Validity of inference measurements was found by

Parker (1964) when teachers selected inferred reports of

self-concept over self-reports of self-concept as more ac-

curate descriptions of their students. Rater reliability

of inference measurements has been established in each per-

ceptual study through interjudge training correlations

and in correlations assessed during the studies.

Reliability correlations based on a standard agree-

ment of judges within a two-point limit -- on a seven-point

continuum -- for a minimum of 75 percent of the perceptual

items have been obtained in several studies. Gooding (1964)

obtained a reliability of 79.2 percent agreement on his

training data, and 80.5 percent agreement on his actual

study data. Vonk (1970) obtained reliability of 77.3 per-

cent agreement on his training data using this method.











Brown (1970), Dedrick (1972), and Dellow (1971) also

used the two-point-limit reliability method.

Other studies checked reliability by means of

the Pearson coefficient for split halves, and the Spear-

man Brown Prophecy formula for the entire group (Combs

et al., 1969). Jennings used analysis of variance (Winer,

1962) for proof of reliability.

Jennings (1973) explored the possibility that un-

trained judges could make the same kind of inference

measurements as the trained judges. He found no corre-

lations between inference ratings by trained judges and

untrained judges on six PDS. He found significant corre-

lations on only two of the six scales between judges'

inferences and subjects' self-reported ratings. Since

trained judges' ratings were significantly correlated on

each perceptual dimension with effectiveness ratings,and

minimally trainedjudges also obtained significant correla-

tions, the amount of training required for inference judges

is not established.

Statistical Treatment of PDS Scores. Most of the

thirteen studies have made correlational or chi square

analyses of the effectiveness ratings and perceptual scores.

Jennings (1973) used multivariate analysis of variance in

establishing significant correlations for all of his PDS

hypotheses.

Two factor analysis studies (Combs & Soper, 1963b;













Vonk, 1970) suggest the factor structure of the dimen-

sions and/or inferences concerning them may be holistic.

Combs & Soper (1963b) termed the holistic factor a general

sense of adequacy.

The Perceptual Studies Model. The perceptual

studies of effectiveness follow a basic model:




TABLE 2

MODEL FOR PERCEPTUAL RESEARCH ON EFFECTIVENESS


1. Statement of the Problem





2. Sampling Procedure


3. Data Collection



4. Instrumentation





5. Data Analysis




6. Conclusions


Selection from the per-
ceptual dimension list
those hypotheses relevant
to the population of
interest.

Effectiveness rating of
eligible subjects.

Protocols of instantaneous
behavior obtained from
sample group.

Assessment of protocols by
trained judges recording
inferences of subjects'
characteristics on Percep-
tual Dimension Scales.

Statistical comparison of
effectiveness ratings and
Perceptual Dimension Scale
scores.

Discussion of correlations,
their implications, and sug-
gestions for future studies.

















CHAPTER III


DESIGN OF THE STUDY




To determine if perceptual orientation discrim-

inates between most and least effective elected legisla-

tors and public school counselors, and to compare the

perceptual orientation of the two professional groups who

share the common goal of influencing others for their good,

the perceptual research model was use to collect data for a

two-by-two factorial multivariate analysis of variance test

of hypotheses.



Hypotheses

The research hypotheses predict that:

H1: Idividuals identified as the most effective elected

legislators and public school counselors, in con-

trast with individuals identified as the least

effective elected legislators and public school

counselors, have a perceptual orientation closer

to perceptual psychological theory predictions as

measured by trained inference judges and recorded

on selected Perceptual Dimension Scales.













H2: Elected legislators and public school counselors

have a similar perceptual orientation involving

perceptual characteristics indicative of a sensi-

tivity to people as inferred by trained judges on

selected Perceptual Dimension Scales.

In order to investigate the research hypo-

theses, five perceptual hypotheses were explored

by trained inference judges using bipolar Percep-

tual Dimension Scales.

H3: The Adequate-Inadequate Perceptual Dimension Scale

predicts:

The most effective individual sees himself as ba-

sically adequate. He sees himself as able to cope

with life effectively. He sees himself as liked,

wanted, worthy, and in essentially positive ways.

The least effective individual sees himself as ba-

sically inadequate. He does not see himself as

able to cope with life effectively. He sees him-

self as unlike, unwanted, unworthy, and in essen-

tially negative ways.

H4: The Able-Unable Perceptual Dimension Scales predicts:

The most effective individual sees others as able

to deal with their problems. He sees them as cap-

able, respectable, friendly, and in essentially

positive, optimistic ways. The least effective













individual sees others as unable to deal with

their problems. He sees them as incapable, no

account, unfriendly, and in essentially negative,

cynical ways.

H5: The Internal-External Perceptual Dimension Scale

predicts:

The most effective individual perceives from an

internal, subjective frame of reference. He is

sensitive to and concerned about how others feel

about things and how things look to others. He

perceives these as significant data for determin-

ing his own behavior.

The least effective individual perceives from an

external, objective frame of reference. He is more

concerned with others' behaviors and is preoccupied

with how things seem to himself.

H6: The Open-Closed Perceptual Dimension Scale predicts:

The most effective individual perceives from an

open view of the world. He sees confrontation of

differences and alternatives as positive and help-

ful. He values the widest possible sources of in-

formation.

The least effective individual perceives from a

closed view of the world. He sees differences and

alternatives as negative, hindering, and threatening.













He values narrow sources of information.

H7: The Larger-Smaller Perceptual Dimension Scale

predicts:

The most effective individual's purposes are

larger, broader. He perceives implications beyond

the immediate and specific. He is concerned with

long range and comprehensive aspects. The least

effective individual's purposes are smaller, nar-

rower. He perceives the immediate results and

specific context as the important aspects.



Subjects

A key informant procedure (Pelto, 1970) was employed

to obtain a sample of ten individuals for each of four clas-

sifications: most effective elected legislators, least

effective elected legislators, most effective public school

counselors, and least effective public school counselors.

Nominator panel. Subjects were nominated by two

panels of six nominators. Three members of each panel con-

sidered eligible elected legislators and three members con-

sidered eligible public school counselors. Each group of

three nominators consisted of one representative of the

professionally related academic community, one representa-

tive of the related administrative community, and one

representative of the related peer community.













Nominators were recommended to the researcher by

other members of the same three community groups. Nom-

inators were recommended on the basis of their knowledge

of the profession and the individuals involved in the pro-

fession. Each nominator was recommended by at least two

persons.

The nominators were unknown to each other and were

guaranteed anonymity. Each nominator submitted an unsigned,

ranked list of individuals considered most and least ef-

fective from a roster of eligible individuals. The nomina-

tor was asked to list up to 15 individuals for the most

effective and 15 individuals for least effective classifi-

cation. Nominators were asked to make global ratings, using

any data base or criterion schedule that was personally pre-

ferable. (See Appendix A.)

Eligible populations. Elected legislators were

defined as citizens of a particular state county who have

been elected to public office during the 25 years preced-

ing the study, and who served at least one year as a "mem-

ber of the group within a political system whose members

are formally equal in status, whose authority derives from

the belief that they represent the other members of the

community, and whose functions include proposing, deliber-

ating, and deciding about public policy [Wahlke & Patter-

son, 1972, pp. 6-7]." A list of 40 eligible elected













legislators was submitted to nominators. Included in the

list were 24 city commissioners, 8 county commissioners,

and 8 state legislators.

Public school counselors were defined as individu-

als hired by one particular state county (the same county

as that of the legislators) school system and who had

served at least one year as a full time counselor in public

elementary, middle, or secondary schools. A list of 48

eligible public school counselors was submitted to nomi-

nators. The list included 18 elementary school counselors

10 middle school counselors, and 20 secondary school counse-

lors.

Subject selection. In order to be considered for

inclusion in one of the research groups, an individual had

to be nominated by at least two of three nominators of one

panel for a classification and not nominated by the remain-

ing nominator to the opposite classification. Subjects

were given points according to their rank position on nom-

inator lists.

Since the first panel of nominators did not identify

at least ten individuals for each group, a second panel was

contacted. Their nominations were assessed in the same

fashion as the nominations made by the first panel. Indi-

viduals identified by the second panel were accorded rank

points and integrated with the nominations of the first












panel. Any individual nominated by one panel for a most

effective group and by the other panel for a least effec-

tive group was excluded from the final ranking of poten-

tial subjects. One elected legislator and one public

school counselor were excluded from the final groups on

this basis.

The combined list of nominations included 11 most

effective elected legislators, 12 least effective elected

legislators, 13 most effective public school counselors,

and 11 least effective public school counselors.

Subjects were invited to participate in the study

in order of their rank points to obtain a sample group of

ten for each classification. One most effective elected

legislator, of the ten with the most rank order points,

was unavailable for an interview. One of the least effec-

tive legislators, of the ten with the most rank-order

points, could not be contacted. One of the most effective

public school counselors, of the ten with the most rank-

order points, declined to participate in the study. One

of the least effective public school counselors, of the ten

with the most rank order points, was unable to arrange an

interview time during the data collection period.

Subject anonymity. Protection of subject anonymity

was provided by a double coding of data. A graduate re-

search assistant, contracted to insure double-blind and













subject anonymity conditions, compiled the nominators'

lists and assigned code numbers to each subject. The re-

searcher assigned new code identifications to each inter-

view protocol for use by the inference judges. All data

were analyzed using the second code.



Instrumentation

Three instrumentation procedures were used in con-

ducting the research design: the Key Informant Technique,

for selection of study subjects; the Significant Incident

Interview, for collection of protocols from subjects; and

Inference Judging on Perceptual Dimension Scales, for pro-

tocol scoring.

Key informant technique. The Key Informant Tech-

nique is an anthropological and sociological method of

gathering information about beliefs, attitudes, and prac-

tices among human groups (Pelto, 1970). Its purpose is

to insure adequate panels of key informants by having them

fairly represent intracommunity variations in cultural and

social opinions and patterns. In addition to gathering

information from representatives of the diverse social com-

ponents of a community, the number of key informants is

considered sufficient when there is a pattern of agreement

in informants' responses. Although no statistical proce-

dures have been worked out for assessing this technique,













it has made possible the collection of and description of

information previously elusive (Warner & associates, 1960;

Freed, 1963).

The application of the Key Informant Technique in

the present study was discussed in the previous section.

Significant incident interview. The Significant

Incident Interview, adapted from the Critical Incident

Technique (Flanagan, 1954) and the Human Relations Inci-

dent (Dedrick, 1972; Jennings, 1973), and the Critical

Incidents in Career (Vonk, 1970), is an informal, non-

directed interview in which the subject is asked to tell

about the problems and significant experiences he had to

deal with in his profession. Interviewers were limited

to questions pertaining to the feelings of the subject at

the time of the event and at the present time, and to non-

evaluative encouragement of subject participation.

The SII was selected in the interest of convenience

to subjects and researcher and to provide the broadest

feasible protocol base for inference judges. Interviews

were tape recorded and the second ten minutes of the inter-

view was used as the protocol for inference judging.

Inference judging on perceptual dimension scales.

Three trained judges rated the interview protocols on five

PDS. The scales, selected for their relevance to the study

populations, are represented on bipolar continue as defined













previously. Each judge made a global inference regarding

the subject's internal orientation relevant to each of

the five scales. The judge recorded his inference in

terms of a l-to-7 rating. (See Appendix C.)

Perceptual inferences provide a different insight

into the personality of an individual from self-reports

(Parker, 1964), and were found to be more accurate expres-

sions of an individual's self-concept as recognized by

others (Courson, 1963). The present study is concerned

with the internal, subjective orientation of individuals

and therefore employs the inference judging technique.

All three methods of instrumentation are consistent

with the self-as-instrument concept (Combs, 1965; Combs et

al., 1969) which expresses the validity of measurements

and judgments made by an individual using his own knowledge,

understanding, and resources.



Pilot Study

Interviewers and judges were trained in a pilot

study. Two interviewers, matched by education, sex, and

personality type, were instructed in the scope and limits

of the SII. The orientation seminar included explanation

of the principle purpose of the SII: to obtain a relaxed,

spontaneous behavior sample in which the subject tells

about the problems and significant experiences of his













career and his feelings, values, and attitudes relevant

to those matters.

The interviewers opened the interview in the

following manner:

We are making a study of leadership in the
(counseling/legislative) profession and you
have been recommended as someone who should
be included in such a study. We are inter-
ested in the problems and important experi-
ences you have had in your work.

Pilot interviews. For the training program the

interviewers conducted a total of 12 interviews. Six

interviews were held with graduate students in counselor

education who had completed at least one practicum in

public schools. Six interviews were conducted with com-

munity business persons. Each interviewer was assigned

interview subjects according to a randomized schedule.

The taped interviews were evaluated by the researcher's

supervisor, who made suggestinos for improvement of in-

terview technique.

Judge Training. The tapes from the 12 pilot inter-

views were used to train the inference judges. Three grad-

uate students in the College of Education participated in

the training seminars.

The training seminars for the judges included dis-

cussion of perceptual psychology and definition of the

perceptual scales employed in the study, practice rating

of pilot interviews with follow-up discussion of ratings,













an external validity check by an outside expert, and estab-

lishment of interjudge reliability. The minimum interjudge

reliability was set for a .75 ratio of agreement within a

two-point limit on the 1-to-7 scale.

The two-point limit ratio for reliability (Brown,

1970; Dedrick, 1972; Dellow, 1971; Gooding, 1964; Vonk,

1970) was calculated by determining the number of actual

agreements within the specified limit and dividing this

quantity by the number of possible agreements. The judges

obtained an overall reliability of 82 percent.





TABLE 3



INTERJUDGE RELIABILITY TRAINING



Training Number of Number of Two- Percent
Session Protocols Point Limit of
Rated Agreements Agreement


1 5 3 .60
2 5 5 1.00
3 4 1 .25
4 5 4 .80
5 5 5 1.00
6 5 5 1.00
7 4 4 1.00
8 6 5 .83

Total 39 32 .82














Data Collection

To insure double-blind research conditions, sub-

jects and judges were not informed of the research hypo-

theses prior to completion of the study. Interviewers and

judges were not aware of individual or group classifica-

tions. Identification and protocol materials were destroyed

upon conclusion of the project.

Invitation. A letter of invitation (see Appendix

B-l) was mailed to nominated subjects to introduce the re-

searcher and the project. Several days later the research-

er telephoned subjects to answer any questions and to set

an interview time.

Interview Assignment. Subjects were listed in alpha-

betical order and assigned according to alphabetical number

and a table of random numbers to the two interviewers. In

several instances switches in assignment were made due to

conflicting time commitments.

Interview Appointments. The interviewer met with

the subject at a time and place of convenience to the sub-

ject. The interview was recorded on 30 minute cassette

tape. The interview followed the prescribed SII pattern.

The first ten minutes were used to introduce the nature of

the interview and set the climate. The second ten minutes

were selected for the protocol. The last ten minutes were

used for insuring the subject's sense of satisfaction and

completion.













An informed consent form (see Appendix B-2) was

signed by the subject subsequent to the interview. Any

further clarification of the study requested by the sub-

ject was made as fully as possible.

The interviewer labeled the interview tape with the

subject's first code identification. Names were not used

beyond this point in the study.



Protocol Preparation

A second code number was assigned by the researcher

to the second ten minute segment of each interview, which

was edited out of the 30 minute tapes to serve as the pro-

tocol from which inference judges made their ratings. A

schedule of presentation of the 40 protocols was prepared

using a table of random numbers so that five different ran-

dom orders were prepared. The protocols were taped on cas-

settes according to the randomized sequence. This produced

a schedule of 200 ten minute interview segments.

The five PDS variables were arranged in 40 random-

ized sets. The sets were assigned to protocols so that the

judges rated each protocol on a different PDS as the proto-

col came up in the schedule of presentation. Appropriate

switches were made in order to establish a complete schedule

in which no protocol followed itself and no PDS was scored

successively.













TABLE 4


SAMPLE OF PROTOCOL PRESENTATION SCHEDULE FOR JUDGING



Presentation Protocol PDS to be Rated
Order Code


1 144A 4:Open Closed
2 023A 5:Larger Smaller
3 272C l:Adequate Inadequate
4 174A 4:Open Closed
5 402A 3:Internal External
6 072C l:Adequate Inadequate
7 222A 2:Able Unable



194 144A 2:Able Unable
195 103A 3:Internal External
196 062A l:Adequate Inadequate
197 031C 2:Able Unable
198 243C 4:Open Closed
199 331A 5:Larger Smaller
200 111A l:Adequate Inadequate


Protocol Scoring

The 200 protocols were divided into three sets:

A, B, and C. Judges were given one set of protocols and

a packet of PDS score sheets. Each judge rated indepen-

dently, beginning at a different place in the presentation

schedule. When a judge completed rating one set, the re-

searcher collected the ratings and the tapes. The tapes

were then given to the second judge. When the second judge













completed ratings, the researcher collected the ratings

and tapes and delivered the tapes to the third judge.





TABLE 5


JUDGE SEQUENCE OF PROTOCOL SCORING



Judge Protocol Set: First Second Third




M A B C
T C A B
N B C A



Note. Set A contained 68 protocols.
Set B contained 66 protocols.
Set C contained 66 protocols.



Judges were instructed to listen to an entire pro-

tocol in terms of the PDS to be rated. Using a global

approach, judges inferred the internal perceptual orienta-

tion of the subject. Judges responded to any clues they

felt relevant in answering, "If I were this person, behav-

ing in this manner, how adequate do I believe myself to be?"

Or, "If I were this person, behaving in this manner, how

able do I believe other people are?" The inference rele-

vant to the PDS being scored was recorded on a bipolar con-

tinuum with a range of l-to-7. (See Appendix C.)













Judges also indicated a confidence level rating

of their inference. The confidence level was included to

identify protocols that were harder to hear or considered

as too ambiguous by the judges for clear scoring.

Subjects' final rating. Using the ratings of each

of the three judges, an average rating score was calculated

for each subject on each PDS. The average ratings were

used as dependent variables in the statistical test of

hypotheses.



Statistical Analysis

Design. A two-by-two factorial design was estab-

lished to test the research hypotheses.




TABLE 6


FACTORIAL DESIGN


Most Effective Least Effective
Subjects: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PDS 1
Elected PDS 2
Legisla- PDS 3
tors PDS 4
PDS 5
PDS 1
Public PDS 2
School PDS 3
Coun- PDS 4
selor PDS 5













Statistical model. A multivariate analysis of

variance (MANOVA) was used to surface significant dif-

ferences among the groups. MANOVA tests for interaction

effects as well as main effects and is a two-tailed test

of a one-tailed hypothesis.

MANOVA, a holistic model, considers the response

variables interdependent and is therefore consistent with

the theoretical position of perceptual psychology. Since

the sample size of the study is relatively small, the power

of the test, beta, was considered by setting the alpha

level at .05.

Operational hypotheses. Three operational hypo-

theses were established to test the research hypotheses.

Stated in the null form, they are:

Null HI: There is no statistically significant difference

in the Perceptual Dimension Scale mean vectors

of most and least effective groups.

Null H2: There is no statistically significant difference

in the Perceptual Dimension Scale mean vectors

of groups of elected legislators and public

school counselors.

Null H3: There is no statistically significant interaction

between the factors of effectiveness and profes-

sion with respect to Perceptual Dimension Scale

mean vectors.


.













All multivariate tests which resulted in rejec-

tion of null hypotheses were followed up by univariate

tests.

Computer program. IBM system 370, Model 165, at

the University of Florida Northeast Regional Computer

Center was used to perform the statistical computations.

Biomedical program X63 (Dixon, 1968) was used to assess

the data.


















CHAPTER IV


ANALYSIS OF THE DATA




The purpose of the study was to compare elected

legislators and public school counselors in light of

their inferred perceptual characteristics to determine

if perceptual orientation discriminates between most and

least effective individuals in the two groups, and to

determine if the two professional groups have a similar

perceptual orientation.

Data, collected and scored as described in Chapter

III, were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance.

The MANOVA statistical procedure was selected to facilitate

comparison of the four groups in terms of a composite per-

ceptual orientation, and exploration of the configuration

of perceptual characteristics comprising the perceptual

orientation. MANOVA compared the four groups in terms of

variance of mean vectors, based on an assumption of inter-

dependence of the five perceptual variables contributing

to the composite orientation.

Exploration of the configuration of the perceptual













orientation, an examination of relationships among the

five perceptual characteristics, consisted of univariate

analysis of perceptual characteristics(Hummel & Sligo,

1971). The four groups were compared in terms of each

perceptual characteristic separately. Biomedical program

X63 (Dixon, 1968) was used to perform the statistical

analysis.

Statistically significant differences between

groups and perceptual characteristics were identified and

are presented in this chapter. The interjudge reliability

for ratings on study protocols is also presented.


Results of the Analysis

Perceptual orientation was found to discriminate

between the most and least effective elected legislators

and public school counselors. Important differences and

similarities were found in the perceptual orientations

of the two professions. Findings were based on group

mean scores derived from the PDS ratings of individual

subjects.

Group mean scores. Group mean scores, the basic

data for determination of significant differences, are

presented in Table 7. The range of PDS mean scores was

one to seven, with one indicating the most positive score

and seven the most negative score.

Table 7 shows that the most effective public school






















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counselors obtained the most positive mean score (2.830).

The most effective elected legislators' mean score (2.996)

was followed by the least effective public school counsel-

ors' score (3.457). The least effective elected legisla-

tors' score (4.004) was approximately at the mid-point of

the range.


Results Relevant to Research Hypothesis 1: Individuals

identified as the most effective elected legislators and

public school counselors have a perceptual orientation

closer to perceptual psychological predictions than

individuals identified as least effective elected leg-

islators and public school counselors.

Examination of Table 8 shows the most effective

groups were found to be significantly (p<.05) more posi-

tive in their perceptual orientation scores than were

the least effective groups. Perceptual orientation does

discriminate between most and least effective individuals

as predicted by perceptual psychology. An examination of

the five perceptual dimensions, measured as dependent vari-

ables to assess perceptual orientation, was made with uni-

variate comparisons. Results of these comparisons are

discussed in terms of the relevant research hypotheses.

Research hypothesis 2 deals with the comparison of the two

professions and is discussed later.













Research hypothesis 3: the adequate inadequate

PDS. Support was found (p<.10) for the prediction that

the most effective individual sees himself as basically

adequate. He sees himself as able to cope with life effec-

tively. He sees himself as liked, wanted, worthy, and in

essentially positive ways. Table 9 presents the derived

F-statistic from univariate analysis of the adequate in-

adequate PDS ratings.

Examination of Table 7 shows that the overall sig-

nificance of the positive perception of self as adequate

came from the difference between the most and least effec-

tive elected legislators, because the most effective public

school counselors' mean adequacy score was less positive

than the least effective public school counselors' mean

score. This points out the importance of the perception

of self as adequate for the elected legislator, and raises

questions about the finding for counselors. The questions

are discussed in Chapter V.

Research hypothesis 4: the able unable PDS.

Support (p<.10) was found for the prediction that the ef-

fective individual sees others as able to deal with their

problems. He sees others as capable, friendly, respectable,

and in essentially positive, optimistic ways. Table 9 pre-

sents the derived F-statistic supporting the prediction.

This was the least discriminating of the five dimensions.











TABLE 8


CONTRAST COEFFICIENTS AND F-STATISTICS FROM MULTIVARIATE
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE AMONG MOST EFFECTIVE ELECTED LEG-
ISLATORS, LEAST EFFECTIVE ELECTED LEGISLATORS, MOST
EFFECTIVE PUBLIC SCHOOL COUNSELORS, AND LEAST EFFECTIVE
PUBLIC SCHOOL COUNSELORS



Hypotheses
Perceptual
Dimensions Research H1: Research H2: Research Hg
Most/Least Legislators/ Group
Effective Counselor Interaction
Effects c

Contrast Coefficients (differences in means)


1. Adequate -
Inadequate

2. Able -
Unable

3. Internal -
External

4. Open -
Closed

5. Larger -
Smaller


-1.1340a


-1.2680


-1.9000


-1.9360


-1.8350


1.0020


1.4320


1.6680


-0.1670
Statistics


BMD X63: Multi-
variate analysis
for derived
F-Statistic
df=5,32 3.5147* 2.5312* 1.7630
*Significant at the .05 level
aNegative is the desired direction
bNegative denotes elected legislator strength; positive
denotes public school counselor strength
CInteraction compares: (most effective elected legislators
- least effective elected legislators) with (most effec-
tive public school counselors least effective public
school counselors)


-1.4660


-0.2020


0.3660


-0.4000


-0.3030


-0.2680b













TABLE 9


UNIVARIATE TESTS OF PDS RATINGS COMPARING MOST EFFECTIVE
WITH LEAST EFFECTIVE GROUPS AND COMPARING ELECTED LEGIS-
LATORS WITH PUBLIC SCHOOL COUNSELORS




Univariate F-Statistics (df 1, 36) of PDS
Comparison
Groups Adequate Able Internal Open Larger -
Inadequate Unable External Closed Smaller


Most/Least *** ***
Effective 3.5849* 3.4919* 6.9898** 12.1703 10.2317
Groups


Elected
Legislators **
/Public 0.2002 2.1850 3.9704* 9.0341 0.0847
School
Counselors


*Significant at the .10 level
**Significant at the .025 level
***Significant at the .01 level













Research hypothesis 5: the internal external

PDS. Support (p<.025) was found for the prediction that

the most effective individual perceives from an internal,

subjective frame of reference. He is sensitive to and

concerned about how others see and feel about things. He

perceives this as significant data for determining his

own behavior. (See Table 9).

Research hypothesis 6: the open closed PDS.

Support (p<.01) was found for the prediction that the most

effective individual perceives from an open view of the

world. He sees confrontation of differences and alterna-

tives as postiive and helpful. He values the wildest pos-

sible sources of information. Table 9 shows that this is

the most clearly discriminating of the five perceptual

dimensions.

Research hypothesis 7: the larger smaller PDS.

Support (p<.01) was found for the prediction that the most

effective individual has larger purposes. He perceives

implications beyond the immediate and specific and is con-

cerned with the long range and comprehensive aspects of

things. Table 9 shows this to be the second most clearly

discriminating of the five perceptual dimensions.



Results Relevant to Research Hypothesis 2: Elected Leg-

islators and Public School Counselors Have a Similar












Perceptual Orientation Indicative of a Sensitivity to

Others

Examination of Table 8 shows that elected leg-

islators were found to have a significantly (p<.05) dif-

ferent perceptual orientation than public school counsel-

ors. Significant differences were found on two of the

five perceptual dimensions, while three of the five dimen-

sions were found to be similar. Table 9 shows the differ-

ences to be in the open closed PDS (p<.025) and the

internal external PDS (p<.10). Overlapping of percep-

tual orientation was found on the adequate inadequate

PDS, the able unable PDS, and the larger smaller PDS.

Although overlapping on the majority of the PDS,

the perceptual orientation similarity did not include the

two dimensions most relevant to sensitivity to others.

This failure to support the research prediction is presented

in terms of the two relevant dimensions.

Open Closed. Public school counselors were rated

as perceiving significantly (p<.025) more from an open view

of the world than were elected legislators. The open -

closed dimension examines the perceptual characteristic of

perceiving from an open view of the world in which confron-

tation of differences and alternatives is seen as positive

and helpful and the widest possible sources of information

are valued. The individual who perceives from a closed













view of the world sees differences and alternatives as

negative, hindering, and threatening and values narrow

sources of information.

Internal External. The public school counselors

were rated as perceiving more from an internal frame of

reference (p<.10). The internal external dimension ex-

amines the perceptual characteristic of perceiving from

the internal, subjective point of view which is sensitive

to how things look to others and how others feel about

things. These perceptions are considered as significant

in determining behavior. The individual who perceives

from an external frame of reference perceives from an

external, objective point of view and is more concerned

with others behaviors and preoccupied with how things

seem to himself.

Similarity in orientation. Even with differences

on the two PDS ratings, important similarity and overlap-

ping was found in the perceptual orientation of elected

legislators and public school counselors. The most effec-

tive elected legislators were more like the public school

counselors, even on the dimensions relevant to sensitivity

to others. They were also significantly more positive in

their PDS ratings than their least effective counterparts.

Table 8 shows that the most effective elected

legislators have PDS ratings in the direction predicted













by perceptual theory that are just as significant as the

more positive ratings obtained by the most effective

public school counselors. The Group Interaction Effect

showing no significant differences indicates the signifi-

cance (p<.05) of the difference between most and least

effective elected legislators.

An examination of Table 9 shows that legislators

and counselors were not significantly different on three

of the five dimensions. They were similar in the adequate

- inadequate, the able unable, and the larger smaller

dimensions.

Table 10 shows that the most effective elected

legislators have a perceptual orientation similar to that

of the least effective public school counselors in all

aspects. Table 10 also verifies the significant (p<.01)

difference between the least effective elected legislators

and the most effective public school counselors.

Therefore in spite of the initial finding of dif-

ferences, strong similarity is found in directionality of

perceptual orientation, in the overlapping of the majority

of the dimensions, and in the close relationship between

the most effective elected legislators and the least effec-

tive public school counselors. These similarities are not

immediately apparent from the multivariate approach to

analysis of the data.












TABLE 10


MULTIVARIATE COMPARISON OF MOST EFFECTIVE ELECTED LEG-
ISLATORS WITH LEAST EFFECTIVE PUBLIC SCHOOL COUNSELORS
AND OF LEAST EFFECTIVE ELECTED LEGISLATORS WITH MOST
EFFECTIVE PUBLIC SCHOOL COUNSELORS


Comparison F-Statistic, df 5,32

Most Effective Elected
Legislators with Least 1.8773
Effective Public School
Counselors


Least Effective Elected
Legislators with Most 4.1685*
Effective Public School
Counselors


* Significant at .01 level.













Interjudge Reliability

Interjudge reliability for ratings given to the

study protocols is presented in Table 11. The overall

reliability for the judges on all scales (200 protocol

ratings) was .755. Their reliability for the training

protocol ratings was .820. Judges achieved the highest

reliability on the able unable dimension and lowest on

the larger smaller dimension.














TABLE 11


INTERJUDGE RELIABILITY PERCENTAGES CALCULATED ACCORDING
TO NUMBER OF AGREEMENTS WITHIN THE TWO POINT LIMIT ON
STUDY PROTOCOL RATINGS


Dimension


Adequate -
Inadequate

Able -
Unable

Internal -
External

Open -
Closed

Larger -
Smaller


Two Point Limit Ratio
in Percentage


.850


.900


.650


.820


.550


Overall Reliability


.755


















CHAPTER V


CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS




Comparison of the perceptual characteristics of

elected legislators and public school counselors was

undertaken to explore the nature of effectiveness in two

groups of individuals whose work involves influencing

others. The study investigated the possibility that per-

ceptual orientation can discriminate between the most and

least effective individuals in both kinds of work. The

study also examined the suggestion that elected legisla-

tors and public school counselors have a similar percep-

tual orientation indicative of sensitivity to others.

From the theoretical position of perceptual psy-

chology, which assumes behavior to be a function of the

perceptual field of the behaver at the moment of acting

(Combs & Snugg, 1959), the study examined taped interview

protocols of individuals identified as most or least ef-

fective in the two professional groups. Identification

of subjects was made through a key informant technique

similar to that used by Warner and associates (1960) in












determining social class groupings. The 40 study subjects

included 10 individuals nominated as most effective elected

legislators, 10 nominated as least effective elected leg-

islators, 10 nominated as most effective public school

counselors, and 10 nominated as least effective public

school counselors.

Subjects were interviewed utilizing a significant

incident method similar to that used by Jennings (1973),

Dedrick (1972), Vonk (1970), and Gooding (1964). Inference

judges trained as described by Jennings (1973) and Combs

et al. (1969) rated the interview protocols on five per-

ceptual characteristics. Ratings were recorded on Percep-

tual Dimension Scales (Appendix C).

Averaged PDS scores were used in a multivariate

analysis of variance which compared the perceptual orien-

tations of the four groups. Examination of the individual

perceptual characteristics, measured as interdependent var-

iables within the perceptual orientation, involved univari-

ate comparisons of the groups in terms of each separate

characteristic. Biomedical program X63 and IBM system 370,

model 165, were utilized for computation of the analysis.



Results

Total perceptual orientation and individual percep-

tual characteristics were found to distinguish between the













most effective and least effective groups as predicted.

Important differences and similarities were found in the

perceptual orientations and characteristics of legisla-

tors and counselors.

Discriminations between most and least effective

groups. The most effective individuals were significantly

(p<.05) more positive in perceptual orientation than the

least effective individuals. The most effective individ-

uals were found to be more positive on each of the five

dimensions measured to assess orientation. The findings,

presented in order of significance, describe the most ef-

fective individuals as having the following perceptual

characteristics:

The most effective individuals perceived more from

an open view of the world than the least effective indi-

viduals (p<.01). They saw confrontation of differences

and alternatives as helpful and positive. They valued the

widest possible sources of information.

The most effective individuals had larger, broader

purposes than the least effective individuals (p<.01). They

perceived implications beyond the immediate and specific

and were concerned with the long range and comprehensive

aspects of things.

The most effective individuals perceived more from

an internal frame of reference than the least effective













individuals (p<.025). They perceived from a subjective

point of view which is sensitive to how things look to

others and how others feel about things. They perceived

these as important data for determining their own behavior.

The most effective individuals perceived them-

selves as more adequate than did the least effective in-

dividuals (p<.10). They saw themselves as able to cope

with life effectively, as liked, wanted, worthy, and in

essentially positive ways. Although the overall analysis

showed this to be a significant difference between most

and least effective individuals, examination of the mean

scores of the four groups (Table 7) shows that this sig-

nificance came entirely from the difference between the

most and least effective elected legislators. The most

effective public school counselors had a less positive

mean adequacy score than did the least effective public

school counselors. This indicates that the perception of

self as adequate was quite characteristic of legislators,

while it was not as characteristic of counselors.

The most effective individuals perceived others

as more able to cope with their problems than did the

least effective individuals (p<.10). They saw others as

capable, respectable, friendly, and in essentially posi-

tive, optimistic ways.













Similarities and differences between legislators

and counselors. Overlapping but not totally congruent

perceptual orientations were found for elected legisla-

tors and public school counselors. That is to say that,

although direction of scores and several characteristics

were common to both professions, their perceptual orienta-

tions were not exactly the same. Both professions were

similar in overall perception of self-as-adequate, in per-

ception of others-as-able, and in having larger purposes.

Public school counselors were found to perceive more from

an open view of the world (p<.025) and from an internal

frame of reference (p<.10).

Similarity in direction of perceptual orientation

was found. The most effective individuals in both pro-

fessions were significantly (p<.05) more positive in PDS

ratings than the least effective individuals.

Overlapping of perceptual orientation was further

confirmed by total similarity between the most effective

elected legislators and the least effective public school

counselors. The most effective elected legislators were

more like public school counselors than their least effec-

tive counterparts. It was positively significant (p<.05)

for legislators to have a perceptual orientation more like

that of public school counselors.

In spite of significant differences indicated







88




initially by the MANOVA technique, overlapping and sim-

ilarity was found in the perceptual orientations of

counselors and legislators. Although they were signifi-

cantly different (p<.05) on the two dimensions relevant

to sensitivity to others, the most effective individuals

in both groups scored more positively on these two vari-

ables.



Implications

The implications of the present research findings

pertain to interpersonal effectiveness, elected legisla-

tors, public school counselors, and perceptual psychology.

Interpersonal effectiveness. The consistent find-

ings from perceptual research on interpersonal effective-

ness offers a useful and inclusive understanding of the

scattered and seemingly unrelated findings of other theo-

retical and operational studies. Perceptual theory (Combs

& Snygg, 1959), while denying any one-to-one relationship

between perceptions and behaviors, maintains that under-

lying perceptions are responsible for overt actions.

Certain kinds of inferred underlying perceptions

have been found to result in more effective behaviors

(Combs et al., 1969). Identification and description of

the effective behaviors would be an endless undertaking

since each individual has an infinitely unique repetoire













of behaviors which communicates their underlying percep-

tions. Therefore perceptual theory suggests description

of perceptual characteristics is more efficient and rele-

vant than catalogues of external behaviors and traits.

From the perceptual position, findings from other studies

can be drawn together as results of certain perceptions.

The findings from studies reviewed in Chapter II are dis-

cussed in terms of the perceptual characteristics that

could cause such behavioral results.

Open view of the world. The most effective elected

legislators and public school counselors were found to be

most strongly distinguished by an open view of the world

perception. This perceptual characteristic describes the

individual as seeing confrontation of differences and al-

ternatives as positive and helpful and valuing the widest

possible sources of information.

Possible consequences of the open view of the

world characteristic can be seen in trait study findings

that leaders are well rounded in interests and aptitudes

and adaptable to many situations. Valuing the widest

possible sources of information could lead to the greater

intelligence found in leaders by the same trait studies

(Scott & Spaulding, 1972).

Seeing differences and alternatives as positive

and helpful could result in the ability to determine the