The effectiveness of a race relations communications program with black and white fraternity pledges

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Title:
The effectiveness of a race relations communications program with black and white fraternity pledges
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Parker, Woodrow McClain, 1941-
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Communication -- Social aspects   ( lcsh )
Interpersonal relations   ( lcsh )
Race relations   ( lcsh )
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non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 123-128.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Woodrow McCain Parker.
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Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

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University of Florida
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oclc - 14228137
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Full Text















THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A RACE RELATIONS
COMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM WITH BLACK
AND WHITE FRATERNITY PLEDGES











By

WOODROW McCLAIN PARKER


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY











UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1975





















TO MY MOTHER, NELLIE JANE PARKER












Your love, devotion, encouragement and

understanding constitute the foundation

upon which I have built my life















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


I would like to express my appreciation to the following people:

Joe Wittmer, who has served as Chairman, guide and friend through
my doctoral program.

Paul Schauble, who shared in developing and carrying out the
training program and was a special friend.

Bill Ware, Richard Johnson and Larry Loesch for serving as statistical
consultants.

Milan Kolarik and staff at the University Counseling Center, for
their encouragement, trust and support.

The black and white fraternity pledges who participated in the study.

Audrey Johnson and James Morgan for their editorial assistance.

James Wattenbarger, who served faithfully as committee member and
was a special friend.

Alice Price for typing the manuscript.

My oldest brother, Mark Parker, Jr., who sacrificed his education for
the education of his younger brothers and sisters.

My sons, Eldridge and Torrey, for all the love and joy they have given me.

My wife, Liz, for being all that she has been to me.















TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS - - - -- ii

LIST OF TABLES - - - vi

ABSTRACT - - - Vii

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION - - --- 1

Purpose of the Study - - 3
Statement of the Problem - - 4
Questions to be Answered - - 5
Substantive Assumptions - - 6
Communications Skills Training Model- - 7
Selected Life Experiences - - 9
Relationship Between Communication Skills and
Selected Life Experiences - - 10
Definition of Terms - - 11
Limitations of the Study- - - 12

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE - - 13

Models and Approaches for Easing Racial Tension - 13
Communication Training and Race Relations - 20
Relationship Between Black and White Social
Fraternities on University Campuses -- 24
Summary - - - 28

CHAPTER III

DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY - - -- 30

Design - - - 30
Statistical Analysis - - 32
Control Group- - - 32
Trainers - - 33
Null Hypotheses --- - 34
Dependent Variables and Instruments - 37
Selection and Training of Judges - 3
Validity of Independent Judges' Ratings - ----- -39
Attitude-Behavior Scale: Blacks/Whites or
Whites/Blacks - - 40
Racial Interaction Index - - 41
Racial Interaction Index-------------------41
















Description of Experimental Procedures- -
Experimental Treatment Program for Groups I, II and


III- -- -


CHAPTER IV


ANALYSIS OF THE DATA - -

Null Hypothesis One - -
Null Hypothesis Two - -
Null Hypothesis Three - -
Null Hypothesis Four - -


CHAPTER V


SUMMARY, DISCUSSION RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS -


- 59


Summary -
Discussion -
Recommendations


for Further


Study


and Conclusions


APPENDICES

A - -
B - -
C - -
D - -
E - -
F - -
G - -
H - -
I .. -
j -

BIBLIOGRAPHY -

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH -
A------------
B------------
C------------
D------------
E------------
F------------

H-----------

J------------



BIOGRAPH~ICAL, SKETCH -


Page


68-69
70
71
72
73-93
94-114
115-119
120
121
122















LIST OF TABLES


Table

1 Analysis of Variance for Difference in
Responding Ability

2 Analysis of Variance for Difference in

3 Analysis of Variance for Difference in

4 Analysis of Variance for Difference in

5 Analysis of Variance for Difference in

6 Analysis of Variance for Difference in

7 Analysis of Variance for Difference in

8 Tukey's Multiple Comparisons to Locate
Hypothetical Behavior

9 Analysis of Variance for Difference in

10 Tukey's Multiple Comparisons to Locate
Feelings

11 Analysis of Variance for Difference in
Racial Anxiety


Page


Facilitative


Stereotype

Norm

Morals

Action

Life Situations

Hypothetical Behavior

Differences on


Feelings

Differences on


Reduction of















Abstract of Dissertation Presented
to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A RACE RELATIONS COMMUNICATIONS
PROGRAM WITH BLACK AND WHITE FRATERNITY PLEDGES

By

Woodrow McClain Parker

February, 1975

Chairman: Dr. Joe Wittmer
Major Department: Counselor Education

The purpose of this study was to develop and investigate the

effects of a race relations communication program on the interracial

relations of black and white fraternity pledges at the University of

Florida.

The subjects for the study were 40 fraternity pledges (20 Blacks

and 20 Whites) randomly selected from all black and white social

fraternities from the University of Florida.

The experimental treatment program consisted of a combined group

of communication skills training and selected life experiences (Group I)

which was compared with a group receiving communication skills training

alone (Group II). Group I and Group II were also compared to a group

receiving selected life experiences alone (Group III). All groups were

compared to a control group receiving delayed treatment (Group IV). The

four groups were composed of 10 male (5 Black and 5 White) members each.











The training program was developed and conducted on the premise

that communication skills training was a necessary tool for effective

interracial communication in life situations. The communication skills

model used in this program minimizes roadblocks to effective communi-

cation by employing facilitative responses such as understanding or

reflection, summarization or clarification, and open ended questions.

The life experiences used in the program provided the subjects with

opportunities to experience and understand persons of the opposite race.

The three components of the life experiences were (a) the development

of trust by employing a trust walk, (b) the provision of a common

athletic experience through a basketball game, and (c) the provision of

a common but necessary experience by having a dinner. All of these ex-

periences were conducted on a racially integrated basis. The training

was led by two experienced counselors (one Black and one White) from the

University Counseling Center.

The dependent variables were facilitative responding ability,

racial attitude change and reduction of racial anxiety. The null

hypothesis stated that the treatment would have no differential effects

across groups for the three dependent variables.

Tape recordings of interactions in which black and white pairs

assumed the roles of both speaker and listener, were obtained before

and after treatment. Trained judges rated two 3-minute segments from

each role using the Gross Ratings of Facilitative Interpersonal Function-

ing Scale. The Attitude Behavior Scale (B/W and W/B) yielded seven sub-

scores of racial attitude change and the Racial Interaction Index was

used to measure the reduction of racial anxiety. All scales were adminis-

tered before and after the experimental program.











A two factor (race by treatment) co-variance was performed across

the four groups for each dependent variable. The alpha level was set

at .05.

In general, null hypothesis one stated that there would be no

difference in facilitative responding ability across the four groups.

That is, there would be no difference between a group receiving communi-

cation skills training combined with selected life experiences (Group I)

and a group receiving communication skills training alone (Group II).

Group I was also compared to a group that received selected life ex-

perience alone (Group III) and to a delayed treatment control group

that received no training (Group IV).

An analysis of variance of pre-post differences between groups did

not allow for rejection of the null hypothesis nor for any of the six

sub-hypotheses listed under it.

In general, null hypothesis two stated that there would be no

difference in the 7 levels of racial attitudes between a group of black

and white male fraternity pledges receiving communication skills train-

ing integrated with selected life experiences (Group I) and a similar

experimental group receiving communication skills training alone (Group II).

Also, it was hypothesized that no difference would exist between a group

receiving selected life experiences alone (Group III) and to a control

group receiving delayed treatment (Group IV).

An analysis of variance of pre-post differences did not support

the rejection of the null hypothesis for five of the seven levels of

racial attitudes. The five levels in which no differences were found

were: (1) stereotype, (2) norm, (3) moral evaluation, (6) actual action










and, (7) life experiences. However, the statistical analysis permitted

the rejection of the null hypothesis on two levels; (4) hypothetical

situations and (5) actual feelings. Using Tukey's test of multiple

comparisons, the investigator located the pre-post differences on the

two levels in favor of the control group (Group IV).

In general, null hypothesis three stated that there would be no

difference in the reduction of racial anxiety between the three treat-

ment groups and the control group.

An analysis of variance of pre-post difference between groups

permitted the acceptance of null hypothesis three and each of the six

sub-hypotheses listed under it.

In general, null hypothesis four stated that there would be no

difference in facilitative responding ability, racial attitudes

(including the seven levels defined earlier) or the reduction of racial

anxiety between black and white male fraternity pledges due to the

three experimental treatment programs. An analysis of the pre-post

differences between the black participants and the white participants

on all dependent variables and across all groups did not support the

rejection of the null hypothesis at an alpha level of .05.

The implications of the findings were discussed with respect to

the training program. The monumental issues centered around the break-

ing down of racial barriers were noted. Limitations of the program were

reported and recommendations for further research were indicated.















CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION


Historians tend to agree that the American system of education,

like much of the American society at large, was established and de-

veloped on a racially segregated basis. That is, Blacks and Whites

attended schools on opposite sides of the tracks. However, within the

past decade public institutions of education have been racially desegre-

gated by mandates of the federal government. This desegregation has,

unfortunately, been accompanied by much violence and discomfort.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964, under the administration of the late

President Lyndon B. Johnson, enacted legislation to end segregation of

public schools and other public facilities. As a result most of today's

public institutions of higher education are desegregated with varying

black/white ratios of students, faculty and administrators. However,

racial conflicts still flare up from time to time in many institutions

of higher learning.

Shortly after the forced desegregation of colleges and universities,

black students began voicing their opinions and discontent concerning

their lack of being permitted total involvement in their respective

universities. Monroe (1973), a black writer, stated, "The problem is

that the traditional Harvard just isn't my Harvard. The Harvard of my

experience has been three years of a totally black experience -- black

roommates, black friends, black dining-hall tables, black dances, black

student organizations, black building take overs, black studies and black

ideology, all isolated within the confines of an otherwise white university."










Even though today's schools are desegregated, they are not

necessarily integrated. That is, in most institutions there is little

or no interaction between black and white students. Some of the attempts

to bring about more positive relationships between Blacks and Whites have

been dampened by miscommunication, misconceptions and a general lack of

understanding. For example, Monroe (1973, p. 47) concluded that a number

of black students went to Harvard with the intention of making white friends

and having positive relationships with Whites; however, Blacks were dis-

turbed by absurd questions from white students and faculty:

Someone would want to know whether my parents
grew up on a plantation or whether my grandmother
was a slave. Or someone else might ask whether my
family's diet consisted mainly of soul food or whether
anyone in my family had ever won a dance contest because
of natural rhythm.

Other racially related problems exist in these newly desegregated

institutions of higher education. Many of today's black college students,

due to their inadequate educational background do not score high enough

on college entrance exams to qualify for admittance to the "regular"

university. Instead, these students are placed in special programs de-

signed to aid them in adjusting academically to the university. This

segregation within the university causes a continuous practice of segrega-

tion since there are few white students in these special programs. Thus,

black students are being admitted to universities but these special pro-

grams keep them segregated.

It seems imperative that black and white college students develop

higher levels of racial interaction in order to serve as models in schools,

businesses, and industries in the communities to which they will return

following graduation. This study is concerned with the development of










a model of communication to bring about more positive interactions be-

tween black and white male college students.


Purpose of the Study

Poussaint (1967) views the major problem of Blacks as not having

the ability or the opportunity to express their feelings of anger, dis-

gust, hate or frustration toward white people. Therefore, these feel-

ings are suppressed and often manifested in unacceptable overt behavior.

Additionally, these frustrations often lead to self rejection (Clark,

1965; Poussaint, 1967).

To solve the problem of self rejection among Blacks, several pro-

grams have been developed to help them develop more self pride and a

better racial identity. Poussaint (1967) feels that slogans such as

"black is beautiful" are not enough. Self love or self confidence cannot

save the pride and integrity of black men who must play subservient roles

to white men in order to survive. More structured programs to bring

about black/white student interaction on college campuses are needed.

Black and white students come to universities from a wide range of

backgrounds, experiences and attitudes regarding members of the opposite

race. University officials often make feeble attempts at integration by

assigning roommates of the opposite race. For many students this forced

integration in the absence of positive planning ends up being a traumatic

experience. One white coed recently remarked to the writer that she

could tolerate her black roommate until her parents made their first visit.

This coed was not willing to undergo pressures from her parents as a

result of having a black roommate.











Other students are placed on classroom projects with students of

the opposite race and find themselves uncomfortable and are often unable

to cope with this new situation.

The degree of positive interaction between the races on university

campuses could and should improve. Part of the reason for having Blacks

and Whites attend the same school is to provide more diverse experiences

for both groups. However, Blacks and Whites cannot learn about one

another's culture without some interaction between them. Evaluations of

race relations workshops (Wittmer and Lynch, 1974) have indicated that

black and white students yearn to become better acquainted with one

another. However, the vehicle by which to begin has not been developed.

It is the hypothesis of this study that when black and white students

are given a structured opportunity to explore their feelings and atti-

tudes in a safe environment, more positive interpersonal relationships

will occur.

The lines which divide black and white students on university

campuses appear to be too sharp. The writer believes that these lines

will persist unless there is structured intervention aimed at bringing

Blacks and Whites together for the betterment of all mankind. This is

the focus of this study.


Statement of the Problem

This study investigated the effects of a race relations communica-

tion program integrating communication skills and selected life ex-

periences. One group of students received a combination of communication

skills training and selected life experiences. This group was compared

with a treatment group receiving communication skills alone and with











another treatment group receiving only selected life experiences. Com-

parisons were made with a control group receiving no treatment until

after the investigation was completed. The subjects were black and white

fraternity pledges from eight (4 black and 4 white) University of Florida

fraternities.

Specifically, this study dealt with increases in levels of Facilita-

tive Responding, Change in Attitudes Toward the Opposite Race, and the

Reduction of Racial Anxiety following treatment.


Questions to be Answered

Specifically, this study attempted to answer the following questions:

1. Does the combination of communication skills training and

selected life experiences result in more positive interracial relation-

ships among pledges than other methods?

2. Does communication skills training result in more positive

interracial relationships among pledges than other methods?

3. Do selected life experiences result in more positive inter-

racial relationships among pledges than other methods?

4. Does a group without training (control) yield less positive

interracial relationships among pledges than groups with training?

5. Which group of subjects (Blacks or Whites) within the groups

will reveal the greatest amount of change on each of the criteria?

The hypotheses examined in this study are as follows:

H 1: There will be no difference in facilitative responding among

subjects in the four groups.

H 2: There will be no difference in racial attitudes among subjects

in the four groups.











H 3: There will be no difference in reduction of racial anxiety
o
among subjects in the four groups.

H 4: There will be no difference in facilitative responding,

racial attitudes, and reduction of racial anxiety between black and

white subjects in the four groups.


Substantive Assumptions

The writer chose fraternity pledges for subjects because they

seemed to be the most racially segregated and conservative groups on

the university campus.

Miller (1973) found that fraternity members were more conservative,

more dependent on peers, less interested in cultural activities and were

found to come from a higher socio-economic background. He found another

fraternity group to be even more conservative and less concerned with or

involved in social injustices.

Fraternities typically have all black or all white members. However,

both groups are members of the interfraternity council where Blacks

and Whites often clash due in part to lack of communication, or lack of

exposure. The attitude that presently prevails is that the black

fraternities and the white fraternities make up the opposing camps.

The writer believes that structured intervention must take place if

these two factions or any other racial groups are to begin to break down

the barriers that exist between the races. In order for students to carry

out their full functions for being in college, they must grow beyond

black and white. This, however, cannot take place as long as educators

play it safe and keep hands off. Race relations communications models

which give students a safe place to deal with their racial attitudes,









7

feelings and values need to be provided for all students. A "safe

place" in this study refers to situations where facilitative conditions

are present.


Communications Skills Training Model

Problems between individuals or between groups of individuals are

due to a lack of communication and/or a breakdown in communication. The

writer is referring to lack of higher levels of communication skills

which involves reflection of feelings, clarification of feelings and using

open ended questions. This model indicates that the use of interpretation,

advice, analysis and total support aids in the breakdown of communication.

Communication skills training has been used in a variety of

settings. The recent training of lay or paraprofessional counselors

has made extensive use of communication skills training. Results have in-

dicated that these paraprofessionals are able to improve their inter-

personal communication and have been found to be successful in function-

ing as helpers for others in problem situations. Schauble (1973) made

use of communication skills training in assisting husbands and wives in

marital conflicts. His findings revealed that progress in these relation-

ships occurred when the couples become better at facilitative responding.

Most recently, communication skills training has been used in teacher edu-

cation to make learning a more humanizing experience (Wittmer and Myrick,

1974).

It was the assumption of the writer that since communication skills

training was helpful in those inter-personal relationships just stated,

communication skills training would also be a valuable tool in bringing











about better relationships between black and white students. An atmos-

phere where black and white students (using communication skills train-

ing) could explore their feelings regarding the opposite race without

being judged, interpreted, hurt, or put down was the objective of the

model used in this study.

There are several models of communication skills; however, the model

to be used in this study made use of facilitative responses outlined by

Wittmer and Myrick (1974). These responses can be placed on a continuum

from least to most facilitative. Though all six of the responses can be

effectively used at one time or another, the first three have proven to

be most helpful and the last three the least helpful. They are:

1. Understanding or reflection: This is an emphatic response

which lets a person know that he is being "read"; that he is understood.

2. Summary or clarification: This response indicates the desire

to understand correctly what a person is actually saying or to identify

the most significant ideas or feelings he is expressing.

3a. Questions (open): This response seeks further information or

discussion; however, the questions should allow "wiggle room" so that a

person will not be trapped or forced to answer. As often as possible

avoid using the question "why"? An example might be, what can you tell

me about your relationships with persons of the opposite race? Instead

of, why do you dislike members of the opposite race?

3b. Questions (closed): Closed questions tend to be less facili-

tative in that they force a person to answer questions that he does not

care to answer or that he is unable to answer.








9

4. Support: This response typically denies feelings and often

says to a person that his problem is not being heard. Supportive

responses imply that a person has no business feeling the way he does.

5. Analysis or Interpretation: This response goes beyond a

person's words or behavior and attempts to explain why he is acting or

thinking the way he does.

6. Advice or Evaluation: This response is considered the least

facilitative of the responses. In general, it puts a person down and

says to him that he is not responsible for his life; therefore, he needs

to rely on others for directions.


Selected Life Experiences

"Selected life experiences" is a phrase coined by the writer to

describe typical life activities which tend to yield positive results

regarding better race relations. Wittmer and Myrick (1974) indicated

that experiential learning has the quality of personal involvement,

and consequently, it is more significant and meaningful to the learner.

Through experiential learning, knowledge is gained primarily from one's

own actions, practices and perceptions.

The writer believes that higher levels of communication between the

races must be learned and that the experiential approach is better than

the didactic or theorectical method. In other words, John Dewey's

principle of "learning by doing" was used in this study.

It can be observed that black and white students involved in day to

day activities with one another tend to have on-going relationships. The

writer experienced better race relations with students with whom he played

basketball than those with whom he participated in black/white encounter








10

groups. More specifically, he observed that contacts between black and

white students who played basketball in the gym were extended beyond the

gym floor. Some began to study together, have lunch together, play

basketball at other cites and experience other activities together.


Relationship Between Communication Skills
and Selected Life Experiences

It seems evident that communication skills training and selected

life experiences both have the potential for positively influencing in-

teractions between black and white students (and indeed any two groups

of individuals). It seems logical to assume that a combination of the

two approaches would have a more positive impact on communication inter-

actions than either one of the approaches alone.

Communication skills training provides subjects with tools which

enable them to experience higher levels of interpersonal communication.

This process limits intellectualization, interpretation, judgments,

closed questions and other roadblocks to effective communication and

facilitates communication to the highest degree.

Selected life experiences are significant stages in the total process

of breaking down racial barriers. In other words, selected life experiences

provided the subjects with more realistic opportunities to experience and

understand individuals from the opposite race. Selected life experiences

seem to be a natural laboratory in which to practice higher levels of

communication skills. That is, while communication skills provide the

mechanics for higher levels of communication among individuals, it does

not necessarily do so within the context of the real life setting. Se-

lected life experiences allow individuals to share intensive interactions

within the framework of improved communication skills.










Definition of Terms

A. Selected Life Experiences:

Selected life experiences, as used in this study, are a series of

structured activities which go beyond the theoretical frame of reference

into life activities in which young men could actually find themselves

involved. It takes into account experiential learning through involve-

ment in life situations.

The three selected life experiences used in this study were a

"Trust Walk," a "Basketball Game," and "Dinner Experience" (see

experimental treatment program).

B. Racial Interaction Index:

The racial interaction index is a listing of situations that people

might be involved in interracially. Subjects were asked to rate each

situation in terms of how comfortable or uncomfortable they would be if

they were actually in that situation. The index was used in this study

as an instrument to measure the reduction of racial anxiety. (See

Appendix G.)

C. Journal of Group Experiences:

A log of feelings, thoughts, values, attitudes about the group

experience which were recorded after each session.

D. Desegregation:

To abolish racial segregation in (a public school, for example).

(American Heritage Dictionary, 1969).

E. Integration:

Integration in this study is used to denote steps beyond desegre-

gation; that is, communication and racial harmony between black and white

students.










F. Opposite Race:

In this study refers to Blacks or Whites only.


Limitations of the Study

Time: This study was conducted over a period of five weeks.

Admittedly, this is a small period of time to counteract a lifetime of

conditioning and constitutes a definite limitation of the study.

Treatment Activities: The activities which made up the selected

life experiences were activities which could be done in a relative brief

period with minimum risk involved. While this is a decided advantage in

terms of the research study, it may well be that other structured ex-

periences (which could take a longer period of time and which could be

more risky) could yield greater results regarding advancements toward

better racial understanding.

Trainers: The use of the investigator as one of the trainers for

the training program is another weakness of the study. The use of another

trainer (other than investigator) could reduce the chances of biased re-

sults. However, random assignments to the groups and reliance on the in-

vestigator's professional attitude should have diminished any biased

effects that may have occurred.

Experimental Subjects: The interaction between subjects from the

different groups may have had contaminating effects which were almost im-

possible to control. More specifically, it was difficult to determine to

what extent the subjects from one group shared their experiences with

members of other groups since they knew one another personally and had

many opportunities to discuss the study.














CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF TIE LITERATURE


Due to the diversity of the related literature and research, this

chapter is divided into the following general topics: Models and

Approaches for Easing Racial Tension; Communications Skills Training

and Race Relations; and Relationship Between Black and White Social

Fraternities on University Campuses.


Models and Approaches for Easing Racial Tension

The question of how to bring about a more positive relationship

between the races has been one of the most difficult questions faced by

social scientists during the past decade. Though this problem existed

for a long period of time, the recent desegregation policies have made

the issue more acute. Countless desegregated institutions and agencies

have been forced, almost overnight, to find means to help Blacks and

Whites work together more harmoniously. Some of these attempts have been

successful while others have only further aggravated the situation.

Saenger (1953) states that when one tackles the job of reducing racial

prejudices and discrimination, he must realize that there is no single best

way. Like medicine or politics there is no best method or cure all. What

works well in one situation may be a catastrophe for another.


Reducing Racial Tension Through Contact

A body of research studies indicate that interracial contact

leads to better race relations. Thornsley (1969) found that techniques










which result in increasing personal contact among individuals of

different racial and ethnic backgrounds are the most effective ways of

improving intergroup relations in desegregated schools. The investigator

interviewed group facilitators from the Cultural and Human Interaction

Center of Florida International University. After one year of working

with Blacks, Whites and Latins in the Miami high schools, the facilitators

observed that better racial understanding among the groups occurred where

there was a combination of communication skills training and physical

activities.

Brooks, Sedlacek and Mindus (1973) concluded that typical transiroty

relationships among college students such as in classrooms, student

unions and athletic events do not provide much hope for the reduction

of racial tension. However, these investigators indicated that inter-

racial roommates offer the best opportunities for long-term strides

toward better racial understanding.

Saenger (1953) emphasized that contact between the races generally

yields positive results toward better race relations. However, he added

that these contacts should be of equal status and under favorable con-

ditions. That is, conditions which allow for less competition and more

opportunities for cooperation.

Deutsch and Collins (1951) studied the effects of racial contact on

one hundred housewives from two segregated and two integrated housing pro-

jects. They found that black and white housewives from integrated pro-

jects visited back and forth, helped each other with shopping and taking

care of the children, joined together in informal activities and attended

movies together.











Coleman (1957) in a study conducted with high school students found

evidence lending support to the hypothesis that contact is a significant

variable in solving the racial problem. In a series of investigations

regarding interracial contact in public schools, Coleman found that white

students showed positive change in racial attitudes. The study further

indicated that children who have attended segregated schools were negative

toward integration.

It is a popular belief today that it is the parents of university

students who are racially prejudiced, not the offspring. Brooks, Sedlacek

and Mindus (1973) studied the racial attitudes of white university stu-

dents and their parents. They found that white parents and students

tended to have negative and generally similar attitudes toward Blacks.

Their study did, however, point out specific differences of attitudes

between white students and white parents. According to the authors, one

such difference was that parents felt more negative toward Blacks as

neighbors than the students did. They further added that close per-

manent contact among racial and ethnic groups is necessary if positive

relationships are going to develop between the groups.

Stouffer, Star and Williams (1949) reported the results of inte-

grating volunteer black platoons and white platoons during combat in

World War II. They noticed that men from racially mixed platoons were

more acceptable of racial integration than those from non-mixed platoons.

Other positive advantages of structured interracial contact are

given by Crain (1970). He held that American Negroes who attended in-

tegrated schools will have better jobs over the next three decades than

Negroes attending segregated schools. He feels that the most significant









16
effect of integration is not educational but is the contact with members

of the opposite race. For example, Blacks in the integrated schools

will seek more contact with Whites as adults and will thus tend to have

more trust in Whites than would Blacks from segregated schools.

Re-education for Better Race Relations

Scholars in human behavior generally agree that prejudicial

attitudes or discrimination is learned. Therefore, a process of re-

learning or re-education of the masses is needed if the reduction of

racial tension is to be expected. Rose (1968, p. 81) made the follow-

ing statement regarding education for better racial understanding:

Today, students at all Ivy League Schools and
at each of the 'Seven Sisters' at every major state
university, at California Colleges, and even those
attending many little southern schools can elect
courses on "Race and Cultural Contacts" or "minor-
ities" or "Race Relations." While they vary markedly
in quality and scope, at the present time such courses
are available to students at one in three institutions
of higher learning across the nation and, if one con-
siders only the four-year colleges (since race rela-
tions is usually given as an upper division course),
the ratio jumps to one in two.

Hayes (1969) held that providing information through selected

readings has changed subjects' attitudes toward the other race. The in-

vestigator observed some changes in attitudes of participants in black/

white encounter groups when selected readings were assigned.

The University of Florida has taken some steps toward re-education

for better race relations through Black Studies and through a Black

History and Cultural Center. Roberts, a reporter for the Florida Alli-

gator (1970) reported that the Black Student Union under the umbrella of

Student Affairs was planning to open a Black History and Cultural Center.









17

The purpose of this center, now a reality, is to serve as a means of

information and communication among different nationalities and ethnic

groups on campus.

Educators generally agree that re-education is effective in race

or ethnic relations. However, there are major differences among edu-

cators regarding what the content should be and what procedures or

methodologies should be applied. Montagu (1961) stressed education for

humanity first and for gaining knowledge or facts last. He stated that

facts are useless unless intelligently used by the individual. Montagu

also stated that this belief is especially true in dealing with the race

problem as it is a moral issue. Saenger (1953) held that re-education

for better race relations is more effective when it is group oriented

rather than focused on one individual. He added that it is better to

change habits through group discussions and decisions than through

individual education. When the group as a whole discusses the problem

of prejudice without emphasizing the particular bias of a specific

individual, the prejudiced person feels less threatened and finds it

easier to deal with his problem.

An important factor regarding re-education for better racial under-

standing is the process of sensitizing the individual to the needs of

others, Brown (1945). Brown said that this process should consist of

bringing feelings out into the open in helping individuals understand

their own as well as the emotional reactions of others. According to

Brown, it is important to understand that our actions as well as the ac-

tions of others are a result of the way we have been treated.











Other views exist concerning tactics for reducing discrimination.

One school of thought (MacIver, 1948) endorsed the notion of attacking

the institution rather than attempting to change attitudes and feelings

directly. MacIver further stated that prejudice is learned, not inherited,

and is therefore subject to the influence of education. On the other

hand, Schermerhorn (1949) held that the elimination of segregated insti-

tutions or attacking discriminatory institutions head on would not

eradicate racial prejudice, but providing an adequate educational program

would alleviate the problem.

Improvement of Race Relations Through Changing Environments

Simpson and Yinger (1972, p. 520) said:

One of the most significant developments in recent
years has been the growth of the profession of inter-
group relations and the increase in the number of
organizations whose programs, wholly or in part, are
dedicated to the reduction of prejudice and dis-
crimination.

According to these authors there are a number of public, quasi public

and private organizations with full staff and budgets to operate programs

geared to the reduction of discriminatory practices. Some of these or-

ganizations and functions are:

1. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

The NAACP's main purpose is to combat discrimination of Blacks

and other American minorities. In general, it seeks to obtain results

through legal channels. This organization has made many achievements

in the area of civil rights, such as housing, employment, education,

recreation, law, and travel.











2. Southern Christian Leadership Conference

Using non-violent techniques, this organization, under the

leadership of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., brought national recognition

to the dilemma of black Americans. The aim of this organization is

the achievement of full citizenship rights, equality and the integration

of black people into American life.

3. The National Urban League

The Urban League has served as a society agency in the civil rights

struggle. A major part of its task has been the extension of economic

opportunity for blacks in the area of business, industry and housing.

4. Congress of Racial Equality

CORE is not as well known as the other organizations mentioned

above. It has applied non-violent techniques and sit-ins mainly in the

north. CORE has made giant steps in the training of interracial groups

for picketing, sit-ins and negotiations.

The investigator is aware of some efforts by large cities to ease

racial tension. Many metropolitan cities have established commissions

of community relations whose main function is to act as liason between

the black communities and the city governments in an attempt to ease

racial tension in their cities.

Other ways of improving race relations through the changing of en-

vironments are suggested in a large body of literature and research in-

volving racial census or balance. Lane (1970), a reporter for the

Florida Alligator, reported that Dr. Ralph Abernathy urged students at

the University of Florida to fight for a better society. Abernathy urged









20
black students to protest for a larger enrollment of black students and

faculty. Brooks and Sedlacek (1972) supported the views of Dr. Abernathy

concerning racial census. They held that although a racial census is

difficult, it is possible and may generate some positive side effects,

such as better relationships between races or between students and

faculty.

Communication Training and Race Relations

There is a large body of literature and research on the use of

communication skills training in a wide variety of settings and with

varied populations. However, this review covers communication skills

training as it relates to better racial understanding only.

Currently, Wittmer and Lynch (1973) are using communication skills

training to reduce racial tension among Blacks and Whites. Wittmer,

Lanier and Parker (1974) conducted race relations workshops involving

Florida Division of Corrections correctional officers. Other similar

workshops have been held on the Florida Campus involving career service

personnel, black students, and University of Florida administrators.

Myrick"s (1974) work has been with high school students encountering racial

problems. Evaluations of these workshops indicate positive results and

that more are needed on an on-going basis.

Nelson, Nivens and Smith (1970) offer five ideas for promoting racial

understanding for teachers and counselors:

1. A simple warm pleasant smile does a tremendous
amount to reassure a child whose sense of per-
sonal worth is shaky.

2. Praise, encouragement and support are powerful
resources, too, in helping a child feel welcome
in the school environment in which he finds him-
self.











3. Understanding is a necessity that knows no color or
ethnic limits. Children need it badly and minority
students often need it most.

4. Also of great value to any child is another
emotional response by a counselor or a teacher--
appreciation or to say it another way, unconditional
positive regard. Liking a child for what is unique
in him is not always easy, but it is a base on which
to build; the child may have no other.

5. Children need touching; most elementary school
children are very oriented to physical signs of
acceptance. Tousling a boy's hair, putting a gentle
hand on a girl's shoulder, even with fifth and sixth
graders is a sign of acceptance.

Nelson et al. believe that counselors and teachers who communicate

the dimensions mentioned above will experience success in helping child-

ren of other races.

There is evidence of attempts by classroom teachers to develop

units on interracial communication. Rich and Smith (1970) created a

course on interracial communication which was non-dogmatic, innovative

and responsive to contemporary needs. Their methods included: (1)

team teaching which made use of a black and a white teacher who served as

models for the class; (2) small face-to-face group discussions between

black and white students; (3) classroom laboratory observations with a

small discussion group being observed by other class members; (4) task-

oriented assignments with students making contact in the real world; and

(5) role reversals with Blacks taking the attitudes of Whites and vice

versa.

Bryson, Renzaglia and Danish (1974) list several assumptions for

using stimulus films in training white counselors in techniques for

counseling black clients. They state:











1. The extent to which a counselor is able to
establish effective interpersonal conditions
(empathy, non-possessive warmth, genuineness
and concreteness) is seemingly based on both
the quality and the kind of experiences he has
had with Blacks as well as the kind of atti-
tudes and conceptions now influencing the
counselors interaction style.

2. Thus, counseling trainees not only need ex-
periences with such special population, but
they need numerous opportunities to openly con-
front and work through barriers of this nature.

3. Counselors must be able to appreciate that
historical anecdotes and the recent emergence
of Black Pride and solidarity have 'set' black
clients to overact and/or be on the guard with
white counselors.

4. This means that trainees must acquire the freedom
and strength to permit these clients to react to
them in such a fashion without personalizing the
experience.

5. Finally, since simulated films are used, practices
can be guided so as to protect the trainees from
devastating self discoveries and, of course, with
no possibility of harming the client.


Inter-Cultural Understanding

Much of the literature and research regarding interracial

communication stresses the significance of understanding the culture of

the other race. The literature clearly indicates that little or no communi-

cation can proceed without it. Tate and Delworth (1973) suggested that

in-service training is needed for faculty and staff involving communica-

tion techniques to help them better understand minority students. Ayers

(1969a, 1969b) made several suggestions for changes in the counseling pro-

cess, counselor attitudes, and the methods used for training counselors

and other human service workers. They were: (1) to have conversations

with a wide variety of black people; (2) to participate in in-service









23
training programs designed to help one gain understanding of the black

person (i.e., visit black neighborhoods, view films or videa tapes

about black people and their problems); (3) to participate in sensitivity

training programs designed to look at racial attitudes toward black

people; (4) to begin listening to what black clients have to say regard-

ing their need for rehabilitation services.

Vontress (1969) also endorses the idea of getting to know the cul-

turally different as a prerequisite to interracial communication. He

identified interpersonal relationships as being one of the most signifi-

cent problem areas that middle-class individuals have in relating to

cultural minorities. Vontress recommends that counselors and educators

look at and study the needs of black people in the ghetto and to also

look deeper into themselves and their attitudes toward those who are

culturally different. Wittmer (1971) states: "Educators, especially

school counselors, hold the key to the process of reducing, if not com-

pletely eliminating, the social and emotional barriers which prevent many

minority group members from becoming secure American citizens." Wittmer

further states that the understanding necessary to assist minority stu-

dents goes beyond effectual understanding to cognitive understanding of

the total milieu of the minority group. He recommends that those who

counsel the culturally different work to preserve the respect of the

client as well as their own. Cultural understanding must precede state-

ments of praise, advice, interpretation or instruction.


Black/lWite Encounter Groups

Another area which provides facilitative conditions for the

reduction of interracial tension is the black/white encounter group.











Dodson (1970) held that participation in biracial encounter groups

yielded increased self-acceptance and acceptance of others by both black

and white participants. Geer (1972) observed that group counseling did

not facilitate positive attitudes of non-blacks toward blacks. However,

he made the following suggestions:

1. That more adequate measures of attitudes in general

and specifically toward black people be developed.

2. That the process of attitude change be researched.

3. That new counseling and learning models which will

facilitate attitude acquisition and change be de-

veloped through further research.

Simpson and Yinger (1965) hold that group therapy is an effective

means of bringing about better race relations. The theory is that the

feeling of belongingness of group members breaks down feelings of isola-

tion, facilitates interaction among members and encourages role-taking

and self-exploration. According to Simpson and Yinger the group also

allows the sharing of symptoms and problems with others which brings a

sense of security and a reduction of guilt tension. Individuals are per-

mitted to express feelings of hostility in an atmosphere that is non-

threatening.


Relationship Between Black and White
Social Fraternities on University Campuses

To better understand the relationship between black and white college

fraternities as they exist today, it is necessary to understand the

following:

1. Historical Background of College Fraternities.











2. Unique Characteristics of College Fraternities.

3. Attempts Toward Integration of College Fraternities.


Historical Background of College Fraternities

Beach (1973) provides a thorough historical background on college

fraternities. lie indicated that college fraternities, which began in

the mid-nineteenth century as slight variants of the literary societies,

provided opportunities to read and discuss the significant issues of

the day. Fraternities also stressed social relationship within their

groups and gained a connection with the outside world by visiting various

chapters. College officials usually opposed these groups because they

were the elite who often criticized the curriculum and the structure of

the college. After the Civil War, fraternities lost their intellectual

distinctiveness as student populations increased and the colleges became

more heterogeneous.

According to Beach (1973) attending a "Greek" school was a very

prestigious thing to do because Greeks had fraternity houses in the

absence of residence halls.

A further review of the literature indicates that fraternities and

sororities had within their constitution clauses which prohibited ad-

mission of members from certain racial or religious backgrounds. Robson

(1968) revealed that it was in 1946 at Amhurst College that social fra-

ternities made efforts toward changing biased clauses and practices for

admission of minorities into fraternities. Robson (1968) also reported

efforts by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare to eliminate

policies which prevented Blacks and other minorities from entering

college social fraternities. Additionally, Robson revealed that Health,









26
Education and Welfare's urging of university administrators to support

students' efforts to change fraternity traditions has done a great deal

to aid in better relationships between black and white fraternities.


Unique Characteristics of College Fraternities

There is considerable agreement among researchers on the

characteristics of fraternity members. Miller (1973) found fraternity

members to be conservative and less interested in social injustices.

Bohrnsted (1966, 1969), Gist (1955), Levinson andSanford (1944), Plant

(1958), Ross (1955), Segal (1965), Selvin and Hogstrom (1960), and Young,

Benson and Holtzman (1960) conducted attitudinal and personality studies

which found that fraternity members were generally more conservative than

independents. Greek affiliates scored lower on measures of social and

religious liberalism and higher on measures of authoritarianism, ethno-

centrism and prejudice.

The Christian Century Magazine (1962) reported that fraternity

members at the University of Toronto chanted offensive remarks at a Negro

police woman who worked at the stadium during a football game and cheered

Ross Barnett, a racist governor of Mississippi. The same university's

student newspaper made the following suggestion for this kind of behavior:

Universities and colleges should not permit students to belong to fra-

ternities and sororities, if the membership is not open to all students.

According to the Christian Century, many fraternities have abolished

racial and religious barriers to membership but still -- whether official

or not -- bar admission of Negroes and Jews. It is further suggested

that the blame of the behavior of fraternities must be placed on the

colleges and universities which sanction participation in organizations

which breed social snobbishness, racial exclusiveness and religious bigotry.











Attempts Toward Integration of College Fraternities

Lee (1954) stated that efforts to eliminate prejudicial policies

were initiated by students but were discouraged by alumni and educators.

Johnson (1964) observed that with the increasing enrollment of black students

at white southern institutions, there has been a good deal of participa-

tion by Blacks in campus activities. According to Johnson, black students

have entered many voluntary organizations, have been elected to offices,

have been members of Phi Beta Kappa and have participated in varsity

athletics. Yet, according to Johnson, there is a tendency to draw the

line in the area of social contact, especially in dating and fraternity

or sorority membership.

Despite the fact that American college social fraternities have been

historically segregated, there have been a few attempts toward racial

integration. Look Magazine (1965)gave an account of Sigma Chi, of

Stanford University, who pledged a Negro but was suspended by the National

Chapter for its action. The local members of Sigma Chi, with the support

of Senator Lee Metcalf, Democrat of Montana and member of Sigma Chi, were

able to integrate their fraternity without federal intervention. Garrard

(1972) said, in a recent article that appeared in the Kappa Alpha Theta

Magazine, that there was considerable protest prior to the 1950's among

Whites concerning opening the ranks of fraternities nationally to people

of other races, religious or national origins. However, Garrard stated

that, within the last two decades, white fraternities have opened their

doors to black students but Blacks have not responded. Instead, with the

movement in the 60's of black pride and black identity, Blacks have re-

mained in their own fraternities. Tiller (1973) studied racial











integration in southeastern social fraternities. He found that black

students tend to gravitate toward black organizations where more intimate

social contacts involve students of their own race. Tiller also found

that Whites continue to participate in traditional social opportunities,

traditionally available on white campuses.

As college fraternities remain segregated, it becomes necessary for

federal intervention to insure that they comply with the law. Time

Magazine (1965) said that the then Commissioner of Education, Francis

Keppel, provided a measurement by ruling that any fraternity refusing to

admit a Negro on racial grounds could imperil millions of dollars that a

university might be getting from the government. School and Society (1965,

p. 336) reported another statement by Commissioner of Education Keppel:

"Any institution which maintains a fraternity system as part of its

activities and over all program is responsible under the Civil Rights Act

requirements for assuring that discrimination is not practiced by fra-

ternities in the system." School and Society (1966) reported action taken

by the Committee on Human Rights regarding non-discrimination in the

University of Oregon. This committee required each fraternity and sorority

(locally and nationally) to sign a certificate agreeing that they would

refrain from discriminatory practices.


Summary
Literature and research related to the racial issues are very

diverse and extensive. This made it very difficult to know on which

points to focus. However, the writer selected three general areas which

seemed to be most closely related to this study. They are:











1. Models and Approaches for Easing Racial Tension,

2. Communication Skills Training and Race Relations,

3. Relations Between Black and White Social Fraternities
on University Campuses.

The literature consistently pointed out that there is no one best

method for dealing with the racial problems. However, much of the evi-

dence points to interracial contact or shared experiences, re-education,

race relations communication training, and black-white encounter groups

as being some ways of bringing about better racial understanding. Organi-

zations such as the NAACP, the SCLC, and the Urgan League have attempted

to improve race relations by changing the environments which produce

racism.

The writer selected college social fraternity members for treatment

subjects because the literature characterized them as being the most

racially prejudiced, the most conservative, and the least interested in

social justice. According to the literature there have been only rare

instances where black and white fraternities have attempted to become

integrated and in those cases very little progress was observed.














CHAPTER III

DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY


Design
This study investigated the effects of combining communication

skills training and selected life experiences with black and white

fraternity pledges from the University of Florida in an attempt to

bring about better race relations.

A large body of literature has substantiated the effectiveness of

communication skills training in a variety of settings involving inter-

personal relationships. However, few studies have been done using

communication skills training to bring about better race relations.

The literature reviewed in Chapter II revealed that contact through life

experiences between persons of opposite races does bring about better

racial understanding.

There were three treatment groups and a control group in this study.

Each group consisted of 5 Blacks and 5 Whites. Group I, where the

treatment was communication skills training combined with selected life

experiences, was compared to a group receiving communication skills train-

ing alone (Group II), and to another group receiving selected life ex-

periences along (Group III), and to a control group receiving no training.

Sample

Experimental subjects. The forty male undergraduate students

selected as experimental and control group subjects were fraternity pledges











(20 Blacks and 20 Whites) from the University of Florida. The training

program described in this study was offered through the University

Counseling Center. The subjects were randomly assigned to three treat-

ment groups or to the delayed treatment control group. They were notified

of their assignments by letter (see Appendix B). There were ten members

in each of the four groups. Each group consisted of five black and five

white members to insure that all groups were equally integrated by race.

To acquire the subjects, the investigator held a meeting with the

fraternity advisor and representatives from the Interfraternity Council

of the University of Florida. These individuals work in the Division of

Student Services of the University. The purpose of the meeting was to

explain the purpose of the study and to solicit support and cooperation

from those who coordinate fraternities. The investigator also secured

dates for pledge programs and other relevant information such as names,

addresses, and phone numbers of fraternity presidents in order to plan

for the training program. Additionally, the investigator obtained per-

mission to attend a meeting of fraternity presidents and explained the

training program in terms of how it would enhance the fraternities' pledge

programs as well as race relations at the University of Florida (see

Appendix C).

There are 25 white social fraternities and 4 black social fraternities

at the University of Florida. Four white fraternities were randomly se-

lected and asked to participate in the study. All agreed to participate.

Then, from the eight fraternities (4 Black and 4 White), a random sample

of five pledges were selected and randomly assigned to one of the four

treatment groups. The participating pledges were sent a letter by the








32

investigator informing them of their assignments and dates and places of

meetings for the training program (see Appendix B.)

The notifications by letters were followed by phone calls to

individual pledges.

Statistical Analysis

The research design employed a pre-test and a post-test for all

four groups to test the effectiveness of the treatment program. In addi-

tion to group comparisons, comparisons were made between Black and White

subjects on each of the criteria to determine the effects of the treat-

ments by race.

A two factor (race by treatment) analysis of variance was used to

analyze each dependent variable.

The three dependent variables in the study were Facilitative

Responding, Racial Attitudes and Reduction of Racial Tension. The pre-

post Facilitative Responding measures were obtained from the Gross Ratings

of Interpersonal Functioning Scale (GIF). (See Appendix D.) The pre-

post Racial Attitudes measures were obtained from Attitudes-Behavior

Scale: Black/Whites or Whites/Black. (See Appendix E and F.) The pre-

post Reduction of Racial Anxiety measures were obtained from the Racial

Interaction Index. (See Appendix G.)

All of the above instruments were used in pre- and post-testing.

The pre-testing took place one week prior to treatment and the post-

testing took place one week following treatment.

Control Group

The significance of the control group lies in the adequate accounting

for variables which were presumed to be relevant. This group was a delayed











treatment group made up of subjects who participated in the study but

whose treatment was delayed until after post-test measures were obtained.

Additionally, it seemed important to control for variances due to

trainers who may have affected the overall effects of the treatments.

The variance due to the trainers was controlled by using the same trainers

across treatments. The effects of the trainees' levels of functioning

were controlled by randomizing assignments to treatment groups.

Trainers

The training for the race relations communication program was con-

ducted by two staff members from the counseling center of the University

of Florida. One of the trainers, a White, holds a Ph.D. in counseling

psychology and has trained a number of groups in communication skills and

has conducted workshops in race relations communication involving black

and white athletes. The other trainer, a Black (the investigator), has

completed all the requirements but dissertation for the Ph.D. degree in

Counselor Education. The investigator has taught communication skills

training to black peer counselors and has functioned as group facilitator

in several race relation workshops. Additionally, the investigator

(trainer) has also led several black/white encounter groups through the

counseling center at the University of South Florida.

The research shows that there are advantages in having racially mixed

teams when conducting race relations programs. One such advantage is that

the mixed team can model behavior that they desire the trainees to learn.

Another advantage is that a mixed team of trainers makes it possible to

have a balance of value systems to which the subjects will be exposed.

The trainers were aware of the research hypotheses and which subjects

were assigned to particular treatment groups. However, random assignments











to the groups and the trainers' reliance on their professional attitudes

hopefully dimished any biased effects that may have occurred. Addi-

tionally, using the same trainers for both treatment groups provided the

advantage of assuring equality of trainer skills and background across

treatment.

Null Hypotheses

Hol: There will be no difference in facilitative responding ability

between the three experimental groups and the control group following

treatment.

Hola: There will be no difference in facilitative responding

between the communication skills training group combined

with selected life experience (CST + SLE) and the communi-

cations skills training group alone (CST).

H lb: There will be no difference in facilitative responding

between the CST + SLE group and the selected life ex-

perience group alone (SLE).

Holc: There will be no difference in facilitative responding

between CST + SLE and the control group (C).

Hold: There will be no difference in facilitative responding

between the CST group and the SLE group.

Hole: There will be no difference in facilitative responding

between the CST group and the C group.

H lf: There will be no difference in facilitative responding

between the SLE group and the C group.

H 2: There will be no difference in racial attitudes between the three

experimental groups and the control group following treatment.











H2 :
oa











Ho2d:


H 2:
oe


Ho2f:
o f


There

three

H3 :
oa


There will be no difference

between the CST + SLE group

There will be no difference

between the CST + SLE group

There will be no difference

between the CST group alone

There will be no difference

between the CST group alone

There will be no difference

between the SLE group alone


in reduction of racial anxiety

and the SLE group alone.

in reduction of racial anxiety

and the C group.

in reduction of racial anxiety

and the SLE group alone.

in reduction of racial anxiety

and the C group.

in reduction of racial anxiety

and the C group.


35

There will be no difference in racial attitudes between

the CS + SLE group and the CS group alone.

There will be no difference in racial attitudes between

the CS + SLE group and the SLE group alone.

There will be no difference in racial attitudes between

the CS + SLE group and the C group.

There will be no difference in racial attitudes between

the CST group alone and the SLE group alone.

There will be no difference in racial attitudes between

the CST group alone and the C group.

There will be no difference in racial attitudes between

the SLE group alone and the C group.

will be no difference in the reduction of racial anxiety between

experimental groups and the control group following treatment.

T here will be no difference in reduction of racial anxiety

between the CS + SLE group and the CST group alone.


Ho3:

the


Ho3b:



H 3:
oc


Ho3d:



H 3:
oe


Ho3f:









36

H 4: There will be no difference in facilitative responding ability

between black and white male fraternity pledges due to the three ex-

perimental treatment programs. There will also be no difference between

black and white participants in racial attitude change including the

following seven levels due to treatment:

Level 1. Stereotype -- What people think that others think.

Level 2. Norm -- What they think is the usual thing that
society does.

Level 3. Moral evaluation -- What is the right thing that
society thinks it should do.

Level 4. Hypothetical behavior -- What they themselves think
they would do.

Level 5. Actual feelings -- What they actually feel or have
felt in the situation.

Level 6. Actual action -- What they have actually done in a
situation.

Level 7. Life experiences -- What they have actually
experienced in life situations (Maglajlic and
Jordan, 1974).

Finally, there will be no difference in reduction of racial anxiety

between black and white subjects due to treatment effects. That is, there

will be no difference in the amount of interracial fear felt between

black and white male fraternity pledges after the three experimental

treatment programs have been completed. There will also be no difference

in reduction of racial anxiety between black and white subjects in the

delayed treatment (control group).











Dependent Variables and Instruments

Dependent Variables. Both pre- and post-test measures will be

used to test for differences among the four groups. The variables are

as follows:

1. Facilitative Responding: A facilitative person is one who has

acquired the ability to become a more empathic listener and responder to

others. That is, he gives more helping and understanding responses while

communicating with another person. This type of communication is es-

pecially needed for more effective communication between Blacks and Whites.

Further, it permits Blacks and Whites to explore their feelings toward

the opposite race without being put down or rejected.

2. Racial Attitude: According to the literature, the attitudes of

Whites toward Blacks or Blacks toward Whites are not easy to assess. It

is also suggested that more research in the area is needed. However,

racial attitude is a main variable when considering improvements in race

relations.

3. Reduction of Racial Anxiety: It is generally agreed upon by

social scientists that interracial fear is a major factor preventing

Blacks and Whites from having better communication. Many Blacks and

Whites have never had nor have taken the opportunity to interact with

persons of races different from their own. What they have heard of

other races are things that are often negative and frightening. This

study proposed the bringing together of the races in order to eliminate

myths, stereotypes and misconceptions that make one race anxious about

the other.











Instruments

The Gross Ratings of Facilitative Interpersonal Functioning Scale.

Three instruments were used in an attempt to differentiate among the

four treatment groups and the above described dependent variables. The

Gross Ratings of Facilitative Interpersonal Functioning Scale (GIF) is

a five level process rating scale, ranging from the lowest possible score

of one to the highest possible score of five (see Appendix D). A des-

cription of facilitative interpersonal functioning is provided which

includes facilitative responding and action oriented dimensions of the

helping relationship. Ratings are made on a Likert-type scale where

level three is defined as communicating all conditions at a minimally

facilitative level. Ratings below level three reflect the degree to

which some or all of the conditions are absent.

Rate-rerate reliabilities of the GIF have been reported as high as

.95, with inter-rater reliability .89 (Carkhuff 1969d). Validity of

the individual scales from which the GIF is derived has been established

in several studies relating the scales to various measures of positive

helpee change or gain (Carkhuff, 1969a, 1969b); (Carkhuff and Berenson,

1967); (Truax and Carkhuff, 1967). The GIF has also been related to

positive helpee change or gain, as well as the successful prediction of

degree of change and final level of functioning of trainees (Carkhuff,

1969a, 1969b, 1969d).

Tape Ratings

The criteria for the tape ratings were taken from Carkhuff and

Berenson (1967). Since the conditions of facilitative interpersonal

functioning should be present at all points in effective communication,









39

two three-minute segments were taken from each 15 minute interaction,

around the first and second five minutes. These segments were coded,

randomly ordered, and submitted to independent judges for rating. In

the event that there were long periods of silence, the ratings were done

on a minimum of two helper and one helpee response.

Selection and Training of Judges

Research on the selection of raters suggests that both rater level

of functioning and experience are significant sources of effect for

discrimination scores (Cannon and Carkhuff, 1969). However, the naive

experience continuum of the raters is not as critical as the level of

functioning on relevant dimensions of the prospective raters (Shapiro,

1968). Indeed, Carkhuff (1969b) states that persons functioning below

level three would not be capable of accurate ratings.

Two judges were selected as raters from a pool of graduate students

in counseling and psychology for the GIF scales. Each was functioning

at minimal levels of facilitative interpersonal functioning as ascer-

tained from independent ratings of their own tapes as helpers. The

training of the raters was conducted by a University counseling center

staff member who is experienced in using the process scales, and who is

himself functioning at high levels on these instruments. The training

tapes included helping situations similar to those which were encountered

by the judges in the study.

Validity of Independent Judges' Ratings

The validity of independent judges ratings in counseling and therapy

has received support from several studies (Carkhuff, 1969). The usefulness

of such ratings in other interpersonal interactions has also been discussed,










i.e., in relation to teaching (Ryans, 1960); (Smedslund, 1964); (Truax

and Tatum, 1966); (Stoffer, 1970); and (Kratochvil, Carkhuff and

Berenson, 1968); and marital interaction (Schauble, 1973). While there

is no empirical data on the use of process scales in racial interactions,

there is no reason to believe they would not be equally appropriate and

valuable as measures of effective communication between the races.

Attitude-Behavior Scale: Blacks/Whites or Whites/Blacks

This scale was developed by John E. Jordan at Michigan State Uni-

versity in 1972. It is an instrument designed to measure attitudes and

behaviors regarding interracial interaction. This instrument is based

on the Guttman facet theory and is designed to show the usefulness of

the facet theory approach to the construction of attitude scales (Jordan, 1972,

p. 343). According to Jordan, some of the findings of the scale are:

'Blacks and Whites differ markedly in the positiveness of their racial atti-

tudes depending on the content area of the attitude"; "Blacks and Whites are more

alike in their attitudes toward education and less alike on law and order,

housing, and political activism"; "Urbanity (rural versus city) affects

positiveness of racial attitudes, city being more positive"; "Amount of contact

per se leads to greater intensity of attitudes but does not produce favor-

ableness of attitudes unless accompanied by enjoyment of the contact as well

as perceived voluntariness of the contact." The Attitude Behavior Scale has

seven levels, each of which was treated statistically independent as there

is no overall score. The seven levels are:

1. Stereotype -- what people think others think.

2. Norm -- what they think is the usual thing that society does.









41
3. Moral evaluation -- what is the right thing that society thinks

it should do.

4. Hypothetical behavior -- what they, themselves, think they would do.

5. Actual feelings -- what they actually feel or have felt in the

situation.

6. Actual action -- what they have actually done in a situation.

7. Life experiences -- what they have actually experienced in the

life situation. (Jordan and Maglajlic, 1974).

Racial Interaction Index

The Racial Interaction Index was developed by the investigator to

measure the experience of anxiety in racial interaction situations. The

examinee responds to each item on a Likert-type scale with five points

on a continuum of comfort-discomfort. Each item tests the feelings of

the examinee regarding his involvement in various situations with persons

of the opposite race (see Appendix G).

For example, an item rated as "very comfortable" might be to "read

a book involving a person of the opposite race", whereas an item rated

as "very uncomfortable" might be "to go on a date with a person of

another race."

The investigator began developing and using this scale with partici-

pants in black/white encounter groups to assist them in exploring their

feelings according to life situations involving members of the opposite

race. More than 100 undergraduates participated in the development of the

Racial Interaction Index. Each student was asked to describe three situa-

tions involving interaction with persons of another race. Situation (1)

was discomfort, situation (11) was moderate discomfort and situation (111)

was high discomfort (see Appendix A).









42
Following the collection of all the situations from all sources,

situations were listed by the frequency of their appearance in each

category. For the purpose of constructing the present instrument, each

of these situations is presented to be rated on the five point continuum

of discomfort. Three independent experts have judged the scale high on

content validity.

Description of Experimental Procedures

For pre-test purposes, all the subjects were randomly assigned to

pairs consisting of one Black and one White. Using a counter-balanced

design, half of the racially integrated subjects played the role of

helpers in the first 15-minute interview and after changing partners

played the role of helpers in the second 15-minute interview. The in-

structions given to helpers were as follows:

Listener:

"Assume that the person speaking with you is attempting to

talk about feelings he may have about different racial ex-

periences. Your role as listener is to listen and attempt

to facilitate or assist the speaker's exploration and under-

standing of these feelings. This doesn't mean you shouldn't

say anything. Talk as much as you want, but try to focus

more on the speaker than your own opinions."

Speaker:

"We would like for you to discuss and explore the feelings

or beliefs you have (or think you might have) about inter-

acting with people of the opposite race. The person with

whom you'll be speaking will be trying to understand and

help you to explore your feelings."









43

The interviews were audio-tape recorded. The pre-test measures

(see discussion of "Gross ratings of interpersonal functioning" before)

were obtained a week prior to the experimental treatment. Post-test

measures were obtained similarly a week following the experimental

treatment.

For treatment purposes, Blacks and Whites were assigned on an

integrated basis to each of the four groups (five Blacks and five Whites).

Each of the forty subjects was given code numbers for identification

purposes i.e., Blacks, Whites, or Groups I, II, III and IV. Standard

instructional procedures were used for all testing and for the treatment

program (see Appendix H, I, J). The subjects were randomly assigned to

one of the following four groups:

Group I: Communication skills training integrated with

selected life experiences.

Group II: Communication skills training alone.

Group III: Selected life experiences alone.

Group IV: Delayed treatment control group.

Experimental Treatment Program for Groups I, II, and III

The training program for each group was divided into three sessions

over a four-week period. Each session lasted four hours. Thus, the

total training time for each group was 12 hours excluding testing time.

Group I: Communication Skills Integrated With
Selected Life Experiences

Session 1. The theme of the first session was An Introduction to

Effective Communication Skills in all Human Interactions. The

continuum of responses (Wittmer and Myrick, 1974) was presented











and discussed, emphasizing the role of the facilitators and the

expected outcome of the helpee. The following activities were

used to develop this theme.

1. Introduction and discussion of communication skills model with

examples and demonstrations of appropriate and inappropriate uses

of each level on the continuum of responses.

2. Introduction and use of rating scale to be used by observer in

triad practice of communication skills training.

3. Broke into triads with listener, speaker and observer. Three

go-arounds enabled each to play each role for at least five

minutes. Each speaker's assignment was to discuss his attitudes

toward the other race in the past, present, and future. The

listener was instructed to respond to the speaker in a facilitative

manner according to the communication skills training model pre-

sented to him previously. The observer gave feedback to the

listener in terms of how well he responded to the speaker.

4. Returned to the larger groups for instructions for the selected life

experience. The basic experience was a "Trust Walk" in which mem-

bers from the opposite races took turns in guiding the other around

blindfolded. When this experience was completed, subjects were

divided into small groups for discussion of the activity. Subjects

were asked to use communication skills training in their group dis-

cussions.

5. Summary.

6. Assignment: Immediately following this session, subjects were

asked to record in writing, any feelings, attitudes or values











regarding activities of the first session. This journal was

maintained and updated after each session.

Session 2. The theme of the second session conducted with Group

I was Interracial Exploration Through Communication Skills and Life

Experiences. The following schedule of activities was used to

develop the theme.

1. A re-cap of Session 1.

2. Group I was divided into two segregated groups of five Blacks

and five Whites. Using butcher paper each group was instructed

to make a list of things that the other race does that causes

breakdowns in racial understanding. Fifteen minutes later both

groups were directed to make a list on the reverse side of the

butcher paper of what they thought the other group had listed

about them. Following this writing activity, the two groups

combined for facilitative discussions of the items on the group

lists.

3. Group I subjects were randomly divided into two integrated teams

and played a regulation basketball game.

4. After the game, a group discussion was held regarding the game.

During this discussion the communication skills emphasized in the

training program was used by all subjects.

5. Summary.

6. Assignment: Updated journal of group experiences.

Session 3. The theme for session three was additional Inter-

racial Exploration Through Communication Skills and Life Ex-

periences. The following schedule was followed in the develop-

ment of the theme.











1. Review of sessions one and two; discussion of the theme.

2. Group I members were asked to participate in an activity

entitled "Pick Your Corner." In four corners of the room there

were signs reading, "I agree," "I strongly agree," "I disagree"

and "I strongly disagree," regarding the statement: "Most

American citizens born in the United States are racially

prejudiced." The subjects then selected a corner of the room

in terms of their beliefs about the statement. The subjects in

respective corners developed a rationale for their position and

returned to the larger group for discussion. This process was

repeated using a different statement. Students were reminded to

use communication skills in the discussion (Wittmer and Myrick,

1974).

3. Summary.

4. Randomly assigned black and white pairs of subjects to eat dinner

together. Subjects were given instructions regarding time and

place of the dinner experience.

5. Assignment: Record feelings in journal of group experiences.

Group II: Communication Skills Training Alone

The treatment for Group II was essentially the same as Group I except

no life experiences activities were held. Even though Group II and Group

I members were exposed to the same communication skills training, each

group was trained at different times. The central focus was the training

of black and white subjects to learn and practice higher levels of com-

munication in order to obtain better racial harmony. Like Group I,

Group II subjects were given the assignment of recording feelings follow-

ing each session.











Group III: Selected Life Experiences Alone

The treatment program for Group III excluded communication skills

training as outlined for Groups I and II. The life experiences ac-

tivities were the same as the life experiences detailed for Group I.

The life experience treatments for Groups I and III were given at

different times. The focus of these sessions emphasized increasing

racial understanding through shared experiences. Like Group I there were

three life experiences: 1) a trust walk, 2) a basketball game, and 3)

a dinner experience.

Group IV: No Treatment

Participants in Group IV participated in pre- and post-testing

only; they did not receive a treatment. At the conclusion they received

communication skills combined with life experiences.















CHAPTER IV

ANALYSIS OF THE DATA


This chapter contains the results of the data analysis and is

presented according to the methodology and statistical procedures

described in Chapter III.

The purpose of this study was to attempt to bring about better

race relations between black and white fraternity pledges by provid-

ing opportunities for the two racial groups to share some life ex-

periences within the framework of facilitative conditions. Research

(see the Review in Chapter II) has demonstrated the potential effec-

tiveness of communication skills training and shared life experiences

in a variety of interpersonal situations.

An experimental treatment program which combined communication

skills training with selected life experiences (Group I) was compared

with a communication skills group program along (Group II) and with

a selected life experience program alone (Group III). All groups were

also compared with a control group receiving no treatment (Group IV).

The training program was developed and conducted on the premise

that communication skills training was a necessary tool for effective

interracial communication in life situations. The life experiences used

in the program provided the subjects with opportunities to experience

and understand persons of the opposite race. The three components of

the life experiences were (a) the development of trust by employing a











trust walk, (b) the provision of a common athletic experience through

a basketball game, and (c) the provision of a common but necessary

experience by having a dinner. All of these experiences were conducted

on a racially integrated basis. The training was led by two experienced

counselors (one Black and one White) from the University of Florida

Counseling Center. The four groups were composed of 10 male (5 Black

and 5 White) members each.

The dependent variables were facilitative responding ability,

racial attitude change and reduction of racial anxiety. The null

hypotheses stated that the treatment would have no differential effects

across groups for the three dependent variables.

Tape recordings of interviews in which black and white pairs

assumed the roles of both speaker and listener were obtained before

and after the three experimental programs. Trained judges rated two

3-minute segments from each role using the Gross Rating of Facilitative

Interpersonal Functioning Scales. This scale measured facilitative

responding ability. The Attitude Behavior Scale (B/W and W/B) measured

the seven levels of racial attitude change and the Racial Interaction

Index measured reduction in racial anxiety. These scales were adminis-

tered before and after the experimental treatment program.


Null Hypothesis One

In general, null hypothesis one stated that there would be no

difference in facilitative responding ability across the four groups.

That is, there would be no difference between a group receiving

communication skills training combined with selected life experiences









50

(Group I) and a group receiving communication skills training alone

(Group II). Group I was also compared to a group that received selected

life experience alone (Group III) and to a delayed treatment control

group that received no training (Group IV).

An analysis of variance of pre-post differences between groups did

not allow for rejection of the null hypothesis at an alpha level of

.05 (Table 1). Thus, null hypothesis one, and each of the six sub-

hypotheses listed under it, was accepted.


TABLE 1

Analysis of Variance for Difference in Facilitative Responding Ability



Source DF Means F-Value Prob>F


Race 1 0.01408 0.9063


Group 3 1 0.0 1.02817 0.3943
2 0.1000
3 -0.1250
4 0.1000


Race & Group 3 0.84038 0.5156


Overall Mean 0.01875



Null Hypothesis Two

In general, null hypothesis two stated that there would be no

difference in racial attitudes between a group of black and white male

fraternity pledges receiving communication skills training integrated

with selected life experiences (Group I) and a similar experimental











group receiving communication skills training alone (Group II). Also,

it was hypothesized that no difference would exist between Groups I and

II when compared to a group receiving selected life experiences alone

(Group III) and to a control group receiving delayed treatment (Group IV).

There were seven different independent levels of racial attitudes

as measured by the Attitude Behavior Scale. Those levels were as

follows:

Level 1. Stereotype -- What people think that others think.

Level 2. Norm -- What they think is the usual thing that society
does.

Level 3. Moral evaluation -- What is the right thing that
society thinks it should do.

Level 4. Hypothetical behavior -- What they themselves think
they would do.

Level 5. Actual feelings -- What they actually feel or have
felt in the situation.

Level 6. Actual action -- What they have actually done in a
situation.

Level 7. Life experiences -- What they have actually experienced
in life situations (Maglajlic and Jordan, 1974).

An analysis of variance of pre-post differences did not support

the rejection of the null hypothesis for five of the seven levels of

racial attitudes. The five levels in which no differences were found

were: (1) stereotype, (2) norm, (3) moral evaluation, (6) actual action,

and (7) life experiences (Tables 2-6).

However, the statistical analysis permitted the rejection of

the null hypothesis on levels (4) hypothetical situations and (5) actual

feelings (Tables 7 and 8).











TABLE 2

Analysis of Variance for Difference in Stereotype


Source DF Means F-Value Prob>F


Race 1 0.08541 0.7720


Group 3 1 -1.5000 2.32819 0.0921
2 0.5000
3 -0.7000
4 2.1000


Race & Group 3 1.19889 0.3258


Overall Mean 0.1000






TABLE 3

Analysis of Variance for Difference in Norm



Source DF Means F-Value Prob>F


Race 1 0.84483 0.3649


Group 3 1 1.2000 1.59579 0.2086
2 2.4000
3 -0.6000
4 -0.5111


Race & Group 3 0.10920 0.9533


Overall Mean 0.62500













Analysis of


TABLE 4

Variance for Difference in Morals


Means


F-Value


0.56941


Group 3 1 -0.9000 2.31373 0.0936
2 0.2000
3 1.3000
4 -1.1000


Race & Group 3 0.28078 0.8401


Overall Mean -0.12500


TABLE 5

Analysis of Variance for Difference in Action


Means


Source


Race


F-Value


4.01841


Prob'F


0.0535


Group 3 1 1.1000 1.54589 0.2207
2 0.4000
3 0.0
4 3.4


Race & Group 3 0.48363 0.6998


Overall Mean 1.22500


Source


Race


Prob>F


0.4560











TABLE 6

Analysis of Variance for Difference in Life Situations


Source


Race


Means


F-Value


0.86506


Prob F


0.3593


Group 3 1 -2.3000 2.75961 0.0573
2 0.4000
3 0.2000
4 2.5000

Race & Group 3 0.54573 0.6585


Overall Mean 0.2000


TABLE 7

Analysis of Variance for Difference in Hypothetical Behavior



Source DF Means F-Value Prob F


Race 1 0.04056 0.8417


Group 3 1 -1.6000 3.03845 0.0424
2 -0.2000
3 -0.8000
4 2.4000


Race & Group 3 2.50106 0.0761


Overall Mean


-0.05000











TABLE 8

Tukey's Multiple Comparisons to Locate Differences
on Hypothetical Behavior


3

-0.8


2

-0.2


HYP 3.823


Key to Tab]


S
W =Q (P, V
v nt

e 8: Groups that are connected by a single line are not
significantly different. Groups that are not
connected by a single line are significantly different.


Using Tukey's test of multiple comparisons, the investigator located

the pre-post differences on the two levels in favor of the control

group (Group IV). (Tables 9 and 10). In fact, the control group was

superior to all other groups.


1

-1.6











TABLE 9

Analysis of Variance for Difference in Feelings


Source DF Means F-Value Prob>F


Race 1 0.07728 0.7828


Group 3 1 -2.1000 3.65482 0.0222
2 1.1000
3 -0.6000
4 1.7000


Race & Group 3 1.76713 0.1722


Overall Mean 0.02500






TABLE 10

Tukey's Multiple Comparisons to Locate Differences on Feelings


1

-2.1


3

-0.6


Feelings 3.462


s
S= Q (P,) _
v nt


Key to Table 10:


Groups that are not connected by a single line are
significantly different. Groups that are connected
by a single line are not significantly different.











Null Hypothesis Three

In general, null hypothesis three stated that there would be no

difference in the reduction of racial anxiety between the three treat-

ment groups and the control group. More specifically, the sub-hypothesis

for null hypothesis three were stated as follows:

Ho3a: There would be no difference in reduction of racial
anxiety between the communication skills training
group combined with selected life experiences (Group I)
and the communication skills training group alone (Group II).

Ho3b: There would be no difference in reduction of racial
anxiety between Group I and the selected life experience
group alone (Group III).

H 3 : There would be no difference in reduction of racial
o c anxiety between Group I and a group receiving no train-
ing or delayed training control group (Group IV).

H 3d: There would be no difference in reduction of racial
anxiety between Group II and Group III.

H 3 : There would be no difference in reduction of racial
e anxiety between Group III and Group IV.

An analysis of variance of pre-post difference between groups

permitted the acceptance of the null hypothesis stated above (see Table 11).














Analysis of Variance


TABLE 11

for Difference in Reduction of


Racial Anxiety


Source DF Means F-Value Prob>F


Race 1 0.25901 0.6143


Group 3 1 -4.9000 0.8058 0.9693
2 -2.1000
3 -6.4000
4 -1.6000
Combined -3.7500


Race & Group 3 0.53214 0.6674


Overall Mean -37.7500




Null Hypothesis Four

In general, null hypothesis four stated that there would be no

difference in facilitative responding ability, racial attitudes

(including the seven levels defined earlier) or the reduction of racial

anxiety between black and white male fraternity pledges due to the three

experimental treatment programs. An analysis of the pre-post difference

between the black and white participants on all dependent variables and

on all groups did not support the rejection of the null hypothesis at an

alpha level of .05.














CHAPTER V


SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS


Summary

Historically, there have been many barriers separating black

and white university students. Many of these barriers have not been

removed. The distrust, the lack of communication, the negative racial

attitudes and the presence of racial anxiety still exist among college

students to the extent that many do not experience the full benefits

of a college education.

Acknowledging that the racial problems in America have not been

solved, a variety of techniques have been employed with hopes of find-

ing avenues to solve the problem. Black/white encounter groups, human

relations workshops, reeducation for better race relations, and change

organizations for equal opportunity are only a few of the many attempts

toward bridging the racial gap.

It was the purpose of this study to develop and investigate a

training model that would be useful in bringing about better race

relations among black and white college students. The model included

interpersonal skills training and shared life experiences. The potential

effectiveness of communication skills training and shared life ex-

periences has been reported in the literature and research as being

significant factors in a variety of situations involving interpersonal









60

relations. Therefore, it was assumed by the investigator that a com-

bination of communication skills training and life experiences would

improve the interpersonal relationship between black and white male

college students.

The experimental program consisted of three treatment groups and

a delayed treatment control group. Group I, which consisted of communi-

cation skills training combined with selected life experiences, was

compared to a group receiving communication skills training alone. Group

I and Group II were also compared to a group receiving selected life

experiences alone (Group III). All three groups were compared to a group

receiving no training (Group IV).

The experimental training program was developed and conducted on

the premise that effective communication skill was a necessary tool for

both Blacks and Whites in order to have effective interracial communica-

tions in life situations involving members of the opposite race. The

life experiences used in the program provided the subjects with oppor-

tunities to experience and understand persons of the opposite race. The

three components of the life experiences were (a) the development of

trust by employing a trust walk, (b) the provision for participation in

a common athletic experience, a basketball game, and (c) the provision of

a common but necessary day-to-day experience, a dinner. All of these

experiences were conducted on a racially integrated basis. The training

was led by two experienced counselors (one Black and one White) from the

University of Florida Counseling Center. Each of the four groups was

composed of 10 male (5 Black and 5 White) members each.











The dependent variables were facilitative responding ability,

racial attitude change, and reduction of racial anxiety. In general,

the null hypotheses were that there would be no systematic interaction

effects between treatment and time of testing across groups for the

three dependent variables.

Tape recordings of interviews in which black and white pairs assumed

the roles of both speaker and listener were obtained before and after

the three experimental programs. Trained judges rated two 3-minute seg-

ments from each role using the Gross Rating of Facilitative Interpersonal

Functioning Scales. This scale measured facilitative responding ability.

The Attitude Behavior Scale (B/W and W/B) measured the seven levels of

racial attitude change and the Racial Interaction Index measured reduction

in racial anxiety. These scales were administered before and after the

experimental treatment program.

Statistical analysis of pre-post differences between groups and

with the control group did not support the research hypotheses that the

various treatments would effect positive change in racial attitude

change, facilitative responding ability, or reduction in racial anxiety.

In the two cases where significant differences were found, they did, in

fact, favor the control group (Tables 9 and 10, Chapter IV).


Discussion

Facilitative responding ability did not improve in any way from

pre-post treatment. The authors of the facilitative responding scale

indicate that a person obtaining 3.0 index score is average in facili-

tative responding. The average score for the subject in this study









62

pre-treatment was 1.5. The average score post-treatment was again 1.5.

Therefore, it is obvious that the subjects of this study were extremely

poor in facilitative responding ability and remained so in spite of an

intervening treatment. None of the four groups made any significant

changes nor trends toward improvement of facilitative responding ability

over the five weeks interval. Stated simply, they were poor facilitators

and remained so.

Similar results occurred concerning the variable of racial attitude

change from pre- to post-treatment. The subjects again averaged low in

attitude toward the opposite race and remained so across treatment and

time. However, as mentioned earlier, the control group did show

significant improvement on two of the levels found on the racial atti-

tude change instrument in post-testing. The control group showed a

significant improvement in hypothetical behavior, or what they themselves

would do in hypothetical situations involving members of the opposite

race, and in the level termed actual feelings, or what they actually feel

or have felt in a situation involving members of the opposite race. There

seems to be no apparent reason for this positive change in favor of the

control group unless it was by chance alone. However, a possible ex-

planation could be that the control group members somehow gained more

from the pre- and post-taping concerning facilitative ability than did

members of the experimental groups. It is also possible that the treat-

ment may have increased bias and negative attitudes. However, this is

problematical.

The third dependent variable, reduction of racial anxiety, had a

similar result to those mentioned above. However, the members of the











Groups 1, II, and III did have a trend in a positive direction of

reduction of racial anxiety following treatment (.10). That is to say,

they appeared to have higher racial anxiety at the beginning of the

study and there was a trend toward a reduction in anxiety following

treatment for the three experimental groups.

In retrospect, there are several factors which may have attrib-

uted to the failure to demonstrate any significant, positive changes

in this study following treatment.

First, it is possible that the criteria used to evaluate the

treatment program was not sensitive enough to pick up changes that did

occur due to treatment. Both trainers reported various kinds of positive

behavior and attitudinal changes within their respective treatment groups

but these changes would be difficult to quantify on any objective scale.

For example, the exchanges of information that occurred between black

and white individuals created a "person to person" communication ex-

perience that cannot be measured by general accessment instruments such

as those used in this study. Black and White participants were seen

chatting on the campus a few weeks after the experimental program. Some

of the white subjects invited the black subjects to visit their fraternity

house since there are no black fraternity houses at the University of

Florida. Other black and white subjects planned social events together,

during and following the treatment programs. In other words, the subjects

in this study seemed to develop an understanding of individuals that did

not extend to an understanding of the opposite race in general. In fact,

different subjects were heard saying that they were more interested in

getting to know individuals personally than getting to know an entire race.











The investigator is of the opinion that Blacks and Whites do not

want to admit and will not admit, that they are racially prejudiced.

This phenomena has become more apparent within the last decade with

more and more emphasis on equal rights. That is, it is no longer popular

to be considered racially prejudiced. Thus, it is possible that the

subjects in the study did not answer the questions prior to, nor follow-

ing treatment, honestly for fear that they would be labeled "bigots."

For example, one subject was heard saying as he was taking one of the

paper/pencil attitude scales, "Does this mean that I am prejudiced toward

Blacks?" Generally, college students would like to think that they are

not racially prejudiced. However, the literature has already pointed

out that racial attitudes of college students closely resemble those of

their parents (Brooks, Sedlacek and Mindus, 1973).

Additionally, the content of the communication skills training

program used in the experimental treatment centered around conflicts or

problems between Blacks and Whites. For example, black and white pairs

were initially asked to discuss the feelings that they have had or might

have had when confronted with members of the opposite race. Therefore,

to request that two unacquainted students, meeting for the first time,

discuss their feelings on an issue as personal and sensitive as the

racial issue, may have created a highly threatening situation for both.

In retrospect, it is obvious that this approach caused subjects to

intellectualize and avoid dealing with their real feelings. Positive

interpersonal relationships are usually developed after trust has been

established over a longer period of time. Perhaps the experiment should

have initially built its subject content around day-to-day problems











common to each group (i.e., boyfriend-girlfriend problems, roommate

problems, vocation problems, etc.). A structured discussion of Black/

White issues may have been better held toward the end of the communica-

tions skills training.

In the initial planning of the treatment methodology, an important

consideration was the degree of intensity of the shared life experience

in which the subjects were participating. Time considerations, among

other factors, made it necessary to dilute the degree of involvement

originally planned for the shared life experience. For example, one

initial intent was to have pairs of black and white pledges spend a

night together at some "neutral" place where the intimate nature of the

experience would allow for a unique and intimate sharing (and confronta-

tion) of personal values and attitudes. Because it was impossible to

schedule a time and place for each pair of pledges (involved in the

selected life experiences) to spend a night together, this treatment was

reduced to having each pair of pledges plan a dinner together. While

the dinner did seem to be a valuable and enjoyable experience for the

participants, it provided an obvious decrease in intimacy and time of

personal involvement for members of Group I.

Previous research directed toward helping people improve their

communication and relating skills has demonstrated that a treatment

program spread out over a period of time (e.g., 10 weeks) has more effect

than a more intense treatment conducted over a shorter time interval

(3 weeks) (Resnick, 1972). This treatment was geared toward a three-week

period of time, assuming an optimal level of both subject participation









66

and treatment intensity. The fact that both subject participation and

intensity of treatment fell short of initial expectations made the

brevity of the treatment period a crucial factor. For example, it

seemed that several pledges had just begun to break through and make

contact with the other pledges when the program was terminated. It is

obvious to the investigator that the treatment time was too short.

Fraternity pledges were initially identified as the subject pool

since it was felt that their participation and commitment could be

assured by the fraternity. Initial contacts with the fraternity officers

supported this assumption, since the officers were unanimous in their

support and enthusiasm for the program of improving relations between

black and white fraternities. Unfortunately, the fraternity officers

were volunteering the participation of their pledges, who turned out to

have far less time and commitment than their "Big Brothers." For ex-

ample, after the first session, none of the groups had 100% participa-

tion in subsequent treatment sessions. This may have been due to a number

of factors. For example, the treatment coincided with the "Hell Week"

activities for each fraternity and created a conflict of interest for

each pledge. Further, two of the treatment sessions were scheduled for

weekends during which there was a football game at another campus which

the fraternities had planned to attend as a group. Additionally, the

remainder of treatment sessions conflicted with both mid-term examination

and holiday schedules (where pledges were in the midst of planning trips

home) and presented further breakdowns in motivation and enthusiasm for

the treatment programs.











Recommendations for Further Study and Conclusions

The data reported in this study might suggest that the best way

to influence racial attitude or racial understanding is not to intervene

in interracial interactions, at least for a short period of time only.

Despite the fact that no differences (or even negative differences)

were found, the author strongly resists this conclusion. The limitations

considered above suggest that there are ways of maximizing the potential

for different treatments to improve communication between races in the

same way that they have been demonstrated to be of value with different

target groups (resident assistants, paraprofessional counselors and

counselors).

The main contribution made by this study is that it raises tangible

and specific issues that must be considered in any future programs de-

signed to improve interactions between racial groups. For example,

future research should insure that participants are motivated and

committed to completing the treatment program. The treatment should be

designed to be intense enough to allow for intimate and productive con-

frontation between subjects, and should be of long enough duration to

allow for a gradual development of individual rapport and communication.

Criteria used in the evaluation of such treatment should be both sensitive

and specific enough to measure a change in attitudes towards individuals

as well as toward groups.















APPENDIX A


College students frequently encounter situations involving indi-

viduals of another race (black or white). I am trying to develop a

scale which would show various degrees of difficulty students experience

when they face these situations. You can help develop this scale by

listing two or more events or situations where you would be involved

with a person of the opposite race as described by each level below.


Level I: Briefly describe situations that would be least difficult

for you to be a participant which involves persons) of the opposite

race.

1.










2.










Level II: Briefly describe situations that would be moderately









69

difficult for you to be a participant which involves persons) of the

opposite race.

1.


Level III: Briefly describe situations that would be most

difficult for you to be a participant which involves persons of the

opposite race.

1.










2.















APPENDIX B



November 1, 1974



LETTER TO TRAINEES


Dear

We have arranged some meeting times for the Race Relations
Communications Program about which we talked. In order to
complete the Program a week before Thanksgiving we will begin
our first session on Sunday, November 3, 1974.


Below you will find the time that you will be
important that you attend all three sessions,
your calendar for these days.


meeting. It is
so plan to clear


DAY:

TIME:

DATES:


Sincerely,


Paul Schauble


Max Parker















APPENDIX C


Counselor Education Department
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida

September 20, 1974


MEMORANDUM

TO: Fraternity Presidents

FROM: Joe Wittmer, Chairman, Counselor Education Department

SUBJECT: Research regarding the effectiveness of a race relations
communications program with black and white fraternity
pledges.


Mr. Max Parker, a Black graduate student in Counselor Education
at the University of Florida, is planning to conduct a research study
on race relations between black and white fraternity pledges. Your
cooperation will be needed and appreciated.

More specifically, the purpose of the study is to apply and test
the effects of a training model aimed at bringingabout better racial
understanding between black and white students at the University of
Florida.

Mr. Parker's proposal is that this race relations communication
program be endorsed as a regular part of the pledgeship programs which
could serve as a vehicle for bringing bout better racial harmony on
campus.

We will appreciate your communicating this idea to your fellow
officers for their endorsement. Mr. Parker will be in contact with
you, or your representative, concerning the selection of pledges for
the study.

The pledges selected for the study will be asked to give only 12
hours of their time for a three-week period.

The results of the study will be made available to you on request.
Also, Mr. Parker, a full-time staff member of the University Counseling
Center, will conduct similar training programs involving other members
of your fraternities upon request.


JW/gc

















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APPENDIX E


ATTITUDE BEHAVIOR SCALE BW-G

DIRECTIONS


This booklet contains statements of how people behave in certain situa-
tions or feel about certain things. You, yourself, or other Blacks
often behave in the same way toward Whites. You also have some general
ideas about yourself, about other Black persons like you and about
Whites. Sometimes you feel or behave the same way toward everyone and
sometimes you feel or behave differently toward Whites.

This questionnaire has statements about ideas and about behavior. Each
statement of this questionnaire is different from every other section,
although some of the statements in each section are similar. Your
answers in one section, therefore, may be the same as answers in another
section, or your answers may differ from section to section. Here is a
sample statement:

Sample I

Other Blacks believe the following things about Whites as compared to
Blacks:

1. Chance of Whites being taller

1. less chance than Blacks
2. about the same
3. more chance than Blacks

If other Blacks believe that Whites have less chance than Blacks to be
taller, you should circle the number 1 as shown above or if you are
using an IBM answer sheet, make a heavy dark line on the answer sheet
between the two lines after the number as follows:

1. 1 ==== 2 ==== 3 === 4 ==== 5









74

Sample II

Next you should indicate how sure you were of your answer. If you felt
sure, your complete answer would be as follows:

1. Chance of Whites being taller 2. How sure are you of this answer?

1. less chance than Blacks 1. not sure
2. about the same 2. fairly sure
3. more chance than Blacks 3. sure

1. 1:== 2=== 3=== 4=== 5=== 2. 1=== 2=== 3=== 4=== 5===


DO NOT PUT YOUR NAME ON THE BOOKLET











ABS-I-BW-G


Directions: Section I

This section contains statements about ideas which other Blacks have
about Whites. Circle or fill in the answer sheet number that indicates
how other Blacks compare eWiteswith themselves. Please answer all
questions.

Other Blacks believe the following things about Whites as compared to Blacks:

1. Whites can be trusted with money 2. How sure are you of this answer?

1. less than Blacks 1. not sure
2. about the same as Blacks 2. fairly sure
3. more than Blacks 3. sure

3. White families are closely knit 4. How sure are you of this answer?

1. less often than Black ones 1. not sure
2. about as often as Black ones 2. fairly sure
3. more often than Black ones 3. sure

5. Whites' intellectual ability is 6. How sure are you of this answer?

1. less than Blacks' 1. not sure
2. about the same as Blacks' 2. fairly sure
3. more than Blacks' 3. sure

7. Whites desire a higher education 8. How sure are you of this answer?

1. less often than Blacks 1. not sure
2. about as often as Blacks 2. fairly sure
3. more often than Blacks 3. sure

9. Whites help their neighbors 10. How sure are you of this answer?

1. less than Blacks 1. not sure
2. about the same as Blacks 2. fairly sure
3. more than Blacks 3. sure

11. White neighborhoods are safe 12. How sure are you of this answer?

1. less often than Black ones 1. not sure
2. about as often as Black ones 2. fairly sure
3. more often than Black ones 3. sure












ABS-I-BW-G


13. Whites obey job rules and
regulations


14. How sure are you of this answer?


less than
about the
more than


Blacks
same as Blacks
Blacks


not sure
fairly sure
sure


15. Blacks enjoy working with Whites 16. How sure are you of this answer?


less than
about the
more than


Whites do with Blacks
same as Whites
Whites do with Blacks


not sure
fairly sure
sure









77

ABS-II-BW-G


Directions: Section II

This section contains statements about things which many other Blacks
like you may believe about Whites. Please choose the answer that in-
dicates what you think most others believe about Whites.

bMst Blacks generally believe the following about interacting with Whites:


17. Blacks believe they can trust
Whites with money


disagree
uncertain
agree


19. Blacks believe that White
families are as closely
knit as their own


18. How sure are you about this answer?


not sure
fairly sure
sure


20. How sure are you about this answer?


disagree
uncertain
agree


21. Blacks believe the intellectual
ability of Whites is the same
as Blacks


disagree
uncertain
agree


23. Blacks desire to share their
higher education with Whites


disagree
uncertain
agree


25. Blacks like to help White
neighbors


disagree
uncertain
agree


not sure
fairly sure
sure


22. How sure are you about this answer?


not sure
fairly sure
sure


24. How sure are you about this answer?


not sure
fairly sure
sure


26. How sure are you about this answer?


not sure
fairly sure
sure












ABS-II-BW-G


27. Blacks believe that White
neighborhoods are safe
to live in

1. disagree
2. uncertain
3. agree


28. How sure are you of this answer?



1. not sure
2. fairly sure
3. sure


Nbst Blacks generally believe the following about interacting with Whites:


29. Blacks believe Whites obey job
rules and regulations the same
as Blacks do


disagree
uncertain
agree


31. Blacks believe they enjoy
working with Whites


disagree
uncertain
agree


30. How sure are you of this answer?


not sure
fairly sure
sure


32. How sure are you of this answer?


1. not sure
2. fairly sure
3. sure









79

ABS-III-BW-G


Directions: Section III

This section contains statements about ways in which you, yourself, should
act toward Whites. Please choose the answer that indicates how you feel
you should believe.

In respect to Whites, do you, yourself, believe that it is usually right
or usually wrong?


33. To trust Whites with money is


usually wrong
undecided
usually right


35. To expect White families to be
as closely knit as Black ones is


usually wrong
undecided
usually right


37. To expect Whites' intellectual
ability to be the same as
Blacks' is

1. usually wrong
2. undecided
3. usually right

39. To expect Whites to desire a
higher education as much as
Blacks is


usually wrong
undecided
usually right


41. To expect Blacks to help
White neighbors is

1. usually wrong
2. undecided
3. usually right


34. How sure are you of this answer?

1. not sure
2. fairly sure
3. sure

36. How sure are you of this answer?


not sure
fairly sure
sure


38. How sure are you of this answer?


not sure
fairly sure
sure


40. How sure are you of this answer?


not sure
fairly sure
sure


42. How sure are you of this answer?


1. not sure
2. fairly sure
3. sure












ABS-III-BW-G


43. To expect Blacks to believe
that White neighborhoods are
safe for them is


usually wrong
undecided
usually right


44. How sure are you of this answer?


not sure
fairly sure
sure


In respect to Whites, do you, yourself, believe that it is usually
right or usually wrong:


45. To expect Blacks to obey job
rules and regulations the
same as Whites is


usually wrong
undecided
usually right


47. To expect Blacks to enjoy
working with Whites is

1. usually wrong
2. undecided
3. usually right


46. How sure are you of this answer?


not sure
fairly sure
sure


48. How sure are you of this answer?


not sure
fairly sure
sure










81

ABS-IV-BW-G


Directions: Section IV

This section contains statements about how you think you would act toward
Whites. Choose the answer that indicates how you think you would act.

In respect to a White person would you, yourself:

49. I would trust Whites with money 50. How sure are you of this answer?


no
undecided
yes


51. I would want my family to be as
closely knit as White families are

1. no
2. undecided
3. yes

53. I would want the same intellec-
tual ability as Whites


1. no
2. undecided
3. yes


55. I would want to have the same de-
sire Whites do for a higher
education

1. no
2. undecided
3. yes

57. I would help White neighbors

1. no
2. undecided
3. yes

59. I would want Black neighborhoods
to be as safe as White ones

1. no
2. undecided
3. yes


not sure
fairly sure
sure


52. How sure are you of this answer?


not sure
fairly sure
sure


54. How sure are you of this answer?


not sure
fairly sure
sure


56. How sure are you of this answer?



1. not sure
2. fairly sure
3. sure

58. How sure are you of this answer?

1. not sure
2. fairly sure
3. sure

60. How sure are you of this answer?


1. not sure
2. fairly sure
3. sure












ABS-IV-BW-G


61. I would obey job rules and
regulations the same as Whites

1. no
2. undecided
3. yes


62. How sure are you of this answer?


1. not sure
2. fairly sure
3. sure


In respect to a White person would you, yourself:


63. I would enjoy working
with Whites


no
undecided
yes


64. How sure are you of this answer?


not sure
fairly sure
sure











ABS-V-BW-G


Directions: Section V

This section concerns actual feelings that Black people may have about
Whites. You are asked to indicate how you feel about the following
statements.

How do you actually feel toward Whites:


65. When Blacks trust Whites with
money I feel

1. bad
2. indifferent
3. good

67. When Black families are as
closely knit as I think White
families are I feel

1. bad
2. indifferent
3. good

69. When Blacks' intellectual
ability is the same as
Whites' I feel


bad
indifferent
good


71. When Whites desire a higher
education as much as Blacks
do I feel


bad
indifferent
good


73. When Blacks help White
neighbors I feel


bad
indifferent
good


66. How sure are you of this answer?


1. not sure
2. fairly sure
3. sure

68. How sure are you of this answer?



1. not sure
2. fairly sure
3. sure

70. How sure are you of this answer?


not sure
fairly sure
sure


72. How sure are you of this answer?


not sure
fairly sure
sure


74. How sure are you of this answer?


not sure
fairly sure
sure











ABS V BW G


75. When Blacks are safe in
White neighborhoods I feel


bad
indifferent
good


76. How sure are you of this answer?


not sure
fairly sure
sure


How do you actually feel toward Whites:


77. When Whites obey job rules and
regulations with Blacks I feel

1. dissatisfied
2. indifferent
3. satisfied

79. When Blacks enjoy working with
Whites I feel

1. bad
2. indifferent
3. good


78. How sure are you of this answer?


1. not sure
2. fairly sure
3. sure

80. How sure are you of this answer?


not sure
fairly sure
sure












ABS-VI-BW-G


Directions: Section VI

This section concerns actual experiences you have had with Whites. Try
to answer the following questions from the knowledge of your own experiences.

Experiences or contacts with Whites:

81. I have trusted Whites with money 82. How sure are you of this answer?

1. no experience 1. no experience
2. no 2. not sure
3. uncertain 3. fairly sure
4. yes 4. sure

83. I have seen that White families 84. How sure are you of this answer?
are as closely knit as Black ones

1. no experience 1. no experience
2. no 2. not sure
3. uncertain 3. fairly sure
4. yes 4. sure

85. My intellectual ability is 86. How sure are you of this answer?
equal to the Whites I know

1. no experience 1. no experience
2. no 2. not sure
3. uncertain 3. fairly sure
4. yes 4. sure

87. I have wanted a higher educa- 88. How sure are you of this answer?
tion as much as the Whites I
have known

1. no experience 1. no experience
2. no 2. not sure
3. uncertain 3. fairly sure
4. yes 4. sure

89. I have helped a White neighbor 90. How sure are you of this answer?

1. no experience 1. no experience
2. no 2. not sure
3. uncertain 3. fairly sure
4. yes 4. sure












ABS -VI-BW-G


91. I have felt safe when in
White neighborhoods


no experience
no
uncertain
yes


Experiences or contacts with Whites:

93. I have seen that Whites obey
job rules and regulations when
working with Blacks


no experience
no
uncertain
yes


95. I have enjoyed working with
Whites


no experience
no
uncertain
yes


92. How sure are you of this answer?


no experience
not sure
fairly sure
sure


94. How sure are you of this answer?


no experience
not sure
fairly sure
sure


96. How sure are you of this answer?


1.
2.
3.
4.


no experience
not sure
fairly sure
sure












ATTITUDE BEHAVIOR SCALE ABS-BW-D


This part of the questionnaire deals with many things. For the purpose

of this study, the answers of all persons are important.


Part of the questionnaire has to do with personal information about you.

Since the questionnaire is completely anonymous or confidential, you may

answer all of the questions freely without any concern about being

identified. It is important to the study to obtain your answer to every

question.


Please read each question carefully and do not omit any questions. Please

answer by circling the answer or marking the space on the IBM answer sheet.

97. Please indicate your sex.

1. Female

2. Male

98. Please indicate your age as follows:

1. Under 20

2. 21-30

3. 31-40

4. 41-50

5. 51-over

99. What is your marital status?

1. Married

2. Single

3. Divorced

4. Widowed

5. Separated











100. What is your religion?

1. I prefer not to answer

2. Catholic

3. Protestant

4. Jewish

5. Other

101. Please indicate level of education

1. First year university

2. Second year university

3. Third year university

4. Fourth year university

5. Graduate student

102. Some people feel that in bringing up children, new ways and
methods should be tried whenever possible. Others feel that
trying out new methods is dangerous. What is your feeling about
the following statement?

"New methods of raising children should be tried whenever possible."

1. Strongly disagree

2. Slightly disagree

3. Slightly agree

4. Strongly agree

103. Family planning or birth control has been discussed by many
people. What is your feeling about a married couple practicing
birth control?

1. It is always wrong

2. It is usually wrong

3. It is probably all right

4. It is always right











104. The following questions have to do with kinds of experiences
you have had with Whites. If more than one experience applies,
please choose the answer with the highest number.

1. I have read or studied about Whites through reading,
movies, lecture or observation.

2. A friend or relative is a White person.

3. I have personally worked with Whites as a teacher,
counselor, volunteer, child care, etc.

105. Considering all of the times you have talked, worked or in
some other way had personal contact with Whites, about how
much has it been altogether?

1. Only a few casual contacts.

2. Between one and three months.

3. Between three and six months.

4. Between six months and one year.

5. More than one year of contact.

106. When you have been in contact with Whites, how easy for you,
in general, would you say it would have been to have avoided
being with them?

1. I have had no contact.

2. I could generally have avoided these personal contacts
only at great cost or difficulty.

3. I could generally have avoided these personal contacts
only with considerable difficulty.

4. I could generally have avoided these personal contacts
but with some inconvenience.

5. I could generally have avoided these personal contacts
without any difficulty or inconvenience.











107. If you have ever worked with Whites for personal gain (for
example, for money or some other gain) what opportunities did
you have (or do you have) to work at something else instead;
that is, something else that was (is) acceptable to you as
a job?

1. No such experience.

2. No other job available.

3. Other jobs available not at all acceptable to me.

4. Other jobs available were not quite acceptable to me.

5. Other jobs available were fully acceptable to me.

108. How have you generally felt about your experiences with Whites?

1. no experience.

2. I definitely dislike it.

3. I did not like it very much.

4. I like it somewhat.

5. I definitely enjoyed it.

109. Which of the following do you think would have the greatest
effect of reducing racial prejudice? Circle only one or mark
only one on the IBM answer sheet.

1. Integration of schools.

2. Publicity campaigns to promote integration.

3. Fair employment legislation.

4. Open housing legislation.

5. Direct, personal contact between members of various
racial groups.

110. How would you rate your own racial attitudes as compared to the
average person?

1. Very much more prejudiced.

2. Somewhat more prejudiced.

3. About the same.

4. Somewhat less prejudiced.

5. Very much less prejudiced.