Career maturity, work values, and personal characteristics

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Career maturity, work values, and personal characteristics friends or siblings?
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Thesis--University of Florida.
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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 107-112).
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by Beverly Brown Crane.
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CAREER MATURITY, WORK VALUES, AND PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS:
FRIENDS OR SIBLINGS?










BY

BEVERLY BROWN CRANE


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE
OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1977






























To My Precious Children,

Cheryl, Keith, and Marc--

who have given much love,
encouragement, and support in
their own uniquely individual ways.













ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


If the words of Lennon and McCartney could be paraphrased to read,

"I get by with a lot of help from my friends," they would be extremely

apropos in relation to this dissertation, for the final product is a

result of the concerted efforts of many very fine individuals.

Much love and gratitude is expressed to my three children, to

whom this dissertation is dedicated, for their cooperation, support,

and love returned. They have made innumerable sacrifices and are to

be commended for their patience and understanding.

All doctoral candidates have a chairperson; few are fortunate

enough to have one who is as capable, supportive, and helpful as

Larry Loesch. It is with much sincere appreciation and caring that this

acknowledgement is made. Larry's actions have been too numerous to

describe; suffice it to say that I could not have had a more excellent

chairperson and friend.

Sincere appreciation is expressed also to Drs. Harold Riker and

Harry Grater, who both in their own particular ways have been very helpful.

Words cannot express the gratitude I feel to an individual who has

not only offered warmth and kindness, but who also has been a source of

support and personal insight. To Milan Kolarik, I offer a very special,

"Thank you."

There is one person, who for over a year has patiently listened,

almost daily, to my meanings and groanings--first about qualifying exams








and then about this dissertation. Her caring, support, and encouragement

have been invaluable. Much love and appreciation is expressed to my good

friend and working companion at the Graduate School, Judy Harris.

Without the most able assistance, great patience, and reassuring

statement, "Just wait, I'll tell you when to panic," of Barbara Rucker,

the computer programming and statistical analyses for this study would

still be in the coding stage. A big bouquet goes to her.

What would I have done without the levity of Assistant Graduate

School Dean John Newell, who, throughout this entire process, has so

often helped me see the humorous side. He always had time to listen

and offer helpful suggestions and support. Much appreciation is ex-

pressed to him.

Many thanks are expressed to Jimmy C. Perkins for her support,

understanding, and cooperation during the time I worked under her at

the Graduate School.

Terry DiNuzzo has been a source of strength and support. Her firm

declaration, "Bev, we're gonna make it!" will always be remembered.

To my typists, Jo Ann Salter, Dorothy Long, and Susan Stebbins

goes nuch appreciation for their excellent work and untiring efforts.

Additional thanks goes to Jean Holzer, of CIRCA, who was so

extremely helpful in the programming of the data for transfer from tape

to disk.

Many others have made their own special contributions to the

success of this endeavor. Gary Seiler did a marvelous job of chairing

my proposal seminar. Jim Morgan was so helpful in teaching me how to

reduce my "anxiety about my anxiety" through the use of self-hypnosis.








To these two friends along with Cindy Cumming, Joey Pelham, Linda

Thompson, Jim Sampson, and Bill Ware go much appreciation. Additionally,

there are those friends who have been in the background, who for so long

have had faith in me. To Claire Walsh, Susie Todd and Peggy Flagg, I

express much love.

Finally, appreciation is expressed to the faculty members and

student-subjects who were so cooperative in making this study possible.















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . .... ... .iii

ABSTRACT . . ... ....... .viii

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION . .... .. 1

Purpose of the Study . . 4
Rationale for the Study . . 4
Definition of Terms . . 8
Outline of the Remainder of the Study . 8

CHAPTER II, REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE .. 10

Super's Career Development Theory . .. 10
Vocational Life Stages . .... .13
Career Maturity .................. .. .16
The Importance of Career Maturity ........... 18
Measurement of Career Maturity . ... .21
Career Maturity and Personal Characteristics ... 23
Work Values . .... ... .29
Work Values and Career Development Theory .. .. ... 30
Measurement of Work Values . .... .31
Work Values and Personal Characteristics ...... .35
Career Maturity and Work Values . .... .37
Summary . . ... .. .. .41

CHAPTER III, RESEARCH METHODOLOGY . .... .44

The Research Approach and Hypotheses .... .45
Instrumentation . . ... 46
The Adult Vocational Maturity Inventory ... .46
The Work Values Inventory . .... .47
The Sampling Procedure . .... .50
Data Collection . . .. 52
Data Analysis . .... .. .. .53
Limitations . . 54











CHAPTER IV, RESULTS OF THE STUDY . .

The Sample . . .
Results Related to the Null Hypotheses .
Differences in Career Maturity . .
Differences in Work Values . .
Relationships Between Career Maturity
and Work Values . .
Relationships Between Age and Work Values .
Relationships Between Age and Career Maturity .

CHAPTER V, DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS . .

Introduction . . .
Summary of the Results . .
Discussion and Conclusions . .
Implications . . .

APPENDICES

A COVER LETTER . . .

B INTRODUCTION OF THE RESEARCH AND
ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS . .

C AVMI OPINION SURVEY . .

D INTERPRETATION OF WORK VALUES INVENTORY SCALES .

E FREQUENCY OF RESPONDENTS BROKEN-DOWN
BY COLLEGE BY SEX . .

REFERENCES . . .

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . .


Page

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61

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85
86

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91
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S 101

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. 107

. 113










Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



CAREER MATURITY, WORK VALUES,
AND PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS:
FRIENDS OR SIBLINGS?

By

Beverly Brown Crane

August 1977

Chairman: Larry C. Loesch
Major Department: Counselor Education

In recent years the concept of career counseling has become more

complex due to the numerous factors which underlie the career decision

making process. Many counselee characteristics must be taken into con-

sideration for career counseling to be effective. The work of Donald

Super has placed emphasis upon two of these characteristics: career

maturity and work values. Information regarding the client's level of

career maturity facilitates the assessment of the client's readiness to

make appropriate vocational decisions. An understanding of the client's

value orientation assists the counselor in facilitating the direction of

these decisions.

The theoretical framework of this study was the career development

theory of Donald Super. The purpose of this study was to examine the

constructs of career maturity and work values in relation to university

students, who are in the Exploratory Stage of development. More

specifically, this study sought (1) to examine the differences in career


viii








-maturity and work values on the basis of sex, academic level, and for all

levels combined, and (2) to explore the relationships of career maturity,

work values, and age across academic levels and for all academic levels

combined.

The sample consisted of 448 undergraduate students from five

colleges who were enrolled during the Spring and Summer Quarters, 1977,

at the University of Florida. Of this number there were 136 freshmen,

61 sophomores, 72 juniors, and 179 seniors. The mean ages across academic

levels ranged from 19.0 to 22.95, with a mean age for the total sample

of 21.19. The sample was composed of 51.8% males and 48.2% females.

The Adult Vocational Maturity Inventory (AVMI) and the Work Values

Inventory (WVI) were used to assess the two main criterion variables.

Additionally, demographic data as to age and sex were obtained. Results

indicated no significant differences in the degree of career maturity

across academic levels. A significant difference in career maturity on

the basis of sex was determined, with college females being significantly

more career mature than college males. Significant differences across

academic levels were found for only four of the WVI scales. Significant

differences between males and females were determined for six of the WVI

scales; in each case females scored significantly higher than males.

For university students as a group, significant relationships were

found between career maturity and 12 of the WVI scales. When evaluated

across academic levels significant relationships were found for 32 of the

60 correlations.










Correlations between age and work values of university students

as a group yielded a significant relationship with only one of the

WVI scales. Correlations between age and work values of university

students across academic levels yielded only two significant relation-

ships.

No significant correlations were found between age and career

maturity for either university students as a group or across academic

levels.

A principal-axis factor analysis with varimax rotation was com-

puted to determine the factors underlying the two main criterion

variable constructs. Although four factors emerged, the factor structure

was generally unclear as many of the scales loaded heavily on more than

one factor.

Results of the study led to several conclusions.

1. Further support for Super's developmental-sequential-life

stage theory was established, particularly in relation to the

Exploratory Stage of development.

2. Although some significant correlations were found between

career maturity and work values for university students, there is a

limitation as to the meaning of these due to the results of a principal-

axis factor analysis.

3. University females are more career mature than university

males.

Discussion of the results, implications for theory, counselor

training and practice, and further research are presented.














CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Career development theorists and practitioners have, in recent

years, noted that effective career counseling necessitates that the

counselor be aware of a wide variety of counselee characteristics. Early

vocational guidance techniques focused on counselee interests and apti-

tudes. However, modern career counseling incorporates numerous other

counselee characteristics such as self-concept (Super, Starishevsky,

Matlin, & Jordaan, 1963), needs (Roe, 1957), values (Ginzberg, 1970),

career maturity (Crites, 1961), or personality types (Holland, 1973).

The relative emphasis given to each of these types of characteristics

are dependent on the biases of the respective theorists. Suffice it to

say that career counseling is becoming increasingly more complex as

more and more personal characteristics are explored in terms of their

relevance to career development. Substantive research on these

characteristics must be conducted if practice is to keep pace with theory.

Two personal characteristics, career maturity and work values,

have received prominence primarily because of the work of Donald Super.

He theorizes career maturity to emerge at any age and views it as

"planfulness or time perspective, exploratory attitudes and behaviors,

the acquisition of information, knowledge of decision making, and reality

orientation (a late maturing aspect of career maturity including self

and situation)" (Super, 1974, p. 5). Knowledge of career maturity is











important because it allows the counselor to assess the individual's

readiness to make appropriate vocational decisions. Furthermore, this

knowledge allows the counselor to use the most appropriate counseling

interventions.

Work values, according to Super (1970), are those satisfactions

which are intrinsic in as well as those which are extrinsic to work;

the satisfactions which one seeks in a work experience as well as those

which may be the outcomes of that experience. The counselee's work

values limit and focus the vocational directions the client is presumably

willing to follow. They also have implications for the nature of the

career counseling or guidance process.

In addition to Super, a number of other authors have stated the

importance of each of these characteristics within the context of career

development and counseling (Crites, 1961; Ginzberg, Ginzberg, Axelrad,

& Herma, 1951; Tiedeman & Ohara, 1963; Zytowski, 1970). Moreover, most

of them have cited the need for additional research on both constructs.

These recommendations give rise to still another research need--the

investigation of the relationships among career maturity and work values.

Given that both of these constructs are emphasized within Super's theory

of career development, it is highly unlikely that they are independent.

Unfortunately, initial investigations aimed at clarifying the relation-

ships between these two constructs have produced conflicting and often

contradictory results (Blai, 1974; Kinnane & Pable, 1962; Wagman, 1968;

Wolfe, 1969).

Research which offers additional information about the develop-

ment of career maturity and work values and the relationships among










these constructs and personal characteristic variables has significant

implications for career guidance, education, counseling,and placement

as well as counselor education and outreach programs. If they are to

be of assistance in personal counseling and in the development of

career guidance, education,and outreach programs, career counselors and

counselor educators need to understand the developmental stages and re-

lated tasks of those with whom they work. They also need to know the

importance and functions of work values in the lives of these individuals.

Finally, they need to be aware of how career maturity and work values are

related. With this knowledge, counseling strategies and programs can

be developed which assist clients in understanding these relationships,

which help develop yet unmastered tasks, and which aid in clarifying

personal work values, thus aiding the client in the vocational decision

making process.

Research which furthers current knowledge about career maturity

and work values is particularly needed when there is a paucity of in-

formation about the related attitudes, readiness,and coping behaviors

of a specific population. Such a population is university students. It

would seem that with the current trend toward universal higher education

and the apparent need of and pressure upon university students to make

career decisions, more data would be available about this particular

stage in the career pattern. Unfortunately, comparatively little has

been written and even less investigated about the constructs of career

maturity, work values,and variables which may have effects upon these

constructs within the university student population.











Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to explore the differences and rela-

tionships among the career maturity, work values, and personal character-

istics of college students. More specifically, this study examined the

developmental differences in career maturity and the orientations of

work values across academic level classifications and between sexes of

university students. It also investigated the relationships among career

maturity, work values and age.


Rationale for the Study


The theoretical framework for this study was the career development

theory of Donald E. Super. Super (1969a) labels his orientation an

approach which he describes as "differential-development-social-phenomeno-

logical psychology" (p. 9). This approach emphasizes four major com-

ponents: career patterns, translating the self-concept into a vocational

self-concept, vocational life stages, and vocational maturity (Tolbert,

1974). The latter two elements, vocational life stages and career maturity,

are the ones upon which this particular study focused.

In Super's developmental theory, career choice is viewed as an

ongoing process from birth to old age, as opposed to a single decision

making event (Super, 1957). He proposes that an individual progresses

from one sequential life stage into the next, mastering certain

necessary tasks at each stage. Although the stages basically correspond

with chronological age, they vary from person to person and are used

more as a generalized classification system rather than an exact indica-

tor of the stage into which individuals of a particular age group will







5


fall. Based upon his research, Super delineates the sequential life

stages as (1) the Growth stage, birth to age 14; (2) the Exploratory

stage, ages 15-24; (3) the Establishment stage, ages 25-45; (4) the

Maintenance stage, ages 45-65; and (5) the Decline stage, beginning

about age 65 (Super, 1957). Two of these stages (2 & 3) are particularly

pertinent to university students.

The stages of Exploration and Establishment, ages 15-45, are the

ones during which significant developmental impact occurs. The Exploration

stage is characterized by examination of the self: needs, interests,

capacities, opportunities,and values. Both attitudinal and cognitive

aspects of the career decision making process are developing. During

the Establishment stage the process is continued as the attitudinal and

cognitive factors develop further and a career choice is either tenta-

tively or permanently made (Super, 1957, 1974; Tolbert, 1974). It is

during these stages that university students are being faced with

decisions about choices of curriculum and major. In making these deci-

sions they must be able to assess their own personal interests, attitudes,

and the cognitive factors which contribute toward a career choice.

The concept and measurement of career maturity are the outgrowths

of research in the psychology of career development. When the orienta-

tion to career development is seen as the accomplishment of a series

of vocational tasks in an orderly sequence of life stages (Super, 1957),

it becomes both theoretically and practically important to view the

individual not only in terms of his/her life stage, but also in terms

of his/her behavior in coping with the vocational developmental tasks

of this stage in comparison with the coping behaviors of others in the










same stage (Super & Forrest, 1972). Individuals who have not mastered

appropriate developmental tasks may need assistance from professionals

in the field. However, prior to such assistance, the professional

needs to be able to determine in which areas, or on what tasks, the

individual needs assistance. The assessment of career maturity facili-

tates this determination.

Much emphasis has been placed upon the importance of values in the

life of an individual (Darley & Hagenah, 1955; Morris, 1956; Rokeach,

1968; Rosenberg, 1957). More specifically, Super (1957), Ginzberg et al.

(1951) and Tiedeman and O'Hara(1963) all place importance upon the rela-

tionship of values in the career decision making process. In recent

years the construct of work values has been developed to include those

goals which motivate an individual in the area of work (Super, 1970;

Zytowski, 1970). It is proposed that persons with particular values

orientations will seek work which satisfies needs related to those

orientations. The satisfactions which an individual seeks in work,

and those which may be the outcomes of work, may have important in-

fluences both on the career choice he/she makes and on the adjustment

and success he/she experiences from work (Blai, 1964; Katz, 1969; Super,

1970).

Understanding the value orientation of an individual or of a

particular population also has implications for professionals. These

understandings are important as an aid in clarifying goals, needs, and

helping determine the psychological appropriateness of a particular

course or curriculum, choice of educational opportunities, and, in the

case of this study, a more comprehensive evaluation of the manner in










which values are patterned and emphasized by those in the Exploratory

and Establishment stages.

It has been mentioned that little has been written and less

researched about the dynamics of these stages as related to university

students. Information is available which indicates that these students

are concerned about making a career choice, are often undecided about

their choice of majors (Myers, 1972), or are dissatisfied with the

career plans they have made (Astin & Panos, 1969). This concern and

dissatisfaction is supported by the fact that university counseling

centers offering vocational counseling experiences have noted a signifi-

cant increase in demand for these services (Harman, 1973). Further

information may help alleviate these situations. Accordingly, this

study has attempted to answer the following questions in relation to

university students:

1. Do freshmen, sophomores, juniors,and seniors differ
in their respective levels of career maturity?

2. Do freshmen, sophomores, juniors,and seniors differ
in their respective work values orientations?

3. Are there differences in career maturity and work
values orientations on the basis of sex?

4. Is the variable age related to the development of
career maturity and work values orientations?

5. Are there relationships among levels of career maturity
and work values for all academic level classifications
combined.

6. What factors, if any, underlie the relationships among
career maturity and work values orientations?

In seeking to answer these questions the researcher utilized the

Adult Vocational Maturity Inventory (AVMI), Form II, (Sheppard, 1971)











to assess career maturity. To ascertain the orientation to work

values, the Work Values Inventory (WVI) (Super, 1970) was administered.

Additionally, data on the personal characteristics of sex and age was

obtained.


Definition of Terms

In order to clarify the purposes and procedures used in this study,

the following definitions were utilized throughout:

Career Development Theory--assumed the theoretical approach of Donald
E. Super. Career choice is viewed as an ongoing process wherein an
individual progresses from one sequential life stage into the next,
mastering certain necessary tasks at each stage before moving into the
next (Super, 1957).

Career Maturity/Vocational Maturity--were used synonomously. This con-
struct is theorized to emerge "at any stage and is viewed as planful-
ness or time perspective, exploratory attitudes and behaviors, the
acquisition of information, knowledge of decision making, and reality
orientation (a late maturing aspect of career maturity including self
and situation)" (Super, 1974, p. 5).

University students/College students--were used synonomously to refer
to persons enrolled for academic course work at institutions of higher
learning which offer the bachelor degree.

Work Values--those satisfactions which are extrinsic to as well as those
which are intrinsic in work; the satisfactions which may be the out-
comes of work as well as those which one seeks in a work experience
(Super, 1970).

Work Values orientation--the relative emphasis an individual places
upon those satisfactions which he/she seeks and finds in work (Super,
1970).


Outline of the Remainder of the Study


Chapter II reviews the related literature in terms of Super's

Career Development Theory, career maturity, work values, and the











personal characteristics of sex and age, and the relationship of

these variables to the two constructs.

Chapter III states the null hypotheses and describes in greater

detail the methodology, population, instrumentation, statistical

analyses,and limitations of the study.

Chapter IV presents the findings and evaluation of the study.

Analyses of data are reported and responses to the research questions

made.

Chapter V summarizes the study, offer conclusions as a result of

the findings, and makes recommendations based upon them.














CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE


The review of the literature relevant to this research is comprised

of four main sections: (1) Super's Career Development Theory, (2)

vocational life stages, (3) career maturity,and (4) work values.


Super's Career Development Theory


Super's "differential-development-social-phenomenological psy-

chology" (1969a, p. 9) views career development as one aspect of a

person's total development. Physiological and psychological character-

istics, as well as environmental conditions, have a significant in-

fluence upon the total development of the individual and thus upon

his/her career development. Super bases his career development theory

on developmental psychology, and accordingly, proposes that in the

career process individuals pass through various sequential life stages

and master appropriate developmental tasks during each stage.

On the basis of the factors described above, Super (1953) offers

ten propositions as a foundation for his theory:

1. People differ in their abilities, interests and person-
alities.

2. They are qualified, by virtue of these circumstances,
each for a number of occupations.

3. Each of these occupations requires a characteristic
pattern of abilities, interests and personality traits,
with tolerances wide enough, however, to allow both
some variety of occupations for each individual and some
variety of individuals in each occupation.

10











4. Vocational preferences and competencies, and situations
in which people live and work, and hence their self-
concepts, change with time and experience (although self-
concepts are generally fairly stable from late adolescence
until later maturity), making choice and adjustment a
continuous process.

5. This process may be summed up in a series of life
stages, characterized as those of growth, exploration,
establishment, maintenance, and decline, and these
stages may in turn be subdivided into (a) fantasy,
tentative and realistic phases of the exploratory stage,
and (b) the trial and stable phases of the establishment
stage.

6. The nature of the career pattern (that is, the occupational
level attained and the sequence, frequency, and duration of
trial and stable jobs) is determined by the individual's
parental socioeconomic level, mental ability, and personality
characteristics, and by the opportunities to which he is
exposed.

7. Development through the life stages can be guided partly
by facilitating the process of maturation of abilities
and interests and partly by aiding in reality testing and
in the development of the self-concept.

8. The process of vocational development is essentially that
of developing and implementing a self-concept; it is a
compromise process in which the self-concept is a product
of the interaction of inherited aptitudes, neural and
endocrine makeup, opportunity to play various roles, and
evaluation of the extent to which the results of role
playing meet with the approval of superiors and fellows.

9. The process of compromise between individual and social
factors, between self-concept and reality, is one of role
playing, whether the role is played in fantasy, in the
counseling interview, or in real life activities such as
school classes, clubs, part-time work, and entry jobs.

10. Work satisfaction and life satisfaction depend upon the
extent to which the individual finds adequate outlets
for his abilities, interests, personality traits, and
values; they depend upon his establishment in a type of
work, a work situation, and a way of life in which he
can play the kind of role which his growth and exploratory
experiences have led him to consider congenial and
appropriate. (pp. 189-190)











The four major elements, then, of Super's theory are (1) career

patterns, (2) translating the personal self-concept into a vocational

self-concept, (3) vocational life stages, and (4) career maturity.

The construct of work values is interwoven in each of these elements

since Super views satisfactions which are both intrinsic in and extrinsic

to work as having influences upon the total career development process

(1957, 1970).

The four elements mentioned above join together to make a compre-

hensive theory of career development wherein individuals are perceived

to have career patterns. These career patterns are established by

the vocational life stages the individuals pass through and by the

developmental tasks they master. The rate at which individuals pass

through the stages and the degree to which they master the developmental

tasks determine their career maturity. The implementation of the self-

concept into a vocational self-concept is an ongoing process in the

individual's career pattern. Numerous psychological, physiological

and environmental factors have an effect upon both the self-concept

implementation and the development and clarification of work values.

Super and his associates (Super, Crites, Hummel, Moser, Overstreet,

& Warnath, 1957; Super & Overstreet, 1960) are quite explicit in

describing the life stages and the developmental tasks. Super et al.

(1963) are equally diligent in describing the implementation of the

self-concept into a vocational self-concept, while an explanation of

the relationship of work values to the entire career development

process is not completely clear (Super, 1957). Thus, it was with the

elements of vocational life stages and career maturity and the construct

of work values that this study was specifically concerned.










Vocational Life Stages

Based upon the work done by Buehler (1933, In Super, 1957) on

psychological life styles, Super (Super, 1957; Super et al., 1957;

Super & Overstreet, 1960) developed a theoretical framework for

sequential vocational life stages. These are (1) the Growth stage,

birth to age 14; (2) the Exploratory stage, ages 15-24; (3) the

Establishment stage, ages 25-45; (4) the Maintenance stage, ages 45-

65; and (5) the Decline stage, beginning about age 65.

During the Growth stage (birth to age 14) the self-concept starts

to develop as the child matures and begins to become aware of his/her

needs. At this time "likes" are dominant and determine the individual's

goals and activities. Toward the end of this stage,awareness of

abilities develops and takes on significance.

In the Exploratory stage (ages 15-24) the individual becomes

increasingly aware of self. This is expressed in role try-outs, and

vocational exploration in school, part-time work,and leisure activities.

The Establishment stage (ages 25-45) follows wherein an occupa-

tional choice (either tentative or permanent) is made. Some changes

may be made during this stage, but generally, stabilization occurs

and a place in the world of work is maintained.

During the Decline stage (age 65-on) work activity changes with

selective participation for some and retirement for others.

Two of these vocational life stages, the Exploratory stage and

the Establishment stage, are particularly pertinent to college students.

It is during these stages that the most vocationally significant events

occur. Super et al. (1957) propose that each of these major stages is

composed of several substages.











The Exploratory stage consists of the Tentative, Transition,

and Uncommitted Trial substages. During the Tentative substage

(ages 15-17) interests, abilities, opportunities, and values are

considered. Tentative choices are made and experienced through dis-

cussion, courses, work, fantasy, and other experiences. In the

Transition substage (ages 18-21) reality factors are more seriously

considered as the individual considers the world of work, additional

training or education, thus seeking to implement a vocational self-

concept. The third substage is termed Uncommitted Trial (ages 22-24).

This is the period during which the individual, after having made an

apparently appropriate vocational choice, obtains a job and tries it

out (Osipow, 1968).

The Establishment stage is similarly subdivided into three sub-

stages. These are identified as the Committed Trail, Stabilization,

and Maintenance. During the Committed Trial substage (ages 25-30) the

"trying out" process continues. Several changes in occupational choice

may be made depending upon the appropriateness of the field of work.

During this substage a suitable occupation usually is found. The

substage which follows is Stabilization (ages 31-44). During this

phase a more secure place in the community, as well as in the world

of work, is sought. The final substage is termed Maintenance (ages

45-64). As the term implies, a secure place in the world of work has

been found. A family, an occupation, and a role have been established

and maintained (Osipow, 1968; Super et al., 1957; Tolbert, 1974).










Super (Super et al., 1963) suggests that the process of moving

through the sequential life stages occurs by means of five activities

which are termed developmental tasks. These tasks are particularly

applicable to the vocational life stages of college students. He out-

lines the attitudes and behaviors,and ages relevant to these vocational

developmental tasks as

1. Crystallization (14-18)
a. awareness of the need to crystallize
b. use of resources
c. awareness of factors to consider
d. awareness of contingencies which may affect goals
e. differentiation of interests and values
f. awareness of present-future relationships
g. formulation of generalized preference
h. consistency of preference
i. possession of information concerning the
preferred occupation
j. planning for the preferred occupation
k. wisdom of the vocational preference
2. Specification (18-21)
a. awareness of the need to specify
b. use of resources in specification
c. awareness of factors to consider
d. awareness of contingencies which may affect goals
e. differentiation of interests and values
f. awareness of present-future relationships
g. specification of a vocational preference
h. consistency of preference
i. possession of information concerning the
preferred occupation
j. planning for the preferred occupation
k. wisdom of the vocational preference
1. confidence in a specific preference
3. Implementation (21-24)
a. awareness of the need to implement preference
b. planning to implement preference
c. executing plans to qualify for entry
d. obtaining an entry job
4. Stabilization (25-35)
a. awareness of the need to stabilize
b. planning for stabilization
c. becoming qualified for a stable regular job or
accepting the inevitability of instability
d. obtaining a stable regular job or acting on
resignation to instability











5. Consolidation (35 plus)
a. awareness of the need to consolidate and advance
b. possession of information as to how to consolidate
and advance
c. planning for consolidation and advancement
d. executing consolidation and advancement plans.
(pp. 84, 88, 90, 91)

Thus college students can be expected to be engaged in any of a

variety of developmental tasks as well as to hold a wide variety of

occupational attitudes.


Career Maturity


The most comprehensive research related to career maturity has

been done by Super and his associates (Super, 1953; Super et al., 1957;

Super and Overstreet, 1960). The most illustrious of this research

is the twenty-year longitudinal Career Pattern Study (CPS) (Super &

Overstreet, 1960) which began in 1951 with a group of 142 ninth-grade

boys attending school in Middletown, New York. In this study Super

sought to evaluate his "propositions" and to test the concept of

career maturity.

For the CPS, Super identified five dimensions of vocational

maturity: (1) orientation to vocational choice, (2) information and

planning, (3) consistency of vocational preferences, (4) crystallization

of traits, and (5) wisdom of vocational preferences. Orientation to

vocational choice is assessed by determining the individual's degree

of concern for vocational problems and effective use of available

resources. Information and planning are related to the preferred

occupation and are assessed by evaluating (1) the individual's

specificity of information, (2) the degree of specificity of his/her

planning, and (3) the extent of the individual's involvement in











vocational planning activities. Consistency of vocational preferences

involves three indices, including consistency of vocational preferences

within fields, within levels, and within families (or fields and levels

combined).

Crystallization of traits had six indices: interest maturity

patterning, liking for work, concern for work rewards, vocational

independence, acceptance of responsibility for educational-vocational

planning, and patterning of work values. The last dimension, wisdom

of vocational preferences, involved indices which reflect the agreement

between ability and preferences. These indices compared measured

interests with preferences, measured interests with fantasy preferences,

occupational level of measured interests with the occupational level

of preferences and the socioeconomic accessibility of the preference

of the student.

In an extension of his earlier theory, Super (Super et al., 1963)

further developed his concept of career maturity. Osipow (1968) says

of this extension:

Vocational maturity allows the observer to assess the
rate and level of an individual's development with respect
to career matters. It is to be expected that vocationally
mature behavior will assume different shapes depending
upon the context provided by an individual's life
stage .. In view of the fluid nature of vocational
maturity, Super defined the concept normatively, in terms
of the congruence between an individual's vocational
behavior and the expected vocational behavior at that age.
The closer the correspondence between the two, the greater
the individual's vocational maturity. (p. 123)

More recently Super (1974) theorized that career maturity emerges

"at any stage and is viewed as planfulness or time perspective,

exploratory attitudes and behaviors, the acquisition of information,











knowledge of decision making, and reality orientation (a late

maturing aspect of career maturity including self and situation)"

(p. 5).

The Importance of Career Maturity

The question may be posed as to why there should be concern about

career maturity. Professionals working in the areas of career develop-

ment, career education and guidance need to know "what vocational

maturity is, how it has been defined and measured, to what other variables

it is related, and how it develops" (Super, 1974, p. 9). Super (1974)

suggests that these professionals are often faced with the following

questions:

1. When should instruction in the special disciplines
and in the various vocational and professional sub-
jects begin?

2. When should students be expected to choose between
courses leading to different types of education and
thus to different fields of work and occupations?

3. Is this student or group of students ready to make
the choices called for by the school or college
system, by the organization of the curriculum?

4. Does taking a certain course, studying a certain
unit, engaging in a certain extracurricular activity,
being enrolled in a work experience program, or being
counseled by a professional counselor in any way
affect the readiness of students to make these
decisions? (p. 9)

Super summarizes by saying, "Without a knowledge of career develop-

ment and vocational maturity there can be no such thing as genuine

career education or career guidance" (p. 9).

Harmon (1974) suggests the reasons for measuring vocational

maturity fall into three categories: (1) those associated with










counseling individuals, (2) those associated with counseling groups

of individuals, and (3) those associated with making administrative

decisions. She feels it is important to have an understanding of

the normative levels of vocational development which can be expected

from individuals of various ages. This understanding becomes especially

important when the counselor is working with a client whose "maturity

of decision making process differs from those in his age group" (p. 81).

Harmon suggests that the understanding of normative data can be used

to serve as a catalyst to discussions of mature vocational decision

making with young adult clients. Furthermore, the measurement of

vocational maturity offers diagnostic value in identifying yet un-

mastered developmental tasks which are normative for the individual's

peer group.

When working with groups of individuals, Harmon (1974) believes

the counselor may find it helpful to determine the vocational maturity

level of the group members. Understanding this maturity level will

aid the counselor in determining the needs of the group members as

well as the appropriate strategies to be used.

Counselors also can utilize the measurement of vocational

maturity to aid in administrative decision making by developing pro-

grams and curriculums appropriate for a particular target group.

Finally, they also may find vocational maturity scores useful in

evaluating the effects of individual and group counseling activities

and in evaluating the results of career courses and programs (Harmon,

1974).

Jordaan (1974) also proposes that the measurement of career

maturity is important in the development of counseling strategies.










He suggests that the versatile counselor who establishes objectives

and develops procedures to meet the individual client's needs is

able to play a variety of important roles. He states:

One role is to help clients with their present problems;
another is to anticipate, circumvent or forestall dif-
ficulties which may arise in the future; still another is
to help the client to obtain and profit from experiences
which will help him discover and develop possibilities
and potentials. The first of these roles is the remedial
or rehabilitative role, the second the preventive role,
and the third the educational and developmental roles.
A counselor employing any of the vocational maturity
measures will find himself playing one or more of
these roles, or beginning with one and progressing to
another. (p. 115)

Research seems to indicate that individuals differ in vocational

readiness similarly to the way they differ with respect to any other

human trait (Crites, 1971; Gribbons & Lohnes, 1965, 1969; Jordaan &

Heyde, 1974; Super, Kowalski, & Gotkin, 1967; Super & Overstreet,

1960). The question then, is not, "Are they ready or unready?" but,

"What are they ready for, and how ready are they?" (Jordaan, 1974,

p. 115).

In summary, knowledge of career maturity can aid in identifying

the individual's "readiness for various kinds of exploratory and

reality testing experiences and in selecting and designing experiences

which are most likely to repair deficits or build on existing strengths"

(Jordaan, 1974, p. 120). Additionally, when career maturity is measured

for large populations (e.g. a particular grade level) normative data

become available. These data are helpful in understanding individuals

in relation to their peer group, their supposed vocational life stage,

and in determining appropriate preventative and intervention strategies

for both individuals and/or for larger segments of that population.










Measurement of Career Maturity

In the last decade a number of models have been used for the

development and measurement of the construct of career maturity

(Super, 1974). The first model was based on theory and researched

in Super's Career Pattern Study of ninth grade boys (Super, 1955;

Super & Overstreet, 1960). Five basic developmental concepts and

characteristics of mature behavior (Baldwin, 1967) served as the

basis for this study:

1. Development proceeds from random, undifferentiated
activity to goal-directed, specific activity;

2. Development is in the direction of increasing aware-
ness and orientation to reality. (Baldwin's "The
mature individual cognizes the situation");

3. Development is from dependence to increasing inde-
pendence;

4. The mature individual selects a goal;

5. The mature individual's behavior is goal-directed.
(Super, 1974, p. 12)

The refinement of vocational maturity indices in the Career

Pattern Study (CPS) offered six dimensions upon which the measure

was based: (1) orientation to vocational choice, (2) information and

planning, (3) consistency of vocational preferences, (4) crystalliza-

tion of traits, (5) vocational independence, and (6) wisdom of

vocational preferences (Super, 1974, p. 13).

Based upon the CPS and subsequent research, Super and Forrest

(1972) have developed the Career Development Inventory (CDI). This instru-

ment measures three aspects of career maturity, two of which are

attitudinal and one of which is cognitive. Scale A, Planning

Orientation, deals with Concern With Choice, Specificity of Planning,










and Self-estimated Amount of Occupational Information. Scale B,

Resources for Exploration, requires a self-rated evaluation of

resources for use in planning. Scale C, Information and Decision

Making, assesses the individual's possession of occupational informa-

tion and his/her knowledge of how to integrate occupational and

personal information into educational and vocational decisions (Forrest

& Thompson, 1974).

Crites (1965, 1974) also has developed an instrument which is

derived from Super's CPS. Formerly entitled the Vocational Development

Inventory, this instrument is now known as the Career Maturity

Inventory (CMI). It was constructed to measure two factors: (1)

Career Attitudes and (2) Career Choice Competencies. The Attitude

Scale, which has been used extensively, "was conceived to elicit the

attitudinal or dispositional response tendencies in (career) maturity

which are non-intellective in nature, but which may mediate both

choice behaviors and choice (competencies)" (Crites, 1965, p. 7). As

a complement to the Attitude Scale, the Competence Test of the CMI

was designed "to quantify what might be designated as comprehension

and problem-solving abilities as they pertain to the career (choice)

process" (Crites, 1965, p. 7).

A third instrument, the Adult Vocational Maturity Inventory

(AVMI) was developed by Sheppard in 1971. This instrument is based

on the developmental theory and research of Super and on Crites' CMI.

The AVMI was designed to assess "the attitudes an individual has when

he is selecting a vocation" (Sheppard, 1971, p. 400). These attitudes

are identified as (1) Involvement in the vocational choice process,










(2) Orientation toward work, (3) Independence in decision making,

(4) Preference for vocational choice factors, and (5) Conceptions

of the choice process.

Westbrook and Parry-Hill (1973) also have developed an instru-

ment for assessing career maturity. The Cognitive Vocational Maturity

Test (CVMT) is unique in that it measures only constructs which are

considered to be cognitive in nature. Based upon much of Crites'

(1965) research and the CMI, the CVMT inventories career maturity in

six areas: (1) Fields of Work, (2) Job Selection, (3) Work Conditions,

(4) Education Required, (5) Attributes Required, and (6) Duties.

The aforementioned career maturity inventories are the ones

which have been developed more recently and which are most frequently

in current use. These inventories offer a variety of theoretical

rationales and approaches to the assessment of career maturity. Two

of these instruments (CDI, CMI) have both attitudinal and cognitive

orientations. Of the remaining two, one (AVMI) is strictly attitudinal

and the other (CVMT) is strictly cognitive. Additionally, all except

one, the AVMI, were developed originally for use with pre-adolescent

and adolescent subjects. Although the CMI has been used with some

post-secondary students and the CDI has a new unstandardized college

form, neither are particularly oriented to this age group. The AVMI

was developed specifically for use with adults. Because of this fact,

and also because of its simplistic nature and ease of administration,

it was chosen for use in this study.

Career Maturity and Personal Characteristics

Career Maturity and Age. As was previously stated, the construct

of career maturity is based on developmental theory and thus upon the










movement of an individual through sequential life stages. Thus, one

might assume that as a person increases in chronological age his/her

level of career maturity increases. However, research indicates that

career maturity is related more to grade level and the similarity

of experiences than actual chronological age (Crites, 1965; Super &

Forrest, 1972; Super & Overstreet 1960). For example, Crites' (1965)

validation sample for the CMI Attitude Scale was done with 2,822 students

in grades 5-12. He found that grade level provided greater differentia-

tion along the time dimension than age groupings. Additionally,Crites

(1974) reported that students who are college preparatory majors

were more career mature than vocational-technical students. Moreover,

among the vocational-technical students, those who were more advanced

in school were more career mature.

Westbrook and Mastie (1974) found similar results. For the CMVT

standardization sample, they assessed the cognitive vocational

maturity of 7,367 North Carolina public school pupils enrolled in a

state wide career exploration program. The results of this study

indicated an increase in mean scores with an increase in grade level

for all six of the cognitive variables.

It seems apparent that there is some confusion as to the rela-

tionships of the variables of age, grade level, and career maturity.

Some authors would differentiate between the two variables, while

others make no differentiation.

Super and Forrest (1972) state, "An important characteristic for

an age-related, developmental variable is its evidence of increase

with age and experience. Within groups of similar age, scores should

be relatively stable over short periods of time, but they should











increase across age groups" (p. 24). The authors reported that in

their study of eighth, tenth, and twelfth grade students, the mean

scores on the two attitudinal and one cognitive scale, and the total

score, all increased uniformly with increase in grade level. They ap-

parently equated age with grade level.

In the CPS, Super and Overstreet (1960) found career maturity

to be related to other variables (e.g. intelligence) and age was

of lesser importance, at least at the ninth grade stage of development.

Osipow (1968) seeks to explain this situation:

Of course, grade placement reflects greater homogeneity
of experience than does age, since school experiences
are structured, and consequently, grade placement implies
a commonality of experience not necessarily present as a
function of chronological age. (p. 131)

Finally, two other studies (Keith, 1976; Sheppard, 1971) reported

no relationships between the level of career maturity and age. Keith

assessed the career maturity of native university students and

community college transfer students. Sheppard used the AVMI with

three different adult groups: graduate students, vocational trainees,

and unemployed males. The median age of the vocational trainees and

graduate students was 30-39, while the median age of the unemployed

group was 40-49. Sheppard reported the results of age analysis showed

no significant differences in career maturity mean scores between

younger and older subjects. Additionally, educational level analysis

showed no difference in career maturity for those with less than a

high school education and for those who had finished their secondary

education. Sheppard (1971) explains this: "In any large heterogeneous

sample of adults there are individuals who represent all levels of the











maturity continuum. If differences are examined in measured occupa-

tional maturity for age level groups, then no differences would be

expected" (p. 4).

The relationship between career maturity and age is quite unclear.

There seems to be some indication that career maturity and grade level

are related; this may possibly be due to the homogeneity of experience.

This study investigated the relationship between these two variables.

Career Maturity and Sex. One of the major concepts in the theory

underlying Super's CPS was vocational life stages (Super & Overstreet,

1960). This study was done with ninth grade boys. The question arises

as to whether the stages, and the concept of career maturity, are

equally as applicable to females. In a culture such as ours (i.e.

where for generations emphasis upon vocational choice has been male

oriented; where females have often automatically assumed a career in

the home) one might assume a difference in the career maturity level

for women at any given vocational life stage. Osipow (1968), in

support of this assumption, suggests that present theories and con-

structs for explaining the career development of women are inadequate.

Richardson (1974) has no argument with the developmental concepts

upon which the theory of vocational maturity is based, but views the

career development of women to be distinctly different from that of

men. She states:

Maturity for men and women both would seem to imply
goal directed behavior, increasing awareness and orienta-
tion to reality, and increasing independence. However,
the development stages within which the vocationally
relevant tasks and corresponding indices of coping behavior
were identified are defined solely with respect to educa-
tional and occupational referents. The parameters of










the vocational maturity models are the life stages and
coping behaviors involved in the development of a career
role in the occupational world, a process of development
which is more continuous for men than for women. (p. 137)

Richardson (1974) points out that the female career development

process involves both role development in the occupational world and

role development in the more traditional homemaking world. The cur-

rent formulation of career maturity for females is limited to the

former aspect of career development. Additionally, she states:

The life stages of exploration and establishment with
their corresponding substages roughly correspond to
adolescence and young adulthood. In the current models
of vocational maturity the focus is on exploration and
establishment in the occupational world. A model of
vocational maturity and career development that would
fit women would need to modify the definitions of the
stages to attach more importance to exploration and
establishment in the traditional aspects of the adult
female role--that of wife and mother. The variety of
patterns of female participation in the working world
diverges sharply from male patterns with increasing
age (the manifest similarity between the male and female
career process decreases) as women deal with the develop-
mental tasks associated with the two major aspects of
their role development. Not only are there two sets of
developmental tasks and associated coping behaviors for
women but also the important developmental task of
integrating the two aspects of the adult female role.
(p. 137-138)

Richardson (1974) cites the work done by Douvan and Adelson (1966)

to support her perspective. Their research indicated that the

adolescent identity development of boys was organized around the issue

of their occupational future. On the other hand, the identity develop-

ment of girls seemed focused on the feminine role, of which occupational

plans were simply an expression.

Research to date presents conflicting evidence in terms of sex

differences in the measures of career maturity. Crites (1965), using










the VDI, reported that boys and girls obtained similar vocational

maturity scores. Other researchers have found statistically signifi-

cant sex differences. On the CDI girls were found to be superior on

scales B and C (Resources for Exploration and Information and Decision

Making) while on Scale A (Planning Orientation) there was no difference

(Davis, Hagan, & Strauf, 1962; Smith & Herr, 1972). Super and Forrest

(1972) reported that in a study with 200 boys and 200 girls there were

no sex differences in career maturity on the basis of sex.

Richardson (1974) views the absence of sex differences on voca-

tional inventories to be relatively unimportant. She supports this

view by explaining that a high level of similarity between career

maturity scores of boys and girls might be expected because of the

sophistication of the instruments and the similarity of the career

process for both sexes during the school years. She suggests that

counselors use care in interpreting the meaning of vocational maturity

scores when working with females. Additionally, she recommends voca-

tional maturity instruments be used "only in conjunction with a separate

measure of sex-role attitudes or career orientation" (p. 140).

In summary, the concept of career maturity is based on extensive,

supportive research. There are a number of factors which determine

the vocationally mature individual. The assessment of career maturity

can be useful in determining which factors individuals need help in

developing. This information can be used in counseling individuals

and groups and in developing strategies and programs. The research

is somewhat unclear as to how the personal characteristics of age

and sex relate to the level of career maturity. Thus, in interpreting










the significance of the measure of career maturity, counselors

must be careful to consider a number of variables.


Work Values

The concept of work values is based on the literature and research

on personal values. Values may be viewed as the qualities which

individuals desire and seek in the activities in which they engage,

in the situations in which they live, and in the objects which they

make or acquire. "Values are related to interests, but differ in

that they are the qualities sought rather than the activities or objects

which embody them: they are thus more fundamental" (Super, 1970, p. 4).

Work values, then, are a subset of personal values. They are

the goals which motivate people to work. Work values may be viewed

as intrinsic (those satisfactions which individuals seek in their

work) or extrinsic (those satisfactions which may be the outcomes of

that work) (Super, 1970). Zytowski (1970) suggests that work values

are "a set of concepts which mediate between the person's affective

orientation and classes of external objects offering similar satis-

factions" (p. 170). Additionally, Katz (1969) perceives work values

to be related to feelings about results or outcomes, such as the

purpose or importance of an activity. He states:

If there is a single synthesizing element that orders,
arranges, and unifies that ties together an
individual's perceptions of cultural promptings, motivating
needs, mediating symbols, differentiating characteristics,
and sense of resolution, that relates perception to self-
concept, and that accounts more directly for a particular
decision or for a mode of choosing, it is the
individual's value system. (p. 16)










Work Values and Career Development Theory

The concept of work values is an integral part of Super's

career development theory and one of the indices of career maturity.

He proposes that work satisfaction and life satisfaction are related

to the degree to which an individual is able to find outlets for his

personality traits, abilities, interests and values. Work satisfaction

depends upon the individual's finding an occupation in which he/she can

"play the kind of role which his [her] growth and exploratory experiences

have led him [her] to consider congenial and appropriate" (Super, 1953,

p. 186). Thus those values which are perceived to be of personal im-

portance and those values which have been developed as a result of

family and peer relations and extraneous experiences,will influence the

choice of vocation and the satisfactions which are derived from it.

It is during the Exploratory stage that individuals begin to

become aware of their value system. It is also during this stage that

the self-concept begins to emerge. Through exploration of "self" in

the home, school and in part-time work, values become somewhat clarified

and the implementation of the self-concept into a vocational self-con-

cept begins to occur.

In the Establishment stage an occupational decision is either

tentatively or permanently made. Much of the appropriateness or

suitability of a particular choice is dependent upon the satisfactions

which are derived from the work experience. These satisfactions are

closely tied with the individual's needs and value system. Theoretically,

by the time people reach this stage they have a higher level of career

maturity and their values are better clarified and more crystallized.










The Measurement of Work Values

Several inventories of work values have been constructed specif-

ically for use in counseling and prediction.

Hammond (1954, 1956) developed the Occupational Attitudes Rating

Scales by asking college students what they wished to gain from their

occupations. From their responses, two successive factor analyses

yielded four factors: (1) Materialistic-economic status need, (2)

Competitive personal status need, (3) Technical-structure need, and

(4) Humanitarian-acceptance need. College freshmen who scored high

on factor 1 had business, law,and pharmacy as career goals; those

high on factor 2 had career goals of journalism, dramatics, radio,

and advertising; those high on factor 3 had career goals of natural

sciences, engineering,and optometry; and those high on factor 4 had

social science, medicine,and social work as career goals.

Weiss, Dawis, England, and Lofquist (1964) developed the Minnesota

Importance Questionnaire (MIQ) to measure vocational needs as corol-

laries of the dimensions of job satisfaction. Factor analysis yielded

two factors: (1) reinforcers usually found in the work setting (in-

trinsic) and, (2) a status-need dimension with reinforcers usually

accompanying a high position in society. Thorndike, Weiss, and Dawis

(1967) reported a correlational analysis of the MIQ and the Strong

Vocational Interest Blank (SVIB) (Strong & Campbell, 1966) scales for

groups of college students and vocational rehabilitation clients. A

high degree of relationship between interests and work needs was

present for both groups, but the pattern of weighted scales was quite

different. The authors attribute this condition to differences in










homogeneity of experiences in the two groups. Even so, they proposed

that interests as measured by the SVIB and vocational needs as

measured by the MIQ can be regarded as belonging to the same class

of variables.

The Vocational Values Inventory (VVI) was developed by Stefflre

to assess the value orientations of (1) Security, (2) Prestige, (3)

Money, (4) Control, (5) Job freedom, (6) Altruism, and (7) Self-realiza-

tion. Singer and Stefflre (1954a) studied high school students'

responses when asked to name the three most important factors in

choosing a job. In comparison with data from Centers' (1948) study

with adults, they (Singer & Stefflre, 1954a) found that adolescents

had a tendency to value money, fame, and interesting experience more

than adults, whereas adults valued independence more than adolescents.

Super (1970) developed the Work Values Inventory in conjunction

with his CPS. It measures 15 values constructs (see figure) and yields

15 scale scores. Ivey (1963) suspected correlations with the Kuder

interest scales and the WVI. While he found fewer significant rela-

tionships than expected, he observed some systematic relationships.

He proposed that though interests determine the direction of the career,

values affect satisfaction with a given position. O'Hara and Tiedeman

(1959) studied the accuracy of self-concept with increasing age using

the WVI. They found that self-estimated work values increased in agree-

ment with measured work values over the high school years more sharply

than ability and social class, but not so well as interest or general

values.

Various authors have proposed a number of work values as im-

portant. The figure, Taxonomy of Work Values (Zytowski, 1970, p. 182),





















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lists the measured values of the various instruments discussed above

plus those of Rosenberg (1957) and Schaffer (1953) and the satisfiers

and dissatisfiers of Herzberg, (1959). Zytowski (1970) discusses this

taxonomy of work values:

All six authors include some variation of security,
prestige, and economic return. These plus advancement
and recognition might be called "extrinsic factors,"
representing the outcomes of work, as contrasted with
the means. Starting with surroundings and ending at
supervision might be the category of concomitants .
The values between associates and altruism tap the
range of relationship with people on the job, but the
factors starting with independence through to the end
of the list are likely all part of the job itself, or
intrinsic factors, rather than extrinsic or outcomes
of work. (p. 183)

He further observes that some value orientations are unique to a single

author and have no counterpart in one or more other authors' value

schemes. Nonetheless, "there is substantial agreement of 12 to 15 value

categories, and this set may be taken as fundamental" (Zytowski, 1970,

p. 183).

All of the inventories discussed above have been constructed

explicitly for purposes of counseling and prediction (Zytowski, 1970).

Most of the authors would agree that work values are related to moti-

vation to work and satisfaction of needs. However, there is some

discrepancy in agreement as to how many and which work values should

be assessed. Based on Super's (1957) career development theory, the

WVI is well known and widely used. The items, and thus the constructs,

are quite suitable for use with college students (Super, 1970). As

this study was based on Super's theory, and it examined the values of

college students, the choice of the WVI was quite appropriate.










Work Values and Personal Characteristics

Work Values and Age. The relationships of work values and age

have been studied by a number of researchers. Gribbons and Lohnes

(1965) conducted a longitudinal study of boys and girls beginning in

the eighth grade. These students were interviewed at the beginning of

the eighth grade and again in the tenth and twelfth grades. The

researchers reported there was some constancy of work values, but there

was a predominant trend from "idealism" to "realism" in the students'

choice of work values.

Hales and Fenner (1972) used the Ohio Work Values Inventory to

study fifth, eighth,and eleventh graders. They reported a similarity

in the work values in each of the three grades. The implication was

that even though there are many physiological and psychological changes

taking place at this time, the work values of students in this develop-

mental phase do not change to a great degree.

Wagman (1965) assessed the work values of university students,

using Centers' Job Values and Desires Questionnaire. He then compared

his results with a study of high school students and adults done by

Singer and Stefflre (1954a, 1954b). The results 6f Wagman's study

related to both age and sex are

1. University men prefer esteem; university women value social service.

2. High school girls have a preference for security and independence;

university women value interesting experiences.

3. University men prefer interesting experiences, leadership and

esteem; high school boys prefer job security and independence.










"Differences in grade groups can be expected to reflect, to a

high degree, whatever age differences might exist" (Super, 1970, p. 40).

The WVI was used by Hana (1954) to demonstrate a lack of grade and age

difference in the values of junior and senior high school students.

In the WVI standardization sample with 7th and 12th grade girls and

boys, Super (1970) reported no practical differences in choice of

values. Boys and girls seemed to show a slight decrease on the Altruism

and Esthetic scales as they progress from 7th to 12th grade. Girls had

a slight decrease on the Management and Creativity scales between

grades 7 and 12, while they increased on Achievement slightly. According

to Super, none of the changes had any practical value.

In summary, work values orientations do not seem to differ across

grade school levels. As students mature,changes in orientation to

values seem to occur, but the time and direction are not clear.

Work Values and Sex. Several studies have been done on the

relationships of work values and sex. In their longitudinal study,

Gribbons and Lohnes (1965) found a difference in preferences for

particular values between the sexes. Girls valued personal contact

and social service whereas boys had a preference for salary and prestige.

Even though some differences were found, Gribbons and Lohnes found more

similarities than differences in the work values orientations of boys

and girls.

In a study of the work values of high school students, Thompson

(1966) found that males placed higher emphasis on high pay, leadership

and recognition, while females had a preference for self-expression and

social service.








As part of the standardization sample for the WVI, Super (1970)

compared the scores of 7th and 12th grade boys and girls. In the 7th

grade, there was virtually no difference in scores between the sexes

on any of the 15 scales. In the 12th grade, boys tended to make

slightly higher scores on the Economic Returns, Independence, and

Management scales. Girls scored slightly higher on the Altruism and

Achievement scales. Differences between the sexes was slight and not

clear cut. For the two sexes there was considerable overlap on each

value scale.

Richardson's (1974) viewpoint relative to the differences in the

career development process of men and women has already been dis-

cussed. From this discussion, it might be reasoned that women, who

are most often simultaneously involved in two career development pro-

cesses, will have their own unique value orientations and, at the same

time, experience similarities with men.

In summary, during the mid-school years there seems to be little

difference in work values on the basis of sex. As individuals mature

work values become more differentiated with males emphasizing more occu-

pationally oriented values (e.g. leadership, economic returns) and

females emphasizing more traditionally feminine (e.g. altruism, social

service) values. Females may also choose the more vocationally oriented

values. This study examined the work value orientations of college males

and females in an effort to determine possible patterns and differences.


Career Maturity and Work Values

Although the construct of career maturity and the concept of work

values orientation are important factors in an individual's development,










little research has been done to determine if and how they relate.

Two recent studies are pertinent to this topic.

Miller (1974) investigated the relationships of career maturity

to work values using a population of 62 subjects enrolled in a remedial

reading class at a community college. He proposed that (1) career

maturity is positively related to differentiation of work values within

subjects, and (2) career maturity is positively associated with intrinsic

work values and negatively associated with extrinsic work values.

Miller used Werner's (1948) postulate that psychological and biological

development progresses from undifferentiated global states to differenti-

ated patterned states as a basis for his first hypothesis. Miller's

second hypothesis was based on the vocational development literature

which asserts that in the vocational maturation process, "adolescents

and young adults become increasingly task oriented" (p. 367).

Using these rationales, Miller tested his hypotheses by administer-

ing the WVI and the VDI-Attitude Scale to 24 males and 38 females.

Based on item content and the WVI manual, the 15 value scales were

categorized as either: (1) Intrinsic work values--Achievement, Altruism,

Creativity, Esthetics, Intellectual Stimulation, and Management; or

(2) Extrinsic work values--Associates, Economic Returns, Independence,

Prestige, Security, Supervisory Relations, Surroundings, Variety, and

Way of Life. The results of his study indicated that vocational maturity

is positively related to differentiation of work values for females

but not for males. Additionally he found that "none of the intrinsic

work values were positively associated with vocational maturity for

males, while for females, two intrinsic work values were positively

associated with vocational maturity: Achievement and Creativity"










(p. 369). In terms of extrinsic work values, all correlations were

in the predicted direction for both females and males, although

few were significant. Thus, the more vocationally mature female has

a better differentiation of work values. Although results did not

reach statistical significance for males, the correlation between

within subject variance of work values and career maturity was positive,

as Miller had hypothesized.

Miller also found that the males were both younger than the

females and slightly less vocationally mature. He suggested that this

may account for the nonsignificant correlation between career maturity

and intra-subject work values variance among the males. He states,

"Nevertheless, the results of testing the first hypothesis suggest

that the process of vocational maturation involves the development

of work values which proceed from global to a differentiated structure"

(p. 370).

In another study, Walls and Gulkus (1974) tested the relationships

of job reinforcers, occupational values and career maturity with

207 vocational rehabilitation clients and 59 graduate students. The

AVMI (Sheppard, 1971) was used to assess career maturity, while the

Minnesota Job Description Questionnaire (Borgen, Weiss, Tinsley, Dawis,

& Lofquist, 1968) was used to evaluate job reinforcers. The occupational

values examined were those which were used by Fretz (1972).

The authors hypothesized that (1) the AVMI would differentiate

between vocational rehabilitation clients and graduate students, with

the latter having greater career maturity; (2) those subjects having

high career maturity would value independence, security, opportunity










to use special talents, challenge and self-satisfaction. Additionally,

individuals who would be low in career maturity would consider the

following values important: telling other workers what to do, having

the position of "somebody" in the community, and prestige.

Results supported the first hypothesis with subjects who (1)

were below 21 years of age, (2) had less than a twelfth grade education,

and (3) were vocational rehabilitation clients. All subjects falling

in these three categories were significantly less career mature than

the graduate students. Additionally, the researchers found that males

and females did not differ in levels of career maturity.

In investigating the relationships between occupational values

and career maturity, Walls and Gulkus found that subjects who considered

independence, opportunity to use special talents, challenge, and self-

satisfaction important were significantly more vocationally mature

than those who ranked those values as low in importance. In contrast,

subjects who saw pay received, security, prestige, and advancement as

highly important were significantly less vocationally mature.

The authors viewed implications of their findings to be in support

of (1) the vocational maturity construct and (2) the idea that occupa-

tional attitudes may be used to estimate or represent a person's rate

or degree of vocational development.

In summary Walls and Gulkus (1974) state:

If vocational attitudes and behaviors develop over time
through processes of growth and learning, the behavioral
repertoire should become increasingly reality oriented
(Super & Overstreet, 1960). For individuals who have had
limited learning opportunities, basic concerns such as
high salary, prestige and telling others what to do are











to be reasonably expected. Persons who have developed
an extensive behavioral repertoire, through learning
to meet the characteristic demands of vocational
developmental tasks, are able to seek personal rather
than public accomplishment, and to use special talents
to gain the self-satisfaction associated with successfully
meeting a challenge. Does a given client have sufficient
occupation-oriented maturity to be able to deal adequately
with required choice-making tasks? Presumably, vocational
counselors would be in a better position to facilitate the
process if they were able to answer this question.
Additional work is required to provide normative and
adjunct information contributing to validity of the
vocational maturity construct and to test its utility in
analysis of adult vocational behavior. (p. 331)

Although Miller (1974) and Walls and Gulkus (1974) used different

instruments for measuring both career maturity and work values, their

findings are quite similar. From these results it may be at least

tentatively concluded that (1) vocational maturity is a valid construct,

and (2) there is a relationship, although not precise, between the

orientation to work values and career maturity. It would seem, as

Walls and Gulkus suggest, that the more career mature individual places

more importance upon intrinsic career values as opposed to extrinsic

values. This study offered more information on the subject.


Summary


Super's career development theory views vocational choice as an

ongoing process from birth to old age. Individuals pass through

sequential life stages and must master certain vocational development

tasks during each stage. Psychological, physiological and environmental

conditions have important influences upon this process. It is during

the Exploratory and Establishment stages that the most vocationally

significant events occur. Five developmental tasks are particularly











pertinent to these two stages: (1) Crystallization, (2) Specifica-

tion, (3) Implementation, (4) Stabilization,and (5) Consolidation.

Career maturity is a construct which was developed to evaluate

the individual's rate and level of career development. It is present

at any time in the life of an individual and "is viewed as planfulness

or time perspective, exploratory attitudes and behaviors, the acquisi-

tion of information, knowledge of decision making, and reality orienta-

tion" (Super, 1974, p. 5). An individual's level of career maturity

is evaluated in terms of his/her particular life stage. The assessment

of career maturity can be useful in helping people develop yet un-

mastered tasks which are age-and-stage appropriate.

Instruments for assessing career maturity have been discussed.

One of these instruments is strictly attitudinal, one is strictly

cognitive, others are both attitudinal and cognitive in orientation.

Work values are viewed as those factors which motivate people to

work. They may be either intrinsic (satisfactions sought from the

work itself) or extrinsic (satisfactions which may be the outcomes of

work).

Work values are considered to play an important part in the career

choice process. It is during the stages of Exploration and Establishment

that they become defined and crystallized for the individual.

While Super well delineates the vocational life stages and the

necessary developmental tasks during each, he does not thoroughly dis-

cuss the development of work values. In his theory, these values are

integrated with the concept of the implementation of a self-concept into

a vocational self-concept. Exactly how this integration occurs is unclear.










Several work values inventories were discussed. Super's WVI

was chosen for use in this study because of the extensive research

already done with it and because it is based solely on his theoretical

framework.

The relationships of career maturity, work values,and the personal

characteristics of age and sex were discussed. Although studies by

Miller (1974) and Walls and Gulkus (1974) seemed to indicate a relation-

ship between career maturity and work values, it is yet unclear as to

the relationships of these two variables,and the personal characteristics

of age and sex in regard to the college student population. There are

no data reported in the literature about this specific population.

This study investigated these relationships in terms of colTege students.














CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


The significance of the constructs of vocational life stages,

career maturity, and work values in career development theory have

been established by previous research. The literature suggests that

these constructs, along with certain personal characteristics, may

have important consequences in the career choice process.

This study investigated differences in career maturity and work

values across academic levels, and for all groups combined, with a

sample drawn from freshmen, sophomores, juniors,and seniors at the

University of Florida. Additionally, this study examined the differ-

ences in career maturity and work values on the basis of sex. It also

explored the relationships of career maturity, work values,and age.

The Adult Vocational Maturity Inventory (AVMI), Form II (Sheppard,

1971), and the Work Values Inventory (WVI) (Super, 1970) were adminis-

tered to a population of 448 University of Florida students from the

four undergraduate academic level classifications. Additionally,

information as to age and sex of the subjects was obtained.

The remainder of this chapter will detail the following aspects

of the research methodology: (1) research approach and null hypotheses,

(2) instrumentation, (3) the sampling procedure, (4) data analyses, and

(5) limitations of the study.










The Research Approach and Hypotheses


The nature of this study was descriptive and developmental using

a cross-sectional approach (Issac & Michael, 1971) to determine the

relationships between the two main criterion variables, career maturity

and work values. The relationship of the independent personal charac-

teristic variable of age to the two main criterion variables was

examined. Additionally, the differences in the two main criterion

variables on the bases of academic level classification and sex were

investigated.

The following null hypotheses were tested:

H01: There are no differences in the career maturity
of university students on the basis of academic level
classification.

H02: There are no differences in the career maturity
of university students on the basis of sex.

H03: There are no differences in the work values of
university students on the basis of academic level
classification.

H04: There are no differences in the work values of
university students on the basis of sex.

H05: There are no relationships between career maturity
and work values of university students.

H06: There are no relationships between career maturity
and work values of university students across academic
level classifications.

H07: There is no relationship between age and work values
of university students.

H08: There is no relationship between age and work values
of university students on the basis of academic level
classification.

H09: There is no relationship between age and career
maturity of university students











H010: There is no relationship between age and career
maturity of university students on the basis of
academic level classification.


Instrumentation


The Adult Vocational Maturity Inventory, Form II

The Adult Vocational Maturity Inventory (AVMI), Form II, was

developed by David I. Sheppard (1971) in answer to the need for an

inventory which would assess the vocational maturity levels of adults.

Based upon the developmental theoretical orientations of Super (1953,

1957), Super and Overstreet (1960), and Tiedeman (1961), Sheppard

sought to design an instrument which would assess the occupational

attitudes of post-adolescent individuals who are in the process of

selecting a career. He identified these attitudes by the following

dimensions: "(1) Involvement in the vocational choice process, (2)

Orientation toward work, (3) Independence in decision-making, (4)

Preference for vocational choice factors, (5) Conceptions of the

choice process" (Sheppard, 1971, pp. 400-401). A copy of the AVMI

is shown in Appendix C.

The AVMI, Form II, is a 40-item inventory with a five-point Likert

type response format which yields one total score. Responses are

weighted from 1-5, with Strongly Agree = 5; Agree = 4; Neutral = 3;

Disagree = 2; and Strongly Disagree = 1. Thus possible scores range

from 40-200 with a lower score indicating a higher level of career

maturity.

Two types of initial validity information were provided by

Sheppard (1971). First, the 40 items used were selected on the basis










of item analyses from an original pool of 60 items. Second, Sheppard

found significant differences in the AVMI scores of three criterion

groups: graduate students, unemployed males, and vocational trainees.

Additionally, support for the construct validity of the AVMI was

provided by Walls and Gulkus (1974) who found significant and

directionally appropriate correlations with measures of occupational

reinforcers. Finally, empirical support for the AVMI construct

validity was provided by a recent factor analysis (Loesch, Shub &

Rucker, 1977).

The AVMI has several other positive psychometric properties.

Sheppard (1971) reported an internal consistency (Spearman-Brown

correction) reliability coefficient of .84. Both studies, done by

Walls and Gulkus (1974) and Loesch, Shub and Rucker (1977), found no

significant differences in the AVMI scores on the basis of sex. Finally,

Sheppard (1971), using a chi-square goodness-of-fit test, demonstrated

that AVMI scores are normally distributed within relatively homo-

geneous groups.


The Work Values Inventory

The Work Values Inventory (WVI) (Super, 1970) was developed by

Super as a "means of assessing the goals which motivate man to work"

(1970, p. 4). It purports to measure values which are intrinsic in

work as well as those which are extrinsic to work (i.e. those satis-

factions which individuals seek in work and those which are the con-

comitants of work).

The literature on values and job satisfactions provided the

source and basis for the original trial items. These items were refined










by means of tape-recorded interviews, essays, card sorts, item

and factor analyses, and then examined for test-retest reliability.

The refined instrument currently in use measures 15 value constructs:

(1) Altruism, (2) Esthetic, (3) Creativity, (4) Intellectual Stimula-

tion, (5) Achievement, (6) Independence, (7) Prestige, (8) Management,

(9) Economic Returns, (10) Security, (11) Surroundings, (12) Super-

visory Relations, (13) Associates, (14) Way of Life, and (15) Variety.

(Appendix D offers an interpretation of the 15 work value constructs

on the WVI.) The inventory yields 15 scale scores, one for each value

construct. It contains 45 items, with three items contributing to

each of the 15 scores. The WVI is a self-report rating instrument

with a five-point Likert type response format. Subjects are requested

to respond to statements in terms of their importance with: 5 = Very

Important; 4 = Important; 3 = Moderately Important; 2 = Of Little

Importance; 1 = Unimportant.

Test-retest reliability on 99 tenth grade students over a two

week period ranged from .74 to .88 with a median of .83. In a review

of the WVI, French (1971) evaluated these reliability figures as

reasonable and particularly good for three-item scales. Tiedeman's

(1974) review for The Seventh Mental Measurements Yearbook states that

the "respectable size of these correlations for three-item tests sug-

gests that the claimed selection of items on the basis of their

homogeneity indexes was actually quite adequately achieved" (p. 1479).

Super (1970) acknowledges there are some intercorrelations

among the 15 scales, and suggests that this condition is not uncommon

for scales which are logically developed and derived from theory and










research and then refined by internal consistency methods. However,

of the possible 105 intercorrelations, few have been found to have

high correlations.

The manual for the WVI (Super, 1970) discusses the construct,

content, and concurrent validities of the instrument. In attempting

to determine construct validity Super first asks the question, "

are the variables which the WVI seeks to measure meaningful when

viewed in the light of psychological theory?" (p. 35). A number of

the values inventoried by the WVI were developed from the Allport-

Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values (AVL) (Allport, Vernon & Lindzey, 1960)

and Spranger's theory upon which this instrument is based. Research

indicates that the AVL has validated that theory (Super, 1970). Other

assessed values were derived from the research on job satisfaction and

morale and the theorizing (backed up by relevant research findings)

of Darley and Hagenah (1955), Fryer (1931), Ginzberg et al. (1951),

and Super (1957).

Content validity for the WVI is based upon the self-report

method. Items were field tested using card-sorts, labelling experi-

ments, and essays by subjects. Finally, Super (1970) states, "The

case for content validity of the WVI rests, then, on the phrasing of

items in the light of their comprehension by teenagers and young

adults. It is supported further by the relative independence of

the scales ." (p. 39).

Although there is some theoretical information contained in the

manual related to concurrent validity, there is little evidence to

support this type of validity for the newer form of the WVI. Even so











Tiedeman (1972) feels that the inventory does offer ". concurrent
results with outside criteria in accord with expectations, although

results are not markedly different, merely statistically so" (p. 1479).

Normative data are good for grades 7-12 as they were carefully

developed using a representative sample of the nation and then adjusted

according to the proportions of cases in each of several categories

(Tiedeman, 1972). Unfortunately, there are no normative data available

for university students.

Tiedeman (1972) indicates that the instrument is basically a good

one with a solid base and meets some of the necessary criteria for

a useful inventory.


The Sampling Procedure


An attempt was made to obtain 100 subjects from each academic

level classification who were currently enrolled during the Spring

and Summer Quarters, 1977, at the University of Florida. However,

due to time constraints and difficulty in finding classes which were

composed of predominantly sophomores and juniors, the smallest group

(sophomores) contained 61 subjects. It should be noted that this

number exceeded the minimum of 60 per academic level classification

which was originally proposed and considered acceptable for the purposes

of this study. Table One, in Chapter IV, offers a breakdown of the

sample by academic level classification and sex.

The sample was drawn primarily from the Colleges of Arts and

Sciences, Business Administration, Education, Journalism, and the

University College. The choice of colleges was made by the researcher











and based upon the official undergraduate enrollment figures from

the University of Florida Registrar's Office. These colleges were

selected because of (1) their larger enrollments and (2) the prob-

ability that this particular combination would yield a more nearly

equal distribution of males and females in the total sample. As

Table One (Chapter IV) indicates, the yield was 216 females and 232

males. The research proposal indicated that there would not be an

attempt to obtain an equal number of subjects from each college, since

selection of classes would be dependent upon accessibility to both

classes in progress and available subjects in these classes.

Data collection was accomplished by the researcher visiting

classes in session during the Spring and Summer Quarters, 1977. Selec-

tion of these classes was based upon the probable academic level

classification of the majority of students taking the course. For

example, a 400-level course was assumed to have mostly seniors, a

300-level course, mostly juniors. Selection of classes was also based

upon the college offering the course, with the assumption that most

of the students enrolled would be registered in that college (e.g.

a course offered by the College of Journalism--JM 302--would consist

mainly of journalism students). This assumption was correct in all

cases.

Information as to current college course offerings and grade

level classification was obtained from the University Registrar's

Office. An additional method of class selection was that of the

researcher contacting individual faculty members (teaching in the

specified colleges) with whom she was acquainted and inquiring as to

the course level they were teaching.










The researcher contacted class instructors, explained the

purpose of the research and possible implications thereof, the class

time required for data collection (35 minutes), and requested access

to their classess. This was a successful method in most instances.

The researcher continued to contact instructors and visit classes until

the specified minimum (i.e. 60) at each academic level was obtained.


Data Collection

Arrangements for scheduling were made by the researcher with the

individual instructors, at their convenience. The instructors introduced

the researcher, who then briefly explained the purpose of the research

to the subjects and gave instructions for coding of demographic data

and administration of the inventories (See Appendix B).

The subjects were provided with a cover letter (Appendix A)

which

1. briefly explained the purpose of the study,

2. indicated that participation was voluntary,

3. assured the subjects that individual scores would be
kept confidential,

4. provided a human subjects' release form,

5. offered subjects an opportunity for personal feedback, and

6. expressed the researcher's appreciation for their participation.

In addition to the cover letter, a set of the research instruments,

a NCS Trans Optic Scan Answer Sheet, and a number 2 pencil were provided

the subjects.










Data Analyses


The NCS Trans Optic Answer Sheets were read by an optic scan

machine which automatically recorded the data on magnetic tape. The

data was then transferred, by way of programming, to a disk at the

Northeast Regional Data Center (NERDC). Data analyses were done by

computer at NERDC. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences

(SPSS) was used for these analyses.

In order to determine the differences in career maturity as a

function of sex and academic level classification, a 2 x 4 factorial

analysis of variance with a multiple regression analysis was computed,

based on the AVMI total scores. To determine the differences in the

15 dependent work values variables, as a function of sex and academic

level classification, a 2 x 4 factorial analysis of variance with a

multiple regression analysis was done based on the raw scores for each

of the 15 scales. If significant differences were found on the basis

of academic level classification or sex, the Student-Newman-Keuls

multiple comparison procedure was utilized to determine where the

significant differences were.

To ascertain the relationships among work values, career maturity,

and age for all academic level classifications,and across academic

level classifications, the researcher used a Pearson product--moment

intercorrelation matrix of the AVMI total score, the 15 WVI scale

scores, and age.

An oblique principal-axis factor analysis was computed to deter-

mine the factors underlying the relationships among the 15 WVI variables

and the AVMI variable.











Limitations


Several limitations exist for this study. One is related to the

instruments; the others are basically methodological.

Neither the AVMI nor the WVI has published normative data for

university students. Therefore, it is not possible to compare the

scores on either career maturity or the work values constructs with

any national norms.

The methodological limitations are relative to the sample. Access

to subjects required agreement by instructors in the various colleges

to allow use of class time for data collection. This was particularly

a problem when attempting to obtain an appropriate sample size from

the College of Education.

The mean ages across the four levels ranged from 19.0 to 22.95

with an overall mean of 21.19. This would indicate that the sample

was relatively homogeneous in terms of this variable and thus a signif-

icant difference in career maturity across academic levels could not

be expected.

One variable which might be considered important in a study such

as this is that of ethnic background. Although data were collected

relative to this variable, the total sample did not yield numbers of

subjects, other than Caucasian, sufficient to provide for statistical

calculations.














CHAPTER IV

RESULTS OF THE STUDY


This study sought to explore the differences in career maturity

and work values as a function of sex, academic level classification,and

across academic levels of university students. Additionally, it examined

the relationships among career maturity, work values, and age for university

students as a group and on the basis of academic level classification.

The remainder of this chapter will present (1) a description of the

sample and (2) the null hypotheses and the results related to these

hypotheses.


The Sample


The sample consisted of 448 students enrolled during the Spring

and Summer Quarters, 1977, at the University of Florida. Of the 448

subjects, 51.8% were males and 48.2% were females. Freshmen (30.4%)

and seniors (40.0%) comprised 70.4% of the entire population. A break-

down of the sample by academic level classification and sex is offered

in Table 1.

Although a comparison of results by college was not proposed, it

may be of interest to note that an analysis of the sample revealed the

following breakdown: College of Arts and Sciences, 55; College of

Business Administration, 87; College of Education, 15; College of

Journalism, 54; University College, 195, and other colleges, 42.

Appendix E is a distribution of the sample by college by sex.















Table 1

Frequencies of Respondents Broken-down by Academic
Level Classification and Sex


Sex
Academic level Males % Females % Total


Freshmen 61 44.9 75 55.1 136

Sophomores 32 52.5 29 47.5 61

Juniors 31 43.1 41 56.9 72

Seniors 108 60.3 71 39.7 179

All levels 232 51.8 216 48.2 448










A description of the sample by age means, standard deviations,

sex, and academic level classification is available in Table 2. The

mean ages across academic level classifications ranged from 19.0 to

22.95 with a mean age for the total sample of 21.19. Thus in relation

to age, the sample was homogeneous.


Results Related to the Null Hypotheses


Differences in Career Maturity

The differences in career maturity as a function of sex, academic

level classification, and across all academic levels were calculated

through the use of a 2x4 factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) and

multiple regression analysis based on the total score of the AVMI. It

should again be noted that on this instrument lower scores indicate

higher levels of career maturity.

H01: There are no differences in the career maturity of
university students on the basis of academic level
classification.

An analysis of the AVMI mean scores and standard deviations by

academic level classification and sex is shown in Table 3. Freshmen had

a mean score of 100.03, while the mean score for seniors was 97.28.

These results indicate a trend in the expected direction, i.e., as

academic level increases there is a corresponding increase in the level

of career maturity. Table 4 shows a summary of the AVMI factorial

analysis of variance by academic level classification and sex. Although

differences in mean scores across academic levels did exist, none were

found to be statistically significant. Therefore, H01 is not rejected.














Table 2


Age Means and


Standard Deviation Broken-down by Academic
Level Classification and Sex


Academic level Males Females Total


Freshmen X
s.d.

Sophomores X
s.d.

Juniors X
s.d.

Seniors X
s.d.

All levels X
s.d.


19.77
7.65

19.47
.88

22.19
2.76

22.60
1.76

21.37


18.37
1.28

19.41
.78

22.56
8.09

23.48
8.79

20.99


4.44 6.57


19.00
5.23

19.44
.83

22.40
6.33

22.95
5.70

21.19
5.57












Table 3

Adult Vocational Maturity Inventory Means and Standard
Deviations Broken-down by Academic Level
Classification and Sex


Academic level Males Females Total


Freshmen X 103.33 97.35 100.03
s.d. 13.73 13.49 13.87

Sophomores X 100.00 99.31 99.67
s.d. 11.29 15.62 13.41

Juniors X 104.32 92.54 97.61
s.d. 21.12 16.35 19.33

Seniors X 99.55 93.83 97.28
s.d. 16.27 14.44 15.78

All levels X 101.24 95.54 98.49
s.d. 15.83 14.76 15.57


Note: Lower scores indicate higher
maturity.


levels of vocational















Table 4

Summary of Academic Level Classification by Sex Factorial
Analysis of Variance of Adult Vocational
Maturity Inventory Scores


Source


Sex

Academic level


Sex by academic
level


Explained


Residual


Total


SS


3253.60

1013.66


1034.96


5629.31


103525.75


109155.06


MS


3253.60

337.89


3


7


441


448


F


13.89*

1.44


344.99


804.19


234.22


243.11


*p <.05


1.47


3.43


__










H02: There are no differences in the career maturity of
university students on the basis of sex.

Table 3 indicates that for all levels the AVMI mean score for

males was 101.24 and the mean score for females was 95.54. This dif-

ference was found to be statistically significant when the ANOVA was com-

puted (see Table 4). Thus, college females tend to have higher levels of

career maturity than college males. Therefore, HO2 is rejected.


Differences in Work Values

The tests for differences in work values on the basis of academic

level classification and sex were carried out in a manner similar to

the test for differences in career maturity, except that an ANOVA with

a multiple regression analysis was computed for each of the 15 WVI scale

mean scores.

H03: There are no differences in the work values of university
students on the basis of academic level classification.

Table 5 presents the 15 Work Values Inventory Scale means and

standard deviations by academic level classification and sex. Individual

scores on each scale has a possible range of 3-15. A total score of 15

on a scale would indicate "Very Important a 12 would be considered

"Important"; a 9, "Moderately Important"; a 6, "Of Little Importance";

and a 3, "Unimportant." An analysis of Table 5 indicates that the

scale mean scores across academic levels ranged from a low of 8.10

for freshmen on the Esthetics scale to a high of 13.56 for freshmen

on the Way of Life scale. Eleven of these scale means fell between

11.00 and 12.50.











Table 5

Work Values Inventory Scale Means and Standard Deviations
Broken-down by Academic Level Classification and Sex


Scale Academic level Males Females Total


Creativity


Freshmen


Sophomores


Juniors


Seniors


All levels


Management


Freshmen


Sophomores


Juniors


Seniors


All levels


x
s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.



X
s.d.


X
s.d.



X
s.d.

X
s.d.
s.d.


10.43
2.45

11.59
1.98

11.42
2.88

10.75
2.39

10.87
2.45


9.36
2.18

9.72
1.80

9.45
2.53

9.85
2.26

9.65
2.21


10.88
2.21

11.37
2.98

11.80
2.15

11.38
2.93

11.29
2.57


9.11
2.43

9.52
3.09

9.88
2.40

9.83
2.20

9.54
2.46


10.68
2.32

11.49
2.49

11.64
2.48

11.00
2.63

11.07
2.51


9.22
2.31

9.62
2.48

9.69
2.45

9.84
2.23

9.60
2.33












Table 5 (Continued)


Scale Academic level Males Females Total


Achievement


Freshmen



Sophomores



Juniors



Seniors


x
s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.


All levels


s.d.


11.85
2.52

12.00
1.74

12.48
2.97

11.90
2.54

11.98
2.49


12.88
2.51

13.03
2.96

13.39
1.74

13.08
2.46

13.06
2.43


12.42
2.56

12.49
2.43

13.00
2.37

12.37
2.57

12.50
2.52


Surroundings


Freshmen


Sophomores



Juniors



Seniors



All levels


s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.


10.97
2.37

10.47
2.27

10.97
3.04

10.58
2.11

10.72
2.33


11.56
2.23

11.69
2.35

12.24
2.41

11.31
2.43

11.63
2.35


11.29
2.30

11.05
2.37

11.69
2.75

10.87
2.26

11.16
2.38










Table 5 (Continued)


Scale Academic level Males Females Total


Supervisory Relations


Freshmen


Sophomores


Juniors


Seniors



All levels


Way of Life


Freshmen



Sophomores



Juniors



Seniors


All levels


s.d.

X
s.d.


12.05
2.53

11.91
2.13

11.65
3.01

11.57
2.76

11.75
2.65


11.93
2.88

12.34
3.03

13.49
2.56

12.14
2.86

12.35
2.87


11.99
2.72

12.11
2.58

12.69
2.89

11.80
2.81

12.04
2.77


s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.


X
s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.


13.26
2.83

13.81
1.47

12.94
3.34

12.64
3.19

13.00
2.95


13.80
2.69

13.24
3.63

13.93
2.22

13.49
2.95

13.65
2.83


13.56
2.76

13.54
2.71

13.50
2.78

12.98
3.12

13.31
2.91











Table 5 (Continued)


Scale Academic level Males Females Total


Security


Freshmen



Sophomores



Juniors



Seniors


x
s.d.

X
s.d.

X


s.d.

s.d.


All levels


s.d.


12.05
2.88

11.50
2.40

11.16
3.37

10.81
2.93

11.28
2.94


12.09
2.69

11.45
2.91

11.93
2.83

11.13
2.61

11.66
2.74


12.07
2.77

11.48
2.63

11.60
3.07

10.94
2.81

11.46
2.85


Associates


Freshmen


Sophomores



Juniors



Seniors



All levels


x
s.d.


s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.


10.05
2.09

9.56
1.54

10.13
1.71

9.78
2.06

9.87
1.96


10.28
1.86

10.55
2.21

10.95
1.88

10.56
2.30

10.54
2.07


10.78
1.96

10.03
1.94

10.60
1.84

10.09
2.19

10.19
2.04










Table 5 (Continued)


Scale Academic level Males Females Total


Esthetics


Freshmen



Sophomores



Juniors



Seniors


All levels


Freshmen



Sophomores



Juniors



Seniors


All levels


x
s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.


s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.


7.97
2.90

8.66
3.07

8.10
3.08

7.93
2.72

8.06
2.86


10.97
2.73

10.97
2.09

10.71
3.09

10.98
2.58

10.94
2.62


8.20
2.64

8.76
3.07

8.51
3.05

8.72
2.89

8.50
2.85


11.03
2.53

11.03
2.35

11.17
2.38

11.15
2.44

11.10
2.43


8.10
2.75

8.70
3.04

8.33
3.05

8.24
2.81

8.27
2.86


11.00
2.61

11.00
2.20

10.97
2.70

11.05
2.52

11.02
2.53


Prestige









Table 5 (Continued)


Scale Academic level Males Females Total


Independence


Freshmen


x
s.d.


Sophomores


Juniors



Seniors


s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.


All levels


s.d.


Freshmen



Sophomores



Juniors



Seniors


All levels


12.30
2.53

12.88
1.90

12.03
2.70

11.59
2.60

12.01
2.53


11.08
2.89

11.66
2.68

12.34
2.12

11.90
2.66

11.67
2.68


11.63
2.79

12.30
2.36

12.21
2.37

11.71
2.62

11.85
2.61


Variety


X
s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.


10.90
2.34

11.13
2.35

11.94
2.19

11.06
2.57

11.14
2.44


11.52
2.77

11.45
2.75

12.17
2.29

12.04
2.66

11.81
2.65


11.24
2.59

11.28
2.53

12.07
2.24

11.45
2.64

11.46
2.56










Table 5 (Continued)


Scale Academic level Males Females Total


Economic Return

Freshmen


Sophomores



Juniors



Seniors


s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.


All levels


s.d.


Freshmen



Sophomores



Juniors



Seniors


X
s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.


All levels


s.d.


12.54
2.67

12.69
2.13

11.87
3.01

12.16
2.91

12.29
2.76


11.13
2.70

11.72
2.73

11.97
3.21

10.57
3.05

11.06
2.97


12.24
2.62

12.00
2.89

12.07
2.51

12.35
2.54

12.21
2.60


12.59
3.00

12.45
3.43

13.34
2.13

11.82
3.12

12.46
2.99


12.38
2.64

12.36
2.52

11.99
2.72

12.23
2.76

12.25
2.68


11.93
2.95

12.07
3.08

12.75
2.72

11.07
3.13

11.74
3.05


Altruism












Table 5 (Continued)


Scale Academic level Males Females Total


Intellectual Stimulation

Freshmen



Sophomores



Juniors



Seniors



All levels


X
s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.

X
s.d.



s.d.


11.16
2.30

12.38
1.68

12.19
2.12

11.58
2.73

11.66
2.44


11.59
2.19

11.86
2.67

12.58
1.95

12.80
2.49

12.21
2.37


11.40
2.25

12.13
2.20

12.42
2.02

12.07
2.70

11.93
2.42










Table 6 presents summaries of the factorial analyses of variance

for the 15 WVI scales by sex by academic level classification. No

significant differences on the basis of academic level were found on

the Management, Achievement, Surroundings, Supervisory Relations, Way

of Life, Associates, Esthetics, Prestige, Variety, and Economic Return

scales. Significant differences were found on 4 of the scale scores.

On the Creativity scale juniors had a mean score of 11.64, while the

freshman mean was 10.68. Freshmen differed significantly from seniors

on the Security scale with means of 12.07 and 10.94 respectively. On

the Altruism scale juniors had a mean score of 12.75 and seniors had a

mean score of 11.07. On the Intellectual Stimulation scale juniors dif-

fered significantly from freshmen with means of 12.42 and 11.40,

respectively. Since only 4 of the 15 analyses yielded significant

differences, H03 is not rejected.

H04: There are no differences in the work values of
university students on the basis of sex.

The 15 scale mean scores for the WVI ranged from lows of 8.06 for

males and 8.50 for females on the Esthetic scale to highs of 13.00 for

males and 13.65 for females on the Way of Life scale (Table 5). Table

6 indicates no statistically significant differences on the basis of sex

on 9 of the scales: Creativity, Management, Way of Life, Security,

Esthetics, Prestige, Economic Return, Intellectual Stimulation, and

Independence. Statistically significant differences between males and

females did exist on 6 of the values scales. Female mean scores were

significantly higher on the Achievement, Surroundings, Supervisory Relations,

Associates, Variety, and Altruism scales.










Table 6

Summaries of Sex-by-Academic Level Classification Factorial
Analyses of Variance of Work Values Inventory
Subscale Scores



Scale/Source SS df MS F

Creativity

Sex 10.48 1 10.48 1.68

Academic level 54.51 3 18.17 2.91*

Sex by academic
level 10.18 3 3.39 .54

Explained 88.60 7 12.66 2.03

Residual 2761.79 441 6.25

Total 2850.39 448 6.35


Management

Sex .01 1 .01 .00

Academic level 28.72 3 9.57 1.76

Sex by academic
level 5.80 3 1.93 .36

Explained 37.15 7 5.31 .98

Residual 2404.60 441 5.44

Total 2441.75 448 5.44











Table 6 (Continued)


Scale/Source SS df MS F


Achievement

Sex 98.49 1 98.49 16.18*

Academic level 15.59 3 5.20 .85

Sex by academic
level 1.12 3 .37 .06

Explained 149.05 7 21.29 3.50

Residual 2691.39 441 6.09

Total 2840.44 448 6.33


Surroundings

Sex 81.05 1 81.05 14.77*

Academic level 25.76 3 8.59 1.57

Sex by academic
level 8.75 3 2.92 .53

Explained 123.60 7 17.66 3.22

Residual 2425.37 441 5.49

Total 2548.98 448 5.68












Table 6 (Continued)


Scale/Source SS df MS F


Supervisory Relations

Sex 41.25 1 41.25 5.49*

Academic level 27.66 3 9.22 1.23

Sex by academic
level 44.58 3 14.86 1.98

Explained 118.57 7 16.94 2.25

Residual 3322.82 441 7.52

Total 3441.38 448 7.67


Way of Life


Sex 17.92 1 17.92 2.15

Academic level 22.61 3 7.54 .90

Sex by academic
level 25.55 3 8.52 1.02

Explained 96.43 7 13.78 1.65

Residual 3685.59 441 8.34

Total 3782.01 448 8.42







74




Table 6 (Continued)


Scale/Source SS df MS F


Security


Sex 4.65 1 4.65 .57

Academic level 107.76 3 35.92 4.42*

Sex by academic
level 7.54 3 2.51 .31

Explained 125.98 7 18.00 2.22

Residual 3588.47 441 8.12

Total 3714.45 448 8.27


Associates


Sex 42.15 1 42.15 10.12*

Academic level 10.80 3 3.60 .86

Sex by academic
level 8.00 3 2.67 .64

Explained 65.33 7 9.33 .03

Residual 1841.11 441 4.17

Total 1906.43 448 4.25













Table 6 (Continued)


Scale/Source SS df MS F


Esthetics


Sex 13.98 1 13.98 1.19

Academic level 16.59 3 5.53 .68

Sex by academic
level 9.15 3 3.05 .37

Explained 49.84 7 7.12 .87

Residual 3604.83 441 8.16

Total 3654.67 448 8.14


Prestige


Sex 3.75 1 3.75 .58

Academic level 1.46 3 .49 .08

Sex by academic
level 2.16 3 .72 .11

Explained 6.84 7 .98 .15

Residual 2863.84 441 6.48

Total 2870.68 448 6.39












Table 6 (Continued)


Scale/Source SS df MS F


Independence


Sex 17.68 1 17.68 2.66

Academic level 22.55 3 7.52 1.13

Sex by academic
level 66.70 3 22.24 3.34*

Explained 110.21 7 15.75 2.37

Residual 2939.35 441 6.65

Total 3049.56 448 6.79


Variety


Sex 28.78 1 28.78 4.46*

Academic level 37.00 3 12.33 1.91

Sex by academic
level 12.08 3 4.03 .62

Explained 100.24 7 14.32 2.22

Residual 2851.98 441 6.45

Total 2952.23 448 6.56












Table 6 (Continued)


Scale/Source SS df MS F


Economic Return


Sex 1.62 1 1.62 .22

Academic level 8.58 3 2.86 .39

Sex by academic
level 13.44 3 4.48 .62

Explained 21.57 7 3.08 .43

Residual 3203.91 441 7.25

Total 3225.48 448 7.18


Altruism


Sex 131.22 1 131.22 15.07*

Academic level 120.56 3 40.19 4.62*

Sex by academic
level 5.82 3 1.94 .22

Explained 344.84 7 49.26 5.66

Residual 3848.62 441 8.71

Total 4193.47 448 9.34












Table 6 (Continued)


Scale/Source SS df MS F


Intellectual Stimulation


Sex 13.79 1 13.79 2.45

Academic level 71.35 3 23.78 4.23*

Sex by academic
level 39.17 3 13.06 2.32

Explained 143.70 7 20.53 3.65

Residual 2486.51 441 5.63

Total 2630.21 448 5.86


*p <.05











Table 6 indicates that an interaction between sex and academic

level occurred on the Independence scale of the WVI. The mean score

across academic levels was 11.85 with mean scores for males equal to

12.01 and females equal to 11.67. In general, males from lower academic

levels tended to place higher value on the Independence construct than

females at the same levels and than seniors who were males.

In summary, significant differences between males and females

across academic levels were found to exist on only 6 of the 15 WVI

scales. Thus, H04 is not rejected.


Relationships Between Career Maturity and Work Values

The relationships among career maturity, work values, and age

were determined by intercorrelation matrices of the AVMI total score

and the 15 WVI scale scores and age. For this purpose, the Pearson

product-moment statistic was used with the level of significance set

at .05.

Table 7 offers the correlations between the WVI scale scores and

age and the AVMI scores by academic levels for all levels. There

follows a description of the findings related to the null hypotheses

indicated.

H05: There are no relationships between career maturity
and work values of university students.

Significant correlations between the AVMI and 12 of the 15 WVI

scales were determined for university students. Significant relation-

ships were found to exist between the AVMI and the Creativity, Achieve-

ment, Surroundings, Supervisory Relations, Way of Life, Security,

Prestige, Independence, Variety, Economic Return, Altruism, and









Table 7

Pearson Product-Moment Correlations Between Work Values
Inventory Scale Scores and Age and Adult Vocational Maturity
Inventory Scores by Academic Level Classification




Scale Academic level WVI-age WVI-AVMI


Creativity

Freshmen -.03 -.34*

Sophomores .01 -.44*

Juniors -.09 -.48*

Seniors .09 -.25*

All levels .06 -.34*

Management

Freshmen -.08 .11

Sophomores -.07 -.10*

Juniors .09 -.10

Seniors .20* -.12

All levels .10* -.05

Achievement

Freshmen -.06 -.28*

Sophomores -.14 -.30

Juniors .00 -.54*

Seniors -.01 -.38*

All levels -.02 -.37*












Table 7 (Continued)


Scale Academic level WVI-age WVI-AVMI


Surroundings


Supervisory


Freshmen

Sophomores

Juniors

Seniors

All levels


Relations

Freshmen

Sophomores

Juniors

Seniors

All levels


Way of Life


Freshmen

Sophomores

Juniors

Seniors

All levels


.03

-.05

.06

-.04

-.00


-.05

.02

-.44*

-.18*

-.18*


-.11

-.33

-.40*

-.17*

-.22*


-.03

.09

.06

-.06

-.02


-.11

-.06

-.13

-.00

-.08


-.33*

-.42*

-.62*

-.33*

-.38*









Table 7 (Continued)


Scale Academic level WVI-age WVI-AVMI


Security

Freshmen -.04 -.06

Sophomores -.27* -.04

Juniors .03 -.24*

Seniors -.03 -.11

All levels -.07 -.09*

Associates

Freshmen -.12 -.01

Sophomores .03 -.20

Juniors -.13 -.03

Seniors .04 -.08

All levels -.03 -.06

Esthetics

Freshmen .10 -.15

Sophomores -.01 .12

Juniors -.01 -.04

Seniors .13 .09

All levels .07 .01







83


Table 7 (Continued)


Scale Academic level WVI-age WVI-AVMI


Prestige

Freshmen .01 -.01

Sophomores -.08 -.11

Juniors .67 -.23

Seniors .10 -.17*

All levels .05 -.13*


Independence


Freshmen -.04 -.27*

Sophomores -.14 -.24

Juniors .18 -.40*

Seniors .07 -.29*

All levels .04 -.30*


Variety

Freshmen -.06 -.25*

Sophomores -.08 -.14

Juniors .03 -.22

Seniors .14 -.23*

All levels .06 -.23*







84





Table 7 (Continued)


Scale Academic level WVI-age WVI-AVMI


Economic Return

Freshmen -.04 .05

Sophomores .03 -.07

Juniors .04 -.29*

Seniors .67 -.16*

All levels .01 -.12*


Altruism

Freshmen -.11 -.15

Sophomores -.20 -.40*

Juniors -.06 -.59*

Seniors -.00 -.25*

All levels -.08 -.28*


Intellectual Stimulation


Freshmen -.06 -.34*

Sophomores -.01 -.43*

Juniors .08 -.45*

Seniors .05 -.45*

All levels .06 -.42*


p <.05











Intellectual Stimulation scales. It should be noted that all correlation

coefficients were negative in value, indicating an inverse relationship.

This is as it should be since lower scores on the AVMI indicate higher

levels of career maturity. Thus, H05 is rejected.

H06: There are no relationships between career maturity
and work values of university students across academic
level classifications.

The AVMI was found to correlate significantly with the WVI for

freshmen on 6 of the WVI scales. These'included the Creativity,

Achievement, Way of Life, Independence, Variety, and Intellectual Stimulation

scales.

The AVMI was found to correlate significantly with the WVI for

sophomores on 5 of the WVI scales. These included the Creativity,

Management, Way of Life, Altruism, and Intellectual Stimulation scales.

The AVMI was found to correlate significantly with the WVI for juniors

on 10 of the scales. These included the Creativity, Achievement,

Surroundings, Supervisory Relations, Way of Life, Security, Independence,

Economic Return, Altruism, and Intellectual Stimulation scales.

The AVMI was found to correlate significantly with the WVI for

seniors on 11 of the scales. These included the Creativity, Achievement,

Surroundings, Supervisory Relations, Way of Life, Prestige, Independence,

Variety, Economic Return, Altruism, and Intellectual Stimulation scales.

Since out of 60 correlations only 32 were found to be significant, H06

is not rejected.


Relationships Between Age and Work Values

H07: There is no relationship between age and work values
of university students.










Table 7 indicates that a significant correlation existed between

age and only the Management scale of the WVI. Thus, H07 is not

rejected.


age

for


H 8: There is no relationship between age and work values
of university students on the basis of academic
level classification.

Table 7 indicates that a significant correlation existed between

and the WVI Management scale for seniors and the WVI Security scale

sophomores. Thus, H 8 is not rejected.


Relationships Between Age and Career Maturity

H09: There is no relationship between age and career
maturity of university students.

Table 8 presents the Pearson product-moment correlations between

Adult Vocational Maturity Inventory scores and age by academic level

classification. The results in this table indicate no significant

correlation existed between age and the AVMI for all university students.

Thus, H09 is not rejected.

H010: There is no relationship between age and
career maturity of university students on the
basis of academic level classification.

Table 8 indicates no significant correlation between age and the

AVMI for any academic level classification. Thus, H010 is not rejected.

A principal-axis factor analysis with varimax rotation was computed

to determine the factors underlying the relationships of career maturity

and work values. Table 9 presents the factor loadings for the Adult

Vocational Maturity Inventory and the Work Values Inventory scales. Four

underlying factors were determined by this statistical computation.

The following constructs loaded heavily on Factor I: Adult

Vocational Maturity, Creativity, Achievement, Way of Life, Independence,













Table 8

Pearson Product-Moment Correlations Between Adult Vocational
Maturity Inventory Scores and Age by Academic
Level Classification


Academic level


AVMI-age correlation


Freshmen


Sophomores


Juniors


Seniors


All levels


-.10


-.12


-.01









Table 9

Factor Loadings for Adult Vocational Maturity Inventory and Work
Values Inventory Scales Following a Principal-axis
Factor Analysis with Varimax Rotation


Factors
Scale I II III IV

AVMI -.501 -.066 .054 .002

Creativity .721 .191 .221 .337

Management .105 .126 .603 .180

Achievement .616 .564 .160 .045

Surroundings .288 .595 .266 .050

Supervisory Relations .360 .659 .117 -.147

Way of Life .695 .550 .080 -.208

Security .119 .643 .329 -.195

Associates .100 .633 .136 .233

Esthetics .057 .005 .128 .490

Prestige .222 .403 .590 .127

Independence .669 .167 .326 -.032

Variety .556 .246 .251 .074

Economic Return .308 .555 .471 -.404

Altruism .478 .529 -.014 .137

Intellectual Stimulation .719 .265 .251 -.002











Variety, and Intellectual Stimulation. On Factor II, Surroundings,

Supervisory Relations, Security, Associates, Economic Return, and

Altruism loaded heavily. For Factor III, Management and Prestige

loaded heavily, while only Esthetics loaded heavily on Factor IV.

Although four factors emerged, the factor structure is generally

unclear. That is, many of the subscales loaded heavily on more than

one factor. Thus it appears that there were general constructs under-

lying the assessments. This is further supported by the pattern of

means and standard decision of the various scales since the sample ap-

pears to be relatively homogeneous in its values structure.















CHAPTER V

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS


Introduction


In recent years the concept of career counseling has become more

complex because of the numerous factors which have been found to underlie

the career decision making process. In order to be effective, the career

counselor of today must be concerned with counselee characteristics such

as interests, needs, personality factors, values, and career maturity.

The work of developmental theorist, Donald Super, has placed

emphasis upon two of these characteristics: work values and career

maturity. Information concerning the counselee's level of career maturity

assists the counselor in assessing the counselee's readiness to make

appropriate vocational decisions. An understanding of the counselee's

value orientation assists the counselor in facilitating the direction of

these decisions.

The purpose of this study was to examine these two constructs in

relation to university students. More specifically, this study sought

to examine student differences in career maturity and work values on the

basis of sex, academic level, and for all academic levels combined.

Additionally, it explored the relationships of career maturity, work

values, and age across academic levels and for all academic levels

combined.