Horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of the Colombian departments of Choco, Valle, and Cauca

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Title:
Horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of the Colombian departments of Choco, Valle, and Cauca
Physical Description:
2 v. (xv, 487 leaves) : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Wilkerson, Richard Charles, 1946-
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Horseflies -- Colombia   ( lcsh )
Insects -- Colombia   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 481-486).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Richard Charles Wilkerson.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000013251
notis - AAB6272
oclc - 04804244
System ID:
AA00003500:00001

Full Text











HORSE FLIES (DIPTERA: TABANIDAE) OF THE COLOMBIAN
DEPARTMENTS OF CHOCO, VALLE, AND CAUCA









By

RICHARD CHARLES WILKERSON


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY










UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1978



































Dedicated to my parents,

Warren and Helen Wilkerson
















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


LIST OF FIGURES . . .


ABSTRACT . . .

INTRODUCTION . . .

STUDY AREA, GENERAL ECOLOGY, AND COLLECTING LOCALITIES.


Ecological Zones . .
Collecting Localities . .

METHODS AND MATERIALS . .


Field . .
Laboratory . .

GENERAL MORPHOLOGY AND TERMINOLOGY .


BIOLOGY . . .

MEDICAL AND VETERINARY IMPORTANCE . .


CHECKLIST OF THE COLOMBIAN HORSE FLIES


TAXONOMIC TREATMENT . . .

Key to the Subfamilies of Tabanidae .
Key to the Tribes and Genera of Pangoniinae
and Chrysopsinae . .
Key to Tribes, Genera, and Subgenera of Tabaninae

Genus Esenbeckia . . .
Key to Esenbeckia Species . .


Esenbeckia
Esenbeckia
Esenbeckia
Esenbeckia
Esenbeckia
Esenbeckia
Esenbeckia
Esenbeckia


. xv




6
. 1

.


6
9
. 6
. 9

. 14


. . 14
. . 1 5

. . 1 6


. . 21


. 27

. 28
. 29


(E.) balteata n. sp.
(E.) illota osornoi
(E.) minuscula n. sp.
(E.) prasiniventris
(E.) testaceiventris .
(E.) tigrina n. sp.
(Ed.) tinctipennis .
(E.) translucens .












Subgenus Proboscoides . .

Esenbeckia (P.) ecuadorensis ssp. chagresensis.


Genus Fidena . .
Key to Fidena Species .. .

Fidena aureopygia .
Fidena auribarba .
Fidena eriomeroides .
Fidena flavipennis .
Fidena flavipennis vallens
Fidena ochrapogon n. sp.
Fidena rhinophora .
Fidena schildi .
Fidena sulfurea n. sp.

Genus Scione . .
Key to Scione Species .


Scione albifasciata .
Scione brevibeccus n. sp .
Scione cupreus n. sp .
Scione equivexans n. sp .
Scione f7avescens .
Scione maculipennis .
Scione obscurefemorata .
Scione rhinothrix n. sp .
Scione rufescens .
Scione serratus n. sp .. .
Scione young n. sp. .

Genus Pityocera . .
Key to Pityocera Species .

Pityocera (Elephella) cervus.

Pityocera (Pityocera) festae..

Genus Chrysops . .
Key to Chrysops Species .


. 63
. 63

. 65
. 66
69
. 71
. 72
. 74
. 76
. 79
. 80


ssp.

* .


. . 84
85


89
91
94
96
99
101
104
106
108
110
112


S 117


Chrysops auroguttatus
Chrysops calogaster .
Chrysops chiriquensis
Chrysops leucospilus.
Chrysops melaenus .
Chrysops mexicanus.
Chrysops nexosus. .
Chrysops renjifoi .
Chrysops reticulatus.


Page


59









Page


Chrysops soror ...
Chrysops varians var. tardus .
Chrysops variegatus . .

Genus Dasybasis . .
Key to Dasybasis Species . .

Dasybasis montium . .
Dasybasis schineri . .

Genus Stenotabanus . .
Key to Stenotabanus Species .
Subgenus Stenotabanus . .


Stenotabanus
Stenotabanus
Stenotabanus
Stenotabanus
Stenotabanus
Stenotabanus
Stenotabanus
Stenotabanus


(St.) brunneus n. sp. .
(St.) chrysonotus n. sp..
(St.) detersus .
(St.) incipiens .
(St.) Zuteolineatus n. sp.
(St.) nigriculus n. sp.
(St.) obscurus .
(St.) sordidatus .


Subgenus Brachytabanus . .

Stenotabanus (B.) longipennis .

Subgenus Stilbops n. subgen .

Stenotabanus (StiZbops) roxannae n. sp.

Genus HimantostyZus . .

Himantostylus intermedius .

Genus Diachlorus . .
Key to DiachZorus Species .


DiachZorus curvipes .
Diachlorus jobbinsi .

Genus Hemichrysops .

Hemichrysops fascipennis. .

Genus BoZbodimyia .
Key to Bolbodimyia Species .

Bolbodimyia bicolor .
Bolbodimyia celeroides. .


. . 186
. 187


190












Bolbodimyia erythrocephala. .
Bolbodimyia galindoi .
Bolbodimyia nigra .
Bolbodimyia philipi .

Genus Selasoma . .

Selasoma tibiale .

Genus Chlorotabanus .
Key to Chlorotabanus Species .

Chlorotabanus fairchildi .
Chlorotabanus inanis .
Chlorotabanus mexicanus .

Genus Phaeotabanus . .

Phaeotabanus phaeopterus .

Genus Spilotabanus ..
Key to Spilotabanus Species .

Spilotabanus multiguttatus. .
Spilotabanus triaurius n. sp. .

Genus Dichelacera .
Subgenus Dichelacera .
Key to Subgenus DicheZacera Species

Dichelacera (D.) chocoensis .
Dichelacera (D.) fasciata .
Dichelacera (D.) marginata. .
Dichelacera (D.) melanosoma .
Dichelacera (D.) regina .
Dichelacera (D.) submarginata .

Subgenus Nothocanthocera .

Dichelacera (N.) albomarginata.

Subgenus Idiochelacera .

Dichelacera (I.) subcallosa .

Subgenus Desmatochelacera .

DicheZacera (Desm.) transposita


Page


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203

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226
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240

243


243









Page


Subgenus Orthostylocerus . .... .246

Dichelacera (0.) aurata n. sp. ... .. ... 246

Genus Catachlorops . . .. 249
Key to Subgenus Amphichlorops Species .. 249

CatachZorops (A.) flavissimus . .. 249
Catachlorops (A.) vespertinus . .. 250

Key to Subgenus Psalidia Species ... ... 252

Catachlorops (Ps.) fulmineus. . .. 252
Catachlorops (Ps.) umbratus . .. 256

Catachlorops (Catachlorops) alphus n. sp. ... 256

Catachlorops (Psarochlorops) siculus n. sp ... 259

Genus Dasychela. . .... 262
Subgenus Dasychela . ..... .. 262

Dasychela ocellus . .... .262

Genus Dicladocera. ................. 265
Key to Dicladocera Species . .... 265

Dicladocera argentomacula n. sp .. ... 269
Dicladocera basirufa. . ... 273
Dicladocera beaver n. sp. . ... 276
Dicladocera calimaensis n. sp .... ..... 278
Dicladocera clarus. . .. 280
Dicladocera dalessandroi n. sp. . .. 282
Dicladocera distomacula n. sp. .. 284
Dicladocera hirsuta n. sp. . .. 285
Dicladocera Zeei n. sp. Fairchild .. 288
Dicladocera macula. . ... 291
Dicladocera minos . .... .293
Dicladocera nigrocoerulea . .... .294
Dicladocera pruinosa n. sp. . .. 296
Dicladocera riveti. . ... 299
Dicladocera rubiginipennis . .... 300
Dicladocera submacula . .... .302

Genus Stibasoma. .................. .. 304
Key to Stibasoma Species . ... 304

Stibasoma (S.) apicimacula . .... 306
Stibasoma (S.) chionostigma . .... 308












Stibasoma (S.) flaviventre .
Stibasoma (S.) fulvohirtum. .
Stibasoma (S.) panamensis .

Stibasoma (Rhabdotylus) venenatas .

Genus Cryptotylus . .
Key to Cryptotylus Species . .

Cryptotylus chloroticus .
Cryptotylus unicolor . .

Genus Philipotabanus . .
Key to Philipotabanus Species .

Philipotabanus (Melasmatabanus) criton.
Philipotabanus (M.) fascipennis .
Philipotabanus (M.) nigripennis n. sp.


Philipotabanus (Mimotabanus) phalaropygus
Philipotabanus (Mimo.) porteri .
Philipotabanus (Mimo.) tanypterus n. sp.
Philipotabanus (Mimo.) vulpinus .

Philipotabanus (Philipotabanus) magnificus


Philipotabanus (P.) nigrinubilus
Philipotabanus (P.) pterographicus.

Genus Stypommisa . .
Key to Stypommisa Species .


Stypommisa bipuncta n. sp.
Stypommisa captiroptera .
Stypommisa jaculatrix .
Stypommisa maruccii .
Stypommisa pequeniensis .
Stypommisa serena .
Syypommisa simplex .
Stypommisa n. sp .

Genus Leucotabanus .
Key to Leucotabanus Species. .

Leucotabanus canithorax .
Leucotabanus exaestuans .
Leucotabanus flavinotum .

Genus Lepiselaga .

Lepiselaga crassipes .


viii


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: : : :


.









Page


Genus Poeciloderus ................... 378
Key to Poeciloderus Species. . ... 378

Poeciloderus allusiosis n. sp. . ... 379
Poeciloderus quadripunctatus . .. 382

Genus Tabanus. .................. .. 387
Key to Tabanus Species . ... 387

Tabanus albocirculus. .. . 393
Tabanus aniptus . .... 397
Tabanus claripennis . ... 400
Tabanus commixtus . .... 402
Tabanus dorsiger. . ... 404
Tabanus eldridgei ... .... 405
Tabanus guapiensis n. sp. . ... 407
Tabanus hirtitibia. . ... 410
Tabanus importunus. . . 413
Tabanus macquarti ... .... 413
Tabanus nereus. . . ... 416
Tabanus olivaceiventris . ... 417
Tabanus praeteritus . ... 420
Tabanus pseudoculus. . 421
Tabanus pungens. . .. 423
Tabanus rubripes. . ... 425
Tabanus surifer . ... 426
Tabanus thiemeana . ... 430
Tabanus unipunctatus. . ... 431
Tabanus unistriatus. . 433
Tabanus sp. . .... 435

REFERENCES CITED . . 481

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . ... .... 487


~













LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page

1. Esenbeckia trigrina n. sp.,Esenbeckia minuscule n. sp.,
and Esenbeckia ecuadorensis chagresensis Fairchild. ... 437

2. Esenbeckia balteata n. sp. and Esenbeckia testa-
ceiventris (Macquart) . .... 439

3. Fidena sulfurea n. sp. and Scione cupreus n. sp. ... .441

4. Scione young n. sp. and Scione rhinothrix n. sp. .... .443

5. Scione albifasciata (Macquart) and Scione flavescens
(Enderlein) . . ... 445

6. Scione serratus n. sp. and Scione obscurefemorata
Krober. . .... .. . 447

7. Scione equivexans n. sp., Scione brevibeccus n. sp.,
and Chrysops reticulatus n. sp . ... 449

8. Stenotabanus chryonotus n. sp., Stenotabanus nigriculus
n. sp., Stenotabanus brunneus n. sp., Stenotabanus roxannae
n. sp., Stenotabanus Zuteolineatus n. sp., and Philipotabanus
tanypterus n. sp. . . ... 451

9. Chlorotabanus fairchildi n. sp., Spilotabanus triaurius
n. sp., Dichelacera aurata n. sp., and Catachlorops
siculus n. sp. . .. .. 453

10. CatachZorops alphus n. sp., Dicladocera basirufa (Walker),
and Dicladocera argentomacula n. sp. . ... 455

11. Dicladocera leei Fairchild n. sp., Dicladocera
calimaensis n. sp., and Dicladocera hirsuta n. sp ... 457

12. Dicladocera beaveri n. sp. Dicladocera pruinosa
n. sp., Dicladocera dalessandroi n. sp., and
Dicladocera distomacula n. sp. . 459

13. Dicladocera minos (Schiner), Poeciloderus allusiosis
n. sp., Stypommnisa n. sp., Tabanus guapiensis n. sp.,
Cryptotylus chloroticus (Philip and Fairchild), and
Cryptotylus unicolor (Wiedemann). . 461










Figure


14. Esenbeckia tinctipennis .

15. Scione cupreus n. sp. .

16. Scione flavescens .

17. Scione equivexans n. sp. .

18. Scione maculipennis .

19. Scione young n. sp .

20. Scione rhinothrix n. sp. .

21. Scione albifasciata .

22. Scione obscurefemorata .

23. Scione brevibeccus n. sp. .

24. Chrysops nexosus .

25. Chrysops calogaster .

26. Chrysops soror .

27. Chrysops melaenus .

28. Chrysops chriquensis. .

29. Chrysops variegatus .

30. Chrysops varians var. tardus.

31. Chrysops auroguttatus .

32. Chrysops mexicanus .

33. Chrysops reticulatus n. sp. .

34. Chrysops Zeucospilus .

35. Dasybasis schineri .

36. Dasybasis montium .

37. Himantostylus intermedius .

38. Hemichrysops fascipennis. .


Page


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S 462

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. . 4 6 4










Figure


39. Selasoma tibiae. .

40. Spilotabanus multiguttatus. .

41. Spilotabanus triaurius n. sp.

42. Dichelacera fasciata .

43. Dichelacera melanosona. .

44. Dichelacera regina .

45. Dichelacera transposita .

46. Dichelacera subcaZZosa .

47. Dichelacera chocoensis .

48. Dichelacera submarginata .

49. Dichelacera marginata .

50. DicheZacera albomarginata .

51. DicheZacera aurata .

52. CatachZorops fulmineus form ocel

53. CatachZorops fuZmineus ..

54. Catachlorops flavissimus .

55. Catachlorops alphus n. sp. .

56. CatachZorops siculus n. sp. .

57. Catachlorops vespertinus .

58. Catachlorops umbratus .

59. Dicladocera dalessandroi n. sp.

60. Dicladocera riveti .

61. Dicladocera beaveri n. sp.

62. Dicladocera hirsuta n. sp.

63. Dicladocera distomacula n. sp.


Page


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latus ... 465

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S .. 466

466

S. 466

466

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466

466










Figure


81.

82.

83.

84.

85.

86.

87.

88.


Philipotabanus nigrinubilus

Philipotabanus magnificus .

Philipotabanus vulpinus .

Philipotabanus nigripennis

Philipotabanus criton .

Philipotabanus phaleropygus .

Stypommisa jaculatrix .

Stypommisa marucii .


64. Dicladocera distomacula n. sp.

65. Dicladocera macula .

66. Dicladocera submacula .

67. Dicladocera basirufa. .

68. Dicladocera minos .

69. DicZadocera argentomacula n. s

70. Dicladocera rubiginipennis.

71. Dicladocera pruinosa n. sp.

72. DicZadocera calimaensis n. sp.

73. Dicladocera nigrocoerulea .

74. Dicladocera leei n. sp .

75. Stibasoma apicimacua .

76. Stibasoma chionostigma .

77. Stibasoma panamensis .

78. Philipotabanus fascipennis. .

79. Philipotabanus pterographicus

80. Philipotabanus porter .


xiii


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;p . 467

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Figure


89. Stypommisa pequeniensis Anchicaya. .

90. Stypommisa pequeniensis Buenaventura

91. Styporrnnisa captiroptea. .

92. Lepiselaga crassipes Guapi .

93. Lepiselaga crassipes Candelaria .

94. Poeciloderus quadripunctatus .

95. Poeciloderus allusiosus n. sp .

96. Tabanus guapiensis n. sp. .

97. Tabanus eldridgei . .

98. Map of Colombia . .

99. Holdridge life zone map of the depart
Choco with legend .

100. Holdridge life zone map of the depart
Valle . .

101. Holdridge life zone map of the deparm
Cauca . .

102. General horse fly morphology .


. . 469

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. . 469

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ment of
. . 474

ment of
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ent of
. . 478


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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


HORSE FLIES (DIPTERA: TABANIDAE) OF THE COLOMBIAN
DEPARTMENTS OF CHOCO, VALLE, AND CAUCA

By

Richard Charles Wilkerson

December 1978

Chairman: Graham B. Fairchild
Major Department: Entomology and Nematology

A survey of the horse fly fauna of the Colombian departments of

Choco, Valle, and Cauca was carried out during 1974 and 1975. Few

surveys of this nature have been reported in Colombia.

Survey methods included flight traps and the use of human and

livestock bait. An effort was made to collect in as many areas of

accessible primary forest, in as many different Holdridge ecological

zones, as possible. Collecting localities are indicated on ecological

maps and a description of each zone is given in the text. This treat-

ment will facilitate further collecting and provides a general state-

ment about the ecology of the species found at each site.

Keys and descriptions or redescriptions of 158 species are pre-

sented. Thirty-five species, one subspecies, and one subgenus are

described here for the first time. Figures of head characters of 39

species and of the wings of 81 species are given. A checklist of 226

Colombian species is included. In addition to the new descriptions,

19 new country records are noted.














INTRODUCTION


Surveys of the horse fly fauna of Colombia have been few. The

only work involving the entire country is that of Bequaert and

Renjifo (1946). They listed 129 species with localities and brief

taxonomic and distributional notes. Sixty of the names used by them

have been changed and the species list is now much more extensive.

In the area under consideration two studies have been carried

out, one published and one unpublished. Lee et al. (1969) studied

the biting arthropods, including the horse flies, in the Rio Raposo
1
area, 40km south of Buenaventura in the department of Valle. Their

study lasted from 1962 to 1965 in habitats ranging from mangrove swamp

on the coast to tropical rain forest 10km inland. Their capture

methods included the use of human and livestock bait at ground level.

Other collections, using human bait in the forest canopy, were

especially valuable since these are the only long term canopy collec-

tions which have been made in this area.

The Atlantic-Pacific Interoceanic Canal Studies survey (see the

"collecting localities" section for more detail) was carried out

between April and Dec. 1967. One of the survey sites was in the

department of Choco. They too utilized human bait at ground level




1Departments, which are large political divisions in Colombia, are
underlined throughout the text for ease of reference.
-1-









and in the canopy in addition to flight traps. A species list from

this area, compiled by G. B. Fairchild was made available to me for

this study.

In addition, Porter and Defoliart (pers. comm. 1976) carried out

biting arthropod studies (1970-72) in the adjacent department of

Antioquia. A list of the horse fly species present was kindly pro-

vided by Dr. C. H. Porter.

The three departments under consideration, Choco, Valle, and Cauca,

have a total land area approximately 33% larger than Panama. The total

number of horse fly species known at this time is similar in the two

areas--about 160--but much more extensive collecting has been carried

out in Panama. The entire United States, for example, has but 282

species (Philip 1965), and Europe only 166 (Chvala et al. 1972).

Fairchild's (1971) catalogue lists approximately 178 species (out

of a total neotropical fauna of about 956) from Colombia. Extensive

collecting by myself between Oct. 1972 and June 1976 in these three

departments has shown that much remains to be done since 34 new species

were found in that small part of the country alone.

The purpose of this work is to provide workers with a means to

identify specimens in this area of Colombia. In addition, by using

the references and descriptions it is my intention that any serious

worker will be able to study in depth the species present and their

known variation without time-consuming searches for references and

specimens.

The classification system of Fairchild (1969, 1971) for the neo-

tropical Tabanidae is followed throughout this paper. All three

recognized subfamilies and five of the seven tribes are present









in the study area. Twenty-seven of the 52 neotropical genera are

represented.

All keys are written for the identification of females. It is

not practical to design keys for the males at this time since so many

are unknown.

References provided with each species are not intended to be

complete. I give only the original description plus those with

figures, references, synonymies, and Colombian records. Fairchild's

(1971) catalogue may be referred to in most cases if additional

references are needed or if a name is found which is not listed here.

The literature cited section contains only those references cited in

the text.

Material examined includes collector unless that information was

not given on the label. All specimens from Colombia collected from

1974 to 1976 were collected by me unless otherwise stated.

This research was made possible by financial and logistical support

from several sources. Direct assistance during my stay in Cali,

Colombia, was provided by Tulane University at the International

Center for Medical Research. I would like to thank Dr. Paul Beaver,

former director, and Dr. Tom Orihel, the present director, for their

complete assistance during my stay. In Cali I wish to thank

Dr. Antonio D'Alessandro for daily assistance which made my effort

both efficient and fruitful. Dr. Joe Browne and Dr. Stephen Ayala

contributed significantly to my work by their professional assistance

and by easing my adaptation to Colombian culture.

Financial support while a student at the University of Florida

was provided by National Institute of Health Training Grant Number








5 T01 AI--383-03 from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious

Diseases and by the Entomology and Nematology Department, University

of Florida.

Dr. David G. Young was instrumental in bringing me to Colombia

for the first time and instilling in me his enthusiasm for the neo-

tropics. He has also been of great help in preparing the manuscript.

I wish to express my gratitude to my graduate school committee

for their patient help throughout my graduate career. They are

Dr. G. B. Fairchild, Dr. Harvey L. Cromroy, Dr. Dale H. Habeck,

Dr. Stephen G. Zam, and Dr. Jerry F. Butler.

Dr. Howard Weems of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods

provided much help in the way of advice and materials for the care

and preservation of my specimens. Dr. Thomas J. Walker of the

University of Florida was very helpful in advising me at several

junctures during research and writing. John Randall provided those

illustrations so initialled. Dr. G. B. Fairchild is responsible for

the morphological sketches and the illustration of Dicladocera Zeei.

Barbara Hise did an excellent job preparing the maps used here. Bill

Langford prepared the graphics and did exceptional work photographing

the wings. I am indebted to Roxann Ferguson who typed the entire

manuscript.

I wish to express my appreciation to the following people who

worked with me in the laboratory and field in Colombia: Amelia Arias,

Hugo Rodriguez, Jairo Ardila, and Anibal Gomez.

Specimens for study were kindly loaned or donated by Dr. William

Eberhard, Dr. Pablo Barreto (both Universidad del Valle, Cali),









Dr. Alberto Figueroa (Facultad de Agronomia, Palmira), and Dr. G. B.

Fairchild.

I am especially grateful to Dr. G. B. Fairchild for his always

patient and enthusiastic help. He provided advice and a great deal

of time in the preparation of this paper. In addition, many of the keys

were written in large part by him, or are adaptations of his keys from

other works.

Holotypes designated here are to be deposited in the Florida State

Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville. Paratypes and the bulk of the

specimens will be retained in my collection. A synoptic collection will

be sent to the Universidad del Valle in care of Dr. Pablo Barreto.














STUDY AREA, GENERAL ECOLOGY, AND
COLLECTING LOCALITIES



The departments of Choco, Valle, and Cauca are located on the

Pacific coast of Colombia (Fig. 98). They have surface areas of

47,205, 21,245, and 30,495km2 respectively, a total land area nearly

equal to that of the state of Kentucky.

The habitats here are extremely varied, occurring from sea level

to over 4000m. They range from some of the wettest localities on earth

to near desert. There are two mountain chains in Southern Colombia, the

western chain branches in Narino and Cauca to form the Central and

Eastern Cordilleras. Choco has as its southeastern border the Western

Cordillera. This range extends through Valle and Cauca. Valle and

most of Cauca have as their eastern borders the Central Cordillera,

though in the southern part of Cauca there is only one range. In Cauca

the extreme boundary lies within the Amazon basin. This Amazonian fauna

is quite different in many respects and is not treated here.

Species reported from both Panama and Antioquia, for purposes of

this study, are assumed to be found in Choco also. The two collecting

sites of Porter and Defoliart (pers. comm. 1976) are described below

(p. 10). Reference is occasionally made in the text to 2 sites in the

Intendencia (a political division of less dense population than a depart-

ment) of Putumayo. These also are described below.

Ecological Zones

The Holdridge Life Zone system (Holdridge, 1967) is based on

altitude, latitude, mean biotemperature (temperature converted to relate

-6-









to biological activity, here designated as OC), and annual precipita-

tion. It is sueful here because it gives a general description of

any locality within a zone and it allows the reader to make assumptions

about localities not yet collected.

The accompanying life zone maps (Figs. 99-101) were taken from

Espinal and Montenegro (1963) who treat all of Colombia. Espinal

(1968) later made a much more detailed map of the department of Valle.

There are some modifications in the later map not reflected in the maps

included here. Most notably, the Tropical Wet Forest zone on the coast

is all Tropical Rain Forest and the area below Lago Calima is Tropical

Moist Forest, not Tropical Wet Forest. For a complete explanation of

the Holdridge system see Holdridge (1967).

The following are brief descriptions of those zones found in the

departments treated here (Espinal, 1968).

Tropical Very Dry Forest. Temperature greater than 24C. Average

annual rainfall between 500 and 1000mm. Altitude less than 1000m.

Tropical Dry Forest. Temperature greater than 240C. Rainfall

between 1000 and 2000mm. Altitude less than 1000m. Primarily found

in the Cauca River Valley.

Tropical Moist Forest. Temperature greater than 240C. Rainfall

between 2000 and 4000mm. Altitude less than 1000m. This zone below

the dam at Lago Calima was extensively collected.

Tropical Wet Forest. Temperature greater than 240C. Rainfall

between 4000 and 8000mm. Altitude less than 1000m. Lower Anchicaya

and the site on the Rio Zabaletas are in this zone.









Tropical Rain Forest. Temperature greater than 240C. Rainfall

greater than 8000mm. Altitude less than 1000m. Found all along the

Pacific coast, at sites such as Guapi, Rio Raposo, and Ladrilleros.

Subtropical Dry Forest. Temperature between 17 and 240C. Rain-

fall between 500 and 1000mm. Altitude from 1100 to 2000m.

Subtropical Wet Forest. Temperature between 17 and 24C. Rainfall

between 2000 and 4000mm. Altitude from 1100 to 1900m.

Subtropical Rain Forest. Temperature between 17 and 2400. Rain-

fall greater than 4000mm. Altitude 900 to 1900m. The site above

Santa Maria is in this zone.

Lower Montane Moist Forest. Temperature 12 to 1700. Rainfall

1000 to 2000mm. Altitude from 1800 to 3000m.

Lower Montane Wet Forest. Temperature 12 to 170C. Rainfall

between 2000 and 4000mm. Altitude 1800 to 3000m. Penas Blancas and

Pance CVC are in this zone.

Lower Montane Rain Forest. Temperature from 12 to 170C. Rain-

fall greater than 4000mm. Altitude from 1800 to 2900m. A good repre-

sentation of species was taken from Cerro de Munchique in this zone.

Montane Wet Forest. Temperature from 6 to 120C. Rainfall 1000

to 2000mm. Altitude greater than 3000m.

Montane Rain Forest (Paramo). Temperature from 6 to 120C.

Rainfall greater than 2000mm. Altitude greater than 3000m. Parque

de Purace is in this zone.

Subalpine Rain Forest (Paramo). Temperature from 3 to 60C.

Rainfall 500 to 2000mm.









Collecting Localities


The following are collecting sites used in this study or used in

studies by others from which specimens and data were available. Minor

collecting sites may be mentioned in the text only and reference to

the Atlas Basico de Colombia or the geographical and political map of

Colombia of 1972 (scale 1:500,000) is recommended. Both were published

by the Instituto Geographico "Agustin Codazzi."

All sites discussed here in the departments of Choco, Valle, and

Cauca appear as numbers in parentheses on the accompanying ecological

maps (Figs. 86-88).



Department of Choco


The first three collecting sites below were used by the Atlantic-

Pacific Interoceanic Canal Studies survey for human disease hazards

in the northern Choco (Eldridge and Fairchild 1973, and Eldridge et al.

1973). More complete descriptions and maps are included in the above

papers. D. G. Young is credited here for these collections.

Curiche (3). Located on the narrow Pacific coastal plain between

Humbolt Bay and Serrania del Baudo in a Tropical Wet Forest. Altitude

about 10m. Collections were made between April 1967 and Dec. 1967 in

primary forest and cut-over areas near a mangrove swamp.

Alto Curiche (2). Located 3km inland from Curiche on the

Serrania del Baudo, altitude 302m, also Tropical Wet Forest.

La Teresita (1). Located at the eastern edge of the Serrania del

Baudo near the Rio Truando, altitude 35m. The area collected was

disturbed forest in a transition zone between Tropical Wet Forest and

Tropical Moist Forest.






-10-


Rio San Juan and Rio Baudo (4). A one week collecting trip was

made to the area between the above rivers. The area is primary, mostly

undisturbed, Tropical Rain Forest or Tropical Wet Forest.



Department of Antioquia


Providencia (Rio Anori Valley). Twenty-four km SW Zaragoza

(70 19' N; 750 04; W). Altitude 500-700m in a Tropical Wet Forest.

This and the following site are those of Porter and Defoliart (pers.

comm. 1976). They carried out canopy and ground level captures using

traps, animal bait, and human bait.

Caucasia region. Near Caucasia in northern Antioquia. Altitude

100-200m, in a Tropical Moist Forest zone. An area without primary

forest, mostly cut-over secondary growth or under cultivation.



Department of Valle


Ladrilleros (5). Located 30km northwest of Buenaventura. Tropical

Rain Forest or Tropical Wet Forest. A beach and jungle environment.

No primary growth was found but collecting was done in areas where only

the largest trees had been harvested. One collecting trip, Jan. 1975.

"Bajo Calima" (6). Ten km E, 32km N Buenaventura. Near Rio Calima

and "San Isidro," a small village not on my maps. Tropical Rain

Forest. A logging area with both cut-over and primary forest zones.

Two collecting trips, both in Sept. 1975.

Twenty km N, 41km E Buenaventura (7). One collection in Nov. 1975.

Altitude 140m, in a Tropical Rain Forest or a Tropical Wet Forest.

An area of primary forest.





-11-


"Rio Bravo Playa Rica" (8). Located approximately 15km below

dam at Lago Calima on the Rio Azul near confluence with Rio Calima.

Tropical Moist Forest (Espinal 1968) or Tropical Wet Forest (Espinal

and Montenegro 1963). Altitude 325m. Numerous specimens were taken

at all times of the year, most collections from human and livestock

bait. An area of subsistence agriculture and primary forest.

Lago Calima (9). Approximately8km below dam at Lago Calima.

Altitude 1250m. Tropical Moist Forest (Espinal 1968). Numerous

collections throughout the year mostly from livestock and human bait.

An area of subsistence agriculture in primary forest, terrain quite

mountainous.

Tenerife (10). Above town of Tenerife near Paramo de las IIermosas.

Altitude approximately 2500-2800m. Lower Montane Wet Forest. Several

short, rather fruitless trips. Area of nearly completely cut-over

farmland.

Rio Raposo (11). Extensive collecting in mangrove swamp and

primary forest 10km from the coast. See Lee et al. (1969) for details.

Tropical Rain Forest.

Rio Zabaletas (12). Approximately 4km E town of Zabaletas. Five

week-long trips July-Oct. 1975 using human bait and CO2 baited flight

traps. Tropical Rain Forest or Tropical Wet Forest. Area of heavy

forest with larger trees removed.

Santa Maria (13). Five km above town of Santa Maria. Altitude

approximately 2000-2500m. Subtropical Rain Forest. One visit to a

fairly inaccessible area of primary forest with small farms produced

only 2 specimens of Philipotabanus tanypterus n. sp.





-12-


Lower Anchicaya (14). At the site of the hydroelectric plant at

Lower Anchicaya. Altitude 400m. Tropical Wet Forest. Nine week-long

trips at all times of the year. Large area of primary forest main-

tained around dam.

Rio Digua (15). Fifteen to 20km IV Queremal on the Rio Digua.

Tropical Wet Forest. Not visited by me, various specimens from

collection of W. Eberhard were from this locality.

Queremal (16). Fourhn WI Queremal. Altitude 1130m. Subtropical

Rain Forest. One trip in Feb. of 1976. An area of primary forest with

scattered agriculture.

Pance CVC (17). Fifteen km W Cali at the CVC (Corporacion

Autonoma Regional del Cauca) meteorological station at "Pico Loro."

Altitude 1700m. Lower Montane Wet Forest, or Rain Forest. Area of

half and half primary forest and pasture. Flight trap captures made

throughout the year.

Penas Blancas (18). Ten km W Cali, also referred to as Pichinde,

though that locality is several kilometers away and at a higher alti-

tude. Altitude 1750m. Lower Montane Wet Forest. Specimens taken at

all times of year, mostly from livestock. Area of primary forest

and subsistence agriculture.

Cali (19). In urban and suburban Cali. This and the following

four localities are all in the Cauca River Valley and are at approxi-

mately 1000m altitude. Tropical Dry Forest.

Palmira (20). Palmira area, 20km E Cali. Tropical Dry Forest.

Finca San Luis (21). Twenty-five km E Cali, in Municipio de

Candelaria. Tropical Dry Forest. Collections taken at all times of

the year from livestock and flight traps. Area of intense agriculture.





-13-


Department of Cauca


Finca Samaritana (22). Near Rio Cauca, Bocas del Palo, Municipio

de Puerto Tejada. Tropical Dry Forest.

Finca Corredor (23). Near Caloto, 40km S Cali. Tropical Dry

Forest.

Guapi (24). At various sites within 10km of Guapi. Tropical Rain

Forest or Tropical Wet Forest. Two one-week trips, July 1975 and

Feb. 1976. Most specimens captured using CO2 baited flight traps, in

or near mangrove swamps.

Silvia (25). In or near Silvia. Altitude about 2800m. Lower

Montane Wet Forest. Area completely converted to agricultural use.

Cerro de Munchique (26). At and around communications tower.

Lower Montane Rain Forest. Altitude 2450-2900m. Three week-long

trips, two in Aug. 1973 and 1975, and one in Jan. 1976. Area of

secondary growth, little primary vegetation remains.

Parque de Purace (27). Lago San Raphael 10km E of Purace. Alti-

tude 3500m. Subalpine Rain Forest (Paramo) or Montane Rain Forest. Two

successful trips in Feb. and March 1976. Area of primary vegetation.



Intendencia of Putumayo


Mocoa (28). Near Mocoa. Altitude 650m. Subtropical Wet Forest.

One trip in May 1976. Primary forest near Mocoa.

Puerto Asis. In and around Puerto Asis. Tropical Wet Forest.

Altitude 240m. Secondary vegetation and primary forest.


~













METHODS AND MATERIALS



Field

A large variety of collection techniques was used in this study.

The most fruitful apparatus was the Gressitt Trap (Gressitt and

Gressitt 1962) modified by Howard V. Weems of the Division of Plant

Industry, Gainesville, Florida. It is a tent-like apparatus, made of

nylon netting, open at the sides, with a center baffle. It is lowest

in the middle (about 2m) and slants upward at both ends, funnelling

the insects into collecting containers (at about 3m). It is approxi-

mately 4-5m long. These traps were used with or without a CO2 attrac-

tant. Flies attracted to human collectors were referred to as "netted"

on all labels.

Livestock (horses and cows) was used extensively as bait, especially

at Lago Calima and Penas Blancas.

Light traps were sometimes useful for capturing males. A New

Jersey light trap was operated at "Finca San Luis" for 18 months and

occasionally at other sites such as Lower Anchicaya. CDC light traps

(Sudia and Chamberlain 1962) used to collect mosquitoes, CuZicoides,

and Phlebotomine sand flies also attracted some male horse flies. Males

were also taken while feeding at flowers.


-14-




-15-


Laboratory

Illustrations (Figs. 1-13) were all made using a Wild M5-31876

dissecting scope with a camera lucida. Figure 1A shows the scale of

all frontal, antennal, and palpal drawings. All head drawings were

made at half the above scale as indicated on Figure ID.

Wing slides for the photographs (Figs. 14-97) were made by

removing the wing, placing it in cellosolve (ethylene glycol) for 10

minutes, and then placing it directly into Canada balsam. Wing photos

are not to scale. Wing length is given only in the case of new species.

As a general rule, the wing is as long as or slightly shorter than

total body length including the head. It may be estimated from the

measurements included with each description.

All original descriptions are of holotypes, as are the drawings

of the new species unless otherwise stated. My redescriptions are

based primarily on Colombian specimens examined unless Colombian

material was not available. Variation, if any, in specimens from

other countries is noted in the discussion. The keys are written

primarily using characters from Colombian specimens.













GENERAL MORPHOLOGY AND TERMINOLOGY


The following terms are used in the keys and descriptions. For

a more detailed account of Tabanid morphology, see Barretto (1946),

Bonhag (1949), Bromley (1926), or Cragg (1912).

Head (Fig. 102). The eyes of the females do not touch. In life

they may be unicolorous, with 1 to several bands, or with a pattern

of spots and stripes. Soon after death these disappear but may,

at least partially, be recovered by placing them in a relaxing chamber

or in boiling water for a short time. Male eyes are usually holoptic,

touching at the midline. Often, males have 2 different sized facets.

If there is a sharp border between the 2, they are said to be well

demarcated; if there are 2 very different sized facets, they are well

differentiated. Either males or females may have pilose eyes, meaning

there are erect hairs, often visible only with correct lighting, among

the facets.

The frons lies between the female eyes. The frons may bear an

ocellar tubercle which is a raised or bare area at the top or vertex.

The tubercle often bears 3 ocelli which may be distinct, or vestigial.

Usually the frons is pollinose (bearing a dust-like material) and has

shiny, usually swollen, median structures called calli. The frontal

or basal callus is at the base of the frons and is often extended

upward into a ridge, the median callus, which may or may not be con-

nected to the basal callus (Fig. 8-C).

-16-




-17-


The frontal index, used throughout this work, is determined by

measuring the height of the frons and dividing it by the width at the

base. Frontal drawings presented here are a flattened image of a

curved surface. Measurements of frons height taken from the drawings

are therefore larger than measurements taken through a microscope.

Frontal indices measured from the drawings, therefore, will be larger,

i.e., they will indicate a slightly narrower frons than the numbers

given in the text determined by direct measurement.

Below the frons is the subcallus, its lower border formed by the

antennal insertions. Below the antennae extending to the proboscis

is the frontoclypeus. It is bordered laterally by the genae, which

are the lateral areas below the eyes. The frontoclypeus and anterior

genae are often called the face. The hairs of the lower genae are

collectively called the beard. On each side of the frontoclypeus is

a small depression called a tentorial pit.

The antennae are comprised of 3 basic segments: the scape,

pedicel, and flagellum. The flagellum is made up of no more than 8

distinct annuli, of which the basal 4 annuli may be fused and modified

to form the basal plate, which bears a dorsal tooth or dorsal angle.

This angle or tooth may be obtuse (Fig. 9A) or acute and quite long

(Fig. 9G). The terminal annuli when a basal plate is present are

referred to as the style which is composed of 2 to 4 annuli.

The proboscis is composed of a labium which encloses 2 mandibles,

2 maxillae, a hypopharynx, and a labrum. The proximal part of the

labium is referred to as the theca; it bears a pair of labella distally.

The palpi are derived from the maxillae and are comprised of 2 seg-

ments, the second, or distal, segment often shows identifying characters

and is the part referred to in keys and descriptions.




-18-


Thorax. Refer to Figures 891 and 89J for terms used here de-

scribing the dorsal and pleural areas of the thorax.

The wing veins and cells (Fig. 102) are after Curran (1934, p. 484).

These names represent a combination of systems as explained by Curran

(1934). In addition R2+3 and R4 may bear the designations R2 and

R3+4 respectively after Shannon and Bromley (1924). The fork or fork

of third vein is where veins R4 and R5 branch. If an appendix is

present, it is a small extension at this juncture. The first and

fourth posterior cells may be closed, open, or coarctate (narrowed).

Chrysops species (Fig. 24) usually have a dark band running across the

discal cell called the crossband and often another spot at the apex in-

cluding part of the marginal cell, called the apical spot. The hyaline

area between the crossband and apical spot is called the hyaline crescent.

At the base of the costal vein is a small plate called the

basicosta (Fig. 102E, F) which may be bare or have few to numerous setae.

In this work I refer to the covering of hairs and scale-like hairs

as vestiture. There is also pollinosity, mentioned above, and pruinosity

which is a powdery substance which changes color with the changing

incidence of light.

Incrassate, used with reference to the legs, means swollen. The

hind legs may or may not have distal tibial spurs (Fig. 102) whose

presence helps define the subfamilies Pangoniinae and Chrysopsinae.

Abdomen. The abdomen has 7 visible segments. Genitalic charac-

ters are not used here because the time-consuming nature of dissecting

and growing is beyond the scope of this study. Genitalic differences

are of proven value in classification above the generic level (Mackerras

1954).














BIOLOGY


A generalized account of the tabanid life cycle can be found in

James and Harwood (1969). However, life cycles and behavior of

Colombian horse flies are virtually unknown. The available biological

information for each species is included in the discussion section

accompanying the account of each species. Seasonal distributions,

hosts, and biting records may be ascertained from the sections on

material examined.

A recent review of the larval and pupal biology and taxonomy of

neotropical horse flies (Goodwin and Murdoch 1974) includes only

partial information on 43 of the nearly 1000 species known. Those

Colombian species considered by Goodwin and Murdoch are mentioned in

the discussion section accompanying each species and indicated on the

Checklist of Colombian Tabanidae.


-19-














MEDICAL AND VETERINARY IMPORTANCE


The disease and pest problems associated with tabanids have long

been known. This subject was recently reviewed by Krinsky (1976).

On a worldwide basis, 31 viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and helminths

have been isolated, experimentally transmitted, naturally transmitted,

or suspected as having been transmitted by tabanids. Some of the most

important of these diseases found in the neotropics include equine

infectious anemia, anthrax, tularemia, anaplasmosis, and surra.

Little work has been carried out in Colombia regarding disease

transmission.

Antonio Betancourt and I (unpublished 1975) dissected over 1000

horse flies, belonging to 7 species, from the Municipio de Puerto

Tejada near the Cauca River (Cauca). We were investigating the

possibility of tabanid transmission of Trypanasoma vivax in that area.

No trypanasomes were found in this sample.

Lee et al. (1969) studying the blood-sucking arthropods in the

Rio Raposo area near Buenaventura, innoculated 370 pools of 3090

tabanids (14 species) into mice without virus isolation.

Page (1972), investigating Trypanasoma vivax transmission in cattle

in the Monteria area of Cordoba, found a 3.4% trypanosome infection

rate in 7 species of horse flies. Two species, Trypanosoma theileri

and Crithidia sp. were found.


-20-














CHECKLIST OF THE COLOMBIAN HORSE FLIES


Several sources already named were used to compile this check-

list. They are Lee et al. (1969), Porter (pers. comm. 1976), D. G.

Young (Atlantic-Pacific Interoceanic Canal Studies survey, species

list from G. B. Fairchild), Bequaert and Renjifo (1946), and the

species collected by me. To this was added species from Fairchild's

(1971) catalogue with Colombian distributions. Some species in the

catalogue were not listed specifically from Colombia but were included

if, for instance, they were found in Panama and Venezuela. Disjunct

distribution or subspecies are possible in this case but I assume,

for purposes of this list, their eventual discovery.



Pangoniinae


Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) batteata n. sp.


Esenbeckia
Esenbeckia
Esenbeckia
Esenbeckia
Esenbeckia
Esenbeckia
Esenbeckia
Esenbeckia
Esenbeckia
Esenbeckia
Esenbeckia
Esenbeckia


(E.)
(E.)
(E.)
(E.)
(E.)
(E.)
(E.)
(E.)
(E.)
(E.)
(E.)
(E.)


bella Philip
diaphana (Schiner)
gracilis Krober
illota osornoi Fairchild
insignis Krober
minuscule n. sp.
prasiniventris (Macquart)
subvaria (Walker)
testaceiventris (Macquart)
tigrina n. sp.
tinctipennis Krober
translucens (Macquart)


Esenbeckia (Proboscoides) ecuadorensis chagresensis Fairchild


Larval or pupal record, refer to Goodwin and Murdoch (1974)
** No definite Colombian record
t New Colombian record


-21-





-22-


Fidena
Fidena
Fidena
Fidena
Fidena
Fidena
Fidena
Fidena

Scione
Scione
Scione
Scione
**Scione
Scione
Scione
Scione
Scione
Scione
Scione
**Scione
Scione
Scione
Scione
Scione
**Scione
Scione
Scione


Pityocera (Pityocera) festae
Pityocera (Elephella) cervus


Chrysopsinae

Chrysops
tChrysops
*Chrysops
Chrysops
**Chrysops
**Chrysops
Chrysops
*Chrysops
Chrysops
Chrysops
Chrysops
Chrysops
Chrysops
Chrysops
Chrysops
Chrysops
Chrysops


Giglio-Tos
(Wiedemann)


auroguttatus Krober
boliviensis Krober
calogaster Schiner
chiriquensis Fairchild
ecuadorensis Lutz
incisus Macquart
leucospilus Wiedemann
melaenus Hine
mexicanus Krober
nexosus n. sp. Fairchild
renjifoi Bequaert
reticulatus n. sp.
soror Krober
varians var. tardus Wiedemann
varians Wiedemann
variegatus (DeGeer)
weberi Bequaert


aureopygia Krober
auribarba (Enderlein)
eriomeroides (Lutz)
flavipennis Krober
flavipennis vallensis n. ssp.
ochrapogon n. sp.
rhinophora (Bellardi)
schildi (Hine)

albifasciata (Macquart)
aurulans ssp. Zurida Wiedemann
brevibeccus n. sp.
cupreus n. sp.
distinct (Schiner)
equivexans n. sp.
flavescens (Enderlein)
incomplete (Macquart)
macuZipennis (Schiner)
minor (Macquart)
minute Szilady
nigripes (Krober)
obscurefemorata Krober
punctata Szilady
rhinothrix n. sp.
rufescens (Ricardo)
rufipes (Krober)
serratus n. sp.
young n. sp.






-23-


Tabaninae

Dasybasis montium (Surcouf)
Dasybasis schineri (Krober)


Stenotabanus
Stenotabanus
Stenotabanus
Stenotabanus
Stenotabanus
Stenotabanus
Stenotabanus
tStenotabanus
Stenotabanus
Stenotabanus
Stenotabanus


(Stenotabanus) brunneus n. sp.
(S.) chrysonotus n. sp.
(S.) detersus (Walker)
(S.) incipiens (Walker)
(S.) luteolineatus n. sp.
(S.) nigricutus n. sp.
(S.) obscurus Krober
(S.) sordidatus Fairchild
(Phorcotabanus) cinereus (Wiedemann)
(Brachytabanus) longipennis Krober
(Stilbops) roxannae n. sp.


Himantostylus intermedius Lutz

tDiachZorus anduzei Stone
DiachZorus curvipes (Fabricius)
tDiachlorus fuscistigma Lutz
Diachlorus jobbinsi Fairchild
tDiachlorus pechumani Fairchild

Hemichrysops fascipennis Krober


Bolbodimyia
Bolbodimyia
tBolbodimyia
tBolbodimyia
Bolbodimyia
Bolbodimyia


bicolor Bigot
celeroides Stone
erythrocephala (Bigot)
gaZindoi Fairchild
nigra Stone
philipi Stone


Selasoma tibiaZe (Fabricius)

*Chlorotabanus inanis (Fabricius)
*Chlorotabanus mexicanus (Linnaeus)
Chlorotabanus fairchildi n. sp.


Phaeotabanus
Phaeotabanus
tPhaeotabanus
tPhaeotabanus


cajennensis (Fabricius)
fervens (Linnaeus)
nigriflavus (Krober)
phaeopterus Fairchild


Spilotabanus multiguttatus (Krober)
Spilotabanus triaurius n. sp.

Acanthocera marginalis Walker





-24-


Dichelacera (Nothocanthocera) albomarginata (Krober)
**Dichelacera (N.) trigonifera (Schiner)
Dichelacera (Orthostylocerus) aurata n. sp.
Dichelacera (Dichelacera) cervicornis (Fabricius)
DicheZacera (D.) chocoensis Fairchild and Philip
**Dichelacera (D.) damicornis (Fabricius)
Dichelacera (D.) fasciata Walker
Dichelacera (D.) hartmanni Fairchild and Philip
Dichelacera (D.) marginata Macquart
Dichelacera (D.) melanosoma Hine
Dichelacera (D.) regina Fairchild
Dichelacera (D.) scapularis Macquart
Dichelacera (D.) submarginata Lutz
Dichelacera (D.) villavoensis Fairchild and Philip
Dichelacera (Idiochelacera) subcallosa Fairchild and Philip
Dichelacera (Desmatochelacera) transposita Walker

CatachZorops (CatachZorops) aZphus n. sp.
CatachZorops (C.) calopterus (Schiner)
Catachlorops (C.) fumipennis Krober
**Catachlorops (C.) nigripalpis (Macquart)
CatachZorops (Psarochlorops) auripilis (Philip)
CatachZorops (P.) difficilis (Krober)
CatachZorops (P.) quadrimaculatus (Macquart)
CatachZorops (P.) siculus n. sp.
CatachZorops (P.) testaceus (Macquart)
Catachlorops (AmphichZorops) bogotanus (Enderlein)
Catachlorops (A.) flavissimus (to be des.)
CatachZorops (A.) vespertinus (Bequaert)
tCatachlorops (Psalidia) fulmineus (Hine)
Catachlorops (P.) fulmineus form ocellatus Enderlein
tCatachlorops (P.) umbratus (Hine)


**Dasychela badia (Krober)
Dasychela Zimbativena (Enderlein)
Dasychela ocellus (Walker)

DicZadocera argentomacula n. sp.
Dicladocera basirufa (Walker)
Dicladocera beaver n. sp.
DicZadocera calimaensis n. sp.
tDicladocera clarus (Schiner)
Dicladocera dalessandroi n. sp.
Dicladocera distomacula n. sp.
Dicladocera hirsuta n. sp.
Dicladocera leei Fairchild n. sp.
DicZadocera macula (Macquart)
tDicladocera minos (Schiner)
Dicladocera nigrocoerulea (Rondani)
Dicladocera pruinosa n. sp.
DicZadocera riveti (Surcouf)
Dicladocera rubiginipennis (Macquart)
Dilcadocera submacula (Walker)






-25-


Stibasoma
Stibasoma
*Stibasoma
*Stibasoma
Stibasoma
*Stibasoma


(Stibasoma) apicimacula Fairchild
(S.) chionostigma (Osten Sacken)
(S.) flaviventre (Macquart)
(S.) fulvohirtum (Wiedemann)
(S.) panamensis Curran
(RhabdotyZus) venenata (Osten Sacken)


Cryptotylus chioroticus (Philip and Fairchild)
*Cryptotylus unicolor (Wiedemann)

Philipotabanus (Mimotabanus) annectans Fairchild
Philipotabanus (M.) fucosus Fairchild
Philipotabanus (M.) phalaropygus Fairchild
Philipotabanus (M.) plenus (Hine)
Philipotabanus (M.) porteri Fairchild
Philipotabanus (M.) tanypterus n. sp.
Philipotabanus (M.) vulpinus Fairchild
Philipotabanus (Melasmatabanus) criton (Krober)
Philipotabanus (M.) fascipennis (Macquart)
Philipotabanus (M.) keenani (Fairchild)
Philipotabanus (M.) nigripennis n. sp.
Philipotabanus (Philipotabanus) magnificus (Krober)
*Philipotabanus (P.) nigrinubilus (Fairchild)
**Philipotabanus (P.) pallidetinctus (Krober)
Philipotabanus (P.) pterographicus (Fairchild)
**Philipotabanus (P.) stigmaticalis (Krober)
Philipotabanus (P.) tenuifasciatus (Krober)

Stypoommisa bipuncta n. sp.
Stypommisa captiroptera (Krober)
Stypommisa flavescens (Krober)
tStypommisa hypographa (Krober)
tStypommisa jaculatrix (Fairchild)
**Stypommisa lerida (Fairchild)
Stypommisa maruccii (Fairchild)
tStypommisa modica (Hine)
Stypommisa pequeniensis (Fairchild)
Stypoynisa serena (Krober)
Stypommisa simplex (Walker)


Leucotabanus canithorax Fairchild
*Leucotabanus exaestuans (Linnaeus)
*Leucotabanus flavinotum (Krober)

Pseudacanthocera brevicorne (Enderlein)

*Lepiselaga crassipes (Fabricius)
LepiseZaga colombiana Fairchild

*Poeciloderas quadripunctatus (Fabricius)
Poeciloderas allusiosis n. sp.





-26-


*Tabanus
Tabanus
Tabanus
Tabanus
*Tabanus
Tabanus
Tabanus
*Tabanus
Tabanus
tTabanus
Tabanus
Tabanus
Tabanus
Tabanus
Tabanus
Tabanus
*Tabanus
Tabanus
Tabanus
Tabanus
Tabanus
Tabanus
tTabanus
Tabanus
Tabanus
*Tabanus
Tabanus
Tabanus
Tabanus
Tabanus
Tabanus
Tabanus
Tabanus
Tabanus
Tabanus


albocirculus Hine
aniptus Fairchild
antarcticus Linnaeus
bigoti Bellardi
claripennis (Bigot)
colombensis Macquart
corrnixtus Walker
dorsiger Wiedemann
eldridgei Fairchild
fumomarginatus Hine
glaucus Wiedemann
guapiensis n. sp.
hirtitibia Walker
importunus Wiedemann
Zutzi Krober
macquarti Schiner
nebulosus DeGeer
nereus Fairchild
olivaceiventris Macquart
pellucidus Fabricius
perplexus Walker
peruvianus Macquart
piceiventris Rondani
praeteritus Fairchild
pseudoculus Fairchild
pungens Wiedemann
restrepoensis Fairchild
rixator Fairchild
rubripes Macquart
sorbillans Wiedemann
surfer Fairchild
thiemeana Enderlein
trivittatus Fabricius
unipunctatus (Bigot)
unistriatus Hine














TAXONOMIC TREATMENT


Key to the Subfamilies of Tabanidae1


1. Ninth tergite undivided in both sexes. Style of genitalia

simple, pointed, or bifid. Caudal ends of spermathecal ducts

simple, without cup-like expansions. Third antennal segment

generally of 7-8 annuli, rarely with a basal plate of fused

annuli. Ocelli and hind tibial spurs present. Eyes unpatterned

in life . ... ........ Pangoniinae

1'. Ninth tergite divided in both sexes. Third antennal segment

of a basal plate and a 4 or fewer annulate style. ..... 2

2(1'). Style of c genitalia simple, pointed. Caudal ends of sper-

mathecal ducts simple, without cup-like expansions. Ocelli

present. Hind tibial spurs usually present, rarely apparently

absent or difficult to see. Eyes frequently patterned with

bands or spots of contrasting color in life Chrysopsinae

2'. Style of J genitalia truncate. Caudal ends of spermathecal

ducts with cup-like expansions. Functional ocelli absent,

though vestiges frequently present. Hind tibial spurs absent.

Eyes plain or with horizontal stripes, rarely otherwise .

. . . Tabaninae






This and the following two keys adapted from Fairchild, 1969.
-27-






-28-


Key to the Tribes and Genera of Pangoniinae and Chrysopsinae


1. Ninth tergite undivided in both sexes. Style of male genitalia

simple or bifid. Third antennal segment generally of 7-8

segments, rarely with a basal plate of fused annuli .

. . . Pangoniinae 2

1'. Ninth tergite divided in both sexes. Style of male genitalia

simple, pointed. Third antennal segment of a basal plate and

a 4 or less annulate style . . .

. .. Chrysopsinae, Chrysopsini, Chrysops (p. 119)

2(1). Style of male genitalia bifid. Eyes bare. Vein R4 nearly

always with a strong appendix. Face not markedly conically

produced, the proboscis rarely much longer than head height .

. . Pangoniini, Esenbeckia (p. 40)

2'. Style of male genitalia simple, pointed. Eyes pilose. Vein

R4 often without an appendix. Face usually inflated, often

strongly conically produced, the proboscis frequently much

exceeding head height . .... Scionini 3

3(2'). First posterior cell usually closed, rarely open; fourth

posterior cell always open. .. . .. 4

3'. First and fourth posterior cells closed .... .Scione (p. 84)

4(3). Third antennal segment with projections or prominent hair

tufts on one or more annuli. First posterior cell closed

with a long stalk . .... Pityocera (p. 115)

4'. Third antennal segment subulate, the annuli without projections

or prominent hair tufts . .... Fidena (p. 63)





-29-


Key to Tribes, Genera, and Subgenera of Tabaninae


1. Basicosta smoothly pollinose, without setae. If setae are

present, sparse or numerous, and there are vestiges of ocelli,

a strong tubercle at vertex, labella partly sclerotized, a

long tooth on third antennal segment, wings strongly patterned,

or other striking specializations, see couplet 25 .

. . . Diachlorini 2

1'. Basicosta with setae as dense as on adjoining costa. With-

out vestiges of ocelli or sclerotizations on labella, and

rarely with other striking specializations. ... .Tabanini 34

2(1). With one or both of the following characters: Basal plate at

third antennal segment with an acute dorsal spine or tooth;

labella of proboscis compact and with at least some shiny

sclerotized areas . . 3

2'. Without either of the above characters, the basal plate of

most obtusely angled above and the labella wholly pollinose .18

3(2). Basal plate of third antennal segment with at most an obtuse

angle, 90 or more, never excessively long nor with first

antennal segment cylindrical and elongate. Labella of proboscis

partly or wholly sclerotized. . . 4

3'. Basal plate with a long or short spine or acute angle, or

greatly elongate, both style and first antenna segment

unusually long. Labella sclerotized or not . 6

4(3). First antennal segment shiny and globose, moderately to

markedly inflated. Subcallus inflated and shiny. Extreme

apex of wing sharply hyaline. Vein 3 bent forward, 1st

submarginal cell somewhat coarctate ... .Bolbodimyia (p.193)






-30-


4'. First antennal segment normal, subcallus pollinose. Wing

otherwise . . . 5

5(4'). Frontal callus absent. Pale yellowish or greenish unicolorous

stout flies with wings hyaline or with small discrete black

spots . . ... Chlorotabanus (p.205)

5'. Frontal callus present, small and rounded, usually with a

slender upper ridge-like extension. Wings generally with dark

pattern, sometimes hyaline. ... Phaeotabanus (p.212)

6(3'). Frontal callus as wide as frons, or if not, frons widened

below, callus rounded and protuberant and bare areas on face.

Eyes usually with at least a median dark transverse stripe,

generally with several green or purple stripes, rarely uni-

colorous. Slender species, the tibiae slender, abdomen never

green. Antennae not unusually long, the first segment notably

shorter than basal plate. Dorsal spine short to very long.

Style not unusually hirsute, rarely longer than plate, slender.

Abdomen slightly if at all constricted. Wings various, rarely

unpatterned. Labella often entirely sclerotized .

. . .Dichelacera s.Z. 7 (p.221)

6'. Frontal callus narrower than frons; if not, then triangular

and extended upward in a ridge, the lower angles barely

touching eyes, or tibiae incrassate or abdomen greenish. Eyes

unicolorous or bicolored, very rarely striped .. 11

7(6). Labella of proboscis wholly sclerotized and shiny. Wings with

a diagonal dark fascia from apex to fifth posterior cell.

Eyes with one or more transverse bands except in ochracea.






-31-


Scutellum nearly always darker than adjoining mesonotum; the

latter usually transversely banded . .

. .. DicheZacera (Dichelacera) (p.221)

7'. Labella partly pollinose. Wings otherwise. Eyes banded or

unicolorous. Scutellum often paler than mesonotum, the latter

never transversely banded .... ....... 8

8(7'). Frontoclypeus inflated and shiny, the genae bare, or at least

with bare stripe. Antennal tooth short, not reaching end of

basal plate. Wings with area anterior to vein R infuscated,

or apical third of wing dusky, or wing largely black, rarely

with vestiges of a diagonal dark fascia. Subcallus pollinose.

Scutellum generally with some pale hairs, often contrastingly

pale. All tibiae at least basally white. Eyes usually banded.

. .. Dichelacera (Nothocanthocera) (p.238)

8'. Frontoclypeus pollinose or partly bare, genae pollinese.

Wings not as above. . ... ....... 9

9(8'). Center of frontoclypeus and subcallus bare and shiny. Wings

yellowish tinted, with area beyond fork of third vein and

apex of discal cell faintly dusky. Mesonotum striped, the

scutellum black. Eyes unbanded . . .

. .. Dichelacera (IdiocheZacera) (p.240)

9'. Frontoclypeus and subcallus wholly pollinose. ... 10

10(9'). Wing with irregular dark discal patch, extended along costa

to apex, and with an extension along R4. Vertex rather

sunken, without vestiges of tubercle. Scutellum brown or

pale haired. Abdomen with pale haired triangles on tergites





-32-


2 or 3 to 4. Eyes bicolored or unicolorous. Legs unicolorous

or the tibiae darker than femora . .

. .. Dichelacera (Orthostyloceras) (p.246)

10'. Wing black with hyaline apex and hyaline band from costa to

hind margin covering ends of basal cells. Body black with

white triangle on fourth abdominal tergite. Legs black, only

fore tibiae bicolored. Eyes unicolorous . .

. Dichelacera (DesmatocheZacera) (p.243)

11(6'). Tibiae all slender. Tubercle at vertex generally distinct and

prominent, rarely obsolete. Palpi slender to threadlike.

Proboscis generally with small compact labella, wholly or

partly sclerotized, rarely wholly membranous. Antennae slender,

the dorsal spine slender, pointed, rarely shorter than basal

plate. Frons usually narrow, the callus clavate or ridge like,

rarely otherwise. Wings nearly always patterned, rarely

lightly tinted, never wholly clear. Catachlorops 12 (p.249)

11'. Tibiae inflated, or tubercle at vertex absent, or palpi inflated,

or dorsal antennal spine clubbed or very short or frons broad

. . . 15

12(11). First posterior cell closed or strongly coarctate. Frons very

narrow, the callus ridge like. Wings with dark pattern which

leaves area around apices of basal cells or most of discal

cell, and apex or oval spots in first R and third R clear

or paler. Antennae with long slender tooth, its apex often

recurved. Labella wholly sclerotized. Palpi very slender. .

. Catachlorops (Psalidia) (p.252)





-33-


12'. First posterior cell open; if somewhat coarctate, then wings

otherwise. . . ... ... 13

13(12'). Wings with a dark discal patch which includes all of discal

cell, the latter sometimes fenestrate, or wings wholly black,

or black with hyaline apex, the basal cells hyaline or partly

or wholly dark. Frontal callus often clavate. Labella often

partly pollinose. Thorax at most faintly striped .

. Catachlorops (Catachlorops) (p.256)

13'. Wings not as above . ... 14

14(13'). Wings with definite pattern of bands or spots. Pattern similar

to Psalidia, but more reduced (Fig. 43) . .

. .. Catachlorops (Psarochlorops) (p.259)

14'. Wings without definite pattern, yellow, smoky or veins

brown margined. Slender species with partly sclerotized

labella, slender palpi and slender antennae (Fig. 57) .

. .. CatachZorops (AmphichZorops) (p.249)

15(11'). Palpi basally inflated. Proboscis short, heavy, labella

wholly sclerotized. Stout species with proportionately short

stout antennae . . ... .. 16

15'. Palpi long, slender, generally exceeding antennae. Proboscis

long to very long, slender, the labella pollinose. Not

stout chunky species, the antennae slender. Brown species

with a dark wing pattern which leaves area around ends of

basal cells and apex of wing hyaline or paler . .

. . Dasychela (p. 262)

16(15) Dorsal tooth on third antennal segment short, an acute angle

to a short spine, seldom exceeding end of basal plate. Fore





-34-


tibiae slender to moderately inflated, remaining tibiae

slender. Wings hyaline or slightly smoky, or veins brown

margined. Abdomen and appendages often greenish in life.

Not bee-like species . .... ... .17

16'. Dorsal tooth always exceeding end of basal plate, sometimes

nearly reaching apex of style, often clubbed. Fore tibiae

always incrassate, remaining tibiae generally also inflated.

Wings various, never wholly hyaline or uniformly tinted,

generally with black or contrasting pattern, often resembling

bees . .... .Stibasoma (Stibasoma) (p.304)

17(16). Frontal callus reduced to a short narrow ridge, small streak,

or virtually absent. Wings glass clear to faintly smoky,

the costal cell yellowish. Yellow, greenish, or brown uni-

colorous species, the legs unicolorous, the body without

contrasting hair patterns ... Cryptotylus (p.319)

17'. Frontal callus round or square, as wide as frons, extended

above in a broad or narrow ridge. Wings yellowing or smoky,

veins sometimes brown margined. Thorax brown, abdomen

strongly greenish or yellowish, both body and legs with con-

trasting hair patterns .... .Stibasoma (Rhabdotylus) (p.316)

18(2'). Discal cell of wing narrowed by anterior bending of vein M3.

small blackish species with wings largely black to beyond

discal cell, inflated shiny palpi, inflated tibiae, and

elongate first antennal segment. ... LepiseZaga s.1. (p.375)

18'. Discal cell normal . . ... .. 19

19(18'). Wing basally black or heavily tinted to ends of basal cells,

remainder hyaline. Whole face and entire body including






-35-


legs, black and shiny. Palpi strongly inflated. Third

antennal segment subcylindrical, without marked dorsal

angle ... . Himantostylus (p.183)

19'. Wings otherwise . . 20

20(19'). Mesopleuron and mesosternum darker than adjoining sclerites,

the mesopleuron shiny pearly pollinose. Wings usually with

dark markings, the apex often blackish. Eyes with character-

istic pattern of green spots and stripes, resembling Chrysops.

. . Diachlorus (p.186)

20'. Mesopleuron and mesosternum concolorous with adjoining

sclerites, not pearly pollinose. Wings various. Eyes uni-

colorous or banded, but not as above . .... 21

21(20'). Eyes bare with at least two transverse bands in life, light on

dark, or dark on light, the light usually greenish, the dark

purplish or blackish. Mostly small species with bare eyes,

moderately broad frons with often a median dark-haired patch,

and rounded or square callus generally as wide as frons.

(If frons very narrow, callus ridge like and eyes unbanded,

see Stypommisa couplet 33. ... Stenotabanus s.Z. 22 (p.158)

21'. Eyes hairy, unicolorous. Basal callus broad, as wide as frons.

Vertex without ocellar tubercle . .

. Dasybasis (Dasybasis) (p.152)

22(21). Antennal style with basal 2 annuli partly fused, appearing

3 annulate. Frons very broad, the callus less than half

width of frons ..... .Stenotabanus (Brachytabanus) (p.177)

22'. Antennal style normal, clearly 4 annulate. Frons and callus

not as above . . . 23


N=





-36-


23(22'). Subcallus and face largely bare and shiny. Scutellum con-

trastingly pale haired . .... 24

23'. At least face wholly pollinose . . .

. Stenotabanus (Stenotabanus) (p.161)

24(23). Wings glass clear, the stigma yellow. Eyes with slender

green lines forming two narrow transverse loops .

. . Stenotabanus (Stenochlorops)

24'. Wings hyaline with a subapical costal brown patch. Eye with

2 iridescent dark blue stripes on a black background .

. Stenotabanus (subgen. nov.) (p.179)

25(1). Basicosta with few to numerous setae, but seldom with setae

as dense as on adjoining costa. Generally with one or more

of the following characters: tubercle at vertex; bare areas

on face; partly sclerotized labella of proboscis; long dorsal

spine on plate of third antennal segment; first antennal seg-

ment subcylindrical; wings with extensive dark pattern;

swollen tibiae . ... . 26

25'. Basicosta with setae as dense as on adjoining costa. Rarely

with any of the above characters ... 34

25(25). All tibiae greatly inflated. Wings black to middle of discal

cell, hyaline beyond. Palpi greatly inflated, shiny black.

Subcallus and face shiny black. Third antennal segment with

basal plate much longer than style, flattened, obtusely angled

above. . .... .Selasoma (p.203)

26'. Tibiae not inflated. . .... 27

27(26'). Face wholly subshiny, much produced. Wings black except

for axillary area and apices of basal cells. Vertex with





-37-


a well marked tubercle. Antennae slender, no strong tooth

on basal plate . Hemichrysops (p.190)

27'. Face entirely pollinose. ... 28

28(27'). Basal plate with acute dorsal angle or long spine which may

reach beyond first annulus of style. Frons seldom over

4 times as high as wide. Frontal callus clavate, occasionally

as wide as frons at base, usually narrower. Palpi rather

long and stout, never very slender nor markedly inflated

basally. Eyes often pilose. Wings very rarely entirely

hyaline, generally with a dark discal patch below stigma

and usually with discal cell fenestrate. Basicosta rarely

bare . . .. Dicladocera (p.265)

28'. Basal plate with dorsal angle obtuse, or frons much

narrower . . . 29

29(28'). Wings with extensive dark pattern not consisting of spots on

crossveins. If wings apparently unmarked, then thorax

prominently striped or frons exceedingly narrow and callus

threadlike . .. .. . 30

29'. Wings hyaline, tinted or with dark pattern primarily of dark

spots around crossveins. ... . 32

30(29). Wings with an irregular dark pattern of variable extent

which always leaves clear areas surrounding all crossveins

and fork of third vein. Frons narrow, 7 or more times as

high as wide. Palpi very slender. Eyes unicolorous,

bronzy in life .... .Philipotabanus (Philipotabanus) (p.323)

30'. Wings ranging from almost all black to hyaline with small

dark area below stigma, but crossveins not surrounded by

clear spots when within dark areas . .... 31





-38-


31(30'). Slender species with frons 7 times as high as wide or narrower;

palpi and antennae slender; proboscis considerably longer

than palpi with small labella. Eyes bright green in life .

... .. Philipotabanus (Melasmatabanus) (p.325)

31'. Stouter species with frons not over 6 times as high as wide;

palpi inflated, antennae broader; proboscis hardly longer

than palpi, the labella large. Eyes green or brick red in

life . .. Philipotabanus (Mimotabanus) (p.331)

32(29'). All crossveins and ends of all longitudinal veins close to

wing margin with large dark spots, sometimes confluent.

Frons broad, not over 3 times as high as wide, the callus

rounded, pointed above, as wide as frons. Vertex with

distinct tubercle. Palpi slender, flattened, shorter than

long proboscis. Thorax prominently striped . .

. . Spilotabanus (p.214)

32'. Wings never as extensively spotted, never with distinct

spots on ends of longitudinal veins. Palpi not flattened,

proboscis short . .... .. 33

33(32'). Wings hyaline or evenly tinted, the costal cell often darker,

but never with spots on crossveins or apical clouds. Frontal

callas clavate or ridge like. Abdomen black or brown, nearly

always with transverse bands at least on fourth tergite,

rarely otherwise. At least scutellum and often mesonotum

pale pollinose and pale haired, generally contrasting with

abdomen. Appendix on fork of third vein absent. Eyes un-

banded, dark . .... Leucotabanus (p.367)






-39-


33'. Wings with clouds on at least discal crossveins, often with

apical infuscations. If entirely hyaline or tinted, then ab-

domen and thorax not as above. Often with appendix or fork of

third vein. Eyes unbanded, green or bronze, or light with

single dark stripe. Frontal callus variable. Rarely with

basicosta bare. .. ... .. .. Stypomisa (p. 346)

34(1,25').First antennal segment with dorsal anterior margin much pro-

duced, cap like. Eyes of female with 2 green bands, often

bare or very sparsely pilose. Tubercle at vertex usually low

and rounded, sometimes absent. Wings with crossveins often

clouded, the first posterior cell generally at least coarctate,

often closed and petiolate. ... Poecioderas (p. 378)

34'. First antennal segment not as above .... 35

35(34'). Vertex with a strong tubercle, often bearing vestiges of

ocelli. Eyes unicolorous, greenish black. Frontal callus

clavate or ridge like. Abdomen plain or banded, never striped.

At least scutellum and often mesonotum pale pollinose and

pale haired, generally contrasting with abdomen (see also

couplet 33) . .... Leucotabanus (p. 367)

35'. Vertex with at most a small denuded spot. Eyes variously

patterned or unicolorous, bare ... .Tabanus (p. 387)





-40-


Genus Esenbeckia Rondani

Esenbeckia Rondani 1863, Arch. Zool. Mod. 3(1):83. Philip 1945,

Rev. Brasil. Ent., 2:1-10, key.

Style of male genitalia is bifid. Frons with a ridge-like callus

which may be bare or pollinose. Fairchild states

[they] do not have a produced conical frontoclypeus,
the palpi project at nearly a right angle to the axis
of the proboscis and are usually fairly long and curved.
The proboscis is seldom over twice the height of the
head, often less than head height, slender to quite heavy,
the labella ranging from slender to broad, and either
partly or wholly sclerotized. The antennae have the
first two segments short, hardly longer than wide, the
third of 8 annuli, the first few much wider than long,
the terminal segments longer than wide, so that the
whole segment tapers from a broad base to a slender and
attenuated apex. The eyes are always bare and unicolorous,
green, bronzy or blackish in life. The wings are clear,
tinted, blackish or varicolored, and nearly always have
the first posterior cell closed and with a long appendix
at fork of third vein. Legs are slender and relatively
long. (Unpublished, 1978)

Of the 76 named Neotropical species 16 are reported from Colombia

and 9 from the study area.


Key to Esenbeckia species

1. Labella wholly sclerotized and forceps-like when viewed from

above (Fig. II). Thorax blackish with whitish pleural hairs.

The abdomen blackish with narrow fringes of white hairs on the

apical borders of all sternites and tergites. Wings fumose.

Legs entirely black. (Proboscoides) ecuadoriensis chagresensis

1'. Labella not forceps-like (Fig. ID). Abdomen without narrow fringes

of white hairs on the apical borders of all sternites and

tergites. . . .... .. .. 2

2(1'). Abdomen pale green to dark green contrasting with brown to

reddish thorax. Anterior 2 pairs of legs pale, the posterior

generally darker. Wings lightly fumose .. .prasiniventris






-41-


2'. Abdomen not as above, yellow to black, variously patterned. .. 3

3(2'). Without contrasting dark markings. Mainly yellowish to pale

brown species . . ... 4

3'. Always with contrasting dark markings . 5

4(3). Very small species, usually 10mm or less. Wings strongly smoky

at base and costal border. First tergite contrastingly whitish.

Hind femora dusky, contrasting with paler tibiae (Fig. IE-H)

. . minuscule n. sp.

4'. Larger species, generally over 12mm. Wings more uniformly

smoky. First tergite concolorous with second. Hind femora

not darker than rest of legs. . illota osornoi

5(3'). Wings distinctly bicolored (Fig. 14), basally yellowish,

apically and along anal margin blackish brown. Abdomen banded.

. . tinctipennis

5'. Wings unpatterned, wholly pale brown to blackish brown. Abdomen

generally not banded. . . 6

6(5'). At least first 2 pairs of legs bicolored. Tergites 1-4 with

prominent posterolateral hair tufts. Thorax and scutellum

black, subshiny, thinly pale pollinose. . 7

6'. Legs not bicolored, black or yellow. Tergites 2-5 without

prominent posterolateral tufts. Thorax and scutellum brown to

red, densely yellowish to reddish pollinose . 8

7(6). Dorsum of abdomen dark reddish brown with obscure black mid-

dorsal markings on tergites 1-4. Venter bright shiny mahogany

red . . ... .... testaceiventris

7'. Dorsum of abdomen dull yellowish with a small black triangle

on tergite 2, and dark transverse anterior bands on 3. Venter yel-

low with lateral black spots on first few tergites tigrinaa n. sp.





-42-


8(6'). Legs wholly pale orange brown. Beard, thoracic and pleural

hairs rufous. First 2 abdominal tergites pale yellow without

middorsal markings. Remainder of abdomen shiny dark brown to

black . .... . balteata n. sp.

8'. Legs unicolorous blackish brown to black. Beard and pleural

hairs pale gray to white, contrasting with thoracic dorsum.

Second abdominal tergite with a faint to prominent dark

narrow triangle or streak .... translucens


Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) balteata n. sp.
(Fig. 2A-D)

A medium sized reddish brown species with first 2 abdominal seg-

ments translucent yellow above, beard and pleural hairs deep yellow,

legs unicolorous yellowish brown and wings smoky brown.

Female. Length 17mm, of wing 19mm. Head characters as figured.

Frontal index 2.0. Frons and subcallus yellowish brown pollinose,

paler along borders; vestiture of a few very small dark hairs except

those above ocelli which are longer and thicker. Callus yellowish brown.

Eye color not noted. Genae pale yellow brown, frontoclypeus yellowish

brown. Antennae pale brownish yellow, first 2 segments with pale yel-

lowish brown pollinosity. Vestiture of segment 1 long sparse pale yellow

hairs with a few ventral long black hairs. Hairs of segment 2 light

brown above and a mixture of brown and black below. Palpi yellowish

brown, black haired except for some orange yellow hairs on the first seg-

ment. Proboscis shiny brown sclerotized. Oculogenal hairs (Figs. ID,

iE, 2D, 2H, found on the upper gena in the suture separating the gena

from the frontoclypeus) short, sparse, and brown. Upper lateral parts

of frontoclypeus with a few pale yellow hairs. Beard orange yellow ex-

cept for some dark hairs between the base of the palpi and the eye.






-43-


Mesonotum and scutellum yellowish brown, yellowish brown pollinose,

mesonotum slightly paler posteriorly and laterally. Vestiture of

short yellowish brown hairs except for 2 small yellow tufts, one just

above wing base, the other just behind wing base. Pleura and coxae

with brown ground color showing through pale yellowish brown pollinosity.

Vestiture of sparse long orange yellow hairs, densest below wing bases

and just behind head. Procoxae clothed dorsally with long yellow

orange hairs on basal two-thirds and with shorter dark brown hairs

apically. Pro- and mesofemora light yellowish brown with a mixture of

short sparse erect brown and yellow hairs, brown hairs predominating

on the mesofemora. Metafemora light brown with short brown hairs.

Pro- and mesotibiae and tarsi pale yellowish brown with short recumbant

yellow hairs. Metatibia and tarsi light brown with short reddish

yellow hairs. Halteres, knob brownish yellow, stem dusky. Wings smoky

brown. First posterior cell petiolate, fourth coarctate, long appendix

at fork of third vein.

Abdomen above with first 2 segments translucent pale yellow. Re-

maining segments dark reddish brown, segment 3 slightly lighter. Below

segments 1, 2 and 3 translucent pale yellow, segment 3 with small

lateral dark spots and 4 with lateral dark areas each occupying one-

fourth the width of the segment. Remaining segments dark reddish brown.

Vestiture primarily of short dark brown hairs most numerous on the

terminal segments with pale hairs anteriorly and laterally on first

segment, on the apical border of segment 2 below, and laterally on

segments 2-4.

Male. Not known.

Distribution. Colombia (Valle).





-44-


0
Material examined. Colombia: Holotype, +, Valle, "Rio Bravo -

Playa Rica," below dam Lago Calima, from livestock, 3 Feb. 1976,

R. Wilkerson coll. Paratypes, as above, 19 17 Jan. 1976; Valle,
00
Lago Calima, 8km below dam, 1250m, from livestock, 2++ 17 Jan. 1976,

R. Wilkerson coll.

Discussion. The 3 paratypes are 13, 14 and 15mm in length and

have frontal indices of 3.2, 3.3 and 3.3. The paratypes agree well with

above description, except the third segment of the abdomen below is

variable, one specimen has less coloration laterally, another has longer

more diffuse lateral spots and a median dark triangle.

E. balteata is similar to E. translucens (Macquart) in general

appearance since both have the first 2 abdominal segments translucent

yellow. Translucens differs though by having a dark brown callus,

pale gray beard, pale gray pollinose and gray haired pleura, and

blackish legs. In addition the antennae, palpi, and proboscis of

translucens are much stouter and reddish brown to black.

The name, balteata, meaning "belted," refers to the pale yellow

anterior abdominal segments.



Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) illota osoroi Fairchild

Esenbeckia illota osornoi Fairchild 1942, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer.,

35(2):196, pl. 11, fig. 11., +, Panama; 1971, Cat. Dipt. S. Amer.,

Fasc. 28:7.

A medium sized light yellow brown fly with pale yellow or brown

vestiture throughout, unicolorous light brown legs, and pale smoky

wings.





-45-


Female. Length ll-14mm (N=10, x=12.5mm). Frontal index 4.2-

5.8 (x=4.7). Frons, subcallus, genae and frontoclypeus yellowish brown

pollinose. Callus light brown, slender, tapering above and below, not

reaching subcallus or ocelli. Eyes yellowish bronze in life. First

2 antennal segments light yellow, the third light orange yellow. Palpi

light yellow brown, rather slender, outer aspect bare except for short

black hairs on borders. Oculogenal hairs quite sparse or lacking.

Beard of pale yellow hairs. Proboscis slender, shiny brown sclerotized,

slightly longer than head is high.

Mesonotum light yellowish brown with thin light yellow and light

brown setae. Pleura light yellow with pale hairs. Legs light yellowish

brown with pale hairs. Wings nearly hyaline with a pale brown tint.

Abdomen variable, first 2 segments translucent, light yellow, re-

mainder light yellow to brown with sparse to heavy yellowish brown

pollinosity. Vestiture variable with short light yellow to brown

hairs above, yellowish brown hairs below.

Male. Males are similar in color, the upper eye facets are larger

but there is no sharp line separating them from the smaller facets

below. Male palpi are slender, nearly threadlike.

Distribution. Fairchild (1942a)divided E. illota (Williston) into

a number of poorly marked subspecies. The nominate form is known from

southern Mexico to Honduras. E. illota osornoi from Costa Rica to

Colombia (Cundinamarca, Meta, Santander Sur); other subspecies occur

east of the Andes.

Material examined. Panama, 12?0, 3&c. Colombia: Amazonas;
00
17km W of Leticia, flight trap, 2++ 25 July 1973, Wilkerson and Young

coll.





-46-


Discussion. Fairchild (unpublished, 1978) reports this to be a

nocturnal and crepuscular species that shows preference for localities

near rivers and swamps. Although not reported from northwestern

Colombia,Bequaert and Renjifo (1946) saw specimens from Cundinamarca;

Meta, Restrepo; and a paratype from Santander, Rio Negro. Fairchild

(1942a)lists one paratype from Meta, Restrepo.

Two specimens collected at Leticia (Amazonas) may be E. illota

guianense Fairchild but show little difference from illota. Since the

taxonomic problems involved in this group are unresolved I will

consider them to be osornoi for purposes of this paper.



Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) minuscule n. sp.
(Fig. 1E-li)

A small yellowish brown species with slender palpi and proboscis,

unicolorous light yellowish brown legs, smoky brown wings and abdominal

segment 1 translucent, whitish.

Female. Length 8mm, of wing 10mm. Head characters as figured.

Frontal index 4.3. Frons, subcallus, genae, and frontoclypeus brownish

yellow pollinose. Callus light brown. Vestiture of a few very small

brown hairs on upper half and a small clump of thick short hairs above

ocelli. Eye color not noted. First 2 antenna segments light yellow

with dark brown hairs, third segment light brownish yellow. Palpi

brownish yellow with dark brown hairs. Proboscis slightly longer than

head is high, slender, shiny dark brown sclerotized. Oculogenal hairs

very sparse, light yellow. Beard sparse and light yellow except for a

few dark hairs between the bases of the palpi and the eye.

Mesonotum and scutellum light yellowish brown in ground color,

slightly darker laterally, along sutures, down the midline and





-47-


posterioraly, both covered with some light yellow pollinosity.

Vestiture of short light yellow hairs, longer and more numerous

laterally and posteriorly. Pleura light yellow pollinose below wing

bases changing to brown beneath. Vestiture of sparse pale yellow

hairs, longer and more numerous below wing base. Coxac brown with

sparse light yellow pollinosity. Coxal vestiture long, yellow hairs

predominating basally, long dark brown hairs predominating apically.

Profemora light yellowish brown with short light yellow hairs, meso-

femora yellowish brown with short light brown hairs above, and sparse

dark brown hairs below, metafemora brown with hairs as mesofemora.

Pro- and mesotibiae and tarsi light yellow with light yellow hairs.

Metatibiae light brownish yellow with light yellow and a few brown

hairs. Metatarsi yellowish brown with light brown hairs. Halteres

light yellow. Wings nearly hyaline with a pale brown tint; costal

margin and base of wing darker.

Abdomen with first segment translucent, whitish, pale haired.

Remaining segments pale yellowish brown with pale yellow pollinosity,

vestiture a mixture of short brown and a few brownish yellow hairs.

Distribution. Colombia (Valle).
O
Material examined. Colombia: Ilolotype, +, Valle, Rio Frio,
0
La Carmelita, 13 June 1942, J. Renjifo coll. Paratype, +, same data

as above.

Discussion. Paratype is as holotype, length 8mm, frontal index

3.9, denuded area around callus slightly larger. Specimen lacks

terminal segments of both antennae.

E. minusculus is similar to E. illota osornoi Fairchild, with

which it may be sympatric, but has a contrastingly pale first abdominal






-48-


tergite which osornoi does not, has dusky hind femora, has a darker

wing base and costal margin, and paler halteres. It much resembles

E. illota illota, but is hardly half the size of that species and has

darkened, not pale hind femora.



Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) prasiniventris (Macquart)

Pangonia prasiniventris Macquart 1845, Mem. Soc. Sci. Lille (1846),
0
p. 161, pl. 111, fig. 9., +, Colombia

Esenbeckia prasiniventris: Fairchild 1942, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer.,

35:197-198, full refs.

A medium sized fly with a pale brown thorax, light to dark green

abdomen and yellow prothoracic and mesothoracic legs and dark brown

metathoracic legs.

Female. Length ll-15mm (N=10, x=13.3mm). Frontal index 3.7-

5.4 (x=4.3). Frons and subcallus yellow pollinose. Callus dark brown,

tapering gradually above, not touching subcallus below. Genae and

frontoclypeus sparsely grayish pollinose. Oculogenal hairs pale and

sparse. Antennae and palpi yellow. Palpi slightly pointed, outer

aspects with hairs on the borders only. Eyes bright bluish green in

life. Proboscis rather slender, as long as head is high, shiny

sclerotized. Beard and pleural hairs variable, white, gray or orange.

Mesonotum pale greenish brown with many short light yellow hairs.

Pleura pale gray pollinose. Legs as above. Wings pale smoky brown.

Abdominal color variable ranging from pale yellowish green to

blackish green. Vestiture is of short dark brown hairs above, short

dark brown and pale hairs below.

Male. Males are paler overall, have eyes with equal sized facets

throughout and short porrect palpi.





-49-


Distribution. Guatamala to Brazil, Trinidad. Colombia

(Cundinamarca, Magdalena).

Material examined. Panama, 34++, 7fe.

Discussion. No examples of this species were taken during the

course of this study nor has it been reported in Valle, Choco, or

Antioquia. Beuqaert and Renjifo (1946) saw specimens from

Cundinamarca, Bogota, and Magdalena, Rio Frio, Agua Dulce, and San

Lorenzo Mts.



Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) testaceiventris (Macquart)
(Fig. 2E-H)

Pangonia testaceiventris Macquart 1848, Mem. Soc. Roy. des Sci.,

de 1'Agr. et des Arts Lille 1847(2):169 (also separately published
0
as Supplement 111:9), +, Quito.

Esenbeckia testaceiventris: Krober 1932, Rev. Entom., Rio de

Janeiro, 2:68, figs. 15, 16.

Pangonia umbra Walker 1850, Insecta Saundersiana, Diptera 1:19.

Esenbeckia sexmaculata Enderlein 1925, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin,

11(2):288.

Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) testaceiventris: Fairchild 1971, Cat.

S. Amer. Dipt. Fasc. 28:9, synonomy.

A large robust dark reddish brown fly with a pale yellow beard,

bicolored yellowish brown and black legs, smoky brown wings, and

abdomen with large black middorsal markings and lateral white or pale

yellow hair patches.

Female. Length 16-19mm (N=6, x=17mm). Frontal index (3 specimens

from western Colombia), 3.1-3.3 (x=3.2), and (3 specimens from eastern






-50-


Colombia) 3.5-4.3 (x=4.0). Frons divergent below, 1.1-1.4 (x=1.24)

wider than vertex. Head structures as figured. Frons dark orange

brown pollinose with sparse slender black hairs. Callus blackish

brown. Tubercle at vertex densely long haired, pollinose, bearing 3

small and doubtfully functional ocelli. Subcallus dark yellowish brown

pollinose. Genae and frontoclypeus with the black ground color showing

through the sparse yellow pollinosity. Oculogenal hairs dense, long,

pale yellow, as is beard. First antennal segment black, dark gray

pollinose above, yellow pollinose below with corresponding black and

yellow hairs. Second segment dark gray pollinose with black hairs.

Third segment dark brown, slightly darker toward tip. Palpi brown,

black haired. Outer aspect concave,mostly bare, inner aspect slightly

convex with a few short black hairs over its entire surface. Proboscis

slightly longer than head height, black and entirely shiny sclerotized.

Mesonotum and scutellum dark blackish brown, thinly pollinose,

faintly lighter around sutures, clothed with sparse vestiture mainly of

blackish hairs, paler above wing bases and on pronotal lobes. All

hairs longer and more numerous posteriorly and laterally. Pleura

light yellowish gray pollinose. Vestiture of numerous long yellow

hairs mixed with a few black hairs on the mesoanepisternum. Pro- and

mesocoxae as pleura, metacoxae blackish gray pollinose, black haired.

Femora blackish gray, brownish yellow toward the apex, with rather

long mixed yellowish and black hairs. Pro- and mesotibiae brownish

yellow clothed with very short mainly pale hairs as are the tarsi.

Metatibiae and tarsi black with longer outstanding hairs. Metatarsi

black above, reddish below. Ilalteres cream colored, stem dusky. Base

of costa deeply grooved. Wings smoky brown. First posterior cell


~





-51-


petiolate, fourth posterior cell slightly coarctate. Appendix at fork

of third vein.

Abdomen broad, somewhat flattened, integument shiny except for

pollinose first segment laterally. Color of integument dorsally

intense deep reddish brown. Tergite 1 black. Tergites 2-4 deep

reddish brown with broad irregular inverted black triangles, the

triangle on 2 broadly reaching its posterior margin, the triangles on

3 and 4 only half as wide as segment but with thin faint black lines

reaching their posterior margins. Tergites 3 and 4 with lateral black

areas and 4 with a broad black apical margin. Remaining tergites

black. Abdomen below paler reddish brown with small lateral black

spots on sternites 2-4. Remaining sternites black. The vestiture

above is of short black hairs and becomes denser and longer posteri-

orly, laterally segments 2-4 bear small but prominent tufts of silvery

white hairs. Beneath the vestiture is somewhat longer and denser than

dorsally.

Male. Not known.

Distribution. Colombia (Valle, Cundinamarca, Meta), Ecuador,

Venezuela.
oo
Material examined. Colombia: Meta; Villavicencio, 3++ Sept. 1940;

Valle; Penas Blancas, 1750m, from bait horse, 1l 29 April 1975,

I1 9 June 1975; Lago Calima, from livestock, 10 22 Aug. 1975.

Discussion. The above description is primarily of the specimens

from Penas Blancas. The example from Lago Calima has broader palpi,

lacks the black lateral spots on the abdomen below, has a narrower

black triangle on tergite 2, and the triangle on 3 reaches the

apical margin.





-52-


The specimens from west of the Andes (Penas Blancas, Lago Calima)

are somewhat different from a homotype (compared to Pangonia

testaceiventris, P. umbra, and Esenbeckia sexmaculata) and the 2

other examples from Meta in eastern Colombia. The eastern specimens

have shorter more rounded palpi, a somewhat shorter less stout proboscis,

the apical third of the pro- and mesofemora yellowish brown, instead

of only the extreme apex, and instead of wholly black the apex of the

metafemora and all of the metatibiae and metatarsi are yellowish brown.

Further study may show these two to represent subspecies or even

separate species.



Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) tigrina n. sp.
(Fig. 1A-D)

A large robust fly with bicolorous yellow and black legs, a dark

yellowish brown mesonotum, smoky brown wings, and abdomen with the

first two segments clear yellow, the third yellow and dark reddish

brown, the remainder dark reddish brown.

Female. Length 17mm, of wing 18mm. Frontal index 3.9, con-

vergent above, 0.73 as wide at top as base. Frons, palpi and antennae

as figured. Frons dark yellow pollinose, dark brownish yellow along

sides and below callus. Tubercle raised, dark brownish yellow polli-

nose with 3 apparently functional ocelli. Vestiture of very short

erect yellow hairs, a small group of medium length black hairs at the

vertex. Callus brownish yellow. Callus and frons swollen except for

slight depression below callus and above subcallus. Eyes bare, green

in life. Subcallus dark brown mesially, dark yellow pollinose

laterally and around antennal bases. Genae and frontoclypeus grayish





-53-


yellow pollinose. A row of yellow oculogenal hairs present. Beard

yellow. Antennal segments 1 and 2 pale grayish yellow pollinose.

First segment bare above and dark blackish brown anteriorally. Third

segment pale reddish brown basally, becoming dusky apically. Antennal

hairs black except for yellow hairs on ventral half of first segment.

Palpi pale reddish brown, pale yellow pruinose. Apical two-thirds

flattened, slightly concave and nearly denuded on the outside surface.

Inner aspects similar but not concave and with short black hairs.

Proboscis slender, nearly completely sclerotized, shiny, and as long

as head is high.

Mesonotum and scutellum black in ground color, yellow pollinose.

Vestiture of many slender light brown and yellow hairs, longer and more

numerous laterally, posteriorly on the mesonotum, and on the scutellum.

There are 2 thick tufts of yellow hairs, just above and behind the wing

base. Pleura gray pollinose with abundant yellow hairs, with thicker

tufts, 1 below the costa, the other below the caliptera. Coxae gray

pollinose. Procoxae with long yellow hairs on the basal half and a

mixture of long yellow and black hairs apically, other coxae with

yellow hairs. Pro- and mesofemora blackish brown on basal half and

two-thirds respectively, the remainder yellow brown. Hairs of pro- and

mesofemora a mixture of yellow and black hairs predominating on but

not restricted to the yellow and dark areas. Metafemora mostly blackish

brown, yellow at tip, mostly black haired with a few yellow hairs

dorsally. Pro- and mesotibiae yellow brown with very short yellow

hairs. Pro- and mesotarsi as tibiae basally changing to dark yellow

brown apically. Metatibiae and metatarsi dark yellow brown. Hlalteres

yellow. Wings smoky brown. First posterior cell petiolate, fourth





-54-


posterior cell slightly coarctate. Fork of third vein with a long

appendix. Dorsum of abdomen with segment 1 translucent, pale yellow

and yellow haired. Tergite 2 translucent pale yellow except for a

small median black spot on anterior margin approximately a third the

width of the segment with a thin extension reaching two-thirds the

distance to posterior margin. Vestiture of tergite 2 of short sparse

black hair anteriorly, more numerous laterally, the posterior third

with short yellow hairs. Tergite 3 with lateral black spots which

reach two-thirds distance to posterior margin and extend a third the

distance to midline. Area between spots anteriorly dark reddish brown,

posteriorly to apical margin dark yellow. Vestiture black anteri-

orly, yellow posteriorly, the hairs more numerous laterally.

Tergites 4-6 dark reddish brown. Vestiture mostly of black hairs

with yellow hairs along posterior and posterolateral margins of segment

4. Ventrally segments 1-3 mostly pale yellow. Sternite 2 with a

pair of small sublateral black spots. Sternite 3 with similar but

larger spots. Vestiture mostly of short yellow hairs with black hair

on and around spots. Sternite 4 as 2 and 3 but the spots expanded

to bands fading at the midline and not reaching posterior margin.

Other sternites dark reddish brown.

Male. Not known.

Distribution. Colombia (Valle).
0
Material examined. Colombia: Holotype, +,Valle, Penas Blancas,

1750m, 10km W Cali, caught flying near flank of cow at 1500hrs, 30

Dec. 1974, R. Wilkerson coll. Paratypes, Colombia, Valle, Penas

Blancas, 1950m, 50, all from a bait horse, 23 Dec. 1974, 12, 15, 21,

and 31 Jan. 1975, R. Wilkerson coll.






-55-


Discussion. Paratypes range in length from 17-18mm (x=17.8mm).

Frontal indices 2.6-4.7 (x=4.0). Paratypes are in good agreement with

holotype. Some specimens have darker frons, antennae, and palpi than

holotype. The abdominal coloration is not constant. In one paratype

the third tergite is completely dark and the third sternite has 2

large lateral spots; in another the third tergite is brown with 2

small lateral spots, third sternite is as in the holotype but the

fourth is much paler.

E. tigrina is similar to E. diaphana, E. balteata, and

E. translucens. I have not seen a specimen of E. diaphana but I was

able to compare it using the original description (Schiner, 1868) plus

the illustration of the holotype (Fairchild, 1967a). Diaphana has a

shiny dark brown callus, palpi evenly covered with hairs, yellowish

brown mesonotum with thick yellow hairs, gray pleura with whitish

hairs, legs reddish yellow, first 2 abdominal segments somewhat

translucent, reddish yellow, and the abdomen with numerous reddish hairs.

E. baZteata has slender yellowish red antennae, palpi, and

proboscis, rufous mesonotum and pleura, yellowish brown legs, and

first two abdominal segments translucent pale yellow without a distinct

middorsal black mark.

E. translucens has a gray beard, mesonotum and scutellum reddish

pollinose with coppery red hairs, pleura gray pollinose and gray

haired, and legs reddish black.



Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) tinctipennis Krober
(Fig. 14)

Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) tinctipennis Krober 1931, Zool. Anz.,
:256, figs. 6, 7, Colombia, Choco, Condoto. Lee, airchild,
94:256, figs. 6, 7, +, Colombia, Choco, Condoto. Lee, Fairchild,





-56-


and Baretto 1969, Caldasia, 10(49):443. Fairchild 1967, Studia Ent.,

9(1-4):345-346, fig. 9.

A large brownish black species with a narrow frons lacking a

shiny callus, spatulate palpi, unicolorous dark brown legs, distinctly

bicolored yellow and black wings, and white banded abdomen.

Female. Length 21mm. Frontal index 4.4. Frons yellowish brown

pollinose. Callus grayish pollinose with its basal third flattened

and widened but not touching sides of frons and the remainder a narrow

ridge which reaches the ocellar tubercle. Subcallus dark yellowish

brown pollinose. Genae and frontoclypeus sparsely dark grayish brown

pollinose. A raised tubercle and three distinct ocelli present at

vertex. Eyes bare, no color noted. Oculogenal hairs silvery white

and numerous. Antennal segments 1 and 2 grayish black and black haired

except for a few silvery white hairs below on segment 1. Segment 3

dark brown. Palpi broad, spatulate, blackish brown, the outer aspects

bare mesially and margined with short dark hairs. Proboscis nearly as

long as head height, dark brown, stout and shiny sclerotized. Beard

white.

Mesonotum brown, sparsely brown pollinose with 2 pairs of incom-

plete whitish pollinose stripes anteriorly. Pleura and coxae brown,

grayish brown pollinose mostly with sparse black hairs but having

prominent tufts of silvery white hairs just behind the head and below

the wing bases. Coxae and adjoining sclerites sparsely silvery white

haired. Legs dark brown. Wings as figured, yellow basally, smoky

brown apically.

Abdomen blackish brown, subshiny with sparse brown pollinosity.

Above nearly entire first and posterior border of second segment pale





-57-


horn colored, the posterior borders of the remaining segments obscurely

pale gray pollinose. Vestiture is of numerous short black hairs with

sparse silvery white hair fringes on the posterior borders of tergites

1-3 and laterally on 4-6. Abdomen below with three irregular yellowish

bands, the first includes all of the first sternite and anterior

portion of second, the second is made up of the posterior portion of

the second sternite and anterior part of the third, the third band is

the posterior border of the third sternite. Vestiture below is of

numerous very small dark brown hairs with a few pale hairs on the

light areas.

Male. Not known.

Distribution. Colombia (Choco, Valle).

Material examined. Colombia: Valle; Rio Raposo, in mist net,

IT 27 Jan. 1965, V. Lee coll. This appears to be the only specimen

collected since the type was described.



Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) translucens (Macquart)

Pangonia translucens Macquart 1846, Mem. Soc. Sci. Lille (1845),

p. 154, Pl. III, fig. 5.

Esenbeckia translucens: Fairchild 1942, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer.,

35(2):191-192, P1. II, fig. 15, 0, full references. Fairchild 1971,

Cat Dipt. S. Amer., Fas. 28, p. 9, synonymy.

A large robust fly with a rufous mesonotum, smoky wings, uni-

colorous dark legs, and a blackish brown abdomen with the first two

segments pale yellowish, semitranslucent, with a narrow median black

mark.





-58-


Female. Length 13-19mm (N=13, x=15.1mm). Frontal index 3.3-3.7

(x=3.4). Frons divergent below, 0.6-0.8 (x=0.7) times as wide above as

below. Frons and subcallus grayish brown to pale yellow pollinose.

Callus dark brown, long, nearly reaching ocelli, expanded gradually

below, not touching sides of frons. Eyes greenish black in life.

Genae and frontoclypeus silvery gray to pale grayish brown pollinose.

Beard silvery gray. Antennal segments 1 and 2 grayish black pollinose

and black haired, segment 3 reddish brown. Palpi dark brown, flat

and without hairs on the outer aspect except for a border of short

dark brown hairs. Proboscis about three-fourths as long as head

height, the theca brown pollinose, the labella compact, partially

shiny, partially subshiny with sparse grayish pollinosity.

Mesonotum and scutellum orange brown to brownish yellow with

concolorous pollinosity and hairs. Pleura and coxae gray pollinose,

with silver gray hairs, sharply contrasting with mesonotum. Legs dark

brown with dark brown hairs. Wings smoky brown, first posterior cell

petiolate, fourth posterior cell slightly coarctate. Fork of third

vein with a long appendix.

Abdomen above with first two segments variable, in most specimens

both are translucent pale yellow while the second segment is darkened

laterally and bears a broad or narrow median dark streak. One example

from Panama has the second segment entirely dark. Remaining tergites

blackish brown with numerous very short dark hairs, except for white

hair patches laterally on tergites 2-6. Apical margin of tergite

3 sometimes fringed with white hairs. Abdomen below as above but

sternite 3 is also translucent in some specimens with lateral and median

black marks, while in others this sternite is entirely black. Sternites

2-5 with apical fringes of white hairs.





-59-


Distribution. Mexico to eastern Peru and northern Brazil.

Colombia (Choco, Vallc, Antioquia, Boyaca).
oo
Material examined. Panama, 5++. Colombia: Valle; Rio Zabaletas,

netted, 1 2 July 1975; Lower Anchicaya, 1 9 Aug. 1973, Wilkerson

and Young coll; Municipio de Candelaria, Finca San Luis, from bait

horse, 1+ 30 Jan. 1975; Choco; Rio Nimiquia, 2?+ 15 Aug. 1942;

Antioquia; La Tirana, Providencia, 25km W, 22km S Zaragoza, in house

at night, 1 29 May 1971; Putumayo; Mocoa, CO2 baited flight trap,

650m, 2++ 15 April 1976; Puerto Asis, CO2 baited flight trap, 240m,

1+ 15 April 1976.

Discussion. The above description pertains especially to those

specimens collected in Panama and northwest Colombia. Three specimens

from Putumayo will not key out here. While quite similar they differ

in the following respects: Size smaller, length 13-14mm; antennae and

palpi paler; frontoclypeus and genae yellowish; pro- and mesothoracic

legs yellow.

Fairchild (unpublished, 1978) reports E. translucens from Panama

in areas of high rainfall and heavy forest. He states it will readily

attack man and the undersides of horses. Lee et al. (1969) captured

it in Valle, Rio Raposo, from a calf, I+ 20 Aug. 1963. Bequaert and

Renjifo (1946) found it in Boyaca, Muzo, and Porter (pers. comm. 1976)

caught 66 specimens in the Providencia region of Antioquia.



Subgenus Proboscoides Philip

Proboscoides Philip 1943, J. New York Ent. Soc., 51(2):111.

Esenbeckia (Proboscoides): Fairchild 1969, Arq. Zool. S. Paulo,

17(4):201.






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The labella of the proboscis is slightly lengthened, is wholly

sclerotized, lacks pseudotracheae, and is forceps-like. The callus

is pollinose in fresh specimens and the oculogenal hairs are sparse.

One species has been taken in the study area. The taxon is treated

as a subgenus due to species with intermediate proboscis characters,

of which ecuadorensis is an example. The others of the group all

occur east of the Andes, from Argentina to Trinidad.



Esenbeckia (Proboscoides) ecuadorensis ssp. chagresensis Fairchild

Esenbeckia chagresensis Fairchild 1942, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer.,

35(2):192-194, pl. 1, fig. 9, +, Panama.

Esenbeckia ecuadorensis ssp. chagresensis Fairchild 1971, Cat.

Dipt. S. Amer., Fasc. 28:10.

A large species with a brown thorax, orange yellow antennae, brown

spatulate palpi, short shiny black proboscis and smoky brown wings.

Abdomen blackish brown with pale segmental borders.

Female. Lengths 17 and 18mm. Frontal indices 4.3 and 4.4. The

following is the original description of Fairchild.

Eyes bare, dull greenish black in life. Frons yellowish
grey pollinose, about five times higher than wide,
widened at base and-vertex, the basal suture obsolete.
The frontal callosity in well preserved examples is
represented by a slightly raised stripe from base to
vertex covered with darker and more yellowish pollinosity.
This stripe is broader at base, where it flattens out
and runs down over the subcallus to the base of the
antennae, and in rubbed specimens the upper and middle
portions may become denuded, showing a more or less
uneven shiny strip. The ocelli are prominent and yellow.
Antennae orange yellow. The first segment somewhat
inflated, the second small and produced in a short
blunt tooth dorsally, both with numerous black hairs,
which form a sort of style. The fourth division is
markedly the smallest, while the terminal piece is
spike-like, as long or longer than the previous four






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divisions together. Clypeus and genae dark grey
pollinose, with some dark hairs and light hairs forming
tufts near the insertion of the palpi and along the
genal margin of the eye. Genae with a deep groove
running from the insertion of the palpi to a point even
with the insertion of the antennae. Palpi black, curved,
broad, blunt pointed, longer than antennae and clothed
with black hairs on the inner surface, edges, and basal
one-fifth of the outer surface. The inner surfaces of
the palpi are round in cross section, the outer bare
surfaced flat. Proboscis black, shiny, about equal to
head height, the labella and theca of the labium both
entirely sclerotized, the former a little less than
one-half length of latter.
Mesonotum chocolate brown, covered with white
pollen giving it a purplish cast, and with sparse black
hairs. Pleura and sternum dark grey with white hairs.
Scutellum concolorous with mesonotum. Prescutellar lobe
prominent. Subepaulet subtriangular, thin, scale-like,
without macrotrichia. Costa and first vein above and
beyond arculus with macrotrichia, other veins bare.
First posterior and anal cells closed and petiolate, a
moderate appendix on the upper branch of the third vein.
Whole wing deeply fumose. All legs entirely black with
black hairs. Coxae white haired.
Abdomen: First tergite straw yellow, translucent,
with white hairs on the lateral and posterior margins,
black hairs in a small patch on each side of the scu-
tellum. Second tergite varying from clear yellow with
a small brown spot on each lateral margin to entirely
black. Succeeding segments black. All tergites with
narrow light hind margins which bear white hairs, while
the yellow or black anterior four-fifths of the seg-
ments bear black hairs. Venter: First two or three
sternites largely yellow with lateral black patches, or
entirely black with light hind margins. Fourth to
terminal sternites black with light hind margins.
(1942a,pp. 192-194)

Male. Not known.

Distribution. Panama, Colombia (Magdalena).
00
Material examined. Panama, 2++ (including 1 paratype).

Discussion. E. ecuadorensis ecuadorensis Lutz and Castro differs

by having reddish instead of dark hairs on the thorax and by having

a paler abdomen with the first 3 tergites nearly wholly yellowish. The





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nominate form is reported from western Ecuador and chagresensis from

eastern Panama and northern Colombia (Bequaert and Renjifo [1946]

report it from Magdalena, Rio Frio).






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Genus Fidena Walker

Fidena Walker 1850, Ins. Saund., Dipt. 1:8. Mackerras 1955,

Aust. J. Zool., 3(3):487-490, full references. Fairchild 1971, Cat.

S. Amer. Dipt. Fasc. 28, p. 16, synonymy.

Members of this genus have a long produced face, a long slender

proboscis, pilose eyes and subulate antennae. The first posterior

cell is almost always closed or coarctate and the fourth always open.

All species are forest inhabiting.



Key to Fidena species

1. Legs prominently bicolored, the femora black, the tibiae and

tarsi yellow. Wings black or heavily infuscated basally to

ends of basal cells . .... . 2

1'. Legs not bicolored, all black or yellowish. Wings rarely

heavily infuscated basally, usually evenly tinted 3

2(1). Beard snow-white. Sides of mesonotum with a stripe of white

hairs from before suture to posterior margin. Abdomen shiny

black, with small tufts of silver-white hairs in middle of

tergites 2-5, and at sides of tergites 2, 5 and 6. Sternites

2-4 with white lateral hair tufts; 2 sometimes with white hind

marginal band. Face partially denuded and shiny .

. . eriomeroides

2'. Beard black or dark brown. Mesonotum without contrasting pale

hairs. Abdomen shiny black or deep brown with segments 4 or

5 to 7 clothed with pale straw yellow, rufous orange, brown or

black hairs. Tergite 2 with a patch of white hairs at sides,





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and sternites 2-4 with small lateral white hair tufts. Rarely

tergites 3 and 4 may have small median white hair tufts .

. . . rhinophora

3(1'). Legs pale yellowish brown. Beard, pleura and venter of abdomen

pale yellowish-haired or orange yellow, contrasting with dark

dorsal surfaces . .. auribarba

3'. Legs dark brown to black. . . 4

4(3'). Beard and sides of thorax brown to black haired. Abdomen

largely black haired, although the terminal segments may be

golden haired . . ... .. .. 5

4'. Beard and usually sides of thorax white or golden haired. 7

5(4). Large species, wing length generally over 18mm. Frons narrow,

over 4.5 times as high as wide, convergent below. Antennae

brownish black. Face brown, wholly grayish pollinose. Wings

uniformly deep yellowish brown tinted . 6

5'. Small species, wing length generally less than 12mm. Frons

about 3 times as high as wide, parallel sided. Antennae bright

yellow. Face yellow, with extensive bare patches laterally.

Wings smoky hyaline, the costal cell blackish and end of first

basal cell darkened. Abdomen black, the second segment sparsely

white haired above and below, forming a more or less distinct

hind marginal band widened at sides above. Tergites 5-7

sparsely white haired and often with median white triangles

on tergites 3 and 4 . . schildi

6(5'). Tergites 2, 5 and 6 with,or rarely without postlateral pale

hair tufts, usually silvery white, rarely yellowish, but

centers of all tergites black haired. ...... fl.avipennis




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6'. Tergite 2 without posterolateral silvery hair tufts, but

tergites 3 or 4 to 6 clothed with pale straw-colored to

orange hairs. ......... flavipennis vallensis n. ssp.

7(4'). Beard and sides of thorax white haired. Face gray pollinose,

palpi very slender. . . aureopyia

7'. Beard and usually parts of sides of thorax yellow haired. 8

8(7'). Beard, notopleural lobes, pleura, and mesonotum golden yellow

haired. Face subshiny dark brown or reddish brown, evenly

brown pollinose (Fig. 3A-D) . .. sufurea n. sp.

8'. Beard and pleura pale yellow haired, notopleural lobes and

mesonotum black haired. Face gray pollinose above with broad

shiny blackish brown shiny sides. ochrapogon n. sp.



Fidena aureopygia Krober

Fidena aureopygia Krober 1931, Zool. Anz., 95:24, fig. 9, +,

Colombia, Choco. Fairchild 1967, Studia Ent., Sao Paulo, 9(1-4):346,

fig. 21.

The type locality of Fidena aureopygia is Colombia, Choco, Opagodo;

it has also been reported from Valle, Aji, Rio Naya, S. Renjifo coll

(Bequaert and Renjifo, 1946). I have not seen a specimen of this

species but will include a partial description of the holotype and

paratypes, both females, reported by Fairchild.

Length of holotype 20mm. "Frons parallel sided, rather narrow,

face protuberant, gray pollinose. Palpi very slender, much exceeding

apex of clypeus. Beard and sides of thorax white haired. Legs uni-

colorous brownish black. Abdomen very dark mahogany brown, black

haired on first three tergites, golden yellow haired on remainder.





-66-

Wings uniformly pale brownish without dark bases or clouds at end of

basal cells. The species is nearly identical structurally with

F. bicolor Krober and F. flavipennis Krober, but differs markedly in

color from either" (1967, p. 346).

Distribution. Colombia (Valle, Choco).



Fidena auribarba (Enderlein)
0
Melpia auribarba Enderlein 1925, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, +,

Colombia.

Melpia auribarba var. albibarba Enderlein 1925, Mitt. Zool Mus.

Berlin, 11(2):276, +, Colombia.

Fidena auribarba and var. albibarba: Fairchild 1958, Ann. Ent.

Soc. Amer., 51(6):528-529, full references; 1971, Cat. S. Amer. Dipt.

Fasc. 28, p. 18.

Melpia colimbiensis Krober 1934, Rev. Ent., 4(2):247. Fairchild

1951, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 44(3):442, Panama, full references.

Fidena columbiensis Krober 1934, Rev. Ent., 4(2):247. Fairchild

1951, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 44(3):442, Panama, full references.

A medium to large dark brown species with an orange yellow beard

and pleura. Wings smoky brown, legs unicolorous yellowish orange and

abdomen above dark brown with small median light yellow or orange hair

patches on each segment, below light yellow pollinose with yellowish

or orange hairs.

Length of orange yellow form 14-17mm (N=20, x=15.6mm, lSD=0.64mm),

of light yellow form 13-17mm (N=20, x=17.5mm, 1SD=1.5mm). Frontal

index of both forms about the same, 1.9-2.9 (N=40, x=2.5). Frons and

subcallus dark brown, brown pollinose, with a few thin black hairs on

frons. Slightly raised tubercle and 3 ocelli present. Eyes pilose,

1SD = One standard deviation. Stated only when comparisons are
appropriate or there is overlap in the range of measurements.





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covered with many very short hairs, color not noted. Frontoclypeus

brown, brown pollinose above, apical fourth shiny black, sides shiny

black at apex, subshiny brown pollinose to head. Antennae dark brown,

brownish pollinose. Palpi slender, brownish pollinose. Proboscis

shiny black, one-half to two-thirds as long as body. Beard orange

yellow or light yellow.

Mesonotum dark brown pollinose with short black hairs above and

many long black hairs laterally and behind. Scutellum dark brown

anteriorly, orange brown posteriorly. Pleura light grayish yellow

pollinose and except for a few black hairs on and between coxae is

either thickly pale yellow or orange yellow haired. Legs yellowish

brown, mostly pale haired. Wings smoky brown, first posterior cell

coarctate or closed, without appendix at fork of third vein.

Abdomen dark brown and dark haired above with small median light

yellow or yellowish orange hair tufts on 2-6 and sometimes 1-7.

Laterally long yellowish or orange hairs on each segment. Below light

yellow pollinose with yellowish or orange hairs. As described above

there are 2 distinct color forms, one light yellow haired, the other

orange yellow.

Distribution. Panama (light form only), Colombia (both forms,

Choco, Valle).
oo
Material examined. Light form. Panama, 8++. Colombia: Choco,

Rios San Juan-Baudo, netted, 4+ 23 Feb. 1976; Valle; 41km E, 20km N,

Buenaventura, flight trap baited with CO2, 148o 19 March 1976, Rio

Zabaletas, netted and flight trap baited with CO2, 8++ 18 Aug. 1975,

Lago Calima, from livestock, 1+ 10 Oct. 1975, 1+ 9 April 1976, Lower





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OO O O
Anchicaya, netted 2++ 10 Aug. 1973, 1+ 2 April 1976, Rio Raposo, 1+

13 March 1963. Orange yellow form. Colombia; Choco, Rios San Juan-

Baudo, netted, 3+? 23 March 1976; Valle; 41km E, 20km N Buenaventura,

flight trap with CO2, 38++ 19 March 1976, Rio Zabaletas, netted and

flight trap with CO2, 2++ 18 Aug. 1975, Lower Anchicaya, netted, 1+

2 April 1976.

Discussion. Some question remains whether this is a dimorphic

species or a pair of closely related species. I can find no morpho-

logical differences externally or in the genitalia. Until proven

otherwise I will treat them as a single species. The original descrip-

tion of Melpis auribarba by Enderlein (1925) is the orange form. In

the same publication he designated the light yellow form as variety

albibarba, but this name cannot be used since Enderlein also used it

to name another species of Fidena; even though having page preference,

the variety has no nomenclatural status. Fidena columbiensis Krober,

however, was described from the light yellow form. The yellowish form

predominates in collections from both Panama and Colombia.

Fairchild (pers. comm. 1978) found only the yellow form in Panama,

and saw orange specimens only from Colombia. I have seen only the

yellow form from Panama but the two occur together in the departments

of Choco and Valle, the yellow form about 3 or 4 times more abundant.

Lee et al. (1969) collected several specimens of the light form

on the Rio Raposo as they came to human bait at ground level, all in

March, 1963 and 1965. Fairchild (unpublished 1978) reports the species

attacks man readily and has been taken in the treetops and at ground

level.




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Fidena eriomeriodes Lutz

Epipsila eriomeroides Lutz 1909, Zool. Jahrb. Suppl. 10, H1. 4,

p. 649, fig. 27, S. Paulo, Brasil. Fairchild 1961, Mem. Inst. Osw.

Cruz. 59(2):217, pl. 1, fig. 6.

Fidena eriomeroides: Fairchild 1971, Cat. S. Amer. Dipt., Fasc.

28, p. 19, synonymy.

A medium to large blackish brown fly with a white beard, thorax

blackish brown haired except for lateral white mesonotal stripes. Legs

bicolored blackish brown and brownish yellow, wings hyaline with basal

third darkened.

Female. Length (Colombian material) 11-16mm (N=9, x=14.3mm).

Frontal index 2.5-3.2 (x=2.9). Frons and subcallus blackish brown,

dark yellowish brown pollinose. Vestiture of short black hairs, longer

and thicker at vertex. Tubercle and 3 distinct ocelli present, callus

not shiny. Eyes densely short pilose, bright green in life. Fronto-

clypeus produced, nearly as long as antennae, with blackish brown shiny

stripes above and on sides, the remainder gray pollinose. Proboscis

slender, nearly two-thirds as long as body. Antennae dark brown, the

third segment gradually narrowed, last annulus short, rather blunt.

Palpi slender, acutely pointed, outer aspect without hairs, yellowish

brown pollinose. Beard white.

Mesonotum blackish brown with brown pollinosity, dark haired

except for lateral white hair stripes beginning just behind head and

extending to above and behind wing base. Pleura and coxae blackish

brown, brown pollinose with thick dark brown hairs. Femora dark

reddish brown, dark haired. Tibiae and tarsi brownish yellow with




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short yellowish hairs. Wings nearly hyaline with brownish tint, darkest

on costal margin. Basal third of wing to apices of basal cells blackish,

most deeply colored at the wing base. First posterior cell coarctate

or closed, fork of third vein without appendix.

Abdomen blackish brown with short dark hairs, dorsally with very

small median apical, white hair patches, laterally with small white

patches on segments 2, 5, and 6. Below segment 2 with a few median

white hairs.

Male. A male from Antioquia differs from females in nearly lacking

white hairs at sides of thorax and having a dark brown beard. The

upper eye facets are enlarged, but not sharply demarcated from the

lower facets.

Distribution. Costa Rica to Brazil. Colombia (Valle, Antioquia,

Meta, Narino).

Material examined. Costa Rica, 1+. Panama, 4+?. Ecuador, 3+.

Peru, 1+. Brazil, 1+. Colombia: Valle; Lower Anchicaya, CO2 baited

flight trap, 3+ 16 Aug. 1975, 2 ? 2 April 1976; Antioquia; La Tirana,

Providencia, in house at night, 25km W, 22km S of Zaragoza, 14 29 May

1971; Meta; Villavicencio, 3+ 23 Sept. 1942, 1 1924.

Discussion. The above description is of Colombian specimens.

All examined are in close agreement except for overall paler color in

older examples.

Bequaert and Renjifo (1946) reported specimens from Meta, Restrepo

and Villavicencio, and Narino, Pasto.




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Fidena flavipennis Krober

Fidena flavipennis Krober 1931, Zool. Anz., 95(1-2):24, fig. 8, d,

Venezuela. Fairchild 1971, Cat. S. Amer. Dipt., Fasc. 28, p. 20, synonymy.

Fidena isthmiae Fairchild 1941, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 34(3):
0
642-643, fig. 1, +, Panama.

A large dark brown species, dark brown haired with yellowish brown

wings, unicolorous dark brown legs and small white hair patches just

below wing bases. Abdomen shiny black to shiny dark reddish brown with

small yellow or white patches laterally on segments 2, 5-7 and ventrally

on 2.

Female. Length 16-18mm (N=ll, x=16.7mm). Frontal index 4.2-6.0

(x=5.1). Frons slightly widened above, dark brown pollinose with very

short dark hairs. Slightly raised tubercle with 3 ocelli present.

Eyes covered with many very short hairs black in life. Subcallus sub-

shiny blackish brown with dark brown pollinosity. Frontoclypeus dark

brown pollinose except for tip which is shiny black and black haired.

First 2 antennal segments dark, third dark yellowish brown. Palpi bare,

dark brown pollinose on outer aspects, borders and tip shiny, dark,

with dark hairs. Proboscis slender, shiny dark brown with a yellowish

brown tip, a half to two-thirds as long as body. Beard dark brown.

Mesonotum and scutellum dark brown, hairs dark brown and short

above, long and dense laterally especially so between wing base and

scutellum. Pleura and coxac dark brown with dark brown hairs except

for small white hair patches at the wing bases and on the distal

calypters. Legs unicolorous blackish brown, dark haired except for

many short yellow brown hairs ventrally on the protibiae and tarsi.

Wings yellowish brown, darker at base and along costal margin, apex




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with a slight blackish hue. First posterior cell petiolate, no

appendix at fork of third vein.

Abdomen shiny brown to deep blackish brown with some short dark

hairs above and below. Tergites 2, 5, and 6 usually with postlateral

white or pale yellow hair tufts, the centers of all tergites black

haired.

Male. Males are very similar save for sexual differences. The

upper eye facets are slightly enlarged, but not clearly demarcated

from the lower facets.

Distribution. Mexico to Colombia (Choco, Antioquia).

Material Examined. Mexico, 2U. Panama, 8~ ld. Colombia: Choco;

La Teresita, 1l 6 Aug. 1967, Io 12 Nov. 1967, Id 6 Oct. 1967, D. G.

Young coll.

Discussion. Fairchild (unpublished 1978) reports this species

from the lowlands of Panama up to 2500 ft. not restricted to forested

areas. There is no evidence it is attracted to man but one was caught

biting a boa and 4 biting a dead cayman (C.O. Myers, Darien, Panama).

Porter (pers. comm. 1976) captured this species in Antioquia and Lee

et. al. (1969) caught a single specimen in a mist net near the Rio

Dagua in the Municipio of Buenaventura, Colombia, on 25 Aug. 1964, but

these last have not been seen, and I do not know if they are typical

fZavipennis or ssp. vallensis.



Fidena flavipennis vallensis n. ssp.

A large dark brown fly, dark brown haired with yellowish brown

wings, unicolorous dark brown legs and small white hair patches just




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below wing bases. Abdomen shiny dark reddish brown with shiny golden

yellow hairs on last few abdominal segments.

Female. Length 17-18mm (N=4, x=17.25nmm). Frontal index 5.2-5.9

(x=5.5). Vallensis is not separable from the nominate form except by

abdominal vestiture. There are shiny golden yellow hairs as follows:

in most specimens large lateral patches on tergite 3, lateral patches

which extend all along posterior border of tergite 4, and tergites 5-7

entirely covered. Below the yellow hairs are much sparser than above,

confined mostly to the lateral areas of sternites 3-7.

Male. As male of nominate form.

Distribution. Colombia (Valle).

Material examined. Colombia: Valle; Lower Anchicaya, netted,

lo 29 Jan. 1975, 1+ 5 March 1976, l1 in CO2 baited flight trap,

2 April 1976; Rio Zabaletas, netted, 2oo 18 Aug. 1975; Bajo Calima,

netted, 1 5 Sept. 1975.

Discussion. The nominate form differs by having small lateral

white hair patches on tergite 2 and lateral white or pale yellow

patches on segments 5-7 which do not extend over entire width of

segment.

Porter (pers. comm. 1976) captured this species in Antioquia

and Lee et al. (1969) caught a single specimen in a mist net near

the Rio Dagua in the Municipio of Buenaventura, Colombia, on 25 Aug.

1964. These specimens have not been seen and I do not know if they are

typical flavipennis or the subspecific form named here.





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Fidena ochapogon n. sp.

A large deep reddish brown fly with beard, thorax to between

first pair of coxae and along upper pleura to wing base, densely yellow

haired. Legs unicolorous dark reddish brown, wings smoky brown,

abdomen without markings save for small white hair patches laterally

on terminal segments and laterally on second sternite.

Female. Length 16mm; of wing 15mm. Frons slightly divergent below,

1.2 times wider than vertex. Frontal index 2.7. Frons with lower third

black, slightly raised, middle third deep reddish brown with a median

dark area and upper third including tubercle black. Frons covered with

pale yellow pollinosity. Vestiture of a moderate number of thin black

hairs below tubercle and longer thicker black hairs above tubercle.

Callus not shiny, present as pollinose raised area below. Eyes covered

with many short hairs, color not noted. Subcallus dark brown, subshiny

with dark yellowish brown pollinosity, more dense along lateral edges

and around antennal bases. Genae dark brown with light gray pollinosity.

Frontoclypeus dark reddish brown with sparse grayish pollinosity except

for rather wide lateral shiny bare areas. First 2 antennal segments

and base of first annulus reddish brown, sparsely yellow brown polli-

nose, remainder of third segment blackish brown with yellowish brown

pollinosity. Vestiture of black hairs. Palpi long and slender, dark

brown, outer aspect without hairs, brownish pollinose. Proboscis

blackish brown, 10mm long. Beard of long dense yellow hairs.

Mcsothorax and scutellum reddish brown with sparse grayish

pollinosity, vestiture short dark brown hairs above, long dense dark

brown hairs laterally and at border with scutellum. Pleura brown,

grayish brown pollinose. Vestiture of dense yellow hairs behind head




-75-


to first pair of coxae and covering mesoanepisternum. Remainder of

pleura with long dark brown hairs. Procoxae blackish brown with long

yellow hairs basally and long dark brown hairs apically. Remaining leg

segments dark reddish brown except pro- and mesotibiae and tarsi which

are slightly lighter. All hairs blackish except for a fringe of yellow

brown hairs on protibia and tarsi. llalteres with stem brown and knob

blackish brown. Wings smoky brown, slightly darker anteriorly and along

veins. First posterior cell petiolate, short appendix at fork of third

vein.

Abdomen shiny, dark reddish brown, darker on apical margins. Vesti-

ture of short sparse dark brown hairs, longer and denser laterally and

on terminal segments. Small white hair patches are found laterally on

segments 4-7 and larger lateral patches on sternite 2.

Male. Not known.

Distribution. Colombia (Cauca, Caqueta, Putumayo), Ecuador

(Cuenca), and Peru (Campana, near Trujillo).
O
Material examined. Colombia: Ilolotype, +, Putumayo, Puerto

Pepino, 500m, 10 Nov. 1968, collector unknown. Paratypes, Colombia:

1+ same data as holotype; Cauca; Cerro de Munchique, 2450m, 1+ 6 Aug.

1973, Wilkerson and Young coll; Caqueta; Florencia, 1+ 1936. Ecuador:

Cuenca, 1I 22 Feb. 1950, S. W. Frost coll. Peru: Cerro Campana near

Trujillo, 600m, 1 10 Oct. 1939, leg. W. Weyrauch; Campana, 1500m,

2++ 10 Oct. 1939, leg. W. Weyrauch.

Discussion. Paratypes range in length from 15-17mm (x=16.0mm) and

have frontal indices of from 1.6-2.7 (x=2.3). All paratypes agree

well with the above description.





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Approximately a third of the 75 named species are available for

comparison. Of these, ochrapogon is closest to F. howardi Fairchild

and F. trapidoi Fairchild. Howardi has a longer, more slender proboscis,

a white beard, dark brown hairs on the upper pleura, and golden yellow

hairs on abdominal tergites 3-7. Trapidoihas a more slender proboscis,

much less produced face, wholly brown haired pleura, whitish hair

tufts on either side of the scutellum, and a quite distinctive pattern

of bright golden yellow hairs on the abdominal dorsum which leaves

a broad middorsal and 2 lateral stripes on segments 2-4, the remaining

segments wholly yellow haired.

Ochrapogon is similar also to a species named here, sulfurea.. Refer

to the key for comparison.

The name means "yellow beard."



Fidena rhinophora (Bellardi)

Pangonia rhinophora Bellardi 1858, Sagg. Ditt. Mess., pp. 46-47,
0
Tab. 1, fig. 1, +, Mexico.

Fidena rhinophora: Fairchild 1953, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 46(2):262.

Pangonia pyrausta Osten Sacken 1886. Biol. Centr. Amer., Dipt. 1,
0
pp. 43-44, +, Panama.

Fidena pyrausta: Fairchild 1941, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 34(3):

644-645, full references; 1951, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 44(3):441; 1956,

Smiths. Misc, Coll. 131(3):26, type seen.

Melpia auricauda Enderlein 1925, Mitt. Mus. Berlin, 11:276, +,

Colombia, Venezuela. Krober, 1930, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Hamburg, 44:179,

fig. 28.





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A medium sized dark brown or black species with dark beard and

pleura, bicolored black and pale yellow legs, basally darkened wings,

and abdomen black with yellow or orange yellow hairs on the last few

segments.

Female. Length 12-16mm (N=39, x=14.0mm). Frontal index 1.9-2.8

(N=39, x=2.3). Frons very slightly convergent above, dark brown with

grayish brown pollinosity and some short dark hairs. Raised tubercle

and 3 prominent ocelli present. Eyes short pilose, blackish in life.

Subcallus dark brown, subshiny with yellowish brown pollinosity.

Frontoclypeus produced, nearly as long as antennae, shiny black area

nearly reaching subcallus. Laterally, upper half gray pollinose, below

subshiny brown pollinose. Proboscis shiny blackish brown, slender

usually two-thirds or three-fourths as long as body. Antennae dark

brown. Second palpal segment dark brown with brownish pollinosity,

acutely pointed, about as long as third antennal segment. Beard blackish

brown.

Mesonotum dark brown, obscurely striped. Vestiture of numerous

short dark hairs above, longer and denser laterally and behind. Pleura

and coxae brown with blackish brown hairs. Femora blackish brown, dark

haired. Tibiae and tarsi pale yellow, pale yellow haired except for

last 1 or 2 tarsal segments which are brown and brown haired. Wings

pale smoky, wing base and veins darker to ends of basal cells. First

posterior cell variable from completely open to closed. Fork of third

vein sometimes with a very short appendix.

Abdomen variable. Overall coloration shiny dark blackish brown,

with sparse black hairs. Segment 2 may or may not have a small lateral

white hair tuft above and below. Segments 5-7 nearly always pale yellow




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in ground color. Segment 4 varies from dark blackish brown to yellowish

brown. Vestiture on these last segments varies from pale yellow to

orange yellow, on some beginning at the apical border of segment 3,

on others restricted to segments 5-7.

Male. Not described.

Distribution. Mexico to eastern Peru and Venezuela. Colombia

(Choco, Valle, Cauca, Meta, Boyaca, Magdalena).

Material examined. Mexico, 1+. Panama, 12++. Ecuador, 1+.

Peru, 1?. Venezuela, 2+?. Colombia: Valle; Lago Calima, from live-

stock, 10?? Aug. 1975, 11++ Sept. 1975, 7?+ Oct. 1975, 4?+ 7 Nov. 1975,

6?? 26 March 1976, 16?? April 1976; "Playa Rica," from livestock,

2?? 3 Feb. 1976; Penas Blancas, from livestock, mostly horses, 2++

3-12 Aug. 1973, 1+ 5 March 1975, 2?? 24 March 1975, 19 4 April 1975,

4++ 29-30 April 1975, 7++ May 1975, 2++ 26-30 June 1975, 1? 16 July 1975,

1+ 30 July 1975, 4+? Aug. 1975, 1+ 10 Dec. 1975, 1+ 27 Feb. 1976,

1+ 22 March 1976, 1+ 12 April 1976; Cauca; Cerro de Munchique, netted,

2++ 8 Aug. 1975. Meta, Villavicencio, Fr. Cepallinaire-Marie, 1+ 1924.

Discussion. A great deal of variability exists over the entire

range of this species. Some question remains as to the possibility of

the existence of more than one species. Fairchild (unpublished 1978)

discusses this variation and since the material I have from northwest

Colombia appears to vary only in abdominal coloration,I will not discuss

it further here.

Bequacrt and Renjifo (1946) report it from Boyaca, Muzo which is

the type locality of Melpia auricauda. Krober (1930a) reports 2++

of pyrausta from the Magdalena River.





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F. rhinophora readily bites man (Fairchild,unpublished 1978) and

is evidently primarily an early morning flier. One was taken during

a horse biting study at Penas Blancas at 0630hrs with the sun out,

temp 180C and 73% RH.



Fidena schildi (Hine)

Erephopsis schildi lIine 1925, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan,
0
No. 162, pp. 11-12, o Costa Rica.

Fidena schildi: Fairchild 1941, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 34(3):644,

full references; 1971, Cat. S. Amer. Dipt. Fasc. 28, p. 23, synonymy.

A small to medium sized dark brown species with orange yellow

antennae and palpi and yellowish brown frontoclypeus. Legs unicolorous

dark brown, wings pale brown. Abdomen with some white hairs laterally

on segment 2 and on apical borders of most segments.

Female. Length 9-12mm (N=10, x=10.3mm). Frontal index 2.7-3.1

(x=3.0). Frons blackish brown, yellowish brown pollinose with thin

sparse black hairs. Flightly raised tubercle and 3 distinct ocelli

present. Eyes pilose with a moderate number of very short hairs, blue

green in life. Subcallus subshiny, pale brown with pale yellow

pollinosity. Frontoclypeus yellowish brown with grayish pollinosity

except for shiny lateral bare areas. First 2 antennal segments yellowish

brown, black haired, the third segment orange yellow. Palpi orange

yellow, mostly bare. Proboscis usually slightly recurved about half

as long as body, shiny, dark brown, some specimens yellowish brown

basally.

Mesonotum and scutellum blackish brown with short dark brown hairs,

longer and more numerous laterally. Pleura and coxac brown in ground




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color, grayish brown pollinose with dark brown hairs. Legs dark brown,

dark haired, all tarsi and protibiae slightly paler with some dark

yellow hairs ventrally. Wings nearly hyaline with a brownish cast,

slightly darker at costal margin. First posterior cell coarctate to

petiolate, fork of third vein with a very short appendix or none at all.

Abdomen dark brown with dark brown hairs. Segment 2 with lateral

white hair patches. Dorsally segment 3 with a small medium white patch

on apical border, segment 4 a broader apical patch, and remaining seg-

ments with apical borders entirely white haired. Ventrally apical

borders of 2-7 with short white hairs.

Male. Not known.

Distribution. Costa Rica to Colombia (Antioquia), French Guiana,

Brazil.

Material examined. Panama, 15++ (including one compared with type

of Helpia nigricans a synonym of F. schildi). l+ French Guiana.

Discussion. Although this species seems to have a wide distri-

bution it has been recorded in Colombia only from the type of

M. nigricans (without definite locality) and by C. Porter (pers.

comm. 1976) from the Providencia region of Antioquia.

Fairchild (unpublished 1978) reports that in Panama it will attack

man at ground level and has been caught biting pigs before dawn.



Fidena sulfurea n. sp.
(Fig. 3A-D)

A large reddish brown to blackish brown species with proboscis at

least half as long as body, face well produced, beard, mesonotum, and

much of pleura densely yellow haired, legs unicolorous dark, and abdomen

with at least tergites 4-7 thickly yellow haired.








Female. Length 16nn; of wing 16mm. Head structures as figured.

Frontal index 2.5. Frons divergent below, 1.2 times as wide as ver-

tex. Frons blackish brown in ground color with yellowish brown

pollinosity and sparse slender black hairs. Ocellar tubercle and 3

ocelli quite distinct. Eyes pilose, color not noted. Subcallus,

genae, and frontoclypeus blackish brown with yellowish brown pollinosity.

Frontoclypeus subshiny with less dense pollinosity laterally below the

antennal bases. Face well produced, 1.1 times as long as frons is

high. Beard is of dense yellow hairs. Antennal segments 1 and 2

blackish, with yellowish brown pollinosity and black hairs, segment 3

black. Palpi blackish brown, the hairs of segment 1 yellow. Proboscis

shiny blackish brown, 9mm long.

Mesonotum and scutellum reddish brown in ground color with grayish

yellow pollinosity and numerous long yellow hairs. Pleura and coxae

blackish brown and brown pollinose. Vestiture of long dense yellow

hairs all around wing base, just posterior to the head, and on the

bases of the procoxae, the remainder is of long dense dark brown hairs.

Legs are blackish brown and dark haired except for the short orange

yellow hairs on the undersides of the tarsi. Halteres dark brown,

the stem paler. Wings fumose, the costal and subcostal cells darker

and the veins margined slightly darker. The first posterior cell

petiolate, the fourth open.

Abdomen above dark reddish brown. Vestiture of sparse black

hairs on tergites 1-3, denser laterally on 1-3 and mesially on 1 and 2.

Tergite 2 with small lateral white hair patches. Lateral aspects of

tergite 4 black haired. The remainder of the dorsum starting with the





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apical margin of tergite 3 is densely yellow haired. Below abdomen is

shiny dark reddish brown with some sparse grayish pollinosity on the

last few segments. Vestiture is of sparse black hairs except for a

distinct lateral white haired patch on sternite 2 and small lateral

yellow haired patches on 5-7.

Male. Not known.

Distribution. Colombia (Valle, Cauca, Magdalena, Caqueta).

Material examined. Colombia: Holotype, +, Valle, 8km below dam

at Lago Calima, 1250m, from livestock, 4 Sept. 1975, R. Wilkerson coll.

Paratypes, 3++ with some data as above, 10 same data except 8 Aug.

1975, 1+ same data except 12 Aug. 1975; Cauca; La Cumbre, 3000', 1

15 Dec. 1922, H. L. V. coll; Magdalena; Northwest Sierra Nevada de

Santa Marta, 6-8,000', 4++ 22 July 1928, Darlington coll; Vista Nieve,

Mount San Lorenzo, 1+ 8 Aug. 1926, Walker coll (with note 7 more same

data, Copenhagen); Caqueta; Florencia, 1+ 1936.

Discussion. Paratypes range in length from 16-17mm (N=13, x=16.2mm)

and have frontal indices of from 2.3-3.6 (x=2.8). All paratypes agree

well with the above description. Several specimens have dorsal yellow

abdominal hairs over the entire segment 3, though not as dense as on

the remaining segments. The example from La Cumbre has sparse yellow

hairs also on tergite 2 and the specimen from Florencia has more ex-

tensive dense yellow hairs on the pleura and also has additional sparse

yellow hairs on abdominal tergites 1-3.

Five additional specimens before me from Magdalena are morpho-

logically similar to F. sulfurea but have entirely dark brown haired

pleura and mesonota. These may be a form of sulfurea but I believe them

to be a distinct species.




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Of the relatively few species available for comparison sulfurea

is most like F. howardi and F. trapidoi. Howardi has a white beard,

brown haired pleura, and wholly brown haired mesonotum. Trapidoi also

has wholly brown haired mesonota and pleura.

F. ochrapogon, described here, is also similar. Refer to the

key for their discrimination.





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Genus Scione Walker

Scione Walker 1850, Insecta Saund., 1:10.

The genus Scione may be distinguished primarily by the closed

first and fourth posterior cells. It is similar to Fidena in that

both have a long slender proboscis and produced face. Scione, however,

often has a hairy frontoclypeus and patterned wings, characteristics

not found in Fidena. In addition many Fidena species have bare or

partially bare faces, while all of the Scione species are wholly

pollinose. In Scione the frons is usually wide and divergent below.

The center of distribution of the genus is the mountains of

northwestern South America.

There are 33 described species in the neotropics, 13 of which

are reported in Colombia, in addition 6 new Colombian species are

described here.

Of the 13 species reported from Colombia or with ranges which

include Colombia, I have been able to recognize among my material only

5 from their descriptions: albifasciata Macquart, maculipennis Schiner,

obscurefemorata, rufescens Ricardo, and flavescens Enderlein. Two of the

remaining 8 species were only tentatively recorded from Colombia in

Fairchild's catalogue (1971), distinct Schiner, type locality "Sud

Amerika," and rufipes Krober, type locality "Venezuela." The types

ofrminuta Szilady and punctata Szilady, both from "San Lorenzo,

Colombia" were destroyed in Budapest, and the published descriptions

are inadequate for recognition. 'lhe 1 cctotype of inoontleta Macquart is

a male, and according to Fairchild (pers. comm., 1978) is a black

species with wings with dark clouds around crossveins but no yellow,

all femora and metatibiac black, but pro- and mesotibiae yellow.








The female associated with this male by Macquart is a pale yellow

species with yellowish brown legs, some yellow in wing pattern, and

is very unlikely to be the same species. Neither male nor female of

incomplete seem to agree with any of my Colombian specimens. The

type of minor Macquart, according to unpublished notes of Fairchild is

in very poor condition. tie had a compared specimen, but this cannot

now be found. lie felt that Macquart's specimen did not represent the

same species as those subsequently discussed by Schiner (1868) and

Krober (1930). The type locality was given as de 1' Amerique?,

the Colombia and Venezuela localities given in Fairchild's catalogue

(1971) possibly originating with Schiner and Krober, and hence not

referring to true minor. Scione nigripes Krober was described from

New Granada, and the type in Halle was reexamined by Fairchild (1967).

It is a species with unpatterned wings, and nothing like it was seen

from the area here discussed. Scione Zurida Enderlein was placed by

Fairchild (1971) as a subspecies of S. aurulans Wiedemann. The 1 ectotype

is labeled simply Colombia. It is an entirely pale straw colored

species with unpatterned wings, and nothing like it was seen from

northwestern Colombia.



Key to Scione Species

1. Beard and pleura dark haired, not contrasting with unpatterned

dark mesonotum. Abdomen without contrasting pale hair tufts,

at least the last 4 segments yellow to orange haired. Wings

smoky hyaline, without pattern, shiny and wrinkled .. 2

1'. Beard and pleura white to yellowish, contrasting with dark and

patterned mesonotum. Abdomen with pale median hair tufts on


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