HORSE FLIES (DIPTERA: TABANIDAE) OF THE COLOMBIAN
DEPARTMENTS OF CHOCO, VALLE, AND CAUCA
RICHARD CHARLES WILKERSON
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Dedicated to my parents,
Warren and Helen Wilkerson
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES . . .
ABSTRACT . . .
INTRODUCTION . . .
STUDY AREA, GENERAL ECOLOGY, AND COLLECTING LOCALITIES.
Ecological Zones . .
Collecting Localities . .
METHODS AND MATERIALS . .
Field . .
Laboratory . .
GENERAL MORPHOLOGY AND TERMINOLOGY .
BIOLOGY . . .
MEDICAL AND VETERINARY IMPORTANCE . .
CHECKLIST OF THE COLOMBIAN HORSE FLIES
TAXONOMIC TREATMENT . . .
Key to the Subfamilies of Tabanidae .
Key to the Tribes and Genera of Pangoniinae
and Chrysopsinae . .
Key to Tribes, Genera, and Subgenera of Tabaninae
Genus Esenbeckia . . .
Key to Esenbeckia Species . .
. . 14
. . 1 5
. . 1 6
. . 21
(E.) balteata n. sp.
(E.) illota osornoi
(E.) minuscula n. sp.
(E.) testaceiventris .
(E.) tigrina n. sp.
(Ed.) tinctipennis .
(E.) translucens .
Subgenus Proboscoides . .
Esenbeckia (P.) ecuadorensis ssp. chagresensis.
Genus Fidena . .
Key to Fidena Species .. .
Fidena aureopygia .
Fidena auribarba .
Fidena eriomeroides .
Fidena flavipennis .
Fidena flavipennis vallens
Fidena ochrapogon n. sp.
Fidena rhinophora .
Fidena schildi .
Fidena sulfurea n. sp.
Genus Scione . .
Key to Scione Species .
Scione albifasciata .
Scione brevibeccus n. sp .
Scione cupreus n. sp .
Scione equivexans n. sp .
Scione f7avescens .
Scione maculipennis .
Scione obscurefemorata .
Scione rhinothrix n. sp .
Scione rufescens .
Scione serratus n. sp .. .
Scione young n. sp. .
Genus Pityocera . .
Key to Pityocera Species .
Pityocera (Elephella) cervus.
Pityocera (Pityocera) festae..
Genus Chrysops . .
Key to Chrysops Species .
. . 84
Chrysops calogaster .
Chrysops melaenus .
Chrysops nexosus. .
Chrysops renjifoi .
Chrysops soror ...
Chrysops varians var. tardus .
Chrysops variegatus . .
Genus Dasybasis . .
Key to Dasybasis Species . .
Dasybasis montium . .
Dasybasis schineri . .
Genus Stenotabanus . .
Key to Stenotabanus Species .
Subgenus Stenotabanus . .
(St.) brunneus n. sp. .
(St.) chrysonotus n. sp..
(St.) detersus .
(St.) incipiens .
(St.) Zuteolineatus n. sp.
(St.) nigriculus n. sp.
(St.) obscurus .
(St.) sordidatus .
Subgenus Brachytabanus . .
Stenotabanus (B.) longipennis .
Subgenus Stilbops n. subgen .
Stenotabanus (StiZbops) roxannae n. sp.
Genus HimantostyZus . .
Himantostylus intermedius .
Genus Diachlorus . .
Key to DiachZorus Species .
DiachZorus curvipes .
Diachlorus jobbinsi .
Genus Hemichrysops .
Hemichrysops fascipennis. .
Genus BoZbodimyia .
Key to Bolbodimyia Species .
Bolbodimyia bicolor .
Bolbodimyia celeroides. .
. . 186
Bolbodimyia erythrocephala. .
Bolbodimyia galindoi .
Bolbodimyia nigra .
Bolbodimyia philipi .
Genus Selasoma . .
Selasoma tibiale .
Genus Chlorotabanus .
Key to Chlorotabanus Species .
Chlorotabanus fairchildi .
Chlorotabanus inanis .
Chlorotabanus mexicanus .
Genus Phaeotabanus . .
Phaeotabanus phaeopterus .
Genus Spilotabanus ..
Key to Spilotabanus Species .
Spilotabanus multiguttatus. .
Spilotabanus triaurius n. sp. .
Genus Dichelacera .
Subgenus Dichelacera .
Key to Subgenus DicheZacera Species
Dichelacera (D.) chocoensis .
Dichelacera (D.) fasciata .
Dichelacera (D.) marginata. .
Dichelacera (D.) melanosoma .
Dichelacera (D.) regina .
Dichelacera (D.) submarginata .
Subgenus Nothocanthocera .
Dichelacera (N.) albomarginata.
Subgenus Idiochelacera .
Dichelacera (I.) subcallosa .
Subgenus Desmatochelacera .
DicheZacera (Desm.) transposita
Subgenus Orthostylocerus . .... .246
Dichelacera (0.) aurata n. sp. ... .. ... 246
Genus Catachlorops . . .. 249
Key to Subgenus Amphichlorops Species .. 249
CatachZorops (A.) flavissimus . .. 249
Catachlorops (A.) vespertinus . .. 250
Key to Subgenus Psalidia Species ... ... 252
Catachlorops (Ps.) fulmineus. . .. 252
Catachlorops (Ps.) umbratus . .. 256
Catachlorops (Catachlorops) alphus n. sp. ... 256
Catachlorops (Psarochlorops) siculus n. sp ... 259
Genus Dasychela. . .... 262
Subgenus Dasychela . ..... .. 262
Dasychela ocellus . .... .262
Genus Dicladocera. ................. 265
Key to Dicladocera Species . .... 265
Dicladocera argentomacula n. sp .. ... 269
Dicladocera basirufa. . ... 273
Dicladocera beaver n. sp. . ... 276
Dicladocera calimaensis n. sp .... ..... 278
Dicladocera clarus. . .. 280
Dicladocera dalessandroi n. sp. . .. 282
Dicladocera distomacula n. sp. .. 284
Dicladocera hirsuta n. sp. . .. 285
Dicladocera Zeei n. sp. Fairchild .. 288
Dicladocera macula. . ... 291
Dicladocera minos . .... .293
Dicladocera nigrocoerulea . .... .294
Dicladocera pruinosa n. sp. . .. 296
Dicladocera riveti. . ... 299
Dicladocera rubiginipennis . .... 300
Dicladocera submacula . .... .302
Genus Stibasoma. .................. .. 304
Key to Stibasoma Species . ... 304
Stibasoma (S.) apicimacula . .... 306
Stibasoma (S.) chionostigma . .... 308
Stibasoma (S.) flaviventre .
Stibasoma (S.) fulvohirtum. .
Stibasoma (S.) panamensis .
Stibasoma (Rhabdotylus) venenatas .
Genus Cryptotylus . .
Key to Cryptotylus Species . .
Cryptotylus chloroticus .
Cryptotylus unicolor . .
Genus Philipotabanus . .
Key to Philipotabanus Species .
Philipotabanus (Melasmatabanus) criton.
Philipotabanus (M.) fascipennis .
Philipotabanus (M.) nigripennis n. sp.
Philipotabanus (Mimotabanus) phalaropygus
Philipotabanus (Mimo.) porteri .
Philipotabanus (Mimo.) tanypterus n. sp.
Philipotabanus (Mimo.) vulpinus .
Philipotabanus (Philipotabanus) magnificus
Philipotabanus (P.) nigrinubilus
Philipotabanus (P.) pterographicus.
Genus Stypommisa . .
Key to Stypommisa Species .
Stypommisa bipuncta n. sp.
Stypommisa captiroptera .
Stypommisa jaculatrix .
Stypommisa maruccii .
Stypommisa pequeniensis .
Stypommisa serena .
Syypommisa simplex .
Stypommisa n. sp .
Genus Leucotabanus .
Key to Leucotabanus Species. .
Leucotabanus canithorax .
Leucotabanus exaestuans .
Leucotabanus flavinotum .
Genus Lepiselaga .
Lepiselaga crassipes .
: : : :
Genus Poeciloderus ................... 378
Key to Poeciloderus Species. . ... 378
Poeciloderus allusiosis n. sp. . ... 379
Poeciloderus quadripunctatus . .. 382
Genus Tabanus. .................. .. 387
Key to Tabanus Species . ... 387
Tabanus albocirculus. .. . 393
Tabanus aniptus . .... 397
Tabanus claripennis . ... 400
Tabanus commixtus . .... 402
Tabanus dorsiger. . ... 404
Tabanus eldridgei ... .... 405
Tabanus guapiensis n. sp. . ... 407
Tabanus hirtitibia. . ... 410
Tabanus importunus. . . 413
Tabanus macquarti ... .... 413
Tabanus nereus. . . ... 416
Tabanus olivaceiventris . ... 417
Tabanus praeteritus . ... 420
Tabanus pseudoculus. . 421
Tabanus pungens. . .. 423
Tabanus rubripes. . ... 425
Tabanus surifer . ... 426
Tabanus thiemeana . ... 430
Tabanus unipunctatus. . ... 431
Tabanus unistriatus. . 433
Tabanus sp. . .... 435
REFERENCES CITED . . 481
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . ... .... 487
LIST OF FIGURES
1. Esenbeckia trigrina n. sp.,Esenbeckia minuscule n. sp.,
and Esenbeckia ecuadorensis chagresensis Fairchild. ... 437
2. Esenbeckia balteata n. sp. and Esenbeckia testa-
ceiventris (Macquart) . .... 439
3. Fidena sulfurea n. sp. and Scione cupreus n. sp. ... .441
4. Scione young n. sp. and Scione rhinothrix n. sp. .... .443
5. Scione albifasciata (Macquart) and Scione flavescens
(Enderlein) . . ... 445
6. Scione serratus n. sp. and Scione obscurefemorata
Krober. . .... .. . 447
7. Scione equivexans n. sp., Scione brevibeccus n. sp.,
and Chrysops reticulatus n. sp . ... 449
8. Stenotabanus chryonotus n. sp., Stenotabanus nigriculus
n. sp., Stenotabanus brunneus n. sp., Stenotabanus roxannae
n. sp., Stenotabanus Zuteolineatus n. sp., and Philipotabanus
tanypterus n. sp. . . ... 451
9. Chlorotabanus fairchildi n. sp., Spilotabanus triaurius
n. sp., Dichelacera aurata n. sp., and Catachlorops
siculus n. sp. . .. .. 453
10. CatachZorops alphus n. sp., Dicladocera basirufa (Walker),
and Dicladocera argentomacula n. sp. . ... 455
11. Dicladocera leei Fairchild n. sp., Dicladocera
calimaensis n. sp., and Dicladocera hirsuta n. sp ... 457
12. Dicladocera beaveri n. sp. Dicladocera pruinosa
n. sp., Dicladocera dalessandroi n. sp., and
Dicladocera distomacula n. sp. . 459
13. Dicladocera minos (Schiner), Poeciloderus allusiosis
n. sp., Stypommnisa n. sp., Tabanus guapiensis n. sp.,
Cryptotylus chloroticus (Philip and Fairchild), and
Cryptotylus unicolor (Wiedemann). . 461
14. Esenbeckia tinctipennis .
15. Scione cupreus n. sp. .
16. Scione flavescens .
17. Scione equivexans n. sp. .
18. Scione maculipennis .
19. Scione young n. sp .
20. Scione rhinothrix n. sp. .
21. Scione albifasciata .
22. Scione obscurefemorata .
23. Scione brevibeccus n. sp. .
24. Chrysops nexosus .
25. Chrysops calogaster .
26. Chrysops soror .
27. Chrysops melaenus .
28. Chrysops chriquensis. .
29. Chrysops variegatus .
30. Chrysops varians var. tardus.
31. Chrysops auroguttatus .
32. Chrysops mexicanus .
33. Chrysops reticulatus n. sp. .
34. Chrysops Zeucospilus .
35. Dasybasis schineri .
36. Dasybasis montium .
37. Himantostylus intermedius .
38. Hemichrysops fascipennis. .
. . 4 6 4
39. Selasoma tibiae. .
40. Spilotabanus multiguttatus. .
41. Spilotabanus triaurius n. sp.
42. Dichelacera fasciata .
43. Dichelacera melanosona. .
44. Dichelacera regina .
45. Dichelacera transposita .
46. Dichelacera subcaZZosa .
47. Dichelacera chocoensis .
48. Dichelacera submarginata .
49. Dichelacera marginata .
50. DicheZacera albomarginata .
51. DicheZacera aurata .
52. CatachZorops fulmineus form ocel
53. CatachZorops fuZmineus ..
54. Catachlorops flavissimus .
55. Catachlorops alphus n. sp. .
56. CatachZorops siculus n. sp. .
57. Catachlorops vespertinus .
58. Catachlorops umbratus .
59. Dicladocera dalessandroi n. sp.
60. Dicladocera riveti .
61. Dicladocera beaveri n. sp.
62. Dicladocera hirsuta n. sp.
63. Dicladocera distomacula n. sp.
. . 464
. . 464
. . 464
. . 464
. . 464
. . 465
. . 465
. . 465
. . 465
. . 465
. . 465
. . 465
. . 465
latus ... 465
S .. 466
. .. 466
Philipotabanus magnificus .
Philipotabanus vulpinus .
Philipotabanus criton .
Philipotabanus phaleropygus .
Stypommisa jaculatrix .
Stypommisa marucii .
64. Dicladocera distomacula n. sp.
65. Dicladocera macula .
66. Dicladocera submacula .
67. Dicladocera basirufa. .
68. Dicladocera minos .
69. DicZadocera argentomacula n. s
70. Dicladocera rubiginipennis.
71. Dicladocera pruinosa n. sp.
72. DicZadocera calimaensis n. sp.
73. Dicladocera nigrocoerulea .
74. Dicladocera leei n. sp .
75. Stibasoma apicimacua .
76. Stibasoma chionostigma .
77. Stibasoma panamensis .
78. Philipotabanus fascipennis. .
79. Philipotabanus pterographicus
80. Philipotabanus porter .
;p . 467
. . 467
. . 467
89. Stypommisa pequeniensis Anchicaya. .
90. Stypommisa pequeniensis Buenaventura
91. Styporrnnisa captiroptea. .
92. Lepiselaga crassipes Guapi .
93. Lepiselaga crassipes Candelaria .
94. Poeciloderus quadripunctatus .
95. Poeciloderus allusiosus n. sp .
96. Tabanus guapiensis n. sp. .
97. Tabanus eldridgei . .
98. Map of Colombia . .
99. Holdridge life zone map of the depart
Choco with legend .
100. Holdridge life zone map of the depart
Valle . .
101. Holdridge life zone map of the deparm
Cauca . .
102. General horse fly morphology .
. . 469
. . 469
. . 469
. . 469
. . 469
. . 470
. . 470
. . 470
. . 470
. . 472
. . 474
. . 476
. . 478
Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
HORSE FLIES (DIPTERA: TABANIDAE) OF THE COLOMBIAN
DEPARTMENTS OF CHOCO, VALLE, AND CAUCA
Richard Charles Wilkerson
Chairman: Graham B. Fairchild
Major Department: Entomology and Nematology
A survey of the horse fly fauna of the Colombian departments of
Choco, Valle, and Cauca was carried out during 1974 and 1975. Few
surveys of this nature have been reported in Colombia.
Survey methods included flight traps and the use of human and
livestock bait. An effort was made to collect in as many areas of
accessible primary forest, in as many different Holdridge ecological
zones, as possible. Collecting localities are indicated on ecological
maps and a description of each zone is given in the text. This treat-
ment will facilitate further collecting and provides a general state-
ment about the ecology of the species found at each site.
Keys and descriptions or redescriptions of 158 species are pre-
sented. Thirty-five species, one subspecies, and one subgenus are
described here for the first time. Figures of head characters of 39
species and of the wings of 81 species are given. A checklist of 226
Colombian species is included. In addition to the new descriptions,
19 new country records are noted.
Surveys of the horse fly fauna of Colombia have been few. The
only work involving the entire country is that of Bequaert and
Renjifo (1946). They listed 129 species with localities and brief
taxonomic and distributional notes. Sixty of the names used by them
have been changed and the species list is now much more extensive.
In the area under consideration two studies have been carried
out, one published and one unpublished. Lee et al. (1969) studied
the biting arthropods, including the horse flies, in the Rio Raposo
area, 40km south of Buenaventura in the department of Valle. Their
study lasted from 1962 to 1965 in habitats ranging from mangrove swamp
on the coast to tropical rain forest 10km inland. Their capture
methods included the use of human and livestock bait at ground level.
Other collections, using human bait in the forest canopy, were
especially valuable since these are the only long term canopy collec-
tions which have been made in this area.
The Atlantic-Pacific Interoceanic Canal Studies survey (see the
"collecting localities" section for more detail) was carried out
between April and Dec. 1967. One of the survey sites was in the
department of Choco. They too utilized human bait at ground level
1Departments, which are large political divisions in Colombia, are
underlined throughout the text for ease of reference.
and in the canopy in addition to flight traps. A species list from
this area, compiled by G. B. Fairchild was made available to me for
In addition, Porter and Defoliart (pers. comm. 1976) carried out
biting arthropod studies (1970-72) in the adjacent department of
Antioquia. A list of the horse fly species present was kindly pro-
vided by Dr. C. H. Porter.
The three departments under consideration, Choco, Valle, and Cauca,
have a total land area approximately 33% larger than Panama. The total
number of horse fly species known at this time is similar in the two
areas--about 160--but much more extensive collecting has been carried
out in Panama. The entire United States, for example, has but 282
species (Philip 1965), and Europe only 166 (Chvala et al. 1972).
Fairchild's (1971) catalogue lists approximately 178 species (out
of a total neotropical fauna of about 956) from Colombia. Extensive
collecting by myself between Oct. 1972 and June 1976 in these three
departments has shown that much remains to be done since 34 new species
were found in that small part of the country alone.
The purpose of this work is to provide workers with a means to
identify specimens in this area of Colombia. In addition, by using
the references and descriptions it is my intention that any serious
worker will be able to study in depth the species present and their
known variation without time-consuming searches for references and
The classification system of Fairchild (1969, 1971) for the neo-
tropical Tabanidae is followed throughout this paper. All three
recognized subfamilies and five of the seven tribes are present
in the study area. Twenty-seven of the 52 neotropical genera are
All keys are written for the identification of females. It is
not practical to design keys for the males at this time since so many
References provided with each species are not intended to be
complete. I give only the original description plus those with
figures, references, synonymies, and Colombian records. Fairchild's
(1971) catalogue may be referred to in most cases if additional
references are needed or if a name is found which is not listed here.
The literature cited section contains only those references cited in
Material examined includes collector unless that information was
not given on the label. All specimens from Colombia collected from
1974 to 1976 were collected by me unless otherwise stated.
This research was made possible by financial and logistical support
from several sources. Direct assistance during my stay in Cali,
Colombia, was provided by Tulane University at the International
Center for Medical Research. I would like to thank Dr. Paul Beaver,
former director, and Dr. Tom Orihel, the present director, for their
complete assistance during my stay. In Cali I wish to thank
Dr. Antonio D'Alessandro for daily assistance which made my effort
both efficient and fruitful. Dr. Joe Browne and Dr. Stephen Ayala
contributed significantly to my work by their professional assistance
and by easing my adaptation to Colombian culture.
Financial support while a student at the University of Florida
was provided by National Institute of Health Training Grant Number
5 T01 AI--383-03 from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious
Diseases and by the Entomology and Nematology Department, University
Dr. David G. Young was instrumental in bringing me to Colombia
for the first time and instilling in me his enthusiasm for the neo-
tropics. He has also been of great help in preparing the manuscript.
I wish to express my gratitude to my graduate school committee
for their patient help throughout my graduate career. They are
Dr. G. B. Fairchild, Dr. Harvey L. Cromroy, Dr. Dale H. Habeck,
Dr. Stephen G. Zam, and Dr. Jerry F. Butler.
Dr. Howard Weems of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods
provided much help in the way of advice and materials for the care
and preservation of my specimens. Dr. Thomas J. Walker of the
University of Florida was very helpful in advising me at several
junctures during research and writing. John Randall provided those
illustrations so initialled. Dr. G. B. Fairchild is responsible for
the morphological sketches and the illustration of Dicladocera Zeei.
Barbara Hise did an excellent job preparing the maps used here. Bill
Langford prepared the graphics and did exceptional work photographing
the wings. I am indebted to Roxann Ferguson who typed the entire
I wish to express my appreciation to the following people who
worked with me in the laboratory and field in Colombia: Amelia Arias,
Hugo Rodriguez, Jairo Ardila, and Anibal Gomez.
Specimens for study were kindly loaned or donated by Dr. William
Eberhard, Dr. Pablo Barreto (both Universidad del Valle, Cali),
Dr. Alberto Figueroa (Facultad de Agronomia, Palmira), and Dr. G. B.
I am especially grateful to Dr. G. B. Fairchild for his always
patient and enthusiastic help. He provided advice and a great deal
of time in the preparation of this paper. In addition, many of the keys
were written in large part by him, or are adaptations of his keys from
Holotypes designated here are to be deposited in the Florida State
Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville. Paratypes and the bulk of the
specimens will be retained in my collection. A synoptic collection will
be sent to the Universidad del Valle in care of Dr. Pablo Barreto.
STUDY AREA, GENERAL ECOLOGY, AND
The departments of Choco, Valle, and Cauca are located on the
Pacific coast of Colombia (Fig. 98). They have surface areas of
47,205, 21,245, and 30,495km2 respectively, a total land area nearly
equal to that of the state of Kentucky.
The habitats here are extremely varied, occurring from sea level
to over 4000m. They range from some of the wettest localities on earth
to near desert. There are two mountain chains in Southern Colombia, the
western chain branches in Narino and Cauca to form the Central and
Eastern Cordilleras. Choco has as its southeastern border the Western
Cordillera. This range extends through Valle and Cauca. Valle and
most of Cauca have as their eastern borders the Central Cordillera,
though in the southern part of Cauca there is only one range. In Cauca
the extreme boundary lies within the Amazon basin. This Amazonian fauna
is quite different in many respects and is not treated here.
Species reported from both Panama and Antioquia, for purposes of
this study, are assumed to be found in Choco also. The two collecting
sites of Porter and Defoliart (pers. comm. 1976) are described below
(p. 10). Reference is occasionally made in the text to 2 sites in the
Intendencia (a political division of less dense population than a depart-
ment) of Putumayo. These also are described below.
The Holdridge Life Zone system (Holdridge, 1967) is based on
altitude, latitude, mean biotemperature (temperature converted to relate
to biological activity, here designated as OC), and annual precipita-
tion. It is sueful here because it gives a general description of
any locality within a zone and it allows the reader to make assumptions
about localities not yet collected.
The accompanying life zone maps (Figs. 99-101) were taken from
Espinal and Montenegro (1963) who treat all of Colombia. Espinal
(1968) later made a much more detailed map of the department of Valle.
There are some modifications in the later map not reflected in the maps
included here. Most notably, the Tropical Wet Forest zone on the coast
is all Tropical Rain Forest and the area below Lago Calima is Tropical
Moist Forest, not Tropical Wet Forest. For a complete explanation of
the Holdridge system see Holdridge (1967).
The following are brief descriptions of those zones found in the
departments treated here (Espinal, 1968).
Tropical Very Dry Forest. Temperature greater than 24C. Average
annual rainfall between 500 and 1000mm. Altitude less than 1000m.
Tropical Dry Forest. Temperature greater than 240C. Rainfall
between 1000 and 2000mm. Altitude less than 1000m. Primarily found
in the Cauca River Valley.
Tropical Moist Forest. Temperature greater than 240C. Rainfall
between 2000 and 4000mm. Altitude less than 1000m. This zone below
the dam at Lago Calima was extensively collected.
Tropical Wet Forest. Temperature greater than 240C. Rainfall
between 4000 and 8000mm. Altitude less than 1000m. Lower Anchicaya
and the site on the Rio Zabaletas are in this zone.
Tropical Rain Forest. Temperature greater than 240C. Rainfall
greater than 8000mm. Altitude less than 1000m. Found all along the
Pacific coast, at sites such as Guapi, Rio Raposo, and Ladrilleros.
Subtropical Dry Forest. Temperature between 17 and 240C. Rain-
fall between 500 and 1000mm. Altitude from 1100 to 2000m.
Subtropical Wet Forest. Temperature between 17 and 24C. Rainfall
between 2000 and 4000mm. Altitude from 1100 to 1900m.
Subtropical Rain Forest. Temperature between 17 and 2400. Rain-
fall greater than 4000mm. Altitude 900 to 1900m. The site above
Santa Maria is in this zone.
Lower Montane Moist Forest. Temperature 12 to 1700. Rainfall
1000 to 2000mm. Altitude from 1800 to 3000m.
Lower Montane Wet Forest. Temperature 12 to 170C. Rainfall
between 2000 and 4000mm. Altitude 1800 to 3000m. Penas Blancas and
Pance CVC are in this zone.
Lower Montane Rain Forest. Temperature from 12 to 170C. Rain-
fall greater than 4000mm. Altitude from 1800 to 2900m. A good repre-
sentation of species was taken from Cerro de Munchique in this zone.
Montane Wet Forest. Temperature from 6 to 120C. Rainfall 1000
to 2000mm. Altitude greater than 3000m.
Montane Rain Forest (Paramo). Temperature from 6 to 120C.
Rainfall greater than 2000mm. Altitude greater than 3000m. Parque
de Purace is in this zone.
Subalpine Rain Forest (Paramo). Temperature from 3 to 60C.
Rainfall 500 to 2000mm.
The following are collecting sites used in this study or used in
studies by others from which specimens and data were available. Minor
collecting sites may be mentioned in the text only and reference to
the Atlas Basico de Colombia or the geographical and political map of
Colombia of 1972 (scale 1:500,000) is recommended. Both were published
by the Instituto Geographico "Agustin Codazzi."
All sites discussed here in the departments of Choco, Valle, and
Cauca appear as numbers in parentheses on the accompanying ecological
maps (Figs. 86-88).
Department of Choco
The first three collecting sites below were used by the Atlantic-
Pacific Interoceanic Canal Studies survey for human disease hazards
in the northern Choco (Eldridge and Fairchild 1973, and Eldridge et al.
1973). More complete descriptions and maps are included in the above
papers. D. G. Young is credited here for these collections.
Curiche (3). Located on the narrow Pacific coastal plain between
Humbolt Bay and Serrania del Baudo in a Tropical Wet Forest. Altitude
about 10m. Collections were made between April 1967 and Dec. 1967 in
primary forest and cut-over areas near a mangrove swamp.
Alto Curiche (2). Located 3km inland from Curiche on the
Serrania del Baudo, altitude 302m, also Tropical Wet Forest.
La Teresita (1). Located at the eastern edge of the Serrania del
Baudo near the Rio Truando, altitude 35m. The area collected was
disturbed forest in a transition zone between Tropical Wet Forest and
Tropical Moist Forest.
Rio San Juan and Rio Baudo (4). A one week collecting trip was
made to the area between the above rivers. The area is primary, mostly
undisturbed, Tropical Rain Forest or Tropical Wet Forest.
Department of Antioquia
Providencia (Rio Anori Valley). Twenty-four km SW Zaragoza
(70 19' N; 750 04; W). Altitude 500-700m in a Tropical Wet Forest.
This and the following site are those of Porter and Defoliart (pers.
comm. 1976). They carried out canopy and ground level captures using
traps, animal bait, and human bait.
Caucasia region. Near Caucasia in northern Antioquia. Altitude
100-200m, in a Tropical Moist Forest zone. An area without primary
forest, mostly cut-over secondary growth or under cultivation.
Department of Valle
Ladrilleros (5). Located 30km northwest of Buenaventura. Tropical
Rain Forest or Tropical Wet Forest. A beach and jungle environment.
No primary growth was found but collecting was done in areas where only
the largest trees had been harvested. One collecting trip, Jan. 1975.
"Bajo Calima" (6). Ten km E, 32km N Buenaventura. Near Rio Calima
and "San Isidro," a small village not on my maps. Tropical Rain
Forest. A logging area with both cut-over and primary forest zones.
Two collecting trips, both in Sept. 1975.
Twenty km N, 41km E Buenaventura (7). One collection in Nov. 1975.
Altitude 140m, in a Tropical Rain Forest or a Tropical Wet Forest.
An area of primary forest.
"Rio Bravo Playa Rica" (8). Located approximately 15km below
dam at Lago Calima on the Rio Azul near confluence with Rio Calima.
Tropical Moist Forest (Espinal 1968) or Tropical Wet Forest (Espinal
and Montenegro 1963). Altitude 325m. Numerous specimens were taken
at all times of the year, most collections from human and livestock
bait. An area of subsistence agriculture and primary forest.
Lago Calima (9). Approximately8km below dam at Lago Calima.
Altitude 1250m. Tropical Moist Forest (Espinal 1968). Numerous
collections throughout the year mostly from livestock and human bait.
An area of subsistence agriculture in primary forest, terrain quite
Tenerife (10). Above town of Tenerife near Paramo de las IIermosas.
Altitude approximately 2500-2800m. Lower Montane Wet Forest. Several
short, rather fruitless trips. Area of nearly completely cut-over
Rio Raposo (11). Extensive collecting in mangrove swamp and
primary forest 10km from the coast. See Lee et al. (1969) for details.
Tropical Rain Forest.
Rio Zabaletas (12). Approximately 4km E town of Zabaletas. Five
week-long trips July-Oct. 1975 using human bait and CO2 baited flight
traps. Tropical Rain Forest or Tropical Wet Forest. Area of heavy
forest with larger trees removed.
Santa Maria (13). Five km above town of Santa Maria. Altitude
approximately 2000-2500m. Subtropical Rain Forest. One visit to a
fairly inaccessible area of primary forest with small farms produced
only 2 specimens of Philipotabanus tanypterus n. sp.
Lower Anchicaya (14). At the site of the hydroelectric plant at
Lower Anchicaya. Altitude 400m. Tropical Wet Forest. Nine week-long
trips at all times of the year. Large area of primary forest main-
tained around dam.
Rio Digua (15). Fifteen to 20km IV Queremal on the Rio Digua.
Tropical Wet Forest. Not visited by me, various specimens from
collection of W. Eberhard were from this locality.
Queremal (16). Fourhn WI Queremal. Altitude 1130m. Subtropical
Rain Forest. One trip in Feb. of 1976. An area of primary forest with
Pance CVC (17). Fifteen km W Cali at the CVC (Corporacion
Autonoma Regional del Cauca) meteorological station at "Pico Loro."
Altitude 1700m. Lower Montane Wet Forest, or Rain Forest. Area of
half and half primary forest and pasture. Flight trap captures made
throughout the year.
Penas Blancas (18). Ten km W Cali, also referred to as Pichinde,
though that locality is several kilometers away and at a higher alti-
tude. Altitude 1750m. Lower Montane Wet Forest. Specimens taken at
all times of year, mostly from livestock. Area of primary forest
and subsistence agriculture.
Cali (19). In urban and suburban Cali. This and the following
four localities are all in the Cauca River Valley and are at approxi-
mately 1000m altitude. Tropical Dry Forest.
Palmira (20). Palmira area, 20km E Cali. Tropical Dry Forest.
Finca San Luis (21). Twenty-five km E Cali, in Municipio de
Candelaria. Tropical Dry Forest. Collections taken at all times of
the year from livestock and flight traps. Area of intense agriculture.
Department of Cauca
Finca Samaritana (22). Near Rio Cauca, Bocas del Palo, Municipio
de Puerto Tejada. Tropical Dry Forest.
Finca Corredor (23). Near Caloto, 40km S Cali. Tropical Dry
Guapi (24). At various sites within 10km of Guapi. Tropical Rain
Forest or Tropical Wet Forest. Two one-week trips, July 1975 and
Feb. 1976. Most specimens captured using CO2 baited flight traps, in
or near mangrove swamps.
Silvia (25). In or near Silvia. Altitude about 2800m. Lower
Montane Wet Forest. Area completely converted to agricultural use.
Cerro de Munchique (26). At and around communications tower.
Lower Montane Rain Forest. Altitude 2450-2900m. Three week-long
trips, two in Aug. 1973 and 1975, and one in Jan. 1976. Area of
secondary growth, little primary vegetation remains.
Parque de Purace (27). Lago San Raphael 10km E of Purace. Alti-
tude 3500m. Subalpine Rain Forest (Paramo) or Montane Rain Forest. Two
successful trips in Feb. and March 1976. Area of primary vegetation.
Intendencia of Putumayo
Mocoa (28). Near Mocoa. Altitude 650m. Subtropical Wet Forest.
One trip in May 1976. Primary forest near Mocoa.
Puerto Asis. In and around Puerto Asis. Tropical Wet Forest.
Altitude 240m. Secondary vegetation and primary forest.
METHODS AND MATERIALS
A large variety of collection techniques was used in this study.
The most fruitful apparatus was the Gressitt Trap (Gressitt and
Gressitt 1962) modified by Howard V. Weems of the Division of Plant
Industry, Gainesville, Florida. It is a tent-like apparatus, made of
nylon netting, open at the sides, with a center baffle. It is lowest
in the middle (about 2m) and slants upward at both ends, funnelling
the insects into collecting containers (at about 3m). It is approxi-
mately 4-5m long. These traps were used with or without a CO2 attrac-
tant. Flies attracted to human collectors were referred to as "netted"
on all labels.
Livestock (horses and cows) was used extensively as bait, especially
at Lago Calima and Penas Blancas.
Light traps were sometimes useful for capturing males. A New
Jersey light trap was operated at "Finca San Luis" for 18 months and
occasionally at other sites such as Lower Anchicaya. CDC light traps
(Sudia and Chamberlain 1962) used to collect mosquitoes, CuZicoides,
and Phlebotomine sand flies also attracted some male horse flies. Males
were also taken while feeding at flowers.
Illustrations (Figs. 1-13) were all made using a Wild M5-31876
dissecting scope with a camera lucida. Figure 1A shows the scale of
all frontal, antennal, and palpal drawings. All head drawings were
made at half the above scale as indicated on Figure ID.
Wing slides for the photographs (Figs. 14-97) were made by
removing the wing, placing it in cellosolve (ethylene glycol) for 10
minutes, and then placing it directly into Canada balsam. Wing photos
are not to scale. Wing length is given only in the case of new species.
As a general rule, the wing is as long as or slightly shorter than
total body length including the head. It may be estimated from the
measurements included with each description.
All original descriptions are of holotypes, as are the drawings
of the new species unless otherwise stated. My redescriptions are
based primarily on Colombian specimens examined unless Colombian
material was not available. Variation, if any, in specimens from
other countries is noted in the discussion. The keys are written
primarily using characters from Colombian specimens.
GENERAL MORPHOLOGY AND TERMINOLOGY
The following terms are used in the keys and descriptions. For
a more detailed account of Tabanid morphology, see Barretto (1946),
Bonhag (1949), Bromley (1926), or Cragg (1912).
Head (Fig. 102). The eyes of the females do not touch. In life
they may be unicolorous, with 1 to several bands, or with a pattern
of spots and stripes. Soon after death these disappear but may,
at least partially, be recovered by placing them in a relaxing chamber
or in boiling water for a short time. Male eyes are usually holoptic,
touching at the midline. Often, males have 2 different sized facets.
If there is a sharp border between the 2, they are said to be well
demarcated; if there are 2 very different sized facets, they are well
differentiated. Either males or females may have pilose eyes, meaning
there are erect hairs, often visible only with correct lighting, among
The frons lies between the female eyes. The frons may bear an
ocellar tubercle which is a raised or bare area at the top or vertex.
The tubercle often bears 3 ocelli which may be distinct, or vestigial.
Usually the frons is pollinose (bearing a dust-like material) and has
shiny, usually swollen, median structures called calli. The frontal
or basal callus is at the base of the frons and is often extended
upward into a ridge, the median callus, which may or may not be con-
nected to the basal callus (Fig. 8-C).
The frontal index, used throughout this work, is determined by
measuring the height of the frons and dividing it by the width at the
base. Frontal drawings presented here are a flattened image of a
curved surface. Measurements of frons height taken from the drawings
are therefore larger than measurements taken through a microscope.
Frontal indices measured from the drawings, therefore, will be larger,
i.e., they will indicate a slightly narrower frons than the numbers
given in the text determined by direct measurement.
Below the frons is the subcallus, its lower border formed by the
antennal insertions. Below the antennae extending to the proboscis
is the frontoclypeus. It is bordered laterally by the genae, which
are the lateral areas below the eyes. The frontoclypeus and anterior
genae are often called the face. The hairs of the lower genae are
collectively called the beard. On each side of the frontoclypeus is
a small depression called a tentorial pit.
The antennae are comprised of 3 basic segments: the scape,
pedicel, and flagellum. The flagellum is made up of no more than 8
distinct annuli, of which the basal 4 annuli may be fused and modified
to form the basal plate, which bears a dorsal tooth or dorsal angle.
This angle or tooth may be obtuse (Fig. 9A) or acute and quite long
(Fig. 9G). The terminal annuli when a basal plate is present are
referred to as the style which is composed of 2 to 4 annuli.
The proboscis is composed of a labium which encloses 2 mandibles,
2 maxillae, a hypopharynx, and a labrum. The proximal part of the
labium is referred to as the theca; it bears a pair of labella distally.
The palpi are derived from the maxillae and are comprised of 2 seg-
ments, the second, or distal, segment often shows identifying characters
and is the part referred to in keys and descriptions.
Thorax. Refer to Figures 891 and 89J for terms used here de-
scribing the dorsal and pleural areas of the thorax.
The wing veins and cells (Fig. 102) are after Curran (1934, p. 484).
These names represent a combination of systems as explained by Curran
(1934). In addition R2+3 and R4 may bear the designations R2 and
R3+4 respectively after Shannon and Bromley (1924). The fork or fork
of third vein is where veins R4 and R5 branch. If an appendix is
present, it is a small extension at this juncture. The first and
fourth posterior cells may be closed, open, or coarctate (narrowed).
Chrysops species (Fig. 24) usually have a dark band running across the
discal cell called the crossband and often another spot at the apex in-
cluding part of the marginal cell, called the apical spot. The hyaline
area between the crossband and apical spot is called the hyaline crescent.
At the base of the costal vein is a small plate called the
basicosta (Fig. 102E, F) which may be bare or have few to numerous setae.
In this work I refer to the covering of hairs and scale-like hairs
as vestiture. There is also pollinosity, mentioned above, and pruinosity
which is a powdery substance which changes color with the changing
incidence of light.
Incrassate, used with reference to the legs, means swollen. The
hind legs may or may not have distal tibial spurs (Fig. 102) whose
presence helps define the subfamilies Pangoniinae and Chrysopsinae.
Abdomen. The abdomen has 7 visible segments. Genitalic charac-
ters are not used here because the time-consuming nature of dissecting
and growing is beyond the scope of this study. Genitalic differences
are of proven value in classification above the generic level (Mackerras
A generalized account of the tabanid life cycle can be found in
James and Harwood (1969). However, life cycles and behavior of
Colombian horse flies are virtually unknown. The available biological
information for each species is included in the discussion section
accompanying the account of each species. Seasonal distributions,
hosts, and biting records may be ascertained from the sections on
A recent review of the larval and pupal biology and taxonomy of
neotropical horse flies (Goodwin and Murdoch 1974) includes only
partial information on 43 of the nearly 1000 species known. Those
Colombian species considered by Goodwin and Murdoch are mentioned in
the discussion section accompanying each species and indicated on the
Checklist of Colombian Tabanidae.
MEDICAL AND VETERINARY IMPORTANCE
The disease and pest problems associated with tabanids have long
been known. This subject was recently reviewed by Krinsky (1976).
On a worldwide basis, 31 viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and helminths
have been isolated, experimentally transmitted, naturally transmitted,
or suspected as having been transmitted by tabanids. Some of the most
important of these diseases found in the neotropics include equine
infectious anemia, anthrax, tularemia, anaplasmosis, and surra.
Little work has been carried out in Colombia regarding disease
Antonio Betancourt and I (unpublished 1975) dissected over 1000
horse flies, belonging to 7 species, from the Municipio de Puerto
Tejada near the Cauca River (Cauca). We were investigating the
possibility of tabanid transmission of Trypanasoma vivax in that area.
No trypanasomes were found in this sample.
Lee et al. (1969) studying the blood-sucking arthropods in the
Rio Raposo area near Buenaventura, innoculated 370 pools of 3090
tabanids (14 species) into mice without virus isolation.
Page (1972), investigating Trypanasoma vivax transmission in cattle
in the Monteria area of Cordoba, found a 3.4% trypanosome infection
rate in 7 species of horse flies. Two species, Trypanosoma theileri
and Crithidia sp. were found.
CHECKLIST OF THE COLOMBIAN HORSE FLIES
Several sources already named were used to compile this check-
list. They are Lee et al. (1969), Porter (pers. comm. 1976), D. G.
Young (Atlantic-Pacific Interoceanic Canal Studies survey, species
list from G. B. Fairchild), Bequaert and Renjifo (1946), and the
species collected by me. To this was added species from Fairchild's
(1971) catalogue with Colombian distributions. Some species in the
catalogue were not listed specifically from Colombia but were included
if, for instance, they were found in Panama and Venezuela. Disjunct
distribution or subspecies are possible in this case but I assume,
for purposes of this list, their eventual discovery.
Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) batteata n. sp.
illota osornoi Fairchild
minuscule n. sp.
tigrina n. sp.
Esenbeckia (Proboscoides) ecuadorensis chagresensis Fairchild
Larval or pupal record, refer to Goodwin and Murdoch (1974)
** No definite Colombian record
t New Colombian record
Pityocera (Pityocera) festae
Pityocera (Elephella) cervus
nexosus n. sp. Fairchild
reticulatus n. sp.
varians var. tardus Wiedemann
flavipennis vallensis n. ssp.
ochrapogon n. sp.
aurulans ssp. Zurida Wiedemann
brevibeccus n. sp.
cupreus n. sp.
equivexans n. sp.
rhinothrix n. sp.
serratus n. sp.
young n. sp.
Dasybasis montium (Surcouf)
Dasybasis schineri (Krober)
(Stenotabanus) brunneus n. sp.
(S.) chrysonotus n. sp.
(S.) detersus (Walker)
(S.) incipiens (Walker)
(S.) luteolineatus n. sp.
(S.) nigricutus n. sp.
(S.) obscurus Krober
(S.) sordidatus Fairchild
(Phorcotabanus) cinereus (Wiedemann)
(Brachytabanus) longipennis Krober
(Stilbops) roxannae n. sp.
Himantostylus intermedius Lutz
tDiachZorus anduzei Stone
DiachZorus curvipes (Fabricius)
tDiachlorus fuscistigma Lutz
Diachlorus jobbinsi Fairchild
tDiachlorus pechumani Fairchild
Hemichrysops fascipennis Krober
Selasoma tibiaZe (Fabricius)
*Chlorotabanus inanis (Fabricius)
*Chlorotabanus mexicanus (Linnaeus)
Chlorotabanus fairchildi n. sp.
Spilotabanus multiguttatus (Krober)
Spilotabanus triaurius n. sp.
Acanthocera marginalis Walker
Dichelacera (Nothocanthocera) albomarginata (Krober)
**Dichelacera (N.) trigonifera (Schiner)
Dichelacera (Orthostylocerus) aurata n. sp.
Dichelacera (Dichelacera) cervicornis (Fabricius)
DicheZacera (D.) chocoensis Fairchild and Philip
**Dichelacera (D.) damicornis (Fabricius)
Dichelacera (D.) fasciata Walker
Dichelacera (D.) hartmanni Fairchild and Philip
Dichelacera (D.) marginata Macquart
Dichelacera (D.) melanosoma Hine
Dichelacera (D.) regina Fairchild
Dichelacera (D.) scapularis Macquart
Dichelacera (D.) submarginata Lutz
Dichelacera (D.) villavoensis Fairchild and Philip
Dichelacera (Idiochelacera) subcallosa Fairchild and Philip
Dichelacera (Desmatochelacera) transposita Walker
CatachZorops (CatachZorops) aZphus n. sp.
CatachZorops (C.) calopterus (Schiner)
Catachlorops (C.) fumipennis Krober
**Catachlorops (C.) nigripalpis (Macquart)
CatachZorops (Psarochlorops) auripilis (Philip)
CatachZorops (P.) difficilis (Krober)
CatachZorops (P.) quadrimaculatus (Macquart)
CatachZorops (P.) siculus n. sp.
CatachZorops (P.) testaceus (Macquart)
Catachlorops (AmphichZorops) bogotanus (Enderlein)
Catachlorops (A.) flavissimus (to be des.)
CatachZorops (A.) vespertinus (Bequaert)
tCatachlorops (Psalidia) fulmineus (Hine)
Catachlorops (P.) fulmineus form ocellatus Enderlein
tCatachlorops (P.) umbratus (Hine)
**Dasychela badia (Krober)
Dasychela Zimbativena (Enderlein)
Dasychela ocellus (Walker)
DicZadocera argentomacula n. sp.
Dicladocera basirufa (Walker)
Dicladocera beaver n. sp.
DicZadocera calimaensis n. sp.
tDicladocera clarus (Schiner)
Dicladocera dalessandroi n. sp.
Dicladocera distomacula n. sp.
Dicladocera hirsuta n. sp.
Dicladocera leei Fairchild n. sp.
DicZadocera macula (Macquart)
tDicladocera minos (Schiner)
Dicladocera nigrocoerulea (Rondani)
Dicladocera pruinosa n. sp.
DicZadocera riveti (Surcouf)
Dicladocera rubiginipennis (Macquart)
Dilcadocera submacula (Walker)
(Stibasoma) apicimacula Fairchild
(S.) chionostigma (Osten Sacken)
(S.) flaviventre (Macquart)
(S.) fulvohirtum (Wiedemann)
(S.) panamensis Curran
(RhabdotyZus) venenata (Osten Sacken)
Cryptotylus chioroticus (Philip and Fairchild)
*Cryptotylus unicolor (Wiedemann)
Philipotabanus (Mimotabanus) annectans Fairchild
Philipotabanus (M.) fucosus Fairchild
Philipotabanus (M.) phalaropygus Fairchild
Philipotabanus (M.) plenus (Hine)
Philipotabanus (M.) porteri Fairchild
Philipotabanus (M.) tanypterus n. sp.
Philipotabanus (M.) vulpinus Fairchild
Philipotabanus (Melasmatabanus) criton (Krober)
Philipotabanus (M.) fascipennis (Macquart)
Philipotabanus (M.) keenani (Fairchild)
Philipotabanus (M.) nigripennis n. sp.
Philipotabanus (Philipotabanus) magnificus (Krober)
*Philipotabanus (P.) nigrinubilus (Fairchild)
**Philipotabanus (P.) pallidetinctus (Krober)
Philipotabanus (P.) pterographicus (Fairchild)
**Philipotabanus (P.) stigmaticalis (Krober)
Philipotabanus (P.) tenuifasciatus (Krober)
Stypoommisa bipuncta n. sp.
Stypommisa captiroptera (Krober)
Stypommisa flavescens (Krober)
tStypommisa hypographa (Krober)
tStypommisa jaculatrix (Fairchild)
**Stypommisa lerida (Fairchild)
Stypommisa maruccii (Fairchild)
tStypommisa modica (Hine)
Stypommisa pequeniensis (Fairchild)
Stypoynisa serena (Krober)
Stypommisa simplex (Walker)
Leucotabanus canithorax Fairchild
*Leucotabanus exaestuans (Linnaeus)
*Leucotabanus flavinotum (Krober)
Pseudacanthocera brevicorne (Enderlein)
*Lepiselaga crassipes (Fabricius)
LepiseZaga colombiana Fairchild
*Poeciloderas quadripunctatus (Fabricius)
Poeciloderas allusiosis n. sp.
guapiensis n. sp.
Key to the Subfamilies of Tabanidae1
1. Ninth tergite undivided in both sexes. Style of genitalia
simple, pointed, or bifid. Caudal ends of spermathecal ducts
simple, without cup-like expansions. Third antennal segment
generally of 7-8 annuli, rarely with a basal plate of fused
annuli. Ocelli and hind tibial spurs present. Eyes unpatterned
in life . ... ........ Pangoniinae
1'. Ninth tergite divided in both sexes. Third antennal segment
of a basal plate and a 4 or fewer annulate style. ..... 2
2(1'). Style of c genitalia simple, pointed. Caudal ends of sper-
mathecal ducts simple, without cup-like expansions. Ocelli
present. Hind tibial spurs usually present, rarely apparently
absent or difficult to see. Eyes frequently patterned with
bands or spots of contrasting color in life Chrysopsinae
2'. Style of J genitalia truncate. Caudal ends of spermathecal
ducts with cup-like expansions. Functional ocelli absent,
though vestiges frequently present. Hind tibial spurs absent.
Eyes plain or with horizontal stripes, rarely otherwise .
. . . Tabaninae
This and the following two keys adapted from Fairchild, 1969.
Key to the Tribes and Genera of Pangoniinae and Chrysopsinae
1. Ninth tergite undivided in both sexes. Style of male genitalia
simple or bifid. Third antennal segment generally of 7-8
segments, rarely with a basal plate of fused annuli .
. . . Pangoniinae 2
1'. Ninth tergite divided in both sexes. Style of male genitalia
simple, pointed. Third antennal segment of a basal plate and
a 4 or less annulate style . . .
. .. Chrysopsinae, Chrysopsini, Chrysops (p. 119)
2(1). Style of male genitalia bifid. Eyes bare. Vein R4 nearly
always with a strong appendix. Face not markedly conically
produced, the proboscis rarely much longer than head height .
. . Pangoniini, Esenbeckia (p. 40)
2'. Style of male genitalia simple, pointed. Eyes pilose. Vein
R4 often without an appendix. Face usually inflated, often
strongly conically produced, the proboscis frequently much
exceeding head height . .... Scionini 3
3(2'). First posterior cell usually closed, rarely open; fourth
posterior cell always open. .. . .. 4
3'. First and fourth posterior cells closed .... .Scione (p. 84)
4(3). Third antennal segment with projections or prominent hair
tufts on one or more annuli. First posterior cell closed
with a long stalk . .... Pityocera (p. 115)
4'. Third antennal segment subulate, the annuli without projections
or prominent hair tufts . .... Fidena (p. 63)
Key to Tribes, Genera, and Subgenera of Tabaninae
1. Basicosta smoothly pollinose, without setae. If setae are
present, sparse or numerous, and there are vestiges of ocelli,
a strong tubercle at vertex, labella partly sclerotized, a
long tooth on third antennal segment, wings strongly patterned,
or other striking specializations, see couplet 25 .
. . . Diachlorini 2
1'. Basicosta with setae as dense as on adjoining costa. With-
out vestiges of ocelli or sclerotizations on labella, and
rarely with other striking specializations. ... .Tabanini 34
2(1). With one or both of the following characters: Basal plate at
third antennal segment with an acute dorsal spine or tooth;
labella of proboscis compact and with at least some shiny
sclerotized areas . . 3
2'. Without either of the above characters, the basal plate of
most obtusely angled above and the labella wholly pollinose .18
3(2). Basal plate of third antennal segment with at most an obtuse
angle, 90 or more, never excessively long nor with first
antennal segment cylindrical and elongate. Labella of proboscis
partly or wholly sclerotized. . . 4
3'. Basal plate with a long or short spine or acute angle, or
greatly elongate, both style and first antenna segment
unusually long. Labella sclerotized or not . 6
4(3). First antennal segment shiny and globose, moderately to
markedly inflated. Subcallus inflated and shiny. Extreme
apex of wing sharply hyaline. Vein 3 bent forward, 1st
submarginal cell somewhat coarctate ... .Bolbodimyia (p.193)
4'. First antennal segment normal, subcallus pollinose. Wing
otherwise . . . 5
5(4'). Frontal callus absent. Pale yellowish or greenish unicolorous
stout flies with wings hyaline or with small discrete black
spots . . ... Chlorotabanus (p.205)
5'. Frontal callus present, small and rounded, usually with a
slender upper ridge-like extension. Wings generally with dark
pattern, sometimes hyaline. ... Phaeotabanus (p.212)
6(3'). Frontal callus as wide as frons, or if not, frons widened
below, callus rounded and protuberant and bare areas on face.
Eyes usually with at least a median dark transverse stripe,
generally with several green or purple stripes, rarely uni-
colorous. Slender species, the tibiae slender, abdomen never
green. Antennae not unusually long, the first segment notably
shorter than basal plate. Dorsal spine short to very long.
Style not unusually hirsute, rarely longer than plate, slender.
Abdomen slightly if at all constricted. Wings various, rarely
unpatterned. Labella often entirely sclerotized .
. . .Dichelacera s.Z. 7 (p.221)
6'. Frontal callus narrower than frons; if not, then triangular
and extended upward in a ridge, the lower angles barely
touching eyes, or tibiae incrassate or abdomen greenish. Eyes
unicolorous or bicolored, very rarely striped .. 11
7(6). Labella of proboscis wholly sclerotized and shiny. Wings with
a diagonal dark fascia from apex to fifth posterior cell.
Eyes with one or more transverse bands except in ochracea.
Scutellum nearly always darker than adjoining mesonotum; the
latter usually transversely banded . .
. .. DicheZacera (Dichelacera) (p.221)
7'. Labella partly pollinose. Wings otherwise. Eyes banded or
unicolorous. Scutellum often paler than mesonotum, the latter
never transversely banded .... ....... 8
8(7'). Frontoclypeus inflated and shiny, the genae bare, or at least
with bare stripe. Antennal tooth short, not reaching end of
basal plate. Wings with area anterior to vein R infuscated,
or apical third of wing dusky, or wing largely black, rarely
with vestiges of a diagonal dark fascia. Subcallus pollinose.
Scutellum generally with some pale hairs, often contrastingly
pale. All tibiae at least basally white. Eyes usually banded.
. .. Dichelacera (Nothocanthocera) (p.238)
8'. Frontoclypeus pollinose or partly bare, genae pollinese.
Wings not as above. . ... ....... 9
9(8'). Center of frontoclypeus and subcallus bare and shiny. Wings
yellowish tinted, with area beyond fork of third vein and
apex of discal cell faintly dusky. Mesonotum striped, the
scutellum black. Eyes unbanded . . .
. .. Dichelacera (IdiocheZacera) (p.240)
9'. Frontoclypeus and subcallus wholly pollinose. ... 10
10(9'). Wing with irregular dark discal patch, extended along costa
to apex, and with an extension along R4. Vertex rather
sunken, without vestiges of tubercle. Scutellum brown or
pale haired. Abdomen with pale haired triangles on tergites
2 or 3 to 4. Eyes bicolored or unicolorous. Legs unicolorous
or the tibiae darker than femora . .
. .. Dichelacera (Orthostyloceras) (p.246)
10'. Wing black with hyaline apex and hyaline band from costa to
hind margin covering ends of basal cells. Body black with
white triangle on fourth abdominal tergite. Legs black, only
fore tibiae bicolored. Eyes unicolorous . .
. Dichelacera (DesmatocheZacera) (p.243)
11(6'). Tibiae all slender. Tubercle at vertex generally distinct and
prominent, rarely obsolete. Palpi slender to threadlike.
Proboscis generally with small compact labella, wholly or
partly sclerotized, rarely wholly membranous. Antennae slender,
the dorsal spine slender, pointed, rarely shorter than basal
plate. Frons usually narrow, the callus clavate or ridge like,
rarely otherwise. Wings nearly always patterned, rarely
lightly tinted, never wholly clear. Catachlorops 12 (p.249)
11'. Tibiae inflated, or tubercle at vertex absent, or palpi inflated,
or dorsal antennal spine clubbed or very short or frons broad
. . . 15
12(11). First posterior cell closed or strongly coarctate. Frons very
narrow, the callus ridge like. Wings with dark pattern which
leaves area around apices of basal cells or most of discal
cell, and apex or oval spots in first R and third R clear
or paler. Antennae with long slender tooth, its apex often
recurved. Labella wholly sclerotized. Palpi very slender. .
. Catachlorops (Psalidia) (p.252)
12'. First posterior cell open; if somewhat coarctate, then wings
otherwise. . . ... ... 13
13(12'). Wings with a dark discal patch which includes all of discal
cell, the latter sometimes fenestrate, or wings wholly black,
or black with hyaline apex, the basal cells hyaline or partly
or wholly dark. Frontal callus often clavate. Labella often
partly pollinose. Thorax at most faintly striped .
. Catachlorops (Catachlorops) (p.256)
13'. Wings not as above . ... 14
14(13'). Wings with definite pattern of bands or spots. Pattern similar
to Psalidia, but more reduced (Fig. 43) . .
. .. Catachlorops (Psarochlorops) (p.259)
14'. Wings without definite pattern, yellow, smoky or veins
brown margined. Slender species with partly sclerotized
labella, slender palpi and slender antennae (Fig. 57) .
. .. CatachZorops (AmphichZorops) (p.249)
15(11'). Palpi basally inflated. Proboscis short, heavy, labella
wholly sclerotized. Stout species with proportionately short
stout antennae . . ... .. 16
15'. Palpi long, slender, generally exceeding antennae. Proboscis
long to very long, slender, the labella pollinose. Not
stout chunky species, the antennae slender. Brown species
with a dark wing pattern which leaves area around ends of
basal cells and apex of wing hyaline or paler . .
. . Dasychela (p. 262)
16(15) Dorsal tooth on third antennal segment short, an acute angle
to a short spine, seldom exceeding end of basal plate. Fore
tibiae slender to moderately inflated, remaining tibiae
slender. Wings hyaline or slightly smoky, or veins brown
margined. Abdomen and appendages often greenish in life.
Not bee-like species . .... ... .17
16'. Dorsal tooth always exceeding end of basal plate, sometimes
nearly reaching apex of style, often clubbed. Fore tibiae
always incrassate, remaining tibiae generally also inflated.
Wings various, never wholly hyaline or uniformly tinted,
generally with black or contrasting pattern, often resembling
bees . .... .Stibasoma (Stibasoma) (p.304)
17(16). Frontal callus reduced to a short narrow ridge, small streak,
or virtually absent. Wings glass clear to faintly smoky,
the costal cell yellowish. Yellow, greenish, or brown uni-
colorous species, the legs unicolorous, the body without
contrasting hair patterns ... Cryptotylus (p.319)
17'. Frontal callus round or square, as wide as frons, extended
above in a broad or narrow ridge. Wings yellowing or smoky,
veins sometimes brown margined. Thorax brown, abdomen
strongly greenish or yellowish, both body and legs with con-
trasting hair patterns .... .Stibasoma (Rhabdotylus) (p.316)
18(2'). Discal cell of wing narrowed by anterior bending of vein M3.
small blackish species with wings largely black to beyond
discal cell, inflated shiny palpi, inflated tibiae, and
elongate first antennal segment. ... LepiseZaga s.1. (p.375)
18'. Discal cell normal . . ... .. 19
19(18'). Wing basally black or heavily tinted to ends of basal cells,
remainder hyaline. Whole face and entire body including
legs, black and shiny. Palpi strongly inflated. Third
antennal segment subcylindrical, without marked dorsal
angle ... . Himantostylus (p.183)
19'. Wings otherwise . . 20
20(19'). Mesopleuron and mesosternum darker than adjoining sclerites,
the mesopleuron shiny pearly pollinose. Wings usually with
dark markings, the apex often blackish. Eyes with character-
istic pattern of green spots and stripes, resembling Chrysops.
. . Diachlorus (p.186)
20'. Mesopleuron and mesosternum concolorous with adjoining
sclerites, not pearly pollinose. Wings various. Eyes uni-
colorous or banded, but not as above . .... 21
21(20'). Eyes bare with at least two transverse bands in life, light on
dark, or dark on light, the light usually greenish, the dark
purplish or blackish. Mostly small species with bare eyes,
moderately broad frons with often a median dark-haired patch,
and rounded or square callus generally as wide as frons.
(If frons very narrow, callus ridge like and eyes unbanded,
see Stypommisa couplet 33. ... Stenotabanus s.Z. 22 (p.158)
21'. Eyes hairy, unicolorous. Basal callus broad, as wide as frons.
Vertex without ocellar tubercle . .
. Dasybasis (Dasybasis) (p.152)
22(21). Antennal style with basal 2 annuli partly fused, appearing
3 annulate. Frons very broad, the callus less than half
width of frons ..... .Stenotabanus (Brachytabanus) (p.177)
22'. Antennal style normal, clearly 4 annulate. Frons and callus
not as above . . . 23
23(22'). Subcallus and face largely bare and shiny. Scutellum con-
trastingly pale haired . .... 24
23'. At least face wholly pollinose . . .
. Stenotabanus (Stenotabanus) (p.161)
24(23). Wings glass clear, the stigma yellow. Eyes with slender
green lines forming two narrow transverse loops .
. . Stenotabanus (Stenochlorops)
24'. Wings hyaline with a subapical costal brown patch. Eye with
2 iridescent dark blue stripes on a black background .
. Stenotabanus (subgen. nov.) (p.179)
25(1). Basicosta with few to numerous setae, but seldom with setae
as dense as on adjoining costa. Generally with one or more
of the following characters: tubercle at vertex; bare areas
on face; partly sclerotized labella of proboscis; long dorsal
spine on plate of third antennal segment; first antennal seg-
ment subcylindrical; wings with extensive dark pattern;
swollen tibiae . ... . 26
25'. Basicosta with setae as dense as on adjoining costa. Rarely
with any of the above characters ... 34
25(25). All tibiae greatly inflated. Wings black to middle of discal
cell, hyaline beyond. Palpi greatly inflated, shiny black.
Subcallus and face shiny black. Third antennal segment with
basal plate much longer than style, flattened, obtusely angled
above. . .... .Selasoma (p.203)
26'. Tibiae not inflated. . .... 27
27(26'). Face wholly subshiny, much produced. Wings black except
for axillary area and apices of basal cells. Vertex with
a well marked tubercle. Antennae slender, no strong tooth
on basal plate . Hemichrysops (p.190)
27'. Face entirely pollinose. ... 28
28(27'). Basal plate with acute dorsal angle or long spine which may
reach beyond first annulus of style. Frons seldom over
4 times as high as wide. Frontal callus clavate, occasionally
as wide as frons at base, usually narrower. Palpi rather
long and stout, never very slender nor markedly inflated
basally. Eyes often pilose. Wings very rarely entirely
hyaline, generally with a dark discal patch below stigma
and usually with discal cell fenestrate. Basicosta rarely
bare . . .. Dicladocera (p.265)
28'. Basal plate with dorsal angle obtuse, or frons much
narrower . . . 29
29(28'). Wings with extensive dark pattern not consisting of spots on
crossveins. If wings apparently unmarked, then thorax
prominently striped or frons exceedingly narrow and callus
threadlike . .. .. . 30
29'. Wings hyaline, tinted or with dark pattern primarily of dark
spots around crossveins. ... . 32
30(29). Wings with an irregular dark pattern of variable extent
which always leaves clear areas surrounding all crossveins
and fork of third vein. Frons narrow, 7 or more times as
high as wide. Palpi very slender. Eyes unicolorous,
bronzy in life .... .Philipotabanus (Philipotabanus) (p.323)
30'. Wings ranging from almost all black to hyaline with small
dark area below stigma, but crossveins not surrounded by
clear spots when within dark areas . .... 31
31(30'). Slender species with frons 7 times as high as wide or narrower;
palpi and antennae slender; proboscis considerably longer
than palpi with small labella. Eyes bright green in life .
... .. Philipotabanus (Melasmatabanus) (p.325)
31'. Stouter species with frons not over 6 times as high as wide;
palpi inflated, antennae broader; proboscis hardly longer
than palpi, the labella large. Eyes green or brick red in
life . .. Philipotabanus (Mimotabanus) (p.331)
32(29'). All crossveins and ends of all longitudinal veins close to
wing margin with large dark spots, sometimes confluent.
Frons broad, not over 3 times as high as wide, the callus
rounded, pointed above, as wide as frons. Vertex with
distinct tubercle. Palpi slender, flattened, shorter than
long proboscis. Thorax prominently striped . .
. . Spilotabanus (p.214)
32'. Wings never as extensively spotted, never with distinct
spots on ends of longitudinal veins. Palpi not flattened,
proboscis short . .... .. 33
33(32'). Wings hyaline or evenly tinted, the costal cell often darker,
but never with spots on crossveins or apical clouds. Frontal
callas clavate or ridge like. Abdomen black or brown, nearly
always with transverse bands at least on fourth tergite,
rarely otherwise. At least scutellum and often mesonotum
pale pollinose and pale haired, generally contrasting with
abdomen. Appendix on fork of third vein absent. Eyes un-
banded, dark . .... Leucotabanus (p.367)
33'. Wings with clouds on at least discal crossveins, often with
apical infuscations. If entirely hyaline or tinted, then ab-
domen and thorax not as above. Often with appendix or fork of
third vein. Eyes unbanded, green or bronze, or light with
single dark stripe. Frontal callus variable. Rarely with
basicosta bare. .. ... .. .. Stypomisa (p. 346)
34(1,25').First antennal segment with dorsal anterior margin much pro-
duced, cap like. Eyes of female with 2 green bands, often
bare or very sparsely pilose. Tubercle at vertex usually low
and rounded, sometimes absent. Wings with crossveins often
clouded, the first posterior cell generally at least coarctate,
often closed and petiolate. ... Poecioderas (p. 378)
34'. First antennal segment not as above .... 35
35(34'). Vertex with a strong tubercle, often bearing vestiges of
ocelli. Eyes unicolorous, greenish black. Frontal callus
clavate or ridge like. Abdomen plain or banded, never striped.
At least scutellum and often mesonotum pale pollinose and
pale haired, generally contrasting with abdomen (see also
couplet 33) . .... Leucotabanus (p. 367)
35'. Vertex with at most a small denuded spot. Eyes variously
patterned or unicolorous, bare ... .Tabanus (p. 387)
Genus Esenbeckia Rondani
Esenbeckia Rondani 1863, Arch. Zool. Mod. 3(1):83. Philip 1945,
Rev. Brasil. Ent., 2:1-10, key.
Style of male genitalia is bifid. Frons with a ridge-like callus
which may be bare or pollinose. Fairchild states
[they] do not have a produced conical frontoclypeus,
the palpi project at nearly a right angle to the axis
of the proboscis and are usually fairly long and curved.
The proboscis is seldom over twice the height of the
head, often less than head height, slender to quite heavy,
the labella ranging from slender to broad, and either
partly or wholly sclerotized. The antennae have the
first two segments short, hardly longer than wide, the
third of 8 annuli, the first few much wider than long,
the terminal segments longer than wide, so that the
whole segment tapers from a broad base to a slender and
attenuated apex. The eyes are always bare and unicolorous,
green, bronzy or blackish in life. The wings are clear,
tinted, blackish or varicolored, and nearly always have
the first posterior cell closed and with a long appendix
at fork of third vein. Legs are slender and relatively
long. (Unpublished, 1978)
Of the 76 named Neotropical species 16 are reported from Colombia
and 9 from the study area.
Key to Esenbeckia species
1. Labella wholly sclerotized and forceps-like when viewed from
above (Fig. II). Thorax blackish with whitish pleural hairs.
The abdomen blackish with narrow fringes of white hairs on the
apical borders of all sternites and tergites. Wings fumose.
Legs entirely black. (Proboscoides) ecuadoriensis chagresensis
1'. Labella not forceps-like (Fig. ID). Abdomen without narrow fringes
of white hairs on the apical borders of all sternites and
tergites. . . .... .. .. 2
2(1'). Abdomen pale green to dark green contrasting with brown to
reddish thorax. Anterior 2 pairs of legs pale, the posterior
generally darker. Wings lightly fumose .. .prasiniventris
2'. Abdomen not as above, yellow to black, variously patterned. .. 3
3(2'). Without contrasting dark markings. Mainly yellowish to pale
brown species . . ... 4
3'. Always with contrasting dark markings . 5
4(3). Very small species, usually 10mm or less. Wings strongly smoky
at base and costal border. First tergite contrastingly whitish.
Hind femora dusky, contrasting with paler tibiae (Fig. IE-H)
. . minuscule n. sp.
4'. Larger species, generally over 12mm. Wings more uniformly
smoky. First tergite concolorous with second. Hind femora
not darker than rest of legs. . illota osornoi
5(3'). Wings distinctly bicolored (Fig. 14), basally yellowish,
apically and along anal margin blackish brown. Abdomen banded.
. . tinctipennis
5'. Wings unpatterned, wholly pale brown to blackish brown. Abdomen
generally not banded. . . 6
6(5'). At least first 2 pairs of legs bicolored. Tergites 1-4 with
prominent posterolateral hair tufts. Thorax and scutellum
black, subshiny, thinly pale pollinose. . 7
6'. Legs not bicolored, black or yellow. Tergites 2-5 without
prominent posterolateral tufts. Thorax and scutellum brown to
red, densely yellowish to reddish pollinose . 8
7(6). Dorsum of abdomen dark reddish brown with obscure black mid-
dorsal markings on tergites 1-4. Venter bright shiny mahogany
red . . ... .... testaceiventris
7'. Dorsum of abdomen dull yellowish with a small black triangle
on tergite 2, and dark transverse anterior bands on 3. Venter yel-
low with lateral black spots on first few tergites tigrinaa n. sp.
8(6'). Legs wholly pale orange brown. Beard, thoracic and pleural
hairs rufous. First 2 abdominal tergites pale yellow without
middorsal markings. Remainder of abdomen shiny dark brown to
black . .... . balteata n. sp.
8'. Legs unicolorous blackish brown to black. Beard and pleural
hairs pale gray to white, contrasting with thoracic dorsum.
Second abdominal tergite with a faint to prominent dark
narrow triangle or streak .... translucens
Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) balteata n. sp.
A medium sized reddish brown species with first 2 abdominal seg-
ments translucent yellow above, beard and pleural hairs deep yellow,
legs unicolorous yellowish brown and wings smoky brown.
Female. Length 17mm, of wing 19mm. Head characters as figured.
Frontal index 2.0. Frons and subcallus yellowish brown pollinose,
paler along borders; vestiture of a few very small dark hairs except
those above ocelli which are longer and thicker. Callus yellowish brown.
Eye color not noted. Genae pale yellow brown, frontoclypeus yellowish
brown. Antennae pale brownish yellow, first 2 segments with pale yel-
lowish brown pollinosity. Vestiture of segment 1 long sparse pale yellow
hairs with a few ventral long black hairs. Hairs of segment 2 light
brown above and a mixture of brown and black below. Palpi yellowish
brown, black haired except for some orange yellow hairs on the first seg-
ment. Proboscis shiny brown sclerotized. Oculogenal hairs (Figs. ID,
iE, 2D, 2H, found on the upper gena in the suture separating the gena
from the frontoclypeus) short, sparse, and brown. Upper lateral parts
of frontoclypeus with a few pale yellow hairs. Beard orange yellow ex-
cept for some dark hairs between the base of the palpi and the eye.
Mesonotum and scutellum yellowish brown, yellowish brown pollinose,
mesonotum slightly paler posteriorly and laterally. Vestiture of
short yellowish brown hairs except for 2 small yellow tufts, one just
above wing base, the other just behind wing base. Pleura and coxae
with brown ground color showing through pale yellowish brown pollinosity.
Vestiture of sparse long orange yellow hairs, densest below wing bases
and just behind head. Procoxae clothed dorsally with long yellow
orange hairs on basal two-thirds and with shorter dark brown hairs
apically. Pro- and mesofemora light yellowish brown with a mixture of
short sparse erect brown and yellow hairs, brown hairs predominating
on the mesofemora. Metafemora light brown with short brown hairs.
Pro- and mesotibiae and tarsi pale yellowish brown with short recumbant
yellow hairs. Metatibia and tarsi light brown with short reddish
yellow hairs. Halteres, knob brownish yellow, stem dusky. Wings smoky
brown. First posterior cell petiolate, fourth coarctate, long appendix
at fork of third vein.
Abdomen above with first 2 segments translucent pale yellow. Re-
maining segments dark reddish brown, segment 3 slightly lighter. Below
segments 1, 2 and 3 translucent pale yellow, segment 3 with small
lateral dark spots and 4 with lateral dark areas each occupying one-
fourth the width of the segment. Remaining segments dark reddish brown.
Vestiture primarily of short dark brown hairs most numerous on the
terminal segments with pale hairs anteriorly and laterally on first
segment, on the apical border of segment 2 below, and laterally on
Male. Not known.
Distribution. Colombia (Valle).
Material examined. Colombia: Holotype, +, Valle, "Rio Bravo -
Playa Rica," below dam Lago Calima, from livestock, 3 Feb. 1976,
R. Wilkerson coll. Paratypes, as above, 19 17 Jan. 1976; Valle,
Lago Calima, 8km below dam, 1250m, from livestock, 2++ 17 Jan. 1976,
R. Wilkerson coll.
Discussion. The 3 paratypes are 13, 14 and 15mm in length and
have frontal indices of 3.2, 3.3 and 3.3. The paratypes agree well with
above description, except the third segment of the abdomen below is
variable, one specimen has less coloration laterally, another has longer
more diffuse lateral spots and a median dark triangle.
E. balteata is similar to E. translucens (Macquart) in general
appearance since both have the first 2 abdominal segments translucent
yellow. Translucens differs though by having a dark brown callus,
pale gray beard, pale gray pollinose and gray haired pleura, and
blackish legs. In addition the antennae, palpi, and proboscis of
translucens are much stouter and reddish brown to black.
The name, balteata, meaning "belted," refers to the pale yellow
anterior abdominal segments.
Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) illota osoroi Fairchild
Esenbeckia illota osornoi Fairchild 1942, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer.,
35(2):196, pl. 11, fig. 11., +, Panama; 1971, Cat. Dipt. S. Amer.,
A medium sized light yellow brown fly with pale yellow or brown
vestiture throughout, unicolorous light brown legs, and pale smoky
Female. Length ll-14mm (N=10, x=12.5mm). Frontal index 4.2-
5.8 (x=4.7). Frons, subcallus, genae and frontoclypeus yellowish brown
pollinose. Callus light brown, slender, tapering above and below, not
reaching subcallus or ocelli. Eyes yellowish bronze in life. First
2 antennal segments light yellow, the third light orange yellow. Palpi
light yellow brown, rather slender, outer aspect bare except for short
black hairs on borders. Oculogenal hairs quite sparse or lacking.
Beard of pale yellow hairs. Proboscis slender, shiny brown sclerotized,
slightly longer than head is high.
Mesonotum light yellowish brown with thin light yellow and light
brown setae. Pleura light yellow with pale hairs. Legs light yellowish
brown with pale hairs. Wings nearly hyaline with a pale brown tint.
Abdomen variable, first 2 segments translucent, light yellow, re-
mainder light yellow to brown with sparse to heavy yellowish brown
pollinosity. Vestiture variable with short light yellow to brown
hairs above, yellowish brown hairs below.
Male. Males are similar in color, the upper eye facets are larger
but there is no sharp line separating them from the smaller facets
below. Male palpi are slender, nearly threadlike.
Distribution. Fairchild (1942a)divided E. illota (Williston) into
a number of poorly marked subspecies. The nominate form is known from
southern Mexico to Honduras. E. illota osornoi from Costa Rica to
Colombia (Cundinamarca, Meta, Santander Sur); other subspecies occur
east of the Andes.
Material examined. Panama, 12?0, 3&c. Colombia: Amazonas;
17km W of Leticia, flight trap, 2++ 25 July 1973, Wilkerson and Young
Discussion. Fairchild (unpublished, 1978) reports this to be a
nocturnal and crepuscular species that shows preference for localities
near rivers and swamps. Although not reported from northwestern
Colombia,Bequaert and Renjifo (1946) saw specimens from Cundinamarca;
Meta, Restrepo; and a paratype from Santander, Rio Negro. Fairchild
(1942a)lists one paratype from Meta, Restrepo.
Two specimens collected at Leticia (Amazonas) may be E. illota
guianense Fairchild but show little difference from illota. Since the
taxonomic problems involved in this group are unresolved I will
consider them to be osornoi for purposes of this paper.
Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) minuscule n. sp.
A small yellowish brown species with slender palpi and proboscis,
unicolorous light yellowish brown legs, smoky brown wings and abdominal
segment 1 translucent, whitish.
Female. Length 8mm, of wing 10mm. Head characters as figured.
Frontal index 4.3. Frons, subcallus, genae, and frontoclypeus brownish
yellow pollinose. Callus light brown. Vestiture of a few very small
brown hairs on upper half and a small clump of thick short hairs above
ocelli. Eye color not noted. First 2 antenna segments light yellow
with dark brown hairs, third segment light brownish yellow. Palpi
brownish yellow with dark brown hairs. Proboscis slightly longer than
head is high, slender, shiny dark brown sclerotized. Oculogenal hairs
very sparse, light yellow. Beard sparse and light yellow except for a
few dark hairs between the bases of the palpi and the eye.
Mesonotum and scutellum light yellowish brown in ground color,
slightly darker laterally, along sutures, down the midline and
posterioraly, both covered with some light yellow pollinosity.
Vestiture of short light yellow hairs, longer and more numerous
laterally and posteriorly. Pleura light yellow pollinose below wing
bases changing to brown beneath. Vestiture of sparse pale yellow
hairs, longer and more numerous below wing base. Coxac brown with
sparse light yellow pollinosity. Coxal vestiture long, yellow hairs
predominating basally, long dark brown hairs predominating apically.
Profemora light yellowish brown with short light yellow hairs, meso-
femora yellowish brown with short light brown hairs above, and sparse
dark brown hairs below, metafemora brown with hairs as mesofemora.
Pro- and mesotibiae and tarsi light yellow with light yellow hairs.
Metatibiae light brownish yellow with light yellow and a few brown
hairs. Metatarsi yellowish brown with light brown hairs. Halteres
light yellow. Wings nearly hyaline with a pale brown tint; costal
margin and base of wing darker.
Abdomen with first segment translucent, whitish, pale haired.
Remaining segments pale yellowish brown with pale yellow pollinosity,
vestiture a mixture of short brown and a few brownish yellow hairs.
Distribution. Colombia (Valle).
Material examined. Colombia: Ilolotype, +, Valle, Rio Frio,
La Carmelita, 13 June 1942, J. Renjifo coll. Paratype, +, same data
Discussion. Paratype is as holotype, length 8mm, frontal index
3.9, denuded area around callus slightly larger. Specimen lacks
terminal segments of both antennae.
E. minusculus is similar to E. illota osornoi Fairchild, with
which it may be sympatric, but has a contrastingly pale first abdominal
tergite which osornoi does not, has dusky hind femora, has a darker
wing base and costal margin, and paler halteres. It much resembles
E. illota illota, but is hardly half the size of that species and has
darkened, not pale hind femora.
Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) prasiniventris (Macquart)
Pangonia prasiniventris Macquart 1845, Mem. Soc. Sci. Lille (1846),
p. 161, pl. 111, fig. 9., +, Colombia
Esenbeckia prasiniventris: Fairchild 1942, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer.,
35:197-198, full refs.
A medium sized fly with a pale brown thorax, light to dark green
abdomen and yellow prothoracic and mesothoracic legs and dark brown
Female. Length ll-15mm (N=10, x=13.3mm). Frontal index 3.7-
5.4 (x=4.3). Frons and subcallus yellow pollinose. Callus dark brown,
tapering gradually above, not touching subcallus below. Genae and
frontoclypeus sparsely grayish pollinose. Oculogenal hairs pale and
sparse. Antennae and palpi yellow. Palpi slightly pointed, outer
aspects with hairs on the borders only. Eyes bright bluish green in
life. Proboscis rather slender, as long as head is high, shiny
sclerotized. Beard and pleural hairs variable, white, gray or orange.
Mesonotum pale greenish brown with many short light yellow hairs.
Pleura pale gray pollinose. Legs as above. Wings pale smoky brown.
Abdominal color variable ranging from pale yellowish green to
blackish green. Vestiture is of short dark brown hairs above, short
dark brown and pale hairs below.
Male. Males are paler overall, have eyes with equal sized facets
throughout and short porrect palpi.
Distribution. Guatamala to Brazil, Trinidad. Colombia
Material examined. Panama, 34++, 7fe.
Discussion. No examples of this species were taken during the
course of this study nor has it been reported in Valle, Choco, or
Antioquia. Beuqaert and Renjifo (1946) saw specimens from
Cundinamarca, Bogota, and Magdalena, Rio Frio, Agua Dulce, and San
Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) testaceiventris (Macquart)
Pangonia testaceiventris Macquart 1848, Mem. Soc. Roy. des Sci.,
de 1'Agr. et des Arts Lille 1847(2):169 (also separately published
as Supplement 111:9), +, Quito.
Esenbeckia testaceiventris: Krober 1932, Rev. Entom., Rio de
Janeiro, 2:68, figs. 15, 16.
Pangonia umbra Walker 1850, Insecta Saundersiana, Diptera 1:19.
Esenbeckia sexmaculata Enderlein 1925, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin,
Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) testaceiventris: Fairchild 1971, Cat.
S. Amer. Dipt. Fasc. 28:9, synonomy.
A large robust dark reddish brown fly with a pale yellow beard,
bicolored yellowish brown and black legs, smoky brown wings, and
abdomen with large black middorsal markings and lateral white or pale
yellow hair patches.
Female. Length 16-19mm (N=6, x=17mm). Frontal index (3 specimens
from western Colombia), 3.1-3.3 (x=3.2), and (3 specimens from eastern
Colombia) 3.5-4.3 (x=4.0). Frons divergent below, 1.1-1.4 (x=1.24)
wider than vertex. Head structures as figured. Frons dark orange
brown pollinose with sparse slender black hairs. Callus blackish
brown. Tubercle at vertex densely long haired, pollinose, bearing 3
small and doubtfully functional ocelli. Subcallus dark yellowish brown
pollinose. Genae and frontoclypeus with the black ground color showing
through the sparse yellow pollinosity. Oculogenal hairs dense, long,
pale yellow, as is beard. First antennal segment black, dark gray
pollinose above, yellow pollinose below with corresponding black and
yellow hairs. Second segment dark gray pollinose with black hairs.
Third segment dark brown, slightly darker toward tip. Palpi brown,
black haired. Outer aspect concave,mostly bare, inner aspect slightly
convex with a few short black hairs over its entire surface. Proboscis
slightly longer than head height, black and entirely shiny sclerotized.
Mesonotum and scutellum dark blackish brown, thinly pollinose,
faintly lighter around sutures, clothed with sparse vestiture mainly of
blackish hairs, paler above wing bases and on pronotal lobes. All
hairs longer and more numerous posteriorly and laterally. Pleura
light yellowish gray pollinose. Vestiture of numerous long yellow
hairs mixed with a few black hairs on the mesoanepisternum. Pro- and
mesocoxae as pleura, metacoxae blackish gray pollinose, black haired.
Femora blackish gray, brownish yellow toward the apex, with rather
long mixed yellowish and black hairs. Pro- and mesotibiae brownish
yellow clothed with very short mainly pale hairs as are the tarsi.
Metatibiae and tarsi black with longer outstanding hairs. Metatarsi
black above, reddish below. Ilalteres cream colored, stem dusky. Base
of costa deeply grooved. Wings smoky brown. First posterior cell
petiolate, fourth posterior cell slightly coarctate. Appendix at fork
of third vein.
Abdomen broad, somewhat flattened, integument shiny except for
pollinose first segment laterally. Color of integument dorsally
intense deep reddish brown. Tergite 1 black. Tergites 2-4 deep
reddish brown with broad irregular inverted black triangles, the
triangle on 2 broadly reaching its posterior margin, the triangles on
3 and 4 only half as wide as segment but with thin faint black lines
reaching their posterior margins. Tergites 3 and 4 with lateral black
areas and 4 with a broad black apical margin. Remaining tergites
black. Abdomen below paler reddish brown with small lateral black
spots on sternites 2-4. Remaining sternites black. The vestiture
above is of short black hairs and becomes denser and longer posteri-
orly, laterally segments 2-4 bear small but prominent tufts of silvery
white hairs. Beneath the vestiture is somewhat longer and denser than
Male. Not known.
Distribution. Colombia (Valle, Cundinamarca, Meta), Ecuador,
Material examined. Colombia: Meta; Villavicencio, 3++ Sept. 1940;
Valle; Penas Blancas, 1750m, from bait horse, 1l 29 April 1975,
I1 9 June 1975; Lago Calima, from livestock, 10 22 Aug. 1975.
Discussion. The above description is primarily of the specimens
from Penas Blancas. The example from Lago Calima has broader palpi,
lacks the black lateral spots on the abdomen below, has a narrower
black triangle on tergite 2, and the triangle on 3 reaches the
The specimens from west of the Andes (Penas Blancas, Lago Calima)
are somewhat different from a homotype (compared to Pangonia
testaceiventris, P. umbra, and Esenbeckia sexmaculata) and the 2
other examples from Meta in eastern Colombia. The eastern specimens
have shorter more rounded palpi, a somewhat shorter less stout proboscis,
the apical third of the pro- and mesofemora yellowish brown, instead
of only the extreme apex, and instead of wholly black the apex of the
metafemora and all of the metatibiae and metatarsi are yellowish brown.
Further study may show these two to represent subspecies or even
Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) tigrina n. sp.
A large robust fly with bicolorous yellow and black legs, a dark
yellowish brown mesonotum, smoky brown wings, and abdomen with the
first two segments clear yellow, the third yellow and dark reddish
brown, the remainder dark reddish brown.
Female. Length 17mm, of wing 18mm. Frontal index 3.9, con-
vergent above, 0.73 as wide at top as base. Frons, palpi and antennae
as figured. Frons dark yellow pollinose, dark brownish yellow along
sides and below callus. Tubercle raised, dark brownish yellow polli-
nose with 3 apparently functional ocelli. Vestiture of very short
erect yellow hairs, a small group of medium length black hairs at the
vertex. Callus brownish yellow. Callus and frons swollen except for
slight depression below callus and above subcallus. Eyes bare, green
in life. Subcallus dark brown mesially, dark yellow pollinose
laterally and around antennal bases. Genae and frontoclypeus grayish
yellow pollinose. A row of yellow oculogenal hairs present. Beard
yellow. Antennal segments 1 and 2 pale grayish yellow pollinose.
First segment bare above and dark blackish brown anteriorally. Third
segment pale reddish brown basally, becoming dusky apically. Antennal
hairs black except for yellow hairs on ventral half of first segment.
Palpi pale reddish brown, pale yellow pruinose. Apical two-thirds
flattened, slightly concave and nearly denuded on the outside surface.
Inner aspects similar but not concave and with short black hairs.
Proboscis slender, nearly completely sclerotized, shiny, and as long
as head is high.
Mesonotum and scutellum black in ground color, yellow pollinose.
Vestiture of many slender light brown and yellow hairs, longer and more
numerous laterally, posteriorly on the mesonotum, and on the scutellum.
There are 2 thick tufts of yellow hairs, just above and behind the wing
base. Pleura gray pollinose with abundant yellow hairs, with thicker
tufts, 1 below the costa, the other below the caliptera. Coxae gray
pollinose. Procoxae with long yellow hairs on the basal half and a
mixture of long yellow and black hairs apically, other coxae with
yellow hairs. Pro- and mesofemora blackish brown on basal half and
two-thirds respectively, the remainder yellow brown. Hairs of pro- and
mesofemora a mixture of yellow and black hairs predominating on but
not restricted to the yellow and dark areas. Metafemora mostly blackish
brown, yellow at tip, mostly black haired with a few yellow hairs
dorsally. Pro- and mesotibiae yellow brown with very short yellow
hairs. Pro- and mesotarsi as tibiae basally changing to dark yellow
brown apically. Metatibiae and metatarsi dark yellow brown. Hlalteres
yellow. Wings smoky brown. First posterior cell petiolate, fourth
posterior cell slightly coarctate. Fork of third vein with a long
appendix. Dorsum of abdomen with segment 1 translucent, pale yellow
and yellow haired. Tergite 2 translucent pale yellow except for a
small median black spot on anterior margin approximately a third the
width of the segment with a thin extension reaching two-thirds the
distance to posterior margin. Vestiture of tergite 2 of short sparse
black hair anteriorly, more numerous laterally, the posterior third
with short yellow hairs. Tergite 3 with lateral black spots which
reach two-thirds distance to posterior margin and extend a third the
distance to midline. Area between spots anteriorly dark reddish brown,
posteriorly to apical margin dark yellow. Vestiture black anteri-
orly, yellow posteriorly, the hairs more numerous laterally.
Tergites 4-6 dark reddish brown. Vestiture mostly of black hairs
with yellow hairs along posterior and posterolateral margins of segment
4. Ventrally segments 1-3 mostly pale yellow. Sternite 2 with a
pair of small sublateral black spots. Sternite 3 with similar but
larger spots. Vestiture mostly of short yellow hairs with black hair
on and around spots. Sternite 4 as 2 and 3 but the spots expanded
to bands fading at the midline and not reaching posterior margin.
Other sternites dark reddish brown.
Male. Not known.
Distribution. Colombia (Valle).
Material examined. Colombia: Holotype, +,Valle, Penas Blancas,
1750m, 10km W Cali, caught flying near flank of cow at 1500hrs, 30
Dec. 1974, R. Wilkerson coll. Paratypes, Colombia, Valle, Penas
Blancas, 1950m, 50, all from a bait horse, 23 Dec. 1974, 12, 15, 21,
and 31 Jan. 1975, R. Wilkerson coll.
Discussion. Paratypes range in length from 17-18mm (x=17.8mm).
Frontal indices 2.6-4.7 (x=4.0). Paratypes are in good agreement with
holotype. Some specimens have darker frons, antennae, and palpi than
holotype. The abdominal coloration is not constant. In one paratype
the third tergite is completely dark and the third sternite has 2
large lateral spots; in another the third tergite is brown with 2
small lateral spots, third sternite is as in the holotype but the
fourth is much paler.
E. tigrina is similar to E. diaphana, E. balteata, and
E. translucens. I have not seen a specimen of E. diaphana but I was
able to compare it using the original description (Schiner, 1868) plus
the illustration of the holotype (Fairchild, 1967a). Diaphana has a
shiny dark brown callus, palpi evenly covered with hairs, yellowish
brown mesonotum with thick yellow hairs, gray pleura with whitish
hairs, legs reddish yellow, first 2 abdominal segments somewhat
translucent, reddish yellow, and the abdomen with numerous reddish hairs.
E. baZteata has slender yellowish red antennae, palpi, and
proboscis, rufous mesonotum and pleura, yellowish brown legs, and
first two abdominal segments translucent pale yellow without a distinct
middorsal black mark.
E. translucens has a gray beard, mesonotum and scutellum reddish
pollinose with coppery red hairs, pleura gray pollinose and gray
haired, and legs reddish black.
Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) tinctipennis Krober
Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) tinctipennis Krober 1931, Zool. Anz.,
:256, figs. 6, 7, Colombia, Choco, Condoto. Lee, airchild,
94:256, figs. 6, 7, +, Colombia, Choco, Condoto. Lee, Fairchild,
and Baretto 1969, Caldasia, 10(49):443. Fairchild 1967, Studia Ent.,
9(1-4):345-346, fig. 9.
A large brownish black species with a narrow frons lacking a
shiny callus, spatulate palpi, unicolorous dark brown legs, distinctly
bicolored yellow and black wings, and white banded abdomen.
Female. Length 21mm. Frontal index 4.4. Frons yellowish brown
pollinose. Callus grayish pollinose with its basal third flattened
and widened but not touching sides of frons and the remainder a narrow
ridge which reaches the ocellar tubercle. Subcallus dark yellowish
brown pollinose. Genae and frontoclypeus sparsely dark grayish brown
pollinose. A raised tubercle and three distinct ocelli present at
vertex. Eyes bare, no color noted. Oculogenal hairs silvery white
and numerous. Antennal segments 1 and 2 grayish black and black haired
except for a few silvery white hairs below on segment 1. Segment 3
dark brown. Palpi broad, spatulate, blackish brown, the outer aspects
bare mesially and margined with short dark hairs. Proboscis nearly as
long as head height, dark brown, stout and shiny sclerotized. Beard
Mesonotum brown, sparsely brown pollinose with 2 pairs of incom-
plete whitish pollinose stripes anteriorly. Pleura and coxae brown,
grayish brown pollinose mostly with sparse black hairs but having
prominent tufts of silvery white hairs just behind the head and below
the wing bases. Coxae and adjoining sclerites sparsely silvery white
haired. Legs dark brown. Wings as figured, yellow basally, smoky
Abdomen blackish brown, subshiny with sparse brown pollinosity.
Above nearly entire first and posterior border of second segment pale
horn colored, the posterior borders of the remaining segments obscurely
pale gray pollinose. Vestiture is of numerous short black hairs with
sparse silvery white hair fringes on the posterior borders of tergites
1-3 and laterally on 4-6. Abdomen below with three irregular yellowish
bands, the first includes all of the first sternite and anterior
portion of second, the second is made up of the posterior portion of
the second sternite and anterior part of the third, the third band is
the posterior border of the third sternite. Vestiture below is of
numerous very small dark brown hairs with a few pale hairs on the
Male. Not known.
Distribution. Colombia (Choco, Valle).
Material examined. Colombia: Valle; Rio Raposo, in mist net,
IT 27 Jan. 1965, V. Lee coll. This appears to be the only specimen
collected since the type was described.
Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) translucens (Macquart)
Pangonia translucens Macquart 1846, Mem. Soc. Sci. Lille (1845),
p. 154, Pl. III, fig. 5.
Esenbeckia translucens: Fairchild 1942, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer.,
35(2):191-192, P1. II, fig. 15, 0, full references. Fairchild 1971,
Cat Dipt. S. Amer., Fas. 28, p. 9, synonymy.
A large robust fly with a rufous mesonotum, smoky wings, uni-
colorous dark legs, and a blackish brown abdomen with the first two
segments pale yellowish, semitranslucent, with a narrow median black
Female. Length 13-19mm (N=13, x=15.1mm). Frontal index 3.3-3.7
(x=3.4). Frons divergent below, 0.6-0.8 (x=0.7) times as wide above as
below. Frons and subcallus grayish brown to pale yellow pollinose.
Callus dark brown, long, nearly reaching ocelli, expanded gradually
below, not touching sides of frons. Eyes greenish black in life.
Genae and frontoclypeus silvery gray to pale grayish brown pollinose.
Beard silvery gray. Antennal segments 1 and 2 grayish black pollinose
and black haired, segment 3 reddish brown. Palpi dark brown, flat
and without hairs on the outer aspect except for a border of short
dark brown hairs. Proboscis about three-fourths as long as head
height, the theca brown pollinose, the labella compact, partially
shiny, partially subshiny with sparse grayish pollinosity.
Mesonotum and scutellum orange brown to brownish yellow with
concolorous pollinosity and hairs. Pleura and coxae gray pollinose,
with silver gray hairs, sharply contrasting with mesonotum. Legs dark
brown with dark brown hairs. Wings smoky brown, first posterior cell
petiolate, fourth posterior cell slightly coarctate. Fork of third
vein with a long appendix.
Abdomen above with first two segments variable, in most specimens
both are translucent pale yellow while the second segment is darkened
laterally and bears a broad or narrow median dark streak. One example
from Panama has the second segment entirely dark. Remaining tergites
blackish brown with numerous very short dark hairs, except for white
hair patches laterally on tergites 2-6. Apical margin of tergite
3 sometimes fringed with white hairs. Abdomen below as above but
sternite 3 is also translucent in some specimens with lateral and median
black marks, while in others this sternite is entirely black. Sternites
2-5 with apical fringes of white hairs.
Distribution. Mexico to eastern Peru and northern Brazil.
Colombia (Choco, Vallc, Antioquia, Boyaca).
Material examined. Panama, 5++. Colombia: Valle; Rio Zabaletas,
netted, 1 2 July 1975; Lower Anchicaya, 1 9 Aug. 1973, Wilkerson
and Young coll; Municipio de Candelaria, Finca San Luis, from bait
horse, 1+ 30 Jan. 1975; Choco; Rio Nimiquia, 2?+ 15 Aug. 1942;
Antioquia; La Tirana, Providencia, 25km W, 22km S Zaragoza, in house
at night, 1 29 May 1971; Putumayo; Mocoa, CO2 baited flight trap,
650m, 2++ 15 April 1976; Puerto Asis, CO2 baited flight trap, 240m,
1+ 15 April 1976.
Discussion. The above description pertains especially to those
specimens collected in Panama and northwest Colombia. Three specimens
from Putumayo will not key out here. While quite similar they differ
in the following respects: Size smaller, length 13-14mm; antennae and
palpi paler; frontoclypeus and genae yellowish; pro- and mesothoracic
Fairchild (unpublished, 1978) reports E. translucens from Panama
in areas of high rainfall and heavy forest. He states it will readily
attack man and the undersides of horses. Lee et al. (1969) captured
it in Valle, Rio Raposo, from a calf, I+ 20 Aug. 1963. Bequaert and
Renjifo (1946) found it in Boyaca, Muzo, and Porter (pers. comm. 1976)
caught 66 specimens in the Providencia region of Antioquia.
Subgenus Proboscoides Philip
Proboscoides Philip 1943, J. New York Ent. Soc., 51(2):111.
Esenbeckia (Proboscoides): Fairchild 1969, Arq. Zool. S. Paulo,
The labella of the proboscis is slightly lengthened, is wholly
sclerotized, lacks pseudotracheae, and is forceps-like. The callus
is pollinose in fresh specimens and the oculogenal hairs are sparse.
One species has been taken in the study area. The taxon is treated
as a subgenus due to species with intermediate proboscis characters,
of which ecuadorensis is an example. The others of the group all
occur east of the Andes, from Argentina to Trinidad.
Esenbeckia (Proboscoides) ecuadorensis ssp. chagresensis Fairchild
Esenbeckia chagresensis Fairchild 1942, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer.,
35(2):192-194, pl. 1, fig. 9, +, Panama.
Esenbeckia ecuadorensis ssp. chagresensis Fairchild 1971, Cat.
Dipt. S. Amer., Fasc. 28:10.
A large species with a brown thorax, orange yellow antennae, brown
spatulate palpi, short shiny black proboscis and smoky brown wings.
Abdomen blackish brown with pale segmental borders.
Female. Lengths 17 and 18mm. Frontal indices 4.3 and 4.4. The
following is the original description of Fairchild.
Eyes bare, dull greenish black in life. Frons yellowish
grey pollinose, about five times higher than wide,
widened at base and-vertex, the basal suture obsolete.
The frontal callosity in well preserved examples is
represented by a slightly raised stripe from base to
vertex covered with darker and more yellowish pollinosity.
This stripe is broader at base, where it flattens out
and runs down over the subcallus to the base of the
antennae, and in rubbed specimens the upper and middle
portions may become denuded, showing a more or less
uneven shiny strip. The ocelli are prominent and yellow.
Antennae orange yellow. The first segment somewhat
inflated, the second small and produced in a short
blunt tooth dorsally, both with numerous black hairs,
which form a sort of style. The fourth division is
markedly the smallest, while the terminal piece is
spike-like, as long or longer than the previous four
divisions together. Clypeus and genae dark grey
pollinose, with some dark hairs and light hairs forming
tufts near the insertion of the palpi and along the
genal margin of the eye. Genae with a deep groove
running from the insertion of the palpi to a point even
with the insertion of the antennae. Palpi black, curved,
broad, blunt pointed, longer than antennae and clothed
with black hairs on the inner surface, edges, and basal
one-fifth of the outer surface. The inner surfaces of
the palpi are round in cross section, the outer bare
surfaced flat. Proboscis black, shiny, about equal to
head height, the labella and theca of the labium both
entirely sclerotized, the former a little less than
one-half length of latter.
Mesonotum chocolate brown, covered with white
pollen giving it a purplish cast, and with sparse black
hairs. Pleura and sternum dark grey with white hairs.
Scutellum concolorous with mesonotum. Prescutellar lobe
prominent. Subepaulet subtriangular, thin, scale-like,
without macrotrichia. Costa and first vein above and
beyond arculus with macrotrichia, other veins bare.
First posterior and anal cells closed and petiolate, a
moderate appendix on the upper branch of the third vein.
Whole wing deeply fumose. All legs entirely black with
black hairs. Coxae white haired.
Abdomen: First tergite straw yellow, translucent,
with white hairs on the lateral and posterior margins,
black hairs in a small patch on each side of the scu-
tellum. Second tergite varying from clear yellow with
a small brown spot on each lateral margin to entirely
black. Succeeding segments black. All tergites with
narrow light hind margins which bear white hairs, while
the yellow or black anterior four-fifths of the seg-
ments bear black hairs. Venter: First two or three
sternites largely yellow with lateral black patches, or
entirely black with light hind margins. Fourth to
terminal sternites black with light hind margins.
Male. Not known.
Distribution. Panama, Colombia (Magdalena).
Material examined. Panama, 2++ (including 1 paratype).
Discussion. E. ecuadorensis ecuadorensis Lutz and Castro differs
by having reddish instead of dark hairs on the thorax and by having
a paler abdomen with the first 3 tergites nearly wholly yellowish. The
nominate form is reported from western Ecuador and chagresensis from
eastern Panama and northern Colombia (Bequaert and Renjifo 
report it from Magdalena, Rio Frio).
Genus Fidena Walker
Fidena Walker 1850, Ins. Saund., Dipt. 1:8. Mackerras 1955,
Aust. J. Zool., 3(3):487-490, full references. Fairchild 1971, Cat.
S. Amer. Dipt. Fasc. 28, p. 16, synonymy.
Members of this genus have a long produced face, a long slender
proboscis, pilose eyes and subulate antennae. The first posterior
cell is almost always closed or coarctate and the fourth always open.
All species are forest inhabiting.
Key to Fidena species
1. Legs prominently bicolored, the femora black, the tibiae and
tarsi yellow. Wings black or heavily infuscated basally to
ends of basal cells . .... . 2
1'. Legs not bicolored, all black or yellowish. Wings rarely
heavily infuscated basally, usually evenly tinted 3
2(1). Beard snow-white. Sides of mesonotum with a stripe of white
hairs from before suture to posterior margin. Abdomen shiny
black, with small tufts of silver-white hairs in middle of
tergites 2-5, and at sides of tergites 2, 5 and 6. Sternites
2-4 with white lateral hair tufts; 2 sometimes with white hind
marginal band. Face partially denuded and shiny .
. . eriomeroides
2'. Beard black or dark brown. Mesonotum without contrasting pale
hairs. Abdomen shiny black or deep brown with segments 4 or
5 to 7 clothed with pale straw yellow, rufous orange, brown or
black hairs. Tergite 2 with a patch of white hairs at sides,
and sternites 2-4 with small lateral white hair tufts. Rarely
tergites 3 and 4 may have small median white hair tufts .
. . . rhinophora
3(1'). Legs pale yellowish brown. Beard, pleura and venter of abdomen
pale yellowish-haired or orange yellow, contrasting with dark
dorsal surfaces . .. auribarba
3'. Legs dark brown to black. . . 4
4(3'). Beard and sides of thorax brown to black haired. Abdomen
largely black haired, although the terminal segments may be
golden haired . . ... .. .. 5
4'. Beard and usually sides of thorax white or golden haired. 7
5(4). Large species, wing length generally over 18mm. Frons narrow,
over 4.5 times as high as wide, convergent below. Antennae
brownish black. Face brown, wholly grayish pollinose. Wings
uniformly deep yellowish brown tinted . 6
5'. Small species, wing length generally less than 12mm. Frons
about 3 times as high as wide, parallel sided. Antennae bright
yellow. Face yellow, with extensive bare patches laterally.
Wings smoky hyaline, the costal cell blackish and end of first
basal cell darkened. Abdomen black, the second segment sparsely
white haired above and below, forming a more or less distinct
hind marginal band widened at sides above. Tergites 5-7
sparsely white haired and often with median white triangles
on tergites 3 and 4 . . schildi
6(5'). Tergites 2, 5 and 6 with,or rarely without postlateral pale
hair tufts, usually silvery white, rarely yellowish, but
centers of all tergites black haired. ...... fl.avipennis
6'. Tergite 2 without posterolateral silvery hair tufts, but
tergites 3 or 4 to 6 clothed with pale straw-colored to
orange hairs. ......... flavipennis vallensis n. ssp.
7(4'). Beard and sides of thorax white haired. Face gray pollinose,
palpi very slender. . . aureopyia
7'. Beard and usually parts of sides of thorax yellow haired. 8
8(7'). Beard, notopleural lobes, pleura, and mesonotum golden yellow
haired. Face subshiny dark brown or reddish brown, evenly
brown pollinose (Fig. 3A-D) . .. sufurea n. sp.
8'. Beard and pleura pale yellow haired, notopleural lobes and
mesonotum black haired. Face gray pollinose above with broad
shiny blackish brown shiny sides. ochrapogon n. sp.
Fidena aureopygia Krober
Fidena aureopygia Krober 1931, Zool. Anz., 95:24, fig. 9, +,
Colombia, Choco. Fairchild 1967, Studia Ent., Sao Paulo, 9(1-4):346,
The type locality of Fidena aureopygia is Colombia, Choco, Opagodo;
it has also been reported from Valle, Aji, Rio Naya, S. Renjifo coll
(Bequaert and Renjifo, 1946). I have not seen a specimen of this
species but will include a partial description of the holotype and
paratypes, both females, reported by Fairchild.
Length of holotype 20mm. "Frons parallel sided, rather narrow,
face protuberant, gray pollinose. Palpi very slender, much exceeding
apex of clypeus. Beard and sides of thorax white haired. Legs uni-
colorous brownish black. Abdomen very dark mahogany brown, black
haired on first three tergites, golden yellow haired on remainder.
Wings uniformly pale brownish without dark bases or clouds at end of
basal cells. The species is nearly identical structurally with
F. bicolor Krober and F. flavipennis Krober, but differs markedly in
color from either" (1967, p. 346).
Distribution. Colombia (Valle, Choco).
Fidena auribarba (Enderlein)
Melpia auribarba Enderlein 1925, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, +,
Melpia auribarba var. albibarba Enderlein 1925, Mitt. Zool Mus.
Berlin, 11(2):276, +, Colombia.
Fidena auribarba and var. albibarba: Fairchild 1958, Ann. Ent.
Soc. Amer., 51(6):528-529, full references; 1971, Cat. S. Amer. Dipt.
Fasc. 28, p. 18.
Melpia colimbiensis Krober 1934, Rev. Ent., 4(2):247. Fairchild
1951, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 44(3):442, Panama, full references.
Fidena columbiensis Krober 1934, Rev. Ent., 4(2):247. Fairchild
1951, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 44(3):442, Panama, full references.
A medium to large dark brown species with an orange yellow beard
and pleura. Wings smoky brown, legs unicolorous yellowish orange and
abdomen above dark brown with small median light yellow or orange hair
patches on each segment, below light yellow pollinose with yellowish
or orange hairs.
Length of orange yellow form 14-17mm (N=20, x=15.6mm, lSD=0.64mm),
of light yellow form 13-17mm (N=20, x=17.5mm, 1SD=1.5mm). Frontal
index of both forms about the same, 1.9-2.9 (N=40, x=2.5). Frons and
subcallus dark brown, brown pollinose, with a few thin black hairs on
frons. Slightly raised tubercle and 3 ocelli present. Eyes pilose,
1SD = One standard deviation. Stated only when comparisons are
appropriate or there is overlap in the range of measurements.
covered with many very short hairs, color not noted. Frontoclypeus
brown, brown pollinose above, apical fourth shiny black, sides shiny
black at apex, subshiny brown pollinose to head. Antennae dark brown,
brownish pollinose. Palpi slender, brownish pollinose. Proboscis
shiny black, one-half to two-thirds as long as body. Beard orange
yellow or light yellow.
Mesonotum dark brown pollinose with short black hairs above and
many long black hairs laterally and behind. Scutellum dark brown
anteriorly, orange brown posteriorly. Pleura light grayish yellow
pollinose and except for a few black hairs on and between coxae is
either thickly pale yellow or orange yellow haired. Legs yellowish
brown, mostly pale haired. Wings smoky brown, first posterior cell
coarctate or closed, without appendix at fork of third vein.
Abdomen dark brown and dark haired above with small median light
yellow or yellowish orange hair tufts on 2-6 and sometimes 1-7.
Laterally long yellowish or orange hairs on each segment. Below light
yellow pollinose with yellowish or orange hairs. As described above
there are 2 distinct color forms, one light yellow haired, the other
Distribution. Panama (light form only), Colombia (both forms,
Material examined. Light form. Panama, 8++. Colombia: Choco,
Rios San Juan-Baudo, netted, 4+ 23 Feb. 1976; Valle; 41km E, 20km N,
Buenaventura, flight trap baited with CO2, 148o 19 March 1976, Rio
Zabaletas, netted and flight trap baited with CO2, 8++ 18 Aug. 1975,
Lago Calima, from livestock, 1+ 10 Oct. 1975, 1+ 9 April 1976, Lower
OO O O
Anchicaya, netted 2++ 10 Aug. 1973, 1+ 2 April 1976, Rio Raposo, 1+
13 March 1963. Orange yellow form. Colombia; Choco, Rios San Juan-
Baudo, netted, 3+? 23 March 1976; Valle; 41km E, 20km N Buenaventura,
flight trap with CO2, 38++ 19 March 1976, Rio Zabaletas, netted and
flight trap with CO2, 2++ 18 Aug. 1975, Lower Anchicaya, netted, 1+
2 April 1976.
Discussion. Some question remains whether this is a dimorphic
species or a pair of closely related species. I can find no morpho-
logical differences externally or in the genitalia. Until proven
otherwise I will treat them as a single species. The original descrip-
tion of Melpis auribarba by Enderlein (1925) is the orange form. In
the same publication he designated the light yellow form as variety
albibarba, but this name cannot be used since Enderlein also used it
to name another species of Fidena; even though having page preference,
the variety has no nomenclatural status. Fidena columbiensis Krober,
however, was described from the light yellow form. The yellowish form
predominates in collections from both Panama and Colombia.
Fairchild (pers. comm. 1978) found only the yellow form in Panama,
and saw orange specimens only from Colombia. I have seen only the
yellow form from Panama but the two occur together in the departments
of Choco and Valle, the yellow form about 3 or 4 times more abundant.
Lee et al. (1969) collected several specimens of the light form
on the Rio Raposo as they came to human bait at ground level, all in
March, 1963 and 1965. Fairchild (unpublished 1978) reports the species
attacks man readily and has been taken in the treetops and at ground
Fidena eriomeriodes Lutz
Epipsila eriomeroides Lutz 1909, Zool. Jahrb. Suppl. 10, H1. 4,
p. 649, fig. 27, S. Paulo, Brasil. Fairchild 1961, Mem. Inst. Osw.
Cruz. 59(2):217, pl. 1, fig. 6.
Fidena eriomeroides: Fairchild 1971, Cat. S. Amer. Dipt., Fasc.
28, p. 19, synonymy.
A medium to large blackish brown fly with a white beard, thorax
blackish brown haired except for lateral white mesonotal stripes. Legs
bicolored blackish brown and brownish yellow, wings hyaline with basal
Female. Length (Colombian material) 11-16mm (N=9, x=14.3mm).
Frontal index 2.5-3.2 (x=2.9). Frons and subcallus blackish brown,
dark yellowish brown pollinose. Vestiture of short black hairs, longer
and thicker at vertex. Tubercle and 3 distinct ocelli present, callus
not shiny. Eyes densely short pilose, bright green in life. Fronto-
clypeus produced, nearly as long as antennae, with blackish brown shiny
stripes above and on sides, the remainder gray pollinose. Proboscis
slender, nearly two-thirds as long as body. Antennae dark brown, the
third segment gradually narrowed, last annulus short, rather blunt.
Palpi slender, acutely pointed, outer aspect without hairs, yellowish
brown pollinose. Beard white.
Mesonotum blackish brown with brown pollinosity, dark haired
except for lateral white hair stripes beginning just behind head and
extending to above and behind wing base. Pleura and coxae blackish
brown, brown pollinose with thick dark brown hairs. Femora dark
reddish brown, dark haired. Tibiae and tarsi brownish yellow with
short yellowish hairs. Wings nearly hyaline with brownish tint, darkest
on costal margin. Basal third of wing to apices of basal cells blackish,
most deeply colored at the wing base. First posterior cell coarctate
or closed, fork of third vein without appendix.
Abdomen blackish brown with short dark hairs, dorsally with very
small median apical, white hair patches, laterally with small white
patches on segments 2, 5, and 6. Below segment 2 with a few median
Male. A male from Antioquia differs from females in nearly lacking
white hairs at sides of thorax and having a dark brown beard. The
upper eye facets are enlarged, but not sharply demarcated from the
Distribution. Costa Rica to Brazil. Colombia (Valle, Antioquia,
Material examined. Costa Rica, 1+. Panama, 4+?. Ecuador, 3+.
Peru, 1+. Brazil, 1+. Colombia: Valle; Lower Anchicaya, CO2 baited
flight trap, 3+ 16 Aug. 1975, 2 ? 2 April 1976; Antioquia; La Tirana,
Providencia, in house at night, 25km W, 22km S of Zaragoza, 14 29 May
1971; Meta; Villavicencio, 3+ 23 Sept. 1942, 1 1924.
Discussion. The above description is of Colombian specimens.
All examined are in close agreement except for overall paler color in
Bequaert and Renjifo (1946) reported specimens from Meta, Restrepo
and Villavicencio, and Narino, Pasto.
Fidena flavipennis Krober
Fidena flavipennis Krober 1931, Zool. Anz., 95(1-2):24, fig. 8, d,
Venezuela. Fairchild 1971, Cat. S. Amer. Dipt., Fasc. 28, p. 20, synonymy.
Fidena isthmiae Fairchild 1941, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 34(3):
642-643, fig. 1, +, Panama.
A large dark brown species, dark brown haired with yellowish brown
wings, unicolorous dark brown legs and small white hair patches just
below wing bases. Abdomen shiny black to shiny dark reddish brown with
small yellow or white patches laterally on segments 2, 5-7 and ventrally
Female. Length 16-18mm (N=ll, x=16.7mm). Frontal index 4.2-6.0
(x=5.1). Frons slightly widened above, dark brown pollinose with very
short dark hairs. Slightly raised tubercle with 3 ocelli present.
Eyes covered with many very short hairs black in life. Subcallus sub-
shiny blackish brown with dark brown pollinosity. Frontoclypeus dark
brown pollinose except for tip which is shiny black and black haired.
First 2 antennal segments dark, third dark yellowish brown. Palpi bare,
dark brown pollinose on outer aspects, borders and tip shiny, dark,
with dark hairs. Proboscis slender, shiny dark brown with a yellowish
brown tip, a half to two-thirds as long as body. Beard dark brown.
Mesonotum and scutellum dark brown, hairs dark brown and short
above, long and dense laterally especially so between wing base and
scutellum. Pleura and coxac dark brown with dark brown hairs except
for small white hair patches at the wing bases and on the distal
calypters. Legs unicolorous blackish brown, dark haired except for
many short yellow brown hairs ventrally on the protibiae and tarsi.
Wings yellowish brown, darker at base and along costal margin, apex
with a slight blackish hue. First posterior cell petiolate, no
appendix at fork of third vein.
Abdomen shiny brown to deep blackish brown with some short dark
hairs above and below. Tergites 2, 5, and 6 usually with postlateral
white or pale yellow hair tufts, the centers of all tergites black
Male. Males are very similar save for sexual differences. The
upper eye facets are slightly enlarged, but not clearly demarcated
from the lower facets.
Distribution. Mexico to Colombia (Choco, Antioquia).
Material Examined. Mexico, 2U. Panama, 8~ ld. Colombia: Choco;
La Teresita, 1l 6 Aug. 1967, Io 12 Nov. 1967, Id 6 Oct. 1967, D. G.
Discussion. Fairchild (unpublished 1978) reports this species
from the lowlands of Panama up to 2500 ft. not restricted to forested
areas. There is no evidence it is attracted to man but one was caught
biting a boa and 4 biting a dead cayman (C.O. Myers, Darien, Panama).
Porter (pers. comm. 1976) captured this species in Antioquia and Lee
et. al. (1969) caught a single specimen in a mist net near the Rio
Dagua in the Municipio of Buenaventura, Colombia, on 25 Aug. 1964, but
these last have not been seen, and I do not know if they are typical
fZavipennis or ssp. vallensis.
Fidena flavipennis vallensis n. ssp.
A large dark brown fly, dark brown haired with yellowish brown
wings, unicolorous dark brown legs and small white hair patches just
below wing bases. Abdomen shiny dark reddish brown with shiny golden
yellow hairs on last few abdominal segments.
Female. Length 17-18mm (N=4, x=17.25nmm). Frontal index 5.2-5.9
(x=5.5). Vallensis is not separable from the nominate form except by
abdominal vestiture. There are shiny golden yellow hairs as follows:
in most specimens large lateral patches on tergite 3, lateral patches
which extend all along posterior border of tergite 4, and tergites 5-7
entirely covered. Below the yellow hairs are much sparser than above,
confined mostly to the lateral areas of sternites 3-7.
Male. As male of nominate form.
Distribution. Colombia (Valle).
Material examined. Colombia: Valle; Lower Anchicaya, netted,
lo 29 Jan. 1975, 1+ 5 March 1976, l1 in CO2 baited flight trap,
2 April 1976; Rio Zabaletas, netted, 2oo 18 Aug. 1975; Bajo Calima,
netted, 1 5 Sept. 1975.
Discussion. The nominate form differs by having small lateral
white hair patches on tergite 2 and lateral white or pale yellow
patches on segments 5-7 which do not extend over entire width of
Porter (pers. comm. 1976) captured this species in Antioquia
and Lee et al. (1969) caught a single specimen in a mist net near
the Rio Dagua in the Municipio of Buenaventura, Colombia, on 25 Aug.
1964. These specimens have not been seen and I do not know if they are
typical flavipennis or the subspecific form named here.
Fidena ochapogon n. sp.
A large deep reddish brown fly with beard, thorax to between
first pair of coxae and along upper pleura to wing base, densely yellow
haired. Legs unicolorous dark reddish brown, wings smoky brown,
abdomen without markings save for small white hair patches laterally
on terminal segments and laterally on second sternite.
Female. Length 16mm; of wing 15mm. Frons slightly divergent below,
1.2 times wider than vertex. Frontal index 2.7. Frons with lower third
black, slightly raised, middle third deep reddish brown with a median
dark area and upper third including tubercle black. Frons covered with
pale yellow pollinosity. Vestiture of a moderate number of thin black
hairs below tubercle and longer thicker black hairs above tubercle.
Callus not shiny, present as pollinose raised area below. Eyes covered
with many short hairs, color not noted. Subcallus dark brown, subshiny
with dark yellowish brown pollinosity, more dense along lateral edges
and around antennal bases. Genae dark brown with light gray pollinosity.
Frontoclypeus dark reddish brown with sparse grayish pollinosity except
for rather wide lateral shiny bare areas. First 2 antennal segments
and base of first annulus reddish brown, sparsely yellow brown polli-
nose, remainder of third segment blackish brown with yellowish brown
pollinosity. Vestiture of black hairs. Palpi long and slender, dark
brown, outer aspect without hairs, brownish pollinose. Proboscis
blackish brown, 10mm long. Beard of long dense yellow hairs.
Mcsothorax and scutellum reddish brown with sparse grayish
pollinosity, vestiture short dark brown hairs above, long dense dark
brown hairs laterally and at border with scutellum. Pleura brown,
grayish brown pollinose. Vestiture of dense yellow hairs behind head
to first pair of coxae and covering mesoanepisternum. Remainder of
pleura with long dark brown hairs. Procoxae blackish brown with long
yellow hairs basally and long dark brown hairs apically. Remaining leg
segments dark reddish brown except pro- and mesotibiae and tarsi which
are slightly lighter. All hairs blackish except for a fringe of yellow
brown hairs on protibia and tarsi. llalteres with stem brown and knob
blackish brown. Wings smoky brown, slightly darker anteriorly and along
veins. First posterior cell petiolate, short appendix at fork of third
Abdomen shiny, dark reddish brown, darker on apical margins. Vesti-
ture of short sparse dark brown hairs, longer and denser laterally and
on terminal segments. Small white hair patches are found laterally on
segments 4-7 and larger lateral patches on sternite 2.
Male. Not known.
Distribution. Colombia (Cauca, Caqueta, Putumayo), Ecuador
(Cuenca), and Peru (Campana, near Trujillo).
Material examined. Colombia: Ilolotype, +, Putumayo, Puerto
Pepino, 500m, 10 Nov. 1968, collector unknown. Paratypes, Colombia:
1+ same data as holotype; Cauca; Cerro de Munchique, 2450m, 1+ 6 Aug.
1973, Wilkerson and Young coll; Caqueta; Florencia, 1+ 1936. Ecuador:
Cuenca, 1I 22 Feb. 1950, S. W. Frost coll. Peru: Cerro Campana near
Trujillo, 600m, 1 10 Oct. 1939, leg. W. Weyrauch; Campana, 1500m,
2++ 10 Oct. 1939, leg. W. Weyrauch.
Discussion. Paratypes range in length from 15-17mm (x=16.0mm) and
have frontal indices of from 1.6-2.7 (x=2.3). All paratypes agree
well with the above description.
Approximately a third of the 75 named species are available for
comparison. Of these, ochrapogon is closest to F. howardi Fairchild
and F. trapidoi Fairchild. Howardi has a longer, more slender proboscis,
a white beard, dark brown hairs on the upper pleura, and golden yellow
hairs on abdominal tergites 3-7. Trapidoihas a more slender proboscis,
much less produced face, wholly brown haired pleura, whitish hair
tufts on either side of the scutellum, and a quite distinctive pattern
of bright golden yellow hairs on the abdominal dorsum which leaves
a broad middorsal and 2 lateral stripes on segments 2-4, the remaining
segments wholly yellow haired.
Ochrapogon is similar also to a species named here, sulfurea.. Refer
to the key for comparison.
The name means "yellow beard."
Fidena rhinophora (Bellardi)
Pangonia rhinophora Bellardi 1858, Sagg. Ditt. Mess., pp. 46-47,
Tab. 1, fig. 1, +, Mexico.
Fidena rhinophora: Fairchild 1953, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 46(2):262.
Pangonia pyrausta Osten Sacken 1886. Biol. Centr. Amer., Dipt. 1,
pp. 43-44, +, Panama.
Fidena pyrausta: Fairchild 1941, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 34(3):
644-645, full references; 1951, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 44(3):441; 1956,
Smiths. Misc, Coll. 131(3):26, type seen.
Melpia auricauda Enderlein 1925, Mitt. Mus. Berlin, 11:276, +,
Colombia, Venezuela. Krober, 1930, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Hamburg, 44:179,
A medium sized dark brown or black species with dark beard and
pleura, bicolored black and pale yellow legs, basally darkened wings,
and abdomen black with yellow or orange yellow hairs on the last few
Female. Length 12-16mm (N=39, x=14.0mm). Frontal index 1.9-2.8
(N=39, x=2.3). Frons very slightly convergent above, dark brown with
grayish brown pollinosity and some short dark hairs. Raised tubercle
and 3 prominent ocelli present. Eyes short pilose, blackish in life.
Subcallus dark brown, subshiny with yellowish brown pollinosity.
Frontoclypeus produced, nearly as long as antennae, shiny black area
nearly reaching subcallus. Laterally, upper half gray pollinose, below
subshiny brown pollinose. Proboscis shiny blackish brown, slender
usually two-thirds or three-fourths as long as body. Antennae dark
brown. Second palpal segment dark brown with brownish pollinosity,
acutely pointed, about as long as third antennal segment. Beard blackish
Mesonotum dark brown, obscurely striped. Vestiture of numerous
short dark hairs above, longer and denser laterally and behind. Pleura
and coxae brown with blackish brown hairs. Femora blackish brown, dark
haired. Tibiae and tarsi pale yellow, pale yellow haired except for
last 1 or 2 tarsal segments which are brown and brown haired. Wings
pale smoky, wing base and veins darker to ends of basal cells. First
posterior cell variable from completely open to closed. Fork of third
vein sometimes with a very short appendix.
Abdomen variable. Overall coloration shiny dark blackish brown,
with sparse black hairs. Segment 2 may or may not have a small lateral
white hair tuft above and below. Segments 5-7 nearly always pale yellow
in ground color. Segment 4 varies from dark blackish brown to yellowish
brown. Vestiture on these last segments varies from pale yellow to
orange yellow, on some beginning at the apical border of segment 3,
on others restricted to segments 5-7.
Male. Not described.
Distribution. Mexico to eastern Peru and Venezuela. Colombia
(Choco, Valle, Cauca, Meta, Boyaca, Magdalena).
Material examined. Mexico, 1+. Panama, 12++. Ecuador, 1+.
Peru, 1?. Venezuela, 2+?. Colombia: Valle; Lago Calima, from live-
stock, 10?? Aug. 1975, 11++ Sept. 1975, 7?+ Oct. 1975, 4?+ 7 Nov. 1975,
6?? 26 March 1976, 16?? April 1976; "Playa Rica," from livestock,
2?? 3 Feb. 1976; Penas Blancas, from livestock, mostly horses, 2++
3-12 Aug. 1973, 1+ 5 March 1975, 2?? 24 March 1975, 19 4 April 1975,
4++ 29-30 April 1975, 7++ May 1975, 2++ 26-30 June 1975, 1? 16 July 1975,
1+ 30 July 1975, 4+? Aug. 1975, 1+ 10 Dec. 1975, 1+ 27 Feb. 1976,
1+ 22 March 1976, 1+ 12 April 1976; Cauca; Cerro de Munchique, netted,
2++ 8 Aug. 1975. Meta, Villavicencio, Fr. Cepallinaire-Marie, 1+ 1924.
Discussion. A great deal of variability exists over the entire
range of this species. Some question remains as to the possibility of
the existence of more than one species. Fairchild (unpublished 1978)
discusses this variation and since the material I have from northwest
Colombia appears to vary only in abdominal coloration,I will not discuss
it further here.
Bequacrt and Renjifo (1946) report it from Boyaca, Muzo which is
the type locality of Melpia auricauda. Krober (1930a) reports 2++
of pyrausta from the Magdalena River.
F. rhinophora readily bites man (Fairchild,unpublished 1978) and
is evidently primarily an early morning flier. One was taken during
a horse biting study at Penas Blancas at 0630hrs with the sun out,
temp 180C and 73% RH.
Fidena schildi (Hine)
Erephopsis schildi lIine 1925, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan,
No. 162, pp. 11-12, o Costa Rica.
Fidena schildi: Fairchild 1941, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 34(3):644,
full references; 1971, Cat. S. Amer. Dipt. Fasc. 28, p. 23, synonymy.
A small to medium sized dark brown species with orange yellow
antennae and palpi and yellowish brown frontoclypeus. Legs unicolorous
dark brown, wings pale brown. Abdomen with some white hairs laterally
on segment 2 and on apical borders of most segments.
Female. Length 9-12mm (N=10, x=10.3mm). Frontal index 2.7-3.1
(x=3.0). Frons blackish brown, yellowish brown pollinose with thin
sparse black hairs. Flightly raised tubercle and 3 distinct ocelli
present. Eyes pilose with a moderate number of very short hairs, blue
green in life. Subcallus subshiny, pale brown with pale yellow
pollinosity. Frontoclypeus yellowish brown with grayish pollinosity
except for shiny lateral bare areas. First 2 antennal segments yellowish
brown, black haired, the third segment orange yellow. Palpi orange
yellow, mostly bare. Proboscis usually slightly recurved about half
as long as body, shiny, dark brown, some specimens yellowish brown
Mesonotum and scutellum blackish brown with short dark brown hairs,
longer and more numerous laterally. Pleura and coxac brown in ground
color, grayish brown pollinose with dark brown hairs. Legs dark brown,
dark haired, all tarsi and protibiae slightly paler with some dark
yellow hairs ventrally. Wings nearly hyaline with a brownish cast,
slightly darker at costal margin. First posterior cell coarctate to
petiolate, fork of third vein with a very short appendix or none at all.
Abdomen dark brown with dark brown hairs. Segment 2 with lateral
white hair patches. Dorsally segment 3 with a small medium white patch
on apical border, segment 4 a broader apical patch, and remaining seg-
ments with apical borders entirely white haired. Ventrally apical
borders of 2-7 with short white hairs.
Male. Not known.
Distribution. Costa Rica to Colombia (Antioquia), French Guiana,
Material examined. Panama, 15++ (including one compared with type
of Helpia nigricans a synonym of F. schildi). l+ French Guiana.
Discussion. Although this species seems to have a wide distri-
bution it has been recorded in Colombia only from the type of
M. nigricans (without definite locality) and by C. Porter (pers.
comm. 1976) from the Providencia region of Antioquia.
Fairchild (unpublished 1978) reports that in Panama it will attack
man at ground level and has been caught biting pigs before dawn.
Fidena sulfurea n. sp.
A large reddish brown to blackish brown species with proboscis at
least half as long as body, face well produced, beard, mesonotum, and
much of pleura densely yellow haired, legs unicolorous dark, and abdomen
with at least tergites 4-7 thickly yellow haired.
Female. Length 16nn; of wing 16mm. Head structures as figured.
Frontal index 2.5. Frons divergent below, 1.2 times as wide as ver-
tex. Frons blackish brown in ground color with yellowish brown
pollinosity and sparse slender black hairs. Ocellar tubercle and 3
ocelli quite distinct. Eyes pilose, color not noted. Subcallus,
genae, and frontoclypeus blackish brown with yellowish brown pollinosity.
Frontoclypeus subshiny with less dense pollinosity laterally below the
antennal bases. Face well produced, 1.1 times as long as frons is
high. Beard is of dense yellow hairs. Antennal segments 1 and 2
blackish, with yellowish brown pollinosity and black hairs, segment 3
black. Palpi blackish brown, the hairs of segment 1 yellow. Proboscis
shiny blackish brown, 9mm long.
Mesonotum and scutellum reddish brown in ground color with grayish
yellow pollinosity and numerous long yellow hairs. Pleura and coxae
blackish brown and brown pollinose. Vestiture of long dense yellow
hairs all around wing base, just posterior to the head, and on the
bases of the procoxae, the remainder is of long dense dark brown hairs.
Legs are blackish brown and dark haired except for the short orange
yellow hairs on the undersides of the tarsi. Halteres dark brown,
the stem paler. Wings fumose, the costal and subcostal cells darker
and the veins margined slightly darker. The first posterior cell
petiolate, the fourth open.
Abdomen above dark reddish brown. Vestiture of sparse black
hairs on tergites 1-3, denser laterally on 1-3 and mesially on 1 and 2.
Tergite 2 with small lateral white hair patches. Lateral aspects of
tergite 4 black haired. The remainder of the dorsum starting with the
apical margin of tergite 3 is densely yellow haired. Below abdomen is
shiny dark reddish brown with some sparse grayish pollinosity on the
last few segments. Vestiture is of sparse black hairs except for a
distinct lateral white haired patch on sternite 2 and small lateral
yellow haired patches on 5-7.
Male. Not known.
Distribution. Colombia (Valle, Cauca, Magdalena, Caqueta).
Material examined. Colombia: Holotype, +, Valle, 8km below dam
at Lago Calima, 1250m, from livestock, 4 Sept. 1975, R. Wilkerson coll.
Paratypes, 3++ with some data as above, 10 same data except 8 Aug.
1975, 1+ same data except 12 Aug. 1975; Cauca; La Cumbre, 3000', 1
15 Dec. 1922, H. L. V. coll; Magdalena; Northwest Sierra Nevada de
Santa Marta, 6-8,000', 4++ 22 July 1928, Darlington coll; Vista Nieve,
Mount San Lorenzo, 1+ 8 Aug. 1926, Walker coll (with note 7 more same
data, Copenhagen); Caqueta; Florencia, 1+ 1936.
Discussion. Paratypes range in length from 16-17mm (N=13, x=16.2mm)
and have frontal indices of from 2.3-3.6 (x=2.8). All paratypes agree
well with the above description. Several specimens have dorsal yellow
abdominal hairs over the entire segment 3, though not as dense as on
the remaining segments. The example from La Cumbre has sparse yellow
hairs also on tergite 2 and the specimen from Florencia has more ex-
tensive dense yellow hairs on the pleura and also has additional sparse
yellow hairs on abdominal tergites 1-3.
Five additional specimens before me from Magdalena are morpho-
logically similar to F. sulfurea but have entirely dark brown haired
pleura and mesonota. These may be a form of sulfurea but I believe them
to be a distinct species.
Of the relatively few species available for comparison sulfurea
is most like F. howardi and F. trapidoi. Howardi has a white beard,
brown haired pleura, and wholly brown haired mesonotum. Trapidoi also
has wholly brown haired mesonota and pleura.
F. ochrapogon, described here, is also similar. Refer to the
key for their discrimination.
Genus Scione Walker
Scione Walker 1850, Insecta Saund., 1:10.
The genus Scione may be distinguished primarily by the closed
first and fourth posterior cells. It is similar to Fidena in that
both have a long slender proboscis and produced face. Scione, however,
often has a hairy frontoclypeus and patterned wings, characteristics
not found in Fidena. In addition many Fidena species have bare or
partially bare faces, while all of the Scione species are wholly
pollinose. In Scione the frons is usually wide and divergent below.
The center of distribution of the genus is the mountains of
northwestern South America.
There are 33 described species in the neotropics, 13 of which
are reported in Colombia, in addition 6 new Colombian species are
Of the 13 species reported from Colombia or with ranges which
include Colombia, I have been able to recognize among my material only
5 from their descriptions: albifasciata Macquart, maculipennis Schiner,
obscurefemorata, rufescens Ricardo, and flavescens Enderlein. Two of the
remaining 8 species were only tentatively recorded from Colombia in
Fairchild's catalogue (1971), distinct Schiner, type locality "Sud
Amerika," and rufipes Krober, type locality "Venezuela." The types
ofrminuta Szilady and punctata Szilady, both from "San Lorenzo,
Colombia" were destroyed in Budapest, and the published descriptions
are inadequate for recognition. 'lhe 1 cctotype of inoontleta Macquart is
a male, and according to Fairchild (pers. comm., 1978) is a black
species with wings with dark clouds around crossveins but no yellow,
all femora and metatibiac black, but pro- and mesotibiae yellow.
The female associated with this male by Macquart is a pale yellow
species with yellowish brown legs, some yellow in wing pattern, and
is very unlikely to be the same species. Neither male nor female of
incomplete seem to agree with any of my Colombian specimens. The
type of minor Macquart, according to unpublished notes of Fairchild is
in very poor condition. tie had a compared specimen, but this cannot
now be found. lie felt that Macquart's specimen did not represent the
same species as those subsequently discussed by Schiner (1868) and
Krober (1930). The type locality was given as de 1' Amerique?,
the Colombia and Venezuela localities given in Fairchild's catalogue
(1971) possibly originating with Schiner and Krober, and hence not
referring to true minor. Scione nigripes Krober was described from
New Granada, and the type in Halle was reexamined by Fairchild (1967).
It is a species with unpatterned wings, and nothing like it was seen
from the area here discussed. Scione Zurida Enderlein was placed by
Fairchild (1971) as a subspecies of S. aurulans Wiedemann. The 1 ectotype
is labeled simply Colombia. It is an entirely pale straw colored
species with unpatterned wings, and nothing like it was seen from
Key to Scione Species
1. Beard and pleura dark haired, not contrasting with unpatterned
dark mesonotum. Abdomen without contrasting pale hair tufts,
at least the last 4 segments yellow to orange haired. Wings
smoky hyaline, without pattern, shiny and wrinkled .. 2
1'. Beard and pleura white to yellowish, contrasting with dark and
patterned mesonotum. Abdomen with pale median hair tufts on