A comparison of experiential and didactic group counseling techniques/activities
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Title: A comparison of experiential and didactic group counseling techniques/activities for improving the vocational and personal development of Black evening students
Physical Description: x, 110 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Danford, Richard D ( Richard Dix ), 1945-
Publication Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Group counseling   ( lcsh )
Vocational guidance   ( lcsh )
African American students -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 100-108).
Statement of Responsibility: by Richard D. Danford, Jr.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
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Resource Identifier: aleph - 000099269
notis - AAL4722
oclc - 06974003
System ID: AA00003466:00001

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A COMPARISON OF EXPERIENTIAL AND DIDACTIC GROUP COUNSELING
TECHNIQUES/ACTIVITIES FOR IMPROVING THE VOCATIONAL AND PERSONAL
DEVELOPMENT OF BLACK EVENING STUDENTS







BY

RICHARD D. DANFORD, JR.


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1980































Copyright 1980

by

Richard D. Danford, Jr.


























To My Parents


Richard and Gladys Danford


Two very special people who have made innumerable

sacrifices to educate, support, and fill their

children's lives with love, respect, pride,

and self-reliance . .













ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The author wishes to express his appreciation to all

his friends and relatives, and special thanks to the follow-

ing people:

Dr. Joe Wittmer, Chairman, who supported the author

throughout his doctoral program.

Dr. Max Parker, special friend and confidant whose

concern, assistance, and sensitivity provided the author

the encouragement needed when there was no light at the

end of the tunnel--thank you!

Dr. Rod McDavis, friend, supervisory committee member,

and advisor who supported the author throughout his doctoral

program.

Dr. John Nickens, who provided statistical assistance

and served on the supervisory committee.

Dr. Cecil Wayne Cone, President of Edward Waters College,

who provided spiritual guidance, encouragement, and support.

Mrs. Derya Williams, counselor, who assisted the author

with the experimental program.

Mrs. Cheryl Danford, the author's wife, who typed the

manuscript and provided the love, support, and encouragement

necessary to reach this goal.

The author's sisters and brothers, Barbara, Christopher,

Christine, Ralph,and Connie for their love and support.















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. . .. . .. . . . . . iv

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . vii

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . viii

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION .. . . . . . . 1

Purpose of the Study . . . . . . . 4
Rationale . . . . . . . . . . 5
Research Questions . . . . . . . . 7
Definitions of Terms . . . . . . 8
Organization of the Study. . . . . . 9

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE . . . .. 10

Characteristics of Adult Learners . . .. .. 10
Treatment Models . . . . . . .. . 15
Group Counseling . . . . . . . . 15
Didactic and Experiential Activities and
Techniques . . . . . . . . . 18
Vocational Development . . . . . . . 21
General Theoretical Considerations . . .. 21
Vocational Maturity . . . . . . .. 27
Personal Development . . . . . .. 31
Needs of Undergraduate Adults . . . . . 31
Decision-Making ... . . . . . . 34
Problems of Minorities . . . . . 37

CHAPTER III METHODS AND PROCEDURES . . . . .. 45

Setting . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Research Design . . . . . . . . . 46
Research Hypotheses. .. . . . . ... 47
Sample . . . . . . . . .. . . 47
Treatment . . . . . . . . .. .. . 48
Instruments . . . . . . . . . .. 56
Job Knowledge Survey . . . . . . .. 57
Career Maturity Inventory . . . . . . 58
Work Values Inventory . . . . . ... .59
Data Collection . . . . . . . . . 60
Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . 60












CHAPTER IV RESULTS, DISCUSSION, AND LIMITATIONS .

Results . . . . . . . . . . .
Results of Data Analysis . . . . . .
Hypothesis 1 . . . . . . . .
Hypothesis 2 . . . . . . . . .
Hypothesis 3 .. . . . . . . . .
Discussion . . . . . . . . . .
Limitations . . . . . . . . . .

CHAPTER V SUMMARY, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS.


Summary . . . . . . . .
Implications . . . . . .
Recommendations for Further Research

APPENDICES

A. COURSE OBJECTIVES AND REQUIREMENTS

B. VOCATIONAL INFORMATION STRATEGY .

C. OCCUPATIONAL SHOPPING LIST . .

D. DECISION-MAKING STRATEGY . .

E. ROLEPLAYING INSTRUCTIONS . . .

F. STUDENT WORKSHEET . . . . .

G. VALUE AUCTION . . . . . .

H. VALUE AUCTION RULE SHEET ..

I. VALUE AUCTION SHEET . . . .

J. JOB KNOWLEDGE SURVEY . .

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . .

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . .


Page

61

61
62
62
63
64
66
69

71


. . 71
74
. . 75



. . 76

. . . 77

. . 79

. . . 84

. . 90

. . 92

. . . 93

. . . 94

. . . 95

. . . 97

S . 100

. 109

















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1. Pretest-posttest control group design ... . 47

2. Results of analysis of covariance among
groups for group knowledge about careers as
measured by the Job Knowledge Survey ..... 63

3. Results of analysis of covariance among
groups on decision-making skills and
vocational maturity as measured by the
Career Maturity Inventory . . . . ... 64

4. Results of analysis of covariance among
groups on value change and the integration
of personal values with career choices as
measured by the Work Values Inventory ... 65


vii








Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



A COMPARISON OF EXPERIENTIAL AND DIDACTIC GROUP COUNSELING
TECHNIQUES/ACTIVITIES FOR IMPROVING THE VOCATIONAL AND PERSONAL
DEVELOPMENT OF BLACK EVENING STUDENTS


By

Richard D. Danford, Jr.

August 1980

Chairman: Dr. Joe Wittmer
Major Department: Counselor Education


The purpose of this study was to compare the use of

selected didactic and experiential group counseling techniques

for improving the vocational and personal development of Black

evening students.

A total of 45 freshmen students participated in the

study. Of that number, 30 were enrolled in the "Orientation

to College" course required of freshmen students. Fifteen

students were randomly assigned to the researcher (Group I--

Experiential) and 15 to another counselor/instructor (Group II--

Didactic). Additionally, 15 students were assigned to a con-

trol group (Group III) which received no treatment. All three

groups were administered the Career Maturity Inventory, Job

Knowledge Survey, and Work Values Inventory at the beginning

and end of the semester.

An analysis of covariance was performed to determine if

the three groups were significantly different on the pre and


viii








posttest measures under investigation. An alpha level of .05

was set as the basis for acceptance of the hypotheses.

Specifically, this investigation addressed the following

research questions:

1. Will there be a difference in decision-making

skills, knowledge of careers, awareness of values,

and integration of values with career choices

between students who participated in an orienta-

tion course using selected experiential and didactic

techniques and activities?

2. Will the didactic and experiential groups differ

significantly from the control group following

treatment?


In


summary, the following results were obtained from


the study:


1. No significant difference was found between the

group exposed to the experiential approach, the

group using the didactic approach, and the control

group in increasing knowledge about various careers

among the groups on the Job Knowledge Survey.

2. Neither experimental approach produced a significant

difference in decision-making skills and vocational

maturity among the groups as measured by the Career

Maturity Inventory.

3. The experiential, didactic, and control groups did

not differ significantly regarding value change as

measured by the Work Values Inventory following

treatment.








4. No significant difference was found between the

experiential, didactic, and control groups on the

integration of personal values and career choices.













CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION



Today's higher education institutions, as in prior

years, face an important and impending challenge: facili-

tating the educational, vocational, and personal develop-

ment of an increasing non-traditional and shrinking student

population. Private colleges, especially predominantly

Black colleges, are faced with an even greater challenge

because their continued survival is partially based upon

the number of students they attract to these institutions.

A major shift in the age of the student population is,

however, fast becoming the rule, with a smaller porportion

of "traditional" students pursuing higher education activi-

ties (Gleazer, 1974). For example, in 1975, 3.7 million

adults, or 34 percent of the total college enrollment, were

registered for a variety of programs and course offerings

including adult education classes and regular undergraduate

courses. It has been estimated that by 1980, adult students

will comprise 40 percent of the total number (Graulich, 1977).

Consequently, higher education institutions desperately need

more research to determine how to most effectively facilitate

the development of an increasing non-traditional and shrink-

ing traditional student population that they serve.








Non-traditional students have specific vocational and

personal needs and decide to attend higher education

institutions for a variety of reasons. Some prevalent

reasons are as follows: (1) to upgrade their academic

skills, (2) to learn how to make more effective career

decisions, (3) to learn how to more effectively communicate

with fellow employees or peers, and (4) to improve their

chances for better employment opportunities. These needs,

however, are further compounded when the student is Black.

Most often these students do not know which career to pursue,

how to obtain and use occupational information, or the job

opportunities available to them. Williams and Whitney (1978)

substantiated the fact that minority students generally are

less familiar with career options and have a more restricted

view of possible jobs than their white peers.

The problems and issues encountered by Black evening

students are very similar to the problems and issues of

another special population, re-entry women. Re-entry women

students have particular problems and the decision to further

pursue their education can be compounded by a lack of self-

confidence, encouragement, support, and the academic and

social skills to effectively pursue their new educational

interests. Hooper (1979) found that returning women students

need the support and encouragement of their families. Addi-

tionally, re-entry women between 35-45 should receive special

counseling to determine their needs and wants (Muskat, 1978).








Smith (1975) asserts that intervention techniques are

needed to facilitate the career development of Blacks, but

that they should be strategies which involve the whole

individual--techniques which take into account their cul-

tural differences, background, and human commonalities.

Therefore, it is important to be familiar with the value

systems of Blacks to understand why and how they make deci-

sions in regard to their personal and vocational development.

Black people, quite often, operate in a vacuum and must

function in two worlds--black and white. Often, these

individuals feel frustrated, alienated, isolated, and rejected.

Consequently, the helping profession must focus attention on

Black students' individual differences, values, needs and

"frame of reference" to facilitate their personal and voca-

tional development.

While most higher education institutions recognize the

special needs of this changing student population, only

recently have many of them responded favorably to non-tradi-

tional students. As a result, administrators, teachers, and

counselors have now begun to focus more attention on students

with special needs (Clinkscale, 1978). Parker and McDavis

(1979) developed a module employing four career guidance

strategies (i.e., group interaction, information-giving,

assessment, and decision-making) to use with ethnic minority

students. These strategies were proven to be helpful in

improving the self-concept and other difficulties these

students face in making effective career decisions. Parker,








Shauble, and Mitchell (1979) used a seminar approach to

improve the self-concepts and learning styles of marginal

Black students. Additional attention, however, is needed

to facilitate the educational success of these students.

This is particularly important when focusing on those non-

traditional students who generally attend during the evening

and who are enrolled in college for the first time. These

students, in most instances, have special vocational and

personal needs which call for alternative counseling tech-

niques, styles, and approaches to motivate, encourage, and

help each of them in their educational pursuits. Consequently,

this study was concerned with the use of selected didactic

and experiential group counseling techniques to improve the

personal and vocational development of Black evening students.



Purpose of the Study


Gibbs (1975) suggested that Black students experienced a

greater range of problems than those experienced by the major-

ity student population. However, despite interest and dis-

cussion, most student services remain traditional and

individually oriented at most institutions (Sedlacek and

Horowitz, 1974). In light of the special needs of Black

evening students, a combination of selected didactic and

experiential group counseling techniques might help them to

successfully cope with their college pursuits, increase their

knowledge of various career options, and improve their

decision-making skills.




5


The purpose of this research was to compare the use of

selected didactic and experiential group counseling tech-

niques for improving the vocational and personal development

of Black evening students. One group of Black evening students

received selected experiential group counseling techniques and

a second similar group received selected didactic group coun-

seling techniques. Comparisons were made with a control group

receiving no treatment.



Rationale


Within the changing student populations entering higher

educational institutions are those who are in immediate academic

trouble. Others tend to have difficulties by the end of the

freshman or sophomore year. A smaller number will remain

only to drop-out during their junior or senior years. There

are many reasons for this phenomenon, but some important ones

are as follows: (1) they are not trained to set their own

goals, (2) they have problems reading fast enough or well

enough to handle the college's demanding reading program, (3)

they do not know how to study, how to take notes, or how to

use the library, (4) they do not know what they came to college

for, or where their studies are leading them, and (5) they

attend college for the wrong reasons (Lass and Wilson, 1970).

There is a need for colleges and universities to provide

non-traditional students with non-traditional opportunities

for learning academic, personal, and career development skills.







Numerous surveys have centered on the concerns and problems

of these students. Williams, Lindsay, Burns, Wyckoff, and

Wall (1973) surveyed adults in an undergraduate program and

found that 21 percent indicated the need for help in develop-

ing study skills. Kramer, Berger, and Miller (1974) found

that the number one need expressed by students was for help

in vocational choice and career planning (48 percent male

and 61 percent female). McClellan and McClellan (1973)

found 24 percent of surveyed community college students aged

18-65 years reporting problems in academic skills. In regards

to counseling, it was noted that 29 percent of the students

surveyed, regardless of age, needed help with personal

problems. Additionally, Preston (1975) found 60.9 percent

of all community college students surveyed felt a need for

counseling.

Although the counseling profession has more recently

begun to address the needs of special populations, there

seems to be a total neglect of Black evening students.

Almost nothing has been written concerning those enrolled in

predominately Black higher education institutions. These

students often lack the vocational, personal, and academic

communication skills necessary to pursue and succeed in their

educational interests. While many of them may have been

exposed to decision-making and study skills techniques at

some time, they hardly, if ever, put them to use. Moreover,

many didactic study skills techniques provided for students







tend not to be effective when used alone (Silverman, 1974).

but when used as an adjunct to either group or individual

counseling there has been an associated improvement in

academic performance (Rubin and Cohen, 1974). Group coun-

seling, however, accomplishes everything that can be done

on an individual basis with the added dimension of the inter-

personal phenomena in the group (Carkhuff, 1973).

For a number of years, group counseling has been utilized

by many counselors to facilitate client growth. Counselors

have used this technique in aiding underachievers, developing

self-awareness, and assisting students in their vocational and

personal development. Black students, however, have some

unique career guidance needs, and traditional career activi-

ties and problems have not adequately addressed those needs

(Parker and McDavis, 1979). There also exists a discrepancy

between the vocational aspirations of Black students, in

general, and their actual vocational plans (Thomas, Kravas,

and Low, 1979). While many Black students have been employed,

or exposed to the world of work, they tend to have unrealistic

career aspirations. This may be due in part, to their lack

of knowledge about various career opportunities and the skills

needed to effectively pursue those career options that may be

open to them.



Research Questions


This study addressed the following research questions:

1. Will there be a significant difference between








the didactic and experiential groups in helping

Black evening students learn more about careers,

improving Black evening students' decision-making

skills, helping Black evening students change and

become more aware of their values, and providing

Black evening students the opportunity to inter-

grate their present values with career choices?

2. Will the didactic and experiential groups

differ significantly from the control group

following the treatment?



Definitions of Terms


Evening Student--refers to a male or female undergraduate

who because of employment, family obligations or other

reasons attends college after 5:00 p.m.


Career (or Vocational) Development--the life-long continuous

process of implementing one's self-concept within the context

of the world of work and society. This process occurs in

stages and is a function of the individual's interests,

attitudes, values, abilities, and behavior patterns, plus

characteristics of environment.


Experiential Group Counseling Techniques/Activities--structured

group activities and group interaction (learner-process oriented)

designed specifically to meet the personal and vocational needs

of students.







Didactic Group Counseling Techniques/Activities--structured

group presentations and group discussions (teacher-instruction

oriented) designed to meet the vocational and personal needs

of students.


Group Counseling--a process of verbal interaction and dis-

cussion of attitudes and feelings among individuals within

the normal range of adjustment and a counselor in an attempt

to understand and modify feelings and attitudes so they are

better equipped to deal with developmental concerns and

problems.



Organization of the Study


The study is organized into five chapters. Chapter I

includes the introduction, purpose of study, rationale for

the study, research questions, and definitions of terms.

Chapter II contains a review of literature related to the

vocational and personal development of Black evening and

similar students. Chapter III includes a discussion of the

setting, research design, hypotheses, sample, treatment,

instruments, data collection, and data analysis of the study.

The results, discussion of the results, and limitations are

presented in Chapter IV. Chapter V contains the summary,

implications, and recommendations for further research.














CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE



In order to address the problem stated in Chapter I,

and provide a means for improving the vocational and

personal development of Black evening students, an exami-

nation of related research will be presented on (a) charac-

teristics of adult learners, (b) treatment models, (c)

vocational development, and (d) personal development.



Characteristics of Adult Learners


While education in the United States has always been

the domain of more than the young, the last two decades

have seen an increase in the number of adult learners

enrolling in colleges and universities--soaring during the

sixties from about 9 million--to 25 million (O'Keefe, 1977).

In 1972, a survey by the Educational Testing Services indicated

that some 32 million adults participated in further education

(including self-instruction). Most recently, the Bureau of

Census for the National Center for Educational Statistics

surveyed 50,000 households in 1975 and found the total figure

for adults who are involved in further education to be 17 million,

or 11.6 percent of the eligible population (O'Keefe, 1977).









A comparison of the personality characteristics of

adult learners and traditional age freshmen revealed some

differences in the personality functioning of these indi-

viduals. Kuh and Ardaiolo (1979) list the following

generalizations:


1. Adult learners exhibited a higher degree of
development on some intellectual and most
social-emotional personality dimensions;

2. Personality characteristics of adult
learners differed by the kind of campus
attended;

3. The personality characteristics of adult
learners at the commuter campus tended to
be more like traditional age freshmen than
like the characteristics of adult learners
at the residential campus. (p.333)


Increases of adult learners are occurring among both

men and women; however, among blacks the rate of increase

is greater for women than for men (Chickering, 1974). A

number of surveys have shown that Black women have higher

educational levels than Black men. Black women tend to be

supportive and encouraged to pursue further education;

therefore, it is not surprising that more Black females

attend college. Consequently, a large portion of this

review will concentrate on women. Adult women involved in

further education,generally, have increased due to several

reasons. First their desire to enter the labor market and

second, to advance in present positions through further

development of their education and technical skills








(Muskat, 1978). Consequently, the adult female in our

society has the need and desire for some form of education

to help ease their entry or re-entry into the work force.

In 1976 alone, the number of women in the labor force

increased by 4.8 percent--more than doubled the increase

for men (2.0 percent). The continuing entry into the job

market by women, especially older women who have been

raising a family, probably will require that they receive

additional education (O'Keefe, 1977).

A large proportion of the women (particularly those

around age 35) who enter the labor force are either single,

widowed, divorced, separated, or the husband's income is

below $3,000 per year. The disparity in income which

women suffer relative to men is less at higher levels of

education, suggesting a positive economic benefit in

additional education for women (O'Keefe, 1977). In addi-

tion to age, previous education, and family income, parti-

cipation by the adult population differs across social

descriptors. For example:

1. Females participated at a rate only slightly
lower than males (11.6 percent for females
versus 11.7 percent for males);

2. Of the male participants, 90 percent were
working, while only 61 percent of the
females identified themselves as working
and 30 percent as keeping house;

3. In 1972, widowed or divorced females made
up a significant proportion to the female
participant population: 12 percent of all
female participants were in this category
while only 2.8 percent of the male partici-
pants were;









4. Also in 1972, 1.7 million of the almost 8
million female participants were heads of
households, about one-third of them with
one or more children to support; in contrast,
6.8 million of the 7.7 million male partici-
pants were heads of households, 4.3 million
of whom had children to support;

5. In 1975, blacks had an overall lower
participation rate than whites (6.9 percent
versus 12.7 percent); however, when differ-
ences in previous educational attainment are
considered, the participation rates are almost
identical;

6. In combining sex and race characteristics,
black males participated at the very low
rate of 6.1 percent, only slightly above
half the total participation rate of 11.6
percent. (O'Keefe, 1977, p.47)

A growing number of Black students continue to pursue

some form of postsecondary education, despite barriers.

According to the National Committee on Black Higher Education

and Black Colleges and Universities (1979), this involvement

in higher education is revealed by data gathered in the Fall

of 1976:

-Over one million Black students (9.3 percent of
the total higher education enrollment) were pursuing
some form of higher education.

-Almost half of the Black first-time freshmen were
from families with incomes of $8,000 or less.

-Only fifteen percent of the Black students in higher
education were enrolled at the university level.

-Thirty percent of all Blacks in higher education
were enrolled in historically Black colleges.

-Blacks continue to be seriously under-represented
in physical sciences and engineering fields at both
the undergraduate and graduate levels. (p. XIII)

Included in the increased population of adult learners

are Black individuals who are oftentimes presented negatively








in research literature concerning vocational and personal

development. These individuals are referred to as "dis-

advantaged, high risk or under-prepared." A typical descrip-

tion defines such students as those who, in addition to

scoring poorly on standardized achievement tests, have

experienced economic deprivation, social alienation caused

by racial or ethnic discrimination, geographic isolation or

provincialism. Other descriptions suggest that such persons

feel powerless to control their lives, lack self-esteem and

achievement motivation, have little vocational direction or

sense of purpose, and have a negative self-image (Chickering,

1974, p. 13-14).

Theorists continually suggest that the average Black

student may lack positive role models, have low self-esteem,

inconsistent high vocational aspirations, and negative con-

cepts of work. For example, Hauser (1971) found whereas

the self-images of Black males were relatively fixed, whites

demonstrated greater flexibility in their self-image. Thus,

the profile of the Black individual has been presented as a

portrait of a vocationally-handicapped person (Smith, 1975).

However, Black evening students, as a whole, do not fit all

these descriptions. The students tend to have a sense of

purpose and commitment of realizing their vocational and

personal goals. Many of these students are women who sur-

prisingly have the sole responsibility for rearing one or

more children and maintaining a household. Moreover, they








tend to have full or part-time jobs and attend during the

evenings to upgrade their skills, increase job options, or

fulfill job requirements or certification for an existing

position. Yet, these non-traditional students have specific

vocational and personal needs that must be addressed. Kuh

and Ardaiolo (1979) suggested to adequately meet the needs

of older students, college student personnel workers will

have to enter into a dialogue with them to discover, vicari-

ously, the adult learner experience. "After determining

what adult learners need, we must respond accordingly by

modifying traditional but inappropriate service modalities

or creating new structures and services to meet their needs"

(p. 41).



Treatment Models


Group Counseling

The group process is potent and effective and is

potentially the most dormat and most efficient therapeutic

technique (Meyer and Smith, 1977). They state that:

Group counseling uniquely allows a greater range
of behavioral models, more realistic immediate
feedback, and consensual validation of decisions
and future. . The efficiency of group therapy
is evident in the term itself, since a significantly
greater number of people can be seen per unit of a
therapist's time than in individual therapy. (p. 638)

Group counseling can accomplish everything that can be

done on an individual basis with the added dimension of the

interpersonal phenomena in the group (CarKhuff, 1973).







Additionally, research evidence supports the positive effects

of group counseling in a variety of settings. For example,

comparisons of individual and group counseling suggest that

group counseling is potentially more effective (Bednar and

Weinberg, 1970).

In regards to the adult learner, either entering or

reentering college, structured group learning activities can

help women and minorities recognize their potential in areas

that could provide more satisfying careers (Miles, 1977).

Likewise, Yeager and McMahon (1974) suggest that group

career counseling offers a means of comparison in relation

to interpersonal effectiveness, values, peer achievement,

life styles, and personal goals.

Hillman, Penczar, and Barr (1975) suggest that the

activity group guidance (AGG) method can be used to help

counselors bring new vitality into their schools by inte-

grating the effective and the cognitive and by helping

students learn by doing. Additionally, group guidance for

vocational choice and planning has typically made use of

field trips, consultants, and films. Recently, however,

active methods to obtain occupational information in conjunc-

tion with group counseling have been used.

Parker and McDavis (1979) developed a career module

using four career guidance strategies for counselors and

teachers to use with ethnic minorities: (a) a group inter-

action strategy which counselors can use to improve the

self-concept of ethnic minority students, (b) three







information strategies which counselors can use to enable

ethnic minority students to explore a wide variety of

occupations, (c) an assessment strategy which counselors

can use to help ethnic minority students identify their

own career needs, interests, and values, and (d) a decision-

making strategy which counselors can use to help ethnic

minority students with their decision-making processes.

Values clarification excercises were used with a group

of college students to assist them in the growth and learn-

ing process. Korschgen, Whitehurst, and O'Gorman (1978)

indicated that outside raters viewed participants as having

greater self-understanding in a job interview situation.

Immediately after the study, the values participants rated

themselves higher on the dimension of self-understanding

than the control group did.

A program similar to the one developed by O'Gorman

was proposed by Storey and O'Brien (1977). These researchers

proposed a mini-workshop (group experience) for career

exploration, designed to help participants understand them-

selves and their values in relation to the world of work.

The authors suggest that the "strength of this technique is

is that it has demonstrated effectiveness in substantive and

practical vocational assistance in our students who need this

important help" (p. 147).

Other studies showed improvement of personal development

as a result of group counseling. Knott and Daker (1978)

developed a structural group program to help new students








make the transition from high school to college. The authors

used three sessions: 1) mapping skills, 2) problem-solving

strategies, and 3) developing competencies. The group

approaches were determined to be effective in facilitating

the new students' adjustment and to reinforce the students

developing self-esteem.

White (1979) developed and used an action-oriented

guidance model to help Black female students demonstrate

ability to state personal, educational, and technical com-

petencies, occupational position or status, and economic

rewards of career to which the students were exposed. She

suggested, however, that this model may not address the most

critical needs of Black females youth-making a career choice,

or entering an educational or technical program designed to

make Black female youth employable.

From the reports listed above, one can assume that the

active participation of group members is tantamount to effec-

tive group counseling. In so doing, the individual partici-

pants can learn to deal effectively with their interpersonal

concerns and problems.



Didactic and Experiential Activities and Techniques

A major problem confronting educators today is the need

to assist ethnic minority students cope with the educational

environment. Consequently, strategies to help these individ-

uals should be employed that take into account their partic-

ular needs and problems. Sound methods of helping others







learn frequently involve the provision of direction in

learning. That direction may include such things as arous-

ing the learner, encouraging learner participation in the

learning experience, and providing distributed practice,

and verbal and other confirmations. If these activities are

appropriate in attempting to assist individuals in learning

skills and concepts, perhaps, they offer an appropriate

basis for developing facilitative vocational and educational

counseling practices and programs. Such a model has been

demonstrated to be both effective and satisfactory in deal-

ing with male and female college students' vocational

development concerns (Smith and Evans, 1973).

Teachers and counselors interested in aiding black

individuals employ both didactic and experiential techniques.

Didactic learning is generally teacher (instruction) oriented

and is typically used to impart knowledge. Examples of these

methods include lectures, movies, readings and demonstrations.

Experiential learning tends to be more learner (process)

oriented and is frequently used to enhance discovery via

interactive prescribed activities. Examples of experiential

learning methods include role-play, case discussion, incident

process discussion and problem-solving groups (Bell and

Margolis, 1978).

Regardless of the means for transmitting learning activi-

ties, they should be aimed at sharpening the individual's

skills of inquiry and supportive of the learner's "self-esteem-

facilitating learner self-directness." According to Bell and








Margolis (1978) learning is more likely to take place when

the individual is actively involved in the learning process.

However, there are times when heavy didactic learning is

appropriate and effective.

The literature consistently, reveals four factors that

contribute to retention problems for college students:

isolation, academic boredom, dissonance, and irrelevancy

(Merluzzi, 1974). Even though students in general are

affected by these factors, Black students are affected even

more.

Instruction for students with special needs must be

meaningful, individualized, and personalized in order to pro-

vide for each student's strengths and weaknesses. Consequently,

an assessment of the needs of a given individual may include

one or several of the following areas: motivation, language

skill, and basic academic skills; career awareness and explo-

ration activities; consultation; and any other area identified

as being related to personal needs (Clinkscale, 1978).

Black students have particular problems that call for

peculiar kinds of approaches in educating them. According

to Stikes (1978), "teaching may be viewed as the facilitation

and support (reward) of some change in meaning in relation to

ideas, things, and persons. Therefore, the teacher should

create and support a climate of creative inquiry for personal

and social problem solving, personal meaningfulness, and

socially relevant experiences with the content" (p. 195).








Vocational Development


General Theoretical Considerations

Career (or vocational) development is viewed as a contin-

uous process of one's unique pattern of vocational growth.

Consequently, considerable attention has been devoted to the

concept of vocational development by educators and researchers

alike. Vocational development means that vocational choice is

not just one choice made over several years but many choices.

Moreover, vocational choices seem to be a process of changing

and choosing. Consequently, good vocational choices can be

made only as individuals become familiar with occupations

and discover ways of making a living that match or fit their

abilities, interests, and values (Schertzer, 1977).

There are many theories of vocational development; how-

ever, this literature encompasses those theories exposed by.

Super (1953) and Holland (1959), since they are closely

related to this study. The first hypothesized several stages

or sequences of vocational development and the latter empha-

sizes expressions of personality. Super's vocational theory

of development builds on distinct stages: a growth stage

(birth 14 years); an exploratory stage, occurring between

ages 15 and 25; the maintenance stage, and the final stage

(decline). Consequently, 10 propositions have been developed

by Super (1953) which summarizes his theory:

1. People differ in their abilities, interests and personalities..

2. They are qualified, by virtue of these characteristics,
each for a number of occupations.







3. Each of these occupations requires a characteristic
pattern of abilities, interest, and personality
traits.

4. Vocational preferences and competencies, the situations
in which people live and work, and hence their self-
concepts, change with time and experience.

5. This process may be summed up in a series of life stages
characterized as those growth, exploration, establish-
ment, maintenance and decline, and these stages may
inturn be sub-divided into (a) the fantasy, tentative,
and realistic phases of the exploratory stage, and (b)
the trial and stable phases of the establishment stage.

6. The nature of the career pattern is determined by the
individual's parental socioeconomic level, mental ability,
and personality characteristics, and by the opportunities
to which he is exposed.

7. Development through life stages can be guided, partly by
facilitating the process of maturation of abilities and
interests, and partly by aiding in reality testing and
in the development of the self-concept.

8. The process of vocational development is essentially
that of developing and implementing a self-concept.

9. The process of comprise between individual and social
factors, between self-concept and reality, is one of role
playing, whether the role is played in fantasy, in the
counseling interview, or in real life activities such
as school classes, clubs, part-time work, and entry job.

10. Work satisfactions and life satisfactions depend upon
the extent to which the individual finds adequate outlets
for his abilities, interests, personality traits and
values. (p. 189-190)


According to Super (1953, p. 135) "the self-concept of a

well integrated individual is a continually developing entity,

shifting somewhat through life as experiences indicate that

changes are necessary to reflect reality." In other words,

individuals choose careers that allow them to function in a


role consistent with their self-concepts.








The self-concept plays an important role in the selection

of various occupational choices. Putman and Hansen (1972)

affirm that self-concept is related to an individual's level

of vocational maturity. Additionally, how people feel about

themselves determines the degree of occupational explorations.

Societal demands also impel individuals to make decisions at

certain junctures, (e.g. entering college, graduation, etc.)

along the continuum of what has come to be known as the

vocational choice process (Super, 1957).

Unlike Super, Holland (1959-1966) expouses the premise

that individuals select occupations through which they can

express their personalities. Accordingly, vocational choice

is viewed as an extension of personality types of correspond-

ing environmental conditions. Some of Holland's ideas are:

1. People express personality through their vocational
choices.

2. People are attracted to occupations that they
feel will provide experiences suitable to their
personalities.

3. Members of a vocation have similar personalities
and they react to many situations and problems
in a like manner. (Shertzer, 1977)

The six personality types identified by Holland are

Realistic (R), Investigative (I), Enterprising (E), Con-

ventional (C), Artistic (A), and Social (S). Because

individuals in an occupation have similar personalities

they create environments that are like them. Consequently,

the environmental models related to the various personality

types can be defined by clusters of preferred occupations.








For example, conventional types prefer occupations such

as bankers, accountants and file clerks.

When working with Black clients, these theories are to

be used cautiously, since most of the research on vocational

counseling theories have not always considered race as a

factor. Blacks, generally, are not adequately considered

in career development theories. June and Pringle (1977)

reviewed Roe's personality theory of vocational behavior

and Holland's career typology theory of vocational behavior.

The overview indicates that all three theorists were to some

extent aware of race as a factor in career development.

However, the overview suggests that the writing of Roe, Super

and Holland ignored race as a crucial factor in developing,

researching, and writing about their theories.

The role of relevant occupational information in the

process of career development also has received considerable

attention. Hoppock (1963) suggests that occupational choice

is determined by an individual's knowledge of occupations and

the ability to think clearly. Similarly, Loesch, Rucker, and

Shub (1978) asserts that individuals can make better career

choices if they are familiar with various job options. Conse-

quently, Parker and McDavis (1979) developed a module employing

four career guidance strategies to increase individuals' occupa-

tional awareness. Additionally, McDavis and Parker (1978)

stressed the development of culturally relevant career infor-

mation for counselors and other helpers who expect to work with

minority group members.







Educators have not seriously considered nor included the

development of minority students' self-concept in the educa-

tional process. At an early age all individuals begin to

develop an awareness of their uniqueness based on experiences.

Whatever the minority students' interaction with other ethnic

groups reflects unacceptability of them as equals, their self-

concepts will be less positive. This generally influences

the minority students' behavior pattern for the remainder of

their lives (Williams, 1979).

Research with respect to minorities' knowledge of various

occupations (Williams and Whitney, 1978) indicates that the

average minority student brings into the classroom several

unique differences from his white counterpart in terms of

values, background experiences, and orientations. The afore-

mentioned tends to restrict Black students' view of occupa-

tions that might be open to them. Therefore, the minority

student is less apt to be aware of the great variety of

occupations or skills required for certain occupations

(Williams, 1979).

Earlier studies have suggested that while the aspira-

tions of Black youth were high, the actual expectations were

unrealistic, given the realities of the opportunities open

to Blacks (Deutsch, 1960; Johnson, 1941). High school

guidance counselors who work with Black students report that

a large number of Black students' career aspirations are

inconsistent with their motivation and academic achievement.

For instance, counselors indicate that many Black students







who aspire to be accountants do not want to take the required

courses (e.g. calculus, etc.).

Tiedeman (1978), studying a group of high school students,

found a strong relationship between vocational aspirations and

the number of hours adolescents study per week. Students not

studying much in high school do not expect to work at high

responsibility levels in occupation.

Another study indicates that Blacks want to attend college

as often as do whites and, while both Blacks and whites seek

white-collar occupations, Blacks less often expect to work

in these occupations (Lott and Lott, 1963). In other words,

their perceived or real restrictions in the job market hinder

their actual career expectations.

There are many factors that influence the vocational plans

of Black individuals. Thomas, Kravas, and Low (1979) found

that the potential income and salary derived from an occupation

is the major influential factor in the Black students' actual

vocational plans. Additionally, their study indicated that

Black students' actual vocational plans differed from their

vocational aspirations, which were more realistic, specifically

with respect to academic preparation. Krefting, Berger, and

Wallace (1978) found that the actual base rate of males and

females in the job was the most important prediction of job

sex types, accounting for 48 and 70 percent of the adjusted

variance in sex types in two studies.

Role models (appropriate and in appropriate) influence

Black individuals' vocational plans. Generally, Blacks model

after those individuals in the community, school, home and







church that they respect. Consequently, if a Black individual

respects or looks up to an inappropriate role model, this may

have a negative effect on the individual's vocational

aspirations.



Vocational Maturity

Vocational maturity may be viewed at any age as "planful-

ness or time perceptive, exploratory attitudes and behavior,

the acquisition of information, knowledge or decision-making,

and reality orientation" (Super, 1974, p. 5). Vocational

maturity entails an assessment of an individual's level of

vocational progress relative to a given set of vocationally

relevant development tasks.

While most attention on career development is written on

teenage and college students, very little attention is devoted

to adults (Walsh, 1979; Walls and Gulkus, 1974). However,

Crites (1976) outlines a model for the understanding and

study of career development in early adulthood. He proposes

that both congruence and coping abilities contribute importantly

to career adjustment.

The basis concept which underlines the definitions of

vocational maturiry is that behavior changes systematically in

various ways with increasing age (Crites, 1965). Crites (1961)

suggests:

that to measure an individual's vocational maturity...
requires (1) a comparison of his vocational behaviors
with those which are typical of the different life
stages and (2) a statement about which life stage he
most closely resembles. This specification of an
individual's vocational life stage then represents
his vocational maturity "score." (p. 256)







In developing the CMI, Crites (1974) constructed a pool

of items that were theoretically relevant and linguistically

representative of the verbal behavior of adolescents. He

achieved content validity on the Attitude Scale by having

counseling psychologists (expert judges) indicate what they

considered to be the most mature response to each item.

More than two decades ago, Super (1957) proposed that

people's expression of a vocational preference is, in effect,

a manifestation of their idea of the kind of person they are.

It follows from Super's theory that self-definition may not

be the most significant vocational developmental task for

an elementary school age child. As children mature and

formulate their self-concept, they identify models, role play,

and test reality. Thus they begin to fuse their interests,

values, and capacities into their self-concepts (Super, 1957).

Crites (1961) criticized Super's definition on the grounds

that a person might be considered mature by one definition and

immature by another. Therefore, Crites combined the two frames

of reference to give a measure of both degree and rate of career

maturity. Consequently, Crites' definition of career maturity

appears to be the most widely accepted and is the one used for

this study.

Tilden (1978), however, suggested that the process of

career development may be discontinuous in the post-high school

years. The author, working with college students, failed to

find systematic increases in vocational maturity scores on the

CMI with increasing college grade level.







Vocational maturity is one of the primary constructs of

vocational psychology and allows the researchers to assess

both the rate and the level of an individual's development

with respect to career matters (Crites, 1965; Super, 1955).

The developmental theorists, however, have linked the process

of vocational choice to particular cultural determinants and

have premised their theories on middle-class phenomena, thus

omitting research related to the vocational development of

individuals who are not members of the middle-class majority

society. Gribbons and Lohnes (1968) suggest, however, that in

vocational research too little time and attention have been

directed toward the less academically able student and the

student from lower socioeconomic groups.

Murphy and Burch (1976), focusing upon adult career develop-

ment, proposed that Super's developmental stages be expanded to

include an additional, and life career stage for men, reflecting

the changes men undergo between ages 35 and 45 in self-concepts,

values, and goals. Along these lines, Hershenson and Lavery

(1978), concerned with the sequencing of vocational development

stages in a series of two studies, found that in vocational

development Self-Differentiation preceded competence, which in

turn preceded Independence. The authors, however, cautioned

the need to confirm these data with longitudinal data.

Heath (1976) focused upon personality dimensions rather

than developmental stages. Heath's goal in regards to career

development is to conceptualize and measure how people establish

an "optimal adoption" between filling their own needs and meet-

ing the demands of their occupation. Heath's findings suggested







a strong relationship between vocational adaptation and

psychological maturity, measured either as an adolescent or

an adult.

According to a 1977 ACT Profile Report, the older adult

is considerably more sure of choice of program of study and

occupational goal. Perhaps the older adults (23-54 years)

have defined their motivations more clearly (Ferguson, 1966)

for attending college and, therefore, have a greater degree

of confidence in their choice of college major and eventual

occupation (Wallace, 1979).

Likewise, Harren, Kass, Tinsley, and Moreland (1978)

examined factors that influence how college students make a

choice of major. The authors found that progress in the

decision-making process most directly influenced choice of

major. Gender, sex role attitudes, and cognitive styles had

little direct influence on choice of major.

In a study of locus of control and career maturity of

college women, Gable, Thompson, and Glanstein (1979), found

that internally controlled women scored significantly higher

than externally controlled women on the maturity measure.

Dillard (1976) investigated the relationships between

career maturity and self-concept of 252 Black males. Socio-

economic status was found to have had the strongest predictive

value on career maturity. However, from his findings, the

author suggested caution in the use of the CMI with lower-

class and/or minority persons.

Putnam and Hansen (1972) studied the relationship of the

feminine role and self-concepts to vocational maturity. Further,







the more liberal the woman perceived her role to be, the higher

was her level of vocational maturity. Girls tended to be voca-

tionally immature in comparison to their male counterparts and

have a lower than average self-concept. These findings support

Super's (1953) theory of vocational maturity and indicate that

his theory applies to females as well as males.

Research into the mearsurment of some aspects of vocational

maturity in adults focused upon "career occupationss) choice"

maturity. Crites (1965) used five attitudinal dimensions

identified in his model of adolescent vocational maturity, for

the specifications of the Adult Vocational Maturity Inventory

(AVMI). These were as follows: 1) Involvement in the choice

process, or the extent to which the individual is active in the

process of making a choice; 2) Orientation towards work, or the

extent to which the individual is task-or pleasure-oriented in

his attitudes toward work and the values he places upon it;

3) Independence in decision-making, or the extent to which an

individual relies on others in the choice of an occupation; 4)

Preference for vocational choice factors, or the extent to which

the choice is based on a particular factor; and 5) Conception

of the choice process, or the extent to which accurate concep-

tions are made in choosing an occupation.



Personal Development


Needs of Undergraduate Adults

Since adult learners are increasing on college and university

campuses around the country, many administrators are hoping that





32

their presence will partly offset the projected decrease in

traditional-age college students. This phenomenon is partic-

ularly relevant when one mentions small, private, predominantly

Black higher education institutions. However, in order to

facilitate these students' personal development, it is impera-

tive that their personal needs be addressed especially since

the adult student has needs that are not evident in the typical

student.

Black students, particularly those who attend college

during evenings, have special needs that are somewhat different

from those of other students and should be addressed. First,

there is a need to help these individuals improve their self-

concept in order to increase their vocational, academic, and

personal aspirations. This is not to say that these students

have negative self-concepts, but, to imply that their life

experiences have not been typical of the dominant middle-class

society. Additionally, many of these students, because of

economic or social status, were denied full educational

opportunity when young (O'Keefe, 1977).

These students need help in making educational and voca-

tional plans which have not been perceived as a need by the

older student. One could assume that a student 40 years of

age would not need an opportunity for receiving such help; how-

ever, it is apparent that this type of assistance should be

available if needed. Accordingly, Wallace (1979) indicated

that 41.6 percent of students surveyed (23 and older) perceived

a need for personal counseling, especially in terms of negotiat-

ing the system and advising type services.








Financial assistance is another need of Black evening

students. Even though many of these students work full and

part-time jobs, they still fall within Federal financial-aid

guidelines. Wallace (1979) when surveying adult and part-

time students, found 50 percent of his group expressing a

need for financial aid. This is especially significant in

Black private colleges where the tuition and other fees tend

to be higher than public institutions of higher learning.

Consequently, grant and loan programs should not be given to

the exclusion of evening students.

Another need of these individuals is help with improving

their academic related skills in reading, writing, math, and

study skills. It stands to reason that the longer these

students have been out of an academic setting, the greater

the need for this assistance. However, this problem is further

compounded when the individual works during the day and has

less lime to spend in tutorial sessions between evening classes.

Women and ethnic minorities have not had the educational

opportunities that would allow them to pursue careers of their

choice. Additionally, middle-aged persons, women and ethnic

minorities, for example, may not become involved in an occupa-

tion because of the belief that they cannot obtain the necessary

educational credentials. The results are that women and ethnic

minorities may not engage in activities that provide them with

the greatest degree of personal satisfaction in life (Miles,

1977).







Decision-Making

Decision-making is based not only on making a choice

that is consistent with one's interests, needs, abilities,

skills and values, but also may involve decisions of which

societal roles an individual will accept or reject. This is

particularly crucial for ethnic minorities and adults who

are about to confront, or who are actually coping with, the

tasks of vocational development. Many adults, particularly

Black individuals, are unfamiliar with decision-making strate-

gies, do not know the process of decision-making, or do not

have adequate information to make good decisions. Additionally,

these individuals must be made aware that good decision-making

requires thorough self-appraisal.

According to Tiedeman and Miller-Tiedeman (1975) whenever

there are two or more courses of action, it is necessary to

make a choice; however, choosing is not decision-making. To

choose is an act, but to consider possible choices is decision-

making. Learning to make sound decisions involves learning to

understand one's self in depth as well as obtaining information

and developing strategies for dealing with the uncertainties

of life (Smaby and Tamminen, 1978).

A common problem of individuals making career decisions

is the inaccurate estimation of their potentialities, sepa-

rating the ideal from the real, the actuality from the fantasy.

Several studies have investigated this aspect of decision-

making by Blacks, lower-income groups, or women. In a study of

Black and white lower-income teenage boys, Thomas (1975) found no







relationship between race and realism of occupational choice,

preference, or aspiration.

One of the major goals of guidance is the development

of students' decision-making behavior (Harmon and Dutt, 1974).

However, rarely do students obtain good decision-making skills

solely through their own initiatives; good decision-making

usually involves good help. Consequently, some individuals

(e.g. a counselor, teacher, etc.) must take the time to help

the student learn how to make effective decisions (Parker, 1978).

A number of group counseling programs utilize decision-

making techniques to improve decision-making and career develop-

ment. Strategies for reaching decisions have been offered

(Magoon, 1969) and writers have suggested the use of such

strategies in counseling (Krumboltz and Schroeder, 1965).

Albritten (1979) utilized a group program at Murray State

University to assist individuals in developing the qualities

identified in the literature as being related to autonomy and

effective decision-making. The group (class) as a whole

appeared to move towards a greater self-awareness, self-accep-

tance, and self-direction in terms of decision-making abilities.

Ganster and Lovell (1978) used Holland's Theory as a basis

for designing a 15-hour career development seminar for 24 under-

graduate students. Students viewed work as a more important

aspect of life, became more personally involved in the career

choice process, and grew more independent in decision-making.

Similarly, Egner and Jackson (1978) developed an intervention

program for teaching career decision-making skills. The






authors found that the program participants increased their

career maturity scores on the Crites CMI Scale and career

maturity was significantly related to decision making.

Evans and Rector (1978) found that more than 70 percent

of the students enrolled in a college credit course (Decision-

Making for Career Development) reported being closer to select-

ing a major and an occupation at the completion of the course

than they were before enrolling in it. Baird (1969) found

that decisiveness is closely related to the excercises of

personal freedom. Wigent (1974) indicated that a close relation-

ship exists between personal autonomy and positive self-concept,

self-esteem, and stability. Other authors have related decision-

making abilities to ego-strength development, internal versus

external motivation, affiliation, and self-esteem (Stewart and

Winborn, 1973).

Krumboltz, Mitchell, and Jones (1976) propose that career

decision-making can be understood within the framework of

social learning theory. They present a model explaining, in

learning terms, how educational and occupational preferences

and skills are acquired and how selections of careers and

occupations are made. They propose that career decision-making

is influenced by genetic endowment and special abilities,

environment conditions and events, learning experiences, and

task-approach skills.

Heath's work on personal maturity, begun in the 1960's and

continuing, with attention to vocational maturity, in the 1970's







marked the beginning of attempts to construct a model of voca-

tional maturity for adults (Heath, 1976). The author was

able to identify the following five dimensions in a general

model of personal maturity: 1) the ability to symbolize

experience and aspects of the environment symbolizationn); 2)

the ability to appreciate varied viewpoints (allocentricity)

which, 3) the individual can then integrate with other experi-

ences (integration); 4) the ability to organize information

into stable forms (stabilization); and 5) the capacity to

perceive information about self and environment in an auto-

nomous way (autonomy). The author suggested later that since

this model identified the personality traits required for

successful problem-solving, it could be readily applied to

vocational decision-making (Heath, 1976).



Problems of Minorities

The opportunity for greater life satisfaction and self-

fullfillment for all persons through work and leisure activities

seems to be the major thrust of career development. However,

ethnic minorities and women face an inordinate number of pro-

blems or barriers that hinder their personal and vocational

development. Discrimination in career choice has long been a

problem of women and ethnic minorities. The opportunity to gain

personal satisfaction through work and leisure has been denied

to these two subgroups of our society by custom or law (Miles,

1977). Consequently, discriminatory practices affecting

educational opportunities, occupational choices, and leisure






activities have led to inadequate career development among

these groups.

Wright (1978) asserts that Black female students who

attend predominantly white universities are disadvantaged

economically, academically, socially, and racially. These

problems create a stressful college environment for Black

female students attending these institutions. The author

feels that counseling should include information about effec-

tive methods of coping with racial and sexual job

discrimination.

With the 1964 Civil Rights Act, which prohibits dis-

crimination based on race and sex in employment, and Title IX

(1972) which prohibits discrimination based on sex in educa-

tion, the doors are now legally open for the blossoming

American woman. Unfortunately, inequalities still exist and

more time is needed for the general attitude of society to

completely accept women's emergence (Burnett, 1978).

Numerous barriers to employment opportunities face

minorities and vocationally disadvantaged persons in getting

jobs and keeping them. These problems or barriers include

social and interpersonal conflicts, financial problems, legal

problems, general barriers (child care, health, transportation)

emotional-personal problems, drug abuse problems, job qualifi-

cations, discrimination, and communication problems (Miller

and Oetting, 1977). Additionally, one author presented evidence

suggesting that men in positions of authority, who make most of







the promotional decisions affecting women, frequently have

sex-role-stereotypical attitudes towary competency that

inhibit women's occupational advancement (Di Sabation, 1976).

Thus, there will remain barriers to occupational advancement

for women and ethnic minorities even more detrimental to women

and their vocational aspirations. In regard to career guidance

for women, Tolbert (1974) states that it "is no routine, easy

task under the best of circumstances, but when it is compli-

cated by deeply ingrained and baseless stereotypes, it becomes

immeasurably more difficult" (p. 3).

The problems of inadequate self-confidence or identity

seem to be inextrically interwoven with problems of discrimi-

nation. Being excluded from certain occupations has the effect

of lowering one's self-confidence. Many women and ethnic

minorities may not possess the necessary confidence to enter

new occupations because of their domestically based lives and

because of a long history of exclusions (Miles, 1977). Both

need special assistance and support in dealing with the new

world around them. Regarding identity problems of women

reentering the labor force, Thom (1975) sums it up this way:

Identity has not been such a primary problem for
women when they were not part of the larger world
outside of home and family, but a woman today needs
to know who she is, what her skills are, what she
wants, and what she thinks is important. (p. 129)

Another problem facing women and ethnic minorities is the

lack of job-hunting skills and poor labor market information.

Moser (1974) categorizes the problem into two camps: (1) Infor-

mation about immediate job openings, for example, finding out







what kinds of skills are required, what kinds of jobs match

one's own skills; the relative difference in wages in

different occupations, and (2) longer term occupational

planning information on trends in supply and demand for

various occupations.

Drummond, McIntire and Skaggs (1978) compared the rela-

tionship of work values to occupational level in yound adults

and found that females rated extrinsic values relating to the

personal work environment as more important than male workers.

Additionally, "males tended to rate instrinsic values such as

intellectual stimulation, independence, and creativity as more

important than females" (p. 120). The fear of failure in

women and ethnic minorities may be rooted in the socializa-

tion process. Women are taught to control their environment

by independence on others, through affiliations (Hoffman, 1974).

Minority women at majority undergraduate schools also

encounter barriers. They have difficulties with courses because

they were excluded from preparatory classes at the secondary

level and received biased advice on course selection. Further

problems arise when minority women receive little or no

encouragement to attend graduate school and lack information

concerning graduate fellowships and internships when they do

decide to go on (Almquist, 1979).

Minority women have many traditional societal barriers

that have excluded them from entering a wide variety of careers.

Sexual and racial stereotyping presents a serious problem to

minority women in the choice of careers because in their







pre-collegiate and collegiate years they are often discouraged

by teachers, counselors, or parents from taking mathematics

and science courses. These minority students are usually

placed in terminal mathematic classes for those who are not

expected to major in science in college or who are not

expected to go to college (George, 1979).

Black females may not find career libraries and computer

programs attractive resources. When Blacks have not been

sufficiently exposed to vocations on an informal basis, they

are not in a good position to benefit from vocational reading,

tests, and inventory data (Amos and Grambs, 1968).

Similarly, McLure and Piel (1978) assessed student per-

ception of careers in science and technology for a sample of

1,017 talented high school senior women. Results suggested

that few women chose careers in science and technology because

they had doubts about combining family life with a science

career, they lacked information, they believed influential

adults, and they saw few examples of the important role women

play in science. The evidence demonstrated the need for family

encouragement, role models, and career information to change

student perception of these barriers.

Gottlieb's (1975) two-year longitudinal study of 1,800

college students revealed that sex, race, and socioeconomic

background play an important part in establishing educational

and occupational alternatives. Also, the study pointed out

that a need for specific programs designed to give students

vocational information continues to be unmet (White, 1979).








Gade and Peterson (1977) suggest that concepts of vocational

development theory, such as work values and career maturity,

are more appropriately applied to populations reflecting

middle-clase, college bound behavior.

Regardless of the reasons for embarking upon a career,

women and minorities face problems of lack of training and

lack of self-confidence. More importantly, women and minori-

ties should have the opportunity to seek out and engage in

careers that are self-actualizing. As Super (1957) proposed,

career development can only be understood if a person's per-

ception of the world is clarified. His self-concept is

defined in the context of his culture and his culture is

"colored by values."

Since educators and counselors have begun to seek ways

to assist Black students in their personal and vocational

development, they incorporate their own values and cultures

into the curricular and guidance services that are provided

for these individuals. Quite often the value orientations

and needs of Black students do not receive the necessary

attention to facilitate their personal and vocational develop-

ment. Consequently, an understanding of the relative impor-

tance of various values and value systems, is essential in

dealing effectively with Black students' problems of voca-

tional decision-making and personal development.

Counselors must make a concerted effort to understand the

cultural makeup of their clients. This must not be merely







affectual understanding hut accurate cognitive understanding

of the total milieu of different cultural groups (Wittmer,

1971). In other words, the cultural and value differences,

attitudes, and personality traits between ethnic minorities

should be recognized in aiding these individuals' personal

development.

Values are defined as "socially learned constructs

through which people view events and assign meaning and

significance to experiences" (Blocker, 1973, p. 59). Rokeach

defines a value as:

An enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct
or end-state of existence is personally or socially
preferable to an opposite or converse mode of con-
duct or end-state of existence. A value system is
an enduring organization of beliefs concerning
preferable modes of conduct or end-state of exis-
tence along a continuous of relative importance.
(1973, p. 5)

Values describe what individuals consider to be important.

Values represent wants, priorities, likes and/or dislikes for

particular things, conditions or situations. As Smith states

it, "we are not born with values, but we are born into cul-

tures and societies that promote, teach, and impact their

values to us. The process of acquiring values begins at

birth . .but it is not a static process . values

change continually throughout our lives" (1977, p. 3).

Ethnic minorities, generally, take on those existing

values, behaviors, attitudes and lifestyles of the majority of

groups in the American society. However, when these individ-

uals have to function differently, with different groups, they







are often caught between different values. In other words

when the individuals are Black, they quite often operate in

a vacuum and must function in two worlds Black and white.

For many ethnic minorities, success in one's work and pro-

fession is seen as one means for acceptance in the larger

society, and often access to education is perceived as the

preliminary and preparatory step toward that success. Con-

sequently, counselors and others in the helping professions

must remain cognizant of the problems and barriers confront-

ing ethnic minorities' personal and vocational development.













CHAPTER III

METHODS AND PROCEDURES



This study compared the use of selected didactic and

experiential group counseling techniques for improving the

vocational and personal development of Black evening students

enrolled in a predominantly Black college in Florida. Non-

traditional students have particular vocational and personal

needs upon entering higher education institutions. Conse-

quently, more research is needed to determine how to most

effectively facilitate their development in these areas.



Setting


Edward Waters College, founded in 1866, is a small,

private church related, residential, and predominantly Black

liberal arts college located in Jacksonville, Florida. There

are five academic divisions serving approximately 700 students.

At least 85 percent matriculate from Duval County or within

a 50 mile radius. The remaining 15 percent come from largely

rural areas throughout the state of Florida and several other

southern states. Additionally, within the latter percent, a

small number of students from several foreign countries are

supported via the African Methodist Episcopal Church. At

least 95 percent of the student body received some form of







financial assistance during the 1978-79 academic year.

Edward Waters College is committed to the philosophy and

total implementation of the open admissions concept. Conse-

quently, any person, regardless of color, creed, sex, age,

physical handicap or economic status having received a high

school diploma or GED certificate is permitted to matriculate

into the college. SAT and ACT scores are recommended but not

required for admission.

The After-Five Degree Program at the college is designed

to aid older students, veterans, and working individuals who

desire to continue or pursue their formal education. The

various curricula are arranged so that a person may maintain

a full-time job or continue to rear a family while pursuing

a degree or refresher courses.



Research Design


The design used for this study was a pretest-posttest

control group design (Campbell and Stanley, 1963). This

design adequately satisfied internal validity demands. Sub-

jects were assigned randomly from the Orientation Class to

the two treatment groups. The control group consisted of

nonclass-enrolled students who volunteered to take the pre

and posttests. The research design may be graphically repre-

sented as follows:









Groups Pretest Treatment Posttest

Experiential 01 X1 02

Didactic 03 X2 04

Control 05 06




Research Hypotheses


The research hypotheses for the study were generated

from statement of purpose and rationale. The hypotheses

are stated in null form:

(1) There are no differences among groups in

knowledge about careers as a result of

exposure to the experimental treatments.

(2) There are no differences among groups in

decision-making skills and vocational

maturity as a result of exposure to the

experimental treatments.

(3) There are no differences among groups in

value change and integration of personal

values with career choices as a result of

the experimental treatments.



Sample


The sample for this study consisted of a minimum of 45

freshmen students enrolled for their first semester in the

After-Five Degree Program at Edward Waters College, Jacksonville,




. U


Florida,during the 1980 Winter Semester. Thirty students

were enrolled in the "Orientation to College" course

required of freshmen students new to the college. These

subjects were highly representative of the freshmen evening

student population.

Treatment groups I and II consisted of 15 students

each from the orientation course and were randomly assigned

to the researcher and another counselor/instructor, respec-

tively. Additionally, 15 freshmen evening students were

randomly assigned to a control group which received no

treatment.



Treatment


The selected group counseling techniques used in this

study consisted of both traditional and non-traditional

activities. The researcher was the counselor/instructor of

the "Orientation to College" course and conducted the

experiential group techniques/activities in group I. Another

counselor/instructor, who previously taught the "Orientation

to College" course, conducted the didactic group techniques/

activities in group II. These two individuals had consider-

able experiences in conducting Black group experiences. The

instructors met periodically to discuss group progress, activi-

ties, and problems encountered.

The "Orientation to College" course encompassed 15

sessions, and the content was devoted to the orientation of

students to the college and its programs, as well as services







and the various academic offerings. One class session was

aimed toward increasing students' self-knowledge. Several

sessions were devoted to providing students with survival

skills techniques. The remaining sessions encompassed the

treatment time of this study. The respective groups met

weekly.

In summary, the activities for the two groups were

as follows:


Group I

(Experiential Activities and Group Interaction)


Session

Session


Session 3


Session


Session


Session

Session

Session

Session

Session


Session 11


Session 12


Objectives and Requirements; Introduction

Pretest Administration (Job Knowledge
Survey and Work Values Inventory)

Pretest Administration (Career
Maturity Inventory)

Vocational Information Strategies
(Parker and McDavis, 1979)

Decision-Making Strategies
(Parker and McDavis, 1979)

Me and My Occupation

Value Auction

Rank Ordering Roles

Group Discussion

Posttest Administration (Job Knowledge
Survey and Work Values Inventory)

Posttest Administration (Career
Maturity Inventory)

Evaluation and Feedback







Group II

(Didactic Presentations and Group Discussion)


Session

Session


Session


Session

Session

Session

Session

Session

Session

Session


Session 11


Session 12


Objectives and Requirements; Introduction

Pretest Administration (Job Knowledge
Survey and Work Values Inventory)

Pretest Administration (Career Maturity
Inventory)

Speaker Panel

Minorities in Occupations

Film

Lecture

Film

Team Panel

Posttest Administration (Job Knowledge
Survey and Work Values Inventory)

Posttest Administration (Career Maturity
Inventory)

Evaluation and Feedback


The specific objectives and format of the experiential

sessions (Group I) are as follows:


Goal:


Objectives:


To facilitate the vocational and personal
development of Black evening students.

1. To help students gain more occupational
information.

2. To help students obtain more effective
decision-making skills.

3. To develop students' awareness of the
personal/social values operating in the
formation of attitudes.

4. To give students practice in integrating
values with career choices.







Session 1 Objectives and Requirements

Students were introduced and given an over-
view of the weekly sessions and activities.

Session 2 Pretest Administration

Students were administered the Job Knowledge
Survey and the Work Values Inventory.

Session 3 Pretest Administration

Students were administered the Career Maturity
Inventory and assigned the Vocational Informa-
tion Strategy for the following session.

Session 4 Vocational Information Strategy

The purpose of this session was to actively
involve students in an information strategy
to assist them in gaining more occupational
information. The following activities took
place during this session:

1. Leader explained purpose of the session.

2. Leader reviewed reasons why many Black
students lack sufficient vocational
information.

3. Introduced and used "Occupational Shopp-
ing List" to help students gain occupa-
tional information and to determine the
extent of information the students had
about various occupations.

4. Students were divided into triads.

5. Students shared the information they had
learned about themselves with group
members.

6. Summary--after the small group discussion,
students were encouraged to ask questions
or make comments about the activity.

7. Assignment--Students were assigned the
activity A Decision-Making Strategy for
the next session.

Session 5 Decision-Making Strategy

The purpose of this session was to use a
decision-making strategy to assist students







in obtaining good decision-making skills.
The following activities took place during
this session (60 minutes):

1. Leader explained purpose of the "Decision-
Making Strategy."

2. Leader reviewed the five major factors
that should be considered for good
decision-making: (a) interest, (b) ability,
(c) motivation, (d) reality, and (e) good
help.

3. Students were placed in dyads and informed
that they would be role-playing counselor-
student interactions.

4. Students read Role-Playing Instructions.

5. Students role-played for approximately 15
minutes, and then exchanged roles with
their partners and repeated the role play-
ing activity.

6. Summary--After the role-playing activity,
a group discussion followed.

7. Assignment--Students were assigned to
write an essay for the next session on
"Me and My Occupation."

Session 6 Me and My Occupation

1. Leader briefly reviewed last session
(5 minutes).

2. Leader screened assignment for specific
examples where (a) sound rational decisions
had been made, (b) poor judgement, and
(c) unrealistic choices made.

3. Participants were placed in a circle.

4. Participants voluntarily shared choices,
and advantages and disadvantages of each
choice elaborated.

5. A group discussion followed.

Session 7 Value Auction

The purpose of this activity was to assist
the participants in becoming aware of their
values and to give them practice in integrat-
ing these values with career choices.








1. Leader gave an overview of "Value Auction"
instructions.

2. Leader distributed Value Auction sheet.

3. Participants were told that they had
$5,000 to bid on a number of items being
auctioned off.

4. Participants compared the values they
bought or bid the highest on with values
they ranked highest at the beginning.

5. After comparing the items purchased with
those they originally ranked high in
priority, participants discussed what they
learned. (Appendix G)

Session 8 Rank Ordering Roles

The purpose of this session was to assist the
participants in recognizing the influence of
specific roles on their lives. Consequently,
role playing designed upon the membership of
various institutions that supply our culture
with values were employed. Four institutions
(i.e., family, church, school, and government)
were focused on, emphasizing what precedents
establish which values.

1. Leader reviewed last session (5 minutes).

2. Participants were divided into four groups
(i.e., church, school, family, and govern-
ment).

3. Participants discussed these roles in a
hierarchy of importance.

4. Participants then exchanged roles, and a
discussion of the group feelings in new
roles ensued.

Session 9 Group Discussion

A group discussion designed to compare
minority group values with those of the larger
society was conducted.

1. Leader reviewed last session (5 minutes).


2. Leader explained purpose of group discussion.















Session 10




Session 11




Session 12


3. Students were placed in a circle and a "go-
round" conducted.

4. Leader summarized key points made during
the session.

Posttest Administration

Students were administered the Job Knowledge
Survey and the Work Values Inventory.

Posttest Administration

Students were administered the Career Maturity
Inventory.

Evaluation and Feedback

The students provided feedback to the leader
in regards to the effectiveness of the various
techniques and activities and suggested ways
to improve the "Orientation to College" course.


The specific objectives and format of the didactic

sessions (Group II) are as follows:

Goal: To facilitate the vocational and personal
development of Black evening students.

Objectives: 1. To help students gain more occupational
information.

2. To help students obtain more effective
decision-making skills.

3. To develop students' awareness of the
personal/social values operating in the
formation of attitudes.

4. To give students practice in integrating
values with career choices.

Session 1 Objectives and Requirements

Students were introduced and given an over-
view of the weekly sessions and activities.

Session 2 Pretest Administration

Students were administered the Job Knowledge
Survey and the Work Values Inventory.







Session 3 Pretest Administration

Students were administered the Career Maturity
Inventory.

Session 4 Speaker Panel

1. A panel composed of representatives from
the National Alliance of Business conducted
;a presentation on the current job market
trends (25 minutes).

2. After the presentation of statistical data
concerning trends had been made, qualifica-
tions, and necessary preparation for designed
vocational choices followed (20 minutes).

3. A group discussion followed (15 minutes).

Session 5 Films

Several mini-films were shown in an attempt
to achieve the objective of adequately pro-
viding basic information for career development.

Career Awareness: The Alternative
Careers: Making a Choice
Your Job: Finding the Right One

A group discussion followed to determine the
effectiveness of this session in achieving the
above stated objectives.

Session 6 Minorities in Occupations

A presentation was made focusing on Blacks
working in responsible positions according
to Holland's career typology. Holland (1959)
espoused the premise that people can be
characterized by their resemblance to six
personality types: realistic, artistic,
investigative, social, enterprising, and con-
ventional. The presentation centered around
the individuals background experience, self-
concept, motivation, and obstacles.

Following the presentation, the leader and
students participated in a group discussion.

Session 7 Lecture

1. A resource person from the Department of
Religion and Philosophy lectured on the
establishment of values and why (20 minutes).








2. Participants utilized knowledge gained
through the lecture "Values" by interpret-
ing issues presented by the lecturer orally
in class.

3. Group discussion followed the lecture
presentation.

Session 8 Film

A film was presented in an attempt to develop
participants' awareness of the personal and
social values operating the formulation of
attitudes.

1. Leader reviewed previous "Lecture" session
(5 minutes).

2. Participants viewed film presentation.

3. A group discussion followed.

Session 9 Team Panel

The counseling Center's staff discussed the
minority student's values and attitudes as
they relate to personal growth and develop-
ment. A group discussion followed.

Session 10 Posttest Administration

Students were administered the Job Knowledge
Survey and the Work Values Inventory.

Session 11 Posttest Administration

Students were administered the Career Maturity
Inventory.

Session 12 Evaluation and Feedback

The students provided feedback in regards to
the effectiveness of the various presentations
and activities and suggested ways to improve
the "Orientation to College" course.



Instruments


The instruments used in this investigation were the

Job Knowledge Survey (JKS), Career Maturity Inventory (CMI),







and Work Values Inventory (WVI). These instruments were

chosen because of their appropriateness to this particular

study and treatment group.


Job Knowledge Survey

The Job Knowledge Survey (JKS), was developed by Larry

Loesch to assess the participants' job knowledge. The JKS

is largely a self-administered paper and pencil test based

upon Holland's six occupational themes model. These six

are Realistic, Investigative, Social, Conventional, Enter-

prising, and Artistic. Holland believes that vocational

choices are expressions of peoples' personalities. People

with similar personalities tend to make similar vocational

choices and those in similar vocations have similar personali-

ties (Holland, 1966).

The JKS items are job titles obtained by random selection

of eight occupational titles from each of the six occupational

theme groupings in Holland's (1972) The Occupations Finders--

a listing by occupational themes of the most common occupations

in the United States. A respondent makes three responses for

each JKS item: high, medium, or low involvement with data,

with people, and with things. The JKS data--people--things

codes contribute the correct answers (Loesch and Sampson,

1978).

Test-retest reliability coefficients were obtained

from two of the normative groups (subsamples of a high school

norm and community college norm group). Subsequently, a 2x2x2

(sex x race x grade level) factorial analysis of variance was






done on each JKS scale to determine if there were significant

differences of interactions on the basis of demographic

characteristics. Generally, the results indicate the JKS is

internally consistent when used with high school and community

college students. The JKS also is reliable in measuring an

individual's level of job knowledge.


Career Maturity Inventory (CMI)

The Career Maturity Inventory (formerly developed as the

Vocational Development Inventory) is an instrument used to

measure the degree of career maturity, career attitude, and

career choice competencies that are critical in realistic

career decision-making. The Competence Test, composed of

100 items in five parts, measures the more cognitive factors

involved in choosing a career. Specifically, these include:

knowing yourself, knowing about jobs, choosing a job, looking

ahead, and what should they do.

Although the possibility of sex differences on the CMI

exists, it appears to apply equally to males and females

(Crites, 1974). Additionally, the CMI is applicable to a

wide range of groups, differing in racial, curricular, and

demographic characteristics. Reliability for the scales has

been reported in terms of internal consistency coefficients

of .74, which were determined by the Kuder-Richardson

formula. Crites (1974) proposes that these reports are

comparable to other instruments similar to the attitude

scale and are consistent with the expectations for a factorially

complex such as the CMI. A test-retest reliability over a







year's time has been ascertained as .71. The validity of the

scales has been established with other career maturity indices

such as occupational aspirations, decision and realism of choice

and consistency.


Work Values Inventory

The Work Values Inventory (WVI) was constructed by Donald

Super and his associates to meet the need for a means of

assessing the wide range of values which motivate people to

work. It is designed to measure the values which are

"extrinsic" to as well as those which are "instrinsic" in

work, the satisfaction which individuals seek in work and

the satisfaction which may be the outcome of work. The

source of items was the literature on values and on satis-

faction, which serve as a basis for writing trial items

(Super, 1970).

The WVI is a self-report inventory comprised of 45

items. It is composed of 15 three-item scales measuring

the following: (1) Altruism, (2) Esthetics, (3) Creativity,

(4) Intellectual Stimulation, (5) Independence, (6) Achieve-

ment, (7) Prestige, (8) Management, (9) Economic Returns,

(10) Security, (11) Surroundings, (12) Supervisory Relations,

(13) Associates, (14) Variety, and (15) Way of Life. The

administration time is approximately 10 to 15 minutes (Super,

1970). The test-retest reliability of the 15 scales ranged

from .74 to .88, and the median of .83, as evidenced by a

study involving 99 tenth-grade students over a two-week

period (Hendrix and Super, 1968).







Data Collection


The data collection process began three weeks after the

commencement of the second semester. The first three sessions

were used to handle routine administrative matters and the

orientation of students to the college and its programs, as

well as services and the various academic offerings. Several

class sessions were aimed toward increasing students' self-

knowledge and providing them with survival skills techniques.

Pretest scores for Groups I and II were obtained by

administering the Job Knowledge Survey and Work Values

Inventory during the second meeting of the scheduled treatment

sessions. The Career Maturity Inventory was administered dur-

ing the following session. The control group (Group III) was

administered the same instruments as Groups I and II. During

the last two meetings of the scheduled treatment sessions,

Groups I, II, and III were administered the same assessment

instruments for posttest scores.



Data Analysis


An analysis of covariance was performed to determine

if the three groups were significantly different on pretest-

posttest measures. An alpha level of .05 was regarded as

an acceptable level of significance on all measurements.

The responses to the assessment instruments used in this

study were scored manually and then processed by the

University of Florida Northeast Florida Regional Data Center,

Gainesville, Florida.












CHAPTER IV

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Results


The purpose of this study was to compare the use of

selected didactic and experiential group counseling techniques

for improving the vocational and personal development of Black

evening students. The analysis of the data was accomplished

through the Northeast Regional Data Center Computer facilities

utilizing the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS)

for the analysis of covariance.

A total of 45 freshmen students participated in the study.

Of that number, 30 were enrolled in the "Orientation to College"

course required of freshmen students. Fifteen students were

randomly assigned to the researcher (Group I Experiential)

and 15 to another counselor/instructor (Group II Didactic).

Additionally, 15 students were assigned to a control group

(Group III) which received no treatment. All three groups were

administered the Career Maturity Inventory, Job Knowledge

Survey, and Work Values Inventory at the beginning and end of

the semester.

Specifically, this investigation addressed the following

research questions:

1. Will there be a difference in decision-making skills,

knowledge of careers, awareness of values, and inte-

gration of values with career choices between students

61







who participated in an orientation course using

selected experiential and didactic techniques

and activities?

2. Will the didactic and experiential groups differ

significantly from the control group following

treatment?



Results of Data Analysis


Hypothesis 1

In general, hypothesis 1 stated that there would be no

differences among the three groups in knowledge regarding

careers following treatment. That is, there would be no

differences in knowledge of careers among the students who

participated in the experiential group counseling techniques

and activities (Group I), the group receiving didactic pre-

sentations and activities (Group II) and, the control group

which received no treatment (Group III).

Table 1 shows the analysis of covariance for groups'

knowledge about careers. The Job Knowledge Survey (JKS) was

used to obtain pre and post scores on career or job knowledge.

The JKS contained 48 items and had a Total score range of 0

to 144. For purposes of addressing hypothesis 1, a total

score was computed for the 48 items and then a comparison of

the groups was made by an analysis of covariance with the pre-

test being the covariate. An inspection of Table 1 indicates

that the F ratio of 0.19 was not significant for the total

score on the Job Knowledge Survey. Therefore, hypothesis 1







was not rejected at the .05 level of significance.


Table 1

Analysis of covariance among groups for group
knowledge about careers as measured by the Job
Knowledge Survey.



Source of Sums of Mean F Significance
Variation Squares D.F. Square Ratio of F

Covariate 3328.72 1 3228.72 37.76 0.000

Main Effect 33.06 2 16.53 0.19 0.825

Explained 3261.78 3 1087.26 12.72 0.000

Residual 3505.84 41 85.71

Total 6767.62 44 153.81




Hypothesis 2

In general, hypothesis 2 stated that there would be no

differences among the groups regarding decision-making skills

and vocational maturity. That is, there would be no differ-

ences in decision-making skills and vocational maturity

among students who participated in the experiential group

counseling techniques and activities (Group I), a group

receiving didactic presentations and activities (Group II),

and a control group which received no treatment (Group III).

Table 2 reveals the analysis of covariance for groups on

decision-making skills and vocational maturity. The Career

Maturity Inventory Competence Test was used to obtain pre and

post scores. The CMI-C consists of five parts and yields a

total score range of 0 to 100. For purposes of addressing







hypothesis 2, a comparison of the groups was made by an

analysis of covariance with the pretest being the covariate.

An inspection of Table 2 indicates that the F ratio of 0.328

was not significant for the total score of the Career Maturity

Inventory Competence Test. Therefore, hypothesis 2 was not

rejected.



Table 2

Analysis of covariance among groups on decision-
making skills and vocational maturity as measured
by the Career Maturity Inventory.



Source of Sums of Mean F Significance
Variation Squares D.F. Square Ratio of F

Covariate 1349.93 1 1349.93 24.04 0.000

Main Effect 36.84 2 18.42 0.328 0.722

Explained 1386.77 3 462.26 8.232 0.000

Residual 2302.43 41 56.16

Total 3689.20 44 83.85




Hypothesis 3

In general, hypothesis 3 stated that there would be no

differences among the three groups in value change. That is,

there would be no differences in value change and integration

of personal values with career choice among students who

participated in the experiential group counseling techniques

and activities (Group I), the group receiving didactic pre-

sentations and activities (Group II), and the control group







(Group III) which received no treatment.

Table 3 shows the analysis of covariance for groups on

value change and integration of values with career choices.

The Work Values Inventory was used to obtain pre and post

scores. The Work Values Inventory is a self-report inventory

comprised of 45 items. For purposes of addressing hypothesis

3, a total score was computed for the 15 three-item scales a

comparison of Groups I, II, and III was made by an analysis

of covariance with the pretest being the covariate. Inspec-

tion of Table 3 indicates that the F ratio of 0.178 was not

significant for the total score on the Work Values Inventory.

Therefore, hypothesis 3 was not rejected.


Table 3

Analysis of covariance among groups on
and the integration of personal values
choices as measured by the Work Values


value change
with career
Inventory.


Source of Sums of Mean signiricance


Source of
Variation

Covariate

Main Effect

Explained

Residual

Total


Sums of
Squares

3086.69

1026.19

4112.86

11684.72

15797.59


D.F.

1

2

3

41

44


Mean
Square

3086.69

513.10

1370.96

284.99

359.04


F
Ratio

10.83

1.80

4.81


Signilrcance
of F

0.000

0.178

0.000


.... r .








Discussion


The findings of this study suggest that the participants

exposed to the experiential and didactic treatments experienced

similar outcomes as those in the control group. Specifically,

there were no'significant differences in decision-making skills,

knowledge about careers, vocational maturity, and awareness of

values between the groups as measured by the Career Maturity

Inventory, Job Knowledge Survey, and Work Values Inventory

from pre-to-post treatment.

Previous research has shown special group counseling

techniques and activities to be effective in facilitating

students' vocational and personal development. The techniques

and activities used by this researcher attempted to take into

account the students' cultural differences, background, and

value systems. However, there are several factors which may

-have attributed to the failure of the various techniques and

activities to demonstrate any positive, significant changes in

this study.

First, the participants in this study reported a sense

of anxiety and disenchantment with the number, frequency, and

length of the various assessment instruments particularly

the Career Maturity Inventory Competence Test. These students,

like many other minority group members, have experienced the

consequences of standardized tests (ability, achievement,

interest, and personality) at some point in their lives.

They may also have realized that standardized tests may have







hindered their access to vocational and educational oppor-

tunities in the past and may have been reluctant to take

more such tests. Further, these students were aware that

ethnic minorities were not included or represented in the

norming groups for many of the standardized tests used in

assessing vocational interests, needs, values, and person-

ality characteristics (Parker and McDavis, 1979). This

may have affected the outcome of this research.

A relative large number of the participants in this

study were older students who had been or who are presently

working in non-professional capacities and areas for a

number of years. As a result, they perhaps had not been

exposed to relevant career information in high school, nor

were they familiar with a wide variety of career areas

prior to the experimental activities. This investigation

differs from that of Miles (1977) who purports that struc-

tured group learning activities can help the adult learner,

either entering or reentering college, recognize their

potential in areas that could provide more satisfying careers.

However, the researcher feels very strongly that the various

experiential/didactic techniques and activities were helpful

in increasing career knowledge and improving the decision-

making skills of the students who enrolled in the orientation

class. The experiential techniques and activities, in par-

ticular, allowed the students to be actively involved in all

phases of the various sessions. Again, it is possible that

the criteria used to evaluate the experiential and didactic








techniques and activities were not sensitive enough to

pick up the positive benefits that occurred.

Since the subjects' college has an open-door policy

and admits students regardless of test results and academic

standing, many of the students in the study were weak in

academic related skills such as reading comprehension and

writing skills. Consequently, several students had diffi-

culty understanding and following the specific instructions

for the various instruments. Perhaps, the experimental

program should have included a separate session to familarize

the evening students with test-taking techniques and problems.

In planning the techniques and activities for this

experiment, the researcher recognized the importance of try-

ing to find more effective ways to assist Black evening

students with their vocational and personal development.

Since group guidance for vocational choice, until recently,

had typically made use of field trips, films and consultants,

it was expected that the Group I (experiential) would experi-

ence more positive results. The literature has pointed out

the reported success when the affective and cognitive domains

were integrated to help facilitate the students' vocational

development (Hillman et al. 1975). Group I's treatment,

therefore, consisted of several techniques and activities

that provided this interaction (i.e., Vocational Information

Strategy, Decision-Making Strategy, Values Auction, etc.).

Clearly, these are good strategies, however, additional ways







for assessing their effectiveness with Black evening students

will have to be found.

While several of the techniques and activities used

in this investigation have been used successfully by investi-

gators with special populations, they might be somewhat

inappropriate for Black evening students. Kuh and Ardaiolo

(1979) suggested that to adequately meet the needs of older

non-traditional students, college student personnel workers

will have to enter into dialogue with them to discover,

vicariously, the "adult learner experience". Consequently,

after determining the needs of Black evening students, the

group strategies and techniques used in this study may have

to be modified to best meet their needs.



Limitations


1. Many students in the experimental groups questioned

the need and purpose of an "Orientation to College"

class for evening students especially the older

student who works full or part-time during the day

and has limited time for study during the evenings.

2. The fact that the class met from 8:30-9:30 p.m.

posed an extra burden on the students which also

tended to affect their attention span and active

involvement.

3. Too many instruments were selected for use with this

special population. Participants may have responded

better to one or two instruments as opposed to three.








4. While the experiential and didactic groups'

treatments were different, there was still some

overlap in terms of whether or not the partici-

pants were actively involved in the different

treatments. Additionally, there was interaction.

on the parts of the different groups in reference

to the type and focus of the experiential and

didactic techniques and activities. This may have

affected the outcome.















CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary


For a number of years group counseling has been utilized

with success by many counselors to facilitate client growth.

Counselors have used this technique to help underachieving

students develop self-awareness and to assist many students

in their vocational and personal development. Black evening

student, however, have some unique career guidance needs.

Research investigating the effectiveness of traditional career

activities and programs with these students has been limited.

This study compared the use of selected experiential

techniques and activities and didactic presentations and

activities for improving the vocational and personal develop-

ment of Black evening students. The experiential program was

developed and conducted in hopes of finding effective ways

of facilitating the vocational and personal development of

Black evening students. The experiential group (Group I)

counseling techniques and activities used in the program pro-

vided the students with an opportunity to actively participate

in activities that would increase their job knowledge, improve

their decision-making skills, and allow them to become more

aware of their values. The didactic (Group II) component








utilized a lecture-oriented format to meet the same objectives

as Group I (Chapter III).

Forty-five Black evening freshmen were randomly assigned

to three groups. Of that number, 30 were enrolled in the

"Orientation to College" course required of all freshmen

evening students. Fifteen students were randomly assigned

to the researcher (Group I Experiential) and 15 to another

counselor/instructor (Group II Didactic). Fifteen students

(non-enrolled) were also assigned to a control group (Group

III) which received no treatment.

An analysis of covariance was performed to determine if

the three groups were significantly different on the pre and

posttest measures under investigation. An alpha level of .05 was

set as the basis for acceptance of the hypotheses. In summary,

the following results were obtained from the study:

1. No significant difference was found between the

group exposed to the experiential approach, the

group using the didactic approach, and the control

group in increasing knowledge about various careers

among the groups on the Job Knowledge Survey.

2. Neither experimental approach produced a significant

difference in decision-making skills and vocational

maturity among the groups as it was defined by the

Career Maturity Inventory.

3. The experiential, didactic, and control groups did

not differ significantly regarding value changes as

determined by the Work Values Inventory following

treatment.







4. No significant difference was found between the

experiential, didactic, and control groups on the

integration of personal values and career choices.

Several conclusions can be drawn from this study. First,

even though there were no significant differences among the

groups as measured by the various instruments, the students

in the experiential and didactic groups reported and indicated,

verbally, numerous positive benefits from the selected tech-

niques and activities utilized in both groups. Students felt

that they learned more about themselves and were better able

to relate information about self with different career options.

The students in the experiential group further indicated that

being involved in the various sessions assisted them signifi-

cantly in changing their attitudes about planning for a career

and in gaining more knowledge about careers. This observation

is consistent with the literature that supports certain struc-

tured group activities and their facilitative effect on

indices of career development.

In summary, although other researchers have purported

success of group counseling techniques with non-traditional

students, the present researcher feels that the Black evening

students in this study generally experienced more crisis sit-

uations during the semester that may have hindered their inter-

action in the various sessions. In other words, other student

needs were more pressing than the career needs emphasized in

the study they were more concerned about financial assistance,

information pertaining to the college, child care, and







employment assistance. Accordingly, the experiential and

didactic techniques and activities used in this study might

better be supported during the experimental program by

individualized counseling sessions to assist students with

their pressing personal concerns.



Implications


Higher education institutions are continuously faced

with an important and impending challenge: facilitating

the vocational and personal development of an increasingly

non-traditional and often shrinking student population.

Private colleges, especially predominantly Black colleges

and universities, are faced with an even greater challenge

because their continued survival is in large measure based

upon the number and kinds of students they admit. The last

few years have seen an increase in the number of older, work-

ing individuals registering for a variety of program and

course offerings. Since these institutions recognize the

special needs of this changing student population, it stands

to reason that higher education administrators and counselors

need to become aware of those intervention techniques and

activities most effective in facilitating these particular

students' needs.

This phenomenon has implications also for counselor

education programs. Counselors should receive training pre-

paring them to work in a variety of settings. It is important,

therefore, that a continuous effort be made to improve the








existing group counseling techniques and activities and

develop and use others that take into account the cultural

differences, background, human commonalities and value

systems of non-traditional individuals.



Recommendations for Further Research


There are many variations and applications of this

study which can be used to find additional and more effective

ways to facilitate the vocational and personal development

for the Black evening student. One approach might be to

compare an experiential program with individual counseling

to determine the effects of the group model.

This study could be modified using Black evening students

at a community college compared to a group similar to the ones

involved in this research. Additionally, the investigator

recommends that additional research be performed to determine

the relationship of Black evening students' values and voca-

tional maturity. Since it is essential for Black students to

make positive career choices, clearly their value orientations

and career decision-making skills are interrelated and demand

a better understanding. Consequently, less difficult vocational

maturity assessment techniques could be used to determine the

effectiveness of similar experiential and didactic techniques

and activities used in this study.








APPENDIX A


COURSE OBJECTIVES AND REQUIREMENTS

ORIENTATION TO COLLEGE


Purpose of Course

The primary purpose of this course is to facilitate the
academic, personal, vocational, and psychological adjustment
of freshman and transfer students to Edward Waters College.
The objectives of the course are as follows:

1. To assist students in the development of self-
direction.

2. To familiarize students with the College and its
programs, services, academic offerings, and
various other resources.

3. To aid students in obtaining different types of
occupational information.

4. To help students obtain more effective decision-
making skills.

5. To develop students' awareness and integration of
personal and social values and interests.

6. To provide students an opportunity to explore
academic and personal goals related to college
success.

Requirements of the Course

1. Regular attendance

2. Participation in class discussions

3. Completion of homework assignments


The course will meet each Wednesday evening from 8:30-9:30 p.m.
unless otherwise changed by the instructor.


Course Structure

The course will involve group participation and discussions,
presentations by campus and community resource persons, and
out-of-class assignments/activities.









APPENDIX B


VOCATIONAL INFORMATION STRATEGY*

The purpose of this section is to describe and illustrate
three career guidance information strategies that counselors
can use to help ethnic minority students gain more occupational
information. Counseling practitioners have reported that many
ethnic minority students who report for vocational counseling
lack sufficient vocational information to begin the process
of vocational counseling. There are several explanations for
many minorities not having sufficient vocational information.
First, some minority group students have limited access
to vocational information perhaps due to their day to day
life experiences. For instance, many minority students from
poor families do not hear their parents discuss issues around
their occupations as majority students do. Career guidance
specialists have reported that personal contact as a method
of learning seems to produce the greatest depth in understand-
ing vocations. They also report that upper class and middle
class children knew more about occupational roles than did
the lower class children. It has been observed that minority
students on white campuses do not make use of services that
provide vocational information.
Second, many minorities do not have sufficient vocational
information because they do not read broadly enough. Reading
stimulates thought about occupations, activates fantasies
about occupations, and exposes one to information that might
be missed through personal contacts mentioned above.
Thirdly, some ethnic minorities are unlikely to read
occupational information because of the manner in which it is
presented. The information is often voluminous and many times
minorities are systematically committed or underrepresented
in the occupations described and depicted. For a more elab-
orate discussion on this probelm and possible solutions see
MODULE #1: USING AWARENESS AND EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION FOR
HELPING ETHNIC MINORITIES WITH CAREER GUIDANCE.









The following activities will show how the counselor can
provide information for the student, and gather vocational
information from the student. This information is intended
to help the counselor determine what additional information
he/she would need to provide for the student. It will also
suggest the type of resources to which the student should be
referred. For example, at the end of an activity the counse-
lor might need to refer students to use some of the tradi-
tional materials such as the Occupational Outlook Handbook,
the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, the Occupational
Thesaurus, etc.





























*Parker, W.M. and McDavis, R.J., Using Four Career Guidance
Strategies With Ethnic Minorities, (Module 45) Univer-
sity of Florida, 1979.







APPENDIX C

OCCUPATIONAL SHOPPING LIST

DIRECTIONS: Check each of the following occupations based on
whether you might like it, dislike it, unsure about it,
or need more information about it.

LIST OF OCCUPATIONS
(Classified according to
Holland 1966, 1973) LIKE DISLIKE UNSURE NEED MORE INFC

President-manufacturing
Company Ec

Salesperson Ec

Pharmacist les

Homemaker C

Printer Ric

Psychiatrist Isa

Military Enlisted Rc

Military Officer R

Police Officer Ci

Mathematician Ira

Skilled Crafts A

Interior Designer/
Decorator Ais

Skilled Labor Trades Rc

Building Contractor R

Clergyperson S

Forester Ri

Ecologist S

Airline Stewardess/
Steward Esa

School Superintendent Se

Director Community
Organization Sec









LIST OF OCCUPATIONS
(Classified according to
Holland, 1966, 1973)


LIKE


DISLIKE


UNSURE


NEED MORE INFO


Personnel Director Sie

Office Worker C

Sewing Machine Operator-R

Telephone Operator Cse

Physician Isa

Dentist Ire

Veterinarian Irs

Nurse S

Nutritionist/Dietician-S

Buyer Ec

Purchasing Agent E

Lawyer Es

Media Specialist A

Dental Assistant Sai

County Agricultural
Agent Sri

Agriculturist I

Biological Scientist I

Physical Scientist I

Medical Technologist I

Physical Therapist S

Speech Pathologist Sa

Instrument Assembler-Ric

Barber/Hairdresser Rsac

Author/Journalist/
Reporter Ase







LIST OF OCCUPATIONS
(Classified according to
Holland 1966, 1973)


T.IKE


DISLIKE


I IN S IP P


NP.Ff MOPF TMJ~'


Art Dealer Ecs

Florist Ecs

Musician Asi

Artist Air

Entertainer Aes

Funeral Director Sec

Home Demonstration
Agent S

Travel Agent Cse

Farmer R

Garden Nursery
Proprietor Era

Model -Aes

Translator Ase

Teacher Sae

Banker Ec

Librarian S

Executive Housekeeper-Sce

Bank Teller Cr

Bookkeeper Ce

Secretary -C

Occupational Therapist -

Community Recreation
Administrator Sce

Social Scientist S

Economist las __







LIST OF OCCUPATIONS
(Classified according to
Holland, 1966, 1973)


LIKE


DISLIKE UNSURE NEED MORE INFO


Accountant Ce

Computer Programmer I

Advertising Agent Aes

Engineer Ri

Architect Air

Production Efficiency
Expert Cis

Manager E

Recreation Leader S


Step 2: List from 3-5 occupations where you checked LIKE and
briefly define each.








Step 3: Tell what factors (qualities) these occupations have in
common.






Step 4: List from 3-5 occupations where you checked DISLIKE and
list several reasons for disliking those occupations.








Step 5: Tell what factor (qualities) these occupations have
in common.








Step 6: List from 3-5 occupations in which you were UNSURE and
tell why you are unsure.








Step 7: List from 3-5 occupations where you checked NEED MORE
INFORMATION.










Step 8: Look up 3-5 of the occupations in which you marked
NEED MORE INFORMATION in the following resources:

(1) Occupational Outlook Handbook

(2) Dictionary of Occupational Titles

(3) Popular magazines such as The Ebony, Nuestro, and
Black Interprise.

(4) Personal resources(Guidance counselor, teacher, etc.)

Step 9: Write down one thing you will do within the week to in-
crease your knowledge about at least one occupation which
appeals to you (e.g., interview an individual in the
profession, use the DOT, etc.).





APPENDIX D


A DECISION-MAKING STRATEGY*

Decision-making is by definition a process, not an event.
Unfortunately, counselors or career specialists often do not
know when a student has made a career decision. Furthermore,
students do not always know when they have made their deci-
sion. Accordingly, it is unrealistic for counselors to
expect students to make definitive career choices during their
relatively brief interactions with those students. What is
realistic, however, is for counselors to be able to help stu-
dents learn how to make decisions. Good decision-making
requires thorough self appraisal. Quite often students are
given an inaccurate picture of their interests, needs, abili-
ties, skills and values by relying too heavily on standar-
dized tests along or by placing too much weight on grades
received in high school. Neither grades nor scores neces-
sarily represent an accurate assessment of a student's com-
petencies. This may be especially true of ethnic minority
students. There are several factors which should be con-
sidered in making a career decision:
Interest: Interest has been thought of as being the
broadest part of the vocational self. That is, the indivi-
dual has interest in many occupations. One explanation for
this phenomenon is that there are probably many factors
which influence our interest. One student stated that she
became interested in engineering as a result of crossing
the Golden Gate Bridge. Another student explained that
his interest in art was activated after observing the art
exhibits at the World's fair.
While one can say and substantiate the idea that people
in general have broad vocational interests, many ethnic
minority groups have narrow or low vocational interest. Low
vocational interest among minorities is evidenced by a nar-
row selection of careers and flat or low profiles on vocational









interest inventories. Since interest is developed through
a wide variety of life experiences and activities, it stands
to reason to assume that minority groups would have narrow
or low interest due to a lack of certain life experiences.
Considering that many minorities have low vocational
interest, it behooves the counselor to be creative and
imaginative in finding ways to broaden the interest of ethnic
minority clients. One approach that counselors can use is to
expose minority clients to role models from their communities.
Another approach is to expose them to culturally relevant
information such as those materials developed in Module #1.
In other words, to broaden their vocational interests, counse-
lors need to create or bring experiences to minorities that
otherwise would not have. Field trips to a variety of job
sites would also create interest among minority group members.
Clearly interest along is insufficient for making sound career
decisions. Other factors such as ability, motivation, willing-
ness, and reality resting must be considered concurrently.
Ability: Ability might be considered the most important
factor in career decisions. The assessment of one's ability
is usually gathered from standardized test results or from
grades in school. Some competencies important for success
are at best only indirectly included in any grade or test
score. Qualities such as motivation, leadership, creativity,
and resourcefulness are not directly measured. These quali-
ties certainly need to be considered in the assessment proce-
dures with ethnic minority students. Many students have
shown that the success of minorities cannot be determined
totally on grades in school or on standardized test scores
alone. The challenge for the counselor then is to look for
other characteristics or qualities in their minority cleints
in order to make better predictions about their career choices.
Motivation: Regardless of interest, ability, needs, one
will not be successful in an occupation without motivation or
willingness to perform in the occupation. Some occupations








require stronger motivating forces for success than others.
For instance, medical services due to their rigorous training
in mathematics, biological and physical sciences, require
many long hours of study and preparation. The fields of
engineering and architecture also require the quality of per-
severance for students to deal with the many complexities
involved in those occupations. However, it would appear that
different motivational forces would be necessary to enter
social service occupations. For example, one may be inspired
to teach school in order to make a contribution to the field
of education. A minority group member might want to become
an engineer in order to improve housing in ghettos where
other minority group members live.
Whatever the motivating forces are for entering an occu-
pation, these motivating factors should be defined, clarified
and explored. The question one might ask before choosing a
career is, "What forces are driving me to enter this occupation?"
A second question might be, "What are the negative forces or
blocking forces that are keeping me from entering this occupa-
tion?" A third question is, "Do the positive forces outweigh
the negative forces?" However, answering these questions does
not guarantee that the student will be able to make a career
decision.
Willingness is closely related to the motivational factors.
Willingness denotes the act of getting involved in and com-
pletely carrying out a task. Regardless of the existence of
the other factors that influence career decisions, willing-
ness seems to be the final key. To illustrate the importance
of willingness, a football coach in a large university became
totally frustrated at the decision of one of his star players
to discontinue playing football. This player was rated by
the football experts as having the most talent (speed, quick-
ness, agility, skills) of all members on the team. This
player explained to his coach and to the public that he was










no longer willing to go through another season of football.
Clearly other examples could be cited where persons have
interest, ability, and opportunity but lack one important
factor, willingness to perform.
Historical as well as environmental factors regarding
certain minority groups can give counselors ideas to motivate
the minority client. For instance, statistical conclusions
that the highest suicides are among minorities might inspire
(motivate) a minority student to study psychology or psychiatry.
Or, the fact that there is a shortage of minority specialists
in the field of agriculture might motivate some minority clients
to enter that occupation.
Another motivational force to assist ethnic minorities
in their career decisions is to bring in national leaders who
are respected by minority group members. Reverend Jessie
Jackson of operation "Push" has been quite successful in
inspiring many American youths to take more responsibility
for their education.
Finally, income is a strong motivating factor for most
people in the world of work. Income as a motivating factor
for ethnic minorities and poor people are perhaps, even
stronger. That is, certain occupations represent a chance to
elevate many minorities out of the conditions of poverty in
which they live.
Reality Testing: Perhaps a final factor to consider in
making a career choice is reality testing. That is, what are
the job trends, job availabilities, working conditions suitable
for the individual's health, physical qualifications such as
size, height, condition of eyesight, and so on. For example,
a person aspiring to become an airplane pilot must have very
good eyesight. A basketball player generally needs to be
quite tall (at least six feet or above), and an oceanographer
must be comfortable in or around the ocean. Occupational
trends change from time to time. That is, while there was a










great demand for engineers in the 1950's, that demand
decreased in the late 1960's. A career trend in the past few
years has been the use of paraprofessionals in the medical pro-
fession. Counselors need to be aware of these changing trends
in the world or work in order to help their clients in their
career decisions.
For minority students reality testing is crucial. While
minority students should be encouraged toward high career
aspirations and expectations, they also need to know the reality
associated with their career decisions. Many minority students
enter college expecting to be medical doctors or engineers, yet
they have had only minimal preparation for those occupations.
Minorities with poor educational backgrounds must "burn the mid-
night oil" to build the necessary background to succeed aca-
demically. Minorities must spend many hours studying to make
up-for their scholastic deficit. Many times the frustration
associated with their failure causes minority students to
select down in their career choices or to give up their edu-
cation completely. Counselors can help these students by pre-
senting the ture picture of the necessary sacrifices minorities
need to make in order to succeed.
Some minority students think that they cannot enter cer-
tain occupations due to racial discrimination. This thought
is often reinforced when the minority students look at the
workers in occupations and see few if any ethnic minority
representatives. Reality for minorities is that racism does
exist yet this should not keep them from reaching their goal.
This cycle will persist for many years unless there is an inter-
vention process to change it. Counselors who work with ethnic
minorities must have a positive attitude that minorities can
enter occupations of which they are prepared. Care should be
taken not to destroy the hopes, dreams, and aspirations of
ethnic minorities. Too often counselors say that minorities
should be realistic rather than having their hopes so high.










In other words, counselors cannot define occupational reality
for minorities.
Some counselors have been successful in bringing employers
from a typical occupations to have informal rap sessions with
minority students who are interested in those occupations.
Many minority students have learned through these experiences
that many of the restrictions they face regarding their occu-
pational choice are restrictions they place upon themselves.
Other counselors who work with minorities have been successful
in presenting role models in occupations of whom the students
could identify. Graduates from colleges and universities in
fields like engineering and medicine can also serve to inspire
other minority students.
Last, good decision-making usually involves good help.
Rarely do students obtain good decision-making skills solely
through their own initiatives. This help is often of a per-
sonal nature. That is, some person (e.g., a counselor, tea-
chers, etc.) takes the time to help the student learn how to
make decisions. However, this help may also come in the form
of instruments or techniques that help the student.
The best "decision-makers" utilize all of these major
factors. Fortunately, these are all things that counselors
can do something about.












*Parker, W.M. and McDavis, R.J., Using Four Career Guidance
Strategies With Ethnic Minorities, (Module 45) Univer-
sity of Florida, 1979.









APPENDIX E


ROLEPLAYING INSTRUCTIONS*


1. Be sure the "student" has a copy of the Student (Role-
playing) Worksheet and a pen or a pencil.

2. The following are the (verbal) instructions for each
of the four phases of this decision-making strategy. You
should present them as closely as possible to the way they
are written here. Remember that these are only the first
instructions for each phase. You may add whatever addi-
tional comments, suggestions, or questions you feel are
appropriate in order to facilitate the "counseling/deci-
sion-making" process.


I. Please list 10 jobs in which you think you might be inter-
ested. At this point don't worry about training or other
qualifications; just list 10 jobs that appeal to you. Put
them in any order. Then answer the following questions:

(a) When do you think you first became interested in
these occupations?
(b) What or who influenced your interest in these
occupations?
(c) What aspects) of these occupations appeal to you
the most?
(d) Are there similarities or differences among these
occupations?

II. Now think about your own abilities and how they relate
to the 10 jobs you just listed. Then please list the six
jobs that seem most closely related to your abilities.
Remember that there is a difference between abilities
and training. You can get the training needed if you
feel you have the right abilities. Now answer the
following questions:




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