The effects of drying and burning on human bones and teeth

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
The effects of drying and burning on human bones and teeth
Physical Description:
vi, 95 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Burns, Karen Ramey, 1947-
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Teeth -- Effect of drying on   ( lcsh )
Teeth -- Effect of combustion on   ( lcsh )
Bones -- Effect of drying on   ( lcsh )
Bones -- Effect of combustion on   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1987.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 90-94).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Karen Ramey Burns.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001031188
notis - AFB3328
oclc - 18150226
System ID:
AA00003371:00001

Full Text

















THE EFFECTS OF DRYING AND BURNING
ON HUMAN BONES AND TEETH



By


KAREN RAMEY BURNS


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1987












ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Many people and several institutions have participated

in the development of this research project. I would first

like to thank my committee chairman, William R. Maples,

Ph.D. His support and guidance have been invaluable. I

would also like to thank my committee members, Linda C.

Jackson, Ph.D, Harold R. Stanley, D.D.S., Otto von Mering,

Ph.D., and Elizabeth S. Wing, Ph.D., for their advice and

critical reviews. Each brought a unique and valuable per-

spective to the work.

I am also grateful to David J. Simmons, Ph.D., for

training and experience in bone microstructure research as

well as for the use of his microradiographic and photogra-

phic equipment at the University of Texas Medical Branch in

Galveston.

Other equipment was provided by Charles Peters, Ph.D.,

University of Georgia Anthropology Department, and James

Spaulding of the Center for Applied Isotope Studies.

The osteological materials were made available by

Emory University Medical School and the University of Flo-

rida Medical School. I am grateful to the anatomical board

directors, Dr. Claudia Adkison of Emory and Dr. Lynn Rom-

rell of Florida, for permission to use the materials.







I am indebted to Norman Herz, Ph.D., Director of the

Center for Archaeological Sciences at the University of

Georgia for laboratory space and basic equipment. I am

also grateful for the space and courtesy provided by the

Florida State Museum in Gainesville and by the Division of

Orthopaedic Surgery at the University of Texas Medical

Branch in Galveston.


iii















TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .


ABSTRACT . .


INTRODUCTION .


Statement of Problem .
Review of Literature .
Hypotheses ..
Definition of Terms


MATERIALS AND METHODS .


Sample Description .
Experimental Methods .
Measurement Methods
Statistical Methods


RESULTS & DISCUSSION .


Fibulae Results .
Tooth-Mandible Results


SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONS .


APPENDIX A SAMPLE DESCRIPTI


APPENDIX B FORM3.WK1 .


APPENDIX C TABLES OF RESULT


REFERENCES .


Pace


. . ii


. . iv



. . 1
. . 1
. . 2
. . 7




. . 81
. . 11


. . 11
. . 15
. . 27
. . 30


. . 32


. . 32
. . 41




ON . 57


.. 60

'S . 62


. . 90


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .


* 0 95


. .


. .


* .











Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

THE EFFECTS OF DRYING AND BURNING ON HUMAN BONES AND TEETH

By

Karen Ramey Burns

December 1987

Chairman: William R. Maples, Ph.D.
Major Department: Anthropology

Morphometric analyses require precise measurements

together with a thorough awareness of the limits of those

measurements. A number of reports have been published

about changes in human calcified tissues after death. The

reports have appeared to be inconsistent and sometimes

contradictory. For example, drying and burning have been

reported to cause gross measurements to decrease by 1% to

25%, whereas burning has been reported to cause microscopic

measurements to increase.

This experiment was designed to examine the effects of

drying and burning on human calcified tissues. Bone (fibu-

la and mandible) and teeth (lower anterior) were removed

from forty-six dissecting-room cadavers. Each sample was

divided into four parts, a control, a subsample to be

dried, a subsample to burn at 500 C. and a subsample to

burn at 950 C. By this method, it was possible to compare






each sample with itself, thereby diminishing the error

caused by differences in age, sex, and state of health.

All samples were embedded in plastic. Radiographs,

microradiographs, and xerographic copies were used to help

overcome the difficulties of working with extremely fragile

tissue.

Linear measurements were taken of fibula diameters,

mandible height and labio-lingual width, tooth length and

width, root length, and osteon diameters. Osteons per unit

area were counted, and a Merz grid was used to estimate

bone porosity.

There was a major size reduction in bone and dentin

burned at 950 C. No significant size change occurred in

enamel. The average shrinkage for separate measurements

varied from 12% to 21%. Less shrinkage occurred in dentin

than in bone, with an overlap at 16%. The extent of change

varied between bones and between dimensions measured.

Very little change took place during either drying or

500-degree burning and statistical significance varied.

The average shrinkage for separate measurements varied from

0% to 4%.

There was a trend toward a decreasing number of os-

teons per unit area in both dried and burned (500 C.)

tissue and a 26% increase in number of osteons in cremated

(950 C.) tissue. Porosity increased significantly in burn-

ed bone.












INTRODUCTION


Statement of the Problem


Anthropologists rely heavily upon information derived

from calcified tissues. Bones and teeth frequently pro-

vide the only means by which to identify an individual or

study a population. A large quantity of information can be

derived from calcified tissues [1]. Microstructure of both

bone and teeth is used to estimate the age of unknown

individuals [2-15). Unfortunately, the quality of informa-

tion obtained through the study and measurement of calci-

fied tissues is likely to be dependent upon the presumed

static nature of these tissues. It is, however, well-known

that calcified tissues are not static, either during life

or after death. The morphologist is therefore plagued by

the question of how to allow for changes, particularly

severe post-mortem changes resulting from prolonged drying,

burning or cremation. Riddick, a forensic pathologist,

stated the problem well.

Scientific identification of severely damaged
human remains requires the use of all available
material, techniques, expertise, persistence,
and some degree of imagination and luck. In-
cinerated, partially carbonized skeletal re-
mains present unique problems in evaluation and
identification [16,p.267]








Review of the Literature


Accuracy of measurement is of critical importance to

the morphologist. Todd [17] published a study on the

effect of maceration and drying upon the linear dimensions

of the green (fresh) skull. He stated that great indivi-

dual variation occurs, but, on the average, shrinkage a-

mounts to about 1.1% of the final dried measurement. He

also said that changes in temperature and humidity affect

shrinkage and may even result in slight fleeting increases

in dimension.

Albrecht [18] also reported that humidity alone can be

a source of bone measurement error. He compared the mea-

surements of ten macaque skulls before and after subjecting

them to a humidity chamber. The greatest length of the

skull increased by about 0.9 mm. (0.57%). The immediate

assumption is that osteological collections in museums

cannot be relied upon to correspond to recently macerated

bone or to ancient bone from a moist burial environment

unless a numerical range can be established for this type

of shrinkage.

Burned bone has been the subject of more experimental

studies than dried bone. These studies tend to focus on

descriptions of changes in appearance and size, usually

linear shrinkage. Some have reported weight changes re-

sulting from burning. As might expected in an anthropolo-








gical context, many of the studies are directly linked to

investigations of cremation practices [19-23].

Several investigators reported that green bone res-

ponds differently to fire than dry bone. [19,20,24]. Burnt

green bone tends to warp and form longer, deeper cracks,

whereas dry bone remains relatively stable and forms a

surface pattern of small cracks or checks. Shrinkage has

been reported regularly, but the extent of shrinkage is

widely varied, from less than 1% [23] to more than 25%

[25]. Different values are reported by each investigator

and different values are reported for each bone.

Trotter and Peterson [26] dried and degreased whole

skeletons from 17 embalmed cadavers. They then ashed (cre-

mated) the bones and compared the dry, fat-free weight with

the ash weight. The ash, or the mineral component, com-

prised 64.8% to 66.9% of the bone. Bone shrinkage, as

evaluated from linear measurements, could not be expected

to reach the relative value of 33% because of the amount of

void space left in the bone.

Dokladal [27] carried out an interesting study in

which he burned one half and macerated the other half of

five cadavers, split sagittally. He found no more than 10%

difference in the final measurements of the two halves. A

gas crematorium was used and the temperature was in the

range of 700- to 1000-degrees C. with a duration of burning

in the range of 30 to 50 minutes.








Both Herrmann [28] and Van Vark [29] performed experi-

ments in which the temperature changes were carefully re-

corded. They both reported significant shrinkage occurring

between the temperatures of 700 and 800 degrees C. Herr-

mann found slight shrinkage at temperatures under 700 C.

and Van Vark found no shrinkage below 600 C. Van Vark also

stated that there was no further shrinkage above the criti-

cal 700-800 degree level and that longer burning did not

increase the amount of shrinkage.

Herrmann [28] stated that bone mineral crystals (hy-

droxyapatite) fuse in fires reaching temperatures higher

than 700-800 degrees C. He also pointed out that much of

the microstructure is unrecognizable with light microscopy,

even with polarized light. With the use of microradio-

graphy, however, structures are discernible.

There have been very few studies of microstructure.

Osteon shrinkage was reported by Herrmann [28] and Van Vark

[29]. Bradtmiller and Buikstra [30], however, reported

somewhat contradictory results in a preliminary study from

sample of one individual (two femora). They burned bone at

600 degrees C. and studied the resulting changes in micro-

structure. The osteons were uniformly larger in the burned

bone. They concluded that bone burned at 600C. retains all

of the structures necessary for microscopic aging and bone

shrinkage does not appear to have a significant effect on

the age estimate.








In studying the effect of age on water content in

human teeth, Toto [31] removed enamel and pulp contents of

ten teeth, five from a 10- to 20-year-old group and five

from a 50- to 80-year-old group. He dehydrated the teeth

at 105 degrees C. A weight-loss comparison showed a signi-

ficantly greater loss in the young teeth than in the old

teeth. Toto attributed this difference to a greater water

content in the young teeth than in the old teeth. He did

not report any linear measurements.

Experimental work with burnt teeth is sparse. Visual-

ization of morphology rather than morphometry is the usual

goal and standard dental radiography is the usual approach.

Work of this nature is frequently reported in the forensic

odontology literature [32-34]. Mannerberg [35] reported

experimental results on the weight of burnt teeth. He

found that the greatest loss in weight is between 100 and

300 degrees C. As with Toto's work, water loss is probably

the main factor.

In a recently reported study, Bell [36] burned resec-

ted jaws at 1600 degrees F. (871 degrees C.) and 2400

degrees F. (1315 degrees C.) He said that shrinkage was

observed in all structures except the enamel crowns. He

also burned extracted teeth at 1500-2000 degrees F. (815-

1093 degrees C.) Measurements taken before and after burn-

ing showed approximately 20% shrinkage of the roots only.

The enamel crowns exhibited little, if any, shrinkage and








very little distortion except in the region of the cemento-

enamel junction.

The only comparative work available on bone and tooth

changes is by Shipman et al. [37]. They did not use human

bones and teeth, but rather bones and teeth of sheep and

goats. Color, morphology, crystal structure, and shrinkage

were studied. The temperature range was 20 to 940 degrees

C. Shipman et al. stated that "changes in both color and

microscopic morphology of burnt bones and teeth can be

divided into five stages--each of which is typical of a

particular temperature range, although the stages based on

color do not correlate exactly with those based on micro-

morphology." (p.307) They said that these stages can be

used to determine, "(1) if specimens of unknown taphonomic

history were burnt and (2) the maximum temperature reached

by those specimens."

Shipman et al. used powder X-ray diffraction studies

to examine heat-related changes. They were able to show

that heating causes an increase in the crystal size of

hydroxyapatite, the major inorganic component of bones and

teeth. They concluded that the change in hydroxyapatite

together with the microscopic morphology can be used to

confirm deduced heating to 645C. or more. In delimiting

the critical temperature for hydroxyapatite change, Shipman

et al. seem to differ from Herrmann [26] who reports 700-

800 degrees C. as a critical temperature. There is, how-








ever, no real disagreement because the crystal change takes

place prior to the major shrinkage.

Herrmann stated, "Neither color nor hardness is a

useful criterion in judging the degree of incineration."

[26,p.101] Seven years later, Shipman et al. published a

polynomial expression that summarizes percentage shrinkage

as a function of the maximum temperature reached by bones.

They concluded that "the original size of specimens can be

reconstructed within limits since the maximum temperature

reached by the bones can be deduced on the basis of color,

microscopic morphology and/or powder X-ray diffraction

patterns." [37,p.103]



Hypotheses


This study focused on the effects of drying and burn-

ing on both bone and teeth. It was formulated to describe

and compare the amount of change in bone with the amount of

change in teeth when both have been subjected to the same

conditions. The immediate goal is to provide quantitative

information (TABLE 1). The long-range goal is to provide a

bridge between what is known about structural changes in

calcified tissues and the application of that knowledge in

archaeological and forensic investigations. In order to

achieve these goals, two hypotheses are offered.

(1) Post-mortem dehydration and pyrolysis have

measurable effects on the structure of bone and teeth.









(2) The magnitude of change in bone is different from

that in teeth.

Both linear measurements and counts were used to test

these hypotheses. A summary of measurements is provided in

TABLE 1. These measurements are explained in detail in the

chapter, Materials and Methods, under the subheading,

Measurement Methods.



Definition of Terms


The organization of materials and procedures is impor-

tant to the understanding of this study. For this reason,

a short glossary is provided. Some of these terms may have

slightly different meanings in other publications, but the

definition given here is the one which is used consistently


throughout this text.


Burned In this work, "to burn" and "to cremate" have

separate meanings. The- "burned" tissue has been

heated to 500 degrees Centigrade. It appears char-

red or blackened.


Cremated The "cremated" tissue has been heated to 950

degrees Centigrade. It appears calcined or whitened.


Experimental Group The group of sections which received

the same experimental procedure (Group W, X, Y, or Z).








Individuals Each body, or cadaver, from which fibula and

mandible sections were collected.


Sample The section of tissue (fibula or mandible) which

was removed from a single individual (B03...B58).


Sample Population The human bodies used for dissection in

anatomy classes at the medical schools of Emory and

Florida. The population is generally white, over 50

years of age at death and near-equally representative

of both sexes.

Section As a noun, a section is a piece or part of a

structure delimited from the remainder. As a verb,

"to section" is the act of cutting.


Subsample The portion of a sample which received a speci-

fic experimental treatment. (BO3W...B58Z)


Thin section As a noun, the thin slice removed from a

subsample for microscopy and/or microradiography. In

this study, thin sections are 100-250 millimicrons

thick. As a verb, "to thin section" is to cut a thin

section.








TABLE 1. Summary of Measurements and Counts


OBJECT MEASUREMENT OR COUNT


FIBULA FIBULA DIAMETER, average of maximum and
minimum cross-sectional diameters (mm.)

OSTEON DIAMETER, average of maximum and
minimum diameters (microns)

OSTEON COUNT, number of osteons in a
100X circular field (2.86 mm.sq.)

OSTEON COUNT, number of osteons in a
100X square field (0.96 mm.sq.)

BONE AREA, an estimate of porosity
presented as a percentage

TOOTH TOTAL TOOTH LENGTH, incisal edge to
root apex (mm.)

ROOT LENGTH, cemento-enamel junction
to root apex (mm.)

TOOTH WIDTH, perpendicular to the
length and excluding the enamel (mm.)

TOOTH & MANDIBLE TOTAL HEIGHT, from incisal edge of the
tooth to the most inferior point on
the mandible (mm.)

MANDIBLE MANDIBULAR HEIGHT, from inferior mandi-
bular border to alveolar ridge (mm.)

LABIO-LINGUAL WIDTH, perpendicular to a
line drawn between the superior labial
edge of the tooth socket and the most
anterior projection of the chin.












MATERIALS AND METHODS


Sample Description


The sample was collected from a dissecting room popu-

lation at the medical schools of the University of Florida

and Emory University between February, 1984 and May, 1985.

Permission was granted by each anatomical board director,

Dr. Lynn Romrell of the University of Florida and Dr.

Claudia Adkison of Emory University. The sample was num-

bered sequentially, B03 through B58. Each number repre-

sents a single cadaver from which sections were removed. A

complete list is provided in APPENDIX A. Not every number

is present in the final sample because of complications

caused by the Emory University teaching schedule. The

fibula sections were available one term before the

mandibular sections were available. In some cases, samples

had to be rejected because of damage during the second

term.

All samples were removed with a Stryker ) saw after

the skin and muscle mass were rejected in the immediate

area. Enough soft tissue was left on the bony surfaces to

assure that the periosteum was not stripped. About one to








one half centimeter of flesh remained in place on each

bone. Teeth were left undisturbed in their sockets.

The cadavers had all been embalmed with a standard

formaldehyde and phenol solution used at both schools for

dissection room work. It has been established that embalm-

ing has no significant effect on bone density [38]. It was

assumed for the purposes of this study that embalming has

had no significant effect.

The cadavers were kept damp but not soaked while being

used by the medical students. When the samples were

removed, they were immersed in a 10% formaldehyde solution.

The fibula sections were 4-5 cm. in length. They were

removed from the mid-shaft, as measured from the major

crease in the popliteal fossa to the most lateral protuber-

ance of the distal fibula. No preference was made for

right or left leg.

The mandibular sections were selected only if they

contained a minimum of four anterior teeth. (The major

impediment in sample collection was finding dissection room

cadavers with teeth.) The medial section of the mandible

was removed by making bilateral cuts through the molar

region of the body of the mandible. In this population,

the area distal to the canine teeth was often edentulous

and atrophied. It therefore provided less resistance to

cutting and the sections were consistently good.









TABLE 2. Sample description by age and sex


TOTAL SAMPLE
Number Sex Age

B15 M 34.6
B07 M 41.8
B35 F 51.6
B22 M 52.2
B21 ,F 54.1
B49 M 55.2
B20 M 56.4
B30 F 57.3
B14 F 59.0
B45 M 59.1
B32 F 60.2
B25 F 61.6
B13 F 62.3
B43 F 62.7
B36 F 64.0
B17 M 64.0
B29 M 64.1
B26 F 65.2
B23 F 67.2
B39 F 67.4
B44 F 67.6
B06 F 67.9
B51 F 68.1
B11 M 68.2
B58 M 68.2
B40 F 68.4
B24 M 69.2
B03 M 71.0
B42 M 71.1
B04 F 71.5
B38 M 71.6
B56 M 76.4
B41 M 76.5
B37 M 76.6
B19 M 76.8
B46 M 76.9
B28 F 79.2
B53 F 79.8
B18 M 82.1
B16 F 82.2
B31 F 82.2
B55 F 84.7
B50 F 85.9
B47 F 88.2
B33 F 91.2
B57 F 92.8
-------------------


FEMALE SAMPLE
Number Sex Age


B35 F
B21 F
B30 F
B14 F

B32 F
B25 F
B13 F
B43 F
B36 F
B26 F
B23 F
B39 F
B44 F
B06 F
B51 F
B40 F

B04 F
B28 F
B53 F

B16 F
B31 F
B55 F
B50 F
B47 F


51.6
54.1
57.3
59.0

60.2
61.6
62.3
62.7
64.0
65.2
67.2
67.4
67.6
67.9
68.1
68.4

71.5
79.2
79.8

82.2
82.2
84.7
85.9
88.2


B33 F 91.2
B57 F 92.8
-----------------
AVG. AGE = 70.9

(N = 26)


MALE SAMPLE
Number Sex Age

B15 M 34.6

B07 M 41.8

B22 M 52.2
B49 M 55.2
B20 M 56.4
B45 M 59.1

B17 M 64.0
B29 M 64.1
B11 M 68.2
B58 M 68.2
B24 M 69.2

B03 M 71.0
B42 M 71.1
B38 M 71.6
B56 M 76.4
B41 M 76.5
B37 M 76.6
B19 M 76.8
B46 M 76.9

B18 M 82.1
-----------------
AVG. AGE = 65.6

(N = 20)


AVG. AGE = 68.6 (N = 46)








The following list of data was collected with each

piece of tissue.

1. Sample number (Bxx)
2. Morgue number (official medical school record)
3. Race
4. Sex
5. Date of death
6. Date of birth
7. Cause of death


Individuals were rejected if the available records

included any mention of diseases known to affect calcified

tissues (e.g. diabetes or osteomyelitis). Unfortunately,

the possibility of significant disease could not be

completely rejected because the full medical records for

these individuals were not available due to the rights of

privacy accorded to medical donors.

The final sample was derived from 46 individuals, 26

females and 20 males, all Caucasians. A summary is pro-

vided in TABLE 2. The total sample is listed in age order,

then divided by sexes and listed by decade.

The total age range is 34-92 years. The female mean

age is 70.9 years, and the male mean age is 65.6.(TABLE 3.)


TABLE 3. Summary of total sample age

Sex N Age Range Mean Median Mode


female 26 51.6-92.8 70.9 67.7 67.5

male 20 34.6-82.1 65.6 68.7 76.6








When an age-balanced sample was needed for analysis,

individuals outside the 50-90 year range were excluded from

the sample. Since the male group contained the only two

individuals under 50 years, and the female group, the only

two over 90 years, these four were removed. The female

mean age was then 69.1 years, and the male mean age was

68.6 years. (TABLE 4.)



TABLE 4. Summary of age-balanced sample

Sex N Age Range Mean Median Mode


female 24 51.6-88.2 69.1 67.5 67.5

male 18 52.2-82.1 68.6 69.6 76.6



Experimental Methods


The experiment was designed to make possible the com-

parison of calcified tissue responses to drying and burn-

ing. In order to isolate the experimental variables, an

effort was made to minimize interference from such

variables as age, sex, or general health of the individual

persons from whom the sample was drawn. The sample des-

cription shows this to be a sample of uniform race, similar

age, and near-equal division of sexes. In order to further

minimize variation, each individual sample was subdivided

into four subsamples. By this method, enough material was








available for three experimental procedures and a control

from each individual.

The fibula sections were cut into four equal cross

sections, each approximately one centimeter in length. The

mandible sections were divided into four pieces by cutting

vertically, between the teeth, and keeping the axis of each

tooth as near as possible to the center of each piece. The

pieces of tissue, both bone and tooth, were designated

W,X,Y, or Z and stored separately in formalin. The group

designation letters were added to the sample numbers so

that the individual identification and the experimental

procedure could be recognized in each subsample number.

For example, sample number B04 became fibula subsample

numbers B04W, B04X, B04Y, and B04Z and mandibular subsample

numbers BO4W, B04X, B04Y, and B04Z. In other words, the

sample obtained from each individual cadaver provided eight

subsamples, four from the fibula and four from the

mandible.

A record was made of every subsample before any exper-

imental procedure began. The mandibular sections were

radiographed at the Florida State Museum, using a Hewlett

Packard 43805N X-Ray System, Faxitron Series, and Polaroid

4x5 Land Film, Type 55/Positive-Negative. The manual set-

tings were 85-90 KVP for 2.7 minutes. Lead numbers and

letters were radiographed along with the tissue in order to

provide identification. The radiographs showed the tooth








roots within the sockets and made possible the measurements

of tooth shrinkage within the mandible.

The fibula records were made by a xerographic copier

and are referred to as photocopies. The xerographic pro-

cess has been tested and recommended for recording the

morphology of hard tissues [39]. The features of the bone

samples are copied in the same way as any printed material,

preserving their real dimensions. The copying machine was

checked for possible distortion by copying a ruler in

several locations on the plate. No measurable differences

were observed in the ruler copies.

The real advantage in this method was in the allowance

for soft tissue. Direct measurement with calipers is ade-

quate when measuring the diameter of dry long bone, but

soft tissue interferes with the calipers in a wet sample

such as this. A xerographic copy is produced with an

intense light which shines through soft tissue and delimin-

ates bone. The photocopy can then be measured.

Each experimental group was copied as a unit, using a

template in order to copy the sample number along with the

fibula section. The photocopies were very useful in that

they provided a back-up inventory system as well as a

record of size changes. Fibulae are unique in cross sec-

tion and can be recognized by form and size.

The sample was regrouped into experimental pairs, each

pair consisting of a fibula section and a tooth-mandible








section with the same number. Samples with the same number

were from the same individual and in the same experimental

group. In order to differentiate the two burned groups by

name, Group Y was referred to as the "burned" group, and

Group Z, the "cremated" group.


Group W-Control Group

Group W was maintained in formalin until the other

experimental procedures were completed. The tooth-mandible

sections were then embedded in plastic, re-radiographed and

measured. The fibula sections were also embedded in plas-

tic, re-photocopied, thin sectioned and measured.


Group X-Dried Group

Group X was dried but not burned. It was placed in a

dessicator, under vacuum, with anhydrous calcium sulfate as

a desiccant. The tissue was considered to be "dry" when a

color change could no longer be generated in fresh color-

sensitive desiccant after 24 hours. The tooth-mandible

sections were then embedded in plastic, re-radiographed and

measured. The fibula sections were also embedded in

plastic, re-photocopied, thin sectioned and measured.


Group Y-Burned Group

Group Y was burned for 90 minutes at 500 degrees C.

(932 F.) in a Sybron Thermolyne 10500 Furnace. The 500

degree burning temperature was selected because it lies

between the upper limit of 300 C. reported by Mannerberg








[35] for tooth weight loss and the lower limits of 700 C.

[26) and 645 C. [37] for bone mineral fusion. A 500 degree

temperature is also useful in that it falls within the

range of ignition temperatures for modern fuels [40]. The

tooth-mandible sections were then embedded in plastic, re-

radiographed and measured. The fibula sections were also

embedded in plastic, re-photocopied, thin sectioned and

measured.


Group Z-Cremated Group

Group Z was burned for 90 minutes at 950 degrees C.

(1742 F.). A Sybron Thermolyne 10500 Furnace was used

again. The 950 degree burning temperature was selected

because it is higher than the upper temperature of 800 C.

reported by Herrmann [26] and is in the range of standard

cremation temperatures [41]. In both burned groups, the

90-minute timer was not started until the the oven reached

the planned temperature. The tooth-mandible sections were

then embedded in plastic, re-radiographed and measured.

The fibula sections were also embedded in plastic, re-

photocopied, thin-sectioned, and measured.

After the experimental procedures of drying and burn-

ing were completed, each piece of tissue was prepared for

thin sectioning by embedding it in plastic. Castolite ,

an embedding medium marketed by Buehler, Ltd., was used.

The burned and cremated groups were embedded as soon as

they had cooled. In most cases, the tissue was embedded in









the same dish that was used for the burning in order to

avoid the disturbance caused by transfer. Vacuum was ap-

plied in order to remove major bubbles. The vacuum time

was kept to a minimum (60 seconds or less) to avoid vapor-

izing the catalyst.

The embedding process was simple and, in fact, non-

essential for Groups W and X. They were embedded in plas-

tic in order to maintain uniformity with Groups Y and Z.

In both heat-treated groups, the tissue needed the

added support of an embedding medium before being handled.

Thin sectioning also would have been impossible without the

added matrix. Pressure would have produced harder blocks

which are easier to thin section, but pressure caused the

extremely fragile cremated tissue (Group Z) to pulverize.

It was not even possible to soak the cremated tissue in

uncatalyzed plastic without causing total disintegration of

the tissue. The best results were obtained when the tissue

was treated as gently as possible. In other words, no

pressure, no heat, and slow, long-term drying of the

plastic. A week or more was necessary for drying time.

Final radiographs and photocopies were made of the

processed and embedded sample. In order to photocopy the

fibula samples, the surface of the fibula was exposed by

carefully polishing away excess plastic with a Buehler

Ecomet (D Grinder. All tissue pieces were oriented and

positioned in the same manner as they had been in the









preliminary radiographs and photocopies. The same machines

were used with the same protocol.

Thin sections were cut on a Buehler Isomet low

speed saw. A great deal of effort was placed in developing

a technique for obtaining sections of consistent thickness.

The best results were obtained under the following condi-

tions: (1)1ow speed no higher than 6 on the Isomet dial,

(2)1ow weight no more than 15 grams or 3 units, (3) water

coolant rather than oil. Thin sections were immediately

measured then pressed between separate numbered glass

slides. It was noted that the control tissue (Group W) had

to be cut "thinner" in order for the resulting thin sec-

tion to be the same thickness as that of the burned tissue.

The difference on the Isomet micrometer dial was 1.33, the

equivalent of 34 micromillimeters. Perhaps the burned

tissue looses microscopic chips of mineral while being

sawed due to lack of intact binding collagen.

Many attempts were made to see the microstructure of

the heat-treated groups with the use of standard light

microscopy. Tissue was re-embedded after initial section-

ing then polished to maximum thinness. Numerous polishing

techniques were attempted. Some of the burned tissue was

soaked in benzene in an effort to clear it. Limited re-

sults were obtained on the burned tissue (Group Y), but no

consistency was realized and some of the tissue was ruined

for further study. Microstructure could be seen but cement









lines were indistinct and accurate measurement was impos-

sible.

No success whatsoever was obtained with cremated tis-

sue (Group Z). Microradiography seemed to provide the only

possible means to consistent visualization of the micro-

structure of heat-treated tissue. Microradiographs have

been recommended by others working with burned tissue and

fragile archaeological material [30,42-44].

Each fibula section was microradiographed on a Soren-

sen 1030-20, manufactured by the Raytheon Company. The

settings were dependent on the thickness of the tissue.



TABLE 5. Recommended Settings for Microradiography

Thickness Kilovolts Milliamps Minutes
(millimicrons)
100 10 20 10
125 12 20 10
150 13 20 10
175 13 20 15
200 13 20 15
225 13 20 20
250 13 20 20



Kodak High Resolution Film (ESTAR Thick Base) SO-343

was used instead of the traditional Kodak Spectroscopic

Plate 649-0. The film had a number of advantages over the

plates, the most outstanding ones being lower cost and

easier availability. The high resolution film is available

from stock whereas the spectroscopic plates are made only

on special order. Also, the film was easier to tailor to









individual needs. It was possible to cut the film with a

paper cutter rather than having to score and break glass to

the right size.

One slight disadvantage of the High Resolution Film

was the difficulty of developing several films at a time.

The spectroscopic plates could be placed in glass histolo-

gical staining racks and developed in standard staining

dishes. The films would float and stick to one another

under the same conditions. This problem was solved by

adding a paper clip to each side of each film before plac-

ing it in the staining rack. The paper clips did not touch

the image area of the film.

The exposed films were developed for 3.5-4.0 minutes

with Kodak D-19 developer, mixed 1:1 with water. They were

fixed in Kodak Rapid Fixer, used full strength. The micro-

radiographs were then evaluated and measured at 100x magni-

fication with transmitted light.

For microscope viewing and storage, the microradio-

graphs were taped to standard l"x 3" microscope slides.

The heat from the microscope light caused the film to tem-

porarily warp, making focusing difficult. This was solved

by making use of the clips supplied on some microscope

stages. The film could also be sandwiched between glass

slides, but this was a less desirable alternative. Micro-

structure detail was slightly less apparent when a second

glass slide was used.



















































FIGURE 1. Photomicrograph of dried bone, 47X magnification.
Sample No. B14X (top) and B19X (bottom).





















































FIGURE 2. Photomicrograph of microradiograph of burned bone,
47X magnification. B14Y (top) and B19Y (bottom).




















































FIGURE 3. Photomicrograph of microradiograph of cremated
bone, 47X magnification, B14Z(top) and B19Z(bottom).









Measurement Methods


Gross Fibulae Measurements

Three sets of measurements were made on each fibula

subsample. Standard metric dial calipers were used to

measure minimum and maximum diameter. The first two sets

of measurements were made from the preliminary photocopy

and the final photocopy. The third set was made directly

from the tissue itself after embedding it in plastic and

exposing the face of the cross section. Each photocopy was

measured separately and the numbers were recorded next to

the image. The direct measurements were recorded on

separate data cards. Thus each measurement was made

without reference to any other measurement.

The preliminary set of measurements served as a con-

trol for the specific subsample. The second set provided a

measure of the size change which takes place during the

experimental procedure. The third set of measurements

served as a back-up for the second set. Ideally, the

second and third sets of measurements should be identical.

The differences between them provided a tangible way of

estimating error in the measurement methods.


Bone Microstructure Measurements

Microstructure measurements were made at lOOx magnifi-

cation, using an eyepiece micrometer which had been cali-

brated with the use of a stage micrometer. Each fibula









thin section was evaluated on the basis of condition and

microstructure visibility. The percent of bone per unit

area was estimated with the use of a Merz grid [45,46].

The percent of bone was based on the number of hits on bone

out of 36 possible.

A count was made of the number of osteons per unit

area in each corner (usually three) of the fibula sections.

The whole 100X circular field was to have been counted in

each corner on all samples. The actual area of this field

was 2.86 mm. sq. A problem developed in carrying out this

count. Cremated bones were often so small that the

microscope field could not be filled with bone. In order

to compare osteon counts between cremated and non-cremated

bones, a different, smaller, field had to be defined. The

square Merz grid was available and was a more appropriate

size (0.96 mm.sq.) for the cremated tissue. In order to

obtain comparable results, osteons were counted within the

limits of the Merz grid on all sections, whether the tissue

filled the complete field or not.

The diameters of thirty osteons were measured on each

section. Only relatively round osteons were measured. For

each osteon, the greatest diameter was measured first, then

a second diameter was measured perpendicular to the first

measurement. This provided sixty measurements from which

to compute the average osteon diameter for each fibula

section. The visual scan for whole osteons began at the









most pointed corner of the section and proceeded clockwise,

as seen through the microscope. Fragments were not mea-

sured. All microscopic bone measurements were entered

directly on a Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet. (APPENDIX B,

FORM3.WKl) The spreadsheet was designed to convert the

eyepiece micrometer units into millimicrons and to

calculate averages, standard deviations, and standard error

for each measurement. A separate data sheet was printed for

each microscope slide.


Gross Tooth and Mandible Measurements

Tooth and mandible measurements were taken directly

from the radiographs which had been made before and after

the experimental procedures. The radiographs were placed

on a horizontal light table and dial calipers were used.

Total height was measured from the incisal edge of the

tooth to the most inferior point on the mandible. Any

change in this measurement reflected both tooth and bone

changes. The other measurements sorted into those which

reflect tooth changes and those which reflect mandibular

bone changes. The mandibular measurements were maximum

height and width. Height was measured from the inferior

mandibular border to the alveolar ridge. Width was mea-

sured at right angles to a line drawn from the labial edge

of the tooth socket to the most anterior projection of the

mental protuberance.









The tooth measurements were total length, root length,

and maximum width. Total tooth length was measured from

the incisal edge to the apex. Root length was measured

from the cemento-enamel junction to the apex. Maximum

width was measured at right angles to the long axis of the

tooth and excluded the enamel. This could only be measured

on radiographs because the greatest width on an intact

tooth is normally on the enamel. The enamel was usually

loosened or fragmented in the burning process, therefore a

width measurement made on the crown in Groups W and X would

not always have a comparable measurement in the Y and Z

groups.



Statistical Methods


The data from all measurements were tabulated on Lotus

1-2-3 K spreadsheets. Paired t-tests were used to test

the significance of logarithm differences in the

experimental groups. Chi-square tests were used to check

the data for normal distribution.

The spreadsheets were designed to accept columns of

data and compute the sample mean, standard deviation,

standard error, t-values, 95% significance range (p=.05),

and chi-square values. Bar graphs were produced from the

spreadsheets. The graphs are representations of the actual

measurements as well as the differences between groups.





31


Standard deviations were graphed with the averages (sample

means) and confidence limits were graphed with percentages.

If a computed t-value shows a set of measurements to be

less than significant at the 95% level of significance, the

values were reported on the bar graph with "N.S." (not

significant) above the bar instead of a numerical value.












RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Fibula Results


Visual Description

The burned and cremated groups could be easily

recognized and distinguished by appearance. The bone in

the burned group looked charred. They were charcoal black

in color and were usually dull but sometimes shiny or

greasy looking. The bone samples in the cremated group

were typical of ashed or calcined bone. They were white

with shades of yellow or gray and seemed dry and chalk-

like.

The burned samples were somewhat fragile and broke

easily. The cremated samples were extremely fragile and

crumbled easily. Whereas the burned samples could be lift-

ed in the fingers with care, the cremated samples could be

destroyed in the simple act of lifting.

Thin yellowish flakes were present on the outer sur-

faces of the burned bone. This appeared to be a residue

left by the burned soft tissue and not circumferential

bone, itself. The flaking on the surface of cremated bone

was the bone surface, itself.








Gross Measurements (Tables 6-9, Figures 4-5)

The gross fibula measurements were cross-sectional

diameters taken from photocopies and by direct measurements

as described in the Methods section. All four experimental

groups were measured. The control group measurements were

used specifically to test the measurement method. No dif-

ference was found between the preliminary photocopy, the

final photocopy, and the direct measurements taken from the

bone. The photocopy method worked well as a measurement

method. (Table 6, Figures 4-5)

The measurements of the dried group showed no statis-

tically significant difference between the preliminary

measurements and the final measurements. The average

shrinkage for both the photocopy measurement and the direct

measurement was less than 1%. (Table 7, Figures 4-5)

Both heat-treated groups showed a statistically signi-

ficant decrease in size at the 99% level. In the burned

group, the fibulae decreased in average diameter by approx-

imately 4%. In the cremated group, the fibulae decreased

by 20 to 21%. (Tables 8 and 9, Figures 4-5).

The amount of shrinkage in the burned and cremated

fibulae was within the upper part of the range already

reported in the literature. The advanced age of the sample

population may be a factor contributing to the amount of

shrinkage. This can be examined in future studies.










FIGURE 4. Fibula Cross-sectional Diameters.


131 13.0 13.1

























CONTROL(W)


13.1 13.2 130

























DRiED' 'i


7- 12.6 12.6
























BURNED(Y)


/ 10.5 10,4




















CREMATED(Z)


=PHOTOCOPY#2


DIRECT MEASURE


FIGURE 5. Relative Change in Fibula Diameter.


DRIED(X)


BURNED(Y)


CREMATED(Z)


LOWE UPPER 95% C.L.


PHOTOCOPY# 1


24% -

22% -

20% -

18% -

16% -

14%

12%

10%


22%
20% 21%















/

4% 4%II



NS.5 N.S.


CONTROL(W)


= AVERAGE


LOWER 95% C.L.








Microstructure Measurements

(Tables 10-13, Figures 1-3 and 6-12)

As explained in the Methods section, several types of

microstructure parameters were studied. Osteon diameters

were measured, osteon counts were taken within defined

areas, and porosity was estimated.

In measurements of osteon diameters, the average dia-

meter for the control group was 222 (+/- 21) millimicrons.

This measurement was consistent with the osteon size range

reported by Jowsey [47] in her comprehensive work on the

study of Haversian systems.

Osteon diameters showed little change in size when

fibulae were dried or burned. The average shrinkage in the

dried group was 2.2%. The average shrinkage in the burned

group was 2.6%. The change in size was significant at the

95% level in burned bone but not in dried bone. The

average osteon shrinkage in cremated bone was highly signi-

ficant at 18.2%. (Table 10, Figures 6-7)

Osteon counts were examined in the light of two

separate questions. First, is there a significant change

in the number of osteons per field between experimental

groups, and second, is a smaller field size adequate and

comparable to the full field size generally used for osteon

counts in age investigations?

The change in the number of osteons per field was

statistically significant only in the cremated group. The









FIGURE 6. Osteon Diameters, Microradiograph Measurements.


260 -

240 -

220 -

200 -

180 -

160 -

140 -

120 -

100 -

80 -

60 -

40 -

20 -


CONTROL(W)

= +1 S.D.


FIGURE 7. Relative Change in Osteon Diameters.


24% -

22% -

20% -

18%

16%

14% -

12%

10%

8% -


N.S.






N.S. DRIED(X)


= AVERAGE


242 238 237.


202
202 196 196 196
181

167


DRIED(X)


SURNED(Y)


= AVERAGE


CREMATED(Z)


M -1 S.D


15%


20%














/


16%

77~














/


5%


BURNED(Y)


CREMATED(Z)


= 957. C.L.


M 95% C.L.








osteon counts in both the square grid and the full field

were 26% greater than the original count. In other words,

within the defined area, there were 26% more osteons in the

cremated bone than in the control bone. The 95% signifi-

cance range for this count extended from 19% to 32%. This

shrinkage phenomenon would seriously effect any attempt to

apply Kerley's method for age determination [8-10].

The dried and burned groups were interesting in that

the number of osteons per area decreased and the effect was

more pronounced in the grid counts than the field counts.

It would appear that the osteons were either swelling or

spreading apart during drying and burning. The osteon

enlargement observed by Bradtmiller and Buikstra [30] would

support the idea that there is a time during which the

osteons swell in spite of overall bone shrinkage. In this

particular sample, however, an increase in osteon size was

observed in only a few sections. The average effect was

always shrinkage. The evidence therefore supports the

assumption that a slight spreading of osteons is occurring

rather than swelling. (Tables 11-12, Figures 8-10)

It is not surprising that the grid count reflects the

decrease in number of osteons more than the field count.

The concentration of Haversian systems tends to be in the

center of the bone and the grid count is more a measure of

the center than is the whole field count.









FIGURE 8. Osteon Counts in Complete Circular Field.


70

62

60 -


50 46 47 46

41
40- 38 38 38

30 30 30
30 -



20 -


10 -


CONTROL(W)

= +1 S.D


DRIED(X)


BURNED(Y)


= AVERAGE


CREMATED(Z)


M- -1 S.D.


FIGURE 9. Osteon Counts in Merz Grid Square Field.

24
22
22 -

20- 7x 19

18 -
17
16 16 16 15

14 14

12 -11 11 1

10 -

8 -



4

2 -


BURNED(Y)


AEA -1 S.D.


CONTROL(W)

[77] +1 S.D.


DRIEDr x


CREMATED(Z)


AVERAGE










FIGURE 10. Relative Change in Osteon Counts.


26%


26%


25% -


20% -


15% -


10% -


5% -
57-





0% -
0 -





-5% -


-10% -


DRIED(>)

P7"71 FIELD COUNT


BURNED(Y)

= GRID COUNT


Changes in bone porosity accompanied heat treatment.

This can be seen in the photomicrographs, Figures 1-3.

There was a significant decrease in bone area and an in-

crease in void space, i.e. porosity, in burned and cremated

bone. There was no significant change in dried bone. The

porosity of burned bone changed by nearly 3%, and the poro-

sity of cremated bone changed by almost 8%. (Table 13,

Figures 11-12)

Heat related changes in bone porosity should by consi-

dered when examining bone for signs of pathology. In

archaeological bone, thermal effects may possibly be mis-

taken for infection or endocrine failure.


N.S


N.S.


CREMATED(Z)


I I I la I











FIGURE 11. % Bone Area. Relative Amount of Bone.


110%

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%


CONTROL


DRIED


BURNED


CREMATED


[ AVERAGE


E=7_ -1 S.D.


FIGURE 12. Relative Change in Porosity.


3%




777/ \\\


NS.


4%




////


BURNED(Y)


8%


6%










/


10%











loII


CREMAIED(Z)


MOE UPPER 95% C.L


95.7 95.5 94.5
901 89.4 906 89.9
7-, 86.6 M9















811 /
-I //"9/,

-//. ... Y/. x//
- / \ .--., .. \\!.. -..-


= +1 S.D.


1 2%


11% -

10% -


8%

7%

6%

5%

4%

3%

2%

1%

0%

-1%

-2%


DRIED(X)


AVERAGE


LOWER 95% C.L


N.S.


-

-

-

~

-

-

-

-









Tooth-Mandible Results



Visual Description


The mandible sections had the same general appearance

as the fibula sections when burned and cremated. The tooth

enamel was the only part which actually appeared different

after heat treatment. The enamel darkened into a pearly

gray when the bone around it was a charred black. As the

bone turned white with higher temperature, the enamel be-

came a lighter gray, but did not become white. As the bone

shrank, the enamel frequently cracked and fell off the

tooth, breaking off varying amounts of dentin with it and

usually leaving a cone-shaped stub. In spite of extreme

care in handling, crowns remained on only 24 of the

original 31 teeth in the burned group and 23 out of 31 in

the cremated group. If the burned and cremated teeth had

been handled casually, very few, if any, of the crowns

would have remained in place.



Tooth Measurements (Tables 14-16. Figures 13-18)


The change in total tooth length was very small in the

dried and burned teeth and was statistically significant

only in the cremated group where the teeth decreased in

size by an average of 10.7%. (Tables 14-16, Figures 13-14)








Tooth root shrinkage was significant in both burned

and cremated teeth. The burned root decreased in size by

an average of 3.4%, the cremated root, by 12.5%. (Tables

14-16, Figures 15-16)

Tooth width shrinkage was significant in all three

groups. The dried group showed a 1.3% average shrinkage,

the burned group, 3.7% shrinkage, and the cremated group,

15.5%. (Tables 14-16, Figures 17-18)

These values were small compared to the 20% root

shrinkage reported by Bell [36]. He burned extracted teeth

at 815-1093 degrees C. His temperatures were comparable to

those of the Group Z teeth but they were burned after ex-

traction rather than in the bone. Also the ages of the

tooth donors were not given. Either of these factors might

account for the differences in our observations. Greater

shrinkage can be expected of younger, less mineralized

tooth roots.






43


FIGURE 13. Total Tooth Length. Average Measurements in mm.


DRIEDi'Y


BURNED(Y)


CREMATED(Z)


7-71 BEFORE PROCEDURE


r7" AFTER PROCEDURE


FIGURE 14. Relative Change in Total Length after Each
Experimental Procedure.


16% -


12% -

10% -
B--
8%
6--
6%
4--
4% -

2%


9%





/I


13%


N.S.


0 1 1%
07-


DRIED(0>)


BURNED(Y)


N.S.


CREMATED(Z)


ME UPPER 95% C.L.


23.7
22.0 21.8 22.6 22.2 2
20_8


LOWER 95% C.L.


' 1 AVERAGE




44

FIGURE 15. Tooth Root Length. Average Measurements in mm.


DRIED(X)


BURNED(Y)


CREMATED(Z)


=77 BEFORE PROCEDURE


= AFTER PROCEDURE


FIGURE 16. Relative Change in Root Length after Each
Experimental Procedure.
18%
17% -
16% -


3%
2%


BURNED(Y)


14%





F///


13%




I77


5%


7


11




//


CREMATED(Z)


M]E UPPER 95% C.L.


15.2
14.2 14.0 14.3
S/13.6 13.3


15% -
14% -
13% -
12% -
11%
10%


N.S.


DRIED(X)


= AVERAGE


LOWER 95% C.L.









FIGURE 17. Tooth Width. Average Measurements in mm.

8

7 6.8
6.3 6.2 6.4 6.1
6 5, y5.8

5



3-

2-

1-
nJ


DRIED(X)


BURNED(Y)


71 BEFORE PROCEDURE


=X AFTER PROCEDURE


14%

7-


CREMATED(Z)


FIGURE 18. Relative Change in Tooth Width after Each
Experimental Procedure.


18% -
17% -
16% -
15% -
14% -
13% -
12% -
11% -
10% -


4%
P77\V\\\


- 2%
017
~7-^\\\-


DRIED(X)


5%


7


BUPNED(Y)


16%









I X"


17%














/


CREMATED(Z)


E= UPPER 95% C.L.


. IX


f


I


N-'; AVERAGE


LOWER 95% C.L.








Mandibular Bone Measurements

(Tables 17-19, Figures 19-24)


The first measurement, total mandibular height, in-

cluded the tooth crown as well as the mandibular bone. The

average shrinkage of the dried and burned groups was

slightly over 1%. The cremated samples were reduced in

total height by 14%. (Tables 17-19, Figures 19-20)

As expected, the mandibular height shrinkage was

larger than the total mandibular shrinkage which included

the tooth crown. The dried and burned groups were reduced

by 2% and the height of the cremated samples was reduced by

16%. (Tables 17-19, Figures 21-22)

The mandibular width (labio-lingual width) decreased

an average of 2% in both the dried and the burned groups,

but the range of values was greater in the burned group.

The width of the cremated samples was reduced by an average

of 17%. (Tables 17-19, Figures 23-24)

The average mandibular bone shrinkage was slightly

less than the average fibula shrinkage in this sample

(Figure 25). The ranges overlap on all of the bone

shrinkage estimates. The slight differences could be

attributed to the differences in density and infrastructure

of the two bones. Density differences alone could be

attributed to the age structure of the sample population.









FIGURE 19. Total Mandibular Height (including Tooth Crown).
Average Measurements in mm.


DRIED(X)


BURNED(Y)


CREMATED(Z)


77 BEFORE PROCEDURE


= AFTER PROCEDURE


FIGURE 20. Relative Change in Total Mandibular Height after
Each Experimental Procedure.


1% 2%
77~f^


DRIED(x)


2%


BURNED(Y)


L R UPPER 957 C.L.


41 8 41 2 41 7 41 0 41 6

36.1
/ "X -/ N-/\. .- ./ / 6
*//// ..... \\\\\ !
/__//_ ^ ^ / ^ /


20%
19% -
18% -
17% -
16% -
15% -
14% -
13% -
12% -
11% -
10% -
9 -
9%
8%


14%


-7


15%







7
/f#/
///#


13%











/I


CREMATED(Z)


= AVERAGE


LOWER 95% C L










FIGURE 21. Mandibular Height, Average Measurements.



35 -
31.7 31.1 31.4 30.8 31.5

30 -

26.5

25 -


20 -
LJ


15 -


10 -



5-
0-


DRIED(X)


BURNED(Y)


CREMATED(Z)


= BEFORE PROCEDURE


FIGURE 22.


20%
19%
18%
17%
16%
15% -
14%
13% -
12%
11%
10%
9% -
8% -
7% -
6% -
5% -
7%




3% -
6%
5%
4%
3%



0%


=X AFTER PROCEDURE


Relative Change in Mandibular Height after
Each Experimental Procedure.


2% 2% 2%


3%


DRIED(X)


15%


















/


BURNED(Y)


16%



















7


17%


CREMATED(Z)


=OWE UPPER 95% C.L


1. -.44,


= AVERAGE


LOWER 95% C.L.












FIGURE 23. Mandibular Labio-lingual Width, Average
Measurements in mm.

15 ,
17 -
16 -
15 14 14.6 14.6 14.3 14.2
14 '// ,\ /\
13 -
12 11.9
I 11"
i 10 -


7
6 -

5-
4
3 -


BURNED(Y)


BEFORE PROCEDURE


CREMATED(Z)


AFTER PROCEDURE


FIGURE 24. Relative Change in Mandibular Labio-lingual
Width after Each Experimental Procedure.


4%


15%



















/


BURNED(Y)


17%


18%










7
"//1
A--,-.


& a.~a.. I ~


CREMATED(Z)


L UPPER 95% C.L.


DRIED(w,)


20%7.
19% -
18% -
17% -
16% -
15% -
14% -
13% -
12% -
11% -
10% -
9% -
8% -
7% -
6% -
5% -
4%


3% -
2%
37-




1% -
5%
-%


2%
or


3%
2% ///


DRIED(x)


LOWER 95% C.L


f';; AVERAGE











SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


The first hypothesis stated that post-mortem dehydra-

tion and pyrolysis have measurable effects on the structure

of bone and teeth. The hypothesis was accepted with some

qualifications. In this study, eight types of linear mea-

surements clearly demonstrated that the magnitude of change

resulting from high-temperature burning (950 C.) is differ-

ent from the magnitude of change resulting from either low-

temperature burning (500 C.) or simple drying. This

phenomenon is the evidence of a phase change (fusion or

melting) which takes place in hydroxyapatite crystals

between the temperatures of 700 and 800 degrees C. [26,37].

The changes in size resulting from drying and 500 C.

burning were minor. Only the mandibular measurements and

the tooth width were statistically significant in the dried

group. All except the tooth length were statistically

significant in the burned group. The dried group and the

burned group were virtually indistinguishable from each

other in the mandibular measurements, osteon diameters, and

tooth length. (FIGURE 25.) It appears that there is little

difference between simple water loss and partial reduction

of the organic component of bone by burning. The organic

component has been reported to comprise a constant 49.2% of









the volume of mature bone [49] and it is obvious that loss

of the organic component affects the bone volume [26].

However, it is shown here that the loss of the organic

component has little effect on linear dimensions. It is

the changes in the mineral component of bone that make the

critical difference in linear dimensions of bone.

The lack of uniformity between types of measurements

(width, length, diameter, etc.) is probably due to ultra-

structure differences. (FIGURE 27.) Herrmann [26] suggests

that the ratio of cancellous to compact bone relative to

the plane of measurement dictates the amount of shrinkage

possible at a given temperature. The results of this study

tend to support Herrmann's assumption. With this evidence,

it seems impractical to search for a standard correction

factor for burned bone unless a mineral density factor can

be included as well as a temperature factor. A correction

factor for dentin also seems impractical because of the

wide range of mineralization possible at different ages.

The second hypothesis stated that the change in bone

is different from that in teeth. This was also accepted

with qualifications. Enamel and dentin behave differently

when burned or cremated. The mineral content of enamel is

greater than dentin. The final comparison was really

between enamel, dentin and bone. When the entire tooth was

measured, the tooth appeared to shrink only about half the

amount that bone shrinks. (FIGURE 27.) When the enamel was









excluded from the measurement, and the several different

bone measurements were averaged, it appeared that the den-

tin behaved very much like bone. (FIGURE 28.) The age

range of the sample should be considered in applying this

bone-tooth comparison. Age undoubtedly plays an important

role in that the bones of the elderly tend to become less

mineralized while their teeth become more mineralized. A

sample of larger age range would be useful to study this

ratio.

The diversity of experiments and conclusions found in

the literature is due in part to a lack of basic under-

standing of the actual physical changes taking place as

calcified tissue burns. The following is a step-by-step

description of heat-related changes. The information is a

synthesis of information found in the literature review,

basic knowledge, and observations made in the course of

this work. The main source is Shipman et al. [37].

(1) Drying. Free water molecules escape from bone sur-

faces in direct relation to the surrounding humidity.

(2) 100-360C. Rapid drying. Hydroxyl bonds are broken in

hydroxyapatite crystals and the water molecules adher-

ing to the surface of the crystals are removed. Water

is released from the organic material (collagen and

ground substance). The loss of water from all areas

causes extensive cracking, checking and warping. [19-

24]









(3) 360-525C. Decomposition of the organic component.

Variability in hue, chroma and value increases [37].

Most or all of the organic material in the bone is

burned off in this range.

(4) 645-750C. Increase in hydroxyapatite crystal size.

These changes have been interpreted as indicating

conversion of hydroxyapatite into tricalcium phosphate

but Shipman et al. [37] suggests that larger crystals

of hydroxyapatite are formed instead. This tempera-

ture is lower than the reported melting point of pure

geological apatite (1200C.) [49]. Shipman et al.

explain that the lower temperature may be caused by

the presence of other substances that may act as a

flux for hydroxyapatite.

(5) 700-800+C. Phase change. Fusion, or melting, of the

hydroxyapatite crystals, occurs. [28,29,37]


In light of the information now available, several

recommendations can be offered. (1) Dried and burned bone

and teeth can be analyzed as if they were fresh, i.e. aging

techniques and stature estimates can be applied. However,

a wider range of confidence must be reported. (2) If it is

suspected that the tissue reached 600 degrees C. or more,

the range of confidence should be increased greatly. (3) If

the tissue has reached the point of full cremation, it must

be analyzed by a different set of standards. Guidelines







for those standards are given in the tables and figures

provided in this text. (4) Since the amount of outer

cortex remaining after cremation is variable, Kerley's

method for determination of age at death should not be used

on cremated material until a larger age range can be stu-

died.

There is more information to be gained from this

sample. Age and sex differences do seem to exist and

should be defined. Tooth microstructure can provide infor-

mation when examined by microradiograph but it will be

necessary to devote time to the development of a reliable

technique for thin-sectioning burned and cremated teeth.

Age estimates can be attempted on cremated bone using the

smaller square field instead of the full microscope field.

Actual density measurements could be taken and compared

with the amount of shrinkage.











FIGURE 25.



24%

22%

20%

18%

16%

14%

12%

10%

8%

6%

4%

2%

0%


Comparison of Bone Shrinkage, Both Gross
Measurements and Osteon Measurements.


MANDIBLE HT. MANDIBLE WTH. OSTEON DIA. FIBULA DIA.


= DRIED


= BURNED


= CREMATED


FIGURE 26.

24%.

22%

20%

18%

16%

14%

12%

10%

8%

6%

4%

2%

0%


Comparison of Tooth Shrinkage.


TOOTH LENGTH. ROOT LNGTH. TOOTH WDTH.


M CREMATED


77 DRIED


BURNED











FIGURE 27. Summary of Gross Measurement Averages.


24%

22%

20%

18%

16%

14%

12%

10%

8%

6%


I
TOOTH LNGTH.


= DRIED


I I I I
ROOT LNGTH. TOOTH WDTH. MANDIBLE HT. MANDIBLE WTH.,


= BURNED


FIBULA DIA


E77 CREMATED


FIGURE 28. Comparison of Dentin and Bone Shrinkage.


24%

22% -

20% -

18% 18%

16% -///,
14%
14% -

12% -

10% -


DENTIN BONE


E= CREMATED


217
-


17%
16% 16%



1 2%



-/



S / v/ 2 /// 2

N.S N.S .S^ ,%%
S-i _/i/^ I// //i/-


-

-


[77 DRIED


= BURNED









APPENDIX A.
SAMPLE DESCRIPTION


Sample
Number

B03

B04

B06

B07

B11

B13

B14

B15

B16

B17

B18

B19

B20

B21

B22

B23

B24

B25

B26

B28

B29

B30

B31


Morgue
Number

EM2880

EM2924

EM2934

EM2896

EM2872

EM2914

EM2948

EM2930

EM2893

EM2801

EM2799

EM2853

EM2870

EM2908

EM2928

EM2931

EM2985

EM2935

EM2903

EM2922

EM2895

EM2901

UF4365


Sex

M

F

F

M

M

F

F

M

F

M

M

M

M

F

M

F

M

F

F

F

M

F

F


DOB

06-15-12

04-03-12

12-24-15

09-17-41

02-17-15

05-29-21

12-26-24

04-29-49

05-30-01

11-17-18

10-17-00

06-29-06

12-30-26

08-01-29

08-24-31

08-10-16

12-12-14

04-22-22

05-28-18

08-24-04

06-11-19

04-10-26

07-07-01


DOD

06-12-83

10-12-83

11-12-83

07-18-83

05-25-83

09-15-83

12-06-83

11-07-83

07-13-83

11-13-82

11-05-82

04-01-83

05-20-83

09-01-83

11-01-83

11-08-83

02-20-84

11-13-83

08-19-83

10-06-83

07-16-83

08-11-83

09-30-83


Age Cause of Death

71.0 cardiac arrest

71.5 cancer, pancreas

67.9 cancer, lung

41.8 cancer, lung

68.2 cancer, lung

62.3 cancer, respir-
atory failure
59.0 cancer, meta-
static
34.6 seizure, men-
tally retarded
82.2 cancer

64.0 refractory
anemia
82.1 heart attack

76.8 myocardial
infarction
56.4 not given

54.1 stroke, renal
failure
52.2 cancer, lung

67.2 cardiac arrest

69.2 myocardial
infarction
61.6 epilepsy

65.2 cardio-resp.
arrest (CRA)
79.2 resp. failure,
GI bleeding
64.1 not given

57.3 cardiac arrest

82.2 brain stem in-
farction









Sample Morgue
Number Number


Sex


DOB


DOD


Age Cause of Death


B58 EM3150 M 12-15-16 02-05-85


B32

B33

B34

B35

B36

B37

B38

B39

B40

B41

B42

B43

B44

B45

B46

B47

B49

B50

B51

B53

B55

B56

B57


UF4418

UF4416

EM2936

EM2961

EM2973

EM2977

EM2994

EM2996

EM3004

EM3007

EM3049

UF4668

UF4480

UF4578

UF4597

UF4601

EM3082

EM3072

EM3084

EM3071

EM3099

EM3112

EM3067


F 10-08-23

F 11-21-92

F 05-28-15

F 05-07-32

F 01-30-20

M 06-26-07

M 08-20-12

F 10-13-16

F 11-18-15

M 10-05-07

M 06-12-13

F 01-06-22

F 07-31-16

M 05-23-25

M 07-11-07

F 04-30-96

M 08-05-29

F 10-28-98

F 09-16-16

F 12-11-04

F 03-17-00

M 07-10-08

F 11-09-91


12-17-83

01-30-84

11-14-83

12-28-83

01-20-84

01-31-84

03-09-84

03-11-84

04-04-84

04-09-84

07-10-84

09-19-84

02-25-84

06-10-84

06-29-84

06-28-84

10-05-84

09-07-84

10-08-84

09-06-84

11-01-84

12-04-84

08-22-84


60.2 cancer, lung

91.2 stroke, dehy-
dration senility
68.5 CVA, glanuloma

51.6 cancer

64.0 cardiac arrest,
renal failure
76.6 cardiac arrest,
renal failure
71.6 recurrent
pneumonia
67.4 myocard. infarc.
chr.obs.pul.dis.
68.4 cerebrovascular
accident
76.5 brain tumor

71.1 cancer

62.7 CRA,
ovarian cancer
67.6 myocard. infarc.
chr.obs.pul.dis.
59.1 myocardial
infarction, CRA
76.9 cardiac arrest,
mylofibrosis
88.2 cerebrovascular
accident
55.2 pulmonary arrest,
lymphoma
85.9 pneumonia

68.1 cancer, liver

79.8 chronic obstr.
pulmonary dis.
84.7 old age

76.4 cancer, kidney
failure
92.8 CVA

68.2 heart disease























APPENDIX B

FORM3.WK1


FORM3.WK1 is an example of the Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet

used for microstructure measurements. The unseen formulae

in the summary cells carried out computations automatically

as the data were entered from the microscope. Each com-

pleted spreadsheet was saved and printed then a clean sheet

was called up for the next thin section.








APPENDIX B
FORM. WK1






FIBULA SAMPLE NUMBER:

ADJUSTMENT FACTOR: 61.22 units = 1 mm.
(correction for grid size)


SAMPLE DESCRIPTION:

section thickness in microns .


OSTEON DIAMETERS/OPACITY


greatest least


1-3
scale*


(mark one) calcified section (CS) (1)
(2)
microradiograph (MR) (3)
(4)
CONDITION: (5)
(6)
(mark any) publication quality (7)
(8)
clear, easy to read (9)
(10)
dark, hard to read (11)
(12)
COMMENT: (13)
(14)
VISIBLE STRUCTURES: (15)
(16)
(mark any) osteons ...... .__ (17)
(18)
osteon fragments (19)
(20)
osteocyte lacunae (21)
(22)
zonal osteons (23)
(density variations) (24)
----=- -= -==, -- (25)
FIELD COUNTS: (26)
Area Osteons Frag- Osteons Frag- (27)
(Merz) (grid) ments (field) ments (28)
(29)
I ____ (30)


II

III

IV

AVG
STD
VAR


AVG 0.0 0.0 0.0
STD 0.0 0.0
___ VAR 0.0 0.0 (units)

Opacity scale:


0.0
0.0
0.0


0.0
0.0
0.0


0.0
0.0
0.0


0.0
0.0
0.0


0.0
0.0
0.0


1 = radiolucent
2 = average
3 radiopaque


% BONE TISSUE:
% VOID SPACE:
(porosity)


0.0%
100.0%


AVERAGE OSTEON DIAMETER:
STANDARD DEVIATION:
[# ] VARIANCE:


0 microns
0 microns
0 microns


DATE:























APPENDIX C

TABLES OF RESULTS



TABLES 6-19. Data and Statisics. These tables pro-

vide the reference material for the Results and Discussion.

Each table is two pages long with the page division between

the measurements and the statistics.








TABLE 6. Gross Fibula Measurements, Control Group (W).
Average Cross-Sectional Diameters in Millimeters.



GROSS FIBULA MEASUREMENTS (mm.) FILENAME: FIBULA-W
(AVERAGE CROSS-SECTIONAL DIAMETER)

CONTROL PRELIM FINAL DIRECT LOG(B) LOG(C)
GROUP XEROX(A) XEROX(B) MEASURE(C) -LOG(A) -LOG(A)
-----------------------------------------------------------
B03W 14.2 14.2 14.1 -0.00153 -0.00307
B04W 11.2 10.7 10.8 -0.01789 -0.01385
B06W 12.9 12.9 12.9 -0.00169 0.00000
B07W 14.6 14.3 14.6 -0.01054 0.00000
B11W 14.3 15.0 14.7 0.01931 0.01050
B13W 11.0 11.5 11.4 0.01931 0.01551
B14W 13.0 12.6 12.9 -0.01357 -0.00335
B15W 11.6 11.8 11.4 0.00746 -0.00759
B16W 11.7 11.7 12.0 0.00000 0.00918
B17W 14.3 13.1 13.4 -0.03820 -0.02833
B18W 16.1 15.8 16.0 -0.00955 -0.00271
B19W 10.3 10.4 9.8 0.00422 -0.01950
B20W 15.6 15.7 15.7 0.00417 0.00417
B21W 13.4 13.9 13.3 0.01597 -0.00163
B22W 15.3 14.2 15.6 -0.03098 0.00985
B23W 12.0 12.4 12.3 0.01249 0.00895
B24W 13.9 12.9 14.0 -0.03411 0.00156
B25W 11.8 11.9 11.5 0.00184 -0.01308
B26W 11.8 12.0 11.9 0.00730 0.00366
B28W 12.2 12.8 13.1 0.02085 0.02925
B29W 12.3 12.7 12.5 0.01390 0.00526
B30W 12.6 12.0 12.3 -0.02119 -0.01223
B31W 13.3 12.5 12.8 -0.02531 -0.01501
B32W 14.2 13.6 -0.01875
B33W 13.3 14.0 13.2 0.02228 -0.00328
B34W 13.4 12.2 11.5 -0.04253 -0.06830
B35W 11.8 11.7 12.1 -0.00370 0.00911
B36W 12.3 11.8 12.1 -0.01987 -0.00712
B37W 16.2 15.3 16.3 -0.02348 0.00268
B38W 13.4 14.2 13.7 0.02365 0.00803
B39W 12.8 12.1 12.3 -0.02452 -0.01737
B40W 12.3 12.3 12.4 0.00000 0.00352
B41W 15.4 15.8 15.7 0.00976 0.00838
B42W 15.8 15.5 -0.00833
B43W 12.2 12.3 12.7 0.00356 0.01923
B44W 12.3 12.2 -0.00356
B45W 14.7 15.3 14.9 0.01737 0.00441
B46W 13.5 13.8 13.5 0.00958 0.00000
B47W 11.8 11.8 12.2 0.00000 0.01448
B49W 13.5 13.8 13.7 0.00955 0.00480
B51W 12.5 12.3 12.3 -0.00703 -0.00526
B53W 10.7 11.3 11.2 0.02177 0.01789
B55W 11.9 11.9 12.3 -0.00183 0.01259
B56W 12.8 12.7 12.8 -0.00341 0.00000
B57W 12.8 12.8 12.9 0.00000 0.00339
B58W 13.7 13.8 14.0 0.00158 0.00785








TABLE 6--continued. Gross Fibula Measurements, Control
Group (W). Statistics Summary.





GROSS FIBULA MEASUREMENTS (mm.) FILENAME: FIBULA-W
(AVERAGE CROSS-SECTIONAL DIAMETER)
CONTROL PRELIM FINAL DIRECT LOG(B) LOG(C)
GROUP XEROX(A) XEROX(B) MEASURE(C) -LOG(A) -LOG(A)
-----+-------------------------------------------------------
N 46 43 46 43 46
AVERAGE 13.09 12.95 13.06 -0.00198 -0.00083
STD DEV 1.43 1.37 1.46 0.01719 0.01504
STD ERR 0.21 0.21 0.22 0.00262 0.00222
t-TEST Sample t-values 0.754 0.373
Value of t at 95% level 2.021 2.014
Value of t at 99% level 2.704 2.690
n.s. n.s.
Average antilogg) 0.995 0.998
Upper 95% confidence point 1.001 1.003
Lower 95% confidence point 0.990 0.994
AVERAGE SHRINKAGE 0.5% 0.2%

95% shrinkage range from -0.1% -0.3%
to 1.0% 0.6%
CHI-SQUARE TEST AVG-0.675STD= -0.01358 -0.01098
for normalcy AVG= -0.00198 -0.00083
AVG+0.675STD= 0.00963 0.00933
COMPARISON OF PRELIM XEROX & FINAL XEROX
##Obs. Expected Dif. Sq. Sum/Expected
10 10.75 0.56 0.81
9 10.75 3.06
11 10.75 0.06 IF Sum/expected is < 3.60,
13 10.75 5.06 the distribution is normal.
43 Total
COMPARISON OF PRELIM XEROX & DIRECT MEASUREMENT
##Obs. Expected Dif. Sq. Sum/Expected
9 10.75 3.06 7.37
10 10.75 0.56
19 10.75 68.06 IF Sum/expected is < 3.60,
8 10.75 7.56 the distribution is normal.
46 Total
CONCLUSION: There is no significant difference between the
results obtained by xerographic process and the results
obtained by direct measurement.








TABLE 7.


Gross Fibula Measurements. Dried Group (X).
Average Cross-Sectional Diameters in Millimeters.


GROSS FIBULA MEASUREMENTS (mm.)
(AVERAGE CROSS-SECTIONAL DIAMETER)


FILENAME: FIBULA-X


DRIED PRELIM FINAL DIRECT LOG(B) LOG(C)
GROUP XEROX(A XEROX(B) MEASURE(C) -LOG(A) -LOG(A)
------------------- -----------------------------------------


B03X
B04X
B06X
B07X
B11X
B13X
B14X
B15X
B16X
B17X
B18X
B19X
B20X
B21X
B22X
B23X
B24X
B25X
B26X
B28X
B29X
B30X
B31X
B32X
B33X
B34X
B35X
B36X
B37X
B38X
B39X
B40X
B41X
B42X
B43X
B44X
B45X
B46X
B47X
B49X
B51X
B53X
B55X
B56X
B57X
B58X


13.9
11.4
12.7
14.3
14.2
11.4
12.9
12.1
11.9
14.2
15.5
10.5
15.9
13.1
14.9
11.9
14.8
13.3
12.1
12.4
12.4
11.9
13.3
13.7
12.9
12.4
11.7
12.1
16.3
13.2
12.8
12.6
16.5
16.1
12.7
12.1
15.1
13.4
11.9
13.9
12.2
8.1
12.8
12.7
12.8
13.8


14.2
11.5
13.1
14.8
14.6
11.8
14.0
12.0
11.8
14.5
15.5
10.5
16.0
13.3
15.0
12.1
14.7
13.3
12.3
12.9
12.7
12.1
13.0
14.0
12.6
12.6
11.8
12.2
16.1
13.3
12.6
12.4
16.6
15.7
12.2
12.3
15.3
13.1
11.8
13.9
12.1
8.5
12.1
12.8
12.9
14.0


13.9
11.2
12.8
14.0
14.6
11.3
12.9
12.0
11.8
14.3
15.6
9.9
15.9
13.0
15.0
11.9
14.3
13.3
12.3
12.5
12.2
11.9
12.8
13.2
12.8
12.2
11.8
12.0
16.1
13.6
12.5
12.4
15.6
15.4
12.3
12.1
15.1
13.1
12.1
13.7
12.4
8.8
12.0
12.8
13.1
13.8


0.00931
0.00570
0.01352
0.01498
0.01211
0.01313
0.03398
-0.00360
-0.00184
0.00758
0.00000
-0.00207
0.00272
0.00494
0.00290
0.00907
-0.00147
0.00164
0.00535
0.01548
0.01042
0.00724
-0.00995
0.01100
-0.00853
0.00522
0.00370
0.00179
-0.00671
0.00164
-0.00514
-0.00522
0.00263
-0.01096
-0.01744
0.00712
0.00573
-0.00821
-0.00366
0.00000
-0.00179
0.02093
-0.02622
0.00341
0.00508
0.00470


0.00000
-0.00772
0.00512
-0.00924
0.01211
-0.00575
-0.00169
-0.00360
-0.00368
0.00305
0.00279
-0.02775
0.00000
-0.00500
0.00145
0.00183
-0.01498
0.00000
0.00535
0.00349
-0.00709
0.00000
-0.01671
-0.01456
-0.00169
-0.00706
0.00370
-0.00542
-0.00671
0.01296
-0.00860
-0.00522
-0.02444
-0.01795
-0.01390
0.00000
0.00000
-0.00821
0.00544
-0.00629
0.00885
0.03600
-0.02803
0.00341
0.01176
-0.00158









TABLE 7--continued. Gross Fibula Measurements, Dried
Group (X). Statistics Summary.




GROSS FIBULA MEASUREMENTS (mm.) FILENAME: FIBULA-X
(AVERAGE CROSS-SECTIONAL DIAMETER)
DRIED PRELIM FINAL DIRECT LOG(B) LOG(C)
GROUP XEROX(A XEROX(B) MEASURE(C) -LOG(A) -LOG(A)
--------------------- ---------------------------------------
N 46 46 46 46 46
AVERAGE 13.08 13.16 12.98 0.00283 -0.00295
STD DEV 1.56 1.55 1.49 0.00988 0.01101
STD ERR 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.00146 0.00162
----------------------------------------- -------------------
t-TEST Sample t-values 1.943 1.816
Value of t at 95% level 2.014 2.014
Value of t at 99% level 2.690 2.690
n.s. n.s.
Average antilogg) 1.007 0.993
Upper 95% confidence point 1.009 0.997
Lower 95% confidence point 1.004 0.990

AVERAGE SHRINKAGE -0.7% 0.7%

95% shrinkage range from -0.9% 0.3%
to -0.4% 1.0%
------------------------------------------------------------
CHI-SQUARE TEST AVG-0.675STD= -0.00384 -0.01038
for normalcy AVG= 0.00283 -0.00295
AVG+0.675STD= 0.00950 0.00448

COMPARISON OF PRELIM XEROX & FINAL XEROX
##Obs.Expected Dif. Sq. Sum/Expected
9 11.5 6.25 2.35
13 11.5 2.25
15 11.5 12.25 IF Sum/Expected is < 3.60,
9 11.5 6.25 the distribution is normal.
46 Total
COMPARISON OF PRELIM XEROX & DIRECT MEASURE
##Obs.Expected Dif. Sq. Sum/Expected
8 11.5 12.25 4.43
14 11.5 6.25
16 11.5 20.25 IF Sum/Expected is < 3.60,
8 11.5 12.25 the distribution is normal.
46 Total

CONCLUSION: The differences in size between wet and dried
fibulae are not statistically significant. The photocopy
measurements are normally distributed but the direct
measurements are not.








TABLE 8. Gross Fibula Measurements, Burned Group (Y).
Average Cross-Sectional Diameters in Millimeters.


GROSS FIBULA MEASUREMENTS (mm.)
(AVERAGE CROSS-SECTIONAL DIAMETER)


FILENAME: FIBULA-Y


BURNED PRELIM FINAL DIRECT LOG(B) LOG(C)
GROUP XEROX(A XEROX(B) MEASURE(C) -LOG(A) -LOG(A)
-------------------------------------------------------------


B03Y
B04Y
B06Y
B07Y
BUY
B13Y
B14Y
B15Y
B16Y
B17Y
B18Y
B19Y
B20Y
B21Y
B22Y
B23Y
B24Y
B25Y
B26Y
B28Y
B29Y
B30Y
B31Y
B32Y
B33Y
B34Y
B35Y
B36Y
B37Y
B38Y
B39Y
B40Y
B41Y
B42Y
B43Y
B45Y
B46Y
B47Y
B49Y
B51Y
B55Y
B56Y
B57Y
B58Y


13.8
11.4
13.8
15.0
14.7
12.2
12.9
10.9
11.6
17.7
15.6
10.3
15.9
13.5
14.5
12.5
15.8
12.4
11.9
12.2
11.7
11.2
13.0
13.6
13.1
12.4
11.2
11.8
17.7
13.2
12.6
12.0
15.9
15.1
7.9
14.3
13.5
12.5
13.6
11.2
12.2
12.5
12.5
14.4


13.5
10.8
13.0
13.8
13.9
11.0
12.8
10.7
11.1
16.7
15.3
9.5
15.6
12.8
14.0
11.3
14.9
13.1
11.6
12.1
11.3
10.7
12.5
13.3
12.0
11.8
11.0
11.4
16.4
12.2
11.8
11.5
15.3
14.5
7.6
13.2
12.5
12.1
13.1
11.3
12.0
12.1
12.1
14.1


13.5
10.9

14.3
14.2
11.1
12.6
10.8
11.3
16.3
15.3
9.6
15.6
12.6
14.1
11.9
14.7
12.1
11.7
12.2
11.4
10.8
12.7
13.1
12.5
12.2
11.3
11.5
16.5
12.4
11.8
11.5
15.6
14.8
7.4
13.6
12.6
12.1
12.9
11.3
12.0
12.3
12.4
14.1


-0.00955
-0.02359
-0.02603
-0.03476
-0.02282
-0.04318
-0.00508
-0.00605
-0.01914
-0.02526
-0.00846
-0.03529
-0.00827
-0.02482
-0.01524
-0.04209
-0.02555
0.02219
-0.01109
-0.00537
-0.01325
-0.01983
-0.01536
-0.00809
-0.03643
-0.02338
-0.00783
-0.01504
-0.03190
-0.03421
-0.02861
-0.02038
-0.01671
-0.01911
-0.01681
-0.03476
-0.03181
-0.01412
-0.01793
0.00386
-0.00718
-0.01592
-0.01592
-0.00914


-0.01116
-0.01957

-0.02083
-0.01355
-0.04121
-0.01195
-0.00402
-0.01138
-0.03579
-0.00704
-0.03072
-0.00967
-0.03169
-0.01215
-0.01962
-0.02996
-0.01243
-0.00922
-0.00178
-0.01133
-0.01579
-0.01018
-0.01467
-0.02044
-0.00706
0.00386
-0.01123
-0.02926
-0.02891
-0.02676
-0.01848
-0.00827
-0.00872
-0.02840
-0.02180
-0.02835
-0.01412
-0.02464
0.00193
-0.00899
-0.00877
-0.00349
-0.00914








TABLE 8--continued. Gross Fibula Measurements, Burned
Group (Y). Statistics Summary.




GROSS FIBULA MEASUREMENTS (mm.) FILENAME: FIBULA-Y
(AVERAGE CROSS-SECTIONAL DIAMETER)
BURNED PRELIM FINAL DIRECT LOG(B) LOG(C)
GROUP XEROX(A XEROX(B) MEASURE(C) -LOG(A) -LOG(A)
-------- -----------------------------+-- -------------------
N 44 44 43 44 43
AVERAGE 13.11 12.56 12.62 -0.01862 -0.01597
STD DEV 1.88 1.77 1.78 0.01244 0.01027
STD ERR 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.00188 0.00157
------------------------------------------------------------
t-TEST Sample t-values 9.928 10.196
Value of t at 95% level 2.021 2.021
Value of t at 99% level 2.704 2.704
Average antilogg) 0.958 0.964
Upper 95% confidence point 0.962 0.967
Lower 95% confidence point 0.954 0.961
AVERAGE SHRINKAGE 4.2% 3.6%

95% shrinkage range from 3.8% 3.3%
to 4.6% 3.9%
CHI-SQUARE TEST AVG-0.675STD= -0.02702 -0.02290
for normalcy AVG= -0.01862 -0.01597
AVG+0.675STD= -0.01022 -0.00904
COMPARISON OF PRELIM XEROX & FINAL XEROX
##Obs.Expected Dif. Sq. Sum/Expected
10 11 1.00 0.18
11 11 0.00
11 11 0.00 IF Sum/Expected is < 3.60,
12 11 1.00 the distribution is normal.
44 Total
COMPARISON OF PRELIM XEROX & DIRECT MEASURE
##Obs.Expected Dif. Sq. Sum/Expected
11 11 0.00 3.73
6 11 25.00
15 11 16.00 IF Sum/Expected is < 3.60,
11 11 0.00 the distribution is normal.
43 Total
CONCLUSION: The differences in size between wet and burned
fibulae are statistically significant at the 99% level.
The photocopy measurements are normally distributed but
the direct measurements are not.








TABLE 9. Gross Fibula Measurements, Cremated Group (Z).
Average Cross-Sectional Diameters in Millimeters.


GROSS FIBULA MEASUREMENTS (mm.)
(AVERAGE CROSS-SECTIONAL DIAMETER)


FILENAME: FIBULA-Z


CREMATE PRELIM FINAL DIRECT LOG(B) LOG(C)
GROUP XEROX(A) XEROX(B) MEASURE(C) -LOG(A) -LOG(A)
--------+------------------------------+---------------------


B03Z
B04Z
B06Z
B07Z
B11Z
B13Z
B14Z
B15Z
B16Z
B17Z
B18Z
B19Z
B20Z
B21Z
B22Z
B23Z
B24Z
B25Z
B26Z
B31Z
B32Z
B33Z
B34Z
B35Z
B36Z
B37Z
B38Z
B39Z
B40Z
B41Z
B42Z
B43Z
B44Z
B45Z
B46Z
B47Z
B49Z
B51Z
B53Z
B55Z
B56Z
B57Z
B58Z


13.6
11.3
13.2
15.1
14.4
11.2
13.0
12.4
11.7
14.4
15.5
10.4
16.3
12.9
14.3
12.8
15.1
12.8
12.2
13.3
13.6
13.2
13.0
11.5
11.5
16.8
12.4
12.4
12.0
16.8
14.9
13.6
11.9
14.5
13.3
12.3
13.6
11.9
9.3
12.0
12.6
12.9
14.5


10.5
8.5
10.5
12.6
11.3
8.9
10.2
9.7
9.3
11.6
12.0
7.6
13.1
10.3
11.3
9.9
11.3
9.8
9.7
11.2
11.7
10.6
11.1
9.8
9.4
14.2
10.3
10.7
9.9
14.1
11.7
10.5
8.5
11.3
10.4
9.0
11.7
9.3
7.8
9.4
10.0
10.5
11.7


10.6
8.5
10.4
12.2
11.3
8.6
10.1
9.6
9.1
11.5
11.7
7.7
12.9
10.4
11.4
9.5
11.3
9.8
9.1
11.1
11.3
10.6
10.9
9.8
9.1
14.3
10.2
10.6
9.6
14.1
11.6
10.4
8.5
11.0
10.5
9.1
11.6
9.5
7.7
9.4
9.9
10.7
11.7


-0.1123
-0.1237
-0.1015
-0.0789
-0.1053
-0.0998
-0.1053
-0.1049
-0.1002
-0.0924
-0.1097
-0.1391
-0.0966
-0.0978
-0.1027
-0.1099
-0.1245
-0.1182
-0.1000
-0.0746
-0.0672
-0.0957
-0.0669
-0.0676
-0.0899
-0.0733
-0.0827
-0.0643
-0.0857
-0.0763
-0.1035
-0.1128
-0.1469
-0.1102
-0.1068
-0.1357
-0.0656
-0.1052
-0.0764
-0.1084
-0.0986
-0.0915
-0.0917


-0.1103
-0.1237
-0.1056
-0.0930
-0.1053
-0.1147
-0.1118
-0.1117
-0.1073
-0.0980
-0.1207
-0.1334
-0.1033
-0.0936
-0.0988
-0.1278
-0.1264
-0.1182
-0.1255
-0.0785
-0.0824
-0.0957
-0.0768
-0.0698
-0.1017
-0.0687
-0.0848
-0.0664
-0.0969
-0.0748
-0.1073
-0.1170
-0.1443
-0.1220
-0.1027
-0.1333
-0.0694
-0.0983
-0.0820
-0.1084
-0.1030
-0.0832
-0.0935









TABLE 9--continued. Gross Fibula Measurements, Cremated
Group (Z). Statistics Summary.


GROSS FIBULA MEASUREMENTS (mm.)
(AVERAGE CROSS-SECTIONAL DIAMETER)


FILENAME: FIBULA-Z


CREMATE PRELIM FINAL DIRECT LOG (B) LOG (C)
GROUP XEROX(A) XEROX(B) MEASURE(C) -LOG(A) -LOG(A)
--------+-----------------------------+-----------------
N 43 43 43 43 43
AVERAGE 13.15 10.51 10.41 -0.09815 -0.10209
STD DEV 1.58 1.42 1.42 0.01967 0.01928
STD ERR 0.24 0.22 0.22 0.00300 0.00294
--------------------- -----------------SS---------
t-TEST Sample t-values 32.722 34.724
Value of t at 95% level 2.021 2.021
Value of t at 99% level 2.704 2.704

Average antilogg) 0.798 0.791
Upper 95% confidence point 0.804 0.796
Lower 95% confidence point 0.792 0.785
AVERAGE SHRINKAGE 20.2% 20.9%

95% shrinkage range from 19.6% 20.4%
to 20.8% 21.5%


CHI-SQUARE TEST
for normalcy


AVG-0.675STD=
AVG=
AVG+0.675STD=


-0.11142 -0.11510
-0.09815 -0.10209
-0.08487 -0.08907


COMPARISON OF PRELIM XEROX & FINAL XEROX
##Obs.Expected Dif. Sq. Sum/Expected
8 10.75 7.56 3.98
16 10.75 27.56
8 10.75 7.56 IF Sum/expected is < 3.60,
11 10.75 0.06 the distribution is normal.
43 Total
COMPARISON OF PRELIM XEROX & DIRECT MEASURE
##Obs.Expected Dif. Sq. Sum/Expected
11 10.75 0.06 0.44
12 10.75 1.56
9 10.75 3.06 IF Sum/expected is < 3.60,
11 10.75 0.06 the distribution is normal.
43 Total
CONCLUSION: Shrinkage is significant at the 99% level
in cremated bone. The chi-square tests are different
between the photocopy and direct measurements, but
the numbers are close otherwise.








TABLE 10. Average Osteon Diameters in Microns.






AVERAGE OSTEON DIAMETER (in microns) FILENAME: DIAMETER
(WHOLE SAMPLE)

ID# AGE SEX GROUP W GROUP X GROUP Y GROUP Z LOG(X) LOG(Y) LOG(Z)
Control Dried Burned Cremated -LOG(W) -LOG(W) -LOG(W)
------------------------- -----------------------------------------------
B03 71 M 209 203 198 181 -0.0127 -0.0235 -0.0625
B04 71 F 222 232 222 162 0.0191 0.0000 -0.1368
B06 67 F 240 261 250 195 0.0364 0.0177 -0.0902
B07 41 M 235 244 247 206 0.0163 0.0216 -0.0572
B11 68 M 235 231 237 195 -0.0075 0.0037 -0.0810
B13 62 F 229 222 211 178 -0.0135 -0.0356 -0.1094
B14 59 F 254 235 242 192 -0.0338 -0.0210 -0.1215
B15 34 M 202 201 202 174 -0.0022 0.0000 -0.0648
B17 64 M 235 213 217 179 -0.0427 -0.0346 -0.1182
B18 82 M 247 220 223 186 -0.0503 -0.0444 -0.1232
B19 76 M 234 245 242 194 0.0200 0.0146 -0.0814
B21 54 F 222 232 211 191 0.0191 -0.0221 -0.0653
B25 61 F 235 205 212 196 -0.0593 -0.0447 -0.0788
B26 65 F 254 253 244 197 -0.0017 -0.0174 -0.1104
B29 64 M 223 224 227 176 0.0019 0.0077 -0.1028
B31 82 F 204 201 206 172 -0.0064 0.0042 -0.0741
B32 60 F 225 248 230 187 0.0423 0.0095 -0.0803
B33 91 F 181 184 196 163 0.0071 0.0346 -0.0455
B36 64 F 226 234 245 194 0.0151 0.0351 -0.0663
B38 71 M 231 205 202 184 -0.0519 -0.0583 -0.0988
B40 68 F 156 164 155 130 0.0217 -0.0028 -0.0792
B43 62 F 205 195 217 184 -0.0217 0.0247 -0.0469
B45 59 M 210 205 196 184 -0.0105 -0.0300 -0.0574
B46 76 M 216 213 207 191 -0.0061 -0.0185 -0.0534
B47 88 F 227 208 203 182 -0.0380 -0.0485 -0.0960
B49 55 M 237 223 224 179 -0.0264 -0.0245 -0.1219
B53 79 F 208 197 199 160 -0.0236 -0.0192 -0.1139
B55 84 F 234 214 210 174 -0.0388 -0.0470 -0.1287
B56 76 M 214 199 219 169 -0.0316 0.0100 -0.1025
B58 68 M 207 201 189 188 -0.0128 -0.0395 -0.0418









TABLE 10--continued. Average Osteon Diameters.
Statistics Summary.


AVERAGE OSTEON DIAMETER (in microns)


FILENAME: DIAMETER


GROUP W GROUP X GROUP Y GROUP Z LOG(X) LOG(Y) LOG(Z)
Control Dried Burned Cremated -LOG(W) -LOG(W) -LOG(W)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
N 30 30 30 30 30 30 30
AVG 221.90 217.07 216.10 181.43 -0.0097 -0.0116 -0.0870
STD 20.21 21.38 20.59 14.58 0.0262 0.0260 0.0271
STD ERR 3.69 3.90 3.76 2.66 0.0048 0.0047 0.0050

t-TEST Sample t values 2.037 2.447 17.572
Value of t at 95% level 2.045 2.045 2.045
Value of t at 99% level 2.756 2.756 2.756
n.s.
Average (Antilog) 0.978 0.974 0.818
Upper 95% confidence point 1.000 0.996 0.838
Lower 95% confidence point 0.956 0.952 0.800


AVERAGE CHANGE (Shrinkage)
95% significance range:


CHI-SQUARE Test for normalcy.AVG-0.675STD=
AVG=
AVG+0.675STD=
CHANGE IN DRIED TISSUE
##Obs.Expt.Dif.Sq. Sum/Expected
8 7.5 0.25 0.67
9 7.5 2.25
7 7.5 0.25 IF Sum/Expected is <
6 7.5 2.25 the distribution is n
30 Total
CHANGE IN BURNED TISSUE
##Obs.Expt.Dif.Sq. Sum/Expected
9 7.5 2.25 1.47
7 7.5 0.25
5 7.5 6.25 IF Sum/Expected is <
9 7.5 2.25 the distribution is n
30 Total
CHANGE IN CREMATED TISSUE
##Obs.Expt.Dif. Sq. Sum/Expected
9 7.5 2.25 2.27
5 7.5 6.25
6 7.5 2.25 IF Sum/Expected is <
10 7.5 6.25 the distribution is ni
30 Total


from
to


2.2% 2.6% 18.2%
-0.0% 0.4% 16.2%
4.4% 4.8% 20.0%


-0.0274
-0.0097
0.0079


-0.0291
-0.0116
0.0059


-0.1053
-0.0870
-0.0687


3.60,
normal.


3.60,
normal.


3.60,
normal.


CONCLUSION: The change in osteon diameter is significant in burned bone
at the 95% level and significant in cremated bone at the 99% level.
There is no significant change in osteon diameter size in dried bone.


------------------------------------------------------------------------


-------------------------









TABLE 11. Number of Osteons per Field at 100X.


NUMBER OF OSTEONS PER FIELD AT 10OX


FILENAME: FIELD-CT


ID# AGE SEX GROUP W GROUP X GROUP Y GROUP Z LOG(W) LOG(W) LOG(W)
Control Dried Burned Cremated -LOG(X) -LOG(Y) -LOG(Z)
--___-_ ..------------------------------------- -- - -4 ------- ----------- -------


B03
B04
B07
B11
B13
B14
B15
B17
B18
B19
B21
B24
B26
B29
B32
B38
B40
B43
B46
B47
B49


44.0
37.8
25.8
37.8
32.7
30.5
48.5
33.0
45.6
29.0
34.8
30.0
39.0
35.5
32.0
43.7
60.5
36.3
43.3
41.8
41.0


41.8
33.8
26.2
41.8
28.5
26.8
49.8
36.8
45.8
31.3

30.8
34.5
36.8
25.8
47.5
60.5
41.0
41.3
45.0
41.3


39.5
34.3
27.5
40.5
25.8
26.0
49.5
39.5
51.4
39.0
41.8
31.8
30.8
37.0
28.8
45.5
53.8
40.7
33.5
44.0
37.5


53.5
44.8
40.7
48.8
35.3
42.4
77.5
65.5
69.0
43.0
58.0
46.5
54.0
48.0
45.5
61.3
57.0
62.0
37.5
50.7
49.0


0.0223
0.0486
-0.0075
-0.0437
0.0597
0.0562
-0.0115
-0.0473
-0.0017
-0.0331

-0.0110
0.0532
-0.0156
0.0935
-0.0367
0.0000
-0.0529
0.0205
-0.0320
-0.0032


0.0469
0.0422
-0.0286
-0.0300
0.1029
0.0693
-0.0089
-0.0781
-0.0513
-0.1287
-0.0796
-0.0253
0.1025
-0.0180
0.0458
-0.0180
0.0510
-0.0497
0.1114
-0.0223
0.0388


-0.0849
-0.0738
-0.1983
-0.1109
-0.0332
-0.1431
-0.2036
-0.2977
-0.1796
-0.1711
-0.2218
-0.1903
-0.1413
-0.1310
-0.1529
-0.1475
0.0259
-0.2325
0.0625
-0.0838
-0.0774









TABLE 11--continued. Number of Osteons per Field at 100X.
Statistics Summary.


NUMBER OF OSTEONS PER FIELD AT 100X


FILENAME: FIELD-CT


GROUP W GROUP X GROUP Y GROUP Z LOG(W) LOG(W) LOG(W)
Control Dried Burned Cremated -LOG(X) -LOG(Y) -LOG(Z)
- -----------------------------------------------+------------------------
N 21 20 21 21 20 21 21
AVG 38.22 38.35 38.01 51.90 0.0029 0.0034 -0.1327
STD 7.73 8.76 7.87 10.53 0.0402 0.0640 0.0837
STD ERR 1.69 1.96 1.72 2.30 0.0090 0.0140 0.0183
t-TEST Sample t values 0.321 0.247 7.266
Value of t at 95% level 2.093 2.086 2.086
Value of t at 99% level 2.861 2.845 2.845
n.s. n.s.
Average (Antilog) 1.007 1.008 0.737
Upper 95% confidence point 1.051 1.078 0.804
Lower 95% confidence point 0.964 0.943 0.675


AVERAGE CHANGE (Increase in count)


95% significance range:


from
to


-0.7% -0.8% 26.3%
-5.1% -7.8% 19.6%
3.6% 5.7% 32.5%


CHI-SQUARE Test for normalcy.AVG-0.675STD-
AVG=
AVG+0.675STD=
CHANGE IN DRIED TISSUE
##Obs.Expt.Dif.Sq. Sum/expt.
6 5 1 2.80
7 5 4
2 5 9 IF Sum/expt. is < 3.60
5 5 0
20 Total
CHANGE IN BURNED TISSUE
##Obs.Expt.Dif.Sq. Sum/expt.
5 5.25 0.0625 0.71
7 5.25 3.0625
6 5.25 0.5625 IF Sum/expt. is < 3.60
5 5.25 0.0625
21 Total
CHANGE IN CREMATED TISSUE
##Obs.Expt.Dif.Sq. Sum/expt.
4 5.25 1.5625 2.05
8 5.25 7.5625
5 5.25 0.0625 IF Sum/expt. is < 3.60
4 5.25 1.5625
21 Total


-0.0243
0.0029
0.0301


-0.0397
0.0034
0.0466


-0.1892
-0.1327
-0.0762


, the distribution is normal.





, the distribution is normal.





, the distribution is normal.
,the distribution is normal.


CONCLUSION: The change in osteon count is significant in
cremated bone but not in dried or burned bone. All three
groups of measurements are normally distributed.


------------------------------------------------------------------------









Number of Osteons per Grid at 100X.


NUMBER OF OSTEONS PER GRID AT 10OX FILENAME: GRID-CT

ID# AGE SEX GROUP W GROUP X GROUP Y GROUP Z LOG(W) LOG(W) LOG(W)
Control Dried Burned Cremated -LOG(X) -LOG(Y) -LOG(Z)
-----------4--------------------------------------------------------


B04
B06
B07
B11
B13
B14
B15
B17
B18
B19
B25
B26
B29
B31
B32
B36
B38
B40
B43
B45
B46
B47
B49
B53
B58


14.3
12.3
9.1
14.5
12.7
11.3
14.8
13.0
17.5
11.8
12.3
13.0
13.8
15.5
12.0
11.3
15.1
21.0
15.8
9.3
17.0
14.8
14.5
18.3
12.3


13.3
10.3
9.8
14.8
11.0
9.5
16.0
12.5
15.4
11.0
10.8
12.5
13.8
14.8

14.0
16.9
18.5
13.3
10.5
16.3
14.8
14.0
16.5
12.2


8.8
10.5
14.0
11.3
9.8
17.3
15.5
19.6
12.8
11.0
9.8
12.7
12.8

12.5
15.4
16.5
14.3
13.8
11.5
15.3
13.5
15.8
13.7


25.5
18.8
14.4
16.0
16.5
15.8
23.3
19.3
24.4
16.3
14.3
18.5
18.3
19.3
15.7
15.8
20.1
20.8
21.3
21.3
12.5
20.8
15.0
25.5
20.5


0.0315
0.0771
-0.0346
-0.0089
0.0624
0.0754
-0.0339
0.0170
0.0555
0.0305
0.0565
0.0170
0.0000
0.0201

-0.0930
-0.0489
0.0550
0.0748
-0.0527
0.0183
0.0000
0.0152
0.0450
0.0035


0.1454
-0.0645
0.0152
0.0507
0.0641
-0.0678
-0.0764
-0.0485
-0.0353
0.0485
0.1227
0.0361
0.0831

-0.0438
-0.0085
0.1047
0.0433
-0.1714
0.1698
-0.0144
0.0310
0.0638
-0.0468


-0.2512
-0.1843
-0.2017
-0.0428
-0.1137
-0.1447
-0.1971
-0.1716
-0.1444
-0.1403
-0.0654
-0.1532
-0.1226
-0.0952
-0.1167
-0.1456
-0.1242
0.0042
-0.1297
-0.3599
0.1335
-0.1478
-0.0147
-0.1441
-0.2218


TABLE 12.









TABLE 12--continued. Number of Osteons per Grid at 100X.
Statistics Summary.


NUMBER OF OSTEONS PER GRID AT 100X STATISTICS


FILENAME: GRID-CT


GROUP W GROUP X GROUP Y GROUP Z LOG(W) LOG(W) LOG(W)
Control Dried Burned Cremated -LOG(X) -LOG(Y) -LOG(Z)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
N 25 24 23 25 24 23 25
AVG 13.89 13.44 13.40 18.80 0.0160 0.0174 -0.1318
STD 2.68 2.43 2.59 3.51 0.0438 0.0795 0.0908
STD ERR 0.54 0.50 0.54 0.70 0.0089 0.0166 0.0182
- ------------------------------------------------ m------- m------ m------
t-TEST Sample t values 1.784 1.052 7.254
Value of t at 95% level 2.069 2.074 2.064
Value of t at 99% level 2.807 2.819 2.797
n.e. n.s.
Average (Antilog) 1.037 1.041 0.738
Upper 95% confidence point 1.083 1.127 0.805
Lower 95% confidence point 0.994 0.962 0.677


AVERAGE CHANGE (Increase in count)


95% significance range:


CHI-SQUARE Test for normalcy.AVG-0.675STD=
AVG=
AVG+0.675STD=
CHANGE IN DRIED TISSUE
##Obs.Expt.Dif.Sq. Sum/expt.
5 6 1 0.67
5 6 1
7 6 1 IF Sum/expt. is < 3.60
7 6 1
24 Total
CHANGE IN BURNED TISSUE
##Obs.Expt.Dif.Sq. Sum/expt.
7 5.75 1.5625 1.17
4 5.75 3.0625
7 5.75 1.5625 IF Sum/expt. is < 3.60
5 5.75 0.5625
23 Total
CHANGE IN CREMATED TISSUE
##Obs.Expt.Dif.Sq. Sum/expt.
5 6.25 1.5625 1.72
9 6.25 7.5625
6 6.25 0.0625 IF Sum/expt. is < 3.60
5 6.25 1.5625
25 Total


from
to


-3.7% -4.1% 26.2%

-8.3% -12.7% 19.5%
0.6% 3.8% 32.3%


-0.0136 -0.0362 -0.1931
0.0160 0.0174 -0.1318
0.0455 0.0711 -0.0705


------------------------the distribution is normal.





, the distribution is normal.





, the distribution is normal.
,the distribution is normal.


CONCLUSION: The change in the number of osteons counted in a Nerz
grid is significant in cremated bone but not in dried or burned bone.
All sets of measurements are normally distributed.


------------------------------------------------------------------------









TABLE 13. % Bone Tissue by Count on Merz Grid.


% BONE TISSUE BY COUNT ON MERZ
FORMATEDD AS PERCENTAGES)


GRID (hits/36)


FILENAME: MERZ-CT
and POR.WK1


ID# AGE SEX GROUP W GROUP X GROUP Y GROUP Z LOG(X) LOG(Y) LOG(Z)
Control Dried Burned Cremated -LOG(W) -LOG(W) -LOG(W)
------------4----------------------------------+------------------------


B03
B04
B06
B07
811
B13
B14
815
B17
B18
819
B24
B25
B26
B29
B31
B32
B36
B38
B40
B43
B45
B46
B47
B49
B53
B56
B58


86.1
91.7
90.7
95.8
91.7
90.7
93.1
98.6
97.2
94.4
93.8
96.5
93.8
91.7
90.3
91.7
93.1
87.5
92.4
94.4
93.1
97.2
88.9
93.1
93.1
93.8
92.4
94.4


88.2
92.4
87.0
93.8
93.1
92.4
84.0
98.6
92.4
94.4
94.4
96.5
89.6
94.4
91.7
91.7
93.1
89.6
93.1
90.3
93.1
95.1
88.2
95.1
95.1
91.7
93.1
96.3


90.3
88.2
81.3
93.8
92.4
84.7
91.0
96.5
90.3
89.8
93.1
88.2
91.0
89.6
92.6
86.8
79.2
90.3
92.4
88.0
95.1
94.4
95.1
90.3
94.4
94.4
91.0
91.7


79.2
84.0
80.6
86.8
86.1
79.9
86.8
82.6
93.8
85.2
81.9
79.6
82.4
84.7
93.1
85.4
88.9
85.4
87.5
84.7
91.0
84.7
90.3
89.6
93.1
83.3
86.1
88.9


0.0105
0.0033
-0.0181
-0.0092
0.0066
0.0081
-0.0447
0.0000
-0.0220
0.0000
0.0028
0.0000
-0.0199
0.0126
0.0067
0.0000
0.0000
0.0103
0.0033
-0.0193
0.0000
-0.0095
-0.0034
0.0092
0.0092
-0.0098
0.0033
0.0087


0.0207
-0.0169
-0.0475
-0.0092
0.0033
-0.0297
-0.0099
-0.0093
-0.0320
-0.0217
-0.0033
-0.0391
-0.0132
-0.0101
0.0109
-0.0238
-0.0702
0.0137
0.0000
-0.0305
0.0092
-0.0127
0.0293
-0.0133
0.0060
0.0028
-0.0066
-0.0126


-0.0363
-0.0381
-0.0513
-0.0428
-0.0274
-0.0551
-0.0304
-0.0769
-0.0155
-0.0445
-0.0589
-0.0836
-0.0563
-0.0345
0.0133
-0.0309
-0.0200
-0.0106
-0.0237
-0.0471
-0.0099
-0.0598
0.0068
-0.0166
0.0000
-0.0516
-0.0307
-0.0261









TABLE 13--continued. % Bone Tissue by Count on Merz Grid.
Statistics Summary.





% BONE TISSUE BY COUNT ON NERZ GRID (hits/36) FILENAME: MERZ-CT
GROUP W GROUP X GROUP Y GROUP Z LOG(X) LOG(Y) LOG(Z)
Control Dried Burned Cremated -LOG(W) -LOG(W) -LOG(W)
--------------------------------------- ------------------
N 28 28 28 28 28 28 28
AVG 92.90 92.44 90.57 85.91 -0.0022 -0.0113 -0.0342
STD 2.77 3.08 3.93 4.01 0.0127 0.0208 0.0230
STD ERR 0.52 0.58 0.74 0.76 0.0024 0.0039 0.0043
t-TEST Sample t values 0.912 2.864 7.882
Value of t at 95% level 2.052 2.052 2.052
Value of t at 99% level 2.771 2.771 2.771
n.s.
Average (Antilog) 0.995 0.974 0.924
Upper 95% confidence point 1.006 0.993 0.943
Lower 95% confidence point 0.984 0.956 0.905
AVERAGE CHANGE 0.5% 2.6% 7.6%
95% significance range: from -0.6% 0.7% 5.7%
to 1.6% 4.4% 9.5%
CHI-SQUARE Test for normalcy.AVG-0.675STD= -0.0108 -0.0253 -0.0497
AVG= -0.0022 -0.0113 -0.0342
AVG+0.675STD= 0.0064 0.0028 -0.0187
CHANGE IN DRIED TISSUE ---------------
# #Obs.Expt.Dif.Sq. Sum/Expected
5 7 4 3.71
4 7 9
10 7 9 IF Sum/Expected is < 3.60,
9 7 4 the distribution is normal.
28 Total
CHANGE IN BURNED TISSUE
##Obs.Expt.Dif.Sq. Sum/Expected
6 7 1 0.29
7 7 0
7 7 0 IF Sum/Expected is < 3.60,
8 7 1 the distribution is normal.
28 Total
CHANGE IN CREMATED TISSUE
##Obs.Expt.Dif.Sq. Sum/Expected
8 7 1 0.29
6 7 1
7 7 0 IF Sum/Expected is < 3.60,
7 7 0 the distribution is normal.
28 Total
CONCLUSION: There is a significant decrease in bone and an increase
in void space (i.e. porosity) in burned and cremated bone. There is
no significant change in dried bone.








TABLE 14. Comparison of Tooth Measurements, Dried Goup.


A COMPARISON OF TOOTH MEASUREMENTS (nm.)
(AGE-MATCHED WITH OTHER GROUPS)


FILENAME: TEETH-X


PRELIMINARY X-RAY FINAL X-RAY LOG CHANGE IN SIZE
DRIED tooth root tooth tooth root tooth tooth root tooth
GROUP length length width length length width length length width
-.------------------- L-----..J-------------- ---------------------- &-------------


B20aX
B21X
B22X
B23X
B25X
B26X
B28X
B29X
B30X
B31X
B32X
B33X
B34aX
B35X
B36X
B38X
B39aX
B40X
B41X
B42aX
B43X
B44X
B45X
B46X
B47aX
B49aX
B51X
B53X
B55aX
B56aX
B57X
B58aX


25.9
22.7
21.4
20.3
23.8
18.0
20.8
21.0
21.5
19.9
17.7
20.3
21.3
19.4
21.8
21.8
20.3
23.2
19.6
24.2
20.0
24.0
20.9
22.5
24.1
25.4
21.3
22.1
23.4
29.6
22.0
22.8


18.5
13.9
13.6
13.5
16.8
11.0
12.5
14.3
13.8
12.6
11.6
13.5
12.6
13.2
12.7
13.2
13.1
16.1
12.8
15.7
12.5
16.6
13.1
15.6
15.9
16.7
13.1
11.1
15.7
19.4
14.3
16.1


8.1
6.1
6.6
6.0
6.2
5.3
5.6
6.2
5.7
5.9
6.0
6.5
5.5
5.4
7.5
5.8
6.9
6.7
5.9
6.6
5.9
7.6
5.8
6.3
6.1
6.6
5.7
5.7
5.7
7.9
7.1
5.7


25.9
22.5
21.5
20.3
23.8
17.8
20.7
20.8
21.4
19.7
17.7
19.9
21.3
19.8
21.6
21.6
20.2
22.9
19.2
24.2
19.7
23.8
20.9
22.4
23.7
25.2
21.0
21.8
23.4
29.4
22.0
22.8


18.1
13.3
13.6
13.5
16.8
10.9
11.9
13.4
13.7
12.6
11.3
13.1
12.0
12.8
12.5
13.2
12.9
16.0
12.7
15.5
12.2
16.2
13.1
15.7
15.8
16.6
12.6
11.0
15.6
19.4

15.9


8.1
6.1
6.4
5.9
6.3
5.2
5.6
6.3
5.4
6.3
5.7
6.3
5.3
5.5
7.4
5.6
7.2
6.4
5.7
6.4
5.8
7.6
5.5
6.3
5.9
6.5
5.6
5.6
5.7
7.8
7.0
5.8


0.0000
-0.0038
0.0020
0.0000
0.0000
-0.0049
-0.0021
-0.0042
-0.0020
-0.0044
0.0000
-0.0086
0.0000
0.0089
-0.0040
-0.0040
-0.0021
-0.0057
-0.0090
0.0000
-0.0066
-0.0036
0.0000
-0.0019
-0.0073
-0.0034
-0.0062
-0.0059
0.0000
-0.0029
0.0000
0.0000


-0.0095
-0.0192
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
-0.0040
-0.0214
-0.0282
-0.0032
0.0000
-0.0114
-0.0131
-0.0212
-0.0134
-0.0069
0.0000
-0.0067
-0.0027
-0.0034
-0.0056
-0.0106
-0.0106
0.0000
0.0028
-0.0027
-0.0026
-0.0169
-0.0039
-0.0028
0.0000

-0.0054


0.0000
0.0000
-0.0134
-0.0073
0.0069
-0.0083
0.0000
0.0069
-0.0235
0.0285
-0.0223
-0.0136
-0.0161
0.0080
-0.0058
-0.0152
0.0185
-0.0199
-0.0150
-0.0134
-0.0074
0.0000
-0.0231
0.0000
-0.0145
-0.0066
-0.0077
-0.0077
0.0000
-0.0055
-0.0062
0.0076






79



TABLE 14--continued. Comparison of Tooth Measurements,


Dried Group.



A COMPARISON OF TOOTH MEASUREMENTS (mm.)


Statistics Summary.



FILENAME: TEETH-X


PRELIMINARY X-RAY FINAL X-RAY LOG CHANGE IN SIZE
DRIED tooth root tooth tooth root tooth tooth root tooth
GROUP length length width length length width length length width
_ -____-----_------------ --------------------+--------------------------
N 32 32 32 32 31 32 32 31 32
AVG 21.97 14.22 6.27 21.84 14.00 6.19 -0.0026 -0.0072 -0.0055
STD 2.34 2.01 0.72 2.33 2.09 0.74 0.0035 0.0076 0.0116
STD ER 0.41 0.36 0.13 0.41 0.38 0.13 0.0006 0.0014 0.0020
t-TEST Sample t values 4.154 5.249 2.687
Value of t at 95% level 2.042 2.042 2.042
Value of t at 99% level 2.750 2.750 2.750
Average (Antilog) 0.994 0.984 0.987
Upper 95% confidence point 0.997 0.990 0.997
Lower 95% confidence point 0.991 0.977 0.978

AVERAGE SHRINKAGE 0.6% 1.6% 1.3%

95% shrinkage range from 0.3% 1.0% 0.3%
to 0.9% 2.3% 2.2%


CHI-SQUARE Test for normalcy.


TOOTH LENGTH
##Obs.
8
8
4
12
32 1


ROOT LENGTH
##Obs.
7
4
12
8
31
TOOTH WIDTH
##Obs.
11
8
7
6


Expt.
8
8
8
8
total


Expt.
7.75
7.75
7.75
7.75
Total

Expt.
8
8
8
8


32 Total


Dif.Sq
0
0
16
16

Dif.Sq
0.562
14.06
18.06
0.062

Dif.Sq
9
0
1
4


AVG-0.675STD--0.0049
AVG= -0.0026
AVG+0.675STD--0.0002


------------------------
Sum/Expected
4.00

IF Sum/Expected is < 3.60,
the distribution is normal.

Sum/Expected
4.23

IF Sum/Expected is < 3.60,
the distribution is normal.

Sum/Expected
1.75

IF Sum/Expected is < 3.60,
the distribution is normal.


CONCLUSION: There seems to be a significant measurement difference
between wet (control) and dried teeth. The measurements are
normally distributed in the width measurement, but not in the
total length or root length groups.


-0.0123
-0.0072
-0.0020


-0.0133
-0.0055
0.0023





80



TABLE 15. Comparison of Tooth Measurements, Burned Group.






A COMPARISON OF TOOTH MEASUREMENTS (Bn.) FILENAME: TEETH-Y
(AGE-MATCHED WITH OTHER GROUPS)

PRELIMINARY X-RAY FINAL X-RAY LOG CHANGE IN SIZE
BURNED tooth root tooth tooth root tooth tooth root tooth
GROUP length length width length length width length length width
----+----- ---------------+-------------------------------------------

B20Y 24.0 18.4 6.3 15.8 5.9 -0.0662 -0.0285
B21Y 22.4 13.4 6.3 22.0 12.8 5.9 -0.0078 -0.0199 -0.0285
B22Y 19.2 11.9 5.5 18.6 11.9 5.2 -0.0138 0.0000 -0.0244
B23aY 22.6 15.2 6.7 22.6 13.9 6.5 0.0000 -0.0388 -0.0132
B25Y 21.6 14.3 6.3 21.8 13.4 6.1 0.0040 -0.0282 -0.0140
B26Y 17.6 10.0 5.1 10.0 5.0 0.0000 -0.0086
B28Y 21.9 13.3 6.9 21.9 12.4 6.7 0.0000 -0.0304 -0.0128
B29Y 20.6 12.3 5.6 20.6 11.9 5.3 0.0000 -0.0144 -0.0239
B30Y 21.0 13.7 5.7 21.3 13.3 5.5 0.0062 -0.0129 -0.0155
B31Y 17.8 10.9 6.0 16.9 10.5 5.6 -0.0225 -0.0162 -0.0300
B32Y 20.7 13.6 6.1 20.6 13.6 6.2 -0.0021 0.0000 0.0071
B33Y 24.0 5.0 7.9 24.6 4.5 7.7 0.0107 -0.0458 -0.0111
B34aY 21.8 13.4 5.9 22.6 13.1 5.6 0.0157 -0.0098 -0.0227
B35Y 24.6 16.0 6.8 25.2 16.7 6.3 0.0105 0.0186 -0.0332
B36aY 17.8 11.3 5.3 18.1 11.2 5.2 0.0073 -0.0039 -0.0083
B38aY 23.6 14.5 6.2 14.0 5.9 -0.0152 -0.0215
B39aY 21.1 14.0 6.2 21.4 13.3 6.1 0.0061 -0.0223 -0.0071
B40Y 28.3 19.3 7.8 7.4 -0.0229
B41aY 27.3 17.8 6.8 17.3 6.1 -0.0124 -0.0472
B42Y 23.8 15.7 6.6 23.4 15.4 6.5 -0.0074 -0.0084 -0.0066
B43Y 21.3 13.5 6.1 22.1 13.8 6.0 0.0160 0.0095 -0.0072
B44Y 21.0 15.1 6.6 20.3 13.9 -0.0147 -0.0360
B45Y 24.3 14.7 8.3 21.7 14.2 7.9 -0.0491 -0.0150 -0.0215
B46Y 23.6 16.8 6.4 15.9 6.2 -0.0239 -0.0138
B47Y 24.5 15.5 6.8 24.3 15.0 6.6 -0.0036 -0.0142 -0.0130
B49bY 25.9 16.8 6.2 25.9 16.4 6.4 0.0000 -0.0105 0.0138
B51Y 22.6 14.0 6.0 22.9 14.1 5.8 0.0057 0.0031 -0.0147
B53Y 23.7 14.7 6.2 14.3 6.0 -0.0120 -0.0142
B55aY 25.7 16.3 6.6 25.7 15.7 6.3 0.0000 -0.0163 -0.0202
B56bY 24.5 16.9 6.2 24.7 16.4 5.8 0.0035 -0.0130 -0.0290
B57Y 20.0 13.8 5.9 12.9 6.0 -0.0293 0.0073
B58aY 22.7 14.5 6.4 23.4 15.0 6.0 0.0132 0.0147 -0.0280










TABLE 15--continued.


Comparison of
Burned Group.


Tooth Measurements,
Statistics Summary.


A COMPARISON OF TOOTH MEASUREMENTS (mm.)


FILENAME: TEETH-Y


PRELIMINARY X-RAY FINAL X-RAY LOG CHANGE IN SIZE
BURNED tooth root tooth tooth root tooth tooth root tooth
GROUP length length width length length width length length width
-- --------------------------- ---------------------- ----
N 32 32 32 24 31 31 24 31 31
AVG 22.55 14.27 6.37 22.19 13.63 6.12 -0.0009 -0.0151 -0.0166
STD 2.54 2.65 0.68 2.27 2.42 0.65 0.0137 0.0172 0.0124
STD ER 0.45 0.47 0.12 0.46 0.44 0.12 0.0028 0.0031 0.0022

t-TEST Sample t values 0.330 4.888 7.433
Value of t at 95% level 2.069 2.042 2.042
Value of t at 99% level 2.807 2.750 2.750
Average (Antilog) 0.998 0.966 0.963
Upper 95% confidence point 1.011 0.980 0.973
Lower 95% confidence point 0.985 0.952 0.953

AVERAGE SHRINKAGE 0.2% 3.4% 3.7%

95% shrinkage range from -1.1% 2.0% 2.7%
to 1.5% 4.8% 4.7%


CHI-SQUARE Test for normalcy.


TOOTH LENGTH
##Obs. Expt
4.0
4.0
11.0
5.0
24 Total
ROOT LENGTH
##Obs. Expt
7 7.7
6 7.7
11 7.7
7 7.7;
31 Total
TOOTH WIDTH
##Obs. Expt
7 7.7!
7 7.7


6
6
6
6



5
5
5
5


5
5


11 7.75
6 7.75
31 Total
CONCLUSION: Shrinkage
level of significance
total tooth cannot be


AVG-0.675STD--0.0102
AVG= -0.0009
AVG+0.675STD= 0.0084


-0.0268
-0.0151
-0.0035


-0.0249
-0.0166
-0.0082


Dif.Sq Sum/Expected
4 5.67


Dif.Sq
0.562
3.062
10.56
D.562

Dif.Sq
0.562
0.562
10.56
3.062


IF Sum/Expected is < 3.60,
the distribution is normal.

Sum/Expected
1.90

IF Sum/Expected is < 3.60,
the distribution is normal.

Sum/Expected
1.90

IF Sum/Expected is < 3.60,
the distribution is normal.


in burned teeth can be measured at the 99%
when measuring the root and the width. The
measured with accuracy.


------------------------


1
I

I

1









TABLE 16.


Comparison of Tooth Measurements,
Cremated Group.


A COMPARISON OF TOOTH MEASUREMENTS (am.)
(AGE-MATCHED WITH OTHER GROUPS)


FILENAME: TEETH-Z


PRELIMINARY X-RAY FINAL X-RAY LOG CHANGE IN SIZE
CREMAT tooth root tooth tooth root tooth tooth root tooth
GROUP length length width length length width length length width
----------- -----------.--------------------------14 ----------------


20.3 13.7
16.5
17.2 10.7
23.5 13.8
15.5
9.3
13.6
18.7 12.8
19.5
19.1 14.2
16.7 9.7
21.3 14.1
23.8 13.7
11.2
18.3 10.2
23.1 14.7
20.9 12.2
19.5 13.9
13.0
20.3 12.3
13.4
21.3 13.6
19.7 12.2
18.0
20.5 13.1
15.8
23.6 13.1
24.4 12.8
22.1 13.3
22.4 15.5
18.5 10.9
23.1 14.7


5.1
6.8
4.7
6.7
6.5
5.0
6.3
5.4
5.1
5.3
5.2
5.9
5.5
5.1
5.2
6.5
7.2
5.3
5.8
5.1
6.7
7.5
4.5
5.9
5.2
6.7
5.1
5.4
5.5
5.5
5.4
7.1


-0.0561

-0.0386
-0.0406


-0.1011
-0.0938
-0.0473
-0.0277
-0.0257
-0.0317

-0.0364
-0.0613
-0.0601
-0.0792

-0.0209

-0.0626
-0.0359

-0.0575

-0.0353
-0.0359
-0.0412
-0.0529
-0.0339
-0.0580


-0.0781
-0.0256
-0.0388
-0.0828
-0.0601
-0.0922
-0.0126
-0.0571

-0.0518
-0.0777
-0.0151
-0.0306
-0.0714
-0.0633
-0.0631
-0.1040
-0.0501
-0.0592
-0.0531
-0.0282
-0.0786
-0.0407
-0.0479
-0.0674
-0.0638
-0.0559
-0.0859
-0.0748
-0.0376
-0.0525
-0.0554


-0.1120
-0.0760
-0.0838
-0.0660
-0.0847
-0.0719
-0.0757
-0.0738
-0.0778
-0.1018
-0.0548
-0.0617
-0.1230
-0.0406
-0.0621
-0.0792
-0.0565
-0.0819
-0.0626
-0.0778
-0.0490
-0.0492
-0.0628
-0.0925
-0.0399
-0.0547
-0.0633
-0.0872
-0.0726
-0.0857
-0.0872
-0.0678


B20Z
B21Z
B22Z
B23Z
B25aZ
B26Z
B28aZ
B29Z
B30Z
B31Z
B32Z
B33Z
B34Z
B35Z
B36Z
B38Z
B39Z
B40Z
B41Z
B42Z
B43Z
B44Z
B45Z
B46Z
B47Z
B49Z
B51Z
B53Z
B55Z
B56aZ
B57Z
B58Z


23.1
26.7
18.8
25.8
26.2
19.1
24.0
23.6
24.2
21.3
17.8
22.6
25.6
20.0
19.9
26.6
24.0
23.4
23.4
21.3
23.4
24.6
21.4
30.3
23.4
29.0
25.6
26.5
24.3
25.3
20.0
26.4


16.4
17.5
11.7
16.7
17.8
11.5
14.0
14.6
16.4
16.0
11.6
14.6
14.7
13.2
11.8
17.0
15.5
15.6
14.9
13.9
14.3
16.3
13.4
20.1
15.3
18.3
14.9
15.6
15.8
16.9
12.3
16.7


6.6
8.1
5.7
7.8
7.9
5.9
7.5
6.4
6.1
6.7
5.9
6.8
7.3
5.6
6.0
7.8
8.2
6.4
6.7
6.1
7.5
8.4
5.2
7.3
5.7
7.6
5.9
6.6
6.5
6.7
6.6
8.3









TABLE 16--continued. Comparison of Tooth Measurements,
Cremated Group. Statistics Summary.




A COMPARISON OF TOOTH MEASUREMENTS (mm.) FILENAME: TEETH-Z
PRELIMINARY X-RAY FINAL X-RAY LOG CHANGE IN SIZE
CREMAT tooth root tooth tooth root tooth tooth root tooth
GROUP length length width length length width length length width
-+---------------------------- ------------ ---------
N 32 32 32 23 31 32 23 31 32
AVG 23.68 15.17 6.81 20.77 13.27 5.76 -0.0493 -0.0573 -0.0730
STD 2.89 2.04 0.88 2.15 1.92 0.78 0.0204 0.0216 0.0186
STD ER 0.51 0.36 0.16 0.45 0.34 0.14 0.0042 0.0039 0.0033
t-TEST Sample t values 11.601 14.762 22.194
Value of t at 95% level 2.074 2.042 2.042
Value of t at 99% level 2.819 2.750 2.750
Average (Antilog) 0.893 0.876 0.845
Upper 95% confidence point 0.911 0.893 0.858
Lower 95% confidence point 0.875 0.861 0.832
AVERAGE SHRINKAGE 10.7% 12.4% 15.5%
95% shrinkage range from 8.9% 10.7% 14.2%
to 12.5% 13.9% 16.8%
CHI-SQUARE Test for normalcy. AVG-0.675STD--0.0630 -0.0719 -0.0855
AVG= -0.0493 -0.0573 -0.0730
AVG+0.675STD--0.0355 -0.0427 -0.0604
TOOTH LENGTH
##Obs. Expt. Dif.Sq Sum/Expected
3 5.75 7.562 1.87
7 5.75 1.562
7 5.75 1.562 IF Sum/Expected is < 3.60,
6 5.75 0.062 the distribution is normal.
23 Total
ROOT LENGTH
##Obs. Expt. Dif.Sq Sum/Expected
8 7.75 0.062 0.10
7 7.75 0.562
8 7.75 0.062 IF Sum/Expected is < 3.60,
8 7.75 0.062 the distribution is normal.
31 Total
TOOTH WIDTH
##Obs. Expt. Dif.Sq Sum/Expected
7 8 1 0.50
9 8 1
9 8 1 IF Sum/Expected is < 3.60,
7 8 1 the distribution is normal.
32 Total
CONCLUSION: The observed measurement differences in the cremated
teeth are all significant at the 99% level and the sample
distributions are normal.










Comparison of Mandibular Measurements.
Dried Group.


A COMPARISON OF MANDIBULAR MEASUREMENTS (MBm.)
(AGE-MATCHED WITH OTHER GROUPS)


FILENAME: MAND-X


PRELIMINARY X-RAY FINAL X-RAY LOG CHANGE IN SIZE
DRIED total mandibular total mandibular total mandibular
GROUP height height width height height width height height width
-----& --------- ------ ------4------------------- 4-----


33.9 17.1
28.9 14.5
13.5
32.8 17.7
34.4 11.7
25.6 14.1
28.2 14.1
30.2 13.1
27.6 14.0
32.2 13.1
33.9 14.4
28.9 14.7
32.9 13.1
30.8 15.6
27.5 11.2
37.3 14.6
24.2 12.2
36.3 18.7
31.5 17.3
32.5 14.8
28.5 14.5
29.7 15.6
36.3 15.6
35.8 15.7
32.2 14.0
30.8 12.7
26.7 12.2
32.3 12.8
30.5 18.5
31.6 16.1
25.2 12.1
34.3 16.4


-0.0080
-0.0087
-0.0055
-0.0053
-0.0070
-0.0049
-0.0033
-0.0075
-0.0078
-0.0043
-0.0069
-0.0079
-0.0056
-0.0077
-0.0011
-0.0009
-0.0053
-0.0044
-0.0090
-0.0050
-0. 0058
-0.0087
0.0000
-0.0028
-0.0107
-0.0052
-0.0068
-0.0029
-0.0031
-0.0052
-0.0036
-0.0038


-0.0064 -0.0125
-0.0074 -0.0089
-0.0095
-0.0105 -0.0049
-0.0087 -0.0110
-0.0117 -0.0031
-0.0106 0.0093
-0.0071 0.0101
-0.0139 -0.0152
-0.0133 -0.0257
-0.0064 -0.0119
-0.0074 0.0000
0.0000 -0.0033
-0.0111 -0.0055
-0.0109 0.0198
-0.0058 -0.0232
-0.0089 -0.0174
-0.0048 -0.0069
-0.0055 0.0000
-0.0079 -0.0087
-0.0090 -0.0059
-0.0073 -0.0217
-0.0071 -0.0137
-0.0036 -0.0109
-0.0120 -0.0241
-0.0042 -0.0034
-0.0081 -0.0071
-0.0093 -0.0067
-0.0071 -0.0047
-0.0095 -0.0027
-0.0068 -0.0210
-0.0088 -0.0130


TABLE 17.


B20aX
B21X
B22X
B23X
B25X
B26X
B28X
B29X
B30X
B31X
B32X
B33X
B34aX
B35X
B36X
B38X
B39aX
B40X
B41X
B42aX
B43X
B44X
B45X
B46X
B47aX
B49aX
B51X
B53X
B55aX
B56aX
B57X
B58aX


44.0
40.4
39.9
41.4
43.5
36.0
40.2
40.7
39.3
40.7
44.1
38.7
47.2
39.8
38.1
49.2
32.8
49.1
43.8
43.7
37.8
40.3
46.4
46.6
41.1
41.9
38.7
44.9
41.6
42.3
35.9
45.9


34.4
29.4
32.3
33.6
35.1
26.3
28.9
30.7
28.5
33.2
34.4
29.4
32.9
31.6
28.2
37.8
24.7
36.7
31.9
33.1
29.1
30.2
36.9
36.1
33.1
31.1
27.2
33.0
31.0
32.3
25.6
35.0


17.6
14.8
13.8
17.9
12.0
14.2
13.8
12.8
14.5
13.9
14.8
14.7
13.2
15.8
10.7
15.4
12.7
19.0
17.3
15.1
14.7
16.4
16.1
16.1
14.8
12.8
12.4
13.0
18.7
16.2
12.7
16.9


43.2
39.6
39.4
40.9
42.8
35.6
39.9
40.0
38.6
40.3
43.4
38.0
46.6
39.1
38.0
49.1
32.4
48.6
42.9
43.2
37.3
39.5
46.4
46.3
40.1
41.4
38.1
44.6
41.3
41.8
35.6
45.5






85


TABLE 17--continued. Comparison of Mandibular Measurements,
Dried Group. Statistics Summary.


A COMPARISON OF MANDIBULAR

PRELIMINARY X-RAY
DRIED total mandibular
GROUP height height width
-----+--------------------.
N 32 32 32
AVG 41.75 31.68 14.84
STD 3.75 3.29 1.99
STD ER 0.66 0.58 0.35
t-TEST Sample t valui
Value of t at
Value of t at

Average (Anti:
Upper 95% con;
Lower 95% con;

AVERAGE
95% sh:

CHI-SQUARE Test for normalcy


TOTAL HEIGHT
##obs. Expt.
9 8
6 8
8 8
9 8
32 Total
MANDIBULAR HEIGHT
#Obs. Expt.
8 7.75
7 7.75
10 7.75
6 7.75
31 Total
MANDIBULAR WIDTH
##Obs. Expt.
7 8
9 8
11 8
5 8
32 Total


Dif.Sq
1
4
0
1

Dif.Sq
0.062
0.562
5.062
3.062

Dif.Sq
1
1
9
9


MEASUREMENTS (mm.) FILENAME: MAND-X

FINAL X-RAY LOG CHANGE IN SIZE
total mandibular total mandibular
height height width height height width
+--------------------+-----------------------
32 31 32 32 31 32
41.23 31.08 14.55 -0.0055 -0.0081 -0.0082
3.79 3.36 1.93 0.0025 0.0029 0.0098
0.67 0.60 0.34 0.0004 0.0005 0.0017
es 12.445 15.567 4.753
95% level 2.042 2.042 2.042
99% level 2.750 2.750 2.750

log) 0.988 0.982 0.981
fidence point 0.990 0.984 0.989
fidence point 0.985 0.979 0.973
E SHRINKAGE 1.2% 1.8% 1.9%
rinkage range from 1.0% 1.6% 1.1%
to 1.5% 2.1% 2.7%
y. AVG-0.675STD--0.0071 -0.0101 -0.0149
AVG= -0.0055 -0.0081 -0.0082
AVG+0.675STD=-0.0038 -0.0061 -0.0016
------------------------
Sum/Expected
0.75

IF Sum/Expected is < 3.60,
the distribution is normal.

Sum/Expected
1.13

IF Sum/Expected is < 3.60,
the distribution is normal.

Sum/Expected
2.50
IF Sum/Expected is < 3.60,
the distribution is normal.


CONCLUSIONS: Changes in dried mandibular bone are significant at
the 99% level in all measurements. The actual shrinkage is
small (1-2.7%) but seems to be significant.










TABLE 18.


Comparison of Mandibular Measurements.
Burned Group.


A COMPARISON OF TOOTH MEASUREMENTS (am.)
(AGE-MATCHED WITH OTHER GROUPS)


FILENAME: MAND-Y


PRELIMINARY X-RAY FINAL X-RAY LOG CHANGE IN SIZE
BURNED total mandibular total mandibular total mandibular
GROUP height height width height height width height height width
------+--------------------+-------------------+------------------------


B20Y
B21Y
B22Y
B23aY
B25Y
B26Y
B28Y
B29Y
B30Y
B31Y
B32Y
B33Y
B34aY
B35Y
B36aY
B38aY
B39aY
B40Y
B4 laY
B42Y
B43Y
B44Y
B45Y
B46Y
B47Y
B49bY
B51Y
B53Y
B55aY
B56bY
B57Y
B58aY


45.3
40.3
38.5
42.2
44.1
35.7
41.0
40.3
38.6
40.3
43.6
38.9
47.8
38.9
38.6
50.3
32.9
48.2
44.9
43.4
38.9
39.2
47.0
47.7
39.9
42.5
37.3
43.9
38.7
43.3
35.8
46.8


34.5
30.0
30.4
34.1
35.7
26.2
30.6
29.6
27.9
31.7
34.3
30.1
33.7
30.7
28.7
37.5
23.5
36.3
32.4
33.2
29.3
28.4
35.8
36.6
29.9
30.9
27.1
32.7
28.8
31.3
26.3
35.7


18.7
15.3
15.6
14.9
12.4
15.3
12.0
12.2
14.3
13.9
14.6
15.3
12.9
19.3
12.9
13.9
11.7
15.6
19.3
13.8
16.7
14.5
15.1
14.0
13.9
12.6
14.4
11.8
17.6
15.4
10.9
16.4


39.9
38.2
41.2
43.7
32.2
40.4
40.4
38.3
39.4
43.5
38.8
47.4
39.0
38.3
48.7
33.6

43.9
42.7
38.3
38.7
45.9
46.3
39.1
42.3
37.5

39.1
42.7

47.0


33.7
29.3
29.5
33.9
34.5
25.4
29.7
29.1
27.9
31.9
33.7
29.4
31.3
31.1
28.6
36.3
23.4
34.5
32.6
32.4
27.2
28.1
35.5
36.3
29.6
29.5
26.9
32.0
28.9
31.2
26.7
34.8


18.3
14.4
14.7
14.2
11.0
14.5
11.9
11.8
14.5
14.2
14.9
15.2
14.6
19.2
12.6
13.1
11.3
15.4
17.2
13.4
14.5
14.9
15.0
13.1
14.7
13.9
13.9
11.9
17.4
15.7
10.0
15.3


-0.0043
-0.0034
-0.0104
-0.0040
-0.0448
-0.0064
0.0011
-0.0034
-0.0098
-0.0010
-0.0011
-0.0036
0.0011
-0.0034
-0.0140
0.0091

-0.0098
-0.0071
-0.0068
-0.0056
-0.0103
-0.0129
-0.0088
-0.0020
0.0023

0.0045
-0.0061

0.0019


-0.0102
-0.0103
-0.0131
-0.0026
-0.0148
-0.0135
-0.0130
-0.0074
0.0000
0.0027
-0.0077
-0.0102
-0.0321
0.0056
-0.0015
-0.0141
-0.0019
-0.0221
0.0027
-0.0106
-0.0323
-0.0046
-0.0037
-0.0036
-0.0044
-0.0201
-0.0032
-0.0094
0.0015
-0.0014
0.0066
-0.0111


-0.0094
-0.0263
-0.0258
-0.0209
-0.0520
-0.0233
-0.0036
-0.0145
0.0060
0.0093
0.0088
-0.0028
0.0538
-0.0023
-0.0102
-0.0257
-0.0151
-0.0056
-0.0500
-0.0128
-0.0613
0.0118
-0.0029
-0.0289
0.0243
0.0426
-0.0153
0.0037
-0.0050
0.0084
-0.0374
-0.0302










TABLE 18--continued.


Comparison of
Burned Group.


Mandibular Measurements,
Statistics Summary.


A COMPARISON OF MANDIBULAR MEASUREMENTS (mm.)


FILENAME: MAND-Y


PRELIMINARY X-RAY FINAL X-RAY LOG CHANGE IN SIZE
BURNED total mandibular total mandibular total mandibular
GROUP height height width height height width height height width
---- --------------------+----------------- ---+------ ---------
N 32 32 32 28 32 32 28 32 32
AVG 41.71 31.37 14.60 40.95 30.78 14.27 -0.0057 -0.0081 -0.0098
STD 4.08 3.38 2.10 3.86 3.20 2.00 0.0092 0.0092 0.0243
STD ER 0.72 0.60 0.37 0.73 0.57 0.35 0.0017 0.0016 0.0043
t-TEST Sample t values 3.273 4.964 2.275
Value of t at 95% level 2.052 2.042 2.042
Value of t at 99% level 2.771 2.750 2.750
Average (Antilog of average) 0.987 0.981 0.978
Upper 95% confidence point 0.995 0.989 0.998
Lower 95% confidence point 0.979 0.974 0.958

AVERAGE SHRINKAGE 1.3% 1.9% 2.2%
95% shrinkage range: from 0.5% 1.1% 0.2%
to 2.1% 2.6% 4.2%


CHI-SQUARE Test for normalcy.


TOTAL HEIGHT
##Obs. Expt.
3 7
9 7
10 7
6 7
28 Total
MANDIBULAR HEIGHT
##Obs. Expt.
5 8
10 8
9 8
8 8
32 Total
MANDIBULAR WIDTH
##Obs. Expt.
7 8
9 8
9 8
7 8


AVG-0.675STD--0.0119
AVG= -0.0057
AVG+0.675STD= 0.0005


-0.0143
-0.0081
-0.0019


-0.0262
-0.0098
0.0066


Dif.Sq Sum/Expected
16 4.29


Dif.Sq
9
4
1
0

Dif.Sq
1
1
1
1


IF Sum/Expected is < 3.60,
the distribution is normal.

Sum/Expected
1.75

IF Sum/Expected is < 3.60,
the distribution is normal.

Sum/expt.
0.50
IF Sum/Expected is < 3.60,
the distribution is normal.


32 Total
CONCLUSION: The total height measurement, which includes the tooth
crown, appears significant, but is not normally distributed.
The other mandibular bone height measurement is significant at


------------------------










TABLE 19. Comparison of Mandibular Measurements.
Cremated Group.


A COMPARISON OF MANDIBULAR MEASUREMENTS (mM.)
(AGE-MATCHED WITH OTHER GROUPS)


FILENAME: MAND-Z


PRELIMINARY X-RAY FINAL X-RAY LOG CHANGE IN SIZE
CREMAT total mandibular total mandibular total .aandibular
GROUP height height width height height width height height width
---- -------------------+-------------------------------------------


36.4 29.1
25.1
32.9 23.1
36.0 26.6
28.7
22.4
25.0
25.8
31.6 25.1
35.1 27.3
39.2 29.5
35.8 26.4
41.5 28.6
28.2
34.7 24.3
41.1 30.1
30.8 22.2
40.1 29.7
29.3
36.1 26.5
26.1
33.4 24.2
41.0 29.3
32.3
34.3 25.5
26.4
34.4 23.4
37.9 27.1
33.7 24.1
36.5 26.2
31.6 21.4
39.7 29.2


14.6
10.2
12.2
11.4
9.1
10.9
11.2
10.4
11.4
10.9
10.7
13.5
10.4
16.1
11.2
13.8
12.7
13.2
12.8
10.2
13.1
13.3
12.4
13.4
11.2
12.2
10.2
9.4
14.2
13.2
7.6
12.5


-0.0911 -0.0876
-0.0846
-0.0783 -0.1178
-0.0617 -0.0897
-0.0646
-0.0795
-0.0835
-0.0908
-0.0925 -0.0552
-0.0546 -0.0690
-0.0462 -0.0667
-0.0394 -0.0497
-0.0531 -0.0674
-0.0508
-0.0606 -0.0798
-0.0647 -0.0680
-0.0339 -0.0636
-0.0817 -0.0701
-0.0477
-0.0739 -0.1057
-0.0705
-0.0772 -0.0904
-0.0519 -0.0735
-0.0578
-0.0635 -0.0662
-0.0584
-0.0644 -0.0872
-0.0528 -0.0681
-0.0744 -0.0922
-0.0722 -0.0745
-0.0554 -0.0928
-0.0761 -0.0848


B20Z
B21Z
B22Z
B23Z
B25aZ
B26Z
B28aZ
B29Z
B30Z
B31Z
B32Z
B33Z
B34Z
B35Z
B36Z
B38Z
B39Z
B40Z
B41Z
B42Z
B43Z
B44Z
B45Z
B46Z
B47Z
B49Z
B51Z
B53Z
B55Z
B56aZ
B57Z
B58Z


44.9
40.0
39.4
41.5
43.4
36.3
41.4
41.2
39.1
39.8
43.6
39.2
46.9
38.6
39.9
47.7
33.3
48.4
41.3
42.8
39.0
39.9
46.2
48.2
39.7
41.5
39.9
42.8
40.0
43.1
35.9
47.3


35.6
30.5
30.3
32.7
33.3
26.9
30.3
31.8
28.5
32.0
34.4
29.6
33.4
31.7
29.2
35.2
25.7
34.9
32.7
33.8
30.7
29.8
34.7
36.9
29.7
30.2
28.6
31.7
29.8
31.1
26.5
35.5


18.4
12.8
15.6
13.7
12.0
12.9
13.2
14.0
13.1
13.0
12.7
15.4
11.8
17.9
12.2
15.7
15.1
16.1
15.5
13.1
15.1
16.2
14.9
17.3
13.4
12.3
12.8
10.6
17.0
15.9
9.5
16.0


-0.1005
-0.0986
-0.1068
-0.0798
-0.1201
-0.0732
-0.0714
-0.1291
-0.0604
-0.0765
-0.0744
-0.0572
-0.0548
-0.0460
-0.0371
-0.0560
-0.0752
-0.0863
-0.0831
-0.1087
-0.0617
-0.0857
-0.0798
-0.1109
-0.0779
-0.0035
-0.0986
-0.0522
-0.0782
-0.0808
-0.0969
-0.1072










TABLE 19--continued. Comparison of Mandibular Measurements,
Cremated Group. Statistics Summary.





A COMPARISON OF MANDIBULAR MEASUREMENTS (ram.) FILENAME: MAND-Z
PRELIMINARY X-RAY FINAL X-RAY LOG CHANGE IN SIZE
CREMAT total mandibular total mandibular total mandibular
GROUP height height width height height width height height width
----- --------.-----------+----- ---------------+-------------------
N 32 32 32 22 32 32 22 32 32
AVG 41.63 31.49 14.23 36.08 26.51 11.86 -0.0645 -0.0752 -0.0790
STD 3.60 2.75 2.08 3.17 2.59 1.76 0.0152 0.0161 0.0256
STD ER 0.64 0.49 0.37 0.68 0.46 0.31 0.0032 0.0028 0.0045
----------------------------------------------------------------------
t-TEST Sample t values 19.970 26.497 17.465
Value of t at 95% level 2.080 2.042 2.042
Value of t at 99% level 2.831 2.750 2.750
Average (Antilog) 0.862 0.841 0.834
Upper 95% confidence point 0.875 0.852 0.852
Lower 95% confidence point 0.849 0.830 0.816
AVERAGE SHRINKAGE 13.8% 15.9% 16.6%

95% shrinkage range from 12.5% 14.8% 14.8%
to 15.1% 17.0% 18.4%
CHI-SQUARE Test for normalcy. AVG-0.675STD--0.0748 -0.0861 -0.0963
AVG= -0.0645 -0.0752 -0.0790
AVG+0.675STD=-0.0543 -0.0644 -0.0617


TOTAL HEIGHT
##Obs. Expt.
6 5.5
4 5.5
6 5.5
6 5.5
22 Total
MANDIBULAR HEIGHT
##Obs. Expt.
9 8
5 8
11 8
7 8
32 Total
MANDIBULAR WIDTH
##Obs. Expt.
10 8
6 8
7 8
9 8
32 Total


Dif.Sq
0.25
2.25
0.25
0.25

Dif.Sq
1
9
9
1

Dif.Sq
4
4
1
1


Sum/Expected
0.55
IF Sum/Expected is < 3.60,
the distribution is normal.

Sum/Expected
2.50
IF Sum/Expected is < 3.60,
the distribution is normal.

Sum/Expected
1.25
IF Sum/Expected is < 3.60,
the distribution is normal.


CONCLUSION: In all measurements of cremated mandibular bone,
shrinkage is significant at the 99% level.













REFERENCES


[1] Stewart, T.D., Essentials of Forensic Anthropology,
Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, Springfield, IL., 1979,
pp. 59-68.

[2] Ahlquist, J. and Damsten, 0., "A Modification of
Kerley's Method for the Microscopic Determination of
Age in Human Bone," Journal of Forensic Sciences,
Vol.14, No.1, 1969, pp.205-212.

[3] Bang, G. and Ramm, E., "Determination of Age in Humans
from Root Dentin Transparency," Acta Odontologica
Scandinavia, Vol.28, No.1, 1970, pp.3-35.

[4] Bouvier, M. and Ubelaker, D., "A Comparison of Two
Methods for the Microscopic Determination of Age at
Death," American Journal of Physical Anthropology,
Vol.46, No.3, 1977, pp.391-394.

[5] Burns, K.R. and Maples, W.R., "Estimation of Age from
Individual Adult Teeth," Journal of Forensic Sciences,
Vol.21, No.2, 1976, pp.343-356.

[6] Dequeker, J., Remans, J., Franssen, R., and Waes, J.,
"Aging Patterns of Trabecular and Cortical Bone and
Their Relationship," Calcified Tissue Research, Vol.7,
1971, pp.23-30.

[7] Gustafson, G., "Dental Determination of Age," Journal
of the American Dental Association, Vol.41, No.1,
1950, pp.45-54.

[8] Kerley, E.R., "The Microscopic Determination of Age in
Human Bone," American Journal of Physical Anthropo-
logy, Vol.23, No.1, 1965, pp.149-163.

[9] Kerley, E.R., "Age Determination of Bone Fragments,"
Journal of Forensic Sciences, Vol.14, No.1, 1969,
pp.59-67.

[10] Kerley, E.R. and Ubelaker, D.H., "Revisions in the
Microscopic Method of Estimating Age at Death in Human
Cortical Bone," American Journal of Physical Anthropo-
logy, Vol.49, No.4, 1978, pp.545-546.








[11] Maples, W.R., "An Improved Technique Using Dental
Histology for Estimation of Adult Age," Journal of
Forensic Sciences, Vol.23, No.4, 1978, pp.764-770.

[12] Maples, W.R. and Rice, P.M., "Some Difficulties in the
Gustafson Dental Age Estimations," Journal of Forensic
Sciences, Vol.24, No.1, 1979, pp.168-172.

[13] Stout, S.D. and Gehlert, S.J., "The Relative Accuracy
and Reliability of Histological Aging Methods," Foren-
sic Science International, Vol.15, No.3, 1980, pp.181-
190.

[14] Thompson, D.D., "Age Changes in Bone Mineralization,
Cortical Thickness, and Haversian Canal Area," Calci-
fied Tissue International, Vol.31, No.l, 1980, pp.5-
11.

[15] Thompson, D.D., "Microscopic Determination of Age at
Death in an Autopsy Series," Journal of Forensic Sci-
ences, Vol.26, No.3, 1981, pp.470-475.

[16] Riddick, L., Brogdon, B.G., Lasswell-Hoff, J., and
Delmas, B., "Radiographic Identification of Charred
Human Remains Through Use of the Dorsal Defect of the
Patella," Journal of Forensic Sciences, Vol.28, No.1,
1983, pp.263-267.

[17] Todd, T.W., "The Effect of Maceration and Drying Upon
the Linear Dimensions of the Green Skull," Journal of
Anatomy, Vol.57, 1923, pp.336-356.

[18] Albrecht, G.H., "Humidity as a Source of Measurement
Error on Osteometrics," American Journal of Physical
Anthropology, Vol.60, No.4, 1983, pp.517-522.

[19] Baby, R.S., "Hopewell Cremation Practices," Ohio
Historical Society Papers in Archaeology, Vol.1, 1954,
pp.1-7.

[20] Binford, L.R., "An Analysis of Cremations from Three
Michigan Sites," Wisconsin Archeoloqist, Vol.44, 1963,
pp.98-110.

[21] Buikstra, J. and Goldstein, L., "The Perrins Ledge
Crematory," Reports of Investigation, No.28, 1973,
Springfield: Illinois State Museum.

[22] Webb, W.S. and Snow, C.E., "The Adena People," Reports
in Archaeology and Anthropology, No.6, 1945, Univer-
sity of Kentucky.








[23] Wells, C., "A Study of Cremation," Antiquity, Vol.34,
No.133, 1960, pp.29-37.

[24] Thurman, M.D., and Willmore, L.S., "A Replicative
Cremation Experiment," North American Archaeologist,
Vol.2, No.4, 1980-1981, pp.275-283.

[25] Dokladal, M., "Uber die Moglichkeiten der Identifika-
tion von Knochen aus Leichenbranden," Mitteilungen der
Sektion Anthropologie, Vol.6, 1962, p.15.

[26] Trotter, M., and Peterson, R.R., "Ash Weight of Human
Skeletons in Percent of Their Dry, Fat-Free Weight,"
Anatomical Record, Vol.123, No.3, 1955, pp.341-368.

[27] Dokladal, M., "Ergebnisse Experimanteller Verbrennun-
gen Zur Feststellung Von Form Und Grossenveranderun-
gen Von Menschenknochen Unter Dem Einfluss Von Hohen
Temperaturen," Anthropologie, Vol.8, 1970, pp.3-17.

[28] Herrmann, B., "On Histological Investigations of Cre-
mated Human Remains," Journal of Human Evolution,
Vol.6, No.2, 1977, pp.101-103.

[29] Van Vark, G.N., Some Statistical Procedures for the
Investigation of Prehistoric Human Skeletal Material,
V.R.B. Offsetdrukkerij, Groningen, 1970.

[30] Bradtmiller, B. and Buikstra, J.E., "Effects of Burn-
ing on Human Bone Microstructure: A Preliminary
Study," Journal of Forensic Sciences, Vol.29, No.2,
1984, pp.535-540.

[31] Toto, P.D., "Effect of Age on Water Content in Human
Teeth," Journal of Dental Research, Vol.50, No.5,
1971, pp.1284-1285.

[32] Clement, A.J.. "Variations in the Microstructure and
Biochemistry of Human Teeth," In Brothwell, D.R.,
(Ed.), Dental Anthropology, Symposium of the Society
for the Study of Human Biology, Pergamon Press, New
York, 1963, pp.245-269.

[33] Farrell, W.L., "Forensic Identification of Burn Vic-
tims," Journal of the American Dental Association,
Vol.99, No.1, 1979, pp.51-56.

[34] Johanson, G. and Saldeen, T., "Identification of Burnt
Victims with the Aid of Tooth and Bone Fragments,"
Journal of Forensic Medicine, Vol.16, No.l, 1969,
pp.16-25.









[35] Mannerberg, F., "0m dimensionella forandringar hos
tander efter uttorkning och efter branning samt
viktsforandringar hos tander efter branning," Svenska
Tandlakare-Sallskapets Festskrift, Stockholm, 1951,
pp.168-187.

[36] Bell, G.L., "Observed Affects of High Temperatures on
Extracted Teeth and Resected Jaws," Abstract F21,
American Academy of Forensic Sciences Program, Feb.
1987, p.94.

[37] Shipman, P., Foster, G., and Schoeninger, M., "Burnt
Bones and Teeth: an Experimental Study of Color, Mor-
phology, Crystal Structure and Shrinkage," Journal
of Archaeological Science, Vol.11, No.4, 1984, pp.307-
325.

[38] Blanton, P. and Biggs, N.L., "Density of Fresh and
Embalmed Human Compact and Cancellous Bone," American
Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol.29, No.1, 1968,
pp. 39-44.

[39] Lane, J. and Ralis, Z.A., "Changes in Dimensions of
Large Cancellous Bone Specimens During Histological
Preparation as Measured on Slabs from Human Femoral
Heads," Calcified Tissue International, Vol.35, No.1,
1983, pp.1-4.

[40] Carroll, J.R., Physical and Technical Aspects of Fire
and Arson Investigation, Charles C Thomas, Spring-
field, 1979, pp.51.

[41] Eckert, W.G., "The Medicolegal and Forensic Aspects of
Fires," American Journal of Forensic Medicine and
Pathology, Vol.2, No.4, 1981, pp.347-357.

[42] Stout, S.D., "Histological Structure and Its Preserva-
tion in Ancient Bone," Current Anthropology, Vol.19,
No.3, 1978, pp.601-604.

[43] Stout, S.D. and Simmons, D.J., "Use of Histology in
Ancient Bone Research," Yearbook of Physical Anthropo-
logy, Vol.22, 1979, pp.228-249.

[44] Stout, S.D. and Teitelbaum, S.L., "Histological Analy-
sis of Undecalcified Thin Sections of Archeological
Bone," American Journal of Physical Anthropology,
Vol.44, No.2, 1976, pp.263-270.

[45] Merz, W.A. and Schenk, R.K., "Quantitative Structural
Analysis of Human Cancellous Bone," Acta Anatomica,
Vol.75, No.1, 1970, pp. 54-66.









[46] Merz, W.A. and Schenk, R.K., "A Quantitative Histolo-
gical Study on Bone Formation in Human Cancellous
Bone," Acta Anatomica, Vol.76, No.1, 1970, pp.1-15.

[47] Jowsey, J., "Studies of Haversian Systems in Man and
Some Animals," Journal of Anatomy, Vol.100, No.4,
1966, pp.857-864.

[48] Reid, S.A. and Boyde, A., "Changes in the Mineral
Density Distribution in Human Bone with Age: Image
Analysis Using Backscattered Electrons in the SEM,"
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, Vol.2, No.1,
1987, pp.13-22.

[49] Black, J. and Mattson, R.U., "Relationship Between
Porosity and Mineralization in the Haversian Osteon,"
Calcified Tissue International, Vol.34, 1982, pp. 332-
336.

[50] Dennen, W.H., Principles of Mineralogy, Ronald Press
Company, New York, 1959.