The effects of hypnotic suggestion on response to subliminal auditory cues

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Title:
The effects of hypnotic suggestion on response to subliminal auditory cues
Physical Description:
xv, 341 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Sloan, Virginia W
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
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non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1995.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 309-340).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Virginia W. Sloan.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002070378
notis - AKQ8645
oclc - 34381804
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Full Text












THE EFFECTS
ON RESPONSE TO


OF HYPNOTIC
SUBLIMINAL


SUGGESTION
AUDITORY CUES


VIRGINIA


SLOAN


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT











ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I would


many


like


people


expr


who


ess


have


my deepest


helped


appreciation


to make


to a few


dissertation


possible.


heartfelt


gratitude


admiration


Dr. Harry


Grater,


patience,


encouragement,


and


gentle


guidance


through


even


most


discouraging portions


of the


task.


indebted


to him


model


which


he has


for


me as


a practicing


psychologist,


implicit


confidence


ability


to follow my


inner


guidance


successfully


through


process


, as well


many


hours


he spent


advi


sing


reading

heart.


my manuscript


would


and

like


endeavoring


express


to bring

my deep a


a smile


appreciation


Jim Morgan


whose experienced counsel


and enthusiasm about


the


subject


hypnosis


unconscious


mind


whose


personal


encouragement


have


been


a great


inspiration


me in


project.


David


Suchman


and


. Robert


Ziller


have


provided


wise


counsel,


friendship,


and


confidence


abiliti


throughout


university


work


, and


deeply thank

appreciation


;f


'ul to

to Dr.


them.


Alan


would


Agresti


also


whose


like


patience


express


, expert


and ability to make


the challenge of


statistical


analysis


more


anncni bl e


has


provided


a solid


rock


uDon


which


could


build


.


&


-----


k









my progress


work


consistently


and


collaboratively


benefit


would


also


like


express


gratitude


Dr. Greg


Neimeyer


whose


subtle


, yet


solid,


support


throughout graduate


school


been


great


value


arriving


the


completion


of thi


project.


And


a special


vote


of thanks


goes


James


Booth,


who


willingly


made


time


lend


expertise


Agresti'


assisting


absence,


with


a valuable


final


examination


contribution whi


ch allowed me


graduate


the


present


time.


Al Glance


is the generous and


trusting


individual


who


lent


audiometer,


although


had


never


met


thereby


study


made


which


possible


most


to design


desired.


and


would


carry


like


type


express


exceptional


debt


gratitude


him


for


favor,


which


once


again


reaffirmed my


faith


in human


kindness


Also


owe


special


vote


thanks


Bob


McPeek,


whose


technical


expertise


and


tirel


ess


efforts created and


, later,


refined the


digital


audio


disks


upon


which


the


study


was


based


gratitude


goes,


additionally


John


Dixon


whose


statistical


expertise


pati


ence


guided


me toward


solutions


to data


analysis


dilemmas


which


would


have


otherwi


exceeded


my capacity


es.


wish


thank


Meli


ssa


Gray


countless


hours


of her









allowed


me the


freedom


progress


toward


this


end.


Denise


Pendexter


Miranda


Monkhorst


also


deserve


heartfelt


thanks


for their


accurate


and good


-humored assistance with


task


of data


collection.


And


lastly,


from


the


bottom


heart


, I must


sing


prai


ses


my family


members


who


have


sacrificed


their


time,


helped


and


borne


with


me in my


trial


and


preoccupations,


believed


importance


my climbing


top


the


mountain.


patient


, loving,


exceptional


husband,


Lou


, my


beloved


parents


, Marjorie


and Harvey


Sloan


, and


incredibly


capable and humanistic


sisters


and brother will


never


know how


big


a part


they


had


in creating


in me the


perseverance,


positivity


and


strength


bring


thi


long


project


successful


conclusion.


And


my children,


Arielle


and


Zeth,


who


have


never


known


life


without


Mom


graduate


school


owe


greatest


strength


, joy,


and


inspiration.


For


the


sustaining


love,


affirmation,


and


support


these


cherished


people


and


the


infinite


resources


the


life


spirit


within


am truly


grateful.
















TABLE


OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


LIST

LIST


OF TABLES

OF FIGURES


xiv


ABSTRACT

CHAPTERS


INTRODUCTION
Theoretical


S S S S S S 1


Frame


work


and


Supporting


Rese


arch


S S S S S S 51


Subliminal
Hypnosis
Statement


Stimulation


S S S S S S S 54


S S S S S S S S S S S S 59


the


Probli


Purpose .
Delimitations


Definition


Terms


S S S SS S S 520


REVIEW


OF THE


Contemporary
Mind .


LITERATURE


Perspectives


S S S S S S S 526


on the


Unconsc


ious


storical


Context


Neuropsychological


S S SS S S S27


Contributions


Theoretical


Perspectives


S S S S S 5 531


Issues


of Definition


and


Terminology


Conclusion


S~~ S S S S 37


Subliminal


Perce


ption


S S S S S S S S 5 538


Subliminality
Subliminal


versus


supraliminal


effects


Subliminality
perception


and


unconscious


Commercially


Help T
Research


-Prepar


apes .
on the


ed Subliminal


Effects


Self


of Auditory


Slbhl iminal


Me~Ssacxi


es . . 45


) I II I II I i


. 36









Semantic


Me
Af
At
Ps
Be
Dr
Methodo
Subli
Mo
In
Du
Ma
Ba
Ou


mory
fect or
titudes
ychophy
havior
eams an


log
min
del
ten
rat
ski
sel
tco


al
R
fo
I-


Is


v


processing

energy le
or cognit
biological
and habits
d free ass
Factors i
research
r sublimin
of stimul


of su
techni
eval
measure


bl


1mmn


vel
ion
mea


sures


ociations
n Auditory


al
us


al


Seach
earch


stimulus


ques
uation
es


Conclusio
Hypnosis .
Theories
Hypnotic
Process
Hypnotic
Measureme
of Tran
Hypnotic
Percept
Decr
pe


Concl
Crossover
Percepti
Purpose of


n


of Hy
Inves
es
Sugge
nt of
ce
Sugge
ion .
eases
rcept


Augmentat
usion .
Studies:
on .
Present


pnosis .
tigation


Uncon


stability .
Hypnotizability


* .
stion
* .
and
ion
ions


and


cious
cious


and


Depth


Sensory


alterations i

in perception


Hypnosis

Research


and


Subliminal


METHODS .
Subjects
Instruments
Harvard G
Suscept
Long Stan
Auditory


Proce


S
Pos
Beh
dur
Sub
Fir


ch
ess
ora


Randomi;
Trm


* 0 S 0 5
~ ~ ~ ~ 0 0 S, S


. .
roup
ibil
ford
Thre
Audi
ion


1


* .
Sc
ity
St
sho
ome
Que


ale of Hypnotic
, Form A .
ate Scale .
Id Evaluation U
try . .
stionnaire .


Observation


Recruitment
passion
zation and B
eatment cond


Form


linding
itions


` ` `


!









RESULTS


Ass


umptions


Testing


of Rese


Base


arch


line
Null


Compari
Hypothe


son
ses


Hypothesis
Hypothesis
Hypothesis
Hypothesis


Hypothe
Hypothe
Hypothe
Hypothe
Hypothe


Summary


* 0 *
* S S S S S S S


SlS


of Findings


* ~ ~ ~ S S S 0 0
* S S 0


Relationship


Scores


of Long


the


Harvard


Stanford


Group


State


Scal


Scal


Hypnotic


Susc


eptibility


Diff


erences


HGSHS


Leg


Crossing


Reanaly


S1s


Without


Borderline


Hypnoti


Subjects


DISCUSSION


Summary


and


Response
Response


Interpre


station


to Sublimina
to Hypnotic


of Findings
Cues .


Suggestion


Plus


Subliminal


Cues


Overall


Susce


Treatment


ptibility


Effects


Effects


Problems


and


Limitations


the Study


Impli


cations


Future


Rese


arch


Conclu


sons


APPENDICES


INFORMED


PRE


CONSENT


-INTERVENTION


BASIC


INFORMATION


FORM . .

QUESTIONNAIRE.

FORM .


POST-SESSIO

BEHAVIORAL


QUESTIONNAIRE


OBSERVATION


FORM


DEBRIEFING


SCRIPTS


gF.g5RATON


ONTE


fl1..RRTFNFTN


SCRIPT


S S S S S S S


,


[










LONG


STANFORD


STATE


SCALE


OF HYPNOTIC


DEPTH


AUDITORY


TESTING


RESPONSE


FORMS


PRE-INDUCTION


TALK


ON HYPNOSIS.


PRACTICE


INDUCTION.


SESSION

SESSION


PLUS


TWO

TWO


HANDOUT

SCRIPTS


-SUBLIMINALS


WORD


LISTS.


BASELINE
CONDITION


AND


HYPNOSIS-


288


REFERENCE


LIST


BIOGRAPHICAL


SKETCH















LIST


OF TABLES


Tabi


page


Suceptibility


Level


Tre


atment


Group


Analysis
Group


of Base


line


Auditory


Acuity


Treatment


141


Analysis


of Base


line


Behavioral


Criteria


Treatment


Group


Repeated
Changes


Measures


Analy


Treatment


of Auditory


Acuity


Group


Means


and


Variable


Standard
s at Base


Deviations


line


and


of Auditory


During


Acuity


Intervention


Analysis
Acuity


of Between
Variables


Treatment


ects


on Auditory


Analys


of Between


Behavioral


Treatment


ects


Variables


Means


Variables


Standard


Time


Deviations


of Behavioral


of Intervention


Analysis
Session


of Between


Que


Tre


stionnaire


atment
(PSQ)


Effects
Cognitiv


on Post-
e Variable


Means


Standard


Deviations


of Post


-Session


Questionnaire


Variabi


Analysis


Auditory


Susceptibility


Level


Lcuity
and


Variable


Treatment


Group


Analysis
Suscep


of Behavioral


tibility


Analysis of
t-u -- 4 *


Post


Level


-Session


ttrr~1.% nfl nF


fl


Variable


Treatment


Questionnaire
rnll 1 an^rrn OCu


Collapsed
Group .


(PSQ)
nan h i ,









Analysis


of Supplementary


Questionnaire
Susceptibility


(PSQ)
Level


Post


Variables


Treatment


-Session


Collaps


Group


Means,


Standard


Deviations


, and


Test Stati


stics


Crossing


Measures


, by


Auditory
Effect


Behavioral


Acuity


Variables


Variables


: Summary


: Summary


of Signific


of Signifi


cant


Effects


Cognitive
Effects


Variables


Summary


of Signifi


cant















LIST


OF FIGURES


Figure


Histogram:


Age


of Subjects


HGSHS


Susceptibility


Level


137


Speech D
During

Speech R


ete


action


Threat


Intervention


recognition


should
, by


Thresho


SDT),


Base


Treatment

Id (SRT),


line


Group


Base


and


148


line


and


Word


During


Intervention,


scrimination


Score


Treatment


at 25 dB


Group


(WDS


Baseline


and


During


Intervention,


atment


Group


Word


scrimination


(WDS-15),


at Base


Score


line


at -15 dB S/N


During


Ratio


Intervention,


Treatment


Group


Green


Intervention


section,


, by


Base


Tre


line


atment


Post-


Condition


Green


Reward


Treatment


Selection
Condition


, Post


-Intervention,


SInstances


During


of Leg


Cross


Intervention,


, at Base


Treatment


line


Group


Duration


During


of Crossed


Intervention


Legs


, by


, Bas


Tre


line


atment


and


Group


. Instances


During


of Looking
Intervention


Behind,


, by


at Bas


Treatment


eline


and


Group


4-11


. Response
About


to Indirect
Subliminal M


Ques


tions


messages


, by


(PSQ 1, 2,
Treatment


Condition


x~aae









4-13. Percent
Cues


Responding


, by


That


Treatment


They


Heard


Subliminal


Condition


-14. Identification


(PSQ8),


Subliminal


Treatment


Cues


From


Condition


. Total


Post


-Session


Questionnaire


Score,


Treatment


Condition


4-16


4-17


. Response
(PSQ5)


. Speech


to Subliminal


, by


Treatment


Detection


Collapsed


and


High)


Compound
Condition


Threshold


Susceptibility


and


Treatment


(iSDT)
Level
Group .


Word


Primes


[Adjusted]
(Low-Medium


, by


4-18


. Speech


Recognition


Treatment


G


Susceptibility


Threshold


roup
Leve


(iSRT)


d Collapsed
(Low-Medium


[Adjust


and


High)


. Word


scrimination


[Adjusted],


Level


Score


Collapsed


(Low-Medium


and


at 25 dB


(iWDS


Susceptibility


High)


Tre


atment


Condition


. Word


scrimination


[Adjusted],


Level


Score


Collapsed


(Low-Medium


at -15 dB S/N


Susc


High)


(iWDS


-15)


eptibility


and


Treatment


Condition


4-21


. Green


Selection


Post


-Intervention


(iPEN)


, by


Collapsed


and


High)


Susceptibility
and Treatment


Level


(Low-Medium


Condition


. Green


Reward


(iREWARD)


Selection


, by


(Low-Medium
Condition .


Post


Collapsed


High)


-Intervention


Susc


and


eptibility


Level


Treatment


. Instances
(iLEGS)


of Leg


Crossing


[Adjusted],


Susceptibility
and Treatment


Level


During I
Collapsed


(Low-Medium


intervention

and High)


Condition


. Duration


by
and


of Leg


Collapsed


High)


and


Crossing


Susc


(iLEGSMIN)


eptibility


Treatment


Level


[Adjusted],
(Low-Medium


Condition









4-26.


Response to Indirect
(PSQ 1, 2, &3), by
Level (Low-Medium
Condition .


Questions
Collapsed
and High)


about Subliminals
Susceptibility
and Treatment


4-27.


Percent Who Believed They Were Presented
Subliminal Cues, by Collapsed Susceptibility
Level (Low-Medium and High) and
Treatment Condition . . .


Percent Who Stated That
Cues, by Collapsed Sus
(Low-Medium and High)
Condition . .


Correct Responses
Subliminal Cues
Susceptibility
and Treatment C


They Heard Subliminal
ceptibility Level
and Treatment


on Lists of Possible
(PSQ8), by Collapsed
Level (Low-Medium and
condition . .


High)


4-30.


Total Post-Test
Collapsed Sus
and High) and


Score (PSQTOTAL), by
ceptibility Level (Low-Medium
Treatment Condition .


4-31.


Response to
(PSQ5), by
(Low-Mediu
Condition


Subliminal
Collapsed
m and High)


Compound Word
Susceptibility
and Treatment


Primes
Level


4-32.


Hypnosis-Subliminal Group: Comparison
Average LSSS Score at Baseline and
Experimental Intervention . .


of
During


4-33.


Hypnoti
Femal


Susceptibility


Sex:


Males


4-28.




4-29.
















Abstract


of Dissertation


sented


Graduate


School


the


University


Requirements


of Florida


Degree


Partial I
of Doctor


Fulfillment of
of Philosophy


the


THE


EFFECTS


OF HYPNOTIC


SUGGESTION


ON RESPONSE


TO SUBLIMINAL


AUDITORY


CUES


Virginia


December


. Sloan

1995


Chairperson:


Major


Dr. Harry


Department


Grater


: Psychology


This


study


investigated


short


-term


cognitive


and


behavioral


response


to subliminal


auditory


cues


impact


that


hypnotic


suggestion


improved


stening


had


upon


response.


The


relationship


hypnotic


susceptibility,


measured


Harvard


Group


Scale


Hypnotic


Susceptibility


: Form


response


subliminal


cues


was


explored


Subliminal


cues


were


presented


through


audiometer


at 25 dB


, masked


40 dB white


noise


One


hundred


thirteen undergraduate volunteers


were randomly a


signed among


three


treatment conditions


hypnosis


plus


subliminal auditory


cues,


subliminal


auditory


cues


only,


repetition-only


control.

ro c nnn a o a


Auditory


tiaEraL


acuity


mo a aiirorl


behavioral


1n -a'.:-


---a


cognitive


- n a


.i ~ IU ii *U- nllE *I3


-1i n+r170nI-i flfl









The group that received only subliminal


cues demonstrated


most


widespread


response


. In


group,


significant


within


-subjects


effects


were


found


on three


four


auditory


acuity


variables


Differences


between


the


subliminal


group


control


were


found


four


auditory


acuity


variabi


, three


five


behavioral


variables


, and


three


five


cognitive


variable


es.


The


subliminal


subliminals


group


cues


-only


that


received


responded


group.


hypnotic


somewhat


Subjects


less


in thi


suggestions


strongly


group


with


than


demonstrated


significant


within-subject


effects


two


four


auditory


acuity


measures


Differences


were


found between


the


hypno


S1S-


subliminals


group


and


the


controls


four


auditory


acuity


variable


five


cognitive


measures


Measures


the


effects


of susceptibility


on subliminal


response


were


limited


small


percentage


susceptibility


subjects


113


scored


below


Thus


valid


comparisons


between


high


low


susceptibility


subgroups


could


not


made.


When


medium


susceptibility


levels


were collapsed


, significant


differences


from


the


high


susceptibility


level


(HGSHS


scores


above


were


found


only


on two


of the


five


cognitive


variable


within


subliminals-only


group.
















CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


impossible


creativity,


and


unconscious


understand


psychosomatics


- Leon


without


Chertok


human
having


(1981,


behavior,
studied


. 581)


The problem
psychology.


unconscious


-Sigmund


Freud


is the


(1974


problem


[1900],


of
611).


Theoretical


Framework


and


SuDDortincr


Research


conscious


ess


the


meat


human


existence,


merely


tip


mental


iceberg


The


realm


non-


conscious


cognition


has


been


subject


animated


philosophical


scientific and practical


debate


for many years.


Whyte


(1978)


traces


the concept


of the


unconscious


back


to the


time


Descartes


Leibni


1890,


William


James


presented


a series


of arguments


and


again


st the


stence


unconscious


mental


processes


Freud


identify


Bernheim'


demonstrations of post


-hypnotically suggested behavior


in 1889


Breuer'


studi


hysteria


the


early


1900s


the


foundations


theories


of repression and


unconscious ego


defense


mechanisms


matq, a 1 .4.
..


.8- 1~ a


(Edmonston,


-4 a rn tt--


1986;

Ca.-


Stress


& Shevrin,


,rtnancrctn I ati


1969)


*wn nil


*Uf~l 'rni *iS* IT Iu *1* Ul *r -1 1, i* 1 'U 11 1 rfU *~f ft 1L I f I1 t


Ckh











imbuing the


unconscious with


substantial


, mysterious


powers


influence


shape


behavior


through


dreams


defense


mechanisms


, instincts,


wishes,


and


memories


Since


1950s


, the


field


psychology


has


undergone


several


waves


skepticism


(described


well


Greenwald,


1992


during


which


theorists


(stemming


originally


from


behaviorists


the


line


Skinner)


dismi


ssed


the


unconscious


summarily


scientifically


unverifiable


researchers


struggled


to begin


affirming


and


delineating


powers


proce


unconscious.


ssing theoretical


framework


1960s


the


cognition


information-


popularized


cognitive


psychology


once


again


included


both


unconscious


and


conscious


facets


processing,


separated


faculty


attention.


framework


attention


was


viewed


locus


conscious


agency


Cognitive


activation


and


establishment and retrieval


of memory


were conceptualized as


accomplishable


through


both


unconscious


conscious


routes


(Greenwald,


1992


Loftus


& Klinger


, 1992).


last


nature


scientists


quarter


function


down


century,


the


variety


efforts


non-conscious


widely


under


mind


differing


stand


have


avenues


rese


arch.


Among


these


are


subliminal


stimulation


(including


subliminal


psychodynamic


activation


subliminal


semantic











effects),


as well


as the


burgeoning


fields


of neuropsychology


and


neuropsychophysiology


Two


these


areas,


subliminal


stimulation


and


hypnosis


have


been


selected


as the


focus


study.


point


, it


seems


safe


that


general


(though


definitely


unanimous)


consensus


emerged


psychology


throughout


the


world


that


some


unconscious


properties


the


mind


indeed


exist


influence

Chertok,


both

1982;


perception

Caputi,


and


1884;


behavior

Shevrin


(Greenwald,


Dickman


1992;

1980;


Meichenbaum


what


Gilmore,


unconscious


1984;


how


Kihlstrom


"smart"


et al, 1992)


or what


However


limits


are,


how


and


what


extent


governs


behavior


physiological


proce


sses


are still


major questions


for research


exploration


and


dispute.


Terminology


varied


with


research


paradigms


"Implicit


"non


-conscious,


"sub


conscious


"preconscious,


"subception"


and


"perception


without


awareness"


are


terms


which


have


been


favored


one


or more


researcher


as replacements


concept


"unconscious


There

field


little


consensus


differences


abundant


among


these


sentiment,


terms


Whyte


(1978)


very


aptly


observes,


"the


trouble


not


that


they


are











include


the


above-li


sted


concepts.


However,


the


term


"unconscious"


widely


used


throughout


the


field


today


with


broader


application


and


, therefore


will


used


study,


despite


risk of confusion


with


one


of the


more


specific


meanings


given


Freud


, Kihl


strom


and


others


Subliminal


Stimulation


Within


the


area


of subliminal


perception,


one goal


of the


methodological


rigor


which


evolved


over


the


two


decades


has


been


achieve


demonstrable


separation


conscious


influences


from


capacity


ascribed


unconscious.


Problematically


research paradigms have adopted


differing


definitions


of what


unconscious


cognition


Some


selective


attention


, subliminal


psychodynamic


activation,


dichoptic


viewing,


dichotic


listening,


subliminal


affective


conditioning)


have


defined


the


domain


the


unconscious


anyv


cognition


which


outside


attention,


in other words,


which


registered


by the


mind


but


unattended


. This


research


explores


the


level


analy


and


memory


res


idues


produced


such


stimuli.


Other


lines


research


subliminal


semantic


activation


, implicit


memory


perception,


memory


illusions)


have


defined


the


unconscious


more


liberally


coalition


which


cannot











attention


awareness


This


definition


useful


research


the


ways


which


cognition


and


action


are


influenced by


events which


were experienced but not remembered


(Greenwald,


1992).


Since the


1950s


commercial


advertisers


movies


and rock


music


groups


have


aroused


public


interest


the


unconscious


effect

for ir


subliminal


evasion


messages


personal


behavior


privacy


and


Numerous


the


potential


reports


have


reached


the


press


movie


theaters


flashing


subliminal


messages

playing


increase


subliminal


of refreshments


messages


reduce


, department


stores


shoplifting,


companies


using


subliminal


sexual


stimuli


increase


impact


of their


maga


zine


televi


sion


advertisements


. These


sensational


claims


and


public


curiosity


they


provoked


provided


additional


impetus


psychologists


search


answers

In the


the


mid-


relevant


1980s


questions


auditory


(George


subliminal


& Jennings,

technique


1975).

called


"backmasking


" purportedly used by the rock group Judas


convey


satanic


messages


, was


implicated


suicide


two


teenagers


(Loftus


& Klinger


, 1992


At the


time,


there was


little


evidence


available


to support


or deny


validity


these


claims,


but


several


studi


done


since


then


have


failed


support


alleged


ability


process


act


upon











testing


the


mind'


capacity


absorb


respond


subliminal


messages


(Merikle


Skanes,


1992


Swingle


, 1992


Most


the


work


on subliminal


perception


dealt


with


visual


stimuli


. Research


subliminal


perception


initially


approached


investigation


boundary


consciousness


what


registered


outside


them


testing the psychophysiological


limits


of human perception and


trying


to establish


a methodology


which


it could


be agreed


that


the


mind


was


indeed


receiving


messages


which


was


not


consciously


aware.


eesman


and


Merikle


(1984,


1986)


introduced


fundamental


stinction


between


subjective


objective


thresholds


conscious


perception,


which


has


been


adopted


subsequent


experimentation.


The


objective


threshold


was


defined


as a


level


of stimulus


presentation


which


forced


-choice


responding


indicates


no more


than


chance


level


(50%)


accuracy


perception,


whereas


subjective


threshold


level


greater


energy


which


subjects


report


claim)


awareness


stimulus


esence


chance


level


accuracy


A large


volume


of evidence


today


indicates


that


the


body


does


register


stimuli


of which


does


not


have


any


conscious


awareness,


through


visual,


auditory


and


tactil


modes.


Subliminal


processing


simple


stimuli


has


been


reliably


consistently


reported


through


three


sensory











stimuli


presented


the


area


below


the


objective


threshold


and


more


complex


(multiword


multipicture)


stimuli


continue


controversial


(Cheesman


Meriki


, 1984


Fisher


, 1975;


Holender,


1986a,


1986b;


Meriki


& Skanes,


1992


Indeed,


Greenwald


(199


argues


in hi


overview of


research


subliminal


cognition


that


the capacity of


the unconscious mind


analyze


and


process


stimuli


appear


"severely


limited


defying


proposes


researchers


"two-word challenge"

demonstrate that


the


attention


eld,

less


cognition


can


, in


fact,


extract


meaning


from


two-word


more)


sequence


Probably


best


known


of subliminal


research


been subliminal


psychodynamic


activation


(SPA)


spearheaded by


Silverman


(For


a comprehensive review of


these


findings,


refer


to Silverman,


1983,


or Weinberger


Hardaway


, 1990)


. For


most


part,


these


studies


have


involved


subliminal


visual


stimuli


presented


tachi


stoscopically


for periods of


only a


seconds,


eight


4-millisecond


flashes


5-second


interval


Numerous


studi


have


shown


that


certain


psychodynamically


oriented


messages


(most


commonly


"Mommy


are


one


, although


outside


the


realm


reportable


consciousness,


have temporary measurable


effects on behavioral


factors


, such


academic


performance,


anxiety


level,











theoretical


significance


these


findings


with


respect


psychoanalytic


theory


unconscious


processing


has


been


intensely


debated


(Balay


& Shevrin


, 1988;


Balay


et al.,


1989;


Fudin


& Benjamin


, 1991;


Moore,


1989;


Weinberger,


1989)


It has


been


argued


that


the


auditory


mode


of subliminal


communication


is more amenable


to clinical


adaptation


than


visual


because


can


so easily


be reproduced


the


form


portable


attention


audiotape


or refined


does


machinery


not


(Swingle,


require


1992


such


Urban


focused


, 1992


However,


there


still


a great


deal


of disagreement


as to the


comply


exity


and


duration


auditory


messages


which


can


absorbed


subliminally


and


how


frequently


and


rapidly


they


should be


1979;


repeated


Merikle


to present


for what


Skanes,


a clear


1992


stimulus


length


of time


Whether


below


the


(Cacioppo

is more


auditory


Petty,


effective


threshold


intensity


masked


stimulus


below


the


threshold


discriminability


also


unresolved


(Miller


, 1991;


Mitchell


1992


Urban


, 1992,


1993)


As with


visual


stimuli,


appears


that


greater


auditory


effect


stimuli

than t


presented


hose


at a subliminal


presented


level


at a supraliminal


have

level


although


the


reasons


are


not


fully


understood


(Borgeat


1985;


Zenhausern


Hansen,


1974)


. Swingl


(199


presents a


body


of research


indicating


that


subliminal











help


tapes


prepared


commercially


research


purposes


concluded


pl acebo


that


upon


they


the


had


targeted


no therapeutic


behavior


effect


(Merikle


beyond


1988;


that


Mitchell,


1992;


Russell


1991)


Urban


(1992


1993)


argues


convincingly


that


the


field


must


develop


standardized


methodology


, suggesting


that


difficulties


replicating


confirming


ectiveness


subliminal


auditory


stimulation


stem


from


the


milarity


protocols


and


methods,


message


which


was


leaves


presented


unclear


such


whether


way


subliminal


effectively


received


the subject.


Hypnosis


Hypnosis


which


Freud'


bears


the


reputation


Breuer'


attention


being


was


first


vehi


cle


drawn


demonstrations


behavior


which


they


believed


completely


unconsciously


motivated


(Stross


& Shevrin


, 1969)


Procedures


using


hypnotic


trance


and


suggestion


effective medium for


"magically"


promoting mental


and physical


healing originated


in ancient times


(Edmondston,


1986;


Gravitz


& Gerton


, 1984)


Aside


from


impact


on Freud'


theories


unconscious,


research on hypnosi


has al


been


identified


as a major


influence on


the development


of the


psychologies











hypnosis


who


have


utilized


the


human


facility


fluent


hypnotic


communication


with


unconscious


acceptance


suggestion


to motivate


a wide


range


of behavior


(Cheek,


1994;


Erickson


& Rossi,


1981;


Hilgard


, 1986,


1987;


Ros


, 1986)


New


applications


and


techniques


hypnosis


, bearing


ostensible


clinical


validity,


emerge every year


in the medical


and


psychotherapy


literature.


The


same


skeptical


scientific


credibility which has


shaped


the course of


research


subliminal


stimulation


challenged


researchers


hypnosis


to explain


the


basis


clinical


success


(Coe,


1992


Fromm


Shor,


1979;


Gruenewald,


1982


Hilgard


, 1987


Kihlstrom,


1984,


1985,


1987)


. Thus,


one of


two


major tre


recent research


on hypnosis


consists of


studi


evaluating the


effectiveness


hypnosi


treatment


widening


panorama


(Hilgard


of physi


, 1987;


cal,


psychology


Kihlstrom,


1985,


and


1987;


emotional


Rossi,


s-eases


1986)


other


major


trend


focuses


describing


the


hypnotic


experience and documenting scientifically how,


to what extent,


and


under


what


circumstances


operates.


includes


questions


of what


hypnosis


actually


, methods


access


and


documenting


unconscious


proce


sses


, controversy


over


exis


tence


altered


state,


investigation


altered


perception,


amnesia


and


hypermnesia


, questions


depth











1982


Hilgard


1987


Kihlstrom,


1984,


1987


Orne


1977;


Ratke


Spanos,


1981;


Rossi,


1986;


Rossi


Cheek


1988;


Stross


Shevrin,


1968


, 1969


Tart,


1970,


1979)


Central


scientific


explanation


of hypnosis


understanding


what


characters


tics


and


effects


are


essential


hypnosis


Perry


(199


submits


that


the


term


"hypnosi


meaning


excessive


morbid


sleep


anachroni


misnomer which


promotes


misunderstanding


of the


proc


ess


modern


terms.


definition


as a


"trance


state"


been


challenged


Coe,


Barber


, Spanos,


others,


who


propose


that


hypnotic


hyperresponsiveness


suggestion


can


often


be explained


as a mutually-agreed-upon


social


influence


situation,


involving


compliance


expectations,


fantasy,


role-


playing,


role-relevant skills


and transference


(Barber,


1965;


Barber


De Moor,


1972


Coe


1973;


Coe


& Sarbin,


1977


Spanos


Hewitt,


1980;


Sutcliffe,


1961)


Others,


such


Orne


(1977),


Graham


(1977)


Rossi


Cheek


(1988),


dePascali


Penna


(1990)


, point


out


that


there


definitive


evidence


neurochemical


changes


occurring


in the


central


nervous


associated


with


hypnosis


and


other


altered


states


consciousness


constitutes


Other


a unique


evidence


psychological


indicates

state in


that


evolving


hypnosis

processes


that


are


qualitatively


different


from


waking


consciousness


~I











(1973)


and


Perry


(199


recommend


synthesis


the


positions,


phenomena


the "state"

while the


position

"non-st


focusing


:ate"


position


within


-subject


contributes


perspective


on influences


external


the subject


Most


research


suggests


that


under


normal


clini


laboratory conditions,


hypnotic


suggestion alone


not


likely


to induce


an individual


to commit acts


against


which


or she


deep


moral


convictions


(Conn,


1981;


Levitt


et al.,


1972


Udolf


1992


However


how much


power


hypnotic


suggestion has


influence


behavior


outside


conscious


awareness


volition


and


who


has


cense


access


that


power


has


been


subject


of heated


ethical


legal


debates


since


the


early


1980s


(Kihlstrom


, 1984,


1985


, 1987


Scheflin


& Shapiro,


1989;


Sloane


, 1981;


Udolf,


1992


The


experience


involuntarin


ess


known


as the


classic


suggestion


effect,


one


central


characteristic


hypnotic


experience


through


which


unconscious


processes


are


manif


est


and


which


has


been


defined


assessed


standard


susceptibility


sca


(Bowers


et al


1988;


Stross


Shevrin,


1969;


Weitzenhoffer,


1980).

reports


addition,

hypnotic


considerable

hypermnesia


legal


used


debate

uncover


surrounds

criminal


evidence


A number


case


studi


both


the


psychological


and


the


judicial


literature


, report


forgotten


factual











Increase


testimony


false


recollection


unreliable


legal


occurs,


purposes


rendering


(Erdelyi,


such


1988;


Kihlstrom,


1977,


1987;


Sloane


, 1981)


. Another


parameter


duration


post-hypnotic


suggestion


, has


only


been


investigated


a few


studi


Evidence


exists


that


certain


suggestions


can


last


years


some


highly


hypnoti


zable


subjects


, although


curve


responsiveness


seems


to fade


over


time


(Berrigan


et al


1991;


Edwards


, 1963).


From


time


development


Stanford


Scal


Hypnotic


Susceptibility


(Weitzenhoffer


Hilgard,


1959),


hypnotizability


and


factors


affecting


have


been


avidly


explored


and


debated.


In 1987,


Hilgard


concluded


that


now clear that


there


exists a


reasonably


stable


and measurable


hypnotic


talent


under


ordinary


life


situations"


249)


Individual


differences


hypnotizability


have


been


found


be stable


over


, 1974).


intervals


However,


characteristics


make


as long


still u:

a person


as several


resolve

a good


are


subject


years (M

questions


[organ


what


hypnosis


what

what


degree

impact


hypnotizability


either


can


"susceptibility"


learned


or "depth"


improved,


trance,


measured


standardized


sca


, has


on the


outcome


or power


the


trance


experience


. Some


correlates


of hypnotizability


which


have


been


identified


are


absorption,


capacity


vivid











peripheral


stimuli


(Edmonston,


1986;


Kay,


1992


Kihlstrom,


1984,


1987).


Certain


cognitive


factors,


such


motivating


instructions


, positive


expectancy,


and


favorable


information


about


hypnosis


have


been


shown


increase


suggestibility


(Barber


Calverley,


1963


Cronin


1971;


Salzberg


DePiano


, 1979)


. Experience


or specific


training with hypnosis


been


associated


commonly


with


enhancement


hypnotizability


(Bertrand


1993;


Spanos,


1990)


However,


these


factors


appear to


have


only


a mild


impact which


plateaus


over


time


(Talone


et al., 1975),


and


interpretation


experimental


results


still


controversial


(Bates


Brigham,


1990;


Crouse


Kurtz


1984).


Most


the


psychophysiological


and


therapeuti


effects


of hypnosis


seem


to have


their


greatest


impact


and


applicability


subjects


who


are


"highly


hypnotizable


However,


therapy


purposes


there


evidence


that


individuals


who


are


only


modestly


hypnotizable


light


trance


are


capable


using


hypnosis


accomplish


many


relevant


goals


(Hilgard,


1986;


Madrid


& Barnes,


1991;


Rossi


& Cheek,


1988;


Udolf,


1992


Chertok


(1978,


1982


and Rossi


Cheek


(1988)


emphasize


pivotal


role


which


hypnosis


plays


understanding


relationship


between


psychic


biological


aspects


the


unconscious,


permitting


the


creation,


means











hypnotic


suggestion


. One


focus


research


been


apparent


shift


laterality


brain


dominance


some


highly


hypnotizable


subjects


under


hypnosis


(Bakan,


1969;


Carter


Elkins,


1982;


Morgan


1974


Spellacy


Wilkinson,


1987)


use


hypnosis


anesthetic


analgesic


been


widely


explored


beginning


the


1970s


(Hilgard,


1975


Kihistrom


, 1977,


1984,


1987).


the


last


years


more


there


been


naturalistic


expanding


proce


sses


interest


such


in the


psychosomatic


exploration of


medicine


relaxation


response


the


ultradian


healing


response


hypnotic


interventions


immunotherapy


(Benson


et al


1981;


Cheek


1994;


Darby,


1990;


Lydick


1987;


Mindell


1982;


Rossi


& Cheek,


1988


Cheek,


1994).


Among the psychophysiological interactions,


alteration of


sensory


perception


has


been


topic


interest


since


beginning


the


modern


study


hypnosis.


Cases


hypnotically


induced


deafness,


blindness


and


tunnel


sion


aroused


great


curiosity,


part


because


their


apparent


similarity


to hysterical


blindness


or deafness.


In addition,


these


conditions


begged


the


question


of fakery


or malingering


(Bowers,


1976)


. In


last


years,


renewed


interest


t in


the


study


cognition


been


associated


with


gestalt


tradition


which


empha


zes


the


constructive











hypnotic


suggestion


(Black


& Wigan


1961;


Blum,


1975;


Bowers


1976;


Crawford


et al


1979


Graham


Liebowitz


1972


Kay,


1992


Nash


al.,


1987;


Smith


1983;


Spiegel


Barabasz


, 1988)


although


these results


are disputed by


others


(Goldiamond


& Malpass


1961;


Jones


& Spanos,


1982


Wagstaff,


1983)


Some


studi


focusing


"negative


hallucinations


suggested


diminution


tortion


normal


sensory phenomena),


have found


significant differences between


responses


of hypnotized


subjects


and


those


of individual


who


truly


does


have


not


these


actually


sensory


remove


defi


the


cits


reception


, suggesting


of the


that


sensory


hypnosis


signal


but


may


affect


the


subject'


processing


, interpretation,


reporting


signal


(Crawford


et al


1979;


Goldiamond


Malpass,


1961;


Sutcliff


, 1961)


These


findings


are


reviewed


detail


Chapter


summary,


however,


there


consensus


at thi


time


on the


issue


of alterations


in sensory


perception.


Some


evidence


suggests


that


certain


perceptual


proce


sses


are


alterable


hypnosis


and


that


these


effects


correlate


with


susceptibility


. On


the


other


hand,


evidence


from


studi


derived


from


Hilgard'


work


"hidden


observer"


phenomenon


on "trance


logic


" indicates


that


many


cases


perception


altered


suggestion


certain


aspects


of perception


may


be di


SSOC


lated


or "covert"











the question


of whether


it 1


signal


detection


, interpretation


sensory


signals


reporting


which


altered


suggestion


emerged


No study


to date


has focused


on improvement


auditory


thresholds


normal


subjects


under


hypnosis


However


Scharf


and


Zamansky


(1963)


and


Goldberg


(1966)


reported


improvement


visual


word


recognition


threshold


under


hypnosi


Moreover


Graham


Liebowitz


(1972


tested


myopic


normal


improvement


subjects


myopics


and


under


reported


hypnosis


significant


but


sual


normals


Kay


(1992


replicated


the


finding


with


myopes.


Statement


the


Problem


Integrating


research


and


theoretical


developments


over


the


past


century


suggests


that


psychology


today


avid


suit


a more


complete


understanding


of mental


processes,


one


which


integrates


biological


processes


with


psyche,


abolishing


dualism


body


and


mind


and


explaining


the


relationship


consciousness


with


non-conscious


processes.


Some


would


include


spiritual


experiences


also


in the


eventual


integrated


conceptualization


mental


proce


sses.


Psychotherapy


based


only


rudimentary


understanding


non


-conscious


processes


might


likened


some


ways











our


universe,


questions


about


just


how


to what


extent


our


lives


are


controlled


thoughts


and


experiences


in an


inner


universe


The


range


of which


we are


limits


unaware


conscious


become


and


increasingly


unconscious


timely


states


processes


and


the


dividing


lines


and


interrelationships


between


them are


the domain


of the


psychological


cosmonauts


21s


t century


Although


the


forgoing


review


suggests


our


current


pursuit


understanding


unconscious


proce


sses


includes


several


significant


lines


investigation,


are


still


unclear


about


the


part


which


each


contributes


the


overall


picture.


Conclusions


remain


limited


each


area


Little


empirical


research has explored the possible


interaction among


these modes


to thi


impact


research


hypno


access


to the


project,


S1s


unconscious


little has


subliminal


Of specific


been discovered


perception,


interest


about


exploring


potential


amplified unconscious


effects when


two modes


are combined.


investigated


To this


the


writer'


relationship


awareness


between


no research has


hypnotizability


respon


siveness


to subliminal


cues


. It seems


plausible


that


the


use


focused


hypnotic


suggestion


might


enhance


the


ability


perceive or


act


upon


subliminal


messages


at least


for some


individuals.


relevant


question


field











awareness,


thus


have


applications


in therapy.


Therapists


who


use


hypnotherapy,


as well


as those


who


might


contemplate


the


use


of subliminal


audiotapes,


seek


information


as to how


these


modes


intervention


work


, what


their


limits


are


, and


how


use


them


most


effectively


Thus


far,


research


into


what


types


subliminal


messages


might


effective


modifying


cognition


or behavior


elementary


stages


and r

begin


results


are


to touch


inconclusive


on the


question


best.


of whether


Only


or not


few


studi


hypnosis


can


enhance


human


perception


response


to subliminal


messages


These


studi


and


other


findings


which


have


framework,


will


be reviewed


following


chapter


Purpose


The


purpose


study


explore


some


effects


hypnosis


the


human


response


subliminal


auditory


suggestion.


The


effect


the


trance


state


with


suggestions

perception


attuned


will


listening


investigated


threshold


to determine


to what


auditory

degree


differences


attributable


response


enhanced


subliminal


auditory


capacity


cues


might


focused


attention


under


hypnosis.


More


specifically


, deviations


from


waking


baseline


auditory


perceptual


threshold


will











messages


will


also


compared


under


these


experimental


conditions.


without


measure


A control


subliminal


the


group


stimuli


effects


which


or hypnotic


repetitio


idergoes

inductic

n alone.


repeat tP

on will b<

Finally


sting

3 used

, the


relationship

to subjects'


of hypnotic

response to


susceptibility


subliminal


and


auditory


of hypnotic


stimuli


depth


will


preliminarily


explored.


Delimitations


study


will


limited


population


native


English


-speaking


college


psychology


students


with


auditory


acuity


within


normal


limits


All


subjects


the


study


will


be volunteers


who


have


been


-informed


that


study


will


include


least


preliminary


experience


with


hypnosis


situation which might


introduce


some bias


selection.


will


limited


those


effects


which


are


sibly


observable


or assessed


subjects'


verbal


report


or forced-


choice


response


paper-and-pencil


self


-report


questionnaire


Definition


of Terms


Auditory


acuity


degree


auditory


sensitivity


standard


test


stimuli,


comparison


with


normed











duration


sound


which


perceived


subject


just


time.


Conscious


ers


to the


state


of being


subjectively


aware


Decibel


(dB)


common


logarithmic


unit


expre


ssing


relative


loudness


sound


compared


the


reference


sound


pressure


level


zero


Depth


trance


refers


moment


-to-moment


state


subject


involving


along


degree


-established


responsiveness


depth


continuum


to suggestion


(Tart,


1978/79


, p.188)


. Some


researchers


still


view


the


term


"depth


trance"


interchangeable


with


the


terms


sugge


stability


"hypnoti


ability,


and


"susceptibility


However,


purposes


study,


"depth


trance"


will


viewed


related


not


identical


these


terms


which


are


defined


below


Hypnosis


designates


attentive,


psychophysiological


receptive


focused


state


concentration


aroused,


with


corresponding

heightened si


diminution


suggestibility


peripheral


and


awareness


result


which


certain


sensory,


motor,


memory


abnormaliti


may


induced


more


readily


than


in a


normal


state


(Spiegel


Spiegel,


1978,


interaction


33-34)


which


one


Also


person


defined


responds


social


to suggestions











Hypnotizabi1ity


See


"susceptibility


" The


terms


are


used


interchangeably


study.


Limen


the


minimum


stimulus


duration


intensity


some


dimension


that


can


just


be perceived


on 50%


trial


Masking


interference


blockage


one


sensory


stimulus


the


another


threshold


audiometry,


of a sound


the


elevated


process


the


by which


simultaneous


introduction


Non-conscious


another


term


sound


used


(Martin,


1975


collectively


. 60)


denote


mental


process


ses


which


are


outside


normal


consciousness,


including


those


otherwise


referred


some


subconscious


, preconscious,


unconscious,


and


impli


Perception


refers


psychophysiological


response


awareness


of external


stimuli,


which


may


conscious


unconscious


, usually


combined


with


some


notion


the


significance


that


information.


Pink


noise


type


masking


which


provides


relatively


broad


spectrum


frequencies


with


equal


energy


per


octave


below


about


2000


Sound-pressure level


(SPL)


Is an expression


of the


sure


a sound


relative


to a standard


reference


level


of 0.0002


dyne/cm2


which


is zero


dB SPL.











Speech


recognition


threshold


(SRT)


is the


intensity


dB HL


at which


words


in simple


speech


can be


correctly repeated


at chance


(50%)


level


accuracy.


Spondee


refers


to a


two


llabl


word which


is pronounced with


exactly


equal


empha


on both


syllables


, for


auditory


testing


purpose


es.


Standard a

level)


udiometric


the


threshold


sound-pressure


level

level


zero-dB


required


hearing


to make


frequency barely


audible


to the average normal


ear


(ANSI


1986).


Stimulus


refers


any


form


of physical


or chemical


energy


which


organism


has


receptor


capable


reacting;


anything


, whether


internal


external,


capable


citing


a response.


Subliminal


applies


the


pro


cess


stimuli


too


weak


intensity


too


brief


duration


identified


consciously


(Borgeat


et al,


1985,


p.22).


Suggestibility


"susceptibility


" The


terms


are


used


interchangeably


in this


study.


Suggestion refers


to a manner,


generally


somewhat


indirect,


which


mental


individual


absence


are


processes


altered


coercion


and


influence


any


behavior


from


conscious


without,

volition


on the











Supraliminal


ers


to the


processing


of stimuli


of which


one


is conscious


or aware


, also


stimuli


above


the


limen


threshold


of conscious


sensation.


Susceptibility


designates


capacity


an individual


to be


affected by


such


influences


as may


be called


sugge


stions


(Weitzenhoffer


, 1953


. Hypnotic


susceptibility


generally


responsiven


quantified


ess


series


the


overall


standardized


degree


suggestions


adminis


tered following hypnotic


induction


(Tart


1978/79,


p.188)


the


purposes


of thi


study,


"susceptibility"


and


"hypnotizability"


will


be used


interchangeably


Trance


used


to designate


an altered


state


consciousness


rendering


a subject


hypersuggestible.


Unconscious


refers


class


psychological


events


which


are


time


unknown


the


individual


but


that


can


actively


affect


individual'


behavior


(Shevrin


Dickman,


1980,


The


term


"non-consc


ious"


used


synonymou


with


general


definition


"unconscious"


this


paper.


White noise


a type


of masking noi


which has


approximately


equal


energy


per


cycle


and


covers


broad


range


frequency


relative


limits


human


auditory


capacity.











understood

phonetically


correctly

balanced


when


monosyllabic


standardized


words


list


is presented


a specified


intensity















CHAPTER


REVIEW


OF THE


LITERATURE


knowledge


the


brain'


conscious,


unconscious


and


psychobiological


network


grows


, the


way


which


perceptions,


thoughts


feelings


intervene


in thi


pattern


is a key


area


of exploration.


In thi


light


, processes


occurring


beyond


the


narrow


(Shevrin


range


consciousness


Dickman,


1980;


are


Bowers


receiving


renewed


& Meichenbaum,


1984;


attention


Caputi


1984


Hilgard,


1986;


Bornstein


, 1992b;


Hentschel,


Smith,


Draguns,


1986)


understanding


the


psychotherapist'


capacity


to enhance


the


client'


well


-being


interplay


of such


processes


underlies


effective


clinical


intervention


as well


as the


profess


ional


training


of psychotherapists


ssertation


receptivity


subliminal


explores


the


auditory


connection


messages


and


between

hypnotic


suggestion


two modes of


crossing the


border between


conscious


and


unconscious


facets


mind.


The


literature


review


will


consist


outline


status


thinking


about


unconscious processes


within psychology,


summaries


of relevant


research


examination


subliminal


the


auditory


studi


stimulation


on the


and hypnosis


intersection


and


these













Contemporary


Perspectives


on the


Unconscious


Mind


Historical


Context


thousands


years


, humans


have


wondered


about


existence


an unconscious


psychic


spiritual


realm


from


which


dreams,


intuition,


inspiration,


and


impul


ses


originate


(Joseph


, 1992


Foundations


Western


philosophical


treatment


17th


of conscious


century


rise


and


unconscious


humanistic


processes


self


date


-awareness


back


following


the Renaissance and


the birth


of modern


science


(Whyte,


1978)


However,


the exi


stence of


unconscious mental


processes


did not


gain


popular


acceptance


until


around


1900


The


impact


Cartesian


philosophy


, which


omitted


non-conscious


processes


from


both


the


mental


realm


(defined


awareness)


material


realm,


was


major


reason


why


During


the


centuries


from 1700


of individuals


to 1900,


in many


parts


contributions


of the


from a


world


wide


to the


variety


eventual


scientific


philosophical


conclusion


that


mental


processes


could


be explained


consciousness


alone


The


exploration


the


mental


structures


underlying


unconscious


processes


been


the


work


the


20th


century.


Contemporary


perspectives


on unconscious


proce


sses


have


----.1-- -I - -


attn t tan *~y ~ U' *~ -%n .r I tn a r nrr s m r r n~ rnrl flllff rn ~ I l rL C ir


S-


*A -


A *.


r ~----1,,,,, I


F_~ ... ~


*


Arrr IAN L~~rnr~ rnn *rn


^











ranging


powerful


(Bruner


, 1992


Kelly,


1991;


Winson


1985


, the


intense


skepticism


behaviorists


Watson


Skinner)


who


rejected


unconscious


processes


as untenable


(Hilgard,


1980;


Kihl


strom,


1987;


Bruner,


1992


Greenwald,


1992


the


computer-based


information-process


model


mental


activity


provided


cognitive


theory


sts,


which


include

networks


separate


but


(Hilgard,


interwoven


1980;


Dixon


conscious

, 1981;


unconscious


Kihlstrom


1987;


Greenwald,


1992).


Exploration


unconscious


processes


perception


memory


the


1940s,


labeled


New


Look


Perception,


redefined


perception


constructive


process


serving


adaptive


functions


the


individual,


rather


than


mere


neutral


registration


of stimuli


The question


then


shifted


what


guided


perception


made


some


features


more


phenomenally


salient


than


others


(Bruner,


1992


. The


answer


seemed


linked


to needs


, expectancies


, and


internal


conflicts


or defenses,


finding


which


intensified


dissention


between


psychoanalytic


behaviorist


views


mental


process


ses


(Erdelyi


1992)


New


Look


investigations


formed the


foundation


of current


investigation


research


on subliminal


of recognition


perception.


thresholds


became


Tachistoscopic

the prevailing


technique


(Bruner,


1992


Erdelyi,


1992;


Prinz


, 1986)











unified meta-theory


which


provides


a comprehensive


picture


mental


processes,


substantiated


research


and


human


experience


, understanding


that


which


influences


our


behavior


which


are


unaware,


is essential


to completing


picture


(Meichenbaum & Gilmore


, 1984


Caputi


1984;


Greenwald


1992b;

Tataryn,


Loftus

1992;


Klinger


Joseph,


1992


1992


Kihlstrom,


Epstein,


Barnhardt,


1994).


central


intent


of exploration


the


fields


of hypnosis


subliminal


perception


has


been


search


evidence


prove


or disprove


theories


unconscious


processes


developed


Freud,


Jung,


and


Janet.


significant


body


work


subliminal


perception


and


neuropsychology


, currently


finding


substantial


validation,


stems


from


Freud'


theory


dyna


unconscious


which


protects


the


ego


through


defense


mechanisms


influences


behavior


and


intrapsychic


events


(Winson,


1985;


Kelly,


1991;


Dixon


Henley,


1986


Henley,


1986;


Hentschel


Schneider


1986;


Westerlundh


Sjoback,


1986)


. Jung'


theory


the


collective


unconscious


and


inherent


archetypes


also


being


researched


through


developmental


studi


, hypnosis


, and


work


on brain


injuries


(Kelly,


1991


Joseph,


1992)


Freudian


and Jungian


theory


dream


symbolism


are


being


explored


through


hypnosis


, sleep


research,


subliminal


perception


rese


arch


(Fisher


, 1960











through


recent


work


on multiple


personality


on the


hidden


observer


phenomenon


in hypnosis


(Hilgard


, 1984,


1986;


Perry


Laurence


1984;


Kihl


strom,


1984;


Kelly


, 1991;


Rhue


Lynn


1991)


These


combined


efforts


have


establi


shed


foundation


documentation


that


unconscious


memories,


perceptual


defense


, and unconsciously motivated behaviors and feelings do


exis


but


questions


what


extent


and


how


they


operate


remain.


Neuropsvcholoaical


Contributions


mapping


mental


structure


and


function


through


studi


of split


-brain


patients


other


brain


injuries


stimulated research


in both hypnosis


and subliminal


perception


related


unconscious


perceptual


processes


(Hilgard


Hilgard,


1975;


Warrington


Weiskrant


, 1974;


Bowers,


1976;


Sarbin


Slagle,


1979;


Dixon,


1981;


Winson


, 1985;


Joseph,


1992)


. It


clear


that


two


halves


the


brain


often


perceive things differently,


have different memories


triggered


response


conflicting


those


conclusions


perceptions,


about


and


same


reach


piece


different


information


(Win


son


, 1985;


Joseph,


1992


left


right


brain


functions and their interactions are differentiated,


parallels


ClrnAC An; S


kr fin


CI~IA~F1A~


rhCLlhhn


r*; nh C


k rrrrA


Ilnrnn c! r r nllr


;j nr


n











functionally


related


disconnect


dissociation


two


hemispheres


repression,


areas


process


topical


hypnosis


research


(Galin


, 1974)


. Further


corroboration


subliminal


perception


neurophysiological


experimentation


research


information


come


processing,


from


which


suggests


that


the


right


brain


follows


a fast


mode


of parallel


processing


while


left


-brain


processing


takes


slower,


sequential


pathways


(Kihlstrom


, 1987)


Theoretical


PersDectives


These scientific


advances have


not come without


impact


theory


Shevrin


and


Dickman


concluded


1980


that


contemporary


psychological


theory


can


omit


unconscious


mental


process


ses


(Shevrin


Dickman


, 1980).


recent


typology


identifies


hundreds


theories


the


unconscious


organic


zes


them


into


four


main


perspectives


bio-physical,


psycho-personal,


socio-cultural,


and


transpersonal


-spiritual


(Caputi,


1984)


Integration


these


diverse


outlooks


limited


progressing.


Current


descriptions


of mental


activity


generally


posit


one


realm


mental


processes,


continuous


mainly


unconscious,


which


only


few


transitory


aspects


are


-I fi aI n n t 1 a a n A 4A .n --n- r W i*


1 QT7-


I Wh~rf a


mA~; ~Cn


B ~ ~ an ~ i hn


nrre


I~


nr


rA 1~1











adaptive


system


that


automatically


intuitively


organizes


experience


and


directs


behavior


Most


information


processing


occurs


automatically


outside of


awareness


because


that mode


far more effi


cient than conscious


, deliberative thinking


may


happen


while


waking


or during


dream


states


(Winson,


1985


Kihistrom,


1987


Joseph


1992


Unconscious


perception


understood


precede


conscious


experience


set


multi


-faceted


process


which


automatically


redescribes


sensory


data


into


every


representational


form


known


organism.


Such


processes


create


records


of each


representation


, produce


varied


perceptual


hypotheses


activate


related


structures


the


brain,


influence


analog


aspects


actions


(Marcel,


1983b;


Shevrin


& Di


ckman,


1980;


Dixon


1981;


Kihlstrom


, 1984,


1987;


Madsen


1986;


Joseph,


1992


Kihl


strom,


Barnhardt


Tataryn


, 1992b).


Consciousness


viewed


later,


optional


stage


cognition


. Stimulus


factors,


state


factors


motivational


factors


interact


determine


what


needs


enter


consciousness


(Shevrin &


Dickman


1980;


Kihistrom,


1984


1987;


Joseph,


1992


Epstein,


1994)


The


ensuing


conscious


phenomenon


functionally


processes


is a constructive


useful


rather


than


attempt


data


direct


to make


sibl


reflection


sense


from


as much


unconscious


internal











believed


to confer


conscious


awareness


coming


contact


with


environmental


cues


and


other


knowledge


structures


activated


perception


thoughts


. Consciousness


adds


phenomenon


awareness


the


ability


to base


intentional


action


with


such


upon


concept


experience


of self


subliminal


(Marcel,


absent


perception


and


1983b)


unconscious


hypnotic


connection


processes,


response


suggestion


(Kihlstrom,


Barnhardt,


& Tataryn,


1992b)


Cogniti


ve-e


xperiential


self


theory


(Epstein,


1990


, 1994)


assumes


information


driven


existence


processing


experiential


two


parallel,


rational


system


tern


interacting


and


, integrating the


modes


an emotionally-


cognitive


the


psychodynamic


unconscious.


These


two


process


ses


collaborate


optimal


mental health,


and psychopathology may


evolve when


either


system


is not


supported


the


other.


Beahrs


(1983)


suggested


the


term


"co-consciousness,


describe


phenomenon


situation


which


dual


describes


levels


universal


awareness


feature


healthy


living


Neodissociation


theory


(Hilgard


1986)


ass


erts


that


a temporarily


dissociated


expert


ences


which


mind


retains


an awareness


outside


consciousness


may


directly


influence


behavior


without


the


individual'


awareness.


SSOC


iation


believed


represent











created


Hypnotic


suggestion


can


create


type


response


in some


individuals


strong


contemporary


trend


deal


with


integration


of total


mind healing theories


originating


in Eastern medicine


and


religious


philosophy


with


psychology,


primarily


through


meditative


techniques.


Benson


(1987)


asserts


that


increased


communication


between


the


right


and


left


hemispheres


the


brain,


achieved


through


daily


elicitation


"relaxation


response


can


strengthen


capacity


of the


unconscious


mind


overcome


ess


and


maximize


the


contribution


of mind-body


interaction


personal


wellness


Rossi


(1991)


describes


natural


ultradian


variations


consciousness,


including


periodic


brief


healing


periods


during


which


access


unconscious


processes


facilitated


and


can


used


psychological


growth,


problem


solving,


and mind-body


healing


Siegel


(1986)


includes


the


effect


meditative


prayer


spiritual


energizing


through


union


with


Life


Force


essential


pathway


mind


-body


wellness


connection.


Many theorists


expr


ess


frustration


, concern,


or wariness


over


problems


associated


with


the


study


mental


proce


sses


outside


awareness


Caputi


, (1984)


Erdelyi


(1992


point


that


there


is no firm


dividing


line


between


conscious


awareness


unconsciousness;


rather,


the











subject


tested


yields


different


measures


accessibility


consciousness;,


what


appears


unconscious


under


one


type of


under


inquiry


another


appears


type


to be conscious


another


or partially


time.


conscious


Awareness


limits


limited


scientific


scope


research


laboratory


growing,


demonstrations


however


is not


, and


considered


proof


that


unconscious


memories


are


not


both


complex


influential


(Erdelyi,


1986;


Merikle


Reingold,


1992


Caputi


(1984)


, Archard


(1984)


, and


others


from


various


perspectives


caution against reification of


"the uncon


SC1OuS,


sugge


sting


that


word


most


accurately


used


adjective.


"the


Because


unconscious


the


" Erdelyi


diverse


(1992)


denotations


favors


ascribed


reacceptance


concept


that


with


reservations


the unconscious


capacity"


. 775)


mind


Greenwald


"severely


, understanding


(1992)

limited


nothing


more


also


soph


concludes

analytic

isticated


than


partial


meanings of


single words


and


capable


of learning


only


fraction


what


conscious


mind


can


learn.


indicates


that


ess


better


evidence


forthcoming,


will


soon


be time


to abandon


psychoanalytic


theory'


proposal


that


unconscious


cognition


the


peer


or the


superior


conscious


cognition.

unconscious


Caputi (1984)

accounts for


concludes


that


experiences,


but


hypothesis


is not


a necessary











Issues


Definition


Terminoloav


lack of


a more


precise


understanding,


the majority


literature


today


uses


the


term


"unconscious"


to refer


non-consclous


processes,


that


term


been


used


project


A few


attempts


have


been


made


to differentiate


between


facets


the


non


-conscious


mind


. Kihlstrom


(1987,


1992


proposes


tripartite


cognitive


divi


sion


unconscious


which


bears


little


resemblance


to psychoanalytic


theory


. The


only


truly unconscious


mental


proce


sses


, from


perspective


, exist


domain


of procedural


knowledge


operate on knowledge without


conscious


intent or awareness


uses


"preconscious" to


signify declarative knowledge which can


influence

necessary


ongoing


experience,


representation


but


working


below

memory


the

and


threshold

conscious


awareness


subliminal


perception


implicit


memory)


third


mental


category,


"subconscious"


representations


which


mental


are


processes


above


includes


threshold


ordinarily


required


representation


in working


memory


and


available


introspection


under


some


conditions


, but


are


nonetheless


inaccessible


awareness


.g.,


hypnosis


Another


subgroup


researchers


use


the


designation,


"unconscious


phenomena


that


cannot


deliberately


brouaht


into


conscious


awareness


efforts


the


conscious


.


---- ---


w -


---- -- --


,,











category


(Caputi,


1984;


Andersson


Bengtsson,


1986;


Hentschel


Smith


, & Draguns,


1986;


Kihistrom,


1987;


Bornstein


1992


Jacoby


, Lindsay,


& Toth,


1992;


Greenwald,


1992;


Merikl


& Reingold,


available

certain


1992)


Phenomena deemed


consciousness,


circumstances


are


Some


"subconscious,


retrievable


investigators


" while


recall


view


not


under


hypnotic


suggestion


and


automatic


writing


as experiences


type


(Hilgard,


1980,


1986;


Kihl


strom,


1984,


1987)


Others,


however


indicate


that


hypnosis


can


communic


directly


with


unconscious


(Erickson,


1943,


1992


Chertok,


1978,


1981;


Rossi,


1986;


Rossi


Cheek


, 1988;


Cheek,


1989)


Hilgard


(1980)


suggests

subconsc


that


10US


clear


difficult


stinction

: to make


between

without (


unconscious


commitmentt


and

some


theoretical


perspective.


Conclusion


Although


the


single


consensus,


as we


approach


the


turn


century


, seems


to be that


some


"unconscious"


facet


of the


mind


exis


ts and


operates


while


we are


virtually


every


other


state


consciousness


(from


hyper-alert


waking


states


to the


deepest


stages


anesthesia),


unconscious


processes


have


gained


a position


recogni


importance


psychological


rsce~a'rn'h


thenrv


ArtnIat<


anreem err


or trune


csr i 0_nti fi


I -


n- |


1 JI


A


* L--











theory


cognitive information process


sing theory


hypnosis


memory


research.


Progr


ess


toward


clinically


relevant


issues,


such


as the


nature


of psychological


defense


mechanisms


repres


sion


and


dissociation),


dreams,


unconsciously motivated


behavior,


memory,


been


temporarily


slowed


scientific

terminology


Reingold,


debate

and d


1992)


over


efinitions


The


fundamentals


(Bornstein


subtlety


like


1992b;


measuring


measurement,


Merikle


unconscious


proce


sses


appears


tax


the


limits


current


scientific


knowledge,


and


has stimulated


heated


debate


over


results


and


compelled


experimental


continual


methodology


innovations


refinements


spite


however


appreciation


the


role


which


unconscious


processes


play


growing

being i:


. Spiritual


integrated


aspects


with


unconscious


biological


and


mind


psychological


are

and


today

with a


transcultural


perspective


the holi


stic health model


This,


then,


the


larger


framework


within


which


approach


fields


subliminal


perception


and


hypnosis


tool


investigate


unconscious


workings


the


mind.


Subliminal


Perception


Contemporary theorists


have come


to view perception as


event


over


time


rather


than


instantaneous


reaction


.g.,











experiences


, and


personality


(Hentschel,


Smith


Draguns


1986;


Prinz,


1986).


broadened


view


perception


revised


ideas


about


the


appropriate


time


and


methods


measuring


perception


(Hentschel,


Smith


Draguns,


1986


Erdelyi


, 1988;


Fisher


, 1988).


The


reality


subliminal


perception


continues


to be


matter


of dispute,


despite


decades


of research


. Modern


study


subliminal


perception


often


traced


Pierce


and


Jastrow'


1884


discovery


that


subjects


could


guess


which


two

even


(Kihl


weights

though


strom,


was heavier

they reports


Branhardt,


at rates


feeling


Tataryn,


significantly


no di


1992


above


scernible


Another


chance


difference


pioneer


study


Sidi


1898


showed


that


subjects


could read


letters


printed


distant


card


sion


shown


with


them


accuracy


beyond


significantly


their


beyond


range


chance


despite


their


belief


that


they


saw


nothing


printed


(Merikle


Reingold,


1992


Since


then,


there


have


been


persuasive


arguments


(Dixon,


1981;


Bornstein,


1989;


Weinberger


, 1990,


1992)


against


(Holender,


1986)


However


continued


experimentation has


led to a growing


consensus


that


subliminal


perception is


a genuine


phenomenon demonstrable under specific


delimited

Hentschel,


condition

Smith,


(Cheesman


& Draguns


& Merikl


1986;


1985;


Wolford,


Fowler,


1986;


1986;


Kihlstrom,











Since


subliminal


input


outside


awareness


the


receiver


and may manif


est its


full


impact


over


time,


assessing


the


effects


type


ervention


even


more


difficult than the recogni


zed dilemmas accompanying scientific


validation


conscious


psychotherapeutic


interventions


(Urban


, 1992)


The


paradox


scientifically


measuring


the


degree


subject'


awareness


phenomenon


which


supposed


be outside


awareness


has


been


the


primary


basi


the


controversy


(Shevrin


Dickman


, 1980;


Dixon,


1981)


The


present


study


bypasses


the


issue


the


authenticity


subliminal


perception


(which


the


investigator


views


adequately


established


fact),


explores


issues


the


applicability


subliminal


technology


paradigm


mind\body


healing


Subliminalitv


concept


subliminality


hinges


the


verity


that


the


perceiver


is unaware of


the


stimulus,


the


response,


or the


connection between


the


two.


It may


be defined


with respect


awareness


researchers


the

use


presence


the


or the


erm


content


of a stimulus


"preconscious


rather


. Some

than


subliminal


, to distinguish


any


stimulus


of which


the


subject


can


made


aware


(Dixon,


1981;


Swingle


, 1992)


early











Issue


subliminality


become


increasingly


complex


however,


as other thresholds


have


been defined and new methods


of signal

audible s


delivery


timuli


evolved


masked


Recent


music


studi


generally


noise.


use


threshold


concept,


therefore


, may refer to


identification of


the content


stimulus


, discrimination


between


stimuli,


extrication


of signal


from


mask,


or behavioral


response


Both


subjective


and objective


thresholds can


be determined


each


criterion.


A subjective


threshold


denotes


point


at which


the


subj


freely


indicates


with


accuracy


that


or she


detects


differentiates


signal;


objective


threshold


the


point


which


the


subject


responds


with


accuracy


forced-choice


questions


about


signal


(Cheesman


Merikle,


1984,


1986;


Merikle


Reingold,


1992)


. Subjects


may


also


unaware


unable


identify,


their


res


ponse


subliminal


stimuli,


an issue


relevant


to research,


more


than


to clinical

Subliminal


work

versus


(Swingle


, 1992).


sunraliminal


effects


effect


stimulus


can


vary


qualitatively


quantitatively


when


presented


different


energy


level


relative


the


perceiver'


physiological


receptivity


Theoretically


, subliminal


stimuli


could


produce


effects


which


are


weaker


, similar


, or


stronger


than


stimuli


that


are











supraliminally


(Groeger


1986


Silverman


1983;


Hardaway,


1990;


Bornst


ein,


1992a)


particularly


true


areas


of subliminal


mere


exposure


and


psychodynamic


research


(Masling


, 1992)


In other studi


subliminal


and supraliminal


effects have been found


to be qualitatively


different


(Spence


Klein


, &


Fernandez


1986;


Jacoby,


Lindsay


Toth,


1992


Shevrin


, 1992)


Psychoanalytic


theori


sts attribute


differences


differential


conscious


action


unconscious


ego'


processing


defense


(Dixon


system


& Henley,


with


1986)


However


, in


judgement,


some


studi


supraliminal


areas,


maintain


stimuli


such


that

are e


social


influences


essentially


perception


of subliminal


parallel


(Dixon,


1981;


Marcel


, 1983b;


Eich


1984;


Bargh


, 1992


Subliminal


studi


exical


priming


generally


demonstrate


ects


superior to supraliminal


presentation


(Masling


1992


Subliminalitv


and unconscious


perception


important


subliminal


theoretical


messages


rational


clinical


the


context


use


that


technology


permits


direct


access


to the


unconscious


How


what


degree


this


occurs


issue


considerable


creative


controversy


(Dixon


& Henley,


1986;


Spence


, Klein


Fernandez


, 1986


Kihl


strom,


Barnhardt


I &r


Tataryn,


1992a,


1992b;


Shevrin


, 1992


Jacoby


et al


1992


One


theory


that











Shevrin


(1992


hypothesis


zes


that


consciousness


identify


source category for


a stimulus


which


contributes to


selection


conscious


lack


response,


categorical


but


because


definition


, they


unconscious


activate


processes


network


resulting


response


stimulus


widespread


processes.


acts


Jacoby


complex


association


with


(199


retrieval


many


theorize


cue


different


that


memory


multiple


prior


events


holding


some


similarity


the


pres


one,


which


consciously


unconsciously


influence


the


interpretation


the


current


situation


placing


context


. Weinberger


(1992)


posits


that


subliminal


stimuli


subliminal


psychodynamic


activation


interventions


trigger


unconscious


schema


associated


with


positive


mood


which


generally


have


affective


cores


and


serve


to mediate


positive


behavioral


response.


Psychoanalytic


theory


consider


that


any


stimulus


outside awareness


is automatically subjected to the processing


features


dynamic


unconscious,


governed


important


conflicts


and


general


needs and


following


such


laws


primary


process


thinking


condensation


, displacement,


transformation


(Spence,


Klein


Fernandez,


l986)J


Shevrin


(199


concludes


that


cognitive


and


dynamic


unconscious processes cannot be neatly separated


but interact











Commercially


-Prepared


Subliminal


Self


-Help


Tapes


A profusion


of self-help


audiotapes


hit


market


over


the decade of


1980s


, capital


zing


on the seductive


idea


subliminal


mind


-body


healing


effects


. Although


evidence


inconclusive


what


kinds


presentations


may


effective and what


types of


behavior


can be


influenced,


claims


marketing


agents


and


media


have


consumers


believe


that


the


effects


are


recognized


and


powerful


The


script


and


recording


technique


the


commercial


tapes


have


not


been


released


analy


SIS


, but


some


tapes


profess


contain


Russell


over


80,000


, Rowe,


positive


Smouse,


1991;


suggestions


Vokey


(Meriki


Read,


, 1988;


1985)


gen


eral


, experts


field


have


met


marketing


effort


with


1991;


concern


Russell,


skepti


Rowe


cism


& Smouse


(Merikle


, 1991;


, 1988;


Meriki


Greenwald


Skanes


et al


, 1992)


Merikl


(1988)


segments


performed


commercial


spectrographic


tapes


evidence


analysis


embedded


messages


, and


found


indication


energy


patterns


associated


with


speech.


However,


Urban


(1992)


maintains


that


sonograms


information


not


from


necessarily


masking,


have


without


capacity


speech


extract


template


comparison


Greenwald


(1991)


conducted


blind


comparison


SJ-


commercially


nrenared


memory


and


self-esteem











asserts


that


since


placebo


effects


are


typically


from


universal,


either


subliminal


general


arousal

stimulatio


improvement


phenomenon


contend


is more


commonly

t-specific


likely


to suggest


associated


with


effects


tapes


not


adequately


ass


essed


the


study.


Russell,


Rowe,


Smouse


(1991)


found


impact


on school


grades


hours


listening


tapes


about


study


habits


and


passing


exams,


compared with


placebo tapes


and wait


-list control


Although no


objective


study


yet


documented


therapeutic


effects


from


commercially


-prepared


tapes,


other


self-help


media


books


, videotapes


lectures)


are


held


these


evaluative


standards.


Urban


(1992)


emphasis


zes


that


these


commercially available


tapes


should not be compared with


tapes


intended


clinical


interventions


also


call


to mind


difficulty


which


psychotherapeutic


treatments


in general


have


had


coming


with


scientific


validation


their


efficacy relative


to placebo


despite


ample


clinical


evidence


to the contrary


. The


impact of


subliminal


auditory messages


validated


other


contexts


indicates


that


issue


from


closed.


Research


on the


Effects


Auditory


Subliminal


Messages


A central


res


earch


question


over


last decade


has been











although


subliminal


input


from


the


senses


has


been


documented


(Dixon,


1981;


Bornstein,


1992b;


Masling,


1992


Literature


in cross-modal


subliminal


processing


suggests


that


auditory


visual


sensory


modalities


interact


and


share


equivalent


capacities


with


respect


subliminal


processing


(Henley,


1975)


Sensitivity


or receptivity


The border between consc


ious


and subliminal


perception of


signal


been


shown


differ


from


one


individual


another


vary


within


a single


individual


over


time


under


different


conditions


(Swingle


, 1992


Thresholds


hearing


or vis


may


differ


from


the


left


the


right


side


the


body


Only


little


known


present


about


the


factors


which


predict


sensitivity


subliminal


stimuli


Signal


detection


theory


(Atkinson,


1963)


describes


the


reception


sensory


stimuli


dynamic


two


-step


process


. First,


the


relationship


between


external


stimulus


events


and


internal


sensory


state


subject


determines


the


subject'


sensitivity


stimuli.


Thi


may


fluctuate


frequently,


even


from


trial


trial


Then


internal


decision


process


specific


subject'


observabi


response


in terms


sensory


state


and


physiological


verbal











reporting


of the


experience


implies


that


further


criteria


are


met


(Fowler,


1986;


Libet


et al


, 1991).


Watson


and


Klopton


(1969)


, evaluating


impact


motivating


instructions,


monetary


reward,


electric


shock,


and


verbal


feedback


plus


strongly


motivating


instructions


changes


detection


of a masked


auditory


signal,


found


only


electrical


shock


motivating


instructions/performance


feedback co

in auditory


mbination

acuity.


were


The


able


authors


to produce

concluded


even

that


minor


changes


listeners


are


capable of


momentary


enhancement of


detection performance,


average


increments


are


large


enough


to be a consideration


in most


auditory


psychophysical


research


. Variability


between


subjects


was


smaller


on high


incentive


trial


than


on normal


ones,


suggesting


individual


differences


in effort under normal


conditions


that


with


basic


motivating


instructions


listeners approached an upper


limit of


performance which could


be exceeded


with


further


motivation.


Perceptual


sensitivity


known


to be


affected


both


personality


personality


-based


states


perceiver


Cognitive


schema


and


other


information


memory


inherently


influence


the


allocation


attention


and


the


receptivity


and processing

(Prinz, 1986).


Eagle


stimuli,

(1962),


whether


using


conscious


-sort


not


examine











perceptiveness


flexible,


cooperative


cognitive and affective


openn


ess


, confident,


use


of non-cognitive defenses,


tolerance


unstructured


situations,


and


acceptance


of passivity


also


identified


four


situational


factors


which


affected


sensitivity


encouraging


awareness


unconscious


information:


relaxed


state,


state


which


reality


testing suspended,


response


tasks


which encourage responses on


basi


stimuli


guesses


Fleminger


intuitions


(1992)


, and


suggests


vague


that


or less clear


expectancies


prejudice


our


perceptions


, tending


to foster


perceptions


with


which


they


are


consonant


and,


hence


, creating


bias


expectations


led


beliefs,


may


result


misperceptions


, which


reinforce


those


beliefs


seni


of perceptual


defense


sensiti


zation


studi


(Dixon


Lear,


1963;


Dixon,


1981)


have


shown


perceptual


there


should


meaningful


material


to depend


on the


emotional


significance


the


material.


general


, the


threshold


sensitivity to emotionally threatening or di


stasteful material


higher,


material


and

lower,


the

than


threshold


that


for neutral


emotionally

material.


appealing


Sensitivity


also


affected


emotional


state


and


memory


perceiver


While


moderate


level


anxiety


produce


raised


thresholds


, high


level


anxiety


result


lowered











affect


lowers


threshold


(Niedenthal,


1992


. Dixon


(1981)


reports


that


subliminal


effects


can


antagonized


mental


sets


opposed


their


effects


. Prinz


(1986)


indicates


that


selectivity


based


on the


information


contained


memory


central


defining


feature


kinds


perceptual


activity.


range


psychodynamically


oriented


experiments


have


applied subliminal


technology to the assessment of


personality


individual


differences.


Internal


conflicts


defense


mechanisms


have


been


shown


affect


process


sing


subliminal


stimuli,


underlying


the


observed


variations


response


to emotionally charged


stimuli


(Dixon


& Henley,


1986


Draguns,

Silverman


1986;


Henley

isler,


1986;


1986;


Hentschel


Westerlundh


Schenider,


Sjoback,


1986;

1986;


Masling,


1992


. The Defense


Mechanism Test


(DMT)


(Kragh,


1986)


uses visual su

assess defense


ibliminal


mechanisms


images


threatening


(Anderson


Bengtsson


figure


1986)


Research


has


begun


the


development


standard


presentations


complex-related


and


neutral


subliminal


stimuli


as a potential


tool


bypassing


defense


mechanisms


to diagnose concealed psychopathology,


in a


process similar to


protective tests


(Andersson


Bengtsson,


1986;


Dixon &


Henley,


1986;


Kragh,


1986)











Stimuli


Single


words


or sounds


simple


geometric


designs


pictures


are


the


type


stimuli


which


have


been


most


thoroughly


investigated


and


found


effective


(Borgeat


et al


1985;


Bornstein


1989;


Dixon,


1981;


Jameson


1990;


Marcel,


(SPA)


1983)


experiments


Successful


involve


subliminal


visual


psychodynamic


or auditory


activation


presentation


of a sentence with


symbiotic


meaning,


such


as "Mommy


and


are


one


" compared


with


neutral


sentences


such


"People


are


walking"


However,


(Silverman


Balay


, 1983,


Shevrin


1989;


(1988)


Fudin


pointed


Benjamin


out


1991)


that


uncertain whether the


phrase


is processed as a


conceptual


unit


whether


responsible


only

for


certain


the


words,


effects


such


Greenwald


"Mommy

(1992)


and


argues


are

that


there


has


been


no convincing


proof


that


more


than


one


word


processed


at a time.


Swingle


(1992),


Urban


(1992,


1993)


and


others affirm that


subjects


can


process


respond


to complete


sentences


and


range


related


content


presented


auditorially


(Fudin


Benjamin,


1991)


Swingle


asserts


that


multiple


related


words


ases


(199


words


are


describes


superior


good


emnti nnal 1 v


single


scripting


ri1l vant


word


presentations


as including


mstPtri 1


short


-lt sll-rhni


. Urban


phrases


sa/^imi t


U |


lo











ultrasonic


kHz)


stimuli


are


being


tested


studi


(Lenhardt


et al


1991;


Urban


, 1992


Maskinca


factors


Music


itself


a recognized


modifier


affect


. Benes


Gutkin


& Decker


(1989)


have shown


that


responses


to subliminal


auditory


cues


masked


mellow


music


are


greater


than


responses


the


same


cues


masked


frenetic


music.


Pignatiello,


Camp,


Rasar


(1986)


showed music


to be effective


induction


moods


elation


and


depression.


Tempo,


loudness,


and


structural


characteristic


music


have


also


been


found


to have


an effect


on arousal


, subjective


mood,


and


physiological


factors


. Thus


music can be considered


an ideal


embedding medium for mood modification and relaxation


induction


treatments


(McFarland


, 1985;


Swingle,


1992)


Zenhausern


Hansen


(1974)


reported


activating


effects


white


Swingle


noise


(199


both


indicates


subliminal


that


and


supraliminal


subliminally


presented


levels.

i white


the effect of


enhancing performance


in any


situation


for

that


which


relaxation


broadband


is not


masking,


required.


using


white


Urba

noise


(199


, pink


cautions


noise


ocean


surf,


can


result


such


poor


signal-to-noi


S/N)


ratio


times


that


the


message


becomes











stimulus


reported


subliminal


effects.


Clinically,


using


white


noise


or music


the


subject'


choi


masking


been


found


effective


(Swingle


, 1992


Backmaskinc


Spurred


popular


interest


litigation


against


the


alleged


subliminal


effects


"backmasking"


Satani


messages


rock


music


, Vokey


Read


(1985)


studied


effects


recording


messages


backwards


into


music


Subjects


differentiated


another,


male


the


from


language


femal


voices


in which


the


, one


message


voice


was


from


recorded.


They


could


distinguish


questions


from


statements


differentiate


between


types


content


Neither


were


they


influenced


select


ess


common


spelling


homophone


pain,


pane)


hearing


backmasked


prime


window)


. However,


when


investigators


identified


portions


backward

subjects


those


passages

could cc


phrases


which


>rrectly


cued


sounded

recogni


like


the


listen


phrases


passages


Thus


them.


sentences,

containing


, while


possibility


of unconscious


effects


remains,


litti


meaning


consciously


extractabi


from


backward


recorded


passages,


but


backward


recorded


messages


can


contain


sounds


or phrases


that


may


be interpreted


as meaningful


. Backward


masking


visual











Semantic


processing


degree


which


verbal


stimuli


are


processed


analyzed


subliminally


been


subject


considerable


rese


arch


Evidence


has


been


presented


response


to both


physical


characteristic


and


content


meaning.


Groeger


(1984)


showed that with


visual


stimuli,


structural


analy


S1S


words


predominates


below


recognition


threshold


(when


subjects


can


detect


but


not


recogni


stimulus)


whereas


semantic


analysis


predominates


below


the


awareness


threshold


(when


subjects


not


consciously


detect


stimulus)


auditory


mode,


homophones


to which


subjects


were


subliminally


exposed


while


shadowing


monologue


played


through stereo


headphones


were shown


to affect the recognition


and


spelling


of words


immediately


thereafter


, indicating


that


unattended


information


subject


some


degree


deep


semantic


analysis


However,


attended


presentation


homophones


produced


much


more


complete


semantic


analyst


(Eich,


1984)


Memory


Short

hl inm n 1


-term


memory


nrnn yr ei c mc


material


flh~lkn1


can


r T .A


influenced


I inn f


a *.5 1wo I -


Fe ionn c r z a 4-a


a


ik A


*











and awareness of


memory for unattended


events,


indicating that


memory


past


events


can


influence


pres


ent


actions,


whether


or not


we are


aware


of remembering


or of perceiving


prior


experiences.


Erdelyi


(1988)


points


out


that


memory


unattended


events


may


greater


over


time


with


repeated


efforts


recall


. He


also


shows


that


indirect


indicators,


such


as free


associations


stimulus


that


or dreams,


which


memory


often


unavailable


stimulus


access


to direct


commonly


a form


memory


conscious


may


recall,


affected


context


Affect


in which


or energy


is presented.


level


Borgeat,


activating


Chabot,


deactivating


Chaloult


(1981)


subliminal


demonstrated


auditory


messages


that


can


have


significant


effects on


level


of activation


on the Nowli


Mood


Adjective


Check


. Emotional


responses


to simple


cues


have


also


been


demonstrated


(Bornstein,


1989;


Corteen


& Dunn,


1974),


Studi


where


the


field


subject


recognition


threshold)


of subliminal


merely


have


mere


shed


consistently


exposure


stimulus


below


demonstrated


that


indirect affect-based stimulus discrimination i


more accurate











not


recogni


stimuli


forced-choice


test


(Kunst-


Wilson


Zajonc,


1980;


Bornstein,


1992


Subliminal


presentations of words


such as


"happy,


"peaceful,


" and


sturbing"


and


pictures


with


happy


unhappy


themes


have


been


shown


to affect


evaluative


deci


sions


about


subsequent


target


words


the


emotional


tone


of stori


written


following


exposures


, and


interpretations


ambiguous

stimulus


inkblots,

(Greenwald,


although

Klinger


subjects


Liu,


denied

1989;


detection


3wingle


of the


, 1992)


Attitudes


or cognition


Category


judgement


, problem


solving


, and


thought


concepts


cannot


exposure


can


detect


has


influenced


(Swingle


shown


auditory


, 1992)


conclusively


stimuli


SResearch


that


that


subjects


subliminal


simple,


mere


unreinforced


exposure


subliminal


stimulus


sufficient


enhance


attitude


toward that


stimulus


(Bornstein,


1992C


Bargh


(1992


contends


that


subliminality


does


not


matter


with


respect


stereotyping


perception,


other


since


automatic


same


evaluation


influences


effects


occur whether


of social


or not


subject


aware


the


stimulus.


Bornstein


, Leone


, &


Galley


(1987)


demonstrated


that


attitudes


toward


pictures


people


and


toward


the


actual


III'ad











Subliminal


psychodynamic activation


treatments


have


been


shown


repeatedly


enhance


learning


approximately


(Parker,


1982;


Hudesman,


Page


Rautiainen,


1992


eep-


assisted


subliminal


learning


been


shown


effective


specific


contexts


(Aarons,


1976)


Psvchoohvsiolooical


measures


Borgeat


Goulet


(1983)


showed


that


unconsciously


perceived


activating


and


deactivating


suggestions


affected


subjects'


heart rate and skin conductance


level


when


presented


with


a benign


stress,


although


a later


experiment


Borgeat


et al. (1989)


replicated


the


effects


on heart


rate


but


not


skin


conductance.


Borgeat


(1985)


also


reported


that


skin


direct


below


conductance,


incremental


subject'


rate


heart


fashion


auditory


frontal


to masked


threshold


EMG


stimuli


when


responded


beginning


subject


15 dB


was


actively


attending


. Only


skin


conductance


level


showed


response


when


subject


was


relaxed


passive


state.


Hence


type


of physiological


response


seems


to be mediated


attentional


state


of the


subject


. Heart


rate


alone


was


faster with sexually-


toned emotional


stimuli


than with neutral


stimuli


Borgeat


al. (1985)


reported


response


akin


perceptual


defense


psychophysiological


variables











stimuli


galvanic


skin


response.


Event


related


potentials


(N100,


P200,


N200


and


P300)


are


being


explored


have


been


found


to be valid


indicators


of reception


of subliminal


visual


stimuli


to differentiate


between


emotionally


-tinged


and


neutral


stimuli


, nouns


verbs,


and


antonyms


and


homonyms


(Urban


, 1992


. Additionally


conditioning


effect


has


been


demon


strated


where


ein


neutral


stimulus


paired


with


emotional


emotional


stimulus


stimulus


acquires


, a


same


response


P300


which


response


resi


extinction


(Kostandov


Arzumanov,


1989)


. Ehlers


and


Munz


(1986)


suggest


that


the


P200,


N200,


P300


may


valid


unconscious


indicators


of cognitive


control


Behavior


habits


Subliminal


messages


have


been


shown


to have


a short


-term


impact


on behavior,


to therapy,


can


ass


and


with


res


repeated


tructuring


exposure,


habitual


as an adjunct


behavior


. 30


years


research


devoted


subliminal


psychodynamic


activation


paradigm


(Silverman,


1983;


Weinberger,


1992


shown


that


visual


symbiotic


messages


per


ceived


subliminally


can


enhance


adaptive


functioning


variety


psychopathological


conditions


, such as anxiety


schizophrenia


eating disorders,


alcohol


and drug use,


depression,


aggressive











controversy

(Hardaway,


over

1990),


these

which


studi


affirmed


inspired


"moderate


meta

and


-analysi

reliabi


treatment


effect


..that


general


zes


across


laboratory


and


subj


populations


"Winning


Mom


190)


Other


OK," "Beating


messages,


OK," "The


such


Prof


are


one,


" "The


snake


are


one


" and


lover


are


one"


have


also


been


tested


found


to have


positive


effects


behavior,


depression,


and


anxiety,


and


phobias


Silverman,


1985;


Fudin


& Benjamin


, 1991


, 1991;


Swingle


, 1992


Swingle


(199


reports


that


writing


output,


speed


lever


pushing


, and


interpersonal


behavior


can


altered


subliminal


auditory


suggestions


Hughes et al.


(1994)


in a


large double


e-blind


random


trial


, successfully used repeated audiotaped suggestions under


surgical


anesthesia


to aid


patients


smoking


cessa


tion.


Dreams


free


associations


famous


1917


study


Poet


demonstrated


that


while


subjects


they


were


had


unable


seen


to reproduce


flashed


immediately


tachistoscopical


a drawing which

ly, initially


inaccessible


stimulus


elements


emerged


content


dreams,


allowing


far


better


reproduction


stimulus


the


following day


(Ionescu


& Erdelyi,


1992


. Thi


finding


has


been











Primary


process


aspects


stimulus


and


significant


detail


of content


which


were


consciously


reported


appear


to be recovered


dream


content


the


nights


subsequent


subliminal


presentations


Dream content can also be


influenced


presenting


auditory messages


to subjects


during


rapid-eye-


movement


(REM)


periods


of sleep


Koninck


& Koulack,


1975)


Methodolocrical


Factors


Auditory


Subliminal


Research


Model


subliminal


research


Three


main


theoretical


model


detection


measurement


of non-conscious


perception


underlie


most


research.


Traditionally,


studi


in subliminal


perception have


relied


perception


versions

without


the


awareness


dissociation

is inferred


paradigm,


from


which


a discontinuity


between


consciously


recognized


the


unrecognized


effects


of stimuli.


requires


major


measure


weakness


conscious


model


perception


that


that


both


exhaustive


exclusive,


a combination


which


difficult


document.


awareness


Commonly


been


, the


measure


subjects'


self


used


index


-report,


the


conscious


validity


which


is ques


tionable,


due


the


difficulty


of ascertaining


what


criteria


subjects


use


when


reporting


and











score


better


than


chance on


an indirect


target criterion while


level


awareness


claimed


on comparable


direct


measures


is no better


than


chance


unconscious


perception


of a stimulus


must


exist


This


model


avoids


the


requirement


such


stringent


relative


measure


conscious


sensitivity


of the


proce


sses


direct


and


simply


indirect


comparing


measures


The


design


assessment


measures


the


present


study


based


primarily


on thi


model


. Whil


both


of these methods


are


currently


in use


, they have been


criticized because


they


allow


some


uncertainty


about


degree


which


stimuli


were


perc


eived consciously or unconsciously


(Jacoby,


Toth,


Lindsay


Debner


1992


very


recent


method


the


process


association


deliberately


through


paradigm


oppose


experimental


(Jacoby


conscious


manipulation


1991),


and


which


unconscious


(Bornstein,


1992


designed


processes


Merikle


Reingold,


1992;


Jacoby,


Toth


Lindsay


Debner


1992


Subjects


are


supplied


with


information


which


will


later


cons


titute


their


conscious


response;


other


respon


ses


are


assumed


reflect


the


influence


subliminal


stimuli


and


unconscious


processes


. The model


so far


somewhat


limited


applicability,


ingeniously


clarifies


issue


unconscious


versus


conscious


processes


Tntensi tv


t J


stimulluI











conscious


awareness


of them has


been


a controversial


problem.


Most


recent


research


tends


to present


stimuli


an intensity


which


but


would


be audible


subliminal


relative


a silent


the


medium <

masking


or at close


sound


range,

ambient


environmental


(Fudin


Benjamin,


1991;


Swingle,


1992


Urban


1992


Thus,


the


auditory


system


and


brain


are


presented


with


problem


signal


extraction


from


noise,


rather


than


signal


detection


, as


in the


threshold


technique.


Urban


(1993)


argues


that


much


the


controversy


over


subliminal


effects has been


justifiably


attributable


to a


lack


of standard


zation


of methods


presentation


of subliminal


stimuli


Reported


relative


making


stimulus


comparisons


intensity


threshold,


and


the


ranged


methods


literature


from


invalid.


to -30 dB


masking


mixing


signals


have


varied


widely,


creating


great


confusion


about


comparability


results.


With


problem


mind


, careful


studi


last


decade have devoted


considerable


attention


the


issue


preparing


and


delivering


signal


which


consistently


and


verifiably


subliminal


Urban

signal pr

audiotapes


(1993)


urges


:ocessing


the adoption of


(DSP)


for research


but


technique


the method he


a standardized


digital


preparation


recommends


involves


high-tech


preci


sion


machinery


and


specialized


software











between


the


masking


sound


signal,


which


can


only


produced


a subliminal


mixing


device.


Benes,


Gutkin


Decker


(1989)


established


an individual


speech


threshold


each


subject


through


masking


music


, then


delivered


stimulus


binaurally


through


circumaural


earphones


at 5 dB below


that


subject'


threshold.


Borgeat


et al. (1981


, 1985


, 1989)


use


25 dB subliminal


suggestions


masked


white


delivered


binaurally


tone


through


audiograms


an audiometer.


at frequencies


from


their


1985


- 6000


study,


were


pure


used


determine


a threshold


range


from


-5 dB to +10


dB at 1000


frequency


identified


nearest


that


the


average


human


voice)


. Then


they


presented


word


stimuli


masked


40 dB white


gradually


increasing


intensities


from


determine when subjects could detect a


sound


(speech


detection


threshold)


when


they


could


recognize


word


(speech


identification


threshold).


Mean


speech


identification


threshold


reported


was


34.6


mean


speech


detection


threshold

neutral s


was


timuli


(consistent


emotional


with


stimuli


perceptual


defense


theory)


Swingle


administration


(1992)


presents


of auditory


research


subliminal


supporting


treatments


groups


individual


seated


between


two


sets


three


loudspeakers











the


most


effective


range


being


from


-15 to -25


dB relative


ambient


or embedding


sound


medium.


Swingle


reports


evidence


perceptual


"dead


zone"


region


just


below


the


content

identifiE


discrimination tU

es a physiological


ireshold,

lower li


around


.mit


to the subliminal


also

range


around


finding


Swingle recommends


caution


corroborated


in group delivery


Urban


, as only


(1992)


subjects


seated


certain


stances


from


the


sound


source


may


demonstrate


the


effect


problem


undermined


subliminal


auditory


effects


many


research


studies


before


was


understood.


Duration


subliminal


stimulus


wide


variety


stimulus


duration


has


been


used


subliminal

requiring


testing.

extremely


Visual

brief pr


stimuli


presentation


have


time


advantage


The


effective


range


for unmasked


subliminal


tachi


stoscopic


presentations


generally


determined


exposure


ranging


from


msec


with


background


illumination


least


as bright


as the


stimulus


illumination


ratio


blank


field


stimulus


field


illumination


ranging


from


to 3


:1),


a rate


of 5


exposures


stimulus


with


interstimulus


interval


seconds


(Swingle


1992;


Groeger


, 1986;


Fudin


Benjamin,


1991











weeks


required.


Silverman


Bronstein,


Mendelsohn


1976)


Masked


visual


presentations


are


generally


slightly


longer,


ranging


from


- 80


msec


with


pattern


masks


from


msec


(Cheesman


Merikle,


1986).


It i


still


unclear


how


short


auditory


presentations


can


effective.


relationship


perception


stimulus


therapeutic


effectiveness


or dose:response


ratio


been


established


. Auditory


stimuli


recent


studi


range


duration


from


ess


than


one


minute


minutes


(Benes


Benjamin


Gutkin


, 1991;


Decker,


Single


1989;


, 1992)


Borgeat


Many


et al


studi


1989;


do not


Fudin


report


duration


or number


of presentations


the


stimulus


Bornstein


(1989)


suggests that


in mere exposure research,


boredom


effects of


or over-exposure


suggestions


to stimuli


. Thi


may


effect ha


serve


not been


to diminish


documented


auditory


masking


studi


es.


Urban


(199


encourages


the


potentiation


messages


using techniques of


compr


ess


ion,


speeding,


or multitracking


sound


studio


, allowing


a greater


number


messages


to fit


within


a time


period


. However,


both


Urban


(1992)


and


Swingle


(1992)


report


that


there


little


evidence


that


placing


high


number


messages


on a tape


is more


effective


than


a few


tracks


minimally


masked


and


produced


with


high


fidelity











Maskina


techniques


One


subliminal


more


auditory


relatively


difficult


material


constant


level


aspects


is that


below


the


of keeping


ambient.


preparation


message


Professional


preparation


tapes


allows


electronic


manipulation


digitization


to maintain


a constant


signal


-to-ambient


level


Urban


(1993)


proposes


the


use


bank


tunable


digital


filters


narrow-band


masking,


which


yields


improvement


S/N


ratio


. Thi


method


of masking


can


only


accomplished


message


using


down


to a narrow-band


a digitized


an order


mask,


and


recording


of magnitude


then records


process


to match


it again


which


the


real


slows


signal


time.


If broadband masking


to be used,


he stresses


importance


obtaining


the


minimum


possible


S/N


ratio


facilitate


retrieval


When


professional


equipment


available,


Swingle


recommends


use


white


noise


because


sound


pressure


embedding


vary


level


medium,


intensity


(SPL)


both


The


constant.


music


subliminal


When


and


using


music


subliminal


message


must


message


timed


start


stop


accord


with


natural


pauses


or drops


loudness


music


"Leakage"


occurs


when


sound


of the


-*~ -- -


a -


-.


'-a --W --- 1 -


macannar


amha~c3 C nn


L -.,


1


mllr: ri rlr


"


t I


r\ rlEl











relative


ambient.


Thus


the


message


always


remains


below


detection


threshold.


Leakage


varies


with


frequency


the


subliminal


sound;


male


and


female


voices


identical


sound


levels


differ


terms


of detectability


when


embedded


an identical


white


noise


medium


(Swingle,


1992)


Swingle


(199


also


discusses


the


use


backward


recording


as masking


assure


that


the


SPL


messages


given


to control


is comparable


that


treatment


subjects


Baseline


evaluation


A review


of auditory


subliminal


psychodynamic


activation


studies


done


Fudin


Benjamin


(1991)


indicates


that


most


investigators


measure


auditory


thresholds


on subjects


before


presenting the treatment.


The measurement of baseline auditory


thresholds


also


advocated


Borgeat


et al. (1985,1989),


Urban


(1992


, 1993)


, and


Swingle,


(199


Outcome


measures


Urban


(1993)


suggests


that


outcome


measures


appropriate


to protocol


that use conscious


available stimuli


are


poorly


suited


case


subliminal


stimuli


Although


verbal


reports


continue


to be


used,


many


researchers


find


they


are


unreliable


indicators


of perception.


He suggests


definition











been


fleetingly


conscious


but


forgotten.


contrast,


upward

traces


trends

into (


memory


conscious


may


transform


traces


unconscious


later


interval


perceptual

(Erdelyi,


1986;


Merikle


& Reingold,


1991)


Forced-choice


(either\or)


responding


has


been


advocated


many


researchers


measure


objective


thresholds.


method


requires


the


subject


guess,


maximizing


opportunity


variables


unconscious


involved


effects,


subjective


eliminates


threshold


hidden


open-ended


responding


(Merikle,


Bornstein


research,

dependent


(1989)


period


measures


1982


noted


1992


delay


resulted


Merikle


that


between:

strong


& Reingold,


subliminal 2

n stimulus

rer exposure


mere


1992


exposure


exposure

effects


and

than


when


there


was


no delay


Conclusion


the


forgoing


review


attests


, a


sizable


body


research


made


clear


today


that


subliminal


effects


are


far-reaching


psychological


sophistication of


hold


considerable


intervention


research design


However,


and theory,


potential


despite


many fundamental


parameters


of perception


without


awareness


remain


relatively


unknown


The


parameters


"subliminal


window"











parameters


dosage


, exposure


time


and


intensity


stimulus,


interval


between


exposures


, number


words


and


letters


that


can be


understood


at rapid


exposure


times


magnitude


the


stimuli


are


areas


which


are


only


beginning


elaborated.


Nor


have


reliable


information


about


the


duration


effect


after


a subject


is exposed


to a subliminal


stimulus


(Fudin


& Benjamin


, 1991;


Mas


ling


, 1992


The


difficulty


scientifically


capturing


subliminal


measured


effects


are


and


subliminal


proving

has wi


that,


weakened


indeed,


the


effects


impact


many


carefully


conducted


experiments.


Researchers


the


field


are


beginning


to stress


the


need


standard


zation


of research


methodology,


but


consensual


standard


yet


evolved


(Urban


, 1993)


The


most


recent


studi


some


key


areas


date


back


1960s,


results


have


not


been


replicated.


These


problems


influence


design


of research


studies,


but


need


stand


way


of making


use


the


information


which


has


emerged


beneficial


adjunctive


clinical


interventions


HvDnosi


modern


scientist,


hypnosis


remains


a fascinating


n h1 ( .r .- nrrCv


eip~ni tA


nl p~p rnczarr


1C ~


C~ n 1 rrm ~


p~apn~


J.a











effective


practice


of hypnosis


invol


ves


elements


of both


science


Some


believe


connects


at times


with


the


source


of human


spirituality


via


the "mind


-body


connection"


(Rossi


Cheek


, 1988;


Rossi,


1989/1990)


Theori


of HvDnosis


Widely


differing


theoretical


perspectives


hypnosis


have


stimulated


considerable


research


and


discussion


over


past


fifty


years


. The


tradition


inherited


from


Mesmer


, Braid,


Charcot,


Freud,


Erickson


defines


hypnosis


unique


altered state of


increased responsiveness to suggestion


a trance)


which


enabi


an individual


to opt


of obj


ective


reality,


accept logical contradictions


experience distortions


in perception


and memory


as if


they were


normal


phenomena


, and


extend


control


body


and


mind


beyond


usual


limits


(Orne,


1977;


Fromm,


1979a;


Shor


, 1979b


Tellegen


, 1978/79;


Schumaker,


1991;


Kihl


strom,


1993)


contrasting


perspective


which


developed


1960s


,associated


most


closely


with


Barber


(1965)


, Coe


Sarbin


(1977


and


Spanos


(1991),


deni


the


pre


sence


altered


state


describes


hypnosis


Soc


interaction


in which


one


person


is motivated


res


pond


to suggestions


offered


another


experiences


involving


alterations


in perception,


memory


and


voluntary


action.


These


a %~no r flf I.


kha ~tr' nre


c! nmnl a 4- mc


-ae


nr; r.,f


Tall 4-h


C Si &IC .... Il ltc rl n I tAI &ll it BClr M -tlc trt 0L~c 'lILA S 0I t2 1t Icai a att rL nA-- 1


.e.


ma'r











Kihl


strom,


1985;


Spanos


1990)


. These


two


positions


formed


two


poles


the


"state


versus


non


-state"


controversy,


had


motivated


research


theoretical


diversify


cation


recent


years,


but


still


has


found


resolution.


Over


the


past


years,


theoretical


model


have


multiplied.


Sarbin


(1977


, 1991)


liken


the


hypnotic


scenario


creatively


to a drama


intera


which


ct in


subject


and


complementary


hypnotist


es.


agree


Individual


with


creative


imaginations


, ability


to suspend


reality


and


skill


role-playing


are


believed


make


the


best


subjects


Wag


staff'


(1981


, 1991)


Soc


iocognitive


model


focuses


motivation


compliance


and


belief


the


hypnotist


as the


key


factors


hypnosis


Erickson


developed


model


hypnosis


based


highly


sensitized


interpersonal


communication


, toward


eliciting


latent


human


potential


promoting


therapeutic


results


(Erickson,


1952


Erickson


Ross


1981


Zeig


Rennick


1991)


Recently,


Hilgard


(1986)


, developing


ideas


originated


Janet


and


Prince


, has


proposed


that


hypnosis


involves


SSOC


iated


state


, or a co-consciousness,


which


can


be communicated


with


ectly


without


the


distortions


due


primary


process


thinking


archaic


symbols


Fromm


(1979a)


, Murray-Jobsis


(1988),


Nash


(1991)


view


hypnosis


special


altered











receptivity


experience


Edmondston


(1991)


and


Benson


Hoffman


(1981)


stress


view


that


the


essential


property


hypnosis


deep


relaxation,


indi


eating


that


physiological


social,


and phenomenological characteristics


hypnosis


as well


ability


to strengthen


communication


with


the


unconscious


mind,


are


the


result


of relaxation.


the


student


hypnosi


each


these


model


illuminates


portion


the


complexity


hypnotic


inte


reaction


. Recently


several


integrative or multi


-factorial


model


have been


propo


sed,


(Lynn


Rhue,


1991;


Nadon,


Laurence


Perry,


1991)


which


take


into


account


pre-hypnotic


cognitive


schema


the


subject,


social


and


situational


variable


transference


and


communication


factors


, subjective


state


personality


skill


factors


thorough


explanation


hypnosis


will


most


probably


evolve


through


furthering


this


integrative


Hypnotic


theoretical


Investigation


process


of Unconscious


Processes


The


concept


unconscious


mind


progressively


penetrated


1784


psychology


post


following


-hypnotic


the


amnesia


discovery


and


de Puysegur


postulate


memories


one conscious


and the


other unconscious


Freud also


often


stressed


link


between


hypnosis


and


unconscious


nrnvn 'acco


rwhi nh


firrU-


nh~ p rv~


s~txrivi nar


hVfft~~ri


uhPn


i


* I*-











symptoms originated


(Stross


& Shevrin,


1969)


. The phenomena


post-hypnotic suggestion and hy

clear illustrations of hypnotic


regression provide other


communication with unconscious


processes.


played


Stross


hypnosis


Shevrin


making


(1969)


stress


available


unique


otherwi


unknown


relationships


between


forgotten


past


experiences,


and


current


symptoms,


dreams,


behavior


and


thought


patterns.


Chertok


(1982)


ass


erted


the


First


International


Symposium


on the


Unconscious


Tbili


Russia


, that


despite


plurality


views


about


unconscious


phenomena


internationally,


the


link


between


the


terms,


hypnosis


and


unconscious,


is universally


acknowledged


Fromm


(1979a)


describes


hypnosis


as ideally


constituting


altered


state


heightened


receptivity.


state


includes both an


intensely focused and


heightened awareness of


specific


external


stimuli


fantasy


that


are


part


suggested


hypnotist


, and


internal


experiential


openness,


which


allows


into


awareness


material


that


are


usually


unconscious


Critical


judgement


goal-directed


thinking


are


minimized.


Psychoanalytic


researchers


have


approached


role


unconscious


factors


hypno


from


point


of view


the


hypnotic


relationship


transference


factors


(Sheehan











absence


any


previous


interpersonal


link


(Chertok,


1982)


perspectivel


ess


overvaluation"


(Diamond,


1988,


143)


Much


power


of hypnotic


suggestion


has


been


attributed


subj


unconscious


archaic


involvement


with


the


figure


the


hypnotist.


Shor


79b)


describes


eight


variables


which


he views


important


underlying


psychological


processes


hypnosis.


Depth


nonconscious


involvement


, depth


of trance,


and


depth


archaic


involvement


are


cons


idered


central


dimensions


hypnotic


depth,


the


extent


of development


along


each


of which


implies


a different


type of


hypnotic


experience


Access


to the


unconscious,


absorbtion,


drowsiness


relaxation


and vividn


ess


imagery


were


five


other


important


, but


nonhypnotic


dimensions.


Observations relevant to the


"hidden observer" phenomenon


SSOC


iative


disorders


have


concept


divided


consciousness


hypnosis


(Hilgard


, 1986)


, which


ose


related


the


concept


state


dependent


learning


theoretical


perspective


hypothesis


zes


a type


of parallel


intermittent


processing


information


which,


some


extent


the

thi


can


subject'


occurs


be made


conscious


executive


as a response


or unconscious


function.

e to deep


In dissociati


trauma.


a decision of

ve disorders,


In hypnosis











respect


to hypnotic suggestions and


a reduction


reality


orientation of


the monitoring


function


Because of


shared


control,


hypnotic


processing


bring


suggestion


the


may


information


reverse


into


divided


consciousness,


such


extent


as the


subject


willing


Beahrs


(1983)


revived


concept


co-


consciousness


, originated


Prince


1906,


to suggest


that


there


always


exis


simultaneously,


within


each


healthy


individual


, more


than


one


consciously


experiencing


entity,


each


with


some


sense


of its


own


identity


and


with


separate


overlapping


conscious


experiences


views


the


"hidden


observer"


hypnosis


simply


one


clear


example


given


that


elements


hypnosis


are


common


many


normal


conscious


experiences


Thus,


the


study


hypno


relevant


to the understanding


of general


waking


experience


SSOC


iative


disorder


the


organic


zing


and


communicating


powers


executive


function


have


become


impaired


, and


therapy


invol


ves


strengthening this


internal


communication and


organize


action.


Approaching


the


connection


between


hypnosis


unconscious


proc


esses


from


psychophysiological


point


view,


DeBeneditti


Sironi


(1988)


found


that


hypnotic


behavior


mediated


some


degree


dynamic


balance











carried


over


Rossi


, Cheek,


and


others


into


the


avenue


psychosomatic


medi


cine.


Psychosomatic


symptoms


are


viewed


being


acquired


a process


of experiential


learning,


through


state


dependent


learning


response


patterns


as described


Selye'


General


Adaptation


Syndrome


Selye


1982


Chronic


mind-body


problems


are


seen


as manifestations


of state


-bound


patterns


learning


which


have


become


encoded


within


limbi


-hypothalamic


system modulating mind


-body communication


coordinates


major


channels


mind


-body


regulation


via


the


autonomic,


endocrine,


immune


neuropeptide


systems


Messenger


molecul


hormones


neurotransmitters


, and


immunotransmitters)


flowing


through


these


channel


transformation


mediate


. Thi


appears


mind-body


to be the


communications


physiological basis


unconscious mind


-body healing which occurs through therapeutic


hypnosis


, the


placebo


response


, and


holi


stic


medi


cine


(Hall,


1982\83;

Cheek, 1


Darby


L988)


1990;


Hypnosis


Siegel,

makes


1986;


p055


ROSSi,


ible


1986;


act


Rossi


simple


sugge


stion on a


variety


of physiological


functions which


elude


voluntary


control


. Ideodynami


signaling


has


been


viewed


some


practitioners


potential


route


direct


communication


with


these


unconscious


psychophysiological


processes


(Rossi


Cheek,


1988;


Cheek,


1994)


. Exploration











present,


have


only


very


limited


understanding


interaction.


Hvonotic


Sucgestibility


Schumaker


sent


(1991)


determining


refers


factor


suggestibility


our


ever-


behavior


Historically,


suggestibility


has


been


viewed


somewhat


pejoratively


determination.


linked


Within


gullibility


hypnosis


lack


, current


self-


concepts


suggestibility,


susceptibility


, or


hypnotizability


evolved


from


initial


attempts


develop


measures


quantifying


hypnotic capacity


the


1930s.


Prior to that


, hypnotizability


was


generally


measured


stages,


based


phys


ical


and


cognitive-behavioral


indicator


the


greatest


depth


trance


that


subject


could


achieve


(Hilgard


1961;


Edmonston,


1986;


Laurence


Nadon


, 1986).


Following


the


development


the


Stanford


Hypnotic


Susceptibility


Scale


(Weitzenhoffer


Hilgard


, 1959)


, the


first


standardized


susceptibility


scale


, the


terms


hypnotic


susceptibility


hypnotic


depth


were


generally


used


interchangeably,


under


assumption


that


depth


trance


could


inferred


from


responses


elicited


following


traditional


induction


standardized


suggestions


. The


concept


capacity


r aca nan


7 tunn+nt r


ct i nn


rnnnfnlindnr


I wi th t


ellll~P


* r











Today


hypnosis


theoretical


are


differences


reflected


about


varying


nature


perspectives


suggestibility


altered


depth


state


of trance


consciousness


. Those who


view


view hypnosis


suggestibility


relative


propensity


accept


communicated


idea


without


rational


critical


review,


the absence of


logic


ally


adequate


reason


(Fromm


, 1979;


Rossi


Cheek


, 1988


Erickson


, 1992


Proponents


of a nonstate


motivation


perspective


particular


explain


form


as a skill


strategic


Soc


interaction


based


conscious


planning


and


thought


(Coe


Sarbin,


1977;


Wagstaff,


1981;


Spanos,


1991)


. More


rec


ently,


others have


suggested that a


capacity


for absorbtion


(Council,


Kirsch,


archai


Hafner,


involvement


1986;

S(Shoz


Cardena


1979b),


Spiegel,

creative


1991), d

imagery,


lepth


or the


degree


involuntariness


responses


(Barber


Wilson,


1978\79;


Bowers,


1982)


characterize


, at


least


part,


level


of suggestibility.


Terminology


evolving


along


with


theoretical


concepts


Although


there


is still


considerable


overlap


intended


meaning


the


terms


, "hypnotizability,


"suggestibility"


and


"susceptibility


"susceptibility"


now


most


frequently


used


allude


specifically


quantified


capacity


measured


standardized


scal











reflect


responsiveness


hypnotic


suggestion,


"hypnotizability"


may


denote


the


capacity


to be


hypnotized,


including


relevant


elements


of thi


capacity


beyond


those


measured


susceptibility


scal


"Hypnotic


depth"


may


figure


into


broader


definition


hypnoti


ability,


although


"depth"


has


begun


to be associated


more


specifically


with


self


-report


measures


of momentary


subjective


status


on a


continuum

trance (


from


Fart,


normal


1978\


waking

1979,


state


Tellegen,


deep


somnambulisti


1978\79


Perry


Laurence


, 1980;


Weitze


nhoffer,


1980;


Hilgard,


1986


, 1987;


Laurence


& Nadon,


1986;


Balthazard,


1993)


Estimates


population


susceptibility


rates


have


been


revised downward as


measurement has become standardized around


response


specific


uniform


suggestions


Hilgard


(1961)


review


summarize


19th


century


hypnotists


estimates,


indicating


that


average


individual


were


deemed


capable


some


degree


of hypnotic


responsiveness


deep,


moderate,


and


light),


the


other


being


refractory


results


nonsusceptibles


laboratory


studi


More


recent


using


estimates,


Stanford


based


Hypnotic


Susceptibility


population


Scal


capable


indicate


some


that


hypnotic


about


the


response


highly


susceptible


, 25%


moderately


, 30%


lightly,


and


additional











suggestion


standardized

compensate


they


approach


are

without


individual


measured


traditional,


adaptations

differences


technique


situational


variable


es.


Children


seem


have


special


capacity


hypnotic


response


Ages


9-14


have


been


shown


the


prime


susceptibility


period,


although


children


generally


exhibit


greater susceptibility than adults


beginning at age


30 months


Within


adults,


age


not


issue


until


old


when


slight


decrease


in susceptibility


has


been


measured


(Morgan


Hilgard,


1973;


perhaps


Edmonston,


the


finding


1986)

that


Related

general


i to thi

mental


age


and


factor,

physical


health correlates


positively with hypnoti


ability.


(Edmonston,


1986;


Zlotogorski,


Hahnemann,


& Wiggs


, 1987)


.Sex


differences


distribution


of susceptibility


have


not


been


confirmed


(Hilgard


et al


, 1961)


Spiegel


and


Greenleaf


(1992)


describe


"fix


-flex"


continuum


personality


style


which


correlates


with


hypnoti


ability


Subjects


with


higher


level


state


dependent


responsivity


to environmental


cues


tend


to be most


suggestible,


trait


whereas


capacities


those


which


with


are


higher


not


level


subject


internal


change


environmental


stimuli


are


least


suggestible.











susceptibility


over


period


weeks.


Morgan


, Johnson


Hilgard


(1974)


followed


group


undergraduates


with


retesting


ten


years


later,


and


found


corre


lation


.60,


indicating


substantial


pers


istence


of measured


susceptibility


over


time


The


possibility


some


genetic


hypnoti


ability


has not been ruled


out


. Shor


Orne


& O'Connell


discuss


(1966)


indicating


hampered in


that


concept


capacity


the novice


plateau


hypnotic


subject by


hypnoti


responsiveness


anxiety


false


ability,


is often


expectations,


inexperience


, but


that


after


several


expert


ences


may


reach


plateau


level


, some


15-20%


higher


which


remains


fairly


stable


over


repeated


assessments.


Several


situational


factors


have


been


found


affect


susce


ptibility


. (Talone


, Diamond,


& Steadman,


1975


Counc


Kirsch,

Stanger,


& Hafner,


1993;


1986;


Gearan


Woolson,


& Kirsch,


1986;

1993).


Hammond


Erickson


et al


(1952


1988;


1992


Erickson


ROSSi,


1982


found


that


subjects


who


did


respond


traditional


directive


hypnotic


approaches


would


ofter

has


respond


been


to indirect


shown


techniques


increase


subject'


. Expectancy


measured


hypnosis


level


hypnoti


ability,


most probably through an attribution process


that


when


intervention


presented


hypnosis


subjective


and


objective


reports


of susceptibility


and


depth











1981; Council,


Kirsch,


& Hafner,


1986;


Gearan


& Kirsch,


1993)


panos,


Burnley


& Cross


(1993)


showed


that


the extent


to which


subjects


plan


respond


actively


suggestions


predicted


behavioral


subjective


indexes


hypnotizability


Provision of


induction


objective


favorable


been


responses


information


shown


about hypnosis


both


to suggestions


prior to the


subjective


On the contrary,


negative


expectations


about


hypnosis


have


been


found


powerful


inhibitors


measured


hypnoti


ability


factors


suggesting


that


many


individual


who


appear


unhypnoti


zabl


may


respond


more


introductory


positively


sess


ion whi


when


ch places


first


presented


the experience


in a


with


positive


frame


(Cronin


, Spanos


Barber


1971;


Spanos


et al., 1987)


number


specific


training


programs


have


been


developed


attempt


improve


hypnotic


susceptibility


(Barber


Calverly,


1964


Cronin,


Spanos,


Barber,


1971;


Crouse


& Kurtz


, 1984;Spanos


et al.


1987;


Spanos,


1990;


Bates


Brigham,


1990


Bates


Kraft,


1991;


Bertrand,


Stam,


Radtke,


1993)


Results


have


been


contradictory,


supporting


best


small


hypnos


augmentation


Crouse


Kurtz


long-term


(1984)


clinical


found


response


clinically


signifi


cant


gains


compare


son


the


impact


susceptibility


four


the


central


components


these











practice


responding


hypnotic


suggestions.


The


82

most


evolved


the


training


approaches


known


the


Carleton


Skill


Training


Program


, developed


Spanos


associates


(Bates


Brigham,


1990;


Spanos,


1990;


Bates


Kraft,


1991)


Reported


immediate


improvements


hypnotizability


ratings


following


program


are


impressive


(87%


of subjects


scored


the high range)


but


longer-term results


are


equivocal,


challenging


the


claim


that


significant


lasting


changes


have


occurred


the


subjects'


ability


experience


hypnosis


(Bates


& Kraft,


1991)


development


measures


hypnotic


susceptibility


permitted


the


exploration


questions


regarding


the


amount


of hypnotic


ability


or the depth


of hypnotic experience


necessary


the


attainment


of certain


clinical


results.


One


puzz


ling


thing


about


hypnosi


that


many


disorders


clinical


improvement


not


related


susceptibility,


measured by response to behavioral


suggestions


(Hilgard,


1987;


Rossi,


1986)


experience


Therefore,


such


as archaic


other


dimensions


involvement


(Nash


the


& Spinler


hypnotic


, 1989)


and


personal


motivation


are


being


explored


potential


explanations


clinical


success.


Measurement


Hypnotizability


and


Denth


of Trance


flt, a a - Is -- -- -a


,L. 1.-


r


I------------- _- -_ _


,I


n. .,,,,


L


.i











differing


intensities.


Subjects


who


responded


to weaker tones


while


"reverie"


than


while


awake


were


noted


more


easily


hypnotizable


(Edmonston,


1986)


The


classic


hypnosis


scal


such


as the


Stanford


Scal


Hypnotic


Susceptibility


(Weitzenhoffer


Hilgard,


1959


1962


and


Harvard


Group


Scale


of Hypnotic


Susceptibility


(Shor


& Orne,


1962


are based


on a "performance


ladder"


model,


with


items


theoretically


increasing


difficulty


either


passed


or failed


. The


subject'


susceptibility


related


the


most


difficult


item


passed


. This


type


of scale


based


the


theory


an underlying


ability\difficulty


continuum,


such


that


number


items


individual


can


pass


serves


as an


indicator


of both


the


hypnotic


capacity


of the


individual


and


difficulty


the


items


(Balthazard,


1993)


central


question


with


approach


whether


scal


provide


good


measure


construct


"hypnotic


susceptibility


general


, despite


the


development


several


newer


scales


recent


theoretical


issues,


the


traditional


scales


still have strong


support


from the research


community


(McConkey,


Sheehan,


Law,


1980;


Hilgard,


1981


1987;


Bowers,


1982;


Laurence


& Nadon,


1986;


Nadon,


Laurence


Perry,


1991


Balthazard,


1993).


However,


the


early


1980s


questions


began


arise


regarding


relationship











responding


. The


pass\fail


performance


scoring


system


does


not


take


into


account


the


degree


involuntariness


subject'


experience,


a point


which


is relevant


to the


altered


state


social


interaction theoretical


debate


(Bowers,


1982


Bowers,


Laurence,


Hart,


1988)


More


recently,


factor


analytic


evidence


has


been


presented


that


hypnotizability


may


not


measurable


single


factor


continuum,


but


may


involve


least


two


important


factors


. No


agreement


has


yet


been


reached


what


these


factors


are


or how


they


are


interrelated.


Ability


and


non


-ability


factors,


responsiveness


suggestion


somnambulism


, compliance


genuine


hypnotic


responsiveness


cooperativeness/expectancy


and


absorbtion,


differing


degrees


dissociation


conceptualizations


are


these


some


factors


proposed


(Balthazard,


1993;


Tellegen,


1978/79;


Hilgard,


1981;


Spanos


et al


, 1987)


. Some


evidence


emerged,


based


correlation


the


hypnosis


scal


with external measures,


that


the relative contributions


two


hypnotic


mechanisms


performance


may


items


vary


with


(Tellegen,


difficulty


1978/79,


Spanos


the


et al


1983;


Balthazard


Woody,


1985)


. The


discovery


of a slightly


bimodal


distribution


of susceptibility


scores


on the


Stanford


Hypnotic


Susceptibility


Scal


(Hilgard


et al


, 1961)


been











Although


resolution of


"one


versus


two mechanism"


question


still


the


future


, attempts


improve


the


measurement


of subjective


of hypnotizability


scal


have


to complement


involved


objective


development


performance


evaluations


the


standardized


susceptibility


scal


Several


new scal


have also


been


created


focusing on


specific


aspects


(Tellegen


hypnotizability,


Atkinson,


such


1974),


Absorbtion


Carleton


Scal


University


Responsiveness


to Suggestions Scale


(Spanos et al


, 1983)


Barber


Creative


Suggestibility


Imagination


Scale


Scal


(Barber


(Barber


Wilson,


Wilson


1978


1978


-79),


-79),


Archai


Involvement


Measure


(Nash


Spinler


, 1989),


index


Hypnotic


of nonvolitional


Susceptibility


behavior


Scal


(N-VB


Form


index)


(Bowers,


Stanford


1982)


Measurement


the


dimension


of hypnotic


depth


has also


continued


to evolve,


stemming


from


the


19th


century


scal


Bernheim


Liebault


(Edmon


ston,


1986;


Laurence


Nadon,


1986)


1953;


and


Tart


from


, 1979)


more


. Unlike


recent


the


efforts


hypnotic


LeCron


susceptibility


(LeCron,


sca


which


have


achieved


practical


acceptance


among


researchers


varying


theoretical


orientations,


hypnotic


depth


scal


have


received


consensual


support.


Proponents


of thi


approach


generally


support


the


description


hypno


as a di


stinct