Group consciousness, social movements, and levels of political participation

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Group consciousness, social movements, and levels of political participation
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Mease, Kenneth W., 1951-
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Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1995.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 146-151).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Kenneth W. Mease Jr.

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University of Florida
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GROUP


CONSCIOUSNESS, SOCIAL MOVEMENTS,
POLITICAL PARTICIPATION


AND


LEVELS


KENNETH


MEASE


A
OF THE


THESIS
UNIVERSE
OF THE


PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
ITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


























would


like


to dedicate


this dissertation


to my


parents,


Ken and Bernice Mease,


who never gave up on my


desire


to earn a Ph.D.



















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


wish


to acknowledge


the


help


of several


individuals


without


work


Peggy


their


in progress.


Conway,


completing


this


help


this


First


her


dissertation


would


endless


project.


Next,


like


patience


would


to thank


and


wish


still


chair,


guidance


thank


Chris


McCarty


who


has


taught


me much


of what


know


about


statistics,


scales,


survey


research


and


computers.


also


want


thank


Jim


Button,


Wayne


Francis,


Richard


Scher,


and


Leonard


Beeghley


their


support


and


insight


into


the


graduate


education


process


and


the


crafting


this


dissertation.


want


thank


the


members


Masters


Committee,


of whom


remain


on my


dissertation


committee,


encouraging


an older


student


to continue


pursuit

pointing


of a Ph.D.


also


right


wish


direction


thank

when


Ken

this


Wald


project


was


earliest


form.


In addition,


want


thank


Ted


Snow


for


selfless














hungry


thank


and


Mark


tolerated


Walkup


the


his


demands


valuable


made


on her


editing


and


husband.


comments


the


introduction


and


conclusion.


am greatly


debt


Holly


Sommers


who


helped


finish


the


last


this


project


creating


the


tables


and


formatting


the


final


draft.














TABLE


OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.......................... .............. ii


LIST

LIST


OF TABLES. ........ .. ............. .. . **. .vii

OF FIGURES...... . .......... ... .................. x


CHAPTER


1....... ...................................... .... .


INTRODUCTION................
Research Design and Goals


CHAPTER


.......... ......... .... .. .. ..1
.... .. .. ...... ....... .3


... .... ...... ... .6


THEORIES


OF GROUP


CONSCIOUSNESS/COLLECTIVE


ACTION,


REPRESENTATION,


Theories
Recent


AND


of Group
Research


PARTICIPATION


Consc
on G


The Multidimensional
Critique of Previous
Feminist Group Consc
Definitions of the F
Group Consciousnes
Conclusions on Group
Social Movement TI
Relative Deprivation
Critiques of Relativ
Resource Mobilizatio
Critique of Resource
Political Process Th
Critique of Politica
Relative Deprivation, I
Political Process Th
New Social Movement
Expanding the Scope
Psychological Impact
Mass Public ......
New Social Movements
Defining the Success
Measuring the Succes


A New


Theoretical


0ious
roup
Nati
ResE
iousr
our I


ness
Cons
Ire o
arch
less.
Aimen


ciousne
f Group
. .a.. .


C .nsusn.. .
Consciousn


iec
a *
e
n.
M
eo


ry .......

Deprivation
.bi....ization
obilization


ry.....
Process


Resource


eori


es:


S..
Con


a0....
Femini

earch


.....O.

Theory.

Theory.


*.. ..C... C*.
s Theory.....
Mobilization


What


S. . .6
.........9
S. .. 11
sness...12
S. . .16
S. ....18


and


... ....... .2
........... .2
. . . .2
.............2
.... .... .. .2
............2
........... .2


and


s Missing?..


Theory.................
of New Social Movement
of Social Movements on


and
of
of


Framewor


ower
cial
ocia
k To


Relationshi
Movements..
1 Movements.
View Social


. . .28
. . .30


Theory
the


. . . .32
S. . .33
. . . .34
. . . .35


2.......O..... ........


. .32


ABSRTACT...................................................x







CHAPTER


3. .... .. ..... ...... .. ..... ........ .....40


- MEASUREMENT


Measurement
Research..
Statistics
Attitudes,
Conclusion


Issues


ANI
in


STATISTICAL


the


A a.m...... at
A ew'ti4


M
is


Measurement
Measurement


Atti
Scale 1
Clas
Indu
Deve
Item
Mult
Reli
Vali


tude S
'heory
sic Th
ctive
loping
Selec
idimen
ability
dity..


APPROACH...........40


Social Sciences


e....


ssOOumpI ons..w ... a a a
measurement, and
on Response Catec
and Attitude Sca.
Error and Regres!


cales and Reducing
and Development ..
eory..............
and Deductive Scal
Summated Rating S
tion and Analysis.
sional Scales.....
y................


r


.1
:4


Criteria-Related Validity
Known-Groups Validity ....


Factor Analys
Interpreting


This Reseai
The Attitude
Item Develc
Item Analys
A Second It
The Survey
Data Analysis
Results of
Particiaptj
Levels of I
Political 1
Research Hypo
Factors Aft
Political I
Consciou
Sample Charac
Dependent and
Dependent \
Independent


and
ctor


:ch...........
Scale Construe
,pment........
;is with Stude
:em Selection
and Sample...
: Statistical
Feminist Cons
ion Models....
Feminist Consc
ctivity......


Validi
Analys


tion


nt


G:


With
a a .


Survey


........ ... ......4
.0.. ... ...... .... ....4
Reliability..............4
gori es.... .. ... .... 4
les........... ....... ...4

sion Analysis............4
Measurement Error...... .4
S.......... *.......* ....4
.........................4
SDevelopment ............4
Sales............... .5
.......g................5

.......................5
........................5
GiTests ......i.........5
.....Tests ............ ... ...5
ty ......................5
lis . .. .. ... .5
........ ................ .5
.... .......... .........5
......................5
roup.....................6
Gainesville Residents...6
. . . . . .....6


Procedures Analyzing the
ciousness and Political


...iousnes
iousnes


a a


theses ......
fecting Level
Participation
sness .......
teristics ...
Independent
Variables....
t Variables..


at..
s of
and


...


Femini
Levels


a. a


Consciousne
Feminist


.. ..6



ss...6


. ... ... ....... ... .... ... .6

Variables ....................7
.. ...... ... ........... .. .7
.t. ... .. ... t...... ....... .7


CHAPTER 4... .... .........
Reliability ..............
Validity .................
Known Groups Validity..
Factor Analysis ........
Measurement Conclusions


...... .. ..0... .. ... .. .7

S.... .. .. ......... .e..,. .. .8

a.. a... a..t .t. ..a.t ...a .8


METHODS








Group


Consciousness


Overall


Results


- Consumer


....Attitude.
Attitude


Survey.


Women.
Men...
Subsca
Samp
Subsca
Subsca
Summar
Party


Consci
Race and
Levels of P
Subscale
Survey
Subscale
Subscale
Race and
Party IdE
Gender ar
Conclusic
and Gr


t *

le
"a


.....nalys
Analysis


- Consumer


Att


le Analysis for Women.....
le Analysis for Men.......
y of Subscale Analysis for
Identification and Levels


ousness .............
Ethnicity...........
political Participati(
Analysis Entire Cc
Sample .............


Ana
Ana
Eth
enti
Id P
,ns
oup


lysi
lysi
nici
fica
arti


on Lev


for
for


Women
Men..


.0....
on and
nship.
els of


Consciousness


cc
a a


..a..e
......
itude
......
.e.et.
*0t. c..


Surv..ey...

Survey


* C
t Ce


...*c......
Women and
of Group


.......

ne


rnsumer
......
......
......


.Political.
Political
..........
Political


a


*

Me]


Attitude


t.....
Parti

Parti


c...
ipat
* t .


S. . .91
S. . .91

.... ... .92
.........95
. .... .96
n.......98


..... ..100
. ......103
S. .. .103


.. ... .1


S. .....1

ion....1
. ......1


ipation


. . . . . . .116


CHAPTER


CONCLUSION......
Measurement -
Validity...
Factors Expla
Feminist Conse
So What ......
Future Rese


. a.. c.e...... .
Scale Development,


Reliability,


. .........118
and


I...... ... 0*............C......00.0" '"
ining Levels of Feminist Consciousness
ciousness and Levels of Participation .


arch.....
arch.....


....
. a.
*


*. .c ....c......
...............


* a
ft *t f


...1
...1


S. .1


APPENDIX...
Feminist
Used i
1993..
Femini
Politi
Policy
Indepe


Consciousness Scale Items and Questions
n the Consumer Attitude Survey, November,


st Group Consciousnes
cal Participation Que
Question.............
ndent Variable Questi


O


Sd
tiL
Sns
ns


. . . . . .1
cale Items............1
ons. .. ...... 1
. . . . . .1
. . . . . .1


LIST


OF REFERENCES.......... ........ ..................... 146


BIOGRAPHICAL


SKETCH..... .......... ........ . .152


.......
.......


6 . . . . . . . ... .. 118


......... .87
..... .....87








LIST


OF TABLES


Table
Table
Dev
Table
Coe:
Table
Conr
Table
Con
Table
Sca
Table
Sea
Table
Sca
Table
Sub
Table
Sub
Table
Sub
Table


h-1.
-2.
ati
I-1.
fic
:-2.
cio
S-3.


Responden
Sample Ch
ons........
Feminist
ients......
Difference
usness Comp.
Difference


sciousness


4-4.


le and
4-5.
le and
5-1.
le for
5-2.
scales
5-3.
scales
5-4.
scales
5-5.


Factor


Col


Characteristics...
acteristics--Means


Consciousnes


e of Me
aring M
es of M
mparing


Analy


Subscales
Factor Anal
Subscales
Regression
the Overal
Regression
for the Ov
Regression
for Women.
Regression
for Men...
Regression


a





o
1

e
c


ians T
en an
Leans
Demo


Scale


'ests for
d Women..


Tes
cral


,sis of the F
-Item Analys;
'sis of the F
-- CAS Sampli
Analysis of
Sample, the
if the Femini
rall Sample.
,f the Femini


of the

Analysis


Consciousness Scale for D4
Independents.............
Table 5-6. Regression Analy
Consciousness Scale for B
Table 5-7. Probit Analysis
Participation for the Ovea
Feminist Consciousness
Table 5-8. Probit Analysis
Participation for the Ove:
Feminist Consciousness
Table 5-9. Probit Analysis
Participation for Blacks
Consciousness Scale......
Table 5-10. Probit Analysis
Political Participation f
Independents -- Feminist
Table 5-11. Probit Analysis
Political Participation f
Feminist Consciousness Sc
Table 5-12. Probit Analysis
Political Participation f
Feminist Consciousness Sc
Table 5-13. Probit Analysis
Political Participation f


Feminist


Consciousness


Femini


Sthe
the


democrat!


)


lac
of
ral
Sca
of
ral
Sub
of
and


* .
of
or
Con:
of
or
ale
of
or
ale
of
or


Scale


ts
ts
em
is
em


* .
and

and


. . . .71
Standard


Sub


Feminist
........


cale


* 71
Alpha
. .80


... ....


for Feminist
and Republicans.
insist Consciousne
Sample..........


inis


Consciousne


e .. .. ..
Feminist Consciou
Women and Men...
st Consciousness


Con


* ...
iousn


Consciousne

Feminist


s, Republicans


of the Feminist
cs and Hispanics...
Levels of Political
L Sample, the Women


le.......
Levels of
1 Sample,
scales...


Political


i
S


Increased
Hispanics

Increased
Democrats,
sciousness
Increased
Democratic

Increased
Republican


I


Increa


independent


.

.


.90

. ..94

. .97


. . .99

and
S. ...101


and
* .


...102

Men -
...105


the Women and Men -
....... ... .... .107
Levels of Political
-- Feminist


Levels of
Republicans


Scale
Level
Women

Level
Women

Level


Women


of
and

;of
and

.of
and


N
M


.


..........0...0 ....000


....109

, and
.. .110

en --
.. .112

en --
....114

Men --
....115


.


*...







LIST


OF FIGURES


Figure 3-1. A Model c
Consciousness......
Figure 3-2. Model of
Participation......
Figure 3-3. Feminist
Theoretical Dimensi


Factors


.Factors
Factors


Affecting


Affecting


* a.... t
Consciousness
on...........


S..al
Scal


Feminist


Levels


......... ..66
of Political
..... .. .....67


. .


Items


by


. o. ..tae. e o o. O t.













Abstract


the


of Thesis


University


Requirements


GROUP


Presented


of Florida


the


CONSCIOUSNESS


Degree


SOCIAL


the


Partial I
of Doctor


MOVEMENTS


Graduate


School


fulfillment


of Philo


, AND


the


sophy


LEVELS


POLITICAL


Kenneth


May


PARTICIPATION


. Mease


, 1995


Chairperson:


Margaret


Conway


Major


Department


Political


Science


the


study


the


modern


democratic


state,


concept


of political


representation


occupies


a central


position.


The


question


relative


to American


women


then


becomes


why


are


women


under


-repre


sented


elective


offices


throughout


government,


particularly


the


national


level


and


why


1980s

the w


women


ell


their

have


know


police

been


gender


problems


voting


gap"


persist.


differently

American pc


Since


than


oliti


men,


CS.


early


creating


Women


represent


more


than


the


eligible


voters.


Since


1980


women


have


voted


at higher


rates


than


men.


Census


data


indicate


in the


1992


election


the


reported


S- a


1 ) -


L








Hispanic


women


vote


at higher


rates


than


their


male


counterparts


, and


"gender


gap


more


pronounced


among


these


women


of color


than


among


white


women.


the


1992


election


women


increased


their


presence


in elective


offices.


However,


the


national


level


women


held


only


55 of


the


total


seats


or 10.3


percent


the


103rd


Congr


ess


dissertation


moves


research


concerning


the


women


movement,


group


consciousness,


and


social


movement


theory


several


ways.


First,


advances


measurement


in research


group


consciousness


developing


the


first


original


attitude


scale


measure


level


of femini


consciousness


Second,


employs


multivariate


analy


SS


the


relationship


between


level


of feminist


consciousness


and


political


participation.


Third,


examines


level


of participation,


not


limiting


inquiry


to just


voting


Unlike


previous


research


and


which


has


has


centered


considered


party


its analysis


on voting


identification,


thi


behavior


research


examines


the


role


of parti


sanship


explaining


both


level


of feminist


consciousness


and


level


of participation.


Thi


dissertation


also


examines


several


social


movement


theories


and


suggests


a synthe


exis


ting


theories


improve


our


overall


understanding


of social


movements.


Finally,


suggests


to New


Social


Movement


theory


the


concept


group


outputs o


consciousness


f socia


as a means


l1 movements


to understanding


nhlh i r


;mnh


maia <


__













CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


the


study


the


modern


democratic


state,


the


concept


of political


representation


occupies


a central


position.


There


are


many


interpretations


and


definitions


the


concept


of representation


and


what


means


to be


representative


(Pitkin,


1967)


"Descriptive


representation"


suggests


that


elected


representatives


should


resemble


the


citizenry


: "The


way


to do


thi


... is simply


to make


them


part


the


public


they


serve"


(Mill


Pitkin


, 1967,


"Interest


representation"


where


elected


officials


represent


the


interests


their


constituents


"Guardian


representation


" exists


when


representatives


are


elected


use


their


best


judgment


to represent


people.


the


case


women,


however,


representatives


have


resembled


them,


represented


their


interest


or used


their


best


chooses


judgment.


Whatever


to advocate


, the


type


pos


of representative


ition


model


interests


one


women


the


United


States


have


been


priority


However,


women


make


the


majority


the


voting


population


have


well-


defined


political


interests


Recent


survey


results


Florida


indicate


that


the


1eadincr


nrnhl sms~


in 1hc1


1 QQAn


fr m-{n


omln 1


rm n


rvrP


i|









These


top


five


"problems"


were


identified


using


an open-


ended

same


question

problems


format.


the


Both


same


women


order.


and

This


men


identified


survey


also


the


found


that


women


are


viewed


both


men


and


women


as having


"too


little


influence"


society.


Moreover,


respondents


indicated


that


women


and


men


are


viewed


as equally


able


offer


workable


solutions


these


problems


(Mease,


1992)


Women


suffer


disproportionally


from


many


of society


social


ills


including


poverty


and


discrimination


in health


care,


the


workplace,


economy


Women


represent


more


than


50 percent


eligible


voters.


Moreover


since


1980,


women


have


voted


at higher


rates


than


men.


Census


data


indicate


1992


election


the


reported


turnout


women


was


percent


and


was


60.2


percent


men.


These


data


also


reveal


that


African-American


and


Hispanic


women


vote


at higher


rates


than


their


male


counterparts.


Therefore,


the


"gender


gap"


is more


pronounced


among


these


women


color


than


among


white


women


(McGlen


and


O'Connor,


1995


, p.


the


1992


election,


women


increased


their


presence


elective


offices


However,


the


national


level,


women


held


only


55 of


the


total


seats


or 10


percent


the


103rd


Congress


(McGlen


and


O'Connor,


1995,


76) .


With


women


having


superior


registration


and


voting









support


policy


solutions


women


issues.


These


strategies


would


promote


both


descriptive


and


interest


representation.


The


question


American


women


then


becomes


why


are


women


under


-represented


elective


offices


throughout


government,


particularly


the


national


level,


why


their


policy


needs


remain


unfulfilled?


Since


early


1980s


women


have


been


voting


differently


than


men


, creating


well


know


gender


gap


" in


American


politics


are


more


likely


to be Democrats


than


men


(McGlen


O'Connor,


1995).


Despite


the


"gender


gap"


and


the


movement


large


number


women


toward


the


Democratic


party


, little


been


done


on their


policy


agenda.


Research


Desian


and


Goal


This


social


inconsi


research


movements


stencies


examines


to help


the


between


theories


unravel

majority


group


the


consciousness


apparent


electoral


status


women


and


persistent


representation


and


policy


needs.


how


individual


perceive


the


"women


s movement"


which


drives


the


need


an original


attitude


scale


measure


feminist


consciousness.


The


"women


s movement"


has


been


linked


with


certain


symbols


over


the


last


twenty-


five


years.


These


symbols


include


The


National


Organization


Women


(NOW),








argue


that


these


symbols


which


are


still


currently


used


major


surveys,


are


distorted


and


offer


a distorted


measure


of support


women


issues


Symbols


become


distorted


various


reasons.


dissertation


does


not


choose


to debate


how


the


distortion


occurs


, just


that


often


does.


This


dissertation


advances


research


concerning


the


women


theory


s movement,


in several


group


way


consciousness


First,


advances


social


movement


measurement


research


on group


consciousness


developing


the


first


original


attitude


scale


measure


levels


feminist


group


consciousness1


Second


, it


employs


multivariate


analysis


the


and


relationship


political


between


level


participation.


of feminist


Third,


consciousness


examines


level


participation,


Moreover,


not


examine


limiting

es the r


the


ole


inquiry

of parti


to just

sanship


voting


levels


feminist


consciousness


and


level


of participation.


Previous


research


using


group


consciousness


theory


has


centered


analysis


on voting


and


considered


party


identification


in its


analysis


(Gurin


et al.,


1980;


Miller


et al.,


1981,


Gurin,


1985)


Fourth,


examines


social


movement


theories


and


suggests


a synthesis


of existing


The


use


the


term


"feminist"


is not


intended


represent a
feminism.
Dictionary,


mny


particular


According t
"feminism"


theoretical


:o Webster's
is defined


.New


perspective of
International


as "the


theory


political.


economic


and


social


eaualitv


-.


women


.


. W









theories


improve


our


overall


understanding


of social


movements.


Finally


, it


suggests


to New


Social


Movement


theorists


the


concept


group


consciousness


as a means


under


stand


outputs


of social


movements


on the


mass


public


and


to help


identify


"core


members













CHAPTER


THEORIES


OF GROUP


CONSCIOUSNESS/COLLECTIVE


ACTION,


REPRESENTATION,


AND


PARTICIPATION


Thi


project


seeks


illuminate


the


question


of which


theoretical


lens


offers


the


clearest


view


group


consciousness


and


the


impact


group


consciousness


attitudes


and


participation.


Good


theory


similar


camera


lens


Like


the


proper


camera


lens


and


aperture


setting,


good


theory


should


provide


a clear


image


subject


being


examined.


It should


include


the


relevant


information


and


provide


a sharp


image


and


depth


of field.


While


striving


to find


such


lens


the


ultimate


goal


of social


science


research,


not


every


research


project


can


meet


the


criteria


mentioned


above.


Some


may


provide


us with


a close-up


view


some


political


phenomena,


while


others


may


capture


a specific


image


sharply


but


provide


depth


field


linkage


to a larger


theoretical


question


or perspective.


Simply


put,


no one


method


likely


provide


us with


the


ideal


lens.


Probably


the


best


image


a time expos

qualitative,


;ure


and


captured


historical


several

inquiry,


lenses.

guided


Quantitative,


theory,


contribute


the


quality


the


lens


at the


disposal


the


social


science


researcher









data


and


statistical


data


analysis.


Since


the


early


1950s,


American


political


scienti


have


had


the


luxury


of working


with


large


national


samples


with


many


the


questions/items


being


repeated


over


the


years


statistical

computers m


theoretical


tool


ore


have


become


affordable


assumptions


more


sophisticated


powerful


of early


, many


researchers


have


and

the


been


challenged


and


some


their


findings


have


been


found


to be


flawed.


Unfortunately


, the


important


theoretical


questions


surrounding


democracy


representative


government


have


not


been


as easy


answer


as critiquing


the


efforts


of others.


There


have


been


a few


political


scientists


such


Hochschild


(1981)


and


Button


(1989),


who


broke


ranks


with


mainstream


quantitative


analysis


and


attempted


to understand


important

qualitativ


political

e analysis


phenomena


employing


or a combination


either


of several


approaches


Often


more


criticized


"scientifically"


a lack


minded,


of methodological


qualitative


rigor


researchers


the


have


recently


gained


respect;


only


their


form


inquiry


incorporated


some


the


rigor


that


was


previously


lacking,


but


also


the


qualitative


researchers


, such


as Button,


are


offering


conclusions


and


theoretical


findings


which


provide


insightful


explanations


of social


and


political


phenomena.


1K








number


and


type


response


categories


offered


to question


wording


and


order.


When


factors


such


as question


wording


order


are


modified,


significantly


different


responses


are


often


the


outcome.


Factor


analysis


is commonly


used


political


scientists


to construct


attitude


scales.


When


items


are


used


from


different


portions


a survey


instrument,


the


results


are


likely


to suffer


from


one


more


the


problems


mentioned


above


(For


a more


detailed


discussion


these


issues,


see


Chapter


Other


questions


being


asked


about


surveys


relate


to exactly


what


the


responses


really


mean.


Some


social


psychologists


argue


that


respondents


who


answer


primarily


closed-ended


survey


questions,

be offering


conducted


their


over


top-of


the


telephone


-the-head


opinion


or face

n, but


to face,


not


may


the


deeply


held


cognitive


attitudes


that


many


the


social


sciences


have


assumed


Indeed,


measurement


has


always


plagued


the


social


sciences


as a source


error.


Recent


work


psychologists


such


as Jon


Krosnick


(1991)


suggests


that


dichotomous


response


categories


are


potential


sources


increased


random


error.


Items


which


allow


respondents


more


choices


then


branch


gauge


the


strength


or consistency


initial


response


are


likely


to offer


more


accurate


measurement


(Krosnick,


1991,


. 552)


__


_









studies


only


phenomena,


provide


often


a limited


sharply


focused


snapshot


of political


on an event


or portion


the


political


process.


They


offer


little


depth


field"


or perspective


larger


theoretical


debate.


argue


that


res


searchers


are


often


constrained


to limited


theoretical


questions


the


reliance


on secondary


data


and


the


limits


the


particular


tool


they


employ


to conduct


their


analysis.


This


research


seeks


to improve


measurement


quantitative


research


through


the


development


an original


measurement


instrument


employing


attitude


scale


construction


theory


and


techniques.


data


used


thi


research

answer."


were


this


recently

research


collected.

examines s


Rather


several


than


hypothe


seeking


ses


"the


derived


from


multiple


theoretical


approaches,


thereby


increasing


opportunities


gain


more


complete


understanding


Finally,


thi


research


analy


zes


the


relationship


between


levels


feminist


consciousness


and


political


behavior


the


mass


level


using


sophisticated


statistical


techniques


which


provide


a multivariate


analysis.


Theori


Group


Consciousness


Elliot


(1986)


argues


that


group


consciousness


a common


occurrence


found


throughout


humanity


most


I


1








"WE"


most


United


States


citizens


' lives.


Other


level


group


consciousness,


often


formed


around


various


issues


such


as ethnicity,


class,


gender,


or race,


are


subordinate


existing


other


areas


of citi


zen


consciousness


(Elliot,


1986,


posit


that


the


United


States


a friction


exists


between


the


big


"WE"


the


little


"wes"


This


friction


centers


around


concepts


of rugged


individualism


and


the


Protestant


work


ethic


which


stress


self-reliance


rather


than


group


action.


Elliot


also


suggests


that


the


level


types


group


consciousness


are


subject


change.


In effect,


level


consciousness


tend


to ebb


and


flow


. 10-11).


Elliot


identifies


the


educational


system


, usually


admini


steered


state,


as the


major


agent


group


consciousness


more


specifically


of national


consciousness.


Elliot


s explanation


group


consciousness


as a hierarchical


psychological


phenomenon


with


many


levels


and


often


conflicting


goals


provides


a foundation


defining


and


understanding


thi


complex


yet


powerful


component


the


consci ousnes


of social


study

s (the


movements


the


(Elliot,


relationship


psychological


1986,

between


dimension)


p. 10)

group


and


political


participation,


recent


work


using


survey


data


involves


group


of social


psychologists


and


political


scientists


-1 -








Recent


Research


on Group


Consciousness


Patricia


Gurin,


Arthur


Miller


and


Gerald


Gurin


(1980)


explore


the


relationship


between


different


types


group


consciousness


and


their


causes.


"Stratum


consciousness


defined


as "an


ideology


about


the


position


the


stratum


society,


(which)


includes


a sense


power


discontent,


evaluation


legitimacy


position


and


view


that


collective


action


best


means


to realize


interests


(Gurin


et al


1980


, p.


The


identification


of unique


elements


of stratum


consciousness


later


more


refined


conceptual


zation


of a multidimensional


model


group


subordinate

multivariate


consciousness


and


The


superordinate


analysis


the


authors

groups.

effects


examine

They


both

conduct


levels


group


consciousness


an independent


variable)


on collective


orientation


the


dependent


variable)


. In


early


research,


collective


orientation


treated


as the


dependent


variable


In later


work


Gurin


(1985)


collective


orientation


included


multidimensional


concept


group


consciousness.


Gurin


politics


et al.


and


(1980)


consciousness.


discuss


Thi


linkage


political


between


connection


proved


to be important


consciousness.


Other


in later w

researchers


ork

soo


conducted on

n recognized


group

the







The


Multidimensional Nature


of GrouD


Consciousness


Arthur


Miller,


Patricia


Gurin,


Gerald


Gurin


and


Oksana


Malanchuk

research,


(1981)

which


identify

primarily


a need

focuses


move


on the


beyond

study


previous


group


conscious


ess


of Blacks


and


their


level


of political


participation


(see


also


Verba


Nie,


1972


Moreover,


Miller


et al.


(1981)


seek


improve


on the


conceptual


definitions


and


measurement


used


earlier


studies.


Their


research


designs


expand


the


psychological


dimension


political


participation


and


can


be used


studying


different


groups,


including


those


holding


a dominant


social


standing


(Miller


et al


., 1981,


494)


Miller


and


associates


reason


that


the


definition


group


consciousness


used


the


earlier


research


too


narrow.


moving


beyond


group


identification


and


deprivation


limitations


group


of a too


consciousness


narrow


they


slon


remove


the


the


psychological


element


political


participation


group


members.


However,


many


political


scientists


still


view


group


consciousness


solely


through


lens


group


identification


(see


Rinehart,


1992;


Conover,


1984)


Miller


and


associates


introduce


the


multidimensional


nature


group


consciousness


They


identify


four


dimen


sons


which


include


group


identification,


polar


affect,


polar


power,


and


* j --r ^


fc


L


- .--









In addition


introducing


thi


expanded


concept


group


consciousness,


these


authors


provide


valuable


context


to understanding


the


changing


nature


levels


group


consciousness


effect


on political


participation


They


write


that


sense


group


consciousness


may


also


vary


from


individual,


over


time,


and


across


strata,


depending


on social


conditions"


495)


Thi


variability


group


consciousness


presents


a fluid


state


where


the


multidimensional


model


group


consciousness


probably


will


not


offer


the


res


earcher


any


definitive,


predictable


theoretical


results


from


a single


inquiry


Instead,


one


needs


move


beyond


a single


snapshot


time


to multiple


observations


various


individual


over


time


and


across


strata.


These


criteria


are


necessary


to fully


exploit


insights


to be gained


from


thi


line


inquiry.


Miller


et al.


describe


two


ways


of modeling


the


multidimensional


conception


group


consciousness


linear


additive


model


and


an interactive


model.


With


multidimensional


model


and


therefore


a multidimensional


scale,


seems


likely


that


some


interaction


would


result,


and


they


do find


interaction.


The


question


is this


important?


think


not.


Interaction


between


different


dimensions


group


consciousness


suggests


that


they


are


related.


This


seems


logical


because


individual








politicized


simple


group


members


socioeconomic


participate


character


stics


at higher


might


rates


predict


than


(Miller


et al.,


1981,


. 506).


Building


on her


previous


res


each,


Gurin


(1985)


takes


the


multidimensional


group


consciousness


concept,


refined


Miller

four d


and


co-authors


dimensional


model


, a step

group c


further.


onsciousnes


Gurin

s, but


retains a

redefines


the


four


components.


Gurin


defines


the


four


theoretical


components


as group


identification,


content,


withdrawal


of-legitimacy,


and


collective


orientation


These


four


components


exi


the


previous


research


conducted


Gurin


(1980)


and


Miller


et al. (1981).


the


earlier


research


"collective


orientation"


identified


as the


dependent


variable.


Gurin


(1985)


decides


include


"collective


orientation"


the


multidimensional


concept


group


consciousness


In addition,


the


earlier


studies


identify


"discontent"


as "polar


affect"


and


"polar


power,


while


"withdrawal-of


-legitimacy"


appears


"individual


verses


system


blame


Gurin


(1985)


and


the


earlier


work


treat


group


identification


a similar


manner.


Gurin


(1985)


expands


on the


theoretical


linkage


between


level


group


consciousness,


political


participation,


and


collective


action.


sugge


that


two


widely


scussed


theories


relating


group


consciousness


and


collective









Gurin


s research


on gender


consciousness


reports


that


level


group


consciousness


among


women


are


weaker


than


level


group


conscious


sness


other


groups


such


Blacks


1970s


employed


, older


women


and


people,


under

single


blue


30 with

at the


collar


a college


time


workers.


education


these


During


who


surveys


the


were


displayed


higher


levels


of discontent


withdrawal


-of-legitimacy


similar


cohort


women


and


men,


now


between


the


ages


are


examined


dissertation.


She


identify


change


men


s perception


women


during


the


1970s


and


early


1980s


and


reports


that


men


adopted


a pro


-women


position


on her


gender


consciousness


sca


Moreover


men


became


more


favorably


disposed


toward


the needs


women


a group


than


toward


those


of Blacks


(Gurin,


1985


, p.


161)


Gurin


emphasis


zes


that


while


some


shared


consensus


among


men


and


women


exis


, there


are


critical


differences.


Men


a 1983


telephone


survey


still


differ


from


women


assess

versus


whether


women.


Men


men

and


have

women


too


also


much


power"


differ


in society


on the


withdrawal


of-legitimacy


dimension.


concludes


that


the


"justice


men


s advantage


" defines


gender


cleavages.


Whil


the


number


women


who


see


men


with


legitimate


advantage


decreased,


the


number


men


holding


this


same


opinion


increased


the


1983


data


(Gurin,


1985,


-161)







Critiaue


of Previous


Research


the


previous


research


discussed,


Gurin


(1985)


uses


secondary


data


analysis


, ba


sing


her


research


on panel


data


from


the


1972


and


1976


National


Election


Studi


(NES)


and


a data


set


from


a 1983


nationwide


telephone


survey


conducted


the


University


of Michigan.


She


uses


a factor


analysis


identify


the


items


used


to construct


her


scale


measuring


the


four


dimen


sions


group


consciousness.


Because


that


study


the


others


discussed


did


not


create


an original


attitude


scale


from


a large


pool


items


derived


from


the


theory,


they


risk


significant


measurement


problems.


These


measurement


concerns


include


capturing


theoretical


components


accurately,


question


order,


and


item


formats.


problems,


(For


see


a detailed


section


discussion


these


on measurement


potential


Chapter


Three)


Examining


some


the


measures


used


Gurin


s study


illuminates


these


measurement


problems.


For


instance,


group


identification


component


uses


only


one


item.


Thi


item


from


the


face-to


-face


interviews


and


offers


respondent


a choice


from


a set


of sixteen


groups.


Respondents


are


asked


which


group


they


feel


closest


Then


they


are


asked


which


other


groups


they


feel


close


Gurin


point


measures


scale.


- -


the


degree


A value
a a. __ -


one


group


is given


I S


identification


to respondents


.1_


on a three


who


I -


L-


'lI


2









that


many


who


support


and


identify


with


women


issues


may


not


select


them


as the


group


to which


they


feel


"close"


"closest"


Therefore,


thi


item


may


underestimate


amount


group


identification


and


thus


group


consciousness


Moreover


, a single


item


which


offers


only


three


response


categories


does


not


provide


enough


range


to capture


subtle


differences.


the


other


hand,


multiple


items


with


more


response


categories


allow


finer


measurement


and


broader


theoretical


interpretation.


Another


potential


problem


area


concerns


her


measurement


of collective


collective


orientation.


orientation


One


dimension


of Gurin


uses


s measures


a "feeling


thermometer"


question


about


the


degree


warmnesss"


respondents


feel


toward


the


Women


liberation


movement


argue


distorted


means


that


and


many


the


"women


dated


symbol


different


liberation


movement"


of support


things


women


to different


item


issues.


people.


The


media


and


opponents


women


issues


have


distorted


the


agenda


and


meaning


measurement


tool.


In addition


, her


research


presents


other


difficulties.


Unfortunately,


several


the


items


from


the


NES


surveys


are


not


the


1983


survey.


Moreover


, questions


telephone


survey


are


not


in the


NES


surveys.


Furthermore,


the


NES


is a


face-to


-face


survey


while


the


1983


Michigan









specifically


designed


the


research,


cannot


enhance


measurement


reliability


or validity.


Gurin,


while


mentioning


the


role


of politics


group


consciousness,


does


not


explore


the


linkage


between


group


consciousness


(1985)


and


political


redefinition


group


activity.


However,


consciousness


and


Gurin

her


theoretical


insights


concerning


social


movement


theory


are


cornerstones


this


dissertation.


Feminist


Group


Consciousness


This


research


uses


Gurin


s definition


group


consciousness


development


of a feminist


group


consciousness


feminist


political,


consciousness


scale.


someone


economic


theory


Using


who


and


fits


the


practices


social


well


definition


or advocates


equality


with


Chapter


the


women.


attempting


One,


theory


Group


to identify


levels


of feminist


consciousness


the


mass


public.


Each


theoretical

collective


component

orientation


-- group


identification,


withdrawal


discontent,


-of-legitimacy


speaks


equality


and


the concept

for women.


application


of social,


Detailed


to a feminist


political


definitions


group


and


of eac


economic

h component


consciousness


scale


are


discussed


below.


The


development


this


scale


and


the


wording


items


are


discussed


detail


Chapter







Definitions o
Consciousness


the


Four


Dimensions


Feminist


Group


Withdrawal


-of-leaitimacv


Thi


component


represents


structural


element


that


encourages


or restricts


development


of a shared


consciousness:


the


degree


to which


group


members


accept


prevailing


social


structure


(Gurin,


1985,


. 147)


In this


dimension


group


consciousness


plight


of systemic


individual


and


group


institutional


members


facto


is viewed

rs. not i


as the


ndividua


result

1 blame


(Gurin


et al.


, 1980


. 31)


Therefore,


disparity


not


recognized


as deprivation


members


believe


legitimate


(Gurin,


1985,


. 147)


If withdrawal


-of-


legitimacy


is pre


sent,


women


and


men


will


agree


with


statements


which


suggest


that


the


plight


women


and


their


issues


are


linked


to systemic


causes


, rather


than


individual


blame.


Individual


s di


content.


Discontent


is present


when


individuals


recognize


that


members


a group


do not


have


the


same


power


as others


in society


(Gurin,


1985


, p.


147)


Discontent


indicated


the


extent


to which


individuals


draw


compare


sons


between


themselves


and


others,


and


recognize


differences


of either


superordinate


or subordinate


status.


thi


study


, women


and


men


will


agree


with


statements


which


identify


women


as the


"out"


group


Collective


orientation.


Collective


orientation








action


and


adopting


the


interests


the


group


(Gurin


, 1980,


31) .


there


is a sense


collective


orientation


present,


men


and


women


will


agree


with


statements


supporting


group


action


on women


issues


Group


identification.


Group


identification


reflects


recognition


of shared


values


and


interests


that


turns


category


individual


into


a collectivity


(Gurin,


1985


, p.


147).


This


concept


addresses


both


objective


and


subjective


group


identification.


Much


the


previous


research


based


only


on objective


members


hip


Simply


put,


many


argue


that


women,


because


they


are


women,


have


objective


membership


in a group.


Thi


research


attempts


include


individual


, such


as men


, who


might


otherwise


be excluded


only


objective


membership


criteria


were


used


to identify


those


who


share


interest


on women


issues.


the


feminist


consciousness


scale,


women


and


men


will


agree


with


statements


that


ask


respondents


they


share


the


values


and


interests


women.


Conclusions


on Group


Consc iousness


Research


and


Social


Movement


Theory


The


work


of Miller,


Gurin,


Gurin,


and


Malanchuk


(1981)


examines


the


collective


relationship


action.


Howeve


between

r, most


group


consciousness


research


and


focuses


on variations


in level


group


consciousness


from


group








al. (1981)


use


simple


zero-order


correlations


to explain


the


relationship


between


group


consciousness


and


voting.


The


central


focus


thi


dissertation


is the


identification


of a causal


link


between


femini


consciousness


political


participation


and


the


role


group


conscious


sness


social


movements


Gurin


(1985)


identify


movements.


linkage


Miller


between


group


et al.(1981)


consciousness


identify


group


and


cons


social


ciousness


as a multidimensional


concept


which


fluid,


not


fixed.


Therefore,


theory


in searching


in which


to place


the


proper


research


social


seek


movement


a theory


which


acknowledges


the


importance


the


psychological


dimension.


, thi


res


earch


examines


several


social


movement


theories


The


theories


include


relative


deprivation


, resource


mobili


zation,


political


process


theory,


new


social


movement


theory,


and


finally


a hybrid


theoretical


model


, which


incorporates


several


concepts


from


the


aforementioned


theories.


I suggest


that


a combination


of several


theori


discussed


offers


the


best


theoretical


lens


to understand


social


movements.


Relative


Deprivation


Relative


deprivation


theory


is an outgrowth


of what


some


call


"classic


or mass


society"


social


movement


theory


(MrcAdram -


McCrarthv


s nr


7r 1 ri


1 qFli


Riitt-n


1QRQ


nRtrain-








Relative deprivation

spontaneous, without


theory


views


patterns,


and


social

often


movements


employing


unorthodox


means


to achieve


their


ends.


Gurr


s relative


deprivation


theory


emphasis


zes


human


agency,


wherein


frustrations


or grievances


of a collectivity


of actors


are


associated


with


the


growth


of a movement


, usually


with


least


loose


set


common


beliefs.


Gurr


argues


that


relative


deprivation,


not


st di


ssa


faction


with


the


status


quo,


the


important


factor


trigg


ering


SOC


movements


Individual


perceive


their


position


relative


others


society


as significantly


different,


their


expectations


achieving


what


they


think


they


should


able


versus


what


they


perceive


as poss


, lead


discontent


(Gurr,


1970,


-23;


see


also


McAdam,


McCarthy,


and


Zald


1986)


When


the


levels


of discontent


become


so widespread,


strong,


and


politic


ized


, then


the


pos


sibility


the


development


of a social


movement


high.


The


success


such


a movement,


either


peaceful


or otherwi


, rests


on the


strength


the


movement


s members


and


their


power


relation


the


government


(Costain,


1992


Human


agency

social


defined

movement


women


as discontent


theory


s movement


the


Jo Freeman


using


thi


key


component


conducted


theory


early


Freeman


thi

work


(197


* f


-~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a 0 -- 3-- a - a -


nra4-.


C .


"--4-


1..,1.,


,L..3,,L,


1


IIY


E OW r








as hypothesiz


1975,


relative


However


deprivation


, according


theory


to Costain,


(Freeman,


Freeman


introduces


elements


resource


mobilization


theory


into


model


identifying


the


importance


of a communication


network


among


thi


group


women.


Freeman


s study


the


only


one


to date


which


uses


relative


deprivation


theory


study


the


American


women


s movement


(Costain,


1992


Today


, social


scientists


who


study


American


political


change


no longer


think


about


just


men


rebelling


Critiques


of Relative


Deprivation


Theory


Criti


of relative


deprivation


theory


argue


that


social


movements


are


just


as likely


to be


organize


as not


and


can


be spontaneous.


However,


in the


Wes


most


movements


operate


within


the


political


system.


Thus


, the


emphasis

organized

importance


organize


on human

around


the


action.


agency,


loose


structure


Attempting


character


of belief


resources


to understand


as spontaneous


ignores


the


of a movement


social


and


movements


using


just


this


theoretical


lens


leaves


too


many


elements c

or failure


rucial


to understanding


of movements


in Western


formation


democracy


es.


and success

This narrow


view


restricts


the


understanding


of social


movements


to just


level


of discontent


power


balance


between


"out"


* *


f a


- n n -- ib a -tr A- a -1- -- -J


S. A A, aS


_ I


I


a-_ --A-


,,,,,,,,L.


I


rrrrl 1









access


resources,


and


politics


(Costain,


1992;


Button,


1989;


Tesh,


1993).


Resource


Mobilization


Developed


the


1970s,


resource


mobilization


theory


has


roots


in sociology,


as does


mass


society


and


relative


deprivation


theory


Resource


mobilization


theory


used


widely


the


social


sciences


and


particularly


the


study


women


s movement.


In her


review


of social


movement


theories


and


their


use


the


study


the


women


movement,


Costa in


explains


that


resource


mobili


zation


has


been


wid


used,


although


has


often


been


modified


substantially


to fit


the


case


women


(Costain,


1992,


6-7) .


Resource


mobilization


theory


argues


that


the


steadfastness


of discontent


and


the


access


resources,


including


the


support


institutional


actors


such


media


and


the


government,


as well


interaction


among


related


organizations,


are


the


keys


to understanding


social


movements


(Zald


and


McCarthy,


1977;


Button,


1989;


McAdam,


McCarthy,


and


Zald,


1986).


James


Button


(1989)


links


resource


mobilization


theory


with


elite


theories


power.


Button


argues


that


discontent,


while


important


social


movements,


overshadowed


as a causal


factor


the


amount


resources


- a


r I.


Y









money,


labor


and


a communication


network.


External


factors


, which


are


critical


poor


power


ess


groups


include


support


from


groups


such


as churches,


foundations,


organize


ed labor


liberal


groups,


and


federal


government.


Button


draws


an important


distinction


about


resource


mobilization


theory


when


he suggests


that


this


theory


views


collective


action


"explicitly


political


Resource


mobilization


theory


places


more


importance


on sustained


outs


support


from


external


groups


the


amount


resis


tance


from


those


in power


than


the


psychological


dimension


of members


(Button,


1989


, p.


see


also


McAdam


McCarthy


, and


Zald,


1986).


Critiaue


of Resource


Mobilization


Theory


Obviously


in a study


whose


focus


the


psychological


perspective,


the


lack


importance


of psychological


factors


resource


mobilization


theory


raises


questions


the


utility


using


such


theory


research.


suggest


that


viewing


any


social


event


from


either


a strictly


structural


or purely


agency


perspective


inadequate.


For


instance,


Button


study


of Blacks


and


social


change


modifi


the


basic


assumptions


theoretical


perspective.


Moreover,


Costain


explains


that


researchers


studying


the


women


s movement


often


see


need


to modify








Political


Process


Theory


Anne


Costain


(1992)


argues


that


political


process


theory,


which


grew


resource


mobilization


theory,


more


appropriate


examining


the


women


s movement


than


either


relative


deprivation


or variants


resource


mobilization


theories1


The


political


process


approach


places


more


empha


SiS


on political


factors


Costain


offers


definition


of social


movements


based


on political


process


theory


which


argues


that


excluded


groups


mobilize


political


pressure


to advance


their


interests


through


noninstitutional


means.


These


groups


are


often


viewed


"mavericks


operating


in a stable


political


system


because


they


employ


noninstitutional


methods


(Costain,


1992,


. 11-12)


The


nature


and


dispo


sition


the


political


tem


toward


the


group


s actions


and


agenda


are


seen


as critical


the


success


movement


political


process


theorists.


Costain


argues


that


relative


deprivation


theorists,


such


as Gurr,


suggest


that


social


movements


are


more


likely


to form


when


elites


are


vulnerable


and


power


differences


between


group


members


and


the


government


are


small.


Political


process


theorists,


on the


other


hand,


argue


that


the


government


s disposition


toward


the


group


and


their


goals


can


outweigh


large


power


differences.


Unlike


scusslon
--lCCT r \T)


of political


process


theory


-r 1 3 -- 14 An 2 -


For


a more


general


rr


'I 'LI


I









pure


resource


theorists


mobilization


do not


exclude


proponents


the


, political


psychological


process


dimension.


Members


of movements


must


see


their


problems


as having


political


roots


and


believe


that


they


can


act


to change


existing


situation


(Costain,


1992


. 12


see


McAdam,


1982


McAdam,


McCarthy,


and


Zald,


1986).


According


theory,


the


strength


and


viability


the


group


s organi


zation


the


government


tolerance


support


directly


influence


the


success


the


movement.


Costain


claims


that


the


elements


contained


political


process


theory


make


more


sense


" when


viewing


the


women


movement


than


the


resource


mobilization


or relative


deprivation


perspectives.


Costain


ass


erts


that


timing


between


congressional


activity


(the


political


proc


ess


advances


the


women


s movement


explains


the


development


and


success


the


women


s movement


better


than


other


theories


(Costain,


1992


, pp


. 12-13;


see


also


ein,


1984)


Critiaue


of Political


Process


Theory


Political


process


theory


expands


on resource


mobilization


theory


It draws


our


attention


the


role


government


as a


facilitator


or suppresser


soc


movements


and


away


from


resources


of organi


zations.


However,


still


minimi


zes


the


importance








of Women,


sent


a message


to activists,


the


media,


and


the


Congress


that


women


were


on the


civil


rights


agenda.


However,


White


House


staff,


assigned


the


Commission,


did


not


allow


participants


introduce


discuss


resolutions.

to distance


These


themselves


actions


from


led

the


a group


government


the


participants


sponsored


forum


to form


independent


organization


the


National


Organization


for


Women


(NOW).


While


political


process


theory


expands


on concepts


found


relative


deprivation


resource


mobilization


scholarship,


leaves


us wondering


about


the


psychological


chemistry


social


movements.


Relative


Deprivation.


Resource


Mobilization


and


Political


Process


Theories:


What


s Missing?


This


dissertation


finds


certain


elements


the


theories


Relative


discussed


deprivation


above


useful


theory


in guiding


identifies


inquiry.


discontent


and


withdrawal-of-legitimacy


as important


character


stics


social


movements.


Resource


mobilization


theory


illuminates


the


importance


of internal


and


external


support


understanding


social


movements.


However,


the


psychological


elements


are


very


important


also.


Political


of social


process


movement


theory


theory


contributes


identifying


the


the


evolution


role


government


as a facilitator


or suppresser


of movement








movement.


This


theory


acknowledges


importance


members


recognizing


that


their


problems


have


political


roots


which


very


similar


to the


withdrawal-of


-legitimacy


component


identified


However,


these


Gurin


approaches


(1985)

fail


and


Miller


to fully


(1981)


recognize


the


importance


psychological


dimension


of social


movements.


are


left


with


theories


that


focus


organizations,


their


resources


and


support


, and


government


as the


key


determinants


success


or failure.


What


ssing


is an understanding


of why


and


how


people


get


involved


movements


how


the


experience


changes


their


lives


and


society,


and


what


impact


social


movements


have


the


general


or mass


public.


Levels


group


consciousness


are


critical


understanding


the


Success


or failure


of social


movements


Collective


orientation


a key


psychological


element


which


turns


the


wheel


of collective


action,


whether


voting


booth,


at a fund-raiser,


in the


streets


during


peaceful


ass


embly


or unlawful


riot


Withdrawal-of-


legitimacy


identify


whether


the


"out"


group


s plight


viewed


as having


systemic


causes


is perceived


the


responsibility


the


individual.


too


is an


important


ingredient


in creating


a successful


movement


create


a more


complete


picture


of what


happens


in social


m~. -m~. r a-A -aA


4C1w.


,_ AI tn| jkju % n 1


:,, ,,3


~AA~


-- jik


C








New


Social


Movement


Theory


Another


theoretical


perspective,


new


Soc


movement


theory,


expands


our


understanding


of what


Soc


movements


are


and


the


importance


the


psychological


dimension.


What


"new"


new


social


movement


theory


is the


emphasis


individual m

or movement.


members


and


Dalton


their


ideological


Kuechler


(1990)


bond


to the


explore


the


group

"new"


in new


social


movement


theory


examining


the


work


several


researchers,


such


as Ronald


Inglehart


Joyce


Gelb,


who


examine


several


contemporary


social


movements,


including


the


environmental,


women


s rights


, and


peace


movements


The


ideological


bonds


and


shared


beliefs


the


core


members


new


are


social


the


essence


movement


theory


of a social

stresses t


movement


:he


There


importance


fore,

the


psychological


dimension


in social


movements.


The


politics


New


Social


Movements


are


not


like


those


discussed


the


relative


deprivation


model,


which


were


often


violent


and


spontaneous.


New


social


movement


theory


views


protest


organized


and


planned.


The


media


are


seen


as a means


influence


public


opinion


and


get


a movement


s message


wider


audience


(Dalton


and


Kuechler,


1990,


New


social


the


movement


psychological


theorists

1 dynamics


are


interested


of social


in getting


movements


inside

their









identities


are


not


defined


a universal


way,


suggesting


that


the


ideological


bonds


the


core


members


are


anything


like


a "strict


doctrine


Therefore,


members


probably


agree


and


disagree


on a number


issues.


Members


who


coal


esce


on one


issue


may


their


separate


ways


another


(Dalton


and


Kuechler


, 1990,


281).


Dalton


and


Kuechler


explain


that


resource


mobilization


analysis


emphasis


leadership.


The


zes


organization


emergence


of social


the


movements


movement


resource


mobilization


theorists


described


"arbitrary


unplanned,


" and


Dalton


Kuechler


state


that


"entrepreneurial


elites


manufacture


and


manipulate


the


movement


ideological


bonds


(Zald


and


McCarthy


, 1977)


Thi


scenario


seen


in the


proliferation


interest


groups


in the


United


States,


many


of which


have


overlapping


interests


and


are


managed


professionals


(mostly


lawyers


profit.


Dalton


and


Kuechler


sagree


with


the


interpretation


of social


movements


which


lumps


social


movements


with


pressure


groups


interest


groups


see


Zald


and


McCarthy,


1977;


Costain,


1992)


Dalton


and


Kuechler


not


include


fabricated,


checkbook-membership,


for-profit


interest


groups


as social


movements


They


argue


that


simply


examining


or studying


organization


of social


movements


leaves


"glaring


hole


that


neglects


people


the







Expanding


the


Scope


of New


Social


Movement


Theory


A social


movement


is a "collective


actor"


constituted


individual


who


understand


themselves


to have


common


interests,


least


some


part


their


social


existence


share


a common


identity


(Scott,


1990,


Scott


expands


the


linkage


between


movements


and


the


masses


to those


who


have


a common


identity


for


part


stence.


belie


Attempting


creates


major


to examine

research pr


the


oblems,


ibstance

include


of shared

ng defining


who


is a member


and


who


not.


The


challenge


how


include


the


masses


who


may


not


be dues-paying


members


pressure


groups.


Psvcholocical


Impact


Social


Movements


on the


Mass


Public


Sylvia


Tesh


(1993)


suggests


expanding


the


study


social


movements


beyond


the


ideological


bond


core


members


to analy


zing


how


such


movements


impact


on and


modify


the


behavior


of non-members.


Tesh


argues


that


most


new


social


movement


theory


sts


are


interested


ideological


bonds


and


shared


consciousness


as "the


glue


which


hold


a social


movement


together,


not


creative


product


She


character


zes


the


focus


thi


research


"inward


looking"


However,


a growing


number


of scholars


are


beginning


look


beyond


organi


zations


to explore


the


impact


c*An; S


1" jlrr t rr n .1 al a -- --.2 Il---


L f a


. 6)


C-^-+


L1








New Social Movements and Power


Relationships


Political


theorists have


identified at


least


three


dimensions or faces of


power relationships


in society


(Lukes,


1986;


Gaventa,


1980)


The one dimensional


approach


to power was


essentially developed by pluralists


in American


political


science,


most particularly


Robert Dahl


and


Nelson Polsby.


The


first


face of power


is where


has


power over


something that


the extent


would not


that


can get


otherwise do


to do


(Gaventa,


1980,


The


second


face of


power


basically


agenda


setting.


Political


organizations


, like all


organizations,


are


likely


to develop a "mi

exploitation of

suppression of


obilization of bias

certain kinds of c


others.


This approach


which


favors the


conflict and


the


to understanding power


relationships


includes


non-participants and


the


issues which


do not make the agenda


(Gaventa,


1980,


Lukes


(1986)


suggests


there


is a third face of


power,


where


those


in power


"A" have ability to


influence or


shape


what others


want and desire.


He suggests


this


occurs


even though


these choices may not be


the best


interests


(Lukes,


1986,


10) .


Charles


Lindblom


(1990)


similarly


argues


that elites actively work to


influence


the


mass public's commitment


the status quo,


political








The


molding


of beliefs


the


focusing


of debate


lead


to negative


outcomes


those


who


are


not


a po


sition


power.


these


Tesh


(1993)


arguments


finds


which


interesting


applies


new


positive


social


twist


movement


theory.


She


suggests


that


social


movements


can


and


do mold


and


shape


how


people


conceive


their


world


(Tesh


, 1993,


The


research


reported


this


ssertation


attempts


determine


whether


attitudes


about


feminism


have


indeed


been


shaped


the


women


s movement


linking


those


elements


described


in group


consciousness


and


new


social


movement


theories.


Defining


the


Success


of Social


Movements


the


perspective


social


may


movement


be accepted


is successful


, a new


"unconsciously"


ideological


large


numbers


people


who


adopt


a new


way


thinking


Social


movements


provide


challenges


the


dominant


assumptions


the


social


order,


which


can


create


problems


for


the


self-


images


societies


write


(Eyerman

es that


and Jamison,

we can expect


1991,

more


. 165).


just


Tesh


policies


(1993,


and


practices


to result


as non-members


change


their


attitudes


and


behavior


type


of social


change


with


both


a change


policy


and


practice


evident


the


United


States


environmental


movement.


. S a


1*-


*, J


i


I ft *J ^ -


A* A









Scott


argues


that


adoption


of previously


excluded


issues


the


incorporation


of excluded


groups


collective


actors


such


as political


parties


crucial


the


success


of New


Social


Movements


Scott,


1990


, pp.


10-11)


Thus


, new


social


movement

criteria

focuses


theorists

These m


our


judge


ore


attention


social


relaxed

on the


movements


criteria

impact of


on fairly


as Tesh


movements


relaxed


explains,

on non-


members


Measuring


the


Success


of Social


Movements


If results


of movements


are


least


as important


the


structure


of movement


organizations


, then


social


scientists


really


have


several


dimensions


or level


analy


S1I


to consider


when


examining


social


movements


and


their


impacts


impacts.


the


The


mass


shaping


public


of attitudes


leads


social


to behavioral


movements


changes


individuals


and


society.


The


acceptance


and


internal


zing


the


interests


the


movement


can


be said


to create


degree


of collective


orientation


in the


masses.


It is


collective


orientation


that


leads


to Tesh


s "more


just


policies


and


practices"


Several


important


points


emerge


from


an examination


evolution


of social


movement


theory.


First,


social


movement


theory


has evolved


from


the


study


of coll


ective








government

theorists


on social


moved


movements.


the


New


psychological


social movement

dimension of social


movements.


Thi


group


examined


the


ideological


bonds


core


members


and


the


impact


of movements


on the


mass


public.


The


final


step


focuses


our


attention


on changes


attitudes


and

mass


behavior

public


the


(Tesh,


level

1993;


the


Boggs,


group,

1986; M


government,


IcAdam,


and


McCarthy,


the

and


Zald,


1986;


Gamson,


1992


Eyerman


and


Jamison,


1991)


What


find


of great


interest


in Tesh


(1993)


analysis


power


is how


the


scholars


cited


above


have


found


a good


side


what


many


scholars


power


identified


darkest


side


, the


third


dimension


power


(Lukes,


1986;


Lindblom,


1977;


Lindblom,


1990)


The


concept


of shaping


and


molding


desires,


of constrained


volitions,


usually


tied


reinforcement


an unjust,


oppressive


regime,


turned


head


the


third


dimension


power


can


harm,


why


can


't it


do good?


Tesh


(1993)


argues


that


this


third


dimension


power


can


mold


positive


desires


that


are


in the


interest


the


individual


and


that


social


movements


are


molders.


The


outputs


of social


movements


modify


the


perceptions


of people,


leading


them


to accept


new


ways


understanding


their


reality


and


how


they


should


act


without


them


being


active,


card


carrying,


dues


paying


movement


members.









the


chapter


social


psychologists


However,


the


discussed


psychological


earlier in this

dimension, while


important,


is not


singularly


so.


Therefore,


the


concluding


section


chapter


focu


ses


on a synthes


the


theories


discussed


and


provides


a theoretical


framework


with


which


to better


examine


and


understand


the


dynamics


social


change.


A New


Theoretical


Framework


To View


Social


Movements


appears


that


no matter


what


the


methodology


theoretical


point


view,


no unidimensional


theory


explains


the


complex


nature


of human


beings


and


their


political


activity


es.


When


one


does


adopt


a particular


theoretical


lens,


many


times


modified


to fit


the


circumstance


the


moment


(see


Costain,


1992;


Button,


1989)


common


theme


found


in the


literature


on group


consciousness,


social


movements


, and


power


is multidimensionality


Miller


(1981)


suggests


that


group


consciousness


a multidimensional


concept


and


Button


(1989)


asserts


that


social


change


multidimensional.


Finally,


Gaventa


(1980)


and


Lukes


(1976)


argue


that


power


is multidimensional.


Therefore,


paper


presents


a broadly


conceived


theoretical


power,


model


politics


of social


social


change.


Thi


organizations,


model


their


includes


leaders


and








movement,


a combination


or synthesis


theories


and


measurement


strategies


is necessary.


First,

structure c


theories


if a society,


power,

offer


as they

important


relate


insights


the

into


social

the


understanding


movement.


the


Resource


on organizations


and


success


or failure


mobilization


resource


theory,


access,


any


with


illuminates


social


emphasis


the


importance


structure


understanding


social


movements.


Political


process


theory


s focus


on the


role


of governments


facilitating


or suppressing


social


movements


provides


important


view


of why


movements


succeed


or fail.


Finally


new


social


movement


theory


adds


the


psychological


dimension


of both


impact


the


ideological


of movements


bonds


on the


of "core


thinking


and


members"


behavior


the


non-


members.


complete


These


elements,


examination


and


synthesized,


understanding


allow


of social


a more


movements


from


different


points


the


process.


Research


on the


Goals:


Mass


Understandinca


Public


and


the


Impact


Social


Addressing Measurement


Movements


Challenges


This


dissertation


concentrates


on the


psychological


level


the


analysis


of social


movements


-- the


impact


changes


the


consciousness


the


mass


public


and


how


consciousness


affects


political


participation.


informed


by the


perspectives


new


social


movement


- w









movements on the

challenges, and


mass

this


public


presents


dissertation


take


significant

s innovative


research


steps


address


these


challenges.


To meet


relies


these


on an origin


measurement

al attitude


challenges,


scale


thi


developed


dissertation


measure


level


state


femini


of Florida.


consciousness


then


the


searches


mass


poss


public


ible


the


linkages


between


political


levels


of femini


behavior.


To gain


consciousness


a better


and


level


understanding


these


linkages,


thi


research


moves


beyond


voting


and


creates


scale


working


of participation


on campaigns


which


includes


, contributing


activity


money


such


to candidates


, and


participating


demonstrations.


Measuring


the


effect


level


of femini


st consciousness


on levels


of political


participation


offers


new


social


movement


theori


a tool


help


understand


the


"outputs"


or success


of social


movements


upon


members


the


mass


public.












CHAPTER


METHODS


- MEASUREMENT


AND


STATISTICAL


APPROACH


Thi


chapter


begins


with


a discussion


of measurement


the


social


sciences


, particularly


quantitative


survey


research.


It examines


attitude


scale


theory


and


development


as well


as the


steps


taken


developing


the


attitude


scale


thi


research.


Thi


section


concludes


with


a discussion


the


stati


stical


methods,


the


sample


and


the


research


hypotheses.


Measurement


Issues


the


Social


Sciences


Survey


Research


the


recent


past,


several


fundamental


assumptions


have


been


challenged


concerning


survey


research


data


and


findings


number


they


and


provide.


type


Questions


response


arise


categories


concerning


offered,


the


as well


concerns


regarding


question


wording


and


order


The


research


of social


scientists


likely


to be compromised


when


they


not


pay


close


attention


question


formats


, wording,


and


order.


instance


, many


researchers


use


items


from


different


portions


a survey


instrument


to construct


a scale.


type


of questions


in-between


the


scale


items


can


greatly


influence


responses.


Some


research


employs


a variety








some


formats,


reliable


than


such


others


as the


such


dichotomous


labeled


type,


Likert


are


less


-style


, so


mixing


of formats


likely


lead


to 1


ess


reliable


findings.


In addition,


scholars


argue


that


respondents


who


answer


typical


closed


ended


survey


questions


over


the


telephone


or face


to face,


may


be offering


their


top


the


head"


opinions,


and


not


the


deeply


held


cognitive


attitudes


that


social


scientists


have


assumed


Statistical


Assumptions


Few


interesting


interval


or ratio


measures


variable


exist


the


social


sciences.


Unfortunately


, most


the


stati


stical


procedures


used


social


scientists


demonstrate


causality


and


prediction


assume


that


the


dependent


variable


are


interval


Interval


means


that


there


an equal


variable.


distance


Age


between


is one


the


each


the


variable


values


which


the


is used


extensively


that


qualifies


Education,


another


popular


variable,


often


treated


as interval


even


though


most


would


agree


that


once


in college


distance


between


each


unit


(year)


becomes


less


similar.


Most


the


stati


stical


procedures


used


the


social


sciences


are


based


variance


such


as correlation


coefficients


and


regression


coefficients


Variance


the


*


14 4 Fa la1.


1-^ tftn AnT-T/^^


*-1 A


-- 1 -, ., -


LL,


W 1 A- -M


rrr rr rr 1M C k


I








adherence

research.


to statistical


First,


rules


researchers


when


conducting


genuinely


only


their

considered


interval


and


ratio


variables,


very


little


multivariate


research


would


be attempted.


Second,


the


research


they


conduct


predicts


or explains


relationships,


they


feel


justified


breaking


or bending


the


statistical


rules.


Thi


dissertation,


like


most,


violates


some


the


assumptions


associated


with


regre


ssion


analyst


For


example,


the


responses


feminist


consciousness


scale


items


are


really


ordinal;


however


they


are


treated


interval


the


regres


sion


analysis


Attitudes


, Measurement


, and


Reliability


There


different


much


types


debate


regarding


of attitudes.


Jon


the


stability


Krosnick


(1991),


psychologist,


argues


that


symbolic


attitudes


like


party


identification,


liberal/conservative


ideology,


and


nonracial


attitudes


such


are


as those


more


held


stable


toward


than


certain


nonsymbolic


government 1


attitudes


programs.


Much


the


difference


the


stability


between


symbolic


and


non-symbol

of random


attitudes


measurement


can

error


attributed


in non-symbolic


increased

questions


level


due


their


response


formats.


If Krosnick


right


(and


think


there


may


be a need


for


revision


of conventional


I


L









Symbolic


process


theory


suggests


that


attitudes


ranging


from


symbolic


to nonsymbolic


on a continuum.


The


range


begins


with


symbolic


attitudes


such


as party


identification,


liberal/conservative


ideological


measures


, attitudes


toward


social


groups


and


racial


policy


issues,


then


moves


toward


more


nonsymbolic


attitudes


such


as non


-racial


issues,


attitudes


toward


trust


government


and


feelings


efficacy


(Sears,


1983).


Kros


nick


(1991)


explains


that


there


may


some


disagreement


about


the


ordering


the


above


attitudes;


however


, party


identification


has


long


been


identified


the


"single


most


potent


and


persi


stent


political


orientation"


party


549)


identification


. He


can


argues


traced


that


this


back


perception


the


publication


of The


American


Voter


Campbell


et al. in


1960


suggests


that


since


1960


party


identification


been


single


most


important


determinant


in political/voting


behavior.


Many


other


scholars


suggest


that


party


identification


inherited


an early


from


parents.


highly


res


istant


to change


thereafter


, and


is a


powerful


organizer


individual


s political


sympathies


throughout


her


or hi


life


see


Campbell


, 1960;


Converse,


1964;


Converse


and


Markus


, 1979;


Markus


, 1982)


One


exception


majority


opinion


found


the








these


widely


held


assumptions


regarding


American


political


behavior.


Response


options


which


are


verbally


labeled


and/or


items


which


employ


branching


have


higher


level


reliability


than


items


formatted


other


ways.


Thus


seven


point


Likert


type


scale


items


with


verbal


label


each


choice


are


the


most


reliable.


the


other


hand,


dichotomous


items


are


least


reliable


and


subject


the


most


random


measurement


error


. (Krosnick,


-552;


see


also


Alwin


and


Krosnick,


1991;


Andrews


, 1984)


Simply


put,


formats


with


clear


label


more


response


choice


and


branching


reduce


random


error


and


offer


more


reliable


results.


thermometers


are


Alternative


subject


formats


increase


such


ed level


as feeling


of random


error


and


are,


therefore,


ess


reliable.


Feeling


thermometers


are


used


frequently


in surveys


concerning


women


issues.


Early


work


Converse


(1964)


finds


that


respondents


with


no real


opinion


frequently


offer


one


they


would


not


appear


uninformed


(Converse,


1964,


243).


Moreover,


respondents


may


think


of opinions


in a range,


rather


than


a specific


number


, which


could


introduce


another


source


of random


error.


Real


attitude


change


a likely


source


the


Conclusions


error.


on Response


Categories


I








equations.


This


advantage


due


superior


measurement.


He writes


that,


"The


portrait


of party


identification


emerging


from


thi


research


reveal


that


is a more


flexible


attitude


than


has


been


acknowledged


in the


past"


(1991,


Petrocik


. 569)


(1979)


attitudes


but


History


believed

later f


reminds


they


ound


had

their


us that


Verba,


discovered

results w


Nie


a real


ere


and


change


caused


change


question


format


the


1964


NES


questionnaire


(Krosnick,


. 569


-570;


see


also


Bishop,


Tuchfarber


and,


Oldendick,


1978).


appears


that


symbolic


attitudes


do not


seem


influence


new


attitudes


anymore


than


nonsymbolic


ones.


Res


earch


which


reli


on measures


of simple


association


which


may


spurious,


should


be replaced


with


more


rigorous


analysis.


Social


scientists


must


conduct


research


using


causal


model


and


more


sophisticated


analysis


The


evidence


presented


above


suggests


that


different


response


categories


affect


reliability


which


can


induce


error


and


influence


findings.


Measurement


and


Attitude


Scal


Poor


measurement


imposes


an absolute


limit


on the


validity


the


conclusions


one


can


reach


conducting


research


(DeVellis


. 10)


The


major


assumptions


regarding


& S S -


- *


ft


j r








score


the


latent


variable;


III)


the


influence


from


the


latent


variable


to each


item


assumed


to be


the


same


all


items;


error


for


each


item


is assumed


to be


the


same


as any


other


item


(DeVellis,


1991,


18-19).


Random


errors


are


assumed


to be from


a population


with


a mean


zero.


This


implies


that


with


multiple


observations


errors


will


tend


average


zero.


Respondents


also


make


mistakes


which


contribute


to random


error.


As few


as one


or several


items


suffering


from


source


error


increases


the


chance


that


random


error


could


impact


the


measurement


the


theoretical


construct.


Spector


argues,


as does


Krosnick,


that


dichotomous


items


minimize


choice


and


increase


the


affect


of random


error


respondents


are


forced


to choose


from


just


two


choices,


rather


than


a range


of choices


(Spector,


1992,


10) .


Measurement


Error


and


Repression


Analysis


the


interest


group


ratings


are


as untrustworthy


critics


claim,


problems


of measurement


error


can


affect


the


statistical


relationship


between


the


group


index


and


other


variables.


Only


the


accuracy


the


prediction


affected


the


dependent


variable


suffers


from


error.


While


the


square


value


would


be incorrect,


the


estimated


coefficients


the


independent


variables


and


their


T values


would


still


1


I








In Fowler


s study


the


position


of members


along


continuum


is ordinal


likely


there


is error


calculating


these


relative


positions


As mentioned


above,


the


use


these


"scale"


scores


in regression


violates


several


important


statistical


assumptions.


First,


regression


, by


definition


, based


on the


assumption


interval


level


or ratio


data.


Second,


the


ideological


make


of Congr


ess


can


change


from


one


session


to another


(Dodd


and


Oppenheimer,


1976)


These


changes


can


make


individual


members


appear


to be


more


ess


conservative


than


they


were


in the


previous


session,


when


reality


their


positions


have


really


changed.


Moreover


because


the


executive


boards


the


interest


groups


usually


determine


the


issues


and


votes


used


the


cons


truction


their


scale,


most


scale


construction


techniques


are


either


compromised


ignored


(Fowler,


1982


, p.


402)


Attitude


Scal


Reducing


Measurement


Error


Summated


scales


with


multiple


items


address


the


measurement


deficiencies


described


above


in several


ways


The


key


is to


give


respondents


more


choices


than


they


are


able


use.


example,


item


attitude


scale


using


5 point


Likert


type


range


gives


a range


from


20 to 80,


or 61


different


poss


ible


scores


each


case.


This


allows


those


i^hri


fool


cti-rnnnl r


\ hio rc *i 4nn i michor


frnm


thnec0


wi th


morso









scaling


format,


and


then


how


the


item


pool


will


be created.


A sound


summated


rating


scale


has


four


important


characteristics.


First,


multiple


items


are


summed


capture


the


latent


variable


interest


Second,


each


item


measures


something


that


can


vary


quantitatively


on a


continuum.


Third


, there


no right


answer


an item.


Finally,


each


item


is a statement


(Spector,


1991


The


next


section


describes


the


proc


ess


of how


scale


theory


development


contribute


Scale


Theory


thi


and


dissertation.


Development


Much


the


"science"


found


today


s social


sciences


stems


from


psychology


Psychologists


were


the


first


measure


attitudes


develop


scaling


techniques


measure


theses


attitudes


more


accurately.


Psychometrics


concerned


with


measuring


psychological


and


social


phenomena.


Measurement

intended to


scales


reveal


instruments


level


are


theoretical


collections


variable


items


not


readily


observable


direct


means.


seems


that


social


scientists

theoretical


are


increasingly


model


that


concerned


narrowly


with


circumscribe


numerous


certain


phenomena


where


as theories


physics


are


fewer


more


comprehensive.


Social


scientists


who


do not


develop


scales


using


rigorous


scaling


techniques


end


with


a set of


items









Most


variables


or constructs


interest


to social


scienti


are


not


directly


observable.


The


construct


that


cannot


be observed


known


as the


"latent


variable"


latent


variable,


definition,


latent


rather


than


manifest,


variable


rather


than


cons


tant,


and


is assumed


cause


item


or set


items


take


on a certain


value.


well


conceived


and


constructed


scale


both


reliable


and


valid.


Many


social


scientists


theory


into


practice


creating


set of questions


which


they


believe


measure


social


or political


attitude


or set


attitudes


(Spector


1992


, p.


12-13)


ass


Theory


The


ass


test


theory


concerns


the


difference


between


the


true


score


and


the


observed


score.


Cla


SSlC


test


theory


argues


that


test


score


or observed


score


given


respondents


is comprised


the


true


score


theoretical


value


that


each


individual


has


regarding


latent


variable


interest,


plus


some


measure


error


(E) .


Spector


(1992)


also


includes


possibility


additional


factor


of bias


(dis


cussed


below)


This


formulated


as O


= T + E + B


10) .


Inductive


and


Deductive


Scale


Development









variables.


In contrast,


deductive


scale


construction


employs


factor


analysis


to identify


related


items


which


are


then


used


as a scale.


Validation


is difficult


and


tricky


using


thi


approach


and


great


caution


should


be used.


easy


read


into


results


that


which


the


res


earcher


may


find


useful


(Spector,


1992,


13-14).


Thi


ssertation


employs


inductive


development


construction


techniques.


Developinci


Summated


Ratinac


Scal


A well


thought


out


scale


should


be created


taking


into


account


the


of people


clear,


education


who


well


will


written


and


use


and


reading


Second,


contain


ability


the


a single


the


items


idea.


population


should


Third,


researcher


should


pay


particular


attention


the


introduction


of bias


into


a scale


(Spector,


1992,


. 7;


see


also


DeVelli


, 1991;


Edwards


, 1956)


Bias


can


introduce


error


into


the


scale


and


social


desirability


the


most


troublesome


source


of bias.


this


era


of political


correctness,


potential


bias


from


respondents


saying


what


"correct"


becoming


irritating


challenge


the


social


scientist


However,


paying


close


attention


the


wording


the


best


approach


to minimize


past


thi


measures


factor.


of support


Potential


women


bias


associated


issues


was


with


an important









scale


should


avoid


"hot


buttons,


" and


use


more


subtle


items


measure


the


latent


variable


order


to minimize


bias.


Item


Selection


Analysis


Generally


one


desires


item


scale


one


should


have


least


items


which


comprise


the


item


pool.


Once


an item


pool


been


created


a pilot


test


performed.


The


pilot


test


is used


to identify


items


which


cannot


be understood


respondents


Thereafter,


a full


admini


station


the


item


pool


to 100


to 200


respondents


conducted.


After


the


full


administration


item


analysis


performed


to choose


a set


items


that


form


internally


consi


stent


scale.


The


statistical


measure


used


most


often


to check


internal


consistency


Coefficient


Alpha


1992,


developed


S9;


see


Cronbach


also


the


Bohrnstedt,


early


1969)


1950s


Nunnally


Spector


(1978)


the


widely


accepted


Alpha


score


.70;


however


scal


with


an Alpha


score


.60 and


above


are


commonly


used


reported


major


academic


journals.


Multidimensional


Scal


Multidimensional


scales


are


scales


which


latent


variable


contains


several


dimensions


that


may


be related


are


conceptually


distinct.


The


concept


group








varies


from


a unidimensional


scale


several


ways.


First,


the


scale


items


written


each


dimension


are


mixed


the


item


pool


and


then


administered


the


respondents.


Second,


subscales


should


share


items.


Finally,


a separate


item


analysis


performed


on each


subscale


Often


subscales


intercorrelate


though


subscales


are


conceptually


distinct.


When


appropriate,


the


items


are


analyzed


total


score


(Spector,


1992,


39).


Reliability


Reliability


fundamental


issue


psychological


measurement


(DeVellis,


1991,


Scale


reliability


the


proportion


variance


attributable


the


true


score


the


latent


variable.


Reliability


and


stati


stical


power


are


interrelated.


As reliability


increases,


so does


the


statistical


power


scale.


Reliability


inversely


related


errors


of measurement;


the


larger


the


error


the


worse


the


reliability


(Spector,


1992,


31-32)


One


method


to increase


reliability


the


increase


the


number


scale


items.


In other


words,


scales


with


more


items


are


likely


to generate


higher


Alphas.


The


most


common


statistical


approach


measure


internal


consistency


Cronbach


s Alpha


(Spector


, 1992


DeVellis


, 1991;


Comrey,


1988}.


Internal


consistency









DeVellis


, 1991)


The


best


method


examine


scale


reliability


comparing


the


Alphas


from


different


samples.


This


test/retest


method


should


demonstrate


that


scale


yields


consi


stent


measurement


over


time.


Validity


Validity


defined


the


property


that


a scale


measures


intended


construct


(Spector,


1992


, p.9;


see


also


Comrey,


1988)


Validation


usually


involves


testing


hypothesis


about


the


scale.


Thi


research


uses


known-


groups


validity


test


uses


criteria-related


variable


test


the


validity


of attitude


scal


In addition,


uses


confirmatory


factor


analysis


to demonstrate


validity


attitude


scal


es.


Criteria


-related


validity


tests


Criteria-related


validity


tests


must


be anchored


sound


theory


Spector


reminds


us that


conducting


tests


There


concurrent


tested


One


way


while
to


and


e


are


two


other


predictive


collecting


common


tests


. Concurrent


data


test concurrent


from


validity


validit


a sample


validity,
y is usually


of respondents


is to hypothe


SS


about


correlations
hypothesized
significant


the


scale


to relate
relations


with


one


scale


or acceptable


or more


. If


criteria


there


are


correlations


between


scale


and


the


demonstrated


Comrey,


1988)


hypothe
validity


S1Z


ed variables


(Spector


. Predictive


1992


validity,


then


Spwhich
which


the


scale


see


is similar


concurrent
-- t .. .


validity,
_ t- _* _t -


involves


n *


collecting


a *8 a


data


a


or the
-k -* a








theory


and


scales


the


same


time


tricky


When


things


go wrong


is often


difficult


to identify


where


the


problem


lies.


Carefully


choosing


the


criteria


test


crucial.


Choosing


poor


criteria


may


spuriously


suggest


that


the


scale


lacks


validity


(Spector,


1992


, p.


see


also


Bohrnstedt,


1969;


Comrey,


1988).


Known-qrouDs


validity


In known-groups


validity


hypotheses


are


developed


concerning


the


feminist


consciousness


scale


scores


certain


groups.


the


present


research


, possible


known-


groups


include


those


based


on gender


party


identification


Several


hypotheses


were


developed


the


research


design


about


the


scale


scores


of certain


groups


the


sample.


Women


were


hypothesized


to have


higher


scal


score


than


men


and


Democrats


are


hypothesized


be higher


scores


on the


feminist


consciousness


scale


T-tests


are


conducted


tested


on the


(Spector,


mean


1992


scale


, p.49;


scores


see


the


also


groups


Comrey,


being


1988)


Factor


analysis


and


validity


There


are


two


types


of factor


analy


usually


associated


with


scale


construction


: confirmatory


and


exploratory.


Confirmatory


factor


analysis


is used


confirm


the


multidimensionality


of a scale.


In the


case


A atn 'U S S -


*


m a


I .


II 1~









a unidimensional


scale,


factor


analysis


can


also


confirm


that


scale


items


are


measuring


a single


factor.


Generally,


in multidimensional


scales


the


subscale


factors


will

for


appear


will


stronger


be higher


the


more


amount


items


are


variance


entered.


accounted

Ideally,


items


a group


will


interrelate


with


one


another


more


strongly


than


they


relate


items


in other


groups


These


groups


will


form


factors


that


with


the


theoretical


des


the


scale


(Comrey,


1988,


760)


Exploratory


factor


analy


can


be used


to explore


the


dimensionality


of a scale.


also


used


many


social


scienti

scale.


sts


to "explore"


However


even


data


though


sets

facto


in search

Ir analysis


of a potential

1is a


sophisticated

interpretation


mathematical

of results


tool,

rests


the


final


as much


with


judgment


subjective


judgment


does


with


statistical


(Spector,


1992,


see


Interpretinsc


Comrey,


factor


1988)


analvs


Once


the


number


factors


are


identified


the


next


step


to perform


an orthogonal


rotation.


After


the


rotation,


the


items


will


load


on all


the


factors.


One


hopes


that


each


item


will


have


a large


loading


on only


one


the


factors.


A loading


matrix


contains


statistics


that


are


correlations


of each


original


variable


with


each


factor.


Generally,









the


end


factor


analysis


can


only


suggest


presence


more


than


one


dimension.


Scales


with


a small


number


items


or a multidimensional


scale


with


subscales


containing


only


a few


items


should


use


this


a type


analysis


carefully


(Comrey,


1988)


The


addition


or deletion


of a single


item


can


profoundly


affect


the


results


of factor


analysis.


Although


a useful


tool,


factor


analysis


should


used cautiously


and


the


results


interpreted


conservatively


With


the


caution


offered


regarding


reading


too


much


into


the


results


of factor


analysis


, one


gets


the


feeling


that


original


scale


development


needs


to be rediscovered.


This


Research


The


rese


arch


reported


this


dissertation


draws


on the


work


of social


psychologists


who


conducted


group


consciousness


research


focusing


on groups


defined


terms


race,


age,


gender


, and


social


class.


Their


research


designs


and


findings


raised


important


questions


and


provided


innovation


conceiving


operational


zing


group


consciousness.


move


beyond


understanding


women


issues


through


the


distorted


lens


items


which


provide


researchers


with


"knee


jerk"


reactions,


an original


attitude


scale


was


developed


dissertation.


In addition


distorted


symbols


, much


the


research


on group









original


instrument


and


data


set.


Instead,


secondary


data


and


scal


developed


from


factor


analysis


dominate


the


research


thi


important


area


see


Miller


et al


, 1981;


Gurin,


1985)


To advance


research


on women


issues


became


clear


that


developing


a femini


group


consciousness


scale


from


theory


was


necess


ary.


The


development


of a feminist


consciousness


using


the


scale


cons


truction


techniques


outlined


above


would


avoid


many


the


important


methodological


weakne


sses


previously


discussed


above.


addition,


several


other


actions


were


taken


improve


measurement.


First,


eliminating


references


the


National


Organi


zation


Women


, abortion,


feminist,


other


symbolic


"hot


buttons"


allowed


a more


subtle


approach


measure


levels


of femini


consciousness.


Second,


developing


an item


pool


based


on theory,


from


both


experts


and


the


opinions


average


women


, broadens


the


interpretation


the


theoretical


underpinnings


feminist


consciousness


Third,


men


were


included


the


sample


which


the


item


analysis


is based


move


the


focus


the


study


beyond


a single


gender.


Fourth,


having


the


scale


items


in a specific


section


survey,


concerns


about


the


effects


of question


order


were


minimized.


Questions


spurious


correlation


among


items


factor









In conclusion,


dissertation


pays


particular


attention


to improving


how


feminist


consciousness


operationalized


and


how


measured.


The


use


a more


sophisticated


statistical


approach


permits


exploration


possible


causal


links


between


level


of feminist


consciousness


and


level


of political


behavior.


These


measures


of political


participation


include


voting,


giving


money


meeting,


to a candidate


and


, working


participating


a candidate,


in a march


attending


or demonstration.


What


follows


a detailed


explanation


the


steps


followed


the


scale


development


stage


dissertation.


The


Attitude


Scale


Construction


The


attitude


consciousness


outlined


was


above.


scale


used


developed


This


measure


using


research


the


relies


level


scaling t

on recent


feminist


techniques


work


political


science


and


social


psychology


(see


for


example


Gurin


al.,


1980;


Miller


et al.,


1981;


Gurin,


1985).


the


purposes


res


each,


feminist


consciousness


characterized


identification


with


a group,


combined


with


an ideology


or set


of political


beliefs


where


the


relative


position


the


group


recognized,


and


there


collective


action


directed


at real


zing


goals


relating


the


group


(Miller


et al.


, 1981;


Gurin


et al.,


1980)









withdrawal


legitimacy


-- were


developed.


The


goal


was


collect


a set


items


which


tapped


each


the


four


dimen


sons


group


consciousness


identified


Gurin


(1985).


Scales


distinguish


those


with

e who


multiple

feel st


items


rongly


allow

from


the

those


res


earcher


with


more


moderate


Item


feelings.


Development


Thi


ssertation


attempts


to avoid


potential


bias


using


items


developed


a single


male


res


archer


seeking


items


from


the


Women


Studies


faculty


, previous


surveys,


and


from


interviews


conducted


with


women


in Gainesville


The


group


of Women


s Studies


scholars


repre


sent


over


different


departments


Each


member


was


mailed


a packet


which


contained


letter


introduction


from


. Margaret


Conway,


a member


the


Women


s Studi


faculty


well


known


authority


on women


and


politics


In addition,


letter


outlining


the


research


design


and


definitions


the


four


components


group


consciousness


was


included.


Each


participant


was


asked


to create


least


one


item


use


the


item


pool


from


which


the


final


scale


would


be drawn.


Potential


item


writers


were


given


guidance


in creating


a good


item.


First,


they


were


instructed


that


items


should


share


a Likert


type


format


which


offers


the








that


each


should


be a clearly


written


direct


statement


using


high


school


level


English.


Examples


were


provided


demonstrate


the


characteristics


found


in a well


crafted


item


and


to demon


state


how


easy


to create


one.


Unfortunately,


the


response


rate


approach


was


ess


than


inspiring


To increase


the


response


rate


appointments


were


made


with


members


whom


author


had


some


previous


contact.


Other


members


the


Women


Studi


faculty


were


mailed


the


two


theory


additional


enclosed


requests


original


a single

packet.


item

The


written

item


development


end


stage


lasted


15 members


approximately


group


responded


six


with


weeks.


items


the


Luckily,


many


those


who


responded


enclosed


several


items


each


theoretical


component


feminist


consciousness


The


item


development


proc


ess


was


supplemented


with


a series


non-


randomly


selected


qualitative


interviews


conducted


with


female


graduate


students


and


working


women


in the


greater


Gainesville


area


Items


were


used


from


previous


surveys


on women


issues


which


the


group


consciousness


theory.


Next,


the


items


were


judged


for


categorical


theoretical


appropriateness


Prof


essor


. Conway


Political


Science,


Natalie


Cornell,


MA Political


Science,


Professor


Constance


Shehan


of Sociology,


and


the


author


Then


the









students


enrolled


in several


different


asses


including,


Women


and


Politics


, Classics,


Film


Studies,


American


Government,


and


English


Composition.


Item


Analysis


with


Student


Group


Item


analyst


began


identifying


the


respondents


with


the


lowest


score


on each


subscale


and


of respondents


who


had


the


highest


score.


was


accomplished


examining


frequency


distributions


the


items


in each


subscale.


Items


were


recorded


where


necessary


to make


interpretation


of negatively


and


positively


worded


items


consistent.


After


the


high


and


groups


were


identified,


a difference


means


test


comparing


the


with


the


highest


scores


on each


the


items


in the


specified


subscale


with


the


mean


score


the


with


the


lowest


scale


scores


on the


five


point


Likert


type


scale


was


performed.


After


analyze


T-tests


the


differences


the


means


the


"high"


"low"


groups


some


items


were


removed


items


due


were


to insignificant


analyzed


differences.


internal


The


consistency


remaining


using


Cronbach


s Alpha.


After


careful


analy


S1s


items


comparing


reliability,


stati


means,


positive


negative


the


Alpha


wording,


and


scores


theoretical


fit,


ten


items


were


chosen


each


subscale.


n I- ---3 U-. - a .ta


| A


- 1


1


1


4


I


I AYA


*_


n~L1 ~L







final


scale.


Alphas


ranged


from


high


.60s


.80s


and


the


Alpha


the


entire


scale


was


over


this


point


an orthogonal


rotated


factor


analysis


was


conducted


examine


how


the


items


were


related


to each


other.


The


process


produced


a final


scale


with


Alpha


scores


of between


and


for


the


subscales


and


an Alpha


for


the


summed


scale.


Final


item


selection


deci


sons


sometimes


required


a choice


between


statistical


significance


and


theoretical


appropriateness.


When


that


problem


occurred


a subjective


decision


was


made


favor


theory


Happily,


the


statistically


significant


items


identified


factors


were


consistent


with


the


theory


guiding


the


development


the


scale.


A Second


Item


Selection


With


Gainesville


Residents


Many


social


scientists


use


students


developing


attitude


scal


This


research


could


have


ceased


with


the


scale


developed


with


the


student


group


described


above.


However


additional

experience"


, further


group n

Life


scrutiny


because


revealed


little


experience


the


need


variation


consists


age


in "life

, work


experience,


marriage


and


divorce,


asset


ownership,


managing


income,


experiencing


discrimination


in the


work


place,


etc.


Revealing 1

reroani 7.i nn


evel


wnmen


of discontent

aS in "nnt-" i


is dependent


irniin_


I


upon


hvnnth li


respondents

'7ce that









more 1

reduce


ife


experience.


possible


To address


measurement


error


these


shortfalls


approached


the


and

Graduate


School


for


a small


grant


to conduct


item


selection


and


analysis


on a group


of Gainesville


residents.


In June


1993,


a second


sample


respondents


was


drawn


from


the


Gainesville


phone


book.


A li


st of


random


numbers


was


generated


to identify


page


numbers,


columns


and


which


name


column


to call.


Res


pondents


were


offered


the


twenty


minutes


took


to respond


the


refined


list


of 70


items


they


refused.


Several


graduate


students


were


paid


per


interview


plus


travel


expenses


to enable


respondents


to participate


either


their


home


work.


About


half


the


respondents


came


author


office


on campus.


More


than


1800


phone


numbers


were


generated


and


called


to conduct


Demographic


survey


information


used


such


the


item


as race,


analy


age,


sis


work


experience,


and


party


identification


were


gathered


each


respondent.


The


item


analy


sis


sample


was


fairly


representative


as far


gender


with


and


the


party


monthly


identification


Consumer


were


Attitude


concerned


Survey


when


conducted


compared


the


University


However


, the


item


analysis


sample


was


younger


and


more


highly


educated


than


the


Consumer


Attitude


Survey


sample.









expertise


of academics


left


the


selection


items


to a sample

population.


men


Thi


and

group


women

which


from

had


the

more


general G

variance


ainesville


life


experience


chose


a different


set


items


than


did


the


student


group.


The


combination


of original


item


creation,


exhaustive


attention


to the


fit


between


theory


the


criteria

resulted


of statistical


an improved


significance


scale


and


measure


reduction


and


error


understand


feminist


consciousness.


The


Survey


and


Sample


The


feminist


consc


iousness


scale


items


and


the


political


participation


questions


were


included


the


November,


the


1993


Bureau


Consumer


of Economic


Attitude


and


Survey


Business


conducted


Research


monthly


s Survey


Program


the


University


of Florida.


The


Survey


Program


has


a 24


station


computer


assis


ted


telephone


interviewing


system


(CATI)


survey


operation


staffed


with


a full


time


director


and


field


director.


The


interviewing


staff


primarily


compo


of undergraduates,


along


with


a few


graduate


students


and


Gainesville


residents.


The


survey


utilizes


the


"CASES"


telephone


interviewing


software


developed


the


University


of California


at Berkeley


Interviews


are


conducted


Sunday


evenings


through


Thursday









Florida


Southeast


s manor


Florida,


metropolitan


Orlando,


statistical


Tampa-


areas


(MSAs)


Petersburg


The


fourth


The


strata


telephone


covers

numbers


the

are


remaining

generated


portions


from


the


st of


state.

exchanges


throughout


the


state.


Therefore


, a county


with


more


exchanges


likely


to make


larger


percentage


fourth


strata.


The


sampling


frame


the


survey


calendar


from


month


each


with


the


the


four


ideal


strata.


stribution


A total


surveys


households


were


interviewed


month


of November


, 1993


However


not


every


respondent


answered


the


ques


tions


asked,


sample


respondents


answered


the


questions


pertaining


thi


research.


The


number


of callbacks


are


a factor


evaluating


the


quality


and


representativeness


of a sample.


Consumer


Attitude


Survey,


respondents


are


called


times


before


the


case


finalized.


People


who


work


more


than


one


job,


are


temporarily


away,


or work


at odd


hours,


may


have


different


opinions


than


those


easy


to reach.


Data


Analvs


of Feminist


is: Statistical
Consciousness


Procedures


Political Partii ci inti nfl Mnrl0l q
- -. - - - -- w r w a- w -


Analyvz


Results


Levels


Feminist


Consciousness


The


model


displayed


Figure


below


a-


examined


I


___


Political


Participation


Mnro 1el


below








regres


sed against


a wide


range


potential


explanatory


variables.


responses


scale


items


are


in a Likert


format


ranging


from


to 5.


The


items


are


a combination


positively


that


and


a score


negatively


suggest


worded

d low


statements


consciousness


recorded


and


such


a score


5 high


consciousness.


Figure


. A Model


Of Factors


Affecting


Feminist


Consciousness


INDEPENDENT


VARIABLES


DEPENDENT


VARIABLE


Race


Education
Employment


Level


Status


Of Feminist


Consciousness


Party Identification
Urban Environment
Marital Status


Age
Income
Sixties


Generation


The


independent


variables


examined


include


sex,


income,


party


identification,


education,


having


a female


congre


ssional


location,


the


representative,


"sixties


race,


generation"


urban


residence


(respondents


between


ages


and


50),


size


of household,


work


status


, retired,


marital


status


, age,


and


support


for


the


Clinton


health


care


program


(these


are


listed


in no particular


order)


Additional


regressions


were


performed


on the


individual


- -- *u1 -


-- A1---


Y_____~








Political Activity


The dependent


variable


the model


displayed


in Figure


below


is a scale of political


participation.


Respondents were asked about


their political


participation


the past


twelve months.


The survey was conducted


November


1993,


thus participation in


1992


presidential


election and


"the


year


the woman"


were


included


the time


frame.


The


participation question


asked respondents


voting,


they had


giving money to a


participated


candidate or


in such


campaign,


things as


working


a candidate,


attending meetings or participating


demonstration or whether they


didn't have


in a


time or


interest


to participate.


Respondents offered


three


different


types


of political


participation.


A four point


scale of


participation was


created


from the responses.


Figure


3-2.


Model


Of Factors Affecting


Levels Of


Political


Participation.


INDEPENDENT VARIABLES


DEPENDENT VARIABLE


Sex
Race


Education


Levels Of


Political


Employment Status


Party


Participation


Identification


Urban Environment


Feminist
Marital


Consciousness
Status


Age
T n n am a








These


data


were


analyzed


using


multi


-nomial


probit.


The


same


explanatory


variable


sted


above


were


tested


this


model


along


with


the


summed


scale


scores,


individual


subscal


and


the


interaction


terms


created


from


the


various


combinations


the


subscal


In addition,


some


additional


variables


were


created.


A "high


consciousness"


variable


was


created


from


the


top


the


summed


scale


scores.


Furthermore,


various


sub


groups


were


examined


These


included


women


and


men


, Republicans,


Democrats,


Independents


, and


several


model


sed


on Blacks


and


Hispanics


were


also


explored.


Models


limited


to specific


age


cohorts


and


income


level


were


also


examined.


Research


Hvpotheses


Factors


Affectinsc


Levels


of Feminist


Consciousness


. Respondents


who


are


employed,


better


educated


and


have


higher


incomes


will


have


higher


levels


of feminist


consciousness.


These


respondents


are


more


likely


to be


aware


women


issues.


. Democrats


will


have


higher


level


feminist


consciousness


than


Republicans


(due


the


gender


gap"


and


the


move


the


Democratic


party


many


women)


-~~~~- -.a--


1 i


-II


I m









. Women


will


have


higher


level


feminist


consciousness


than


most


men.


. Men


and


women


from


the


"sixties


generation,


respondents


between


the


ages


of 38-50 will


have


higher


level


of feminist


consciousness.


These


respondents


identified


as the


"sixties


generation"


were


in their


early


teens


twenties


during


1960s


In addition


many


these


respondents


have


memories


the


Civil


Rights


Movement


, the


early


"Women


s Movement


" and


the


anti-war


period.


Political


Participation


Levels


of Femini


st Consciousness


Those


displaying


higher


level


femini


consciousness


will


have


higher


levels


of political


participation.


. Income


, Party


membership,


Education,


Race,


Age


will


the


major


predictors


of political


activity.


. Democrats


are


likely


to have


an ass


ociation


between


high


level


feminist


consciousness


and


higher


levels


political


participation


due


the


"gender


gap


Sample


Character


Below

descriptive


are


several


states


tabl


tics


which


Consumer


provide


basic


Attitude


Survey








Table


provides


the


means


and


standard


deviations


for


sample


based


on age


education


and


household


size.


addition


, Table


provides


the


mean


scores


and


the


standard


deviations


the


discontent,


collective


orientation,


withdrawal


legitimacy,


and


group


identification


subscales,


as well


as the


summed


feminist


consciousness


scale.


Dependent


and


Independent


Variabl


Dependent


Variable


Femini


st consciousness


Feminist


consciousness


scale


scores,


is a measure


the


strength


of feminist


consciousness.


The


reader


will


remember


that


the


femini


consciousness


identification,


scale


dis


is compri


content,


of four


withdrawal


dimensions


legitimacy,


group


and


collective


orientation.


There


are


items


in the


scale,


with


two


items


from


each


subscale


displayed


below


Figure


The


feminist


consciousness


scale


has a possible


range


from


to a high


Each


sub-scale


has


a range


between


and


Higher


scale


scores


represent


higher


level


feminist


consciousness.


Level


of political


participation.


The


other


dependent


variable


is a scale


which


measures


level


of political


I









voting,


voting


plus


one


activity,


and


voting


plus


two


additional


activity


es.


Table


. Consumer


Attitude


Survey


Sample


Respondent


Charact


eristics


Percentages.


Description


Percentages


SEX


Males
Femal


45
es 54


RACE


AND


ETHNICITY


White


- Non


Hispanic


78.8


Afri


can


American


Hispanic
Other


MARITAL


STATUS


Married
Widowed
Single
Divorced/Separated


PARTY


R FEELS


CLOSEST


Republicans
Democrats
Independents
Other


34.0


Table


Standard
Feminist


. Consumer
Deviations


Con


sciou


Attitude


of Res


sness


Scal


Survey


pondent


and


Sample


Charact


Subscal


Means


eristics


and


and


the


es.


DESCRIPTION


Mean
Mean
Mean


Mean


Age Of Respondent
Level Of Education


Persons


Std


45.2641
13.6517


In House


.4917


. Dev.


8.2841
2.5684
1.2912


SCALE


STATISTICS







Figure 3-3
Dimension.


Feminist


Consciousness


Scale


Items


Theoretical


GROUP


IDENTIFICATION


1. I identify
needs.


vote


closely


with


candidates


women


who


want


as a group


to address


with


special


woman


issues


DISCONTENT


. In


general
r which


women


they


have


are


as good


a chance


as men


qualified?


to get


any


. The


economic


effort


, social,


women
and


to o
legal


rganize 1
equality


order


has


to gain


gone


enough.


COLLECTIVE


ORIENTATION


1. Women need t
comparable work


o work
, not


individually
as a group.


gain


equal


pay


. Women


as a grou


they


should
D in o


a


want.


organize


rder


work


to have


together


influence


and


and


get


bring
the


pressure
things


WITHDRAWAL


OF LEGITIMACY


The


federal


needs


and


government
problems of


is paying


too


much


attention


women.


Women


have


an equal


does


influence


on what


the


government


Group


consciousness


and


social


movement


theory


suggest


that


members


of social


movements


engage


political


activity


as a result


of higher


levels


group


consciousness


(Miller


et al.,


1981)


Independent


Variabl


Thi


research


examines


eleven


different


independent


variable


in its


search


to identify


factors


which


influence









well


as the


scores


of each


the


four


individual


components--dis


content,


group


identification


, withdrawal


legitimacy,

independent


and


collective


variables


orientation


the


probit


--are


analy


included


level


political


participation.


Income.


Income


is the


total


income


the


household


from


sources.


over


measured


$100,000.


Higher


in seven


levels


ranges


income


from


have


under


been


identified


with


higher


level


voting


Therefore,


hypothe


S1Z


that


level


income


will


affect


level


participation.


In addition


income


examined


explanatory


power


in feminist


consciousness


models.


Education.


Education


is measured


increments


years


from


16. Thi


range


covers


primary


through


undergraduate


college


education.


A value


indicates


some


graduate


education,


while


indicates


a graduate


professional


degree.


Education


treated


as an interval


variable


thi


analysis.


Race.


Res


pondents


are


categorized


as white,


black,


of Hispanic


origin.


There


are


also


additional


category


for


race


Asian


or Pacific


Islander,


and


Other


There


are


very


respondents


who


chose


categories


other


than


Black,


spanic


or White.


respondents


are


asked


they


are


of Hispanic


origin.


White


Black


and


Hispanic


are








or ethnic


groups


influence


level


of feminist


consciousness


and


political


participation.


Party


identifiers.


Party


indicates


whether


the


respondent


party.


feels


close


In a similar


the


manner


Democratic


as the


race


or Republican


variable,


respondents


who


feel


close


one


the


two


major


parties


are


coded


as one


party


member


zero


they


are


not.


seness


Democratic


party.


Closeness


Democratic


party


a scale


based


on the


strength


of party


identification.


Respondents


who


identify


themselves


either


Democrats


or Republicans


are


then


"branched"


follow-up


estion


which


gauges


their


strength


of party


identification


as either


a strong


or weak


partisan.


Strong


Republicans


are


coded


Weak


Republicans


Independents


as 3,


Weak


Democrats


as 4,


Strong


Democrats


as 5.


Married.


The


marital


status


question


has


four


possible


responses,


married,


single,


divorced/separated


and


widowed.


Four


"dummy"


variable


are


created


from


this


question.


Respondents


are


coded


as one


the


category


they


choose


and


as zero


the


others.


The


marital


status


respondents


likely


influence


level


feminist


consciousness


and


level


of participation.


Therefore,


the


respondent


currently


married


the


variable


takes


on a









Divorced


or separated.


the


respondent


is currently


single


the


variable


takes


on a value


one


otherwi


zero


Widowed.


The


values


of widow


are


always


zero


to allow


variance


within


the


categories.


Emploved.


Employed


measures


whether


the


respondent


employed


or not.


Respondents


who


are


employed


are


more


likely


to be


aware


women


s issues


in the


work


place.


Moreover


, thi


may


be especially


significant


women


who


work.


As with


other


dummy


variable


respondents


are


given


value


one


if employed


and


zero


they


are


not.


Percentage


income


in relation


the


United


States


oovertv


level.


Poverty


is a combination


census


data


which


provides


official


poverty


thresholds


the


year


1993


family


of different


sizes


the


level


household


variable


income


reported


calculated


from


the

the


respondent.


number


The


of people


Poverty


living


the


household


relation


the


total


household


income


from


sources


variable


placed


survey


examine


the


influence


living


at different


level


the


poverty


threshold


on level


of femini


consciousness


and


political


participation.


Previous


research


suggests


that


class


can


help


explain


level


of political


participation


and


on feminist


consciousness


Respondents


living


below


the









time


to vote.


Moreover,


many


the


families


living


poverty


are


headed


women.


Age.


Age


measured


years


and


ranges


from


over

age


and


a well


treated


known


as an interval


predictor


variable


increased


Increased


political


participation.


Similarly


age


and


the


accumulation


life


experience


consciousness


likely


I issues.


influence


In addition


level


of feminist


to exploring


the


influence


age


as an


interval


variable,


several


cohorts


are


examined


including


respondents


or over


(old)


and


younger


respondents


under


(young).


The


sixti


generation.


The


age


cohort


variable


based


on an age


cohort


individual


, female


and


male,


whose


ages


range


from


to 51.


These


respondent


are


their


mid-


late


teens


and


into


their


mid-


late


during


the


late


sixties


and


early


seventies.


Jo Freeman


(1975)


discovered


that


women


in this


age


group


had


high


level


of discontent.


Thi


group


witn


ess


ed wide


spread


protest


on a variety


issues,


including


civil


rights,


the


Vietnam


War


and


women


issues.


Urban.


Urban


derived


from


census


data


and


indicates


that


the


respondent


lives


in an urban


area


as defined


the


Census


a Metropolitan


Statistical


Area


(MSA)


Button


(1989)


identifies


an Old


South/New


South


dichotomy


where


New









An urban


area


may


also


offer


better


opportunities


communications on subject

Interviewer gender.


such


as women


Interview


gender


issues.

is a dummy


variable


which


represents


the


gender


the


interviewer


Male


interviewers


are


coded


as a one;


a zero


is ass


signed


a female


influence


interviewer.


Thi


interviewer


variable


gender


and


explores


pos


the


sible


sible


effect


responses


the


feminist


consciousness


scale


items


political


participation.


Clinton


health


care


DroDosal.


A question


on the


survey


asks

care


respondents


proposal


whether


The


they


questions


supported

uses a 5


the


point


Clinton

Likert


health

type


format,


strong


which


support


recorded


and


so that


a score


a score


strong


indicates


opposition.


The


next


chapter


discusses


the


reliability


validity


the


feminist


consciousness


scale.













CHAPTER


SCALE


RELIABILITY


AND


VALIDITY


The


findings


press


ented


thi


chapter


provide


evidence


that


the


attitude


scale


developed


measure


level


feminist


conscious


ess


demonstrates


both


reliability


and


validity


Reliability


discussed


first,


followed


validity


measurement


Thi


and


chapter


this


concludes


dissertation


with


a review


s contributions


the


development


of a better


measure


of feminist


consciousness.


Reliability


When


comparing


the


Alpha


scores


calculated


the


feminist


consciousness


scale


drawn


from


the


item


analyst


sample


with


the


Alpha


scores


calculated


from


the


Consumer


Attitude


Survey


sample


, the


scale


demonstrates


acceptable


levels


of reliability


The


feminist


consciousness


scale


(the


summed


feminist


subscal


scores


Alpha


score


from


the


Gainesville


item


analysis


sample


.855


and


.694


the


Consumer


Attitude


Survey


sample.


Nunnally


(1978)


set


threshold


.70,


only


slightly


above


the


Alpha


the


summed


scal


the


Consumer


Attitude


Survey


sample


well


below


that


the


Gainesville


item


analysis


sample.


Genera 1.v-


studi Pss


with


A7 nhna


S hni'


a-re


rconsi idered








However


orientation


, on one


there


the


was


subscal 1


an unexpected


, measuring


change


collective


the


reliability


measures


between


the


Gainesvill


item


analysis


sample


the


and


the


from


Consumer


the


Attitude


sample


Survey


we find


sample.


that


Comparing


the


Gainesville


item


analyst


sample


the


two


collective


orientation


items


have


highest


Alpha


score


and


Consumer


Attitudes


Survey


sample


they


have


the


lowest.


sizable


proportion


sample


differed


on the


two


collective


orientations


items.


The


first


collective


orientation


item


(>V3<)


states


"Women


should


organize


work


together


, and


bring


pressure


as a group


order


to have


influence


and


get


the


things


they


want


." The


second


coll


ective


orientation


item


(>V7


states


Women


need


work


individually


gain


equal


pay


comparable


work,


not


as a group.


Two


hundred


forty-


one


respondents


went


from


"strongly


agree"


somewhat


agree


item


(>V3<


to a "strongly


agree


or "somewhat


agree


item


(>V7


The


difference


the


response


patterns


these


two


items


is the


primary


cause


the


lower


Alpha


coeffi


cient


the


Consumer


Attitude


Survey


sample.


conclude


that


the


item


may


tapping

not con


attitudes


sidered


toward


a true


organized


Southern


labor


state


Florida,


most


while


political


CI ': nn


i e- at.'fl TI% -


An r.*Har


Alphas


-.r ".^ u.*


CA 1.1ArL


_4_ .








and


the


concept


of collective


action


a group.


believe


the


tapping


anti


-labor


attitudes


the


more


plausible


answer


Table
Coeffi


Femini


clients


Consciousness


items


Scale


and


Subscale


in parentheses


Scale


Gainesville


Discontent
Withdrawal


Group


Of Legit.


Ident.


Collective


Femini


st Con


Orient.


. Scal


Analysis
.667 (2


Item


Sample


.731
.754
.793
.855


Consumer


Survey
.546 (


Attitude


Sample


.527
.488
.409
.694


As discussed


Chapter


Three,


the


number


items


greatly


affects


the


Cronbach


Alpha


score


of reliability


Generally,


the


more


items


in a scal


or subscal


, the


higher


the


Alpha


and


therefore


, the


higher


the


reliability.


Originally,


scale


consisted


twenty


items


with


each


subscale

to time


having app

constraints


roximately


on the


five


Bureau


items. Un

of Economic


fortunately


and


due


Business


Research


Consumer


Attitude


Survey,


a more


compact


scale


was


required.


The


drop


the


Alphas


from


the


Gainesvill


Item


Analysis


sample


to the


Consumer


Attitude


Survey


sample


greatly


influenced


small


number


items


each


subscale


(two)


Having


four


or five


items


each


subscal


would


likely


reduce


the


differences


in the


reliability


coefficients


between


the


Gainesville


item


analysis


and


Alpha









additional


collective


orientation


item


will


be added


that


will


address


thi


problem.


Scale


development


does


not


offer


any


guarantees.


The


time


involved


developing


constructing


scal


an investment


which


increases


our


knowledge


of measurement.


Validity


Known


Groups


Validity


The


validity


hypothe


previous


"known


the


ses


groups


scale


made


chapter


lend


" validity


developed


research


themselves


test


this


esign


used


test


research.


described


the


the


validity


scale.


The


first


hypothesis


predicted


that


women


would


have


higher


feminist


consciousness


scores


than


men.


This


hypothesis


based


belief


that


women


will


more


conscious


women


issues


due


their


objective


membership


as women.


The


results


Table


indicate


that


women


score


significantly


higher


on the


feminist


consciousness


scale


individual


subscal


repre


senting


discontent,


withdrawal


legitimacy,


group


identification,


and


collective


orientation.


second


higher


hypothesis


levels


predicted


that


consciousne


Democrats

ss than R


would


republicans.


I -~~~ a n n S a i -.


Several


testing


The


have


of feminist


*


L_ 1 -- _


L


k


'


J i


'I








early


1980s


many


women


have


moved


to the


Democratic


party


(Costain,


1992


McGlen


and


O'Connor,


1995)


Table


Difference


Consciousness


Comparing


of Means


Men


and


Tests
Women


Feminist


-- Consumer


Attitude


urvey


Sample


Scale


Men


Women


T stat.


-value


Discontent


With


Group
Coil.


Femini
Scale


. Of


5.60


Legit.


Ident.


Orient


st Con


.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0001


Given


information


, higher


feminist


consciousness


scores


were


expected


Democrats.


results


the


tests


performed


Table


indicate


there


are


significant


differences


between


Democrats


Republicans


on the


feminist


consciousness


sca


as well


as on three


four


subscales.


Table


D


Consciousness
Consumer Atti


differences
Comparing


tude


of Means
Democrats


Tests
and


Femini


Republi


cans


st
--


Sample.


Scale


Democrat


Republican


-stat.


P-value


content


With


Group


Collect
Feminis


. Of


6.61


Legit


Ident.


. Orient


4.44


7.52
6.66


Con.


6.03


Scal


.0512
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000







Factor


Analvsi


In addition


the


testing


the


hypotheses


on "known


groups"


, a factor


analysis


was


performed


on the


items


from


the


Gainesville


sample


and


another


on the


Consumer


Attitude


Survey


sample.


Initially


, an orthogonal


factor


analysis


was


performed


identify


and


confirm


the


four


dimensions


attitude


scale.


Another


orthogonal


factor


analy


SiS


was


performed


responses


on the


the


entire


feminist


Consumer


group


Attitude


consciousness


Survey


scale.


both


tests


the


same


four


factors


were


identified.


second


factor


analy


S1S


provides


further


evidence


that


the


scale


developed


measure


level


of feminist


consciousness


not


only


performs


in the


predicted


manner,


but


also


maintains


multidimensionality.


The


results


, displayed


Tables


, are


convincing


given


the


sensitivity


of factor


analysis


to scal


with


relatively


items,


such


as the


one


examined


here.


sample


reliability

discussed a


tests


above,


on the


Consumer


collective


Attitude


orientation


Survey

subscale


exhibits


very


significant


factor


identification


in the


item


analysis

Attitude


Alpha


sample;

Survey


scores


howev

factor


is very


er


falls


analysis.

sensitive


Consumer


Factor

to the n


analysis


umber


similar


items.


Therefore


results


of the


Consumer


Attitude


Survey


sample


crhati nlA


'ka ~ ~~~~~~nn 4m~C n aA mwa rn rrtnt.11e'a


kn -* nC arv3


rnaln


r\Trt" ih 1







Table 4-4.


Items


Factor


-- Gainesville


Analysis of Feminist Consciousness


Item Analysis


Scale


Sample.


ITEMS


FACTOR 1


FACTOR


FACTOR 3


FACTOR


With.

With.


Of Legit.

Of Legit.


.48770


.43199


.35648

.49926


*.90251

*.85014


.25473

.45619


Discontent

Discontent


.39132


.05318


.22766

.55522


.46201

.22453


*.88903

*.82423


Coll.

Coll.

Group

Group


Orient.

Orient.

Ident.

Ident.


.39401


.59570


*.90790


*.83566


*.88277

*.82635

.33236

.56077


.44874

.53298

.55824

.40068


.39521

.28196

.27141

.19042


= 154


Table
Scale


4-5.
Items


Factor


Analysis of


-- Consumer


the


Attitude


Feminist Consciousness


Survey


Sample.


ITEMS


FACTOR 1


FACTOR


FACTOR


FACTOR 4


With.

With.


Of Legit.

Of Legit.


.02819


.20011


.24673

.32072


*.84243

*.49758


.00787

.41500


Discontent

Discontent


.10646


.01161


*.75636

*.82354


.22856

.10067


.04742

.13055


Coll.

Coll.

Group

Group


Orient.

Orient.

Ident.

Ident.


.54382


-.00862


*.72017


*.82884


.03520

.11370

-.02227

.16136


.31091

.00512

.35555

-.22251


*.45460

*.91910

.07025

-.05624


= 853








Measurement


- Conclusions


In concluding


this


discussion


on measurement


my only


regret


that


I have


felt


somewhat


compromised


restricting


the


scale


to only


items.


With


proper


funding,


a 20


item


scale


would


provide


an opportunity


to capture


range


of each


subscale


more


completely


and


would


likely


lead


to better


measurement.


Measurement


in the


social


sciences


kept


pace


with


innovations


analyze


data


gathered.


may


as thrilling


the


lates


statistical


technique


, but


measurement


represents


the


first


step


in testing


hypotheses


drawn


from


theory


ssertation


advances


measurement


women


issues,


group


consc


iousness,


and


the


understanding


the


outputs


social


movements


on the


general


public.


Original


Moreover,


scale


development


a demanding


and


is not

time c


without


onsuming


risks.

process.


Indeed,


the


scale


development


stage


thi


research


took


approximately


months


However,


strongly


believe


that


the


effort


and


time


invested


rewarded


thi


proj ect


with


improved


measurement


feminist


group


consciousness.














REGRESSION


CHAPTER
ANALYSIS


OF FINDINGS


This


chapter


divided


into


three


parts.


The


first


section


explains


the


stati


stical


approaches


used


the


data


analysis.


The


second


section


examines


the


findings


concerning


feminist


consciousness.


Finally,


factors


which


affect


leve


of political


participation


are


examined


Strate%1v


the


Data


Analysis


Thi


which


research


factors


casts


influence


a wide

levels


net


attempting


feminist


conscious


uncover

ess and


to what


extent


level


of feminist


consciousness


influence


political


activity1


Previous


research


using


the


multidimensional


model


group


consciousness


has


not


examined

previous


these

studi


links


have


depth.


used


Moreover


multivariate


none


analysis.


the

A wide


variety


of potential


explanatory


variables


are


examined


with


thi


mind.


economic


age,


The


status


income


explanatory


(SES)


, occupation,


variables


taracteristi

employment


suc


statu


include so

h as sex,

s. marital


ClO-

race,

status,


education,


party


identification,


political


participation.


9








Group


Consciousness


this


dissertation,


the


scores


of respondents


on the


attitude


scale


measuring


levels


feminist


consciousness


are


treated


as an interval


variable.


A seri


of model


are


analyzed


entire


sample,


as well


as for


sub-samples


of female


and


male


respondents


, racial


and


ethnic


groups


and


party


identification.


Ordinary


least


squares


(OLS)


regr


session


is used


to analyze


these


data


the


dependent


variable,


feminist


squares


consciousness


regression


is employed


Similarly


to analyze


, ordinary


the


individual


feminist


consciousness


subscales3


Overall


Results


- Consumer


Attitude


Survey


The


Economic


mean


and


feminist


Business


consciousness


Research


score


Consumer


the


Attitude


Bureau


Survey


Florida


sample


26.23


The


scale


has


a range


from


a low


of 8


a poss


ible


high


Several


variables--being


woman,


closen


ess


Democratic


party,


living


in an urban


county,


and


increased


level


of education-


-are


linked


higher


feminist


level


feminist


consciousness


consciousness


scale


is not


thi


surprls


is a


that


being


a woman


is associated


with


higher


scale


scores


The


coefficients


reported


are


unstandardi


zed.


SCUsslon


of why


unstandardi


coefficients


a r s t -


- r


are


* -


A.. ., eS a


/ 1 -*


tmm


f J


*_


1


+-1 i -- Y __ -- *1


I








Urban


environments


are


generally


more


liberal


than


rural


areas;


therefore,


is reasonable


that


respondents


from


urban


counties


are


more


likely


to exhibit


higher


levels


feminist


consciousness.


Increased


levels


of education


are


linked,


as well,


with


higher


levels


of feminist


consciousness.


Thi


finding


reinforces


the


theory


that


feminist


consciousness


a cognitive


psychological


process.


Age


and


income,


while


not


significant


explanatory


variables,


are


important


control


variables


thi


analysis.


Their


lack


significance


as explanatory


variables


indicates


that


levels


consciousness


are


broad


based,


not


only


among


different


age


groups,


also


across


different


household


income


level


Therefore,


further


evidence


exists


that


the


attainment


of feminist


consciousness


likely


a cognitive


process


and


necessarily


related


to variables


such


household


income


increased


age.


Being


interviewed


a male


interviewer


significant


and


negatively


affects


reported


levels


feminist


consciousness


. Respondents


may


feel


that


when


being


interviewed


a woman,


they


should


exhibit


a more


liberal


attitude


and


thus


respond


a more


positive


manner


so as to


appear


to be


more


conscious


women


issues.


In addition,


is plausible


that


respondents


who


are


interviewed


male


may


try


appear


more


conservative


The


analysis


n A a Ina


1'^% 1 ^v.


1 L


nnrr~rrr


~lr A IJ A


"1_ 1


A A









"sixties


identify


generation"


respondents


age


between


cohort


variable


ages


and


(which


proved


significant


and


indicates


that


respondents


who


were


their


teens


through


late


twenties


the


very


politically


active


period


the


late


sixti


and


early


seventies


exhibit


higher


level


of feminist


consciousness.


The


significance


thi


variable


fits


well


with


similar


research


conducted


Freeman


(1975)


regarding


a similar


age


cohort


women.


However,


these


findings


expand


our


understanding


effect


thi


cohort.


It finds


that


both


men


and


women


are


positively


affected


regarding


women


S issues


having


lived


during


these


times.


When


examining


the


entire


Consumer


Attitude


Survey


sample,


marital


status


, employment


status


and


being


African


American


level


or of Hispanic


feminist


findings suggest

broad-based and


origin


have


consciousness.


that

not d


level


dependent


no significant


Taken


of feminist

on factors


together,


effect

these


consciousness


such


are


as age,


income


, employment


status,


race,


ethnic


background


marital


status.


On the


other


hand,


education,


an urban


environment,


closeness


to the


Democratic


party


, and


membership


the


"sixti


generation"


cohort


Increase


the


likelihood


of higher


level


feminist


consciousness.


Education


leads


more


awareness


the