The effects of a spelling word study strategy on the spelling performance of high school students with learning disabilities

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Title:
The effects of a spelling word study strategy on the spelling performance of high school students with learning disabilities
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x, 168 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.
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English
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Brown, Beverly Oviatt, 1963-
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Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1995.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 158-167).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Beverly Oviatt Brown.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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EFFECTS OF A
PERFORMANCE


SPELLING WORD STUDY STRATEGY
OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS WITH
DISABILITIES


BEVERLY


OVIATT


ON THE SPELLING
LEARNING


BROWN


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


SCHOOL
OF THE


OF THE
DEGREE


UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


This


endeavor


would


have


been


achievable


without


guidance


encouragement


from


numerous


individuals.


would


like


to begin


thanking


committee,


then


extending


thanks


to those


many


willing


teachers


who


helped


this


project


achieve


fruition,


finally,


expressing


deepest


gratitude


family,


who


have


grumbled


so little


about


this


project


over


past


six


years.


First,


would


like


express


heartfelt


thanks


committee.

keeping me


would


ion the


like

right


to thank


trail


through


Cary

the


Reichard

mountains


for

of rules


regs.


Next,


thank


Cindy


Griffin


emotional


support;


helped


me keep


everything


proper


perspective.


providing


a model


professionalism


expert


need


to thank


. Mary


Kay


Dykes


. To


James


Joiner


all"


times


extend


thanks


, providing


tumult.


being


a place


want


mooring


of solace


to graciously


outside


reflection


thank


during


Hank


Pennypacker


participation,


brilliant


most


insight,


importantly,


prompt


eager


spontaneous


honesty.


Lastly,


need


to thank


Cecil


Mercer


riding


w












sticking


special


thanks


rith m

goes


,e in spite


to Leoniece


problems


Pinnell


that


arose.


willingly


taking


time


schedule


to fit


in my


research


Lastly,


thanks


to Linda


Williams,


who


would


et with


me for


saying


that,


words


cannot


express


gratitude


eager


skillful


participation


and


critical,


"eagle"


eye.


Finally,


need


to thank


family,


who


have


felt


backlash


from


this


process


from


one.


First,


must


extend


thanks


three


children.


was


Hannah


Brown


birth


that


prompted


me to begin


doctoral


program.


darling


shes


thank


on my


using


dissertation.


Last


so many


of her


least,


birthday


thanks


Izzy


always


having


a concerned


ear


even


though


about


half


time


he had


no idea


what


was


talking


about.


would


like


to thank


parents


Gene


Oviatt,


who


continued


to support


decision


pursue


this


degree


even


though


Gainesville


express


wasn


't getting


gratitude


closer.


husband,


Finally,


lover,


mentor,


need


David


Brown,


who


supported


me financially,


emotionally,


humorously


, and


gently


whatever


order


needed.


would


(1910-


like


1993).


to dedicate


am most


sorry


this


work


could


to Martin


see


. Brown


with



















TABLE OF CONTENTS

Aage
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.......................................... ii


LIST OF TABLES.................. ........................


LIST OF FIGURES........... ............................... vii

ABSTRACT................................................. ix

CHAPTERS

I. INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM....................... 1


Spelling Research..........
Statement of the Problem...
Rationale of the Study.....
Definition of Terms.......
Delimitations of the Study.
Limitations of the Study...
Summary.......... ..........


S. . . . . 9
. . . . . 10
. . . . .. 10
. . . . . 11


II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE..................... 12


Introduction....................
Historical Development..........
Theoretical Development.........
Intervention....................
Effective Teaching Literature...
Summary.........................


................. 12
................. 12
................. 15
................. 26
... .............. 51
................. 58


III. METHODS AND PROCEDURES........................... 60


Introduction...........


Setting...........................
Subject Description and Selection.
Description of Spelling Strategy..
Instruments.......................
Reliability of Procedures.........


........... ... 60


............... 60
............... 61
............... 69
............... 71
............. 72













Question
Question


DISCUSSION


Purpose of the Study...... .. ................ 105
Review of the Literature......................... 106
Methods .................................. ...107
Review of the Questions and Results...... ........109
Theoretical Implications of the Research.........112
Problems and Limitations........................ 116
Implications................ .. ....... ... ....117
Further Studies................................. 119



APPENDICES

A INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD PERMISSION LETTER......121

B BOARD OF EDUCATION PERMISSION REQUEST.............123

C PARENT PERMISSION REQUEST.........................125

D STRATEGY SCRIPT AND CUE CARDS.....................127

E ASSESSMENT FORMS TO OBTAIN ACQUISITION AND
MAINTENANCE OF STRATEGY STEPS.....................143

F OUTLINE OF TRAINING FOR SCORERS...................145

G OUTLINE OF TRAINING FOR TEACHERS AND OBSERVERS....147

H OUTLINE OF TRAINING FOR PEER TUTORS...............149

I WORDLIST FOR INTERVENTION.........................151

J ERROR ANALYSIS CHECKLIST............. ........... 153

K TEACHER BEHAVIORS RECORDING FORM..................155

L INDIVIDUAL STUDENT GENERATED WORD LISTS...........157

REFERENCES. . . . . . . . ........ .158


2..,..............,.....................
3.......,.........,...,......,.....


Summary.................................

















LIST


OF TABLES


Table


Page


Spelling
learning


intervention
disabilities


research


on students


with


Subject


demographic


information.


Changes


of medians


ranges


within


between


conditions.............



















LIST


OF FIGURES


Figure


Page


Timeline
English


of historical
language......


development
............


of the


Diagram


of experimental


design.....................


Summary


dictation


graph


test


of all


scores.


Median,


high,


dictation


test


scores........


Subject


Subject

Subject

Subject

Subject


Subject


Subject

Subject

Subject


dictation


dictation

dictation

dictation

dictation


dictation


dictation

dictation

dictation


test


test

test

test

test


test


test

test

test


scores................


scores....................

scores....................

scores....................

scores ...... .............


scores


.... 94


scores...... ...........

scores....................


Subject

Subject

Subject


Subject


10 dictation


words

words


words


test


written

written


written


scores


generalized

generalized


generalized


....0..0.....

............

............
* .. .. **

* SS ** SS *S SS


. SS SS S* 5 55


subjects















Subject

Subject


words

words


written

written


generalized.

generalized.


. ..........102

. ..........102


Subj


ect


words


written


generalized


. . . 103


Subject


10 words


written


generalized


. ... .... .103






















Abstract


of Dissertation


University


of Florida


Requirements


Presented


to the


in Partial


Doctor


Graduate


School


Fullfillment


of Philosophy


EFFECTS


OF A SPELLING


PERFORMANCE


OF HIGH


WORD


SCHOOL


STUDY


STRATEGY


STUDENTS


WITH


ON THE


SPELLING


LEARNING


DISABILITIES

By


Beverly


Oviatt


Brown


August


1995


Chairman:


Major


Cecil


Department:


Mercer
Special


Education


Students


many academic

the written


with


areas;


products


learning


disabilities


frequently


these


these


students


exhibit


problems

Among


problems


evident

many


problems


written


that


occur


expre


students


ssion,


spelling


with


problems


learning


remain


disabilities


most


prominent.


Spelling


skill


is complex,


requiring


speller


to (a)


have


knowledge


of language


mechanics


make


visual


associations,


have


an internalized


understanding


semantic


rules.


As a result


these


complexities,


spelling


remains


a problem


many


individuals


with


learning


(b













mnemonic


instruction


teaching


students


with


learning


disabilities


a strategy


studying


spelling


words.


This


strategy


was


taught


to 10 students


with


learning


disabilities


exhibit


deficits


spelling


as measured


Test


Written S

variables


:pelling-3


Larsen


investigated


Hammill,


were


1986)


percentage


. The d

of words


dependent

spelled


correctly


after


using


study


strategy,


number


of words


written


daily


during


seven


minutes


of free


writing,


number


of target


words


, those


words


appearing


on the


weekly


spelling


test


that


were


found


spelled


correctly


daily


free


writing


samples.


A single


subject


design


was


used


to enable


researcher


to make


comparisons


of data


collected


prior


during,


following


intervention.


Analysis


of this


data


revealed


that


students


were


able


acquire


apply


spelling


strategy.


Improvement


occurred


dictation


test


scores


following


training


strategy


number


of words


written


during


daily


free


writing


trials


change


significantly


following


intervention.


Generalization


spelling


words


occurred


following


presentation


of words


to study


that


been


spelled


previous


free


writing


probes.


Limitations


this


study


such


as sample


-- -1 V1

size



















CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


TO THE


PROBLEM


purpose


of Chapter


is to acquaint


reader


with


issues


critical


to the


present


study


to provide


rationale


study.


this


sec


tion,


primary


trends


in spelling


research


are


highlighted,


problems


with


dissemination


this research


are


SCUSS


unique


problems


assoc


ated


with


teaching


spelling


at the


sec


ondary


level


are


presented,


res


earch


applies


students


with


mild


disabilities


is analyzed.


Selling


Querr


Research


Lingo


When


Wil:
We sa'


English


"break"
1 you t
**


y,


And


.eli


sew,


Tongue


rimed
me why


" but


maker


wi


likewise


of the


we speak
th "freak


s true
e "few"


verse


Cannot
"Beard"


"Cord"
"Cow"
"Shoe "


Think


think


Think
"Doll"


And
Why
Think


since
not "
of "b


rime
sound!


his "
s not


'horse"


different


iS COW


never


"hose"


f "goose"
"comb" an


"roll"
"pay"
paid"


lood"


with


same
from


"low"


rimed


worse


"heard"


"word"
is low;


with


"dose "


: and


"tomb "


"home"


is rimed


with
and


with


"said"


"food"


- --


"foe "


"lose ";
"choose
"bomb,"
1 "some"


" s ay"
pray?
"qood"


w


,














This


poem


accurately


identifies


one


primary


problems


ass


ociated


with


Engl


spelling


: English


contains


many


ass


signing


sound


to symbol,


many


exceptions


exist


each


In addition


an internal


sense


rules,


speller


must


be abl


to make


visual


assoc


must


iations


sess


have


knowledge


language


of all


knowledge.


these


good


skill


speller


These


complex


assoc


lated


with


spelling


ability


have


given


to two


stinct


theoretic


positions


spelling


research


Theori


Underlvinq


SDellingc


Research


Among


numerous


studies


conducted


spelling


research,


two


primary


theoretical


stances


have


emerged


faction


maintains


that


Engli


sh i


primarily


irregular


Advocates


theoretical


position


propose


creation


synthetic


, highly


phonetic


alphabet,


or teaching


each


word


a whol


word


desire


to create


a synthetic


alphabet


grew


from


desire


Teaching


to make


Alphabet


English


phonetic


(Downing,


ally


1967)


regular


was


Initial


developed


1950


to fill


this


need


Although


a number


of studies


were


conducted


imprac


that


established


ticality


effect


reprinting


veness


already


public


this


shed


method,


material


m














llabi


or letter


letter


(Hartman,


1931).


Theori


sts


who


have


concentrated


investigated


their


teac


research


hing


based


of spelling


these


words


findings


as a whol


word


as compared


to dividing


words


into


syllables


or teaching


words


letter


letter.


use


of whole


words


spelling


s an


effective


technique


tzsimmons


Loomer,


1978;


Horn,


1947;


Gilbert


Gilbert,


1942


Other

incomplete.


rese


archers


These


rese


claim E

archers


english

propose


is patterned

e teaching sI


selling


phonetically,


or teaching


rules


improve


spelling


performance.


argument


underlying


this


position


that


certain


consi


stencies


exist


English


spelling.


extensive


study


conducted


at Stanford


University


using


computers


programmed


to spell


17,000


words,


Hanna,


Hodges,


Hanna


spelled


(1971)


phonetic


found


ally


that


Although


of Engli


some


sh words


spelling


can


can


accompli


shed


with


knowledge


phonics,


remains


highly


improbable


that


knowledge


phonics


will


produce


lexical


spellings.


Instruction


in spelling


improve


spelling


performance


been


investigated


(Allred


, 1977;


Darch


impson,


1990;


Fitzsimmons


Loomer,


1978


--


,


-


_ _














Effective


Techniques


profusion


of research


on spelling


have


emerged


a number


techniques


that


are


deemed


effect


zsimmons


Loomer,


1982


Gordon


, Vaughn


Schumm,


1993)


hniques


reported


as effective


are


determining


readiness


(Allred,


1977;


cholson


Schacter,


1980;


Peters


, 1985),


using


finite


word


(Ayers


, 1950;


zgerald,


1951


Horn,


testing


students


on the


target


words


prior


instruction


(Horn,


1947;


Horn,


1976),


analyze


errors


(Gan


show,


1984;


Nelson,


1980;


Silva


Yarborough,


1990)


training


study


strategic


rnald,


1943;


Fitz


gerald,


1951;


Horn,


1954;


Westerman,


1971)


instruction


spelling


techniques


(Horn, 1

teaching


960;


Templeton,


spelling


1980)

seem


Effective

to be the


problem


stating


Fitzsimmons


storically,


Loomer


(1978)


spelling


speak


been


one


to this


of the


issue


most


frequently


investigated


areas


curriculum.


However,


improvement


in spelling


programs


does


seem


commensurate


with


research


efforts


Another


problem


exists


ack of


research


conducted


with


students


who


have


learning


sabiliti


es


Most


of the


spelling


res


earch


been


conducted


with


general


education


" (p.















discourteous


like


mumbling


in conversation),


poor


self-


concept,


writing


simply


or simply


not


writing


(Peters,


1985).


Templeton


1992


goes


so far


as to des


cribe


spelling


"the


bedrock


of literacy,


barometer


of intelligence,


measure


our


schools


successes"


Soellina


at the


Secondary


Level


A number


of deterrents


to good


spelling


exist


secondary


level


First,


spelling


a skill


commonly


associated


with


elementary


school


Silva


Yarborough,


1990).


Secondly,


most


high


school


teachers


expect


to teach


spelling,


nor


have


they


been


trained


to do


so.


Meanwhile,


spelling


is a deterrent


to effective


writing


one


in ten


secondary


importance


instruction


students.


placed


would


would


on correct


play


assume,


spelling,


an important


with


that


part


societal


spelling


writing


curriculum.


Spelling


deficiencies


aren


't commonly


described,


explained,


et al


or remediated


1993).


at the


Students


sec


exhibit


ondary


these


level


(Gordon


problems


are


primarily


disabilities


considered


stifle


careless


those


or indifferent.


imaginative


Spelling


writers


anqu:


ish experienced


trying


to form


words


correct


J


_


W..m


""~














Spelling


Individual


wihMl lsai1114


Spelling


difficulties


are


common


within


population


individuals


with


mild


disability


(Carpenter


Miller


1985;


Vallcorsa,


Zigmond,


Hender


son,


1985)


Graham


Miller


(1979)


claim


majority


of children


who


are


labeled


exhibit


spelling


problems


These


authors


claim


these


spelling


problems


can


be attributed


inadequate


instruction,


material


Spelling


students


(1987)


frequently


with


describe


poorly


absence

been i


learning


spelling


designed


res


earch


identified


sabiliti


problems


commercial


based instruction.


as being


Gerber


as a common


a problem


Hall


diagnostic


character


stic


of learning


disability


, reading


sabilities


dyslexia


only


common


among


students


with


learning


disabilities,


spelling


remains


diffi


cult


remediate


(Demaster,


Crossland,


& Hasselbring


, 1986)


Deshler,


Schumaker,


Alley,


Warner,


Clark


1982)


have


found


students


problems


with


with


learning


spelling


to be


disability


factor


from


those


differentiating


identified


achieving


Spelling


deficiency


remain


a problem


individual


with


learning


abilities


into


adulthood.


Adults


with


learning


sabiliti


indicate


deficit


encies


ssroom


encles


Mild


with


ni n~hi 1 i +i PC














Even


though


spelling


is identified


as a significant


problem


res


earch


individuals with

investigating the


learning

problem


disabilities,


found.


a dearth


Summers


(1986)

written


reviewed

express


rese


ion


arch


2,270


subjects


article


with


that


learning


investigated


disabilities


from


1968


to 1983.


He found


that


only


one


percent


of these


articles


addressed


area


spelling.


A review


of the


literature


revealed


articles


published


after


1977


that


reported


effectiveness


variety


spelling


interventions


used


with


subjects


have


learning


sabilities


independent


variables


these


studies


modality


can


be categorized


specific


instruction,


strategy


peer


instruction,


tutoring,


computer


assisted


instruction,


error


analysis


, or


combination


of procedures


see


Chapter


majority


these


studies


compared


above-named


interventions


with


traditional


instructional


methods


or baseline


data


Statement


Problem


problem


investigated


this


study


was


effectiveness


of teaching


a spelling


strategy


to high


school


students


with


learning


disability


experimental


questions


were


follows:














Will


increase


training


number


in SPELL,the


of words


word


written


study


during


strategy


seven


minutes


of free


writing?


Will


training


SPELL,


word


study


strategy, increase


number


target


words


words


that


students


have


been


tested


over,


spelled


correctly


in the


seven


minute


writing


samples


problem


examined


in this


study


important


several


reasons


First,


means


teach


spelling


have


been


poorly


identified


disseminated.


secondary


level


research


Secondly,


is apparent


literature


need


because


have


to teach


of the


been


spelling


spelling


problems


to remediate


learning


demonstrated


these


disabilities


students


problems


exhibit


this


tly,


special


level,


students


needs


need


with


area


spelling


instruction.


inability


to spell


inhibits


written


expression.


Rationale


Study


Because


numerous


spelling


difficulties


secondary


students


with


learning


disabilities,


spelling


instruction

effective i


is essential


instructional


at the se

techniques


condary

have b


level


een


Many


identified















This


researcher


hypothesized


that


once


daily


spelling


instruction

learning di


subjects


occurs


at this


sabilities,


improve


level

only


as measured


with

will


weekly


students


spelling


dictation


have


these


tests


timed


writing


ass


ignments


will


also


increase


length


to increased


confidence


in spelling


ability.


Generalization


of the


target


words


to writing


samples


will


also


occur.


Definition


of Terms


Terms


used


this


study


their


definitions


are


presented


following


sections.


Understanding


these


terms


is critical


to understanding


implementation


procedures


observed


results.


Affix


refers


to a morpheme


dependent


upon


another


morpheme


(Blake


& Emans,


1970).


A qraoheme


an alphabetical


symbol


representing


phoneme


(Blake


Emans,1970).


Linguistics


study


of human


speech


including


phonetics


word


meanings


(Blake


Emans,1970).


A morpheme


smallest


meaningful


unit


structure


words


(Blake


Emans,1970)


Orthoaraphv


a


.. -. -


of writing


words


with


oroner


-W W - -- - -


9














Phonetic


Analysis


involves


use


of phonics


spelling


of words


(Blake


Emans,1970).


Phonetics


science


of speech


sounds


(Blake


Emans,


1970).


Phon


i cs


refers


to the


application


of phonetics


spelling


A Schwa


reading


(Blake


is a vowel


sound


Emans,


1970)


in an unaccented


syllable


(Blake


Emans,


1970).


Selling


defined


ability


recognize


, recall,


reproduce,


or obtain


orally


or in


written


form


correct


sequence


of letters


Structural


in words


Analysis


(Graham


employs


Miller,


use


1979)


meaning


units


recognition


A Syllable


of words


a unit


Blake


of sound


Emans,


1970).


composed


a vowel


often


a consonant


(Blake


Emans,


1970).


Delimitations


Study


study


was


delimited


geographical


res


trictions


Camden


County,


Georgia,


a rural


county


located


most


southeastern


corner


state.


subjects


were


high


school


students


identified


as having


a learning


disability


a language


related


area.


Limitations


Study














be taken


in generalizing


results


beyond


Camden


County,


Georgia.


Summary


Research


in teaching


spelling


to secondary


students


with


learning


disability


clearly


needed


intent


tudy


was


to advance


knowledge


of effective


instruction


in spelling


have


at the


implications


secondary


both


level


regular


Results


special


study


education


teachers


Chapter


language


arts


II presents


secondary


a review


level.


research


literature


relevant


to thi


study


Chapter


describes


methodology


used


in the


implementation


of thi


study
















CHAPTER


REVIEW


OF RELATED


LITERATURE


Introduction


purpose


of thi


chapter


summarize


analy


spelling


research


involving


students


with


learning


disabilities


research


First,


briefly


torical


scussed.


development


Secondly,


of spelling


theoretical


development

critiqued.


of spelling


Then,


interventions


conducted,


instruction


an examination


students


followed


with


research


is presented


of effective


learning


spelling


disabilities


effective


teaching


techniques


Finally,


a summary


chapter


relevance


to this


investigation


are


presented.


Historical


Development


Over


language


past


gone


twenty


through


-five


centuries


a multitude


Engli


of changes,


from


writing


of Old


English


BC to its


modern


conceptualization


as we now


know


Old


English


was


derived


from


Latin


Greek


first


recorded


monasteries


Because


was


characterized


a high


phoneme-grapheme


correspondence,


was


a phonetically


regular


language.







































a,


- Old English













- Norman Invasion










- Middle English









- First English Dictionary

- Johnson's Dictionary



First American Dictionary





First Spelling Research


~














With


Norman


invasion


of England


1066


structure


of Old


English


began


to change


this


time


French


became


the language


of the


court,


English


was


not


res


tored


until


1430.


During


this


period


many


changes


occurred;


example


, inflectional


endings


were


replaced


with


word


order


sentence


to indicate


syntax.


As much


as 40%


vocabulary


was


borrowed


from


Anglo-Normans.


language


during


this


time


s referred


as Middle


English.


Henderson


1981)


eloquently


describes


period


Middl


Englis


as seeming


rather


like:


A great


rural


stove.


100-year
e ancient


soup o
stock


persi


back
sted


burner


, and


combined


while


blended


weekly


lacing


interesting anc
of French wine


agreeable


continually


way


added


piquancy,


basic


stuff


a certain


was


elegance,


Englis


a new


high


power.


frequency


words


of the


grammar,


to these,


French


terms


of court,


law,


religion,


war were


added


Out


this


large


medieval


poured


a number


complexities


Engli


spelling.


major


changes


from


Old


to Middl


Engli


was


Great


Vowel


Shift


was


characterized


pronunciation


long


vowels


Further


molding


Engli


sh language


was


adoption


vocabulary


of philosophy


, science


, and


art.


he first














Spelling


research


began


early


1900s,


with


publication


of a large


number


of descriptive


studi


1920


These


studi


featured


data


about


children


s errors


Interventions


to remediate


errors


were


not


developed


until


several


decades


later.


Since


1920


, spelling


been


frequently


rese


arched,


and,


from


this


plethora


of research,


separate


school


of theoretical


thought


emerged


Theoretical


Development


Spelling


is a complex


skill


that


requires


speller


use


language


knowledge,


visual


associations,


internalized


rules


(Nic


holson


Schacter,


1979)


Because


of the


cognitive


complexities


researchers


language


associated


have


knowledge,


with


attempted


Va-S


learning


to spell,


to investigate


associations


a number


ree


inte


to which


rnalized


rules


play


a part


in spelling


ability


As a result


these


investigations,


theoretical


view


points


have


developed


theoretical


viewpoint


maintains


that


English


orthography


irrational


difficult


to master.


Proponents


of this


theory


developed


initial


teaching


alphabet


whole


word


approach


oppos


theory


propose


that


English


orthography


is patterned


incomplete.


Proponents


this


theoretical


stance


advocate
















English


Orthoqraphy


Irrational


Researchers


maintain


that


English


orthography


irrational


state


that


Engli


a language


confounded


integration


many


other


languages


s therefore


phonetically


regular


to this


lack


of phonemic


regularity,


these


researchers


claim


that


there


needs


to be


establi


shment


a purely


phonetic


alphabet,


or that


spelling


words


must


tackled


as whole


words


visually)


Synthetic


alphabet.


, developed


Initial


1950


, was


Teaching


an attempt


Alphabet


to make


English


language


regular.


English


with


44 phonemes


letters


makes


spelling


a complex


task.


A word


such


"circumference"


can


be spelled


phonemically


ways


(Allred,


1977).


.a.,


developed


James


Pitman,


was


never


intended


as a total


reform,


was


designed


as a stage


teaching


to regulariz

alternative


of reading


English


or redundant


spelling


spelling


symbols


reducing


in our


i.t


.a.


attempted


number


writing


stem


Downing,


1967


Students


were


expected


to learn


to read


using


. and


then


transfer


their


knowledge


traditional


orthography.














control.


Groups


were


randomized.


second


group


experiments


spanned


three


years


involved


experimental


subj


ects


control


subjects


control


group


outperformed


experimental


group


in spelling


achievement.


Petty


, Murphy,


Mohan


(1974)


conducted


a comparison


number


types


of spelling


errors


made


those


taught


using


a synthetic


alphabet


with


errors


made


those


taught


with


purpose


reading


was


material


to determine


using


traditional


spellings


orthography

i.t.a.


subjects


were


more


rational;


rational


miss


pellings


were


those


that


were


related


to sound


symbol


generalization.


Five


hundred


seventy-three


subjects


participated,


were


taught


using


i.t.


while


were


instructed


traditional


orthography


. All


students


were


admini


stered


test


words.


Twenty-five


were


third-grade


difficulty,


while


were


fourth


-grade


difficulty


researchers


found


significant


differences


spelling


achievement


groups


Block


(1972


reviewed


forty


-seven


studi


which


compared


spelling


of children


taught


using


. with


those


taught


using


involved fi


traditional


rst


grade


orthography


students


Twenty-one


found


studies


traditional


w















subgroups


were


formed


dividing


experimental


group


deliver


different


measures


these


studi


, four


indicated


. was


Block


better


1972


method,


reviewed


three


eighteen


found


studies


no difference.


involving


sec


ond-grade


students


No difference


between


.and


traditional


orthography


was


found


five


of these


studi


. was


found


to be


more


effective


eleven


studi


Subgroups

studies,


Initial


were


randomly


order


Teaching


to tes


Alphabet


identified

t using a


was


three


variety


superior


of the eighteen

measures. The


to traditional


orthography


in these


three


studies.


Results


indicate


tendency


i.t.a


Subjects


to spell


better.


Advantages


using


.a.


include


swift


early


decoding


ability


Children


taught


.t.a


. spelled


as well


better


than


those


schooled


traditional


orthography


(Peters,


1985).


Problems


with


i.t.a.


include


a s


lowing


down


reading


process


(Frith,


1980)


only


more


cumbersome,


as a spelling


reform


implaus


ible.


Using


. would


require


a reprinting


of all


public


shed


material


, which


is not


economically


p055


ible.


It would


require


Transition


an additional


from


step


traditional


instruction


orthography


recess


to a synthetic


i.t.a


,ta


i.t.a














able


to picture


word


their


heads


Good


spell


ers


are


able


see


word


a whole


better


than


poor


spell


ers


(Hartman,


1931)


Visual


memory


play


a significant


spelling


ability


Peters,


1985)


Theori


who


support


hypothes


have


s that


proposed


Engli


that


sh i


irrational


teaching


of spellin


difficult

a words


to master


as whole


words


to be memorized


is superior


to the


teaching


of phonemic


segmentation


or syllabication.


Investigations


presentation


spelling


words


a whole


word


have


been


popular


decades


Gilbert


Gilbert


(1942)


, using


tachtiscope


to determine


fixations


of twenty-three


uppercl


ass


college


students


who


were


superior


spellers,


found


that


good


spellers


make


fewer


shorter


fixations


than


poor


spell


ers.


They


are


see


more


word


time


make


fewer


regressive


movements.


Hartman


(1931)


tried


to determine


sual


or auditory


abiliti


were


responsible


spelling


achievement.


spelling


battery


was


admini


stered


to 63 college


students


been


determined


fall


in three


groups


of low


ability,


average


ability


, and


high


ability


spellers


The


eight


tests


that


were


administered


were:


perceptual


span


meaningful


w















only


one


of the


tests


correlated


with


spelling


ability,


test


of perceptual


span


meaningful


visual


stimuli.


Other


researchers


have


investigated


presentation


words


as a whol


presented


Horn


as compared


1947)


with


undertook


llabication


an inves


words


tigation


determine


ect


of visual


presentation


of words


syllables


on 1


earning


to spell


He concluded


that


advantage


to syllab


ication


existed


across


ability


eve


contrary,


there


appeared


to be a disadvantage,


that


presentation


syllable


contributed


error.


Proponents


of the


whole


word


approach


(Horn


1926


Horn,


1947,


zgerald


, 1951;


zsimmons


Loomer,


1980


argue


that


the number


of words


that


are


necessary


to write


effectively


are


finite.


Horn


studied


samples


children


make


s writing


ninety-seven


determined


percent


that


2,800


words


that


to 3,000


are


words


use


These


researchers


argue


that


S 1


a manageable


to be


learned.

Conclusions


Researchers


propose


claiming


formation


Engli


sh orthography


of a synthetic


, highly


rre


phon


gular


etic


alphabet


, or the


teaching


of spelling


as a li


necessary















republishing


materials,


additional


instructional


steps


that


are


required


make


this


method


impractical.


whole


word


approach,


although


effective


with


some


students,


can


be prohibitive


students


with


memory


defi


cits


Peters,


1985).


English


Orthographv


is Patterned


Incomplete


There


exists


a group


theorists


opposing


stance


that


Engli


sh orthography


irrational


These


researchers


assert


that


certain


consistencies


exist


English


spelling


(traditional


orthography)


Proponents


theoretical


position


promote


distinct


ciplines,


those


advocate


phonetic


training


improve


spelling,


those


who


support


rule-based


instruction.


Research


both


areas


will


presented.


Phonics.


Venezky


(1967)


surmises


that


earliest


writing


on English


orthography


derived


from


fourth


to the


sixth

had a


century


name


Roman


(nomem),


grammarians

appearance


At this


figure)


time


each


a power


letter

or sound


(potestas)


He claims


that


little


work


been


carried


out


lingui


examine


phoneme


grapheme


awareness


among


research


subjects;


instead,


many


attempts


at understanding


relationship


have


been


targeted


toward


reform,


assuming













wanted


answer


following


questions


phonemes


are


spelled


when


position


stress


have


no effect


on them


in the


word


t-o-p


position


of each


better


effect


on its


pronunciation),


position


phoneme


effects


spelling


.in


words


-a-r-m


p-h-e-r-e


phoneme


is spelled


differently;


-farm,


sphere),

phoneme-


syllable


grapheme


corres


or word


pondence.


Hann


stress

a et al


(accent)

. (1971)


affect

assert


ability


to spell


correctly


our


language


largely


dependent


person


s knowledge


how


ose


a given


phoneme


approximates


alphabetic


principle


a unique


graphic


symbol


each


phoneme"


. 80)


Stanford


res


earchers


employed


computer


technology


17,000


English


words


to clarify


spellings.


phoneme-grapheme


alphabetic


findings


corres


pondences


were


most


nature


follows


consonants


of American-


: (a)


have


single


spelling


, while


vowel


eighty


percent


or more


are


less predictable


when


factor


or position


vowel


word


are


considered,


vowels


are


more


predictable.


Stanford


group


conducted


a sec


inve


stigation


computer


was


programmed


to spell


17,000


words


using


input


,,


,,


i


n


-













percent


were


spelled


with


three'


or more


errors


Hanna


Moore


(1953)


analyzed


3,000


words


They


concluded


that


eighty


percent


of the


phonemes


could


represented


same


letter


or 1


letters


in more


than


half


of the


occurrences


of these


phonemes


in words


Horn


(1957)


argues


that


these


findings


are


moot


because


of pronunciation


variability


across


dial


ects


From


list


10,000


words,


one-third


have


varied


pronunciations


What


regular


one


speaker


irregular


another.


Venezky


(1967)


applied


morphonemic


theory


to a body


0,000


Engli


sh words


to generate


to ascertain


spelling


to sound


correspondence,


in an attempt


to make


patterns


English


appear


regular


Vene


(1967)


proposed


a four


stage


process


divide


word


into


meaningful


units;


phonemic


representation


on a one


one


apply


syntactic,


semantic,


phonological


reali


a phonetic


form


of the


word


Many


studi


have


been


conduct


to support


or refute


phonetic


theory


Valmont


(1972)


found


those


able


determine


a word


spelled


have


superior


phonetic


awareness


Tovey


(1978)


wanted


to determine


appropriateness


of teaching


children


to sound


out


spelling














appears


that


problems


with


teaching


spelling


phonetically


include


following


there


are


many


ways


a given


sound


can


rese


nted,


writers


are


dependent


on the


knowledge


v's


features


of a word


way


they


pattern


language,


remains


highly


improbable


that


sounding


words


will


produce


ical


spellings.


Gillingham


Stillman


1936)


who


identify


ed the


"strepho


symbolic"


individual,


one


who


cannot


see


with


ear


V'S


image,


stated


that


phonic


instruction


spelling


a necess


Peters


(1985)


identified


problems


with


phonic


instruction


First,


most


sounds


can


be spelled


many


ways


Secondly,


most


letters


spell


many


sounds


More


than


one-third


words


in the


dictionary


have


more


than


one


acceptable


silent


letters


spelling.


One-half


or doubled


words


letters


Moreover


contain


intensive


phonic


instruction


superior


to non-phonic


instruction


(Beddell


Nelson


, 1954


Few


children


understand


word


attack


principles


(Horn,


1960),


adults


fare


much


better


(Mazurkiewicz


, 1975)


Rule-based


instruction.


Other


theori


who


stand


support


position


that


English


orthography


is patterned


incomplete


have


proposed


teaching


of lingui


stic


rules














rules


should


taught


only


when


there


is a need;


spelling


words


should


grouped


rule


increase


understanding


Darch


Simpson


(1990)


compared


approaches


teaching


spelling


to twenty-e


ight


upper


elementary


students


with

one


earning


sabiliti


treatment


who


groups


One


been

group


randomly


was


ass


taught


signed


using


imagery


mnemonic,


while


other


group


was


taught


using


a rul


e-based


spelling


system.


Three


dependent


variable


included


a unit


test,


posttest


, and


Test


Written


Spelling


(Larsen


Hammill,


1986)


Those


subj


ects


receiving


rule-based


instruction


outperformed


imagery


group


across


three


variables


researchers


who


suggest


teaching


of rules


suggest


that


only


a few


should


Conclu


taught


sions


Among


researchers


that


support


theory


that


Engli


is regular


incomplete


are


those


who


prop


ose


teaching


spelling


through


phonetic


instruction,


those


who


propose


teaching


spelling


through


rule-based


instruction.


Both


phonic


e-based


instruction


have


been


found


to be


effective.


Problems


with


phonic


instruction


include














only


a few


rules


are


taught,


only


those


rules


with


exce


options


Intervention


Over


vast


expanse


spelling


research


a number


reviews

Loomer,


literature


1979;


Graham


have


& Miller


been


, 1979;


conducted

Peters,


(Fitz

1985).


:s immons


These


reviews


have


success


fully


delineat


superior


intervention


tec


hniques


from


ineffective.


techniques


of reported


effectiveness


are


areas


of readiness


(Allred


, 1977;


Nichol


son


Schacter,


1979;


Peters


, 1985),


word


(Ayers,


1950;


Fitzgerald,


1951;


Horn,


1926


test


study


test


Horn,


1947


; Horn,


1976),


error


analy


S'S


Ganschow,


1984;


son,


1980;


Silva


Yarborough,


1990),


study


training


(Fernald,


1943;


Fitzgerald,


1951;


Horn,


1954;


Westerman,


1971


instruction


(Horn,


1960


Templeton,


1980)


Two


studies


have


been


conducted


reviewing


literature


investigating


spelling


intervention


with


students


who


have


learning


disabilities


(Gordon,


Vaughn


Schumm,


1993;


McNaughton,


Hughes,


& Clark,


1994)


purposes


of thi


s investigation,


only


those


studi


employing


intervention


techniques


with


leaning


disabled


subj


ects


will


be reviewed.















identified


sabiliti


as having


learning


, or spelling


disabilities


disability


ies


, reading


independent


variabi


was


an attempt


improve


spelling


performan


experimental


was


described.


Thirty


-Six


studi


were


obtained


that


above


crit


eria


see


Tabl


These


studi


are


described


compared,


examining


following


subject


variable


, (b)


length


intervention,


experimental


design,


independent


variabi


, and


dependent


measures


Subi


ect


Variabi


subjects


mildly


handicapped


were


identified


, reading


as learning


sabled


or spellin


sabled,

a disabled.


total


number


of subj


ects


in all


studies


was


1029


number


of subjects


study


ranged


from


one


to 2


Length


of Interventions


length


interventions


will


be reported


duration


study


, the


time


sess


ion,


number


sess


ions


conducted.


ranges


intervention


duration


varied;


studies


were


conducted


from


one


one


school


year


(180


days


Time


in whi


ch the


interventions


were


appli


ed ranged


from


three


minutes


to forty-five


minutes


session.


number


times


eac


intervention


was































Sr a,
Li u
O r-4Hr
4JrU4
'V U~r


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subject


five


designs


design


were


formats


conducted.

Reversal


These

designs


studies


were


fell


employed


under

in three


studies


(Delquadri


et al., 1983;


et al., 1990;


Kohler


Greenwood,


1990


Alternating


treatment


design


was


used


four


studi


(Aleman


et al


, 1990;


Murphy


et al


1990;


Ollendick et


1980


Ollendick


et al


1980


Multiple


1983;


baseline


Gerber,


was


1986;


used


Harper


seven


studies


et al., 1991;


(Beck


Hasse


et al


Bring,


1984;


Kauffman


et al., 1978;


Kearney


Drabman,


1993;


Pratt-


Struther


et al


, 1983)


. Three


studies


employed


a multiple


probe


design


Frank


et al


., 1987;


Stevens


Schu


ster,


1987;


Winterling,


1989)


sign


was


a simple


AB single


subj


design


(Mandoli


et al


, 1982


Eighteen


of the


studies


can


categorized


as group


designs


Among


group


designs,


studies


were


either


repeated


measures


designs


or a pre/post


format.


repeated


measures


format


was


employed


eleven


studies


(Blau


Loveless


, 1982


Bradley,


1981a;


Bradley


1981b;


1983;


Brown,


Graham


Watkins


1988;


, 1983;


Darch


freeman ,

Vaughn


Simpson,


1985;

et al


Harris


1992


1990;


et al


Vaughn


Foster


1988


et al


Torgesen,


McDermott

, 1993).


The remaining


seven


studi


employed


a pre/post


experimental


desian I


Bendell


et al., 1980:


Brvant


et al


, I


1981;


Dangel,


T














Independent


Variables


spelling


interventions


represented


this


resea


are


varied.


independent


variable


ave


been


divided


into


following


modality


categories


specific


strategy


instruction,


peer


instruction,

tutoring, (d


computer


ass


isted


instruction,


error


analy


s is


, and


combination


according


of procedures.


independent


The studies


variable


will


control


be di


ed in


scusse


each


Stratecrv


instruction.


theory


underlying


training

specific

expressed

appears t


of subjects


strategy


Wong


o contain


deficien

improve


(1986)

two c


in spelling


spelling


"Effective


componentss


achievement


performance


spelling


knowledge


in a


is best


instruction

of phonics


and/or


lingui


stic


structure


of words


know


edge


spelling


strategies"


. 172


type


instruction


especially


disability


important


, for


use


these


with


students


students


often


with


perform


learning


poorly


memory


tasks


strategies


an inability


(Gerber,


1986)


to generate


Foster


effi


Torgesen


client


(1983)


study


have


reported


inves


tigations


into


memory


tasks


performed


students


with


warning


disability


as compared


with


memory


tasks


complete


ed by


students


with


no learning


sabili


ties















disabilities


normally


achieving


students


orienting


task


defined


"any


task


that


leads


increased


performance"


. 252)


In their


current


research,


Foster


Torgesen


1983


attempted


to evaluate


effects


an orienting


tas


directed


study


task


on subjects


' with


learning


abilities


spelling


performance.


Subjects


were


divided


into


three


groups:

deficits,


LD-S

LD-N


were

were


subjects

subjects


with

with


short

proce


term

ssing


auditory memory

problems, and


were


academically


randomly


assigned


average


to two


subjects.


study


conditions,


three


groups


directed


were


or free


study.


Directed


study


students


were


given


spelling


chips


spell


words


Each


subject


was


given


a stimulus


card


with


four


words


Students


constructed


words


with


spelling


first


chips


attempt;


three


times.


subsequent


cents


attempts


were


was


only


awarded


awarded


subject


cons


tructed


word


faster


than


previous


attempt


free


study


condition


students


were


given


one


minute


to study


Subjects


each


were


word,


informed


they


that


were


they


then


would


quizzed


receive


that


five


word.


cents
















demonstrate


severe


spelling


problems


under


both


conditions.


Graham


Freeman


(1985)


compared


four


instructional


conditions.


During


three


of the


conditions


students


were


taught


a five


step


study


strategy,


in which


they


were


write


word


, compare


their


spelling


with


correct


model,


trace


word,


write


word


from


memory,


word


Students


were


randomly


assigned


groups


that


received


varying


levels


teacher


control;


these


groups


were


labled


directed


study,


teacher-monitored,


student-controlled,


free-study.


During


directed


study,


instructor


provided


verbal


guidance


throughout


strategy.


During


teacher-monitored


study


condition,


instructor


provided


assistance


only


upon


request.


During


student-controll


condition,


independently


free-study


students


without


were


instructed


teacher


condition,


use


assistance.


students


were


strategy


Finally,


directed


during


to study


words


way


they


liked.


subjects


in all


three


experimental


groups


outperformed


free


-study


control


group.


Harris


et al.


(1988)


reported


similar


findings


when


employing


Dangel


same


1989)


five


strategy


compared


three


study


steps.


interventions


similar


those


studied


- I


Graham


Freeman


(1985) a


Harris


et al.


-- I


l


--


---- --


---















study-instruction


that


involved


students


planning


which


words


needed


more


study


attention,


sort


study


combined


with


trace,


copy,


cover


, and


write.


student-directed


procedu


res


were


more


effective


than


teacher-di


rec


procedure.


The sort,


study


, trace,


copy,


cover


, and


write


condition


was


most


ective.


Problems


with


Dangel


(1989)


study


include


a possible


order


effect.


same


was


used


with


eac


h condition,


treatments


were


always


introduced


Bradley


(1981)


same


order.


investigated


effectiveness


remedial


spelling


technique


use


with


children


adults


exhibit


severe


reading


spelling


problems


steps


developed


use


this


strategy


were


as follows


propose


a word


to 1


earn,


correctly


write


word


splay


word


using


letter


write


word


saying


name


each


letter


written,


check


accuracy


continue


until


mastery


Results


indi


cate


that


strategy


was


effective


posttest


follow-up


testing.


Wong


1986


investigated


effectiveness


a seven-


step


self


questioning


strategy


strategy


requi


students


to ask themsel


ves


following


stions


when














word


am not


sure


spelling?,


Now


, does


look


right


self


to me?


, and


"I worked


When


hard


Wong


m finis


(1986)


hed


spelling


reported


that


tell


spelling


acc


uracy


increased


from


to 78%


in one


week.


Beck,


Matson,


Kazdin


1983


investigate


effectiveness


17 step


student


-directed


spelling


program.


Students


used


self-instructional


material


which


a cartoon


figure


introducing


spelling


steps


subj


ects


showed


improvement


over


baseline


scores


after


having


trained


steps.


Murphy,


Hern,


Williams,


McNaughton


1990)


compared


student-directed


copy-cover-compare


strategy


studying


words


with


practicing


words


in sentences


free


study


conditions


copy-cover-compare


strategy


was


superior


other


study


conditions


Pratt


-Struthers,


Struthers


Williams


(1983)


inves


tigated


ectiveness


copy-


cover-compare


study


strategy


with


addition


practice


were


until


mastery


periodically


current


re-tes


spelling


Words


previously


ted,


list.


ssed,


res


earchers


spelled


became


found


correct


part


that,


following


implementation


this


technique,


a number


list


words


generalized


to writing


activities.
















instruction


is especially


relevant


students


with


learning


disability


ies


have


difficulty


spelling.


review


of the


literature


reporting


use


of spelling


interventions


with


students


who


have


learning


disabilities


revealed


studies.


Each


these


studies


demonstrated


that


a study


strategy


can


improve


spelling


performance


of students


with


learning


disabilities.


Modality


specific


instruction.


Spelling


research


carried


out


with


mildly


handicapped


students


variety


of investigations


involving


modality


combinations


other


than


va-S


input


with


written


output


traditionally


used


in spelling


blindfolded


instruction.


students


asked


Blau


Loveless


them


(1982


names


of the


letters


they


were


assembling


words


using


plastic


variable


controlled


this


study


was


hand


right


left)


that


was


used


to assemble


letter


tiles.


These


researchers


found


left


hand


condition


to be


superior


right


hand


condition.


percentage


of words


spelled


correctly


was


respectively


Aleman,


McLaughlin,


Bialozor


1990


compared


auditory-vi


sual


condition


with


visual


motor


spelling


practice.


- -


auditory-visual


practice


condition


was


es.














Teaching


arguments


students


rules


Fitzsimmons


spelling


Loomer,


1979)


generated


because


inconsistent


nature


of the


English


language.


ose


advocate


rule


instruction


Allred,


1977


advocate


teaching


only

1960)


a few

, and


rules

those


with


least


taught


number


exceptions


should


taught


(Horn,


with


opportunity


to practice.


Darch


imagery


tec


Simpson


hniques


with


1990)


compared


instruction


instruction


in rule-b


ase


in visual

strategies.


V'S


imagery


groups


were


presented


with


fifteen


words


esson


on an overhead


projector


When


a word


was


presented,


students


were


to look


word


apply


four


-step


strategy


that


included


covering


word


making

large


an image

outdoor s


in the


screen,


mind,


imagine


imagining

ng each 1


word


better


on a


of the


word


pasted


screen,


imagining


themsel


ves


nailing


each


group


letter


was


word


instructed


onto


screen


Spelling


rule


Mastery


-based


Program


(Dixon


Engelmann,


1979).


This


program


contains


curriculum-


based


spelling


strategies


that


teach


spelling


through


instruction


in morphographs


phonic


rules


Three


dependent


measures


were


employed


: unit


tests,















conducted


Several


between


both


studies


groups


investigated


.87,


use


of handwriting


words


Bradley


on acquisition


1981


those


Vaughn


words


et al.


(Bradley,


, 1992


1981


Vaughn


exp.


et al


1993).


having


having


Bradley


(1981


students


students


exp.


each


each


compared


letter


letter


while


while


three


writing


selecting


conditions


word,


plastic


letter


tiles


placing


them


in the


correct


order


to spell


word,


having


students


test


without


studying.


handwriting


condition


was


significantly


better


than


plastic


tile


condition.


Both


experimental


conditions


were


better


than


no study


condition.


In the


isolate


studying.


second


effect


In addition


experiment,


saying


to the


Bradley


letters


three


1981)


aloud


conditions


attempted


while


conducted


experiment


one,


a fourth


condition


was


added


which


students


pronounce


each


letter


said


whole


word


when


they


finished


writing.


experimental


subj


ects


outperformed


control


subjects


during


acquisition


phase.


During


maintenance


phase,


saying


of each


letter


name


was


written


was


superior


to the


other


two


experiment


conditions.


Kearney


Drabman


1993


usea















was


achieved.


Subjects


demonstrated


a 34.9% improvement


over


baseline


scores


Summary


of modality


specific


instruction.


use


alternate


modalities


been


a recommended


technique


students


with


learning


disabilities


(Fernald,


1943;


Gillingham


Stillman,


1936)


Many


of these


studies


suffer


from


failure


(Blau


threats


to internal


to include

Loveless,


validity.


a compare


1982),


son


or the


Either


with


there


traditional


practice


exists

instruction


opportunities


are


not

al.,


divided

1990);


equally


among


finally,


experimental


a number


conditions


comparison


(Aleman


studies


demon


state


more


favorable


results


traditional


method.


example,


rule-based


instruction


was


more


favorable


than


visual


imagery


condition


(Darch


Simpson,


1990),


handwriting


of words


proved


to be


superior


ass


embling


of letter


tiles


(Bradley,


1981;


Vaughn


et al.


1992;


Vaughn


et al


1993).


Computer


ass


isted


instruction


(CAl)


With


availability


increasing


"user


friendliness


" of


computers,


a number


of studi


have


been


conducted


investigating


effectiveness


computers


integrated


into


spelling


Program


(Hasselbrina,


1984;


Kinnev


et al.,


1988;


Marqalit














activities


computer


duration


one


school


ear


expre


ssed


a significantly


more


positive


attitude


toward


eir


spelling


work.


Margalit


Roth


1989)


use


d CAI


with


36 middle


high


school


students


with


mild


disabilities


instruction


strategic


empha

and k


S1Z


eyboar


awareness c

d training.


,f word

The


structure

researcher!


, spelling

s reported


a signifi


cant


decrease


in spelling


errors.


Time


delay


procedures


have


been


investigated


using


Kinney


et al


., 1988;


Stevens


Schuster,


1987).


Time


delay


an instructional


method


that


transfers


stimulus


control


prompt


that


signals


correct


response


a new


stimulus


target


res


ponse);


this


is accomplished


pairing


controlling


stimulus


with


new


stimulus.


Time


before


presentation


controlling


stimulus


tematically


increased


Stevens


ore


Schu


the

ster


student


1987)


provides th

found a five


correct

second t


res


ime


ponse.

delay


improved


selling


performance


a student


target


words


The


student


maintained


correct


spelling


ese


words


over


month


period.


In a similar


study,


Kinney


et al. (1988)


investigate


time


delay


procedures


using


research


hers


found















McDermott


Watkins


1983)


compared


traditional


classroom


instruction


in spelling


with


a computer


ass


listed


cover-copy-compare


procedure.


Following


one


year


instruction,


groups


were


tested


using


Wide


Range


Achievment


made


Tes t


equivalent


Jastak


gains.


Jastak,


These


1965),


results


both


be due


groups


to the


insensitivity


of the


dependent


measure.


Hasselbring


(1984)


compared


teacher


provision


imitation


plus


modeling


feedback


with


provi


sion


imitation


plus


modeling


feedback


a computer.


Similar


results


were


obtained


at posttest


both


conditions.


Summary


of c.a.i


use


of computers


in the


teaching


practi


cing


of spelling


word


although


relatively


recent,


increasing


popularity.


Students


claim


enjoy


practicing


their


spelling


on the


computer


(Watkins,


1989)


Spelling


errors


have


been


decreased


through


computer


usage


well


Roth


as individualization


, 1989).


of spelling


be used


instruction


an additional


(Margalit


means


improve


spelling


performance.


Peer


Tutoring.


With


current


trend


to include


many


students


with


mild


disabilities


in mainstream


educational


programs


need


peer


tutoring


been


extensively


II W V I


S_


__ w


.
















Mandoli


et al.,


1982


Mandoli

handicapped


et al.


students


1982)

obtain


reported

ed higher


that


mainstreamed


scores


on spellin


mildly

ig tests


during


a peer


tutoring


condition


than


during


baseline


which


no peer


tutoring


occurred.


Harper


et al.


(1991)


found


classwide


peer


tutoring


to result


100%


mastery


of weekly


spelling words.


Delquadr i


, Greenwood,


Stretton,


Hall


*(1983)


paired


students


with


learning


disabilities


with


students


who


were


achieving


normally.


students


took


turns


instructors


(dictating


words


making


corrections


or students


(providing


responses).


peer


tutoring


condition


produced


higher


achievement


than


teacher


centered


instructional


model.


Kohler


Greenwood


(1990)


trained


three


peer


tutors


work


with


four


poor


spellers.


authors


reported


a higher


rate


engagement


when


peers


were


involved.


benefits


were


two-fold;


poor


spellers


increased


their


scores


on weekly


tests,


while


tutors


maintained


their


collateral


tutor


behavior


three


weeks


after


initial


training.


Summary


Deer


tutoring.


Peer


tutoring


creates


situation


in which


one


on one


instruction


can


occur


in a















demonstrated


to be effective.


Error


imitation.


use


error


imitation


been


investigated


spelling


research


literature


(Gerber,


1986;


Kauffman,


Hallahan,


Brame,


Boren,


1978;


Nulman


Gerber,


1984).


error


imitation


teacher


reproduces


child


et al.


s error


1978)


then


was


models


first


correct


to investigate


response.


these


Kauffman


techniques


with


learning


disabled


subjects


in spelling.


These


researchers


compared


error


imitation


with


error


imitation


plus


was


were


modeling.


superior


superior


The e

error


to the


rror


imitation


imitation


control.


plus


alone,


res


modeling


while


ults


both


were


condition

conditions


better


nonphonetic


spellings


than


phonetic


spellings.


Nulman


Gerber


(1984)


replicated


Kauffman


et al


(1978)


study


with


a single


subject.


They


found


that


error


imitation


plus


modeling


condition


with


a sufficient


number


eight


trials


year


improved


with


spelling


learning


performance


disabilities.


Gerber


then


1986)


tested


taught


students


students


a list


gave


target


feedback


words


on those


words


missed


using


error


imitation


plus


modeling.


Students


with


learning


sabilities


were


able


to generalize


spelling


--















with


a small


number


of students


participating


in each


study,


effects


demonstrated


are


positive.


More


research


needs


to be conducted


this


area.


Combinations


of procedures.


studies


were


identified


which


can


be characterized


as combination


approaches.


combination


approach


one


that


employs


a package


intervention


techniques.


Gettinger,


Bryant,


Fayne


1982


used


reduced


unit


size,


practice


review with


feedback,


and

with


training for

traditional


transfer.

instruction


These

which


techniques


was


were


compared


characterized


introduction


of a large


number


of words


one


time,


absence


writing


group


of feedback,


activities.


receiving


use


experimental


traditional


games


group


instruction.


repetitive


outperformed


experimental


group


also


outscored


control


group


on the


transfer


newly


acquired


spelling


knowledge


to words


that


were


not


used


training


Brown


(1988)


compared


several


research


supported


techniques


with


traditional


techniques


Traditional


techniques


included


multi-sensory


learning


activity


ies,


practice


using


work


sheets


games,


structural


phonic


analysis


of words.


The experimental


group















Hammill,


1986)


on words


with


predic


table


spellings.


Statis


tical


compare


son


revealed


a slight


advantage


experimental


subjects


on words


with


unpredic


table


spellings


Dependent


Measures


studi


reviewed


, the


vast


majority


conducted


dictation


tests


or review


of students


' writings


to ascertain


effectiveness


of intervention


techniques.


Dictation


tests


students


this


consist


of a teac


to spell


type


on a blank


assessment


orally


piece


senting


paper


include


small


words


Advantages


amount


preparation


necessary


prepare


such


tests


, (b)


possibility


assess


a large


group


of students


concurrently


, and


fact


that


high


correlations


between


such


tests


written


products


(Tindall


Marston,


1990)


Disadvantages


to the


use


of di


station


tests


include


following


scoring


difficulties


to handwriting


illegibility,


determine


spelling


writing


skill,


skill


is a prerequi


correct


site


spelling


influenced


examiner


s pronunciation


word


(Tindall


Marston


1990


Three


standardized


measures


were


used


in the


studi


reviewed: 2


Wide Rang


Achievemen t


Tes t


Jastak














problematical.


"The


item


pool


small


difference


item


difficulty


may


great


to det


ect


remental


changes


with


180)


Another


problem


when


vocabulary


used for


instruction


differs


significantly


from


tes


vocabulary.


Conclusions


major


problem


with


spelling


research


exists


not


research


that


has been


done


ssemination


this


literature.


Fitzgerald


(1951


accurately


scr


ibes


our


current


dilemma


forty


years


prior:


Although
out during


many
g the


spelling
past hal


investigations
f century, imp


have


been


movementt


carried


in the


working


of spelling


has been


slow


One


difficulties


res


earch


to the


teacher:


seems


to have


been


experimentation
r. Although adi


that


were


ditional


res


ults


readily


availabi


investigations


are


necessary
spelling,
solved by


to solve


many


use


some
the i


of the


immediate


of available


more


complex


spelling
research


problems


problems


findings


can


. (pp


as more


recently


stated


tzs


irrmons


Loomer


1979


"Historically


spelling


been


one


most


frequently


investigated


areas


of the


curriculum.


However,


improvement


in spelling


programs


does


seem


commensurate


with


research


efforts


" (p.


sec


ondary


eve


, little


attention,


any,














specific


strategic


studying,


classifying


student


errors

student


providing


interest


engagement


feedback,


using


including


occurrence


one


eer


-on-one


computers

tutoring


ins


to enhance


increase


truction,


improvement


might


occur


spelling


of this


population.


Effective


Teaching


Literature


A number


processes


have


been


identify


effective


means


increase


students


academic


achievement


(Bickle


Bickl


, 1986;


Brophy


& Good,


1986;


Englert,


Tarrant,


Emerging


Marriage


from


, 1992;


s literature


Rosenshine


are


Stevens,


a group


1986)


teaching


techniques


that


are


necessary


components


effective


instruc


tional


unit.


purposes


of this


research,


these


processes


will


be categorized


as pre


-instructional,


instructional,


post-instructional.


Each of these


will


discussed


below


with


role


plays


spelling


research


presented


Pre-instructional


Techniques


Pre-instructional


techniques


include


those


activity


that


place


student


must


In spelling


engage


rese


arch,


in before


re-


instruction


instructional


takes


activities


include


ermining


readiness


, goal


-set


ting,


pre-














following


elements


required


in a subject


before


spelling


instruction


should


egin;


a s


student


must


be abl


name


write


or represent


copy


lett


words


correctly,


ers


alphabet


be able


to write


name


without


copying,


be abl


to read


at a second


grade


level,


be abl


to enunciate


words


clearly,


understand


that


words


are


composed


of different


letters


have


beginning


phonetic


sense,


be abl


to write


a few


words


from


memory


, (i


be abl


to ask for


words


when


doubt,


demonstrate


an interest


learning


to spell


Peters


(1985)


identified


four


readiness


elements


beginning


spell


must


be able


to read,


must


recall


word,


must


be able


to reconstruct


a word


letter


letter,


must


able


to encode


graphemically.


Goal


setting


results


from


matching


instruction


student


needs


task


character


stics.


Goals


are


foundation


upon


which


further


instruction


planned.


press


entation


of clear


goals


precise


directions


een


found


improve


student


attention


achievement


(Berliner,


1982


Effective


goal


sentation


inc


ludes


stating


what


student


will


learn


what


student


needs


to do














spelling


instruction,


a student


can


establish


a goal


number


of words


attempted.


recommended


number


of words


s five


to ten


week


(Bryant


, Drabin,


Gettinger,


1983;


Burn


Browman,


1983)


One


relatively


simple


procedure


that


been


wid


res


earched


s the


test


study


test


procedure


Horn,


1947)


Students


take


test


over


words


having


no previous


expo


sure


to the


word


They


then


correct


their


own


tests


teacher


or another


pupil


spells


each


word


orally


Students


are


only


response


ible


studying


words


missed


pre-test.


first


public


inves


tigation


corrected


test


occurred


1947


(Horn,


1947)


hundred


sixty


-eight


sixth


grade


students


three


school


stems


were


involved.


spelling


books


regularly


employed


within


school


stem


were


used.


Each


test


consisted


of 25


words,


five


of which


were


review


words


from


previous


four


weeks


Horn


1947)


found


corrected


test


contributed


from


to 95%


achievement


The


corrected


test


alone,


in some


cases


was


suffi


cient


spelling


instruction.


Horn


1947


maintains


that


corrected


test


was


"the


most


important


single


factor


to spelling


achievement


285)


Instructional


Techniques


-














teacher


students


This


instruction


characterized


a high


level


organization.


In a step


step


hion,


skill


are


identified,


importance


earning


the skill


scusse


students


are


then


taught


use


apply


skill


s (Rosenshine


Stevens,


1986).


Periodic


checks


must


conduct


teacher


ensure


student


understanding


(Good,


1983)


Researchers


Univers


investigated


of Kansas


teaching


Center


earch


process


have


Learning


identified


have


three


steps


as characterizing


effective


teaching


steps


include


independent


demonstration,


practice


guided


with


practice


feedback


with


(Deshler,


feedback,


Schumaker,


Lenz,


1984)


Systematic


employed


explicit


training


instructional


spelling


hniques


study


were


strategies


nine


studi


reported


previous


Beck


et al


Bradley,


1983;


1981


Graham


exp.


Dangel,


Freeman,


1985;


1989;


Harris


Foster


et al., 1988;


Torgensen,


Murphy


al.,


1990;


Pratt


-Struthers,


1983;


Wong,


1986)


Although


specific


steps


varne


in each


study,


procedu


res


instructing


steps


were


similar.


Post


-Instruc


tional


hnicues














activities


will


be dis


cusse


d below


, and


research


conducted


spelling


that


include


these


procedu


res


will


presented.


Monitoring


Prog


ress


Monitoring


student


progress


invol


ves


teacher


checking


on the


behavior


academic


work


of a student


This


is done


frequently


ensure


that


appropriate


match


between


learner


task


Adaptations


are


made


a match


between


learner


task


does


exist


Good


Brophy


(1986)


identify


active


frequent


monitoring


to student


learning.


Active


monitoring


includes


checking


student


understanding


task


requirements


verifying


student


understanding


of the


procedures


necessary


to complete


task


Rieth


Everston


(1988)


report


that


a teacher


moving


about


classroom


checking


student


work


engaging


stantive


interactions


responding


with


students


of students


with


increases


learning


k academic


problems.


Monitoring


student


progress


achieved


in recent


spelling


research


instruction,


with


peer


immediate


teacher


observation,


tutoring.


continuous


can


knowledge


computer


provide


their


assisted


students


gress


increased


effectiveness


teac


monitoring


]














students


can


receive


rapid


feedback


(Delquadri


et al


1983;


Harper


et al


, 1991;


Kohler


Greenwood


, 1990;


Mandoli


1982


Provi


sion


feedba


Academi


eedback


positive


assoc


lated


with


student


learning


Rieth


Everston


(1988)


rate


feedback


among


most


ess


ential


of teacher


behaviors


promoting


positive


learning


outcomes


Wang


(1987)


found


feedback


to be


important


in promoting


following


student


outcomes


: (a)


mas


tery


of content


skill


s for


future


learning,


ability


a student


to learn


independently


ability


motivation


to plan


continued


monitor learning

learning, and (


activities,


confidence


one


s ability


as a learner


Teachers


who


provide


immediate


corrective


feedback


on errors


produce


higher


student


achievement


In recent


(Gersten,


spelling


Carnine,


& Woodward,


research,


provis


1987)


feedback


been


accompany


ed with


error


imitation


modeling


correct


response.


Several


studi


have


reported


on this


technique;


have


demonstrated


effective


results


(Gerber,


1986;


Kauffman


et al., 1978;


Nulman


Gerber,


1984


General


zation.


General


zation


s the


performance


targeted


behavior


other


nontrainino


conditions


across














alone


does


not


guarantee


that


words


taught


will


used


advocate


written

having


work.


Diaz,


students


McLaughlin,


keep


an index


and

file


Williams


(1990)


of spelling


words


with


each


card


representing


a different


word,


word


used


correctly


in a sentence


card.


Graham


(1983)


supports


need


ensure


general


zation


, claiming


that


this


occur,


spelling


must


be integrated


within


writing


process.


General


zation


new


spelling


knowledge


was


reported


four


studi


reviewed.


studies,


generalization


was


measured


vocabulary


trans


(Gerber,


1986;


of skill


Nulman


s to


& Gerber,


untrained


1984


investigations


were


undertaken


measure


general


zation


of target


words


to written


work


(Diaz


et al


, 1990;


Pratt-


Struthers


et al., 1983)


Conclusions


Effective


instruction


has been


researched


extens


ively


over


that


ecade


A number


components


have


been


identified


that


ster


academic


achievement.


Among


process


ses


necess


ective


spelling


instruction


are


determining


readiness


, goal


setting,


pre-testing,


stematic


expli


instruction,


monitoring


prog


ress


, proves


:1on














Summary


Spelling


research


been


conducted


since


1920


Spelling


been


one


most


widely


researched


instructional


areas.


of this


research


have


emerged


theoretical

irregular.


researchers


advocate


positions

Existing


who


teaching


. One

within


support


spelling


position


this


a synthetic


through


states


theoretical


alphabet


a whol


that


English


framework


those


word


are


who


approach


Opposing


theory


sts


view


English


orthography


as patterned


incomplete.


Researchers


in support


this


position


advocate


teaching


phonics


improve


spelling,


or the


teaching


to the


spelling,


theory


sts


comply

have


exities

become


inherent

divided


the

their


skill of

efforts


improve


spelling


ability


This


theoretical


partitioning


blinded


one


group


res


earchers


other


accomplishments


A model


spelling


research


needs


include


aspects


of both


theoretical


school


of thought.


A multitude


of effective


spelling


interventions


have


been


identified


over


past


seventy


years,


a problem


still


Many


exists


with


commercial


use


spelling


effective


programs


interventions


take


into


consideration


research


n*. Few


secondary


programs


work on














need


cannot


be overlooked.


This


program


would


need


encompass


intervention


effective


literature,


techniques


such


identified


as error


spelling


imitation


modeling,


peer


taught

establi


study


tutoring


using

shing


strategies


procedures


identified


readiness


, goal


, computer


These


effective

setting,


assis


techniques


teaching te

protesting,


instruction,


would


techniques:

systematic


instruction,


monitoring


progress,


providing


feedback,


programming


general


zation.

















CHAPTER


METHODS


PROCEDURES


Introduction


The

applied i


research

behavior


Method

analysis


outlined


procedures


this

used


chapter


consists


to investigate


effectiveness


of a strategic


intervention


teaching


students


with


learning


disabilities


improve


spelling


The


questions


investigated


were


follows:


Will


training


spelling


strategy


increase


percentage


of words


spelled


correctly


weekly


spelling


test?


Will


training


in the


spelling


strategy


increase


number


words


written


during


seven


minutes


free


writing?


Will


training


in the


spelling


strategy


increase


number

on the


target


weekly


words,


tests


words


, spelled


subjects

correctly


have


spelled


daily


correctly

writing


sampi


methodology


this


investigation


scussed


includes


: setting,


subject


description


selection,


description


instructional


treatment


procedures,


procedures,


reliability


description


validity


. `
















King


island,


inclusion


Georgia.


in this


study


Classrooms


because


were


teachers


ected


expressed


willingness


to participate


in this


study.


Teachers


selected


were


an Englis


h teacher


working


in regular


classrooms


participating


in a collaboration


project,


a special


education


teacher


collaboration


working


project


in a resource


involves


classroom.


an agreement


a special


educator


to team


teach


with


regular


education


teacher


Both


teachers


have


received


a minimum


12 hours


in-service


training


collaboration


before


they


begin


working


students


together.


with


Following


learning


teacher


disabilities


training,


to 8


or behavior


disorders


are


then


mainstreamed


collaborative


classroom.


resource


classroom


is an English cl


ass


with


ten


ninth-grade


students


who


have


been


identified


as having


learning


intellectual


sablities,


behavioral


disabilities


disorders,


students


are


or mild


considered


have


academic


deficits


severe


inclusion


mainstream


setting.


Subject


Desc


ription


section


Subjects


were


ninth


grade


students


with


earning


Li'~ -jnt ri 'Sto ~


h1 itti


eliaibilitv


guidelines


1 1 1


vrn i.lr~


I


.,














regular


classroom


in a resource


room.


Subjects


(N=10


were


ected


to participate


had


misspelled


greater


than


ten


percent


words


during


minute


free


writing


ass


ignment


Silva


Yarborough,


1990)


and/or


who


obtained


standard


scores


or more


standard


deviations


below


mean


Test


of Written


Spelling


(Hammill


Larsen


, 1986).


This


test


was


used


because


high


test-


retest


reliability


internal


consis


tency


, reported


.86 to


.98 respectively


(Tindall


Marston,


1990)


Parental


participating


consent


this


was


study


obtained


see


those


Appendix


students


Information


regarding


students


' IQ


achievement


level


was


obtained


from


each


individual'


school


folder.


Demographic


information


on subj


ects


was


collected


including


special


education


category,


placement


, age


, grade


level,


sex


standard


test


, ethnicity,


scores


socio-economic


achievement


status


(Council


, and


Learning


Disability


ies


, 1992


see


Tabl


Approval


subjects


to be


tes


ted,


trained,


observed


was


granted


from


University


of Florida


Institutional


Review


Board


see


Appendix


Appendix


, the


Camden


, and


subj


County


ects


Board


' parents


of Education


(see


see


Appendix




































cm

4J0k

k X















receives


free


or reduced


lunch.


A psychological


battery


was


conduct


ed in


1993


re-ev


aluation


to determine


appropriateness


of special


education


placement.


this


time


full


scal


was


obtained


Weschler


Intelligence


verbal


Tes t


score


for

101


Children


Revised


a performance


(WISC-III


score


with

of 1


Diagnosti


Achievemen t


Battery


was


also


admini


res


ulting


in a reading


comprehend ion


standard


score


of 90


a written


compo


sition


standard


score


Prior


involvement


this


study


Test


Written


Spelling


-III)


was


admini


steered


standard


score


of 79


was


obtained


predictable


words


unpredictable


words


was


being


served


a learning


disability


in a collaborative


Englis


classroom.


Subj


a European


American


male


who


time


of this


investigation


was


years


months


old.


psychological


battery


was


conducted


1992


re-evaluation


to determine


appropriateness


of special


education


placement.


this


time


a full


scale


score


of 92


was


obtained


on the


WISC-III


with


verbal


score


performance


Woodcock


Johnson


Achi


evemen t


Test


(WJAT


was also


admini


stered


res


ultinq


in a reading


,I














a learning


disability


in a collaborative


English


classroom.


is a Europ


ean


American


who


time


this


inve


stigation


was


years


months


psychological


battery


was


last admini


stered


purpose


of re-evaluation


to determine


appropriateness


special


education


placement


this


time


a full


scal


was


obtained


on the


WISC-III


with


a verbal


a performance


was


also


admini


stered


resulting


in a reading


comprehension


SS of


105.


Prior


involvement


in this


study


TWS-III


was


adminis


tered.


ASS


was


obtained


predictable


words


was


being


served


a learning


disability


in a collaborate


English


ass.


Subject


an African


American


who


time


this


study


was


years


11 months


old.


received


free


or reduced


lunch.


psychological


battery


was


last


conducted


1993


s time


a full


sca


was


obtained


on the


Kaufman


ef Intelligence


Test


(KBIT)


with


composite


scores


of 96


res


pectively.


The DAB


was


admini


stered


resulting


a reading


comprehension


85 and


a written


comp


position


SS of


Prior


.2nc


lusion















Subject


is an African-American


male


time


this


study


was


years


10 months


old.


psychological


battery


was


conducted


most


recently


1993


At this


time


a full


scale


score


of 97


was


obtained


on the


WISC-III


with


a verbal


score


of 90


a performance


106.


was


admini


stered


resulting


in a reading


comprehens


SS of 80


a written


comprehension


SS of


Prior


involvement


in this


study


TWS-III


was


administered.


A SS of 84


was


obtained


predic


table


words


a SS of


being


served


was


obtained


a learning


unpredictable


disability


words


in a resource


was


English


class


room.


Subject


(S6)


a European


American


male


who


at the


time


investigation


was


years


months


old.


most


recent


psychological


battery


was


conducted


1994


resulting


a full


scal


score


WISC-III


with


a verbal


score


a performance


score


WJAT


was


adminis


tered


resulting


in a reading


comprehension


SS of 53


a written


composition


SS of


Prior


involvement


in this


investigation


-III


was


admini


steered.


A SS of 75


was


obtained


predic


table


words


a SS of 69


was


obtained


unpredic


table


words


Sb was


.


T


<^& u


e--














psychological


battery


was


conducted


most


recently


1993


purpose


re-evaluation


to determine


appropriateness


of special


education


placement


this


time


a full


sca


score


of 94


was


obtained


WISC-III


with


a verbal


score


of 94 and


a performance


score


of 98


During


this


evaluation


was


adminis


tered


res


ulting


reading


comprehension


SS of 85 and


a written


composition


of 60


Prior


to involvement


in the


study


TWS-III


was


admini


stered.


A SS of 75


was


obtained


predic


table


words


a SS of 79


unpredictable


words.


was


being


served


a learning


disability


a collaborative


English


classroom.


Subject


(S8)


a European


American


who


suffers


from


spastic


degrees


there


At the


lower


time


this


extremities


study


was


with


two


years


months


old.


most


recent


psychological


evaluation


was


conducted


1992


purpose


re-evaluation


determine


appropriateness


of special


education


placement


s time


a full


scale


score


was


obtained


on the


WISC-III


with


a verbal


score


a performance


score


Weschler


Individual


Achievement


Test


(WIAT)


was


also


administered


resulting


in a reading














being


served


a learning


disability


in a collaborative


English


assroom


Subject


s a


European


American


female


time


this


study


was


years


months


old.


most


recent


psychological


evaluation


was


conducted


1992


re-evaluation


purposes


to determine


appropriateness


special


education


placement


s time


a full


sca


le IQ


was


obtained


on the


WISC-


with


a verbal


score


a performance


score


During


evaluation


was


also


admini


stered


resulting


in a reading


comprehension


SS of 90


a written


composition


SS of 85


Prior


to involvement


administered.


in thi


A SS of 84


s investigation


was


obtained


TWS-III


predictable


was


words


a SS of 83


unpredictable


words


was


being


served


a learning


disability


a collaborative


Englis


classroom.


Subject


(S10)


is an African


American


male


who


time


this


study


was


sixteen


years


old.


He received


free


or reduced


lunch


most


recent


psychological


evaluation


was


conducted


1992


purpose


of determining


appropriateness


of special


education


placement


this


time


a full


scale IQ of 9


D was


obtained on


WISC


-III


with














administered.


a SS of 79


being


A SS of 76


was


served


was


obtained


a learning


obtained


unpredictable


disability


predictable


words


in a resource


words


was


Englis


class


room.


Description


of Spelling


Strateqv


independent


variable


, developed


researcher


employed

SPELL st


this


rategy


study


was


was


based


a spelling


on principles


strategy,

found tc


SPELL.


be eff


The

ective


learning


to spell.


mnemonic


SPELL


was


created


assist


learners


in remembering


study


steps


needed


when


studying


a spelling


word.


following


description


outlines


each


stage


strategy


purpose


underlying


each


stage


Included


are


teacher


student


behaviors


that


need


to be exhibited.


Instructional


Procedures


spelling


study


strategy


, SPELL


was


designed


include


instructional


procedures


to promote


skill


acquis


ition


generaliz

following


aLian


adol


describes


escents


ins


with
*


tructional


learning


disabilities


procedures


employed


this


study


see


Appendix


D for


a more


detailed


description)


Stage


Pretest


Obtain


Commitment


q


i














Purpose


To describe


steps


SPELL


strategy


to provide


subjects


with


a rationale


strategy


use.


Stage


Model


Strategy


Purpose


To provide


subjects


with


an understanding


strategy


steps


underlying


thinking


processes


that


accompany


each


Stage


step.


Verbal


Rehearsal


Purpose:


ensure


that


subjects


can


state


each


of the


steps


SPELL


strategy


automatically.


Stage


Guided


Practice


Feedback


Purpose:


To provide


students


practice


use


SPELL


strategy


with


instructional


guidance.


Elaborative


feedback


following


error


analysis


is provided


to each


subject,


following


examination


incorrect


correct


response


Kauffman


et al.,


1978;


Kline,


1990;


Silva


Yarborough,


1990)


Stage


Advanced


Practice


Feedback


Purpose:


To provide


students


practice


use


SPELL


strategy


with


misspelled


words


while


providing


minimal


guidance


in strategy


Stage


use.


Posttest


Maintenance


Purpose:


TO ensure


correct


use


strategy


steps


after














to independent


writing


assignments.


Instruments


Instruments


employed


this


study


included


screening


instruments,


weekly


spelling


probes,


assessment


strategy


acquisition.


Each


these


will


be described


below


Screening


Assessment


Two


methods


were


used


to ascertain


subj


ects


' need


strategy


instruction:


a standardized


measure


of spelling


achievement,


1986),

a ten

was ch


Tes t


percentage


minute


Losen


writing


because


of Written


of words

e. The

reported


sample

the


Spelling


spelled


Test


Hammill


incorrectly


of Written


reliability


Larsen,


during


Spelling

validity


data.


test-retest


reliability


.99,


internal


consis


tency


(Tindall


Marston,


1990)


review


36 studies


involving


training


subjects


with


learning


disabilities


using


spelling


interventions


see


Chapter


, the


Tes t


Written


Spelling


was


one


three


standardiz

sample, al


measures


though


that


an easy


was


used.


practical


free


means


writing


determining


problems


with


spelling


, may


be sufficient


fact


that


students


only


chose


words


they


are


to spell


(Tindal


Marston


, 1990).


Students


, identify


earning














standardized


Assessment


spelling


of Strateqv


measure.


Acquisition


experimenter


designed


instrument


was


used


assess


state


acquisition


maintenance


see


Appendix


addition


, direct


observation


was


used


to determine


students


were


using


strategy


steps


correctly,


they


continued


use


steps


after


instruction


steps


was


terminated.


A weekly


dictation


test


was


used to determine


effectiveness


strategy


instruction.


Advantages


use


dictation


tests


include


small


amount


of advance


preparation


needed


prepare


test,


possibility


testing


many


students


concurrently,


fact


that


high


correlations


exist


between


citation


tests


written


work


(Tindal


Marston,


1990),


ability


eas


incorporate


Vaughn,


peers


Schuum,


in the


1993)


testing


Several


of fellow


studi


students


see


(Gordon,


Chapter


have


successfully


used


peer


tutors


to di


ctate


individual


word


Several


disadvantages


use


of a dictation


test


include


legibility


writing


motor


ability


(Tindal


Marston,


1990).


Both


these


can


be controlled


computer


availability


testing,


writing, and


word


study


(Gordon















procedures


Interscorer


agreement


was


calculated


on the


percent


correct


obtained


on the


dictation


tests


analyst


errors


Interrater


agreement


was


calculated


trained


observers


rating


instructional


sessions


Interscorer


Agreement


During


experiment


colleagues


experimenter


were


given


copies


spelling


probes


analyze


errors


Each


of the


scorers


was


given


a training


session,


prior


to implementation


of the


study,


in using


error


analysis


check


see


Appendix


& J)


Following


training


error


analy


checkli


was


piloted


seven


error


categories


were


added


to facilitate


use.


Even


with


these


changes


error


analysis


checkli


was


problematic


Interscorer


agreement


percentages


were


obtained


dividing


possible


agreements


analysis


actual


number


agreements


recorded


plus


number


non-agreements


multiplying


INTERSCORER


dividend


AGREEMENT=


TOTAL


AGREEMENTS


TOTAL


AGREEMENTS


+ NON-AGREEMENTS


interscorer


agreement


scoring


dictation


tests


was


.0%.


interscorer


agreement


on the


error


analyst















nondecodable.


range


of words


scored


as nondecodabl


was


88.0%


Engli


scored


to 7


with


sh teacher


fewer


with


words


a mean


of 80.9%.


a background


rer


reading


as nondecodabi


range


instruction,


words


scored


as nondecodabi


was


to 80


with


a mean


of 41.7%


errors


failure


in no way


to establi


effected


sh precis


integrity


anal


study.


questions


posed


can


be answered


without


high


interscorer


agreement


analysis


on the


was


error


a component


analyst


that


checklist.


researcher


error


wanted


include


to investigate


necess


its


inclusion


in the


spelling


program.


More


research


needs


to be conducted


before


error


analysis


component


can


be recommended


Procedural


Reliability


Procedural


reliability


was


ensured


use


two


independent


observers.


These


observers


randomly


observed


two


minute


instructional


sessions


to determine


instructional


procedures


were


consistent


between


teachers


partic


ipating


study


observers


recorded


teacher


behaviors


ensure


that


instructional


sequence


scr


were


followed


, (b)


pacing


was


fluent,


material


were


used


appropriately


see


Appendix


I


,


--














Training


of Personnel


Prior


to beginning


study,


personnel


were


trained


implementing


procedures,


procedural


interscorer


reliability


measures


Training


occurred


teachers


observers

sessions


peer


peer


involved


tutors


was


tutors


both


involved


teachers


conducted


study.


observers


classroom


Training


Training


setting


Training


of Teachers


Training


of teachers


involved


study


was


carrie


through


several


workshops


which


information


related


strategy


implementation


effective


teaching


behaviors


was


presented


see


Appendi


Training


continued


until


teachers


expressed


comfort


with


material


The


researcher


was


trainer


modeling


steps


these


necessary


sessions,


strategy


demonstrating


implementation.


Training


of Ob


servers


additional


individual


attended


training


workshops


This


individual


along


with


researcher


observed


to monitor


procedural


reliability


throughout


study


rece


ived


training


forms


used


record

Training


teacher


behaviors


of Scorers


see


Appendix


Reliability


Checks
















Interscorer


Agreement


section


. 94)


Training


of Peer


Tutors


Peer


tutors


were


involved


to facilitate


individualization


station


tests.


Their


task


was


admini


ster


a dictation


test


a peer


once


each


week.


Students


selected


to function


as peer


tutors


were


originally


to be good


spellers


indicated


a Test


of Written


Spelling


Hammill


Larsen,


1986)


those


students


scored


or above


mean.


After


rst


test


was


admini


stered


became


embaras


apparent


to have


to the


good


res


earcher


spellers


see


that


their


poor


spellers


errors


This


were


was


verbalized


students


were


then


allowed


to select


their


change


peer


was


partner


made.


No problems


students


were


received


observed


training


after


in tutoring


behaviors


see


Appendix


following


training


strategy.


classroom


teacher


researcher


monitored


progress


of the


peer


tutors


throughout


study


retrained


as was


necessary.


Material


material


were


experimenter


made.


strategy


script


cue


cards


see


Appendix


were


available


instructors


.II cue


cards


were


;opied


as overhead


. .


--


- -


J


w















spelling


text.


This


text


was


used


because


scores


obtained


TWS


-III


indicated


a higher


level


might


frustrating


subjects.


Experimental


Design


single


subject


research


design


typically


used


applied


behavior


analysis


research


(A-B-C)


was


used


this


study


because


it provided


a method


determining


existence


functional


relationships,


is appropriate


use


with


special


education


research,


was


a research


design


that


been


used


frequently


to investigate


studies


involving


learning


strategies


interventions


spelling


interventions

Alberto


with

and T


students


'routman


who

1982)


have


learning


stated


that


sabilities.


a functional


relationship


can


be assumed


dependent


variable


shows


change


when


only when


independent


variable


introduced.


Tawney


Gast


(1984)


agree


with


Alberto


Troutman


s (1982)


position


stating:


demonstrate


functional


relationship


means


simply


that


experimenter,


teacher,


interventionist


have


confidence,


through


empirical


verification,


that


behavior


change


occurred


because


intervention


occurred,


no other


reason.


" (p.


In addition


to demonstrating


existence of














individual


performance,


careful


specifications


interventions,


evaluation


decision


making


based


upon


student


behavior


use


of repeated


measures


a metric


common


to all


single


subj


ect


research,


is a more


accurate


method


measuring


subject


learning


than


use


a single


measure,


a method


more


commonly


ass


ociated


with


group


designs


Haring,


Lovitt,


Eaton


Hansen,


1978).


review


of the


literature


indicated


that


single


subj


designs


are


commonly


employed


research


concerning


learning


strategies


interventions


(Hughes,


1986;


Lenz,


Schumaker,


Deshler,


& Beal


, 1984)


36 studies


reviewed


see


Chapter


involving


an intervention


improve


spelling


performance


individual


with


learning


disabilities


were


single


subject


designs


In conclus


ion,


single


subj


research


was


used


this


study


because


functional


researcher


relationship


exis


wanted


between


to determine


independent


variable,


a spelling


word


study


strategy,


dependent


variabi


, spelling


contribute


performance.


interfere


s rese


with


ongoing


arch


instructional


proc


ess


collect


classroom


repeated


measures


settings


in order


, there


was


to make


a need


data


ase














this


study


was


an A-B-C


design


see


Figure


(Tawney


Gast


, 1984)


A-B-C


design


resents


a variation


A-B-A


which


simple


est


single


subj


research


design


demonstrating


a cause-effect


relationship.


target


behavior


is continuously


measured


under


line


treatment


dependent


post


variable


-treatment


stabilized


conditions


during


After


treatment


conditions, the

continues during


intervention


postinterventio


terminated

n. In this


measurement


study


following


intervention


students


were


given


a new


word


list,


those


words


that


been


misspelled


previously


their


free


writing


trial


see


Appendix


They


were


then


instructed


use


spelling


strategy


with


these


words,


no further


instruction


strategy


was


conducted


. The


A-B-C


design


permits


a functional


analysis


of behavior


Conclusions


can


be further


substantiated


when


replications


are


conducted


with


additional


subjects


Variables


independent


variabi


s investigation


was


spelling


word


study


strategy


Students


were


taught


word


study


strategy


monitored


while


using


strategy


determine


memorization


of strategy


steps


correct


use














words


written


daily


during


seven-minutes


free


writing,


number


target


words


spelled


correctly


these


writing


samples.


study


was


divided


into


three


phases


a baseline


phase,


intervention


phase,


a posttreatment


phase


see


Figure


Each


these


phases


will


be described


below


Base


line


Phase


Baseline


data


coll


section


began


one


to three


days


following


phase,


Coultur,


screening


students


pre-tes


were


Templeton,


ting.


using


Thomas,


1985)


During


word


(see


baseline


(Henderson,


Appendix


posttest


was


conducted


each


week


on ten


words.


No instruction


in studying


methods


took


place


during


baseline


condition.


When


a stable


baseline


with


regard


three


consecutive


posttest


measures


was


achieved


subjects


intervention


procedures


were


implemented


During


coll


section


of baseline


data,


feedback


was


withheld


from


subjects.


During


baseline


phase,


data


were


collected


on the


number


of words


written


during


daily


seven-minute


writing


samples


Additionally,


number


of words


that


appeared


weekly


list


which


were


spelled


correctly


writing


(N=10),




























Subjectl--


---------- -


Independent


variable


in contact


with


subjects


=Independent


variable


in contact


with


subjects


=Beginning


a new


phase


B=Baseline


phase


I=Intervention


phase


P=Postintervention


phase














procedures


were


scripted


teacher


to follow


throughout

teacher de


this


phase.


scribing


procedures


modeling


consis


study


strategy


the

Students


were


required


to verbally


rehearse


study


steps


until


they


received


100%


accuracy


on recitation


steps


three


consecutive


trial


After


applying


mastery


strategy


of study


during


steps


teacher


subjects


monitored


practiced


guided


practice,


then


practiced


using


strategy


on their


own


with


minimal


guidance


(advanced


practice)


Subjects


who


demonstrated


accuracy


on a minimum


three


spelling


probes


(one


per


week


advanced


practice


stage


were


considered


ready


postintervention


During


this


phase,


data


continued


to be collected


number


words


period


written


number


during


target


daily


words,


words


seven-minute


that


writing


appeared


spelling


lists,


that


appear


writing


samples


continued


to be


reported.


Postintervention


phase


After


subjects


demonstrated


mastery


at applying


strategy


, they


received


instruction


general


zation


procedures


ects


during


this


ase


used


v














subjects


during


this


phase


training.


minimum


data


points


were


coil


ected


phase


to ascertain


students


continued


using


strategy


to determine


strategy


use


improved


spelling


in individual


writing


assignments


number


of words


written


during


writing


sample


number


target


words


spelled


correctly


were


reported


see


Chapter


Data


Anal


ysis


The


data


collected


were


graphed


analyzed.


Data


were


graphed


(Tawney


group


each


& Gast,


data


individual


1984)


to reveal


done


be problematic


since


individual


because


variability


variability


treatment


across


individual


be masked


when


a group


treated


a single


organism.


Visual


analyst i


data


was


conducted


because


can


be conducted


with


individual


small


group


data,


a dynamic


analyzed


process


throughout


with


research


data


being


proce


collected


enabling


data-based


instructional


changes;


example


, changes


made


number


of words


presented


to each


student,


it permits


discovery


findings


which


be direc


related


ton th =


rsa rr h -


Slnfl'P


ar0


nl 1 01 -,r1!


-~~~~~u --~--J w -v-u-- w- -a --.


P;l~h


r
















representing


subjects'


scores


Following


summary


graph


is a graph


subjects


station


illustrating


test


median


scores


high


of all


range


scores


Each


subj


ect


s individual


scores


are


graphed


separately


answer


Questions


regarding


number


words


written


during


seven


minutes


of free


writing


were


counted


graphed,


words


that


been


studied


subjects


that


reappeared


spelled


correctly


in subsequent


writing


probes


were


identified


graphed


Further


analy


student


performance


was


conducted


following


data


collection


. The


writing


probes


those


subjects


who


demonstrated


general


zation


studied


words


were


re-examined


to document


occurrences


generalized


words


used


in previous


writing


probes


. Thi


was


done


disspell


reseacher


s fears


that


spelling


strategy


have


inhibited


frequency


of word


usage.


ummarY


single


subject


design


-B-C


was


employed


in this


study


to determine


effectiveness


spelling


word


study


strategy


Subjects


were


high


school


students


with


learning


disability


mainstreamed


in regular


Engli


classrooms


or served


in a special


education


resource


room


-- T


w


w















Visual


analysis


data


was


conducted.


In Chapter


analyzed.


IV the


In Chapter


results


V the


are


presented,


scuss ion


of the


graphed,

results


and

follows


with


implications


classroom


use


suggestions


future


research.




















CHAPTER ]
RESULTS


purpose


this


study


was


to determine


what


functional


effect


instruction


a spelling


word


study


strategy


on learner


spelling


performance


general


zation


acquired


skill


subj


ects


were


taught


study


strategy


using


a direct


instruction


format.


Instruction


was


discontinued


once


subjects


demonstrated


mastery


of skill


steps.


Mastery


was


demonstrated


once


subjects


could


name


strategy


steps


in sequence


with


100%


accuracy


on three


successive


occasions


To address


effect


training


students


study


strategy,


three


research


questions


were


posed.


questions


were


tested


using


a single


subject


A-B-C


research


. In


this


chapter


presentation


data


is organized


answer


research


estions


following


manner


first


methods


employed


analy


data


are


explained


then


results


are


presented


Analv


Data


-*nY.~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I '1f e~ 4- fl l 1 Ea n ,f ~


rr tnn


rnn


aC i nn


n k


aiFnnC


L~'n *


I


C 1 t ^-














data


were


then


plotted


demonstrating


median


score


with


high


range


scores


, and


displayed


table


illu


states


changes


that


occurred


within


between


conditions


Finally


data


each


individual


subject


are


graphed.


Question


number


of words


written


during


seven


minutes


of free


writing


were


graphed


visual


analy


data


word


was


study


conducted


strategy


to determine


increased


mastery


number


of the


of words


written.


Question


, to ascertain


trained


words


studied


occurred


spelled


correctly


written


products,


a second


set


of data


points


were


included


on the


semi-logrythmic


written.


graphs


Additional


that


data


illu


points


state

have


the

been


number

added


of words

to represent


number


times


that


trained


words


that


were


spelled


correctly


appeared


misspelled


previous


writing


probes


Question


researcher


wanted


to ascertain


training


Spell


, word


study


strategy


would


increase


percentage


words


spelled


correctly


answer


estion


data


were


analyzed


in several


First


scores


were


reported


a summary


graph


see


Figure


This


was


done


to illu


state
























N~0
U) Cl ) CO


\ I
















scores


from


baseline


to intervention


/postintervention


phases


data


are


then


graphed


to represent


median


score


with


high


range


scores


see


Figure


median


high


range


scores


are


same


intervention


seven.


post-


indicates


intervention


that


scores


majority


except


of subjects


sess


are


scoring


100%


level


following


training


in the


study


strategy


These


data


are


then


placed


on a table


that


illu


states


changes


within


between


conditions


see


Table


To enable


further


analy


of each


subjects


data


scores


have


been


graphed


individually


(see


Figures


5-14)


Individual


Data


Subject


achieved


stability


eline


condition.


From

there


the

was


baseline


condition


an increase


of 60%.


to the


intervention


During


condition


postintervention


phase


there


was


a slight


decline


score


from


eleventh


session


to the


twelfth


session


(100


to 80)


researcher


feels


be due


to the


twelfth


sess


date


falling


before


spring


vacation.


Subject


achieved


stability


throughout


ses


study


change


that


occurred


between


baseline


intervention


condition


was


from


to 100


percent


V --


_


.


..























Baseline


Intervention


Post


C--I


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11


SESSIONS


o LOW RANGE


a MEDIAN


* HIGH RANGE


Figure


Median,


high


low dictation


test


scores