Rights and Wrongs of Homosexuals

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Rights and Wrongs of Homosexuals
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English
Creator:
Maurice Tomlinson , Legal Advisor, Marginalised Groups, aidsfree World
Publication Date:

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Subjects / Keywords:
Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )

Notes

Abstract:
This is a presentation prepared by Maurice Tomlinson about the effects of the sodomy laws on the lives of homosexuals in Jamaica
Funding:
Support for the development of the technical infrastructure and partner training provided by the United States Department of Education TICFIA program.

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Caribbean IRN
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Caribbean IRN
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All rights reserved by the source institution.
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AA00003177:00001


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Full Text





Rights and Wrongs of Jamaican
Homosexuals.
Prepared by:
Maurice Tomlinson
Legal Advisor, Marginalized Groups

aids-free.
speaking up and speaking out





Jamaican Offences Against the Person

Act (1864)
Unnatural Offences

* 76. Whosoever shall be convicted of the abominable crime of buggery, committed
either with mankind or with any animal, shall be liable to be imprisoned and kept
to hard labour for a term not exceeding ten years.

* 77. Whosoever shall attempt to commit the said abominable crime, or shall be
guilty of any assault with intent to commit the same, or of any indecent assault
upon any male person, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and being convicted
thereof, shall be liable to be imprisoned for a term not exceeding seven years,
with or without hard labour.

Outrages on Decency

* 79. Any male person who, in public or private, commits, or is a party to the
commission of, or procures or attempts to procure the commission by any male
person of, any act of gross indecency with another male person, shall be guilty of a
misdemeanor, and being convicted thereof shall be liable at the discretion of the
court to be imprisoned for a term not exceeding two years, with or without hard
labour.




Constitutional Savings Law


C


lause


* S. 13 (11) 'Nothing contained in or done under the


authority of any law in force


immediately before the


commencement of the Charter of Fundamental
Rights and Freedoms (Constitutional Amendment)
Act, 2011, relating to
- (a) sexual offences; ...
shall be held to be inconsistent with or in


contravention of the provisions


of this


Chapter.'

(Prevents constitutional challenge to anti-buggery law).





Non-Discrimination

* S 13.1 of the Jamaican Public Service Staff
Order 2004 prohibits discrimination in the
Civil Service on the basis of Sexual Orientation
* BUT...




Jamaican Prime Minister Bruce
Golding in 2008 BBC Interview


'No Gays in my cabinet!'





Right to Life

* No person shall intentionally be deprived of
his life save in execution of the sentence of a
court in respect of a criminal offence of which
he has been convicted (s. 14 Jamaica
Constitution)












Memorial for Victor Jarrett June 18, 2010 Dump-up
Beach Montego Bay

Killed by police instigated mob attack in 2006.
Accused of sitting and watching men on the beach.





















STEVE HARVEY
Murdered in 2005.

Taken from his home by invaders and killed
after confirming he was gay.




JNJAMAICA
OBSERVER

Cross dresser's body found in Half-Way-Tree
BY KIMMO MATTHEWS Observer staff reporter matthewsk@jamaicaobserver.com
Friday, December 03, 2010

POLICE this afternoon found the body of a cross dresser behind the National
Solid Life and General Insurance Branch Limited on Half-Way-Tree Road in St
Andrew.

Cops say the body was found at the back of the building with what is believed to
be chop wounds.

The cops initially thought the victim was a woman, as the man was dressed in
women's clothes.


The area was cordoned off, causing major traffic congestion.





Freedom from Arbitrary Detention

* NO person shall be deprived of his personal
liberty save as may in any of the following cases
be authorised by law:
(f) upon reasonable suspicion of his having committed
or of being about to commit a criminal offence
* (2) Any person who is arrested or detained shall
be informed as soon as reasonably practicable,
in a language which he understands, of the
reasons for his arrest or detention. (s. 15
Jamaican Constitution)






I


w


<',- .."


--
r~





Freedom of movement

* No person shall be deprived of his freedom of
movement, and for the purposes of this
section the said freedom means the right to
move freely throughout Jamaica, the right to
reside in any part of Jamaica, the right to
enter Jamaica and immunity from expulsion
from Jamaica.
(s. 16 J'can Constitution)




Gays Blocked from Tourist

'Hip Strip' in Montego Bay
On Friday, July 9, 2010 at about 8:10 p.m. a group of
men and women, some gay, some not, went for a stroll
along the Hip Strip in Montego Bay.

Members of the Courtesy Corps (District Constables)
started hurling homo-phobic slurs at the group.

In the vicinity of Doctor's Cave Beach, Corps members
blocked the group's further passage, insisting they were
gay and hence not allowed on the Hip Strip.





Protection from Inhuman Treatment

* No person shall be subjected to torture or to
inhuman or degrading punishment or other
treatment. (s. 17 J'can Constitution)









Hated to death!


Machete wounds inflicted on
gay Jamaican man.
























Man stabbed several times on Friday, November 26, 2010 in the Half Way
Tree area of Kingston. Victim of gay profiling.





Compulsory Acquisition of Property

* NO property of any description shall be
compulsorily taken possession of and no
interest in or right over property of any
description shall be compulsorily acquired (s.
18 J'can Constitution) ...


* BUT Extortion and blackmail occurs in police
Lock-ups as LGBT are told to pay up or have
their incidents leaked to the Star tabloid.






TYPICAL STAR LGBTI HEADLINE

HOMO HOOKERS OUT & BAD-


Brazen men take over New Kingston


street


CRYSTAL HARRISON, STAR Writer (Dec. 17. 2010)


.\ .I'L..~-. L~.l__r IS
)." 'P

r~: uu
''
..
~I : ~"U X
"' ,1.~1 .~P.E
I ~~
Ir Ir -i*1





Right to Privacy

* Except with his own consent, no person shall
be subject to the search of his person or his
property or the entry by others on his
premises... (s. 19 J'can Constitution)




















2 Mob Home Invasions reported in February, 2010


Won't peep through windows
The prime minister continued: "We will never start peeping in anybody's
bedroom to see what they are doing within their own privacy. We will never start
hounding down people because they may have lifestyles that we would prefer did
not exist."

I hf (Ilkt11tir Wednesday, March 4, 2009.
SEtabl shed 1834





Provision


to


Sec


ure Protection of Law


* Whenever any person


is cha


rged


with


criminal offence he shall, unless the cha


rge is


withdrawn, be afforded


a fair


hearing


within a


reasonable time by an independent and


impartial court established by law
Constitution)


(s.


* BUT Jamaican LGBT report being abu


extorted a


20 J'can


sed,


nd humiliated in police lock-up


before being released without charge.





Freedom of Conscience

* Except with his own consent, no person shall
be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom
of conscience, for the purposes of this section
the said freedom includes freedom of thought
and of religion, freedom to change his religion
or belief, and freedom, either alone or in
community with others, and both in public
and in private, to manifest and propagate his
religion or belief in worship, teaching, practice
and observance. (s. 21 J'can Constitution)




Gays in Jamaica worship in
underground church





Funeral of gay disrupted.

* BURIAL RIOT Church stoned at
alleged homo's funeral Pastor,
mourners duck for cover (Byron
McDaniel, STAR Writer) 10 April
2007.


The jarnst"Gam 0 fifte





Freedom of Expression

* Except with his own consent, no person shall
be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom
of expression...
(s. 22 Jamaican Constitution)




Crossdresser beaten in Falmouth,
Trelawny.

rLj





Freedom of Assembly

* Except with his own consent, no person shall
be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom
of peaceful assembly and association, that is
to say, his right peacefully to assemble freely
and associate with other persons and in
particular to form or belong to trade unions or
other associations for the protection of his
interests. (s. 23 J'can Constitution)




Ernest Smith, government backbencher, calling for
gay rights group Jamaica Forum for Lesbians, All-
sexuals and Gays (J-FLAG) to be outlawed.







PNP lashes Ernie Smith

Comments made by Ernest Smith, the government backbencher who has called
for gay rights group Jamaica Forum for Lesbians, AII-sexuals and Gays (J-FLAG) to
be outlawed, have been labelled an "unbalanced tirade" by the Opposition. The
People's National Party (PNP) said Smith's statement "can only damage Jamaica's
international reputation for respecting the human rights of all our citizens".

Smith, the Jamaica Labour Party (JLP) member of parliament (MP) for South West
St Ann, charged in Parliament last week that homosexuals were violent and that
the police force was overrun with gays. Smith has since apologised to the police.

However, subsequent to his apology, Smith called on the director of public
prosecutions to investigate J-FLAG with a view to having the group charged for
conspiracy to corrupt public morals.

Yesterday, the PNP said it was calling on political leaders to refrain from excesses
of language or extreme positions that may incite violence or other discriminatory
conduct against any minority group.

i O ( l tt Jamaica Gleaner, Thursday Feb. 19, 2009
Estabi aied 1 l -




Police Attack Gay Clubs


* In February, 2011, Jamaican police raided two
gay clubs in Jamaica, one in Kingston and
another in Montego Bay. During the Kingston
raid, police with concealed identification
numbers intimidated patrons by shining
powerful flash-lights in their faces. In
Montego Bay, club patrons were pistol-
whipped, indiscriminately beaten, and chased
from the club.




Other Rights

* Education

STUDENT FLEES AFTER GAY TAPE LEAKED (Star
Headline December 23, 2010). Emblematic of
bullying of LGBT youth in schools.


* Health
HIV and AIDS prevalence among Jamaican MSM is
32% vs. 1.6% in the general population (UNAIDS
2009 report). MSM refrain from buying condoms
and lube for fear of being 'outed' at pharmacies.





Other Rights


* Housing


- GAY RUMOURS LEFT ME HOMELESS: Twenty-nine-
year-old Kenneth Parchment* is now homeless, after
he was beaten and chased from his community
because rumours were being circulated that he is
gay.(Star Headline 16/7/2010)

- 'HOMELESS SEXUAL' REMANDED A male
hairdresser, who described himself as a 'homeless
sexual', left quite an impression in the Corporate Area
Resident Magistrate's Court yesterday when his
matter was heard. (Star Headline 6/1/2011).


Tht 180781"Glgm owifte





Other Rights
* Employment
Male Flight Attendant with national airline, Air
Jamaica told that passengers 'complained' about
him being gay. Instructed by his boss to 'Stand in
front of a mirror, try to act more macho and
deepen your voice.'

GAY COP DEMANDS RIGHTS Constable Michael
Hayden is a very worried cop. But he is not scared of
gunmen or other criminals. He is afraid of some of his
colleagues. He claims they are trying to force him out
of his job because of his sexual orientation. Star
headline 1/2/2008). .




Levels and Drivers of J'can Homophobia


* Strong negative perceptions a


nd attitudes


towards homosexuality cut across all social
classes, gender and social groups in Jamaica.


* 85.2% of


Jamaicans do not think


homosexuality should be legalized.


* 82.2% think male hom


sexuality


is morally


wrong.
* Majority of those who were homophobic
listened to Jamaican Reggae/Dancehall m


usic.


- Source: 2011 Study carried out by University of the West
Indies, Mona Campus.




Jamaican Reggae/Dancehal


artistes have recorded over


200


homophobic


son


Jamaican dancehall artiste Jamaican dancehall artiste Beenie Man


Buju Banton sings about
shooting gays.


sings about burning gays.


gs.





Homophobic Jamaican

Reggae/Dancehall artistes







Jamaican dancehall artiste
Elephant Man's song endorses
'corrective rape' of lesbians.
Jamaican dancehall group TOK
sings about stomping on gays.





Homophobic Jamaican

Reggae/Dancehall artistes


Reggae artiste
Cappleton calls for the
burning of all gays.


Jamaican reggae artiste Queen Ifrica
sings about the rejection of gays.






Sizzla calls for murder of gays at Coca-


Cola Sponsored event April 24, 2011


Page 19 Th Western MIrror, Monday, May 2. 2011


4c- Allll <





SiZZla launched


scathing attack

o n ga "Then why dem a lock up
man I'[ gaRnja and dem nah
lock up de b. .y man dem'.
Sizzle a.ked. He then
lam-nted the growing
number of gays in
By Joel Lamon launching the attack, he said he did nolt Jamaea andr proceeded
care if he e.t ih.cked up. to vie a rendition of
In a throw raising performans-,a lie even i.lsued a warning to the police RuLJu Banton's 'Brorin
meoultionar ran ta de l.a;y S/.la wa-. in that extrajudicial killings ofghetto youths Bye Bye' to which he
militant mind at the n augunrl staLng of by certain misguided memNbrs of the force received a full acclaim
lancehall night at Coke Zero LIVE at Pier were then under the microscope of the rroni the auchence tien
one. Monte:go Ba3 on Sunday, April 24, police hierarchy t know quite
2011 whn he launched a peathing attack Sizila told the crowd that homosexuality well the aklh for local
on the gay community. was an offence under Jamaican law, and artiste inrnatonall5
Contracted to cloie dancehall night. he asked them for their confirmation. He told for the their antin-ga Si
did so at 5:11 am. on Easter Monday, but them further that ganja was illegal in the stance. an-
not before Lakung a vicious aim not only law as well and again asked them for their e said Jamaca belonged to Indans, t
n the gays, but indulges of oral sex In confirmation. b he
he


azla
d it was Africa that really belonged to
black man, and that it was AFr-i- -*--
m-o n t.....




Role of Religion in Jamaican

Homophobia
JANMAICA
OBSERVER
'Muslim leader blasts gay lifestyle'
BY KARYL WALKER Crime/Court Desk Co-ordinator
Monday, February 01, 2010
PRESIDENT of the Islamic Council of Jamaica, Mustafa
Muhammad, says he agrees with the Sharia law which
prescribes death for people who openly flaunt
homosexual behaviour.





SJ Jamaica VVI
Established 1834

SThe Wrath of a Bishop
published: Wednesday I February 28, 2007


Administrative Bishop for the New Testament
Church of God in Jamaica and The Cayman Islands,
Wellesley A. Blair.

Bishop Blair said that Sodomites who are caught
should be beaten. "I believe that when the court orders
lashing, some of those Sodomites who are caught...
should be brought in the square of Half-Way Tree and
be lashed and send them home," he said.




Jamaica's


2011 Charter of Rights


and Freedoms covers all?
rijijl SiSlli
'ti t lr-


Editorial Cartoon in Jamaica Gleaner, Saturday April 2, 2011




Full Text

PAGE 1

Rights and Wrongs of Jamaican Homosexuals. Prepared by: Maurice Tomlinson Legal Advisor, Marginalized Groups

PAGE 2

Jamaican Offences Against the Person Act (1864) Unnatural Offences 76. Whosoever shall be convicted of the abominable crime of buggery, committed either with mankind or with any animal, shall be liable to be imprisoned and kept to hard labour for a term not exceeding ten years 77. Whosoever shall attempt to commit the said abominable crime, or shall be guilty of any assault with intent to commit the same, or of any indecent assault upon any male person, shall be guilty of a misdemeanour and being convicted thereof, shall be liable to be imprisoned for a term not exceeding seven years, with or without hard labour Outrages on Decency 79. Any male person who, in public or private, commits, or is a party to the commission of, or procures or attempts to procure the commission by any male person of, any act of gross indecency with another male person, shall be guilty of a misdemeanour and being convicted thereof shall be liable at the discretion of the court to be imprisoned for a term not exceeding two years, with or without hard labour

PAGE 3

Constitutional Savings Law Clause authority of any law in force immediately before the commencement of the Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms (Constitutional Amendment) Act, 2011, relating to shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of the provisions of this (Prevents constitutional challenge to anti buggery law).

PAGE 4

Non Discrimination S 13.1 of the Jamaican Public Service Staff Order 2004 prohibits discrimination in the Civil Service on the basis of Sexual Orientation

PAGE 5

Jamaican Prime Minister Bruce Golding in 2008 BBC Interview

PAGE 6

Right to Life No person shall intentionally be deprived of his life save in execution of the sentence of a court in respect of a criminal offence of which he has been convicted (s. 14 Jamaica Constitution)

PAGE 7

Memorial for Victor Jarrett June 18, 2010 Dump up Beach Montego Bay Killed by police instigated mob attack in 2006 Accused of sitting and watching men on the beach.

PAGE 8

STEVE HARVEY Murdered in 2005. Taken from his home by invaders and killed after confirming he was gay.

PAGE 9

Cross dresser's body found in Half Way Tree BY KIMMO MATTHEWS Observer staff reporter matthewsk@jamaicaobserver.com Friday, December 03, 2010 POLICE this afternoon found the body of a cross dresser behind the National Solid Life and General Insurance Branch Limited on Half Way Tree Road in St Andrew. Cops say the body was found at the back of the building with what is believed to be chop wounds. The cops initially thought the victim was a woman, as the man was dressed in women's clothes. The area was cordoned off, causing major traffic congestion.

PAGE 10

Freedom from Arbitrary Detention NO person shall be deprived of his personal liberty save as may in any of the following cases be authorised by law: (f) upon reasonable suspicion of his having committed or of being about to commit a criminal offence (2) Any person who is arrested or detained shall be informed as soon as reasonably practicable, in a language which he understands, of the reasons for his arrest or detention. (s. 15 Jamaican Constitution)

PAGE 11

Gays mobbed at mall in Kingston, Jamaica 2008. Police were in custody.

PAGE 12

Freedom of movement No person shall be deprived of his freedom of movement, and for the purposes of this section the said freedom means the right to move freely throughout Jamaica, the right to reside in any part of Jamaica, the right to enter Jamaica and immunity from expulsion from Jamaica.

PAGE 13

Gays Blocked from Tourist On Friday, July 9, 2010 at about 8:10 p.m. a group of men and women, some gay, some not, went for a stroll along the Hip Strip in Montego Bay. Members of the Courtesy Corps (District Constables) started hurling homo phobic slurs at the group. In the vicinity of Doctor's Cave Beach, Corps members blocked the group's further passage, insisting they were gay and hence not allowed on the Hip Strip.

PAGE 14

Protection from Inhuman Treatment No person shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading punishment or other

PAGE 15

Hated to death! Machete wounds inflicted on gay Jamaican man.

PAGE 16

Man stabbed several times on Friday, November 26, 2010 in the Half Way Tree area of Kingston. Victim of gay profiling.

PAGE 17

Compulsory Acquisition of Property NO property of any description shall be compulsorily taken possession of and no interest in or right over property of any description shall be compulsorily acquired (s. BUT Extortion and blackmail occurs in police Lock ups as LGBT are told to pay up or have their incidents leaked to the Star tabloid.

PAGE 18

TYPICAL STAR LGBTI HEADLINE HOMO HOOKERS OUT & BAD Brazen men take over New Kingston street CRYSTAL HARRISON, STAR Writer (Dec. 17. 2010) Star story of December 17, 2010

PAGE 19

Right to Privacy Except with his own consent, no person shall be subject to the search of his person or his property or the entry by others on his

PAGE 20

2 Mob Home Invasions reported in February, 2010 Won't peep through windows The prime minister continued: "We will never start peeping in anybody's bedroom to see what they are doing within their own privacy. We will never start hounding down people because they may have lifestyles that we would prefer did Wednesday, March 4, 2009.

PAGE 21

Provisions to Secure Protection of Law Whenever any person is charged with a criminal offence he shall, unless the charge is withdrawn, be afforded a fair hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and Constitution) BUT Jamaican LGBT report being abused, extorted and humiliated in police lock up before being released without charge.

PAGE 22

Freedom of Conscience Except with his own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of conscience, for the purposes of this section the said freedom includes freedom of thought and of religion, freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others, and both in public and in private, to manifest and propagate his religion or belief in worship, teaching, practice and observance. (s. 21 Constitution)

PAGE 23

Gays in Jamaica worship in underground church

PAGE 24

Funeral of gay disrupted. BURIAL RIOT Church stoned at alleged homo's funeral Pastor, mourners duck for cover ( Byron McDaniel, STAR Writer ) 10 April 2007.

PAGE 25

Freedom of Expression Except with his own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom (s. 22 Jamaican Constitution)

PAGE 26

Crossdresser beaten in Falmouth, Trelawny.

PAGE 27

Freedom of Assembly Except with his own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of peaceful assembly and association, that is to say, his right peacefully to assemble freely and associate with other persons and in particular to form or belong to trade unions or other associations for the protection of his

PAGE 28

Ernest Smith, government backbencher, calling for gay rights group Jamaica Forum for Lesbians, All sexuals and Gays (J FLAG) to be outlawed. Ernest Smith in Parliamentary submission, February 2009, calling for outlawing of J FLAG.

PAGE 29

PNP lashes Ernie Smith Comments made by Ernest Smith, the government backbencher who has called for gay rights group Jamaica Forum for Lesbians, All sexuals and Gays (J FLAG) to be outlawed, have been labelled an "unbalanced tirade" by the Opposition. The People's National Party (PNP) said Smith's statement "can only damage Jamaica's international reputation for respecting the human rights of all our citizens". Smith, the Jamaica Labour Party (JLP) member of parliament (MP) for South West St Ann, charged in Parliament last week that homosexuals were violent and that the police force was overrun with gays. Smith has since apologised to the police. However, subsequent to his apology, Smith called on the director of public prosecutions to investigate J FLAG with a view to having the group charged for conspiracy to corrupt public morals. Yesterday, the PNP said it was calling on political leaders to refrain from excesses of language or extreme positions that may incite violence or other discriminatory conduct against any minority group. Jamaica Gleaner, Thursday Feb. 19, 2009

PAGE 30

Police Attack Gay Clubs In February, 2011, Jamaican police raided two gay clubs in Jamaica, one in Kingston and another in Montego Bay. During the Kingston raid, police with concealed identification numbers intimidated patrons by shining powerful flash lights in their faces. In Montego Bay, club patrons were pistol whipped, indiscriminately beaten, and chased from the club.

PAGE 31

Other Rights Education STUDENT FLEES AFTER GAY TAPE LEAKED (Star Headline December 23, 2010). Emblematic of bullying of LGBT youth in schools. Health HIV and AIDS prevalence among Jamaican MSM is 32% vs. 1.6% in the general population (UNAIDS 2009 report). MSM refrain from buying condoms

PAGE 32

Other Rights Housing GAY RUMOURS LEFT ME HOMELESS: Twenty nine year old Kenneth Parchment* is now homeless, after he was beaten and chased from his community because rumours were being circulated that he is gay.(Star Headline 16/7/2010) A male hairdresser, who described himself as a 'homeless sexual', left quite an impression in the Corporate Area Resident Magistrate's Court yesterday when his matter was heard. (Star Headline 6/1/2011).

PAGE 33

Other Rights Employment Male Flight Attendant with national airline, Air front of a mirror, try to act more macho and GAY COP DEMANDS RIGHTS Constable Michael Hayden is a very worried cop. But he is not scared of gunmen or other criminals. He is afraid of some of his colleagues. He claims they are trying to force him out of his job because of his sexual orientation. (Star headline 1/2/2008).

PAGE 34

Strong negative perceptions and attitudes towards homosexuality cut across all social classes, gender and social groups in Jamaica. 85.2% of Jamaicans do not think homosexuality should be legalized. 82.2% think male homosexuality is morally wrong. Majority of those who were homophobic listened to Jamaican Reggae/Dancehall music. Source: 2011 Study carried out by University of the West Indies, Mona Campus.

PAGE 35

Jamaican Reggae/Dancehall artistes have recorded over 200 homophobic songs. Jamaican dancehall artiste Buju Banton sings about shooting gays Jamaican dancehall artiste Beenie Man sings about burning gays

PAGE 36

Homophobic Jamaican Reggae/Dancehall artistes Jamaican dancehall group TOK sings about stomping on gays Jamaican dancehall artiste song endorses

PAGE 37

Homophobic Jamaican Reggae/Dancehall artistes Reggae artiste Cappleton calls for the burning of all gays Jamaican reggae artiste Queen Ifrica sings about the rejection of gays

PAGE 38

Sizzla calls for murder of gays at Coca Cola Sponsored event April 24, 2011

PAGE 39

Role of Religion in Jamaican Homophobia BY KARYL WALKER Crime/Court Desk Co ordinator Monday, February 01, 2010 PRESIDENT of the Islamic Council of Jamaica, Mustafa Muhammad, says he agrees with the Sharia law which prescribes death for people who openly flaunt homosexual behaviour.

PAGE 40

The Wrath of a Bishop Administrative Bishop for the New Testament Church of God in Jamaica and The Cayman Islands, Wellesley A. Blair. Bishop Blair said that Sodomites who are caught should be beaten "I believe that when the court orders should be brought in the square of Half Way Tree and be lashed and send them home ," he said. published: Wednesday | February 28, 2007

PAGE 41

and Freedoms covers all? Editorial Cartoon in Jamaica Gleaner, Saturday April 2, 2011