INTERNATIONAL BIOLOGICAL PROGRAM
CHANGES IN ORGANIZATION
In mid-year the structure of the U.S./IBP was changed
from a planning organization consisting of a national commit-
tee, nine subcommittees, and various panels and ad hoc groups
(a total of 96 persons) to a functional organization consisting
of the following groups (a total of 26 persons):
Program Coordinating Committee
International Coordinating Committee
The Biometeorology Panel is shared with the Atmospheric Sci-
ences Committee of the National Academy of Sciences.
In January 1968 Dr. Frederick Seitz, President, NAS-NRC,
appointed Dr. W. Frank Blair as Chairman of the National Com-
mittee to succeed Dr. Roger Revelle, who remains on the Com-
mittee as ex officio member.
The following additional integrated research programs
(IRP's) were approved by the National Committee:
Convergent and Divergent Evolution
Physiology of Colonizing Species
Biological Production in Upwelling Ecosystems
Biology of Human Populations at High Altitudes
Nutritional Adaptation to the Environment
Ecology of Migrant Peoples
Biogeography of the Sea
Conservation of Environments
The following areas of research have been generated spe-
cifically for the U.S./IBP but have not yet reached the stage
of development necessary for final approval of the Executive
Committee as IRP's:
Conservation of Genetic Materials
Crop Production under Stress
Productivity and Conservation of Marine Mammals
Chemical Interactions between Organisms
Biological Control of Pests
Biochemical Agents for Insect-Pest Control
Each of these studies, upon approval, will be merged'with an
existing IRP, established as a new IRP, or identified as an
IBP-related research project.
In late spring of 1968 the Analysis of Ecosystems program
received a 2-year grant of $224,300 from the National Science
Foundation, and the Grasslands Biome study received $350,000
from NSF and $50,000 from the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.
Partial 'funding of the Eskimo program enabled a team of sci-
entists from Canada, Italy, and the United States to begin
the summer field program in Wainwright, Alaska.
In mid-November the following studies were reviewed for
funding by NSF:
Biological Production in Upwelling Ecosystems (IRP)
Biology of Human Populations at High Altitudes (IRP)
Nutritional Adaptation to the Environment (IRP)
Deciduous Forest Biome study
The results of the *review will not become known until early
WORKING CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA
The National Committee sponsored a number of working con-
ferences and symposia:
"Insect-Plant Interactions" / March 18-22 / Santa
The conference was attended by 66 botanists, entomologists,
and organic chemists who surveyed and discussed in plenary
sessions interactions among plants and between plants and in-
sects. In the afternoons and evenings the two groups met sep-
arately for more detailed discussions of specific areas of
The group on plant-plant interactions was chaired by Dr.
Cornelius Muller of the University of California, Santa Bar-
bara; the group on insect-plant interactions was chaired by
Dr. Edward F. Knipling, U.S. Department of Agriculture.
"Biomedical Challenges Presented by the American
Indian" / June 25 / Washington, D.C.
The conference, sponsored by the Pan American Health
Organization (PAHO) and the U.S. National Committee, was a
special session of PAHO's Advisory Committee on Medical Re-
search. It was chaired by Dr. James Neel, Chairman, Depart-
ment of Human Genetics, University of Michigan Medical School.
The meeting served to acquaint scientists from various
countries with the research programs on Indians that are a
part of the IBP throughout the Western Hemisphere. According
to Dr, Neel, "Ours is the last generation of scientists that
will be able to study the quickly disappearing examples of
primitive man. The Indian--largely restricted to the Americas-
is only one of a number of groups of primitive people scattered
throughout the world. By concentrating on him in the IBP, we
hope to stimulate the study of these other populations in
different parts of the world before it is too late."
Scientists from Brazil, Chile, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico,
Venezuela, and the United States participated in the conference.
Working Conference on Coastal Upwelling / June 5
and 6 / Seattle, Washington
The conference was convened by Dr. Richard Dugdale,
University of Washington, Seattle. About 20 scientists, in-
cluding several from South America, participated.
(I* .A. -.?< 7
Coastal upwelling enriches marine waters, and the most
highly productive areas are those where such upwellings occur.
Because for years there have been only sporadic and discon-
nected investigations of upwelling areas, the time was be-
lieved propitious for bringing together investigators who are
planning research in this field. An integrated research pro-
gram on upwelling was designed at the meeting, and in Novem-
ber a proposal was submitted to the National Science Founda-
tion for funding.
Coordination has been effected with Peru. Dr. Dugdale
visited several countries adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea
to discuss coordination of similar projects.
Conference on Thermal Addition / November 4-7 /
The terra "thermal addition" refers to the discharge of
heated water from conventional and thermonuclear generating
plants into the sea.
More than 200 scientists from Canada, Scotland, Sweden,
and the United States met at the University of Maryland's
Natural Resources Institute, Solomons, Maryland, to discuss
the effects of thermal addition on freshwater and marine
life. A report will be issued.
Meetings in Conjunction with the Annual Meeting
of the American Institute of Biological Sciences /
September 3-7 / Columbus, Ohio
During the annual meeting of the AIBS at The Ohio State
University, Columbus, the IBP cosponsored three meetings:
1. A symposium on "Centers of Plant Diversity and the
Conservation of Crop Germ Plasm." The cosponsor was the
Society of Economic Botany.
2. A meeting on tropical rain forests. The cosponsor
was the Batelle Memorial Institute.
3. A symposium on the IBP--Man's Survival in a Changing
World." The cosponsor was the AIBS. Speakers were Frederick
Sargent, II, Dean, College of Environmental Sciences, Univer-
sity of Wisconsin, Green Bay; W. Frank Blair, Professor of
Zoology, University of Texas, Austin, and Chairman of the
U.S. National Committee for the IBP; George P. Miller, Chair-
man, Committee on Science and Astronautics, U.S. House of
Representatives; and Frederick E. Smith, Chairman, Department
of Wildlife and Fisheries, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Mr. Miller reviewed the growth of congressional interest in
-the IBP. He said, "We intend to continue to fight excuses
for delay with reasons for action."
CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS ON THE IBP
On March 9, 1967, Chairman George P. Miller of the Com-
mittee on Science and Astronautics, U.S. House of Represen-
tatives, introduced House Concurrent Resolution 2737 which
read, in part, as follows:
Resolved by the House of Representatives (the
Senate concurring), That the Congress hereby finds
and declares that the international biological pro-
gram, which was established under the auspices of
the International Council of Scientific Unions
and the International Union of Biological Sciences
and which is sponsored in the United States by the
National Academy of Sciences and the National Acad-
emy of Engineering, will provide a unique and ef-
fective means of meeting the urgent need for in-
creased study and research related to biological
productivity and human welfare in a changing world
The Congress commends and endorses the in-
ternational biological program and expresses its
The resolution was put on the calendar of the Subcommittee
on Science, Research, and Development. Beginning in May 1967,
the Subcommittee held a series of hearings that extended into
the summer. Many outstanding scientists testified.
After the hearings were completed, the Subcommittee made
a number of recommendations, including the following:
a. The Federal Government should provide financing
for the U.S. portion of the IBP for fiscal year
1969, in an amount not less than $3 million nor
in excess of $5 million.
b. A firm commitment by'the U.S. Government to sup-
port the IBP to the maximum feasible extent and
for the full 5-year term, longer if necessary.
This should be done both through Executive ex-
pression and legislative resolution.
The first report of the Subcommittee was issued early
The Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Development
held additional hearings in May 1968 to discuss House Joint
At the beginning of these hearings, Emilio Q. Daddario,
Chairman of the Subcommittee, said:
Last year at the direction of Chairman George P. Miller,
this Subcommittee investigated the IBP. We did that with a
supporting resolution by the Chairman, which was House Con-
current Resolution 273.
That inquiry led to a 4-month period of investigation.
At the conclusion of this investigation, the Subcommittee
was convinced of the importance of the IBP, both for its
own sake and for its great significance with respect to the
natural environment of the earth. At the same time we felt
that the legislative adequacy of that resolution was not
I should like to emphasize we are not now considering
the merits or desirability of the IBP itself. That deter-
mination has already been made. So far as the Subcommittee
is concerned, the IBP is a promising attempt to deal with
an urgent problem; namely, the understanding of our planetary
ecology. Without such understanding, we are in grave danger
of accelerating deterioration of the ecosystems on which
What we are concerned with here is the method of im-
plementing the U.S. effort. How can we give the program
the support it must have to be effective?
Early in 1968 the U.S. Executive Committee assisted the
NSF in preparing a report entitled "Analysis of Needs and
Objectives of the U.S. International Biological Program."
The 84-page document, submitted to the Bureau of the Budget
to justify allocation of funds in support of the IBP, in-
cludes the following statement: "NSF believes that a
reasonably comprehensive program will require $8 million of
special funds in FY 1970 and a total of $43 million during
the period FY 1970 through FY 1973."
The U.S. Executive Committee is fairly optimistic that
as the IRP's are submitted for funding, funds will be made
In the spring of 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson in
an address at Glassboro, New Jersey to commemorate the first
anniversary of his meeting there with leaders of the Soviet
Union, said: "I propose that this effort [IBP] be a perma-
nent concern of our nations. I propose that the United
States scientists join with the scientists of the Soviet
Union and other nations to form an international council on
the human environment."
MEETING OF U.S. AND CANADIAN CT,SUBCOMMITTEES
Twenty-two participants equally divided between the U.S.
and Canada met for 2 days in June 1968, at Ely, Minnesota,
to compare the national programs. Objectives, methods, pro-
gress, and problems were topics of discussion. Interrela-
tionships of IBP-CT and the IUCN were also discussed.
It was learned that the programs of the United States
and Canada differ in some respects. The Canadian program is
Completing the international checksheets on Canadian
national parks and equivalent reserves.
Compiling an inventory of all plant formations in
Compiling a list of all Canadian institutions in-
volved in conservation.
Promoting a national system of ecological reserves
and conducting research concerning these reserves.
The Canadians-see their problems as:
Ignorance of ecological values and rapid destruction
of valuable sites.
A severe shortage of trained personnel.
Provincial ownership requiring separate actions or
laws to be passed in each province.
MEETING ON REMOTE SENSING
A meeting was held in the NAS-NRC building in Washing-
ton, D.C., on July 17 to make preliminary assessments of
remote sensing applications for U.S./IBP.
There were 15 participants--two from North American
Rockwell (industry) and the others from federal agencies and
The following uses for remote sensing were suggested:
Assessment of primary and secondary productivity.
Assessment of total chlorophyll, including distri-
bution and time-lapse changes.
Comparison of species in various habitats with ex-
tensions into those factors that promote or inhibit
species growth and productivity.
Time-lapse measurements or observations showing
broad-scale or detailed changes in phenologic events,
which in turn may be extended into functions of micro-
climatic distribution on a time-lapse basis.
Application of a computer microdensitometer for data
Assessments. and measurements of evapotransportation.
ANALYSIS OF ECOSYSTEMS
Considerable progress is being made in the subprograms
biomess) of the integrated research program on analysis of
ecosystems and in the program projects under that program.
Names of the subprograms and the directors follow.
Grasslands Biome----------George M. Van Dyne, Colorado State
Deciduous Forest Biome----Stanley I. Auerbach, Oak Ridge
Desert Biome--------------David W. Goodall, University of
Tundra Biome---------------Frank Pitelka, University of
Coniferous Forest Biome---Stanley Gessel, University of
Tropical Forest Biome-----Director to be appointed
Research began at the Pawnee site during the summer.
Progress is also being made in site development, construction,
and acquisition of equipment. Some funds are being used in
an information-synthesis project designed to relate available
information on grasslands to the study at Pawnee. Work has
also begun on planning, analysis, modeling, and administrative
A design has been considered for a "comprehensive" grass-
lands research program. The objective of this phase of the
study is to extend results from the intensive study of Pawnee
in both space and time by comparing diverse kinds of grass-
lands throughout the United States.
Deciduous Forest Biome
After months of planning, meetings of various campus
groups, and deliberations by the Steering Committee, a pro-
posal to begin work in this biome was submitted to the National
Science Foundation. The proposed work involved (1) regional
analysis and planning to assure balanced study of important
manmade and natural ecosystems, (2) integration of existing
information to detail priorities and geographic context of
new research, (3) selected research projects where an early
start was necessary to "phase in" properly with the remainder
of the program, and (4) development of an operational plan for
participation by institutions and agencies.
Dr. Goodall and the Desert Biome Committee have been
very active in visiting prospective research sites and con-
sidering the structure and organization of the desert studies.
The necessary groundwork has been laid, and a research de-
sign is being prepared.
Working sessions to consider the development of the
tundra biome subprogram were held in Washington, D.C., and
at the University of Alaska. The subprogram will be divided
into arctic and alpine sections, with the main thrust in the
Arctic Zone at Point Barrow. At the Alaska meeting the de-
tails of the organization were worked out, and procedures
were established for preparing proposals and a research de-
Although formal activity has been minimal in this biome,
there has been considerable informal activity in the scienti-
fic community. With the appointment of Dr. Gessel as Director,
rapid development of the coniferous forest subprogram is an-
Tropical Forest Biome
The first working session to consider the development of
a tropical forest subprogram was held in Ann Arbor in October.
A temporary Steering Committee was named.
Under a subcontract the Travelers Research Center in
Hartford, Connecticut, is working on approaches to ecosystem
modeling, program management, data-handling systems, and
training. The Willow Run Laboratories of the University of
Michigan have made a remote-sensing flight over the Pawnee
grasslands site as the first step in a program to investigate
the uses of remote sensing in ecosystem studies. Ground data
were gathered by IBP personnel at Pawnee. The Willow Run
Laboratories segment of this remote-sensing program was sup-
ported by North American Rockwell.
STUDY OF ESKIMOS
During the summer a team of scientists assisted by
graduate students began a multidisciplinary study of Eskimos
living at Wainwright, Alaska.
The main objective of this study is to determine how the
human-breeding isolate in this community has perpetuated it-
self in the face of meager resources and a harsh climate.
Data will be analyzed and correlated with data collected
on three other Eskimo communities by Canadian, Danish, and
French research workers.
Scientists participating in studies on growth and devel-
opment, epidemiology, environmental physiology, geneology
and demography, and genetic markers are as follows:
Frederick A. Milan, Director, University of Wisconsin
R. H. Osborne, University of Wisconsin
R. W. Meier, University of Indiana
W. S. Laughlin, University of Wisconsin
J. R. Cameron, University of Wisconsin
R. B. Mazess, University of Wisconsin
F. Pauls, Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene
C. Dotter, University of Oregon
C. Crumpton, University of Wisconsin
D. W. Rennie, State University of New York, Buffalo
R. Fitts, State University of New York, Buffalo
R. Shephard, University of Toronto, Canada
P. G. di Prampero, University of Milan, Italy
A. A. Dahlberg, University of Chicago
Mrs. A. A. Dahlberg, University of Chicago
J. Mayhall, University of Chicago
Robert Owen, University of Chicago
ECOLOGY OF MIGRANT PEOPLES
Research in this program was initiated in Holmes County,
Mississippi, in the spring and summer of 1967, with the es-
tablishment of a Community IBP Committee and the start of
fieldwork on selected problems (e.g., the practice of mid-
wifery, prenatal and postnatal care of mothers and infants,
and infant-maternal mortality. Communication was established
with researchers in Canada and overseas scientists who at-
tended the Symposium on Circumpolar Health-Related Problems
(College, Alaska, July 23-27, 1967). As a consequence the
desirability of investigating urbanization in the northern
part of the United States became evident.
This preliminary phase continued into 1968 with the
establishment of a research field station. Ties have also
been established with Presbyterian-St. Luke's Hospital in
Chicago, Ill., and with Meharry Medical College in Tennessee.
Investigations in Holmes County thus far have permitted
a general definition of that society and its relation to
An expansion of research in this program awaits sub-
mission of a proposal to a granting agency for funds.
PUBLIC EDUCATION PROGRAM
As the U.S./IBP moves along, a well-thought-out program
in public education is seen as an urgent need. Since June
1967, a press relations program has been available to the
scientific and lay press. This program is being broadened
to make use of other media--films, exhibits, books, tele-
vision, and radio. The aim is not so much to publicize the
IBP as to bring about a greater awareness and understanding
of IBP objectives. Indeed, public education can fairly be
considered one of the central objectives of the IBP.
In September 1968, an ad hoc committee made up of sci-
entific, educational, public-relations, and information
specialists met to advise the U.S. Executive Committee on
ways of instituting a sound public-education program. The
recommendations of the committee are being used in planning
a long-term, intensive effort in public education. An ef-
fort will be made to educate the public--particularly the
younger students--in the major concepts underlying the various
IBP studies and to call attention to the emergence from tra-
ditional fields of botany and zoology, of multidisciplinary
programs in environmental sciences. It is crucial that this
new approach be understood if the problems of an urban and
highly technological civilization (e.g., pollution, threat
of .famine, and population growth) are to be met effectively.
DR. SESHACHAR'S VISIT
The Smithsonian Institution and the U.S. Executive Com-
mittee sponsored a month-long visit of Dr. B. R. Seshachar to
the United States. Dr. Seshachar is Chairman of the Division
of Zoology of the University of Delhi, Chairman of the Indian
Committee for the IBP, and Chairman of the Indian National
Committee for the International Union of Biological Sciences.
The purpose was to discuss collaborative research, in which
Public Law 480 funds will be used, and other aspects of India-
United States cooperation in IBP activities.
The first 3 days of his visit in November were spent in
Washington, D.C., in discussions with officials of federal
agencies and members of the staff of the IBP office and the
Office of the Foreign Secretary in the NAS-NRC. He also par-
ticipated in a meeting of the Advisory Committee on Interna-
tional Organizations and Programs of the NAS-NRC.
From Washington, Dr. Seshachar visited New York City,
where he met with Dr. C. Glen King at Columbia University.
Next he went on an extended itinerary meeting with other IBP
program directors, returning to Washington in time to parti-
cipate in a meeting of the U.S. Executive Committee on No-
vember 25 and 26.
The U.S. National Committee held 11 meetings in 1968.
In addition, there were 10 workshops and three panel meetings.
In May, a joint United States-Canadian workshop on photo-
synthesis was held at Carleton University, Ottawa. Members
of PT and PF subcommittees of both countries participated.
The following publications were issued in 1968:
Man's Survival in a Changing World
Three issues of Inter-American Newsletter (in English,
Portuguese, and Spanish
Indexed List of North American Systematists
Interested in the IBP
The following publications are in press:
Report No. 3, Part 2. This report will include (1) a
general description of integrated research programs,
(2) detailed descriptions of IRP's funded or partially
funded, and (3) a list of individual research pro-
jects considered by the National Committee to be
relevant to the IBP.
Proceedings of the following conferences: "Physio-
logical Limitations on Crop Production under Tem-
perature and Moisture Stress," "Insect-Plant Inter-
actions," and "Biology and Ecology of Nitrogen."