International Biological Program 1968 Annual Report, January 1969 (20 pages)

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Title:
International Biological Program 1968 Annual Report, January 1969 (20 pages)
Series Title:
Annual Report (1968). 1969
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English
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Box: 15
Folder: Annual Report (1968). 1969

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University of Florida
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INTERNATIONAL BIOLOGICAL PROGRAM

ANNUAL REPORT


January 1969












CHANGES IN ORGANIZATION

In mid-year the structure of the U.S./IBP was changed

from a planning organization consisting of a national commit-

tee, nine subcommittees, and various panels and ad hoc groups

(a total of 96 persons) to a functional organization consisting

of the following groups (a total of 26 persons):

Executive Committee

Program Coordinating Committee

International Coordinating Committee

Biometeorology Panel

The Biometeorology Panel is shared with the Atmospheric Sci-

ences Committee of the National Academy of Sciences.

In January 1968 Dr. Frederick Seitz, President, NAS-NRC,

appointed Dr. W. Frank Blair as Chairman of the National Com-

mittee to succeed Dr. Roger Revelle, who remains on the Com-

mittee as ex officio member.



PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT

The following additional integrated research programs

(IRP's) were approved by the National Committee:

Convergent and Divergent Evolution

Physiology of Colonizing Species

Biological Production in Upwelling Ecosystems








Biology of Human Populations at High Altitudes

Nutritional Adaptation to the Environment

Ecology of Migrant Peoples

Biogeography of the Sea

Conservation of Environments

The following areas of research have been generated spe-

cifically for the U.S./IBP but have not yet reached the stage

of development necessary for final approval of the Executive

Committee as IRP's:

Conservation of Genetic Materials

Crop Production under Stress

Productivity and Conservation of Marine Mammals

Nitrogen Management

Chemical Interactions between Organisms

Biological Control of Pests

Biochemical Agents for Insect-Pest Control

Each of these studies, upon approval, will be merged'with an

existing IRP, established as a new IRP, or identified as an

IBP-related research project.

In late spring of 1968 the Analysis of Ecosystems program

received a 2-year grant of $224,300 from the National Science

Foundation, and the Grasslands Biome study received $350,000

from NSF and $50,000 from the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

Partial 'funding of the Eskimo program enabled a team of sci-

entists from Canada, Italy, and the United States to begin

the summer field program in Wainwright, Alaska.








In mid-November the following studies were reviewed for

funding by NSF:

Biological Production in Upwelling Ecosystems (IRP)

Biology of Human Populations at High Altitudes (IRP)

Nutritional Adaptation to the Environment (IRP)

Deciduous Forest Biome study

The results of the *review will not become known until early

in 1969.



WORKING CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA

The National Committee sponsored a number of working con-

ferences and symposia:

"Insect-Plant Interactions" / March 18-22 / Santa
Barbara, California

The conference was attended by 66 botanists, entomologists,

and organic chemists who surveyed and discussed in plenary

sessions interactions among plants and between plants and in-

sects. In the afternoons and evenings the two groups met sep-

arately for more detailed discussions of specific areas of

concern.

The group on plant-plant interactions was chaired by Dr.

Cornelius Muller of the University of California, Santa Bar-

bara; the group on insect-plant interactions was chaired by

Dr. Edward F. Knipling, U.S. Department of Agriculture.








"Biomedical Challenges Presented by the American
Indian" / June 25 / Washington, D.C.

The conference, sponsored by the Pan American Health

Organization (PAHO) and the U.S. National Committee, was a

special session of PAHO's Advisory Committee on Medical Re-

search. It was chaired by Dr. James Neel, Chairman, Depart-

ment of Human Genetics, University of Michigan Medical School.

The meeting served to acquaint scientists from various

countries with the research programs on Indians that are a

part of the IBP throughout the Western Hemisphere. According

to Dr, Neel, "Ours is the last generation of scientists that

will be able to study the quickly disappearing examples of

primitive man. The Indian--largely restricted to the Americas-

is only one of a number of groups of primitive people scattered

throughout the world. By concentrating on him in the IBP, we

hope to stimulate the study of these other populations in

different parts of the world before it is too late."

Scientists from Brazil, Chile, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico,

Venezuela, and the United States participated in the conference.

Working Conference on Coastal Upwelling / June 5
and 6 / Seattle, Washington

The conference was convened by Dr. Richard Dugdale,

University of Washington, Seattle. About 20 scientists, in-

cluding several from South America, participated.
(I* .A. -.?< 7








Coastal upwelling enriches marine waters, and the most

highly productive areas are those where such upwellings occur.

Because for years there have been only sporadic and discon-

nected investigations of upwelling areas, the time was be-

lieved propitious for bringing together investigators who are

planning research in this field. An integrated research pro-

gram on upwelling was designed at the meeting, and in Novem-

ber a proposal was submitted to the National Science Founda-

tion for funding.

Coordination has been effected with Peru. Dr. Dugdale

visited several countries adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea

to discuss coordination of similar projects.

Conference on Thermal Addition / November 4-7 /
Solomons, Maryland

The terra "thermal addition" refers to the discharge of

heated water from conventional and thermonuclear generating

plants into the sea.

More than 200 scientists from Canada, Scotland, Sweden,

and the United States met at the University of Maryland's

Natural Resources Institute, Solomons, Maryland, to discuss

the effects of thermal addition on freshwater and marine

life. A report will be issued.








Meetings in Conjunction with the Annual Meeting
of the American Institute of Biological Sciences /
September 3-7 / Columbus, Ohio

During the annual meeting of the AIBS at The Ohio State

University, Columbus, the IBP cosponsored three meetings:

1. A symposium on "Centers of Plant Diversity and the

Conservation of Crop Germ Plasm." The cosponsor was the

Society of Economic Botany.

2. A meeting on tropical rain forests. The cosponsor

was the Batelle Memorial Institute.

3. A symposium on the IBP--Man's Survival in a Changing

World." The cosponsor was the AIBS. Speakers were Frederick

Sargent, II, Dean, College of Environmental Sciences, Univer-

sity of Wisconsin, Green Bay; W. Frank Blair, Professor of

Zoology, University of Texas, Austin, and Chairman of the

U.S. National Committee for the IBP; George P. Miller, Chair-

man, Committee on Science and Astronautics, U.S. House of

Representatives; and Frederick E. Smith, Chairman, Department

of Wildlife and Fisheries, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Mr. Miller reviewed the growth of congressional interest in

-the IBP. He said, "We intend to continue to fight excuses

for delay with reasons for action."








CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS ON THE IBP

On March 9, 1967, Chairman George P. Miller of the Com-

mittee on Science and Astronautics, U.S. House of Represen-

tatives, introduced House Concurrent Resolution 2737 which

read, in part, as follows:

Resolved by the House of Representatives (the
Senate concurring), That the Congress hereby finds
and declares that the international biological pro-
gram, which was established under the auspices of
the International Council of Scientific Unions
and the International Union of Biological Sciences
and which is sponsored in the United States by the
National Academy of Sciences and the National Acad-
emy of Engineering, will provide a unique and ef-
fective means of meeting the urgent need for in-
creased study and research related to biological
productivity and human welfare in a changing world
environment.
The Congress commends and endorses the in-
ternational biological program and expresses its
support *.

The resolution was put on the calendar of the Subcommittee

on Science, Research, and Development. Beginning in May 1967,

the Subcommittee held a series of hearings that extended into

the summer. Many outstanding scientists testified.

After the hearings were completed, the Subcommittee made

a number of recommendations, including the following:

a. The Federal Government should provide financing
for the U.S. portion of the IBP for fiscal year
1969, in an amount not less than $3 million nor
in excess of $5 million.
b. A firm commitment by'the U.S. Government to sup-
port the IBP to the maximum feasible extent and
for the full 5-year term, longer if necessary.
This should be done both through Executive ex-
pression and legislative resolution.








The first report of the Subcommittee was issued early

in 1968.

The Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Development

held additional hearings in May 1968 to discuss House Joint

Resolution 1240.

At the beginning of these hearings, Emilio Q. Daddario,

Chairman of the Subcommittee, said:

Last year at the direction of Chairman George P. Miller,
this Subcommittee investigated the IBP. We did that with a
supporting resolution by the Chairman, which was House Con-
current Resolution 273.
That inquiry led to a 4-month period of investigation.
At the conclusion of this investigation, the Subcommittee
was convinced of the importance of the IBP, both for its
own sake and for its great significance with respect to the
natural environment of the earth. At the same time we felt
that the legislative adequacy of that resolution was not
particularly effective.
I should like to emphasize we are not now considering
the merits or desirability of the IBP itself. That deter-
mination has already been made. So far as the Subcommittee
is concerned, the IBP is a promising attempt to deal with
an urgent problem; namely, the understanding of our planetary
ecology. Without such understanding, we are in grave danger
of accelerating deterioration of the ecosystems on which
life depends.
What we are concerned with here is the method of im-
plementing the U.S. effort. How can we give the program
the support it must have to be effective?

Early in 1968 the U.S. Executive Committee assisted the

NSF in preparing a report entitled "Analysis of Needs and

Objectives of the U.S. International Biological Program."

The 84-page document, submitted to the Bureau of the Budget

to justify allocation of funds in support of the IBP, in-

cludes the following statement: "NSF believes that a








reasonably comprehensive program will require $8 million of

special funds in FY 1970 and a total of $43 million during

the period FY 1970 through FY 1973."

The U.S. Executive Committee is fairly optimistic that

as the IRP's are submitted for funding, funds will be made

available.

In the spring of 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson in

an address at Glassboro, New Jersey to commemorate the first

anniversary of his meeting there with leaders of the Soviet

Union, said: "I propose that this effort [IBP] be a perma-

nent concern of our nations. I propose that the United

States scientists join with the scientists of the Soviet

Union and other nations to form an international council on

the human environment."



MEETING OF U.S. AND CANADIAN CT,SUBCOMMITTEES

Twenty-two participants equally divided between the U.S.

and Canada met for 2 days in June 1968, at Ely, Minnesota,

to compare the national programs. Objectives, methods, pro-

gress, and problems were topics of discussion. Interrela-

tionships of IBP-CT and the IUCN were also discussed.

It was learned that the programs of the United States

and Canada differ in some respects. The Canadian program is

aimed at:








Completing the international checksheets on Canadian
national parks and equivalent reserves.

Compiling an inventory of all plant formations in
Canada.

Compiling a list of all Canadian institutions in-
volved in conservation.

Promoting a national system of ecological reserves
and conducting research concerning these reserves.

The Canadians-see their problems as:

Ignorance of ecological values and rapid destruction
of valuable sites.

A severe shortage of trained personnel.

Provincial ownership requiring separate actions or
laws to be passed in each province.



MEETING ON REMOTE SENSING

A meeting was held in the NAS-NRC building in Washing-

ton, D.C., on July 17 to make preliminary assessments of

remote sensing applications for U.S./IBP.

There were 15 participants--two from North American

Rockwell (industry) and the others from federal agencies and

universities.

The following uses for remote sensing were suggested:

Assessment of primary and secondary productivity.

Energy flow.

Growth rates.

Assessment of total chlorophyll, including distri-
bution and time-lapse changes.








Comparison of species in various habitats with ex-
tensions into those factors that promote or inhibit
species growth and productivity.

Time-lapse measurements or observations showing
broad-scale or detailed changes in phenologic events,
which in turn may be extended into functions of micro-
climatic distribution on a time-lapse basis.

Application of a computer microdensitometer for data
reduction.

Assessments. and measurements of evapotransportation.



ANALYSIS OF ECOSYSTEMS

Considerable progress is being made in the subprograms

biomess) of the integrated research program on analysis of

ecosystems and in the program projects under that program.

Names of the subprograms and the directors follow.


Grasslands Biome----------George M. Van Dyne, Colorado State
University

Deciduous Forest Biome----Stanley I. Auerbach, Oak Ridge
National Laboratory

Desert Biome--------------David W. Goodall, University of
Utah

Tundra Biome---------------Frank Pitelka, University of
California, Berkeley

Coniferous Forest Biome---Stanley Gessel, University of
Washington

Tropical Forest Biome-----Director to be appointed








Grasslands Biome

Research began at the Pawnee site during the summer.

Progress is also being made in site development, construction,

and acquisition of equipment. Some funds are being used in

an information-synthesis project designed to relate available

information on grasslands to the study at Pawnee. Work has

also begun on planning, analysis, modeling, and administrative

procedures.

A design has been considered for a "comprehensive" grass-

lands research program. The objective of this phase of the

study is to extend results from the intensive study of Pawnee

in both space and time by comparing diverse kinds of grass-

lands throughout the United States.



Deciduous Forest Biome

After months of planning, meetings of various campus

groups, and deliberations by the Steering Committee, a pro-

posal to begin work in this biome was submitted to the National

Science Foundation. The proposed work involved (1) regional

analysis and planning to assure balanced study of important

manmade and natural ecosystems, (2) integration of existing

information to detail priorities and geographic context of

new research, (3) selected research projects where an early

start was necessary to "phase in" properly with the remainder

of the program, and (4) development of an operational plan for

participation by institutions and agencies.








Desert Biome

Dr. Goodall and the Desert Biome Committee have been

very active in visiting prospective research sites and con-

sidering the structure and organization of the desert studies.

The necessary groundwork has been laid, and a research de-

sign is being prepared.



Tundra Biome

Working sessions to consider the development of the

tundra biome subprogram were held in Washington, D.C., and

at the University of Alaska. The subprogram will be divided

into arctic and alpine sections, with the main thrust in the

Arctic Zone at Point Barrow. At the Alaska meeting the de-

tails of the organization were worked out, and procedures

were established for preparing proposals and a research de-

sign.



Coniferous Forest

Although formal activity has been minimal in this biome,

there has been considerable informal activity in the scienti-

fic community. With the appointment of Dr. Gessel as Director,

rapid development of the coniferous forest subprogram is an-

ticipated.








Tropical Forest Biome

The first working session to consider the development of

a tropical forest subprogram was held in Ann Arbor in October.

A temporary Steering Committee was named.



Program Projects

Under a subcontract the Travelers Research Center in

Hartford, Connecticut, is working on approaches to ecosystem

modeling, program management, data-handling systems, and

training. The Willow Run Laboratories of the University of

Michigan have made a remote-sensing flight over the Pawnee

grasslands site as the first step in a program to investigate

the uses of remote sensing in ecosystem studies. Ground data

were gathered by IBP personnel at Pawnee. The Willow Run

Laboratories segment of this remote-sensing program was sup-

ported by North American Rockwell.



STUDY OF ESKIMOS

During the summer a team of scientists assisted by

graduate students began a multidisciplinary study of Eskimos

living at Wainwright, Alaska.

The main objective of this study is to determine how the

human-breeding isolate in this community has perpetuated it-

self in the face of meager resources and a harsh climate.








Data will be analyzed and correlated with data collected

on three other Eskimo communities by Canadian, Danish, and

French research workers.

Scientists participating in studies on growth and devel-

opment, epidemiology, environmental physiology, geneology

and demography, and genetic markers are as follows:

Frederick A. Milan, Director, University of Wisconsin

R. H. Osborne, University of Wisconsin

R. W. Meier, University of Indiana

W. S. Laughlin, University of Wisconsin

J. R. Cameron, University of Wisconsin

R. B. Mazess, University of Wisconsin

F. Pauls, Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene

C. Dotter, University of Oregon

C. Crumpton, University of Wisconsin

D. W. Rennie, State University of New York, Buffalo

R. Fitts, State University of New York, Buffalo

R. Shephard, University of Toronto, Canada

P. G. di Prampero, University of Milan, Italy

A. A. Dahlberg, University of Chicago

Mrs. A. A. Dahlberg, University of Chicago

J. Mayhall, University of Chicago

Robert Owen, University of Chicago








ECOLOGY OF MIGRANT PEOPLES

Research in this program was initiated in Holmes County,

Mississippi, in the spring and summer of 1967, with the es-

tablishment of a Community IBP Committee and the start of

fieldwork on selected problems (e.g., the practice of mid-

wifery, prenatal and postnatal care of mothers and infants,

and infant-maternal mortality. Communication was established

with researchers in Canada and overseas scientists who at-

tended the Symposium on Circumpolar Health-Related Problems

(College, Alaska, July 23-27, 1967). As a consequence the

desirability of investigating urbanization in the northern

part of the United States became evident.

This preliminary phase continued into 1968 with the

establishment of a research field station. Ties have also

been established with Presbyterian-St. Luke's Hospital in

Chicago, Ill., and with Meharry Medical College in Tennessee.

Investigations in Holmes County thus far have permitted

a general definition of that society and its relation to

Chicago.

An expansion of research in this program awaits sub-

mission of a proposal to a granting agency for funds.








PUBLIC EDUCATION PROGRAM

As the U.S./IBP moves along, a well-thought-out program

in public education is seen as an urgent need. Since June

1967, a press relations program has been available to the

scientific and lay press. This program is being broadened

to make use of other media--films, exhibits, books, tele-

vision, and radio. The aim is not so much to publicize the

IBP as to bring about a greater awareness and understanding

of IBP objectives. Indeed, public education can fairly be

considered one of the central objectives of the IBP.

In September 1968, an ad hoc committee made up of sci-

entific, educational, public-relations, and information

specialists met to advise the U.S. Executive Committee on

ways of instituting a sound public-education program. The

recommendations of the committee are being used in planning

a long-term, intensive effort in public education. An ef-

fort will be made to educate the public--particularly the

younger students--in the major concepts underlying the various

IBP studies and to call attention to the emergence from tra-

ditional fields of botany and zoology, of multidisciplinary

programs in environmental sciences. It is crucial that this

new approach be understood if the problems of an urban and

highly technological civilization (e.g., pollution, threat

of .famine, and population growth) are to be met effectively.








DR. SESHACHAR'S VISIT

The Smithsonian Institution and the U.S. Executive Com-

mittee sponsored a month-long visit of Dr. B. R. Seshachar to

the United States. Dr. Seshachar is Chairman of the Division

of Zoology of the University of Delhi, Chairman of the Indian

Committee for the IBP, and Chairman of the Indian National

Committee for the International Union of Biological Sciences.

The purpose was to discuss collaborative research, in which

Public Law 480 funds will be used, and other aspects of India-

United States cooperation in IBP activities.

The first 3 days of his visit in November were spent in

Washington, D.C., in discussions with officials of federal

agencies and members of the staff of the IBP office and the

Office of the Foreign Secretary in the NAS-NRC. He also par-

ticipated in a meeting of the Advisory Committee on Interna-

tional Organizations and Programs of the NAS-NRC.

From Washington, Dr. Seshachar visited New York City,

where he met with Dr. C. Glen King at Columbia University.

Next he went on an extended itinerary meeting with other IBP

program directors, returning to Washington in time to parti-

cipate in a meeting of the U.S. Executive Committee on No-

vember 25 and 26.








OTHER ACTIVITIES

The U.S. National Committee held 11 meetings in 1968.

In addition, there were 10 workshops and three panel meetings.

In May, a joint United States-Canadian workshop on photo-

synthesis was held at Carleton University, Ottawa. Members

of PT and PF subcommittees of both countries participated.

The following publications were issued in 1968:

Man's Survival in a Changing World

Three issues of Inter-American Newsletter (in English,
Portuguese, and Spanish

Indexed List of North American Systematists
Interested in the IBP

The following publications are in press:

Report No. 3, Part 2. This report will include (1) a
general description of integrated research programs,
(2) detailed descriptions of IRP's funded or partially
funded, and (3) a list of individual research pro-
jects considered by the National Committee to be
relevant to the IBP.

Proceedings of the following conferences: "Physio-
logical Limitations on Crop Production under Tem-
perature and Moisture Stress," "Insect-Plant Inter-
actions," and "Biology and Ecology of Nitrogen."