S: NOTES ON METHODS OF OBSERVING NAVAL E. 2 .93
STORES OPERATIONS nemRRREo TJ
B Austin Cary, U. S. Forest
This results from several years' experience and is
written for the possible benefit of State'Foresters and others
who may come in contact with the industry, for their guidance
in fact in some work now contemplated. -
Methods of Installation
The box is used so rarely now that consideration of it
may be omitted. Cups are of 3 forms, oblong, conical, and
circular (Herty type-), and made either of clay or one of several
metals. All types have their advocates and seem in fact to be
good in their places when used right. The collateral equipment
really concerns us more.
Gum is led into the cups by either "aprons" or "gutters"
The latter are generally employed in connection with the Herty
and the conical cup; the former with the oblong variety. One
apron and one gutter may also be combined, draining into an
oblong cup, and this appears now to be one of the best methods
of installation. Most frequently tins are inserted into trees
into an axe cut, but to an extent, nailing on replaces that
What is necessary is, first, that the equipment should
be of such a type and so installed as to catch all the gum pro-
duced by the tree. Cost of course is an element, also dis-
coloration of gum and hence of rosin. Then it is now generally
recognized that method of installation may have a material
effect on the vield of the tree while it may also, if faulty,
endanger tg f existence even through the short term of
years that an operation lasts. This comes out most clearly
not with the cups in their original position at the base of the
t a.but when they have been raised for the later years of
operation. You will see(hha once this should de while anyone
at all familiar with the turpentine woods has seen abundant
It is not the intention to go into detailed description
here of the various installations. Varieties encountered should
be carefully observed, noted down in connection with any test
that may be running, and their efficiency from one and another
standpoint made the subject of consideration or discussion.
/6 rj z 4W 4 :-^ ^ r J-J f:
The hack and the puller are the tools employed.
Consider this in the first place and always that good chip-
ping is a real art, one form of manual dexterity. If you
doubt that, try it yourself.
A keen tool that makes a clean cut is known to secure
materially better yield than a dull one. Among the hacks used
or that have been used there is considerable difference in
size, meaning by size that of the circle to which the cutting
part is turned and spread between the 2 wings. No. 0 hacks
are the smallest commonly employed and their use is recommended
because it promotes economy of timber. No. 2 hacks are nearly
out of date now and this is thought w6ll though a skiLful man
can do just as good work with them if he wants to.
What looks like a wide, destructive face is habitually
cut in operating for turpentine, but there seems to be little
likelihood that we shall get away from it because yield of gum
appears, within limits, to be dependent on the cross section of
wood cut away. On the other hand, no advantage is believed to
arise from cutting an excessively wide face; 30% of the trlee
circumference cut away seems, on ordinary sizes, to represent
good practice. In the conduct of the tests that are in view
a feature of the program is measurement of the width of faces.
This should be from bark to bark, round whatever angle the face
has, taken at 2 or 3 different heights in the work of the year
and averaged to the nearest half inch. It is a sign of good
work when faces are smooth on the flat surface, also smooth and
even at the sides, not rough and wavering.
Going up the tree slowly means economy of working sur-
face and less damage to possible lumber product; within limits
it is believed to promote yield also. A half inch per streak,
16 Ae- for a regular season, represents excellent practice in
the first 3 years; little more than half that after the puller
has been resorted to. There is, no doubt, a minimum cut
necessary to freshen the face and set the ducts to running
freely. That has not been exactly determined far as I know, and
possibly it varies with the season. Again, as in the case of
face width, this element in the tests that are to be aen will
be subjected to measurements. The practice that has arisen
among those dealing with this business is to measure height at
the side of the face, not the middle, beginning with the point
at which the hack was first cut in and ending with the angle of
the streak last cut. The work of successive years is best
The depth of the cut made, and other features of the
work connected with that, are factors of great importance. In
the first place as to measurement of depth: this is taken
on the last streak cut, at the point where the cut is deepest,
which is near the middle point of one side. Bark is excluded
of course. It may be got by setting a foot rule on the flat
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face, vertical to it and as near the streak as may be. Then,
by sighting along, the depth of the cut can be got to the
nearest sixteenth of an inch.
Here again as in the case of face width a certain
depth is desirable in the interest of field. Too deep chip-
ping on the other hand not only damages the tree from the
point of view of possible lumber production, but may cause
"dry-face" and loss of yield. Liability to this will clearly
vary with the character of the tree. A young and thrifty tree,
practically all sapwood, will stand heavier work than an old
one with thin sap or a slim one with small, high crown. Slash
timber will not stand as heavy work as will longleaf.
It is not practicable of course in commercial work,
to vary the depth of cut in adaptation to each ttflecome to;
a good' general standard is the utmost that may be looked for.
This for longleaf as near as we know is represented by 5/8
or 3/4 inch; for slash by 1/2 or 5/8. In this connection
attention will be called to a couple more points. The "peak"
is the middle of the face, its angle, where the cuts from the
2 sides come together. The best practice makes the cut at
this point shouter than at the deepest point; in fact it is
not clear but that the shoRter it is the better. This arises
from relation of this point to the sap flow, and for the same
reason the "shoulder" or outer end of the streak often appears
to give the best yield of any part of it. The second point is
that too long a peak, produced by making the side cuts too near
to the vertical, is bad practice for the same reason.
Laying out a Test.
The purpose of the work commonly is to ascertain the
yield of certain classes of trees or faces. One may for one
thing wish to know if it pays to work certain sizes of trees -
that in fact will be the purpose of the first tests to be
inaugurated. Getting into a man's timber and finding a spot
where numerous t$nm of the kind wanted are standing,ohe may v
for instance select a group-of the smallest trees worked. The
caliper should be used breast high on each tree and the dia-
meters recorded.flange in size of an inch -9w-' More may be
allowed in a group if the average comes ri#ht. Descriptions
should be made of the site and stand, and note taken either
individually or for the group of the type of ttCs in it,
whether open and with full crowns or the opposite; this for
the reason that yield and safety from dryface are consider-
ably dependent on those factors. As each tree is selected a
mark is put on it, that not only designates it but fixes
things so it is readily found in dipping; Paint marks are
what to date have been used.Commonly at least 2 or 3 groups
of ttes will be selected in a place, one man's work. These
might embrace the smallest slash and the smallest longleaf,
doubtful backcupped t1ibof larger size, a group 9 inches
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in diameter with good crowns worked for the first time, for
a sort of standard. 20 trees per group will be the usual
This much is elementary, to start with. It is probable
that before we get through this work more accurate and
elaborate methods will be appropriate, in the following res-
pects, likely: the number of ttae. in the group may be
raised; diameters may be taken with the tape rather than the
caliper and at the exact height of 4J feet marked on the
tree; height of ttas may be measured as well as diameter,
with a view to ascertaining the effect workinghas on growth;
in this last case bled and unbled trees will perhaps be
observed comparatively. That is yet to be determined, in
the future, however.
Weighing the Gum Produced.
Some precautions are necessary here. Rain water in the
cups we don't want to weigh, and the weight of chips and
trash don't concern us. These matters inject an element of
inaccuracy into the work which cannot in fact be overcome
entirely; still by the use of care it can be minimized.
Water should be poured out of the cups before dipping and
out of the bucket. When a chipper uses a paddle faithfully
he keeps most of the chips out; large chips mot deeply
imbedded in the gum can readily be thrown out by the observer.
This is to be remembered, however that for the percent we
are trying for resultswill tell in commercial practice; good
commercial standards in our own work will therefore be
appropriate; also, uniformity between tests at different
points is desirable, and perfection throughout is certainly
not to be attained.
A main precaution in the conduct of this work is to
get to the test ahead of the regular dipping crew. Coopera-
tion of the operator or woods rider has usually to be relied
on for this, though sometimes a test can be located so the
observer can himself watch it; but losing a dipping out of
our record for a season is bad business.
Dipping gum is dirty work while keeping notes and
making sure that the work is done right is rather parti-
cular business, so except in case of necessity 2 men should
participate in the weighing. A barrel and bucket should be
on the ground (a galvanized bucket is lighter and handier
than the regular one and not costly.) Otherwise the equip-
ment is only paddle, scale and note book. After noting*
down the date, number of the dipping, and streaks run in,
the procedure for any group is as follows: First weigh
the empty bucket, then dip into it the gum from all the
trees of the group; weighthe bucket so filled and deduct
its weight empty. This gives the net weight of gum. Weigh
the bucket again before dipping the next group.
Clean dipping is of course desirable. A point that is v
very necessary to get right is the number of streaks cut
since the last dipping. The woods rider or chipper can give
.this, but it is well to check fhat they say by direct observa-
,tion., For this purpose at each dipping put a crayon mark on
the last streak cut on 2 or 3 trees whenethe test is entered. V
Getting every tree every time is another consideration. Each
cup dipped should bestred down. Notes then will be as follows:
3rd Dipping; June 5; 4 streaks on
Group 1, 1 spot of paint. Bucket filled 30 Ibs.
/,q4 AR rc empty 2 *
Net gum 281 lbs.
Group 2, as above.
Notes should be further taken of any faces that cease yield-
ing or that are seriously out of condition, aC, r k I
Scrape is an element in yield as well as dip; in fact it often
constitutes more than a quarter of the total yield in longleaf.
The process of scraping is familiar, or will be. A piece of
burlap is a good thing to weigh% it in.
This seems to be most of what is called for at this time;
more will come out as we go along with the business. It will
be seen that the work outlined whila not difficult or compli-
cated, does require carefulness and reliability on the part of
the observer. Most of our" w "vill have to be done through
hired : the selection of these calls for shrewdness and
care. Occasional chhck on them is also desirable, sharing in the
work if it is a possible thing.
One more consideration will be set down. As we have to
go to each tbaeof each groap 8 or 10 times in each season, it
will save a lot of labor if the test is well laid out in the
first place. That means that the tnes of a group should not be
too far apart, that the designating marks are conspicuous and
so placed that they will be readily caught up as one goes about.
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