PEACE CORPS TRAINING PROJECT
Center for Latin American Studies
University of Florida
June 26 September 11
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
OrFxoI Op TH- PnBBmaIDE June 14, 1965
Peace Corps Trainees:
The University of Florida is pleased and proud
to work with the Peace Corps. We extend to each of
you a warm welcome to our campus. Every effort will
be made to make your stay with us a useful and mean-
ingful experience in your quest to help others help
The Peace Corps has effectively demonstrated that
it is possible to help our fellow man in other lands to
translate freedom into creative growth. We welcome the
opportunity to have a part in this significant undertak-
ing and will continue to take a personal interest in
your achievements for peace throughout the world.
W e Reit
The purpose of this syllabus is to give attending
trainees an overview of the courses planned for them, an
introduction to the University of Florida, and a reference
The training program described in the following pages
is intended to be flexible, dynamic, adapted to the needs
of the trainees as the courses develop. They have been de-
signed on the basis of the best available information con-
cerning the actual field assignments for the individuals.
If new information is received during the weeks of the
training project, the courses will be altered to give the
trainees the most practical and useful training possible.
(Summary Prepared by Pan American Union)
Brazil is often called the "land of the future" because of its dy-
namic people, growing industry, and varied resources. With its vast,
untapped forest riches and minerals, its large iron deposits, and its
hydro-electric power potential, Brazilian industry is forging ahead. Its
twenty-one states, Federal District, and five territories make up the
largest republic in Latin America, larger than continental United States.
Here one finds the world's largest river, the Amazon; two waterfalls,
Iguassu and Paulo Afonso, that are higher than Niagara, and the unique
Butantin Institute, better known as the dSnake Farm", which renders in-
valable service to humanity by developing serums as part of its broad
program of scientific research. Brazil helps to fill the world's coffee
cups, producing more than one half of the total output of coffee. Sao
Paulo, South America's greatest industrial center, is typified by diver-
sified industries and skyscrapers.
GEOGRAPHY; Climate in Brazil varies from tropical in the north to temper-
ate in the south. The lowlying, sparsely settled Amazon basin, which
explorer Francisco de Orellana named in honor of a tribe of white women
warriors he claimed to have discovered there, is hot and humid. Here
one finds virgin forests, abounding in innumerable varieties of forest
products. States of the half-forest, half-desert expanse of uplands in
the northeast are warm but dry. Cotton, cacao, sugar cane, tobacco, and
coffee are produced here. Here, too, carnauba wax is harvested from a
variety of palm particularly suited to drought conditions. The southern
and coastal regions are cooler with moderate but adequate rainfall. One
finds here the most fertile and productive lands, the coffee fazendas,
the cotton, fruits, and livestock that contribute so heavily to the ex-
port trade, the principal mineral deposits, and manufacturing centers.
CULTURE: A land of color and culture, Brazil's people and cities reflect
a varied background. The population is made up of all the basic stocks
into which the human race is divided Indian, Caucasian, Negro, and
Asiatic. Brazil is proud of the fact that it has no segregation and
creates no outcasts.
In Recife, the "Venice of America," one can see the influence of
Negro culture in the colorful customs of the recifenses, especially in
their annual carnival. This is true also of Salvador whose tradition is
flavored by African folklore preserved in the music, dances, and macumba
(voodoo) rituals of the descendants of the African slaves. In the meat-
packing and wine producing state of Rio Grande do Sul one sees workers
dressed in clothing typical of their ancestral lands Portugal, Bavaria,
Tuscany. The cosmopolitan former capital, Rio de Janeiro, blands the
beauties of nature and man. Its many attractions include Copacabana
Beach, the famous Sugarloaf Mountain, the figure of Christ the Redeemer
on Corcovado peak, patterned mosaic sidewalks, gracious old churches with
their carved, gold leaf altars, and the well-known pre-Lenten Carnival.
HISTORY: Brazil was discovered in 1500 by the Portuguese navigator
Pedro Alvares Cabral, who claimed the territory for King Manuel of Port-
ugal. Cabral called the region Vera Cruz, a name eventually changed to
Brasil, after a dyewood, pau-brasil, found and exported by the early set-
tlers. Brazil's first movement for independence was led by idealistic
Jose da Silva Xavier, better known as Tiradentes (the "Toothpuller"), in
1789. On September 7, 1822, Dom Pedro, son of the Portuguese King Joao VI,
declared Brazil's independence and was proclaimed constitutional Emperor.
On November 15, 1989, Brazil was proclaimed a federal republic, a change
made without violence or bloodshed. Jose Bonifaqio de Andrada e Silva,
Brazil's national hero, was Minister of Interior and Foreign Affairs in
Dom Pedro's time. He is lovingly called the "Patriarch of Independence."
GOVERNMENT: Brazil's liberal and progressive constitution provides for
the separation of power among three branches of the government legisla-
tive, executive, and judicial. Brazil has a president who is popularly
elected for a five-year term and may not succeed himself. He is assisted
by a Cabinet of ten ministers whom he appoints. The legislative power
is vested in the National Congress which consists of two houses; the Fed-
eral Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The Federal Judiciary consists
of a Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Court of Appeals, and military,
electoral, and labor tribunals, In 1960 the federal government was moved
from Rio de Janeiro to its new national capital, Bras(lia, located on the
Central Plateau in the State of Goias, where a Federal District comprises
400 square miles. The dominant idea in moving the capital was to speed
ECONOMY: The national economy of Brazil is largely dependent upon its ex-
port trade in agricultural and forest products, the principal one being
coffee, cotton, cacao, tobacco, sugar, hides, yerba mate, carnauba wax,
and sisal fiber. Industrial diamonds, rock crystal, and precious and
semi-precious gems also are exported. The country is still dependent upon
imports for machinery, fuels, and wheat. As a general rule, Brazilian
imports exceed exports in volume, but in value the reverse is true. Food
production leads the field of industry while iron and steel production
FLAG: The national flag consists of a green rectangle on which a yellow
diamond is centered containing a blue sphere with 22 stars representing
the Southern Cross, the states, and the Federal District. Across the
sphere is a white band bearing the words Ordem e Progresso (Order and
TABLE OF CONTENTS
The University of Florida -------------------- 1
The Center for Latin American Studies -------- 2
Peace Corps Training ----------------- ----- 4
The Peace Corps "Image"----------------------- 5
The Peace Corps Program in Brazil------------- 6
Training Objectives ------------- ----------- 7
Location of the Peace Corps Office------- 10
Administrative Staff ------------------ 10
Housing ---.-------------------------- 10
Meals -------.--- -------- -------------- 10
Laundry ----------------------- -------- 10
Telephone ------------------------------ 11
Mail -----------------.-------------- 11
Allowance ------------------------------ 11
Medical Care --------------------------- 11
Dental Care ------------------- -------- 11
Immunizations .----------------------- -11
Glasses ------------------------------- 12
Training Library and Study Center ------- 12
Language Laboratory -------------------- 12
The Council of Trainees .------..-------. 12
Assessment of Trainees ---------------------- 13
Language Training ------------------------- 15
Technical Studies --------------------------- 17
Brazil Studies ----------------------------- 20
American Studies, World Affairs,Communism ---- 22
Physical Training and Recreation ------------- 35
Personal and Rental Health ------------------ 36
Peace Corps Orientation ---------------------- 38
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
The treaty with the King of Spain which ceded Florida to the United
States was ratified in 1821, and a Legislative Council was appointed to
govern the territory, As early as 1824 and again in 1836, the establish-
ment of a University of Florida was discussed at meetings of the Council,
but nothing came of the discussions because of so many more pressing
issues in the new territory.
In 1845 Florida became a state and, upon its admission, the govern-
ment turned over to it 100,000 acres of land, the proceeds from which were
to be used in establishing two seminaries -- one to the east of the Suwan-
nee River and one to the west. Eight years later, in 1853, the East Flor-
ida Seminary was established at Ocala. It was moved to Gainesville in 1866.
In 1905 the Buckman Act was passed, the purpose of which was to
coordinate the efforts of several inferior institutions into a strong
higher education unit. By virtue of this act, the East Florida Seminary
was consolidated with the other smaller not-so-enterprising institutions,
and the present University was created at Gainesville for men. It became
coeducational in 1947.
Its present campus of 1,800 acres is a tropical garden of palms,
pines, native plants, and spacious lawns, with more than 600 buildings
in a pleasing blend of Gothic and modern architecture.
The University of Florida, which has a current enrollment of 15,701,
is composed of 13 Colleges and several Schools and Centers, all on one
campus--Agriculture, Architecture and Fine Arts, Arts and Sciences,
Business Administration, Education, Engineering, Health and Related
Services, Law, Medicine, Nursing, Pharmacy, Physical Education, and the
Schools of Forestry, Journalism, Communications, the Graduate School,
and a Center for Latin American Studies. Just this year the University
announced the establishment of a new Center--a Center for Neurobiological
Sciences, to deal with the problems of mental health and brain disorders.
The President of the University of Florida is Dr, J. Wayne Reitz,
who was appointed to this position in 1955. President Reitz, who for-
merly served as Provost for Agriculture, is nationally known as an
agricultural economist and as a university administrator,
CENTER FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES
AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
The University's commitment to Latin American Studies began in the
1890's with the introduction of the teaching of Spanish and the enroll-
ment of students from Latin America in its several degree programs and
particularly in the College of Agriculture. In the first decades of the
twentieth century courses were instituted in Latin American literature,
civilization, history, geography, sociology, trade and in Portuguese.
In 1930 an Institute of Inter-American Affairs was organized with the
mission of broadening and coordinating the Latin American curriculum and
encouraging more Latin American students to attend the University. The
following year the first Latin American Conference was held on the cam-
pus and between 1939 and 1940 the REVISTA INTERAMERICANA was published
both in English and Spanish, largely as a student activity. In 1950, the
Institute was superseded by the School of Inter-American Studies which,
reflecting an increasing emphasis on graduate training, had the primary
responsibility of developing interdisciplinary M.A, and Ph.D. programs
in Inter-American Studies and coordinating Latin American related de-
partmental graduate work. During the decade, 1950-1960, seventy-four
M.A. and nineteen doctorates in Latin American Studies were awarded in
the School and the several cooperating departments. The School also
instituted an annual Caribbean Conference and undertook the publication
of the LATIN AMERICAN MONOGRAPH SERIES and the JOURNAL OF INTER-AMERICAN
The University's Latin American interests were given additional
impetus in 1961 with the establishment of a Caribbean Research Program
under a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation and in 1962 with the estab-
lishment of a Latin American Language and Area Center under Provisions
of Title VI of the National Defense Education Act. The purpose of the
Center was to develop programs of graduate instruction with special em-
phasis on area knowledge and Spanish and Portuguese. Federal contri-
butions provide funds for faculty expansion, visiting lecturers, faculty
travel and research, and library acquisitions.
In September, 1963, the Center for Latin American Studies was cre-
ated to provide a broader organizational structure for an expanding range
of activities. The primary functions of the Center are to encourage and
coordinate research and graduate training throughout the University and
to administer directly instructional, research and publication programs
which do not more properly pertain to colleges, schools and departments.
In connection with this reorganization, the School of Inter-American
Studies was abolished, the Latin American Language and Area Center was
redesignated the Latin American Language and Area Program, and it along
with the Caribbean Research Program, became a component unit of the new
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Besides academic functions, the program of the Center aims to
foster understanding of and mutual appreciation among the peoples of
the Western Hemisphere. It stimulates specific studies common to the
Americas; it encourages the exchange of students, professors, and other
specialists among colleges and universities of the Americas; it assists
government and industry in training and orienting personnel; and it
sponsors conferences, institutes, and special lectures on Latin American
and inter-American affairs. The Center for Latin American Studies is the
contracting agency within the University which is administering this
Peace Corps Training Project.
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PEACE CORPS TRAINING
Peace Corps Training will probably seem to be much unlike the
trainee's previous instructional experiences; it is a rigorous en-
gagement requiring the trainee's utmost in stamina, energy, time,
and, of most importance, effort. If the trainee feels that he has
been caught up in a kind of saturation screening process designed
to match whatever motivation he may display, the judgement is as it
should be. Each trainee should soon realize that he is being prepar-
ed for a highly responsible and sensitive kind of foreign service
for which the most rigorous selection criteria must be applied. The
Peace Corps volunteer overseas is a representative American; host
country citizens will judge the United States by his actions and views.
Impatience, condescension, intolerance, and unacceptable behavior have
no place in the role of a Peace Corps trainee or volunteer. While the
trainee is engaged in the kinds of studies designed to equip him with
language proficiency, job skills, cultural insights, and physical stam-
ina, Peace Corps will be studying him as a human being.
The Peace Corps volunteer in the field is often required to exer-
cise great individual ingenuity and resourcefulness. He may be called
upon to work in relatively unstructured situations where independence
of judgement and self-reliance will spell the difference between suc-
cess and failure. The Peace Corps volunteer must also combat his per-
sonal boredom, loneliness, and frustration. Thus, Peace Corps training
is designed to equp the trainee with information, insights, and skills
which will amplify his effectiveness in the field situation. Further,
his training will allow him to work with a degree of self confidence
in a new cultural context.
It is necessary that the trainee realize that his preparation must
take place in a limited period of time. Peace Corps training is a
tightly scheduled, highly charged work program that oft times precludes
independence of action. Given limited time, it is imperative that the
trainee take maximum advantage of the experiences provided for him.
While the trainee will be afforded ample opportunities to express him-
self, take part in discussions and practical experiences; he will have
no option regarding class attendance or participation in assigned acti-
vities. Class attendance is compulsory, punctuality is required, and
the trainee is expected to demonstrate interest in subject matter and
to contribute to discussions.
The training staff is keenly aware of the financial investment in-
volved in each trainee as well as the contribution the Peace Corps will
make to world peace. And they intend to give the Peace Corps full
value. The best preparation for independent self-reliant action is to
take full advantage of the instruction provided in this training project.
THE PEACE CORPS "IMAGE"
Someone has said that the Peace Corps volunteer overseas should
be looked upon not so much as "an American representative" as a "re-
presentative American". In the sense that he is neither the formula-
tor nor the instrument of American foreign policy, there is literal
truth in the foregoing statement. Yet the likelihood is that host-
country nationals may see you in both lights, and especially may this
be true in isolated, relatively unsophisticated areas. The Peace Corps
volunteer, unlike other U.S. servants abroad, is placed in the very
sensitive situation of living with the people amongst whom he works
and sharing very intimately their problems. It is difficult for him to
achieve the after-hours privacy of his compatriot in the embassy or the
technical aid mission. In short, he must think constantly about the
"image" and reflect carefully upon the impact of his conduct and his
actions in a cultural context which may not have had a closeup of the
What is true of the field situation applies almost equally to
training. Despite resounding success, Peace Corps still has severe
critics who begin to sit in judgment upon the volunteer from the mom-
ent he enters training and who are quick to generalize from particulars.
This will apply equally to the areas in which you will receive your
field training and to the more academic portion of the training program
carried out on the University campus. Poor relations between trainees
and students in regular attendance could not fail to be a source of dis-
may.to Peace Corps which rightfully regards the college campus as its
chief source of supply; injudicious conduct would quickly result in
hostility towards subsequent training contingents. In short, the trainees
needs to become "image-conscious" from the moment he accepts the invita-
tion to train, for the public does not distinguish between trainees and
volunteers: they are all part of a generality known as Peace Corps.
While you are on the campus, be mindful of the fact that your per-
sonal conduct (and even your attitude) may be influential in determining
whether other individuals who observe you will apply for service. Though
you will be operating on a very different kind of schedule and regimen
which may at times set you apart as a unit and give you a strong sense
of identification with your fellow trainees, you should avoid creating
the impression that you are in any sense a member of a special privilege
group. No matter how fatigued you may be or how much you feel the
strain of the stiff training regimen, you should endeavor to be plea-
sant and communicative with the members of the University student body
and considerate of people who are not operating under the same routine
While in field training you should be constantly aware of the
need to respect the traditions, social customs, beliefs and mores
of the cultures in which you will be working. Impatience, condescen-
sion, intolerance and unacceptable social conduct have no place in the
role of the Peace Corps trainee or volunteer. In a word, the trainee
should from the very outset work consciously at achieving the kind of
inter-personal relationships which will assure his efficacy abroad.
THE PEACE CORPS PROGRAM IN BRAZIL
The Peace Corps has many volunteers currently in Brazil who are
involved in a number of projects such as community development projects
in both urban and rural areas, public health projects, the 4-H program,
and others. The Peace Corps training project at the University of Florida
will prepare Peace Corps Volunteers to work in the urban community develop-
ment program and other projects with similar objectives. Trainees emerg-
ing from this training project will assist Brazilian governmental agencies
in developing community projects and assisting in training community lead-
ers. An incountry orientation and an: additional training program will be
conducted when the volunteers arrive in Brazil.
After training in Brazil, the most volunteers will work in teams of
two. In some cases, Brazilian counterparts may also be a part of the team.
Volunteers will live in private homes, boarding houses, hotels or
apartments, depending on accommodations available in the specific locality.
Although individual assignments cannot be made until the end of train-
ing, the most trainees will serve in the cities of Brasilia, Recife and
Salvador. In some cases, volunteers will replace returning Peace Corps
Volunteers while others will be assigned to new positions.
The nature of the work will vary from community to community and flex-
ibility must be maintained in order to do the most effective job in each
locality to which a volunteer is assigned.
In general, the training project at the University of Florida is
designed to aid every trainee to achieve the following objectives:
1. To communicate effectively with the residents of the host
country and to provide a basic foundation in language
techniques to increase language proficiency during the
months of Brazil service.
2. A sympathetic understanding of the Brazil culture and the pro-
blems and aspirations of its peoples,
3. To understand and communicate the achievements, problems, tra-
ditions, of the United States, in ways the peoples of the host
country will understand.
4. The technical competence to do the best possible job while at
work in Brazil.
5. A competent understanding of the position of the United States
in world affairs, as well as the tactics of world Communism.
6. A thorough grounding in the goals of the Peace Corps--both
through its individual volunteers and as a prominent organ-
ization in the world spotlight.
7. A mental and physical fitness to allow the trainee to withstand
both the physical hardships and mental pressures that may lie ahead.
The training project will require eleven sixty-hour work weeks, dur-
ing which time an attempt will be made to cover all the above objectives
with major emphasis on language and technical training.
The training will require approximately the following instructional
A. Area studies, to include the history, political and
cultural aspects of the host country and personal
adaptation thereto. 80
B. Technical studies, to include the knowledge and skills
required to perform the assigned job overseas. 140
C. American studies and world affairs, to include contem-
porary international problems and the United States'
role in the world scene. 40
D. Health and medical training, to include first aid, per-
sonal hygiene, and health education. 40
Total hrs. forward 300
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Total hrs. forward:
E. Physical education and recreation, to include per-
sonal conditioning as well as practice of United
States and host country games. 60
F. Language training, to include knowledge of language
structure, basic vocabulary, conversational practice,
and technical terms appropriate to the assignment. 290
G. Peace Corps orientation, to include aims and organ-
ization of the Peace Corps, and the Volunteer's
role within it. 15
H. Instruction in the philosophy, strategy, tactics
and menace of communism. 15
TOTAL HOURS 680
Although each week's schedule of training activities will be distri-
buted to trainees during the proceeding week, a typical week's schedule
might appear as follows:
TIME MONDAY.. TUESDAY. W UNUESDA
6:00 Physical Physical Physical
7:00 Training Training Training
to Breakfast Breakfast Breakfast
to Language Language Language
to LUNCH LUNCH LUNCH
to Language Lab Language Lab Language Lab
1:45 American Brazil Brazil
to Studies Studies Studies
3:45 Brazil Mental Technical
5:45 Studies Health Studies
to DINNER DINNER DINNER
7:30 Technical American Personal
9:30 Studies Studies Health
In addition to the schedule above, Sunday evenings will be
scheduled for guest speakers and
--~- -- --
Language Lab oc
LOCATION OF THE PEACE CORPS OFFICE:
First Floor Mallory Hall
Office Hours: 8:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. daily
PROJECT DIRECTOR: Dr. Robert W. Bradbury
Dr. Bradbury has served as Professor of Economics at the University
of Florida for the past fifteen years. He has also served on the
faculty of Louisiana State University and the University of Mich-
igan. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan. He
has served in the Foreign Service of the United States in the Em-
bassies at Panama City and Mexico City and as American Consul at
Sa5 Paulo, Brazil. He has also served as visiting Fulbright Prof-
essor at the National University of Asuncion, Paraguay and the
National University of the Northeast at Resistencia, Argentina.
Administrative Assistant: Dr. Joseph W. Romita
Dr. Romita received his Ph.D. from the University of Madrid and
has taught as a member of the faculty at Rollins College and the
University of Florida. He has also served in the Foreign Service
in Spain, the Philippines and Paraguay.
Secretaries: Mrs. Juanita Hawkins
Miss Patricia McAllister
All Peace Corps Trainees will be housed in Mallory Hall for the
first seven weeks of training.
Meals will be served in the Northwest section in the Cafeteria,
which will be reserved for the Peace Corps. You will go thru the
regular cafeteria line and you will be given $3.75 per day to pay for
your meals. To facilitate rapid language proficiency, the language
instructors will eat with the trainees. After July 1, only the Portu-
guese language will be spoken in the dining area.
Laundry and dry cleaning will be at the individual trainees ex-
pense. There are several pick up establishments for laundry and dry
cleaning near the campus. Trainees who desire to do their own laundry
will find coin-operated machines in the basement of the dormitory.
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Trainees may make telephone calls from pay phones located in the
dormitory and other buildings on the University of Florida campus.
The address for Peace Corps Trainees during their stay in Florida
Peace Corps Training Project
University of Florida
Each trainee is given $2.00 per day allowance while in training.
This will be paid to the trainees on the Friday of each week. To cover
period from Saturday to Friday, the first payment will be made Saturday,
Trainees will use the University of Florida Infirmary while on
campus. The Informary is served by a staff of full-time physicians
and nurses and is equipped to handle most medical problems. The phy-
sicians office hours are 9:30 A.M. to 4:30 P.M. daily. The Infirmary
telephone number is 376-3261, extension 2586.
Medical Coordinator; Dr. William A. Hall, M.D.
Dr. Hall, Physician and Director of the University of Florida
Health Services, received his degree from the Harvard Medical School.
The dental care program will begin with a visual examination at
the beginning of the University training program. Trainees will then
be assigned to a nearby dentist for a more complete visual dental exam-
ination and full-mouth X-rays. The dentist will proceed with any treat-
ment indicated by these examinations. Peace Corps regulations do not
permit your dentist to make new prosthetic appliances such as bridges
or dentures, but nearly all other forms of necessary dental work can be
Basic immunizations against smallpox, diptheria, tetanus, typhoid
fever, and polio will be provided to all trainees. Those who are being
assigned to areas where typhus,cholera, yellow fever, plague, or infect-
ious hepatitus are common will be given these immunizations. The shots
will be given in the University Infirmary sometime during the training
Those trainees who wear eye glasses should have two pairs available
when they go overseas. Those who wear contact lenses should have one pair
of regular framed eye glasses as a spare. If your eyes have not been
checked (refracted) in the last two years, Peace Corps will arrange for
this examination by an ophthalmologist. If you need a second pair of
glasses, you will receive one pair of new glasses at Peace Corps expense.
Training Library and Study Center:
A training Library will be established in Mallory Hall which will
contain most of the books and materials essential to training. (Peace
Corps Trainees may also use the University of Florida Library). The
Training Library will also contain supplementary materials such as Peace
Corps information, information concerning Brazil, Newspapers in both
Portuguese and English, magazines, and supplementary information perti-
nent to other training areas.
Tape recorders with language tapes and blank tapes will be available
in the language classrooms for use in developing language proficiency.
The Council of Trainees:
During the first week of training, the Peace Corps Trainees will
elect five persons to the Council of Trainees. The Council will be
organized to act as the trainees' representative executive committee.
The Council will meet with the Project Director at scheduled meetings
to discuss program changes and problems arising during training.
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ASSESSMENTS OF TRAINEES
The valid selection of Peace Corps Volunteers depends heavily
upon a thorough assessment of them as Trainees, The assessment pro-
cess will continue throughout the project; it is basic and essential
to the project's success.
The purpose of the assessment process is to select those trainees
who are qualified by character, motivation, skills, health, and educa-
tion to handle competently the jobs they will be assigned. The suc-
cess of the Peace Corps program in Brazil depends not only on the
competence of the trainees, but quite as much on him as an individual.
The Assessment Officer for this Project will be a Clinical Psy-
chologist. He will administer several psychological tests, some
early in the training program and others throughout the project.Each
trainee will be asked to make certain ratings and judgements about
himself in relation to his fellow trainees. The Psychologist will
also interview each trainee during the course of the training project.
In addition, the instructional staff will assess the trainees' ach-
ievement during training.
It should be emphasized that the assessment process is designed
to assure that each person's participation in the Peace Corps is a
positive and rewarding experience. Thus, the assessment process has
another purpose: to help trainees to consider and overcome whatever
problems they may encounter during training. The Psychologist will
be available for personal counseling, and the trainees should feel
no hesitancy in seeking such help. Dr. John Stiefel, the project's
consulting Psychiatrist, will also be available for conferences
should the trainees feel the need of his services.
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Consulting Psychiatrist: Dr. John Raabe Stiefel
Dr. Stiefel received his B.S. from Davidson College and his
M.D. from Emory University. He served his internship at the Pied-
mont Hospital, Atlanta, Georgia, and was a Psychiatric Resident at
Cincinnati General Hospital. During the war he served the Navy as
Head of the Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic at U.S. Naval Hospital,
San Diego, California. Dr. Stiefel is at the present time serving
the College of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, at the University
of Florida and is also serving as Consultant to the Division of
Vocational Rehabilitation of the State of Florida, and to the Veter-
ans Administration Hospital at Lake City, Florida.
- 14 -
Objectives and Scope
This program is designed for those who must acquire language com-
munication in a limited period of time and are unable to devote to it
the years of study required by regular university courses.
The immediate objectives are to develop linguistic abilities in
the following manner. First, to be able to understand Portuguese when
it is spoken at a normal rate of speed. Since listening comprehension
is logically foremost in the learning of a language, ear training must
come before the reproduction of verbal symbols. Second, to be able to
speak the language, employing a considerable range of vocabulary and
grammatic structures, and, also begin collecting words and special
phrasing sentences for expressing nuances of feeling and thought. Third
and fourth will be the ability to read and to write, to the degree poss-
ible that which has been learned orally. Therefore, the amount of time
in this course will be devoted to the attainment of these four basic
skills: audial comprehension, oral expression, reading, and writing.
The long range objectives are cultural, in the sense that a lang-
uage reflects the behavior patterns of the people who speaker it. The
students will be introduced to the "culture" of the language, through
such things as expletives, gestures, intonation patterns, choice of
polite or formal forms on the social context, and so forth.
The method to be used is intensive audio-lingual training, utiliz-
ing the oral approach to language, in order for the students to be able
to master the four skills outlined above. The nucleus of the language
program will be formed around the use of Henry Hoge's Oral Brazilian
Portuguese. This book contains dialogues and drills at the elementary
level designed to give the student control of the basic language pat-
terns. There will be supplementary materials and exercises in substi-
tution, analogy, and adaptation and other linguistic experiences.
Audio-visual aids will also be employed when adviseable.
Both the book and the tapes on Oral Brazilian Portuguese by Henry
Hoge will be used, This material has been prepared under the Language
Development Branch of the U.S. Office of Education. Other materials
will also be used and once the students have gained firm control of
the particular current patterns, short periods will be devoted to con-
versation on related topics aimed at expanding material from the text.
- 1I -
In order to assure maximum exposure to the language, native speakers will
meet with students during meals as well as in informal occasions for
group singing, games, and other activities as time permits.
Classroom procedures and examinations
Classroom usage of English will be kept to a minimum and will bq
used only for clarification. At the beginning students will be grouped
according to their previous contact with Portuguese. At the end of the
first two weeks, students will be grouped according to their language
learning ability. This will enable the more advanced students to pro-
gress more rapidly, and the slower ones to receive more individual atten-
tion. The instructors and students will be rotated from time to time.
Frequent quizes, as well as proficiency examinations will be given by the
instructors and by the coordinator. All staff members will work closely
with the coordinator in the preparation and evaluation of these materi-
The language laboratory provides the opportunity for the student
to over-learn the material presented live in class by the instructors.
Its use will depend on the local facilities and the students' needs.
Insofar as possible, however, every advantage will be made of line
drill and drill with tapes by small groups in the classrooms,
The S-rating oral language proficiency system based on that used
by the Foreign Service Institute has been adapted for this program.
Testing will be conducted by the coordinator and two instructors. The
average student should reach an S-2 level of proficiency. This level
will assure the student of having sufficient language competence to as-
sume his duties in Brazil as well as a solid foundation on which to con-
tinue to improve his language ability.
Coordinator: Mrs. Julia Vissotto Saunders
Is a native of Sao'Paulo, Brazil. She is a graduate from Bennett
College of Rio de Janeiro and George Peabody College of Nashville, Tenn-
essee. She has done graduate work in Library Science and Portuguese at
Louisiana State University and at the University of Florida. She has
taught language and pedagogy in several institutions and has worked with
previous Peace Corps programs for Brazil. She recently took an inten-
sive short training in the Foreign Service Institute on Absolute Lang-
uage Proficiency Ratings, sponsored by the Peace Corps Division of
University Relations and Training, Washington, D. C.
Instructors: Mrs. Jovelina Galvao da Silva, of Sao Paulo and El Paso,Texas
Mr. Gerard Behague, of Rio de Janeiro and Tulane Univ., Louisiana
Mrs. Angela Andrade Cunha, of Belo Horizonte and Univ. of Florida
Miss Olivia Daniel, of Porto Alegre and Baylor University, Texas
Mrs. Ana Cristina Kojin, of SaW Paulo and the University of Florida
Mr. Peter Kurz, of Rio de Janeiro, Princeton Univ.and Univ.of Fla.
Mrs. Jessiclair Pereira Whiteof Rio de Janeiro and Arizona State Univ.
- L_ -
COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT GENERAL
The technical studies program at the University of Florida is de-
signed to give the trainee a comprehension of the fundamental concepts
and principles of community development. The basic objectives of the
program will be to provide the trainee with knowledge and skills needed
to enable him to assume a position of educational leadership in Brazil
in helping to improve the social and economic conditions of the people
and their communities.
Instructions, demonstrations, field experiences and lectures will
provide a basic understanding of the skills needed by the trainee to ef-
fectively demonstrate the validity of the community approach in helping
people help themselves,
Specific techniques and methods that have been used successfully in
stimulating the formation of organizations through which the community
may assess and express its needs and through which it may participate in
the solution of its own problems will be reviewed and evaluated with re-
ference to their applicability to Brazil. Field experiences in applying
these methods and techniques with disadvantaged groups will be one of the
major components of the technical studies program.
The phenomenon of community development, theory and philosophy will
be adequately covered; however the primary emphasis will be placed on
Major topics to be covered in the training program include:
1. What community development is
2. Theoretical conception of community phenomena
3. The community as a social system
4. Major functions of the community
5. The allocation of community functions
6. Extracommunity systems the community's vertical pattern of
7. What holds the community together the community's horizontal
pattern of organization
8. Community action models
9. Community Development as a process
10. Prospects for Community Development in Brazil
11. Methods and techniques in successful community development
a. Where to start
b. How to analyze the community situation
(1) Identification of social system
(2) Identification of racial and ethnic segment
(3) Identification of power structure
(4) Identification of community functions and their
(5) Identification of "extracommunity systems"
(6) Identification of "horizontal organization pattern"
(7) Selecting individuals, groups and organizations for
revelant community action programs
(8) Identification of recognized felt needs
(9) Determination of priority of problems
c. How to structure organizations for action
d. How to plan action program
e. Structuring a plan of work
f. Value of teaching plans
g. The action program
Special emphasis will be placed upon the role of recreational activities,
literacy teaching, handicrafts, gardening and simple self-help housing
improvements in involving people in community development.
Technical Studies Coordinator: Dr. Everett J. Dennis
Dr. Dennis is presently the Minister of Education at the First
Methodist Church in Manhattan, Kansas. He received his B.S. and M.S.
degrees from the University of Nebraska, and his Ph.D. in Agronomy from
Kansas State University. Dr. Dennis also earned the B.S. in Rural Min-
istry from Cotner College and the M.S. in Social Anthropology from
Scarrit College. Dr. Dennis lived in Brazil for several years and ser-
ved as coordinator for the Technical Studies area of the University of
Florida's Peace Corps Training Program, Brazil, 1964.
Technical Studies Co-Coordinator: Mr, J. Neil Raudabauth
Mr. Raudabaugh is Assistant Director, Division of Extension Research
and Training, Federal Extension Service, United States Department of Agri-
culture. He received his B.S. and M.S, at Iowa State University, where
he has also done advanced study, Mr. Raudabaugh has travelled extensively
in South America.
Program Consultant: Dr. S. E. Grigsby
Dr. Grigsby is Associate Professor of Sociology and Training Speci-
alists in the University of Florida's Agricultural Extension Service. He
received his B.S. and M.S. degrees from Louisiana State University, and
his Ph.D. in Sociology from Cornell University. Dr. Grigsby has complet-
ed post-doctoral work at Harvard University and has served over sixteen
years in various foreign service organizations. He has served in the
Technical Studies Area in three previous Peace Corps Training programs.
Visiting Lecturers: Dr. Carl C. Taylor
Dr. Gary King
Mr. Mell H. Atchley
Discussion Leader: Miss Linda Mathieson
Miss Mathieson has just returned from two years of service as a
Peace Corps Volunteer in Brazil. She will lead group discussions relat-
ing to field problems,
Considine, John J., M.M., The Missionary's Role in Socio-Economic
Betterment, Newman Press, 1960
Herrick, Robert, A Manual for Discussion Leaders in the Classroom,
Westmar College, Stripes Publishing Company, 1963
Jones, Robert W., "Measures of Effective Community Development: An Ap-
praisal of Community Action as a Social Movement," a
reprint from the International Review of Community De-
velopment, the International Federation of Settlements
and Neighborhood Centers, Rome, N.8, 1961
Poston, Richard, Democracy Speaks Many Tongues, Harper, 1962
Redfield, Robert, A Village That Chose Progress: Chan Kom Revisited, Uni-
versity of Chicago Press, 1950
United Nationals Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Cul-
tural Patterns and Technological Change, edited by Mar-
garet Mead, Internation Documents Service, Columbia
Adams, Richard N. and others, Social Change in Latin America Today, New
York, Harper, 1960, 353 pp.
Benedict, Ruth, Patterns of Culture, Penguin Books
Dobyns, Henry F., Carlos M. Mouge, and Mario C. Vazauez, "Summary of
Technical-Organizational Progress and Reactions to It,"
Human Organization XXI (Summer, 1962), 109-115
Drake, St. Clair, "Traditional Authority and Social Action in Former Bri-
tish West Africa,"Human Organization, XIX (Fall,1960),
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Agriculture Di-
vision, Fact-Finding with Rural People; a Guide to Effect-
ive Social Survey, prepared by Hsin-Pao Yang. FAo Agri-
cultural Development Paper No.52, Rome, 1957 138 pp.
Ross, M.G., Community Organization, Theory and Principles, Harper and
Warren, R. L., The Community in America, Rand McNally & Co., 1963
Lasswell, Harold D., "Integrating Communities into More Inclusive Social
Systems", Human Organization, XXI (Summer,1962) 116-124
United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, Measur-
ing the Results of Development Projects: A Manual for
the Use of Field Workers, by Samuel P. Hayes. Monographs
in the Applied Social Sciences, Paris, 1959, 100 pp.
U.S. Agency for International Development, Community Development and Soc-
ial Change, Training Material. Series A., Vol.4. Wash-
ington, D.C. The Agency, May 1962, 16 pp.
U.S. Agency for International Development, Community Development in Urban
and Semi-Urban Areas, Training Material. Series A., Vol.3,
Washington, D.C. The Agency, May 1962, 20 pp.
U.S. Agency for Internation Development, Community Development: The Vil-
lage AID Worker and Democratic Program Planning. Train-
ing Material. Series A., Vol. 7, Washington, D.C.:
The Agency, June 1962, 32 pp.
- 19 -
BRAZILIAN AREA STUDIES
The area studies program has several major objectives. First, to
give the trainee to the extent possible within the limitations inherent
in the training situation, an understanding of the culture in which he
will live and with which he will have to cope. Second, to acquaint him
with the region into which he is going, its problems and characteristics.
Third, preparation to the extent possible to face the problems of adapt-
tation to another culture and of cultural shock. Fourth, an understand-
ing of the structure and social organization of the Brazilian community,
Fifth, the development of tolerant and understanding attitudes toward
cultural problems at variance with one's own. Sixth, some understanding
of the nature of social change, in particular as it applies to Brazil.
The study of Brazilian society and culture will follow a sociolog-
ical framework that will give the major guidelines to the discussion of
topics of major interest in this program such as social institutions,
social organization, social problems, soCio-cultural change, the com-
munity, and so forth. The discussion of such topics and others will be
extended to include particularly materials dealing with Brazil drawn
upon the fields of geography, economy, history, and so on. Wherever
possible, materials specific to the areas of destination of the volun-
teers will be included; nevertheless, lecture presentations, and dis-
cussions, will be enough general so as to permit the formation of an
understanding perspective plastic enough to be related to particular
situations that trainees will face in their field work.
Brazilian Area Studies develop through a group of eighty lectures
of one hour each, including the participation of specialists from the
University of Florida as well as from other Universities campuses that
will focus specific topics, under the responsibility of one coordinator
that will be responsible for the majority of the lectures. The follow-
ing outline indicates the major points of our program.
BRAZIL: SOCIETY AND CULTURE
1. Brazil in Latin America. Similarities and differences.
2. The study of society and culture.
B. The Natural conditions of Human Society
1. The geographic factor. Geographical environment and
Society. The geography of Brazil. Regional types and
2. The biological factor. Human abilities. Race. Differ-
ential racial attributes of the Brazilian population.
3. The demographic factor. Population characteristics.
The vital processes. Population trends. Population
and resources. Population and politics
1. The meaning of culture.
2. The content of culture. The dominant culture. Variety
of sub-cultures in Brazil. Cultural processes.
3. The acquisition of culture. Primary socialization.
Secondary socialization. Growing up in Brazil: Regional
and sub-cultures in Brazil, and the socialization process
--similarities and differences.
D. Social Organization
1. Norms. Social pressures. Folkways and Mores. Real and
2. Statuses. Status and role. Social Types. Variety of
3. Groups. Societal groups, Primary groups. Social groups.
4. Associations. Voluntary associations. Bureaucracy.
E. Social Differentiation
1. Women and Men. Sex as status. Brazian sex statuses.
2. The family. Functions of the family. Changing and per-
sisting functions of the family in Brazil.
3. City, country, and suburb. The urban area. The small
town. The rural area.
4. Social classes and segments. Stratification. Stratifica-
tion in various socio-cultural settings.
5. Color and creed. Race relations. Religious groups and
6. Society and its institutions. The economic system. The
political system. The individual and the society.
F. Social Change
1. The problem of social change. Understanding traditional
societies and the context of applied socio-cultural
change. The specialist and the social context. Problems
in applied change.
Coordinator: Dr. J. F. Barbosa-Dasilva
Dr. Dasilva is presently assistant Professor of Sociology at the
Department of Sociology of Texas Western College--University of Texas,
in El Paso. Dr. Dasilva received his primary and secondary education
in Brazilian schools. He received the B.A. from the University of Sao
Paulo, his M.A. from the Foundation School of Sociology and Politics
(Sao Paulo), and a second M.A. in Sociology from the University of Sao
Paulo. He earned his Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of Florida
in 1963, During the summer of 1964 was Assistant and Instructor for the
Brazilian Studies Area Program for the Brazil II Peace Corps Project at
the University of Florida.
- 21 -
AMERICAN STUDIES, WORLD AFFAIRS AND COMMUNISM
THE AMERICAN STUDIES PROGRAM
of The University of Florida
The American Studies phase of the training program is designed to
up-date the Peace Corps Trainee's knowledge of his own culture. More
especially, it is intended to provide him with the latest scholarly in-
formation and insights. The ultimate objective, of course, is clear:
the Peace Corps volunteer will be able to discuss the basic values, pro-
blems and directions of his own society more intelligently with the
people of the host country to which he will be assigned.
During the eleven weeks some sixteen outstanding teachers will deal
with different facets of American culture, world affairs and communism.
Each one will lecture and lead discussions from two to six hours on top-
ics within his own special sphere of competence. Although each one will
bring to the sessions his own perspectives and his own emphases, some
effort will be made to focus on a central theme. That theme will be
"Values and Dynamism." What, in short, are the basic values of American
society, as well as the contemporary problems which derive from those
values and the direction in which we are moving?
VALUES IN A CHANGING AMERICA Forrest Berghorn
1. The importance of values
A. How values affected social behavior in two villages in the
Southwest United States,
B. How values affect American foreign policy.
II. The classification of values
III. Traditional values in the United States: The way others have seen
IV. Have American values changed?
A. Social Mobility and values
a. How mobile is the United States?
b. How does mobility affect values?
1. The changing American family
2. The change in security
B. From "inner- to other direction"?
- 22 -
THE PARTIES AND CONGRESS Walter Rosenbaum
I. The Myth of Party Government
A. The Congressional structure assumes the existence of political
parties which organize and direct the legislature.
B. American political rhetoric and tradition emphasize the sali-
ency of party and "party record" in interpreting and evaluat-
ing the Congress.
C. American electoral apparatus places major responsibility for
organizing the electorate upon Party.
D. The importance of Party in electoral behavior.
II. The Reality Behind the Illusion
A. Lack of basic performance to meet standards of "party" in Con-
B. The imposition of false political dichotomies by the American
1. The single-member, simple-majority system.
2. The persistence of symbols.
3. Historical associations,
4. Voter psychology.
C. Alternative descriptions for the political aggregations in Con-
1. The Four-Party Model.
2. The Two-Party Model.
3. The Bloc Model.
4. Party in Government vs. Party in Electrate.
III, Forces of Fragmentation.
A, Cultural heterogeneity.
B. Divided Institutions.
C. Lack of sanctions.
D. The search for consensus.
E. The Decline of Congress.
THE AMERICAN PRESIDENCY David Chalmers
I. The United States as a presidential government
A. Historical experience
B. Contemporary practice
II. The Measures of Greatness
III, A Look at the Record
IV. Some Practical Advice to Presidents
V, The Great Presidents
- 23 -
THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT: JUDGE, INTERPRETER, or GUARDIAN
I. The function of law
A. Protection of individuals vs. arbitrary action of Government.
B. Protection of individuals from actions of other individuals.
C. Provides a means for orderly settlement of disputes.
D. Creation of new forms and procedures.
II. Elements of the judicial process
A. Adversary proceedings.
B. Actual controversies.
C. Justifiable questions.
D. Ripeness for adjudication.
III. Federalism in the judicial structure
IV. The Supreme Court and judicial power
A. The Supreme Court and judicial review.
B. The Court as a political instrument.
C. The Court and controversy.
D. The Court and federalism.
GOVERNMENT AND THE ECONOMY IN THE UNITED STATES Clifton Yearley
I. The long term patterns of involvement and interaction between govern-
ment and economy.
A. From "mercantilism" to laissez-faire.
B. Laissez-faire in theory and practice.
C. From laissez-faire to total involvement,
II. The dimensions of total involvement: magnitudes.
A. The "politicized" economy.
B. The "economic" policy.
C. Attitudes of politicos and businessmen.
III. The mechanisms of involvement between government and economy.
A. Purposes: primarily political in a policy with a democratic set.
1. The politics of spoils/economics of spoils.
2. Politics of lobbies/economics of lobbies.
3. The political economy of bureaucracy and of special inter-
ests (or of associations).
4. Liberalism vs. Democracy: The debates over involvement.
B. Triumph of political establishments over economic establishment.
1. As seen through Square Deal, New Freedom, New Deal and New
2. Why and how government employs power in the economy.
a. To purchase followings: examples
b. To finance and sustain the political machinery: examples
c. To redress the imbalances among groups: examples
d. To insure survival; examples
- 24 -
IV. Government and economic growth.
COMPARATIVE ECONOMIC SYSTEMS Allen Sievers
I. Comparative Economic Systems
A. Primitive Economies
B. Generic Comparative Systems
C. Modern Economic Systems
D. Nature of Capitalism Early and Contemporary
E. Non-capitalistic Industrial Economies
F. Non-industrialized Economies in the Industrial Age
II. Underdeveloped Countries and the Process of Growth
A. Growth in the Capitalistic World
B. Growth in the Soviet Union
C. Generalized Theories of Growth
D. Underdeveloped Countries
2. Political Considerations
3. Social Considerations
4. Economics as such:
Investment and Savings
Foreign Economic Policy
IMMIGRATION AMERICA AS A LAND OF A HUNDRED PEOPLES David Chalmers
I. The Successive Waves of immigration that have made America the
greatest mass movement in history
II. Causes and Consequences of the Migrations
III. Problems of Assimilation and Nativism.
A. Changing Attitudes
B. Changing Legislation
IV. Immigration Policies Today
THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF RACE RELATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES
I. The Ante-Bellum System
A. Origins of slavery in the Spanish and English colonies
1. Slavery in Spanish Florida
2. Indentured servants, white and Negro, in Virginia
B. American Negro slavery in the southern states
C. The free Negro in North and South
- 2. -
II. Race relations during the Reconstruction Era
A. Freedom and the thirteenth amendment
B. The Southern plan -- Black Codes and the relegation of the
freedmen to second class citizenship
C. The fourteenth, fifteenth amendments and civil rights --
federal protection of the Negro
III. Reconstruction Southern Style after 1877
A. Denial of political rights to the Negro
B. The caste system -- the Negro placed in an inferior position
economically, socially, and politically -- southern idea of
the inferiority of the Negro
C. The effect of literature-newspapers, articles, short stories,
D. The western world accepts the southern ideas
E. Negro acceptance-Booker T. Washington
IV. The rise of new points of view
A. The Niagara Movement and the National Association for the Ad-
vancement of Colored People
B. Science and the denial of inferiority and superiority of race
C. The Supreme Court decisions
THE CONTEMPORARY NEGRO REVOLUTION Herbert J. Doherty
I. The Status of the Negro: A Flaw in American Democracy
A. Myrdal's presentation: A "dilemma" of values
B. Traditional justifications: Their weakening hold
C. Implications for America abroad
II. Interaction Between Americans and Other Peoples: Person-to-Person
in the Field
A. Our problem of internalized prejudice
1. "Social Distance"
2. Emotional base may outlast cognitive aspects
B. Our Habituation to separate social worlds
Result: Difficulty of -- artificialty of -- many interracial
contacts in the U. S.
C. A personal challenge to each American serving in a nonwhite
III. The 1960's: Changing Patterns of Race Relations
A. Some important reasons for change now
B. Some reasons for diminishing effectiveness of resistance to
C. Two settings for change
1. Rural South
2. The Metropolis
- 2t -
IV. The Negro Revolution: A Social Movement
A. The traditional organizations: NAACP, NUL
B. The doctrine of nonviolence: King and SCLC
C. Youth with a cause: CORE: SNCC: COFO
D. Black Nationalism
A. Continued diminution of institutionalized discrimination
B. The great task for the future: Reduction of the cumulative
handicaps rooted in past deprivation
VALUES AND DIRECTIONS IN AMERICAN ART A. Didier Graeffe
Introduction: What kind of art is American Art?
Five Phases in 20th Century Developments in American Art:
I. Getting away from European ideals and patterns (1890-1930)
The American scene the "Ashcan School" the Mid-Western School
II. The age of protest (1913-1950)
Post-impressionist values social consciousness Mexican muralists
III. The rise of abstraction (1930-1950)
Expressionism white writing action painting
IV. The triumph of American art in the world (1940-1960)
The so-called "School of Abstract Expressionism" (Pollock, de
Kooning et al.)
V. The rebirth of representation (1960 --x)
"Monsters" "Happenings" and "Pop Art" Rauschenberg
Conclusion; Possible future directions in American art
AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE Dan Branch
Introduction: Story of Change
Ambition Themes Styles Forms
I. Six Periods of American Architecture
A. Colonies: Southern Triumph; Northern Struggle
B. Federal Birth of the Nation 1790-1820
C. Romantic Era 1820-1860
D. Age of Elegance 1872-1913
E. Chicago Story 1883-1955
F. Modern "Style"
Functionalism; Organic; International; Exptessionalism;
II. Form Givers
III. Direction Future Change
Cithscape vs. Individual Buildings
- 27 -
VALUES AND DIRECTIONS IN AMERICAN LITERATURE Gordon Bigelow
I. The Wilderness Theme
A. Nature writing from Crevecoeur to Faulkner and Frost
B. Agrarian attitudes, from Jefferson to Ransom and Tate
C. The frontiersman, Cooper to Hemingway
D. Protests against the rape of the fair land, Thoreau to Steinbeck
II. The Theme of Success
A. The very model -- Poor Richard of Franklin and Horatio Alger
B. Early warnings in Irving, Hawthorne, and Melville -- Ichabod
Crane, Ethan Brand, and Ahab
C. Modern reactions -- Eliot, Pound, Cummings, the Beatniks
III. The American Comic Sense
A. Wit and deadpan humor, from Franklin to Twain and Faulkner
B. Frontier Humor and the Tall Tale
C. Modern comic of the grotesque and the absurd -- Fitzgerald,
IV. The American Tragic Sense
A. Surface optimism -- Emerson and Whitman
B. Melancholia and the Gothic strain
1. C. B. Brown
2. Poe, Melville, Hawthorne, Crane
3. Eliot, Faulkner
C. Existentialist Despair, Hemingway's NADA
THE MILITARY IN AMERICAN CULTURE John K. Mahon
I. Historical Resume of the Military in the pre-atomic era
A. Distrust of standing military forces
B. Reliance on the Citizen soldier
C. Periods of isolation from the main currents of U.S. culture
D. Traditional conservatism of the military man in a dominantly
E. Soldiers as presidents and elected political officers
II. Military Professionalism
A. What is it, and does it exist
B. Considering above, how did it come into being
C. The doctrine of civil supremacy
1. Abetted by true professionalism
2. Military reaction
3. Threats to it
D. Is there a "military mind"
III. Traditional American attitude toward war
A. All war or all peace
B. A game to be played hard and then forgotten
- 23 -
IV. Revolution wrought by the thermonuclear era
A. Force in being deters war, or wins it if it comes
B. Does the change threaten to militarize the U. S.
AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY John Spanier
I. The American Approach to Foreign Policy
A. The Impact of Isolationism
B. The Influence of American Democratic "ideology"
C. The Effect of domestic preoccupation'
D. Misunderstanding of "power politics" and "social politics"
II. The U. S. and Europe
A. The Recovery of Western Europe
B. The integration of the "Inner Six"
C. The "New Europe" and the Quest for Nuclear Weapons
D. Britain's Aloofness from the Continent
III. The U. S., the Emerging Nations, and Non-alignment
A. The Anti-colonial Revolution
B. "Nation-Building" and Economic Development
C. The Military Stalemate and Political Competition for the New
D. Communist Expectations for Revolution in the Developing Areas
UNITED STATES AND LATIN AMERICA Edward Silbert
I. Period of American Westward Expansion and Industrial "Take-off"
A. Reactions to Revolutions of Independence, 1810-1830
B. Monroe Doctrine and Further European Colonial Expansion in
1. Formation of Policy, 1823
2, Importance of British Navy
3. US-Mexican War, 1846
4. US-France Confrontation over Mexico, 1865-66
5. Olney Doctrine, 1895
C. Expansion of Trade and Pan-Americanism
II. Emergence of the United States as a World Power
A. Spanish-American War of 1898
1. Colony of Puerto Rico; Protectorate of Cuba
B. Panama Canal and Canal Diplomacy
1. Building of the Canal
2. Policing the Caribbean
a. Marine Interventions under Six Presidents
b. Attempts to Stabilize Political and Economic Systems
C. Dollar Diplomacy
D. Moral Diplomacy: Mexico
- 29 -
III. United States: Maturing Power
A. Toward a Good Neighbor Policy; 1920's
2. Clark Memorandum
B. Establishment of Good Neighbor Policy
1. Withdrawal of Marines from Caribbean
2. Abrogation of Platt Amendment
3. Better Deal for Panama; re: Canal Treaty
C. Mutual Defense and the Good Neighbor Policy
1. Building up Pan-American Spirit
a. Denial of Intervention
b. Awareness of mutual problem regarding external threat
to the hemisphere
2. Pan American Conferences
a. Montevideo, Buenos Aires, Havana, Lima
b. World War II Cooperation
D. Latin American Reaction to Depression of 1930's
1. Growth of Nationalism
2. Outspoken "Antiyankeeism"
IV. The United States and Latin America: Post-War
A. Toward Regional Cooperation and Responsibility
1. Toward Regional Cooperation and Responsibility
a. Conference of Rio, 1947
b. Conference of Bogata, 1948
c. Principles: Non-intervention; Peace-keeping appara-
tus within hemisphere; mutual defense against external
2. United States Involvement with Europe and Asia: 1945-1955
a. Latin American Resentment (Aid)
3. United States and Treatment of Dictators
a. Peron, Jimenez, Somoza, Trujillo, Duvalier
b. Reaction at home; in Latin America
4. Prevention of Communist Expansion in Latin America
a. Conflict with denial of intervention
b. Communist Infiltration: Unions, Schools, Parties
c. Experiences in Guatemala, Cuba, British Guiana,
Bolivia, Dominican Republic
d. O.A.S. Conference of Punta. del Est 1962
1. Mutual Action necessary to curb aggressive communism
e. Building an OAS military force to combat Communism: 1965
5. Cooperation in Attainment of Rapid Progress toward Indust-
rialization and General Social Welfare
a. World Trade Bank, AID, Point Four, Alliance for Progress
b. Price Stabilization of Raw Materials
B. Blocks to Greater Cooperation
1. Problems of Capital Formation in Latin America
a. Domestic Practices: Interest Rate Expectation
b. Feeling toward Large United States Private Investment
c. Position of Private Alien Investors
2. Conflicting Fears'of American Intervention and Communist
C. Potential for the Future
CLASSICAL MARXISM Harold Wilson
I. Origins and Background
A. The Industrial Revolution and Social Change
B. Utopian Socialism
2. St. Simon
C. Hegelian Idealism
1. The Conception of History
2. Nations and Ideas
E. Revolutions of 1848
II. The Communist Manifesto
A. The Materialist Conception of History
2. Dialectical Materialism
B. Class Struggle
1. Class and Class Consciousness
III. The Coming of Socialism
A. The Growth and Decline of Capitalism
1. Exploitation of Labor
a. Theory of Value
2. Capitalist Competition
3. Internal Contradictions in Capitalism
B. The Socialist Solution
1. The Role of the Proletariat
2. The Lower Stage of Socialism
IV. Marxism: Theory and Fact
THE PERMANENT REVOLUTION: "SOVIET COMMUNISM" Marvin Entner
I. Revolution and Civil War
A. The Revolutions of 1917
B. The Civil War
A. Early Economic Experiments
B. Early Social Experiments
III. Socialism in One Country
A. Charisma vs. Stability
B. The Emergence of Stalin
D. Industrialization, Collectivization, and Terror
E. The End of Stalinism
IV. The Post-Stalin Era
- 31 -
THE U. S. AND THE SINO-SOVIET BLOC John Spanier
I. The Soviet Union and China as Revolutionary Powers
II. The Failure of Nuclear Blackmail Tactics
III. The Conflict of Nationalism and Communism in the Developing Nations
IV. The Sino-Soviet Schism and the Emergence of the "Polycentric" Bloc
V. American Opportunities in a Tripolar World
Arthur W. Thompson (Ph.D.,Columbia University), Professor of History
and Chairman of the American Studies Program at the University
of Florida; author of several volumes, including A GUIDE TO THE
PRINCIPAL SOURCES FOR AMERICAN CIVILIZATION, 1800-1900 and A
GATEWAY TO THE SOCIAL SCIENCES; Fulbright Visiting Professor of
American Civilization at Tokyo University, 1958-59; U. S. State
Department "American Specialist" to Japan, Summer, 1961; Peace
Corps lecturer and American Studies Coordinator for previous
Ernest R. Bartley (Ph,D., University of California), Professor of
Political Scieuesat the University of Florida; specialist in
American constitutional law, state-wide consultant on municipal
and legal affairs; and the author of several works including THE
TIDELANDS OIL CONTROVERSY.
Forrest Berghorn (Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania), Instructor of
Social Science at the University of Florida; specialist in Amer-
ican Studies and American Studies Coordinator for the Peace
Corps Training Project for Brazil, Summer, 1964
Gordon E. Bigelow (Ph. D., The Johns Hopkins University), Associate
Professor of English at the University of Florida; specialist
in American Literature and the author of a number of works in
the field; Fulbright Visiting Professor of American Literature
and Civilization at the University of Vienna, 1962-63.
Dan Branch (M.S. in Arch., A.I.A.) Assistant Professor of Architec-
ture at the University of Florida and practicing architect in
David M. Chalmers (Ph. D., University of Rochester), Associate Pro-
fessor of History and Social Science at the University of
Florida; author of THE SOCIAL AND POLITICAL IDEAS OF THE MUCK-
RAKERS, HOODED AMERICANISM; THE KKK and other works; Fulbright
Visiting Professor of American Civilization, University of Cey-
lon, 1960-61 and Tokyo University, 1965-66; Peace Corps Lecturer
for Universities of Florida and Oklahoma and the Cooperative
League of America.
Herbert J. Doherty(Ph.D., University of North Carolina), Professor
of History and Social Science and Chairman of the Department
of Social Science at the University of Florida; overseas lectur-
er in American History for the University of Maryland in Germany,
Japan and Korea; author of several volumes, including RICHARD
KEITH CALL and THE WHIGS OF FLORIDA.
Marvin L. Entner (Ph.D., University of Minnesota), Assistant Profess-
or of History and Director of Graduate Studies in the Department
of History at the University of Florida; Chairman of the Russian
Area Studies Program at the University; author of RUSSIAN-PER-
SIAN ECONOMIC RELATIONS.
A. Didier Graeffe (Ph.D., University of Berlin), Professor of Human-
ities at the University of Florida; distinguished composer and
specialist in the field of art; author of CREATIVE EDUCATION
IN THE HUMANITIES.
John K. Mahon (Ph.D., University of California), Associate Professor
of History and Acting Chairman of the Department at the Univer-
sity of Florida; specialist in American military history and
policy formation; author of numerous works in the field, in-
cluding THE AMERICAN MILITIA: DECADE OF DECISION, 1790-1800,
and THE SECOND SEMINOLE WAR.
Anthony Maingot (M.A., University of California), Staff Associate
in the Center for Latin-American St'udies at the University of
Florida; has traveled extensively throughout Latin America and
is a specialist in the social science behavior of the region.
John V. Mering (Ph.D., University of Missouri), Assistant Professor
of Social Science at the University,of Florida and a special-
ist in American political history.
Samuel Proctor (Ph.D., University of Florida), Professor of History
and Social Science at the University of Florida; University
Historian; Editor of the Florida Historical Quarterly; and the
author of several volumes, including a study of NAPOLEON
Walter A. Rosenbaum (Ph. D., Princeton University), Assistant Pro-
fessor of Political Science at the University of Florida and
a specialist in political parties and the political process.
Allen M. Sievers (Ph.D., University of Columbia), Professor of
Economics at the University of Florida; author of GENERAL ECO-
NOMICS; AN INTRODUCTION; HAS MARKET CAPITALISM COLLAPSED?; A
CRITIQUE OF KARL POLANYI'S NEW ECONOMICS; and REVOLUTION,
EVOLUTION AND THE ECONOMIC ORDER; economic consultant to the
Government of Indonesia, 1962-64.
Edward Silbert (Ph.D., University of Florida), Instructor of History
at the University of South Florida, and a specialist in U.S.-
Latin American diplomatic relations.
John W. Spanier (Ph.D., Yale University), Associate Professor of
Political Science at the University of Florida; specialist in
American foreign policy and international affairs; author of
THE TRUMAN-MCARTHUR CONTROVERSY AND THE KOREAN WAR, AMERICAN
FOREIGN POLICY SINCE WORLD WAR TWO, and THE POLITICS OF DIS-
Norman Wilensky (Ph.D., Yale University), Assistant Professor of
Social Science at the University of Florida; author of CONSER-
VATIVES IN THE PROGRESSIVE ERA and specialist in twentieth
century American political history.
Harold A. Wilson (Ph.D., Iowa), Assistant Professor of History and
Social Science at the University of Florida; Consultant to the
Duval County (Florida) Board of Public Instruction on the teach-
ing of its courses on communism; Director, University of Florida
Workshop for Teachers on the teaching of communism in the High
Schools of the State.
Clifton K. Yearley (Ph.D., The Johns Hopkins University), Associate
Professor of History at the University of Florida; specialist
in economic and recent American history; Fulbright Lecturer at
the Center for American Studies in Rome, Italy, 1963-64; author
of BRITONS IN AMERICAN LABOR and ENTERPRISE AND ANTHRACITE,
ECONOMICS AND DEMOCRACY IN SCHUYLKILL COUNTY, 1820-1875.
- 34 -
PHYSICAL TRAINING AND RECREATION
The physical training and recreation course is designed to bring
each trainee to a high level of physical fitness and to inform the
trainee of methods to maintain this fitness. Games, sports and skills
will be introduced which will enable trainees to participate and lead
others in the sports and games indigenous to this country and the host
country, Brazil, Portuguese-speaking personnel will introduce sports
terminology and attempt to accustom trainees to giving and taking in-
structions in Portuguese. This program w11 contribute to the trainee's
maximum efficiency in his job assignment.
METHODS AND MATERIALS
Daily classes will consist of fitness-type activities, such as cal-
isthenics, two-man exercises, isometrics, and running. Instruction will
also be provided in such activities as basketball, swimming, team and
individual games, and activities which can be taught to school-age child-
ren. In addition to recreational sports, the program will include rhy-
thms; not only rhythms of the United States, but also of Latin America,
particularly Brazil. This will be accomplished by instruction and part-
icipation in social and folk dances and rhythmic games.
The following texts will be provided for all trainees:
Stanley, D.K., and Waglow, I,F., Physical Education Activities
Handbook:;"Royal Canadian Air Force Exercise Plans for Physical
Physical Training and Recreation Coordinator: Dr. Irving F, Waglow
Dr. Waglow has had a long history of working in physical training
with the YMCA, United States Air Force, and the University of Florida.
Dr. Waglow has attended several colleges and universities; he received
the B.S. and M.S. degrees from Springfield College in 1941 and 1948,
and he recently received the Ed. D. from New York University. Since
1958, Dr. Waglow has been the Head of the Department of Required Phy-
sical Education for Men at the University of Florida.
Physical Training and Recreation Instructor: Mr. Richard H. Reisinger
Mr. Reisinger is presently an Assistant Professor of Physical Edu-
cation at the University of Florida. He received the B. A. and M. A.
degrees from the University of Florida in 1950 and 1954. He has taught
since 1950 in elementary schools and at the University.
PERSONAL AND MENTAL HEALTH
The objectives of the Personal and Mental Health component of
this training project are to:
I. Develop sound patterns of health behavior in keeping with the cond-
itions of life in the overseas post.
II. Give an understanding of school and community health activities
which trainees may undertake.
III. Instruct in the treatment of illnesses and minor accidents where
severe disease or permanent disability is not involved.
IV. Impart an awareness of symptoms requiring immediate medical atten-
tion; differentiate between sound patterns of health behavior and
aesthetic values which sometimes masquerade as desirable health
behavior in our North American culture.
V. Introduce problems of daily living in Brazil that could affect the
health of the Peace Corps volunteer.
VI. Delineate and differentiate between Brazilian and North American
concepts of good health practices.
In addition to the above objectives, approximately ten hours of
instruction will be devoted to first aid. Approximately another six
hours will be devoted to explanation of mental health aspects of Peace
Corps Volunteer's work.
Methods and Materials
Instruction in this component of the training project will largely
be through small group discussion. Lectures will be limited, and the
coordinator will rely on the methods of role playing, films, slides,
demonstrations and field trips. Peace Corps volunteers returning from
Brazil service will aid in discussions and in writing problems for
Instruction will also establish the roles of audio-visual aids and
health opinion molders in persuading people to adopt sound health prac-
tices. Attention will also be paid to ways in which people learn about
and adopt desirable health practices.
- 3$ -
Personal and Mental Health Coordinator: Miss Elizabeth Reed
Miss Reed's experience has included all types of nursing and
health education activities with an emphasis on public health work.
She served as a public health nursing consultant in the Amazon Valley
in Brazil during World War II, and in 1962 was a recipient of a World
Health Organization travel fellowship during which time she visited
Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Panama, and Peru to observe public health
conditions. She was Director of the Division of Health Education,
Florida State Board of Health from 1948-1965. Presently she is the
Executive Director of N. E. Florida Family Planning, Inc.
Miss Reed is a graduate of the Sacred Heart School of Nursing
located in Pensacola, Florida. Her graduate degree was obtained from
Teachers College, Columbia University. She has also attended Hunter
College and St. Louis University.
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PEACE CORPS ORIENTATION
STAFF: Members of Peace Corps staff, Washington, D. C.
At intervals during the training program members of the Peace
Corps staff will be present for two hour sessions aimed at acquaint-
ing trainees with the full scope of Peace Corps' mission and the
role which they play within it. Adequate time will be allowed for
questions and answers at the conclusion of each session. Special
attention will be given to the following topics:
A. Peace Corps: its origin, philosophy, objectives,
legislative framework, structure and personnel.
B. The Training Program: its three phases.
C. The Project: its relevance to the total development
of the host-country and specific information about
actual work assignments.
D. The Peace Corps at Work: the totality of Peace Corps'
overseas operations and information concerning other
E. The Selection Process: how a trainee is evaluated for
F. Services and Support: backstopping the PCV's needs.
G. Careers and Continuing Education: after Peace Corps,
H. The Peace Corps and the American Community; standards
I. Graduation Exercises.
12/20/10 76 .