Revista interamericana;

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Material Information

Title:
Revista interamericana; revista dedicada al estudio de la cultura iberoamericana ..
Physical Description:
v. : ; 28 cm.
Language:
Spanish
Creator:
University of Florida -- Institute of Inter-American Affairs
Los Pícaros de Quevedo
Publisher:
s.n.
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Latin America   ( lcsh )

Notes

Language:
Contributions in English or Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
v. 1- agosto 1939-
Issuing Body:
1939- published by the Institute of Inter-American Affairs, University of Florida, in cooperation with Los Pícaros de Quevedo.
General Note:
Reproduced form type-written copy.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 07270757
ocm07270757
Classification:
lcc - F1401 .R445
System ID:
AA00002854:00008

Full Text



Vol. IV


Gainesville, Florida


Publicada por
EL INSTITUTE INTERAMERICANO
DE LA UNIVERSIDAD DE FLORIDA

En Colaboraci6n Con
LOS PICAROS

Fraternidad Honor"fica


91S.OO0

R4943

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A ii-


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1 ...' *


REVISTA

INTERAMERICANA
DEDICADA AL STUDIO DE LA CULTURAL IBEROAMERICANA


No. 2


Julio de 1943













UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES





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REVISTA INTERAMERICANA
DEDICADA AL STUDIO DE LA CULTURAL IBEROAMERICANA
Redactor
Sr. Carlos Gonzenbach Freire
Consejo Consultivo
Mr. John F. Martin Dr. O. H. Hauptmann
Dr. Walter J. Matherly Dr. William C. Zellars
Dr. Rollin S. Atwood
(on leave)







REVISTA INTERAMERICANA

DEDICADA AL STUDIO DE LA CULTURAL IBEROAMERICANA

Redactor
Sr. Carlos Gonzenbach Freire

Consejo Consultivo


Mr. John F. Martin
Dr. Walter J. Matherly
Dr.


Dr. O. H. Hauptmann
Dr. William C. Zellars
Rollin S. Atwood
(on leave)


VOL.IV JULIO de 1943 No.2


Carlos Gonzenbach F.:

Fausto Soto:

Pablo Max Ynsfrant

William C. Zellars:


SUMARIO
Pdgina
Bases Ecuatorianas ------------------------------ 1

Cultural Relations between the Americas----------- 9

Inter-American Relations Under the Stress of War---19

How Can We Perpetuate the Present Popularity of
Spanish--------------------------------- --25


Resolutions Adopted at the Annual Meeting of the Florida Branch. Ameri-
can Association of Teachers of Spanish---------------------------- ---27


Harold E. Davis:

George Jaffin:

William C. Zellarst


Inter-American Workshop for Teachers--------------28

Las Constituoiones del Nuevo Mundo----------------32

"Sancho Saldaia" de Josd de Esponceda--------------37


Our Contributors------------------------------------------------------41


La REVISTA INTERMERICANA Os editada por el Instituto Inter-Americano de la
Universidad de Florida, Gainesville, Florida,E.E.U.U., y se public semes-
tralmente en los idiomas oficiales de las Repdblicas Americanas. Dos ndme-
ros completan oada voldmen.
La REVISTA INTERAMERICANA es enviada a los centros educacionales de las
Americas interesados en el mejoramiento de relaciones educativas y cultu-
rales centre los passes americanos, y establece canje con oualquiera insti-
tuci6n iberoamericana en el Hemisferio Occidental.














q1 f. t~ 0 5



.11N?
LATIN
AMERICA~












BASES ECUATORIANAS


por Carlos Gonzenbach Freire


Entre los paises americanos que han puesto en movimiento toda su e-

nergia para luchar por su libertad y sus ideales democraticos, se encuen-

tra un pequefo pals, Ecuador.

En los moments actuales no s6lo las grandes naciones del continen-

te americano con sus ingentes recursos naturales e industriales estgn

contribuyendo para la defense del nuevo mundo y sus ideales, sino que

tambidn son los paises chicos los que con sus tiorras, que quiz& por u-

na casualidad geogrdfica constituyen maravillosos puntos estrat4gicos

y de incomparable valor belico, estdn cooperando para la causa comdn.

Sin mas comentario y expresando en forma un tanto particularizada

en ralcidn al Ecuador, tan s6lo debemos recorder las Islas de los Gal&-

pagos las cuales fueron prestadas a los Estados Unidos en la forma mis

generosa para que en ellas se establecieran bases militares. En la par-

te continental ocuatoriana tambidn existen puntos vitales para la defen-

sa continental y muy especialmente para salvaguardiar el Canal de Pana-

ma. Estas localidados son lugares salientcs en las costas ecuatorianas

y que con las Islas de lo Gal&pagos dejan entro sl una mzs o menos es-

trecha porcion de mar facilmente controlable no per una marina tan po-

tente come la de los Estados Unidos sino por un escaso patrullaje livia-

no,

Las bases continentales ocuatorianas estan colocadas a pocos gra-

dos latitud sur, osto quiere decir exactamente bajo la linea ecuatorial

lo que hace que su clima sea netamente tropical. Al decir clima tropi-

cal en este caso estamos haciondo referencia unicamente a su alta tem-









peratura, no debemos career que por el hecho de enoontrarse en la zona

ecuatorial estos lugares han do ser poblados por espesa e impenetrable

selva, pues, en el case de La Libertad y Santa Elena en general, sucede

precisamente lo contrario; son lugares pianos que debido a la influon-

cia de la corriente fria de Humboldt son hasta cierto punto desdrticos

durante casi todo el aeo. Las facilidades que estos lugares pianos pres-

tan para el establecimiento de bases areas son admirables. Ya el gobier-

no del Ecuador por su propia cuenta estableci6 alll, hace no muchos a-

Pos, una magnifica escuela de aviacion civil. Los estudiantes ecuatoria-

nos actualmente estaran aprendiendo much de la tconica do los aviado-

res militares norteamericanos.

Estas parties bajas del sur que se proyectan hacia el mar no son ma-

yormente productivas, las escasas lluvias las hacen apenas aprovechables

para un escaso pastoreo y una pobre agriculture; poro no por ello vamos

a career que las tropas norteamericanas acantonadas en esos lugares do

la repdblica estan pasando necesidades; esto on ningdn caso puede suce-

der, porque si esos son lugares pobres, en el interior y en el resto de

la costa se encuentran terrenos envidiablemente ricos. Ademrs, la gran

mayoria y la mayor cantidad de la producci6n agricola y ganadera es ce-

dida a los soldados norteamericanos on el pais. La preferencia que se

da a ellos, a los que mi pueblo llama "los Gringos", ha llegado a tal

extreme que los habitantes natives del Ecuador confrontan el alza de los

precios de las subsistencias y elements de primer necesidad como con-

secuencia natural del incremento do la demand.

El pueblo se est& privando de tomar y consumer alimentos y substan-

cias que en deas anteriores a la guerra le fueron vendidos a precious

que en todo memento ostuvieron a su alcance econ6mico; pore, nuestro










pueblo comprendo el significado quo cualquier sacrificio tiene en los

mementos prosentes y hace todo esfuerzo por acomodarse o adaptarse a es-

tas nuevas cirounstancias. La produccidn agrfcola national ha side

transformada en sus direcciones. En los mementos actuales no se necesi-

tan products de exportacidn porque no se los puede mandar al exterior,

en cambio y en forma urgonto se necositan products alimenticios, o sea

aquellos que van a ser consumidos inmediatamente por el pueblo ecuato-

riano y por la fracci6n del pueblo norteamericano que forma part de la

poblacidn del Ecuador en estos dias.

En a~os anteriores a la guerra la produocidn tendla al incremento

do aquellos products que siempre oonstituyen un fuerte ingreso al teso-

ro national y que eran base del intercambio con el exterior. Los cam-

bios on la banca estaban sujetos a la produccidn y exportaci6n del ca-

cao, cafe, algod6n, azucar, bananas, trigo, maiz, patatas, y otros tan-

tos products mds de igual o menor importancia.

La agriculture del Ecuador en la parte baja guard todas las ca-

racterfsticas de pals tropical con sus extensos platoos de cacao, caia

de azucar, cafe, bananas, arroz, y gran variedad de vegetables que se los

cultiva en menor escala y para uso netamente domdstico. Come parte do

la produccidn vegetal de la costa bien puede mencionarse el famoso palo

de balsa cuya explotacidn ha incrementado ultimamente debido a la deman-

da que tieno en los centros industriales manufacturers de aviones en

los Estados Unidos. La balsa o como en mi pals se lo conoce "palo de

balsa" ha sustituido on gran parte y con much ventaja al corcho y al

aluminio, y del que so pueden hacer otros usos en los que result ser

insustituible.

La producci6n de la parte costanera o baja do nuestro pals contras-











ta con aquella de las regions altas o serranas. Esta parte alta del E-

cuador constituyo una sorpresa agradable para el individuo que cree que

todo el Ecuador y por el hecho do star bajo la line acuatorial ha de

ser nocesariamento caluroso; ntostro clima en la sierra es frio y agra-

dable, no es ni oxageradamente frto ni sofocante, es un clima quo si ra-

yar en exagerados ni muy patriots bien so podria decir que es primave-

ral. En particular la ciudad de Quito es conocida come "La Ciudad do la

etorna primavera" y este decir do los natives y oxtranjeros estd justi-

ficado por sus casi constants 13 a 14 grades centlgrados y su aire se-

co de los altiplanos.

Los terrenos agrcoolas estan contralizados on las.mesetas compron-

didas entire las dos cordilleras que forman el sistema andino ecuatoria-

no. Los cultivos alcanzan como limited altitudinal los 3.500 metros. La

agriculture andina est& perfectamente caracterizada por vegetables tales

como el mafz, patata, trigo, cebada, frdjol, hortalizas y algunas fru-

tas nativas e importadas. En este respect y come punto de interns para

los geobotgnicos, exist un fen6meno climatdrico-agricola curioso, y os

el quo, a pesar de oncontrarse en plena zona tropical y sujoto a una i-

luminaci6n y estaciones anualos no pGrfectamente marcadas, dos de los

caHones o valles que miran hacia el Amazonas produce frutas que estan

naturalmente confinadas a lugares o regions de clima templado donde se

marcan las cuatro estaciones perfectamente; las antoriormente menoiona-

das frutas son las manzanas, duraznos, frutillas, "naranja mandarina,

etc,, quo no so oncuentran en ninguno de los otros valles de la Ropd-

blica.

Si bien puede decirse quo el cuolo ecuatoriano es duro de labrar

por la falta de suficiontes implementos agricolas modernos, tambidn se










puede decir que la tierra es exageradamente rica y generosa, es tierra

negra, tierra humifera o como bien dicen los campesinos "es tierra mo-

rena y buena". Estas tierras casi no conocen la necesidad de abonos arti-

ficiales, suficiente es soltar el ganado en las chacras y dejar que 61

haga su tarea.

A mas de los products alimenticios, debemos nombrar otros que co-

mo la fibra de cabuya o cabuyo est& siendo cotizada a altos precious,

tanto en el comercio interior como en el extranjero.

A todo esto debemos aFadir la producci6n ganadera. La sierra eoua-

toriana es la que debido a sus condiciones climatericas ha desarrollado

mns intensamente esta industrial. Especial atenci6n se ha venido dando

desde tiempos anteriores a la producci6n de la lana. La lana junto con

el algod6n estnn actualmente supliendo satisfactoriamente las demands

de los fuertes centros textiles de la Repdblica. La producci6n de casimi-

res y g6neros nacionales han logrado imponerse en tal forma en el mer-

cado national quo la importaci6n de telas durante estos dltimos aios ha

sido reducida a un porcentaje minimo, en cam>io el Ecuador actualmente

est& exportando, aunque en pequefa escala, el superdvit de su industrial

textil. La seda artificial manufacturada en el Ecuador ha logrado casi

cortar desde ya hace algunos aRos la importaci6n de este artlculo que

constitufa un fuerte fil6n de egresos.

Para completar la ligera descripcidn geografico-agrcfola que esta-

mos haciendo debemos indicar que entire las dos regions anteriormente a-

notadas o sea la baja o costefa y la alta o serrana, existed una inter-

media caracterizada por su temperature media, sus abundantes precipita-

ciones atmosfgricas y sus espesas y casi impenetrables selvas. El apro-

vochamiento que do estas selvas se hace es la explotaci6n de ricas ma-










deras tales como la caoba, las secas, el guacora, etc. La dltima do las

nombradas es casi tan dura como una barra de acero.

En forma lenta poro tonaz el agricultor est& penetrando y transfor-

mando las selvas de los doclives orientals y occidentales.

En adici6n a los products agrfoolas y ganaderos quo el Ecuador

proporciona a los soldados norteamericanos, la casi total producci6n pe-

trolera es codida a los Estados Unidos o a sus guarniciones. Este pre-

cioso element bdlioo so encuentra ubicado en lugares facilmente accesi-

bles a las costas donde puede ser embarcado o consumido.

Si en este aspect de la alimentacion y el abastecimiento en gene-

ral, la fraction norteamericana no tiene ninguna dificultad quo confron-

tar, tampoco ha encontrado on el aspect social, pues el norteamericano

es bien venido, debiendo congratularse de quo la suerte le haya dopara-

do un lugar on Amdrica Latina. Traditional es la caballerosidad y hospi-

talidad do nuestra gonto suramericana y much mds de aquella de paises

chicos que adn mantionen su estructura familiar y por ended su sinceridad.

El espiritu y forma de ser del latino es com&n a todos los paises Cen-

tro y Sudamericanos; sin embargo, cada pais tiene sus pequenas caracte-

risticas diferenciales que lo hacen hasta oierto punto inconfundible.

Adn mns, y como sucede on nuestra tierra, es possible apreciar ciertas

peque2as pero suficientomente marcadas peculiaridades que permiten, sin

ninguna dificultad, determinar la region a quo portenece el individuo.

La base fundamental no cambia. El individuo de la Amdrica del Sur os ti-

picamente latino, con su inconfundible gonio apasionado, soaador y con

su moral fiel cumplidora de dos de los grandes prinoipios del Divino Ma-

estro: "Ama a tu pr6jimo como a ti mismo" y "No hagas daio si no quieres

que to lo hagan a to". La exaltaci6n y apasionamiento con que el latino











hace sus cosas a voices lo conducen a cometer errores, no grandes errors

pero que en todo caso no dejan de ser tales, Particularizando un poco

este aspect a mi tierra, podemos decir que existen dos tipos de indivi-

duos que a pesar do toner raices comunos difieron un tanto en sus mani-

festacionos externas; estos son el costoeio y el serrano. El serrano por

naturaleza y quiz& mas por influencia del medio que lo rodoa es apaci-

ble, suave, respetuoso y profundo pensador. Este individuo es como noso-

tros decimos "sufrido" y "aguantador" pero hasta cierto punto, y es en-

tonces y una vez que esto limite ha sido traspasado cuando la c6lera in-

vade su esp3ritu y "como una explosion" pone on juego toda su onergfa

para hacer desaparecer el motive de su fastidio. Si sus fuerzas inteleo-

tuales no le son suficientes, acude a las fisicas y aplicando todo el

peso de sus bien desarrollados brazos y empleando la resistoncia de sus

pulmones de serrano, aisla o destruye lo que venfa siendo motive de con-

tratiempo. Este individuo del altiplano o serrano muy dificilmento cam-

bia su forma de pensar, es firm y resuelto en sus rosoluciones.

En contrast con el individuo que habitat las parties altas del Ecua-

dor, tenemos al costeoo o sea aquel que se desarrolla on las parties ba-

jas del territorio. Este individuo es de gonio alegre, siempre inquioto,

bullanguero, rdpido do imaginacidn y hasta cierto punto rapido tambidn

para perdor su calma. Las demes caractcrlsticas do latino son comunes

a ambos: afablos, caritativos y siompro listos a perdonar y hacer un

favor a quien lo nocesita, sea o no su amigo.

For todo lo quo hasta aquf dejamos dicho, el soldado norteamerica-

no debe sentirso como on su propio suelo cuando se encuentra en el nues-

tro. La sinceridad y franca amistad de sus habitantes ha hecho que el

extranjero quo ha permanecido algdn tiempo en nuestro pafs sienta enor-










me pesar el dia en que, por ciertas circunstancias especiales de su vi-

da, so ve obligado a dejarlo. El latino siempre estd list a ayudar no

slo a su compatriota sine tambiln al extranjero. Por un fon6meno natu-

ral de contrast y novedad el native del Eouador gusta del "gringo" al

quo le ha identificado como el individuo rubio, que viste un poco extra-

vagantemente y que es "chapot5n" on su hablar.

Exactamente el mismo fenomeno que so produce cuando latinos vienen

a los Estados Unidos luciendo sus ojos y pelo negros y su tez morena,

causa de ciertos trastornos afectivos on las rubiecitas de ojos claros;

se produce tambidn on igual sentido favorable para el n6rdico on los pai-

ses del sol y do las morenas graciosas,

Todo lo que ol Ecuador produce y tiene ha puesto al servicio de

las naciones amigas y muy especialmehto de los Estados Unidos el cual

ha sabido aprovechar, en dobida form, estas facilidades prestadas por

ol Ecuador para hacer mas eficiente la defense continental y do los i-

doales democrdticosa





CULTURAL RELATIONS BETWEEN THE AMERICAS

by Fausto Soto


To speak of cultural relations between the nations of this hemis-
phere is a very pleasing task for me, and I wish to thank most sincerely
Dr. John Jo Tigort, President of the University of Florida, and Mr.
John F. Martin, Dirootor of the Institute of Intor-Amorican Affairs, for
the opportunity they havo given me to got in touch with you in order to
talk a bit about this subject.

I shall confine myself to sketch briefly, since time does not permit
greater detail, the development of cultural relations botwoon'tho United
States and Latin Amorica up to the prosont time, and the possibilities
looming over the horizon of the future.

Bosides, I must limit myself to general lines, despite the attraction
exorcised by coortain phasos of the subject, the treatment of which would
require a closer analysis. Perhaps those suggestions, which I am going
to sketch, and the problems which appear and which will continue to
appear in the cultural relations of this continent, may arouse the curiosity
of students or researchers, who will undertake the studios which will help
us to know one another through our history and idiosyncrasies*

When we speak of cultural relations between the United States and
Latin America, we ordinarily understand by this tho practical demonstrations
accomplished betwoon this acunt:ry ind bi.o other twenty lAmorican republics
intended to produce a cultural unti.'stani'.go And for th:Ci p',.uposo we
find international conventions for Ulio ..!-jh.ango of profeo.s arn students,
visits of writers, nowspapormon, co mpocrst artists, and tl c statcsnon
from one country to another, grants of scholarships travolling expenses,
translations of English works into Spanish and Portuguoso, and vice vorsao
exhibitions of paintings and sculpture, the ostablishmont of libraries,
scientific locturoso etc. In all this, the governments and private
institutions of both Americas lend their cooperation.

The Good Neighbor Policy, initiated amidst continental applause by
President Roosevelt, has helped enormously to quicken this proc.oss of
closer mutual ties between the American nations, and, taking root in it,
within recent years a hundred times more has boon accomplished for bettor
understanding among the peoples of this hemisphere than had boon brought,
about in all preceding history.

The creation of agencies and institutions especially dedicated to
promoting cultural relations, the greater interest of universities, private
foundations and societies of the United States, in everything concerning
Latin Amorica, their generous oncouragomont of student exchange, and the
growing interest on the part of the public of this country in their brothers
to the south, show clearly the happy results of this policy, without the
necessity, duo to the nature of my remarks, of making reference to the
solidarity shown by those countries during the present waro

But I presume that this practical aspect of the cultural relations
between the United States and Latin America is too well known to all of
you* It is what we are living, the facts of which appear in the daily






pross, what wo aro all fooling in this atmosphoro of frank friendship
and Pan Amorican cooperation. I should liko now to rofor to tho problem
of cultural relations in itself, that is, to shook in tho historical
development of Amorica tho evolution of tho abovo-montionod relations,
tho tondoncios which aro boing shown in tho difforont stages of this
proooss, tho similarities and difforencos which appear in tho oxchango,
and tho direction which coach oulturo--Hispanic and Anglo-Saxon--is taking
on this froo continent of Amorica. It would bo nocossary, also, to
oxamino tho dovolopmont that this relation of the two cultures with thoir
now Amorican foaturos will have in the future, by scrutinizing closely
the yot tondor shoots of its latest manifestations.

I understand that this is rough and unoortain ground; but it is
really the truo problem. On the study of this problem must be basod tho
practical applications that are realized, since we aro not dealing only
with mutual knowledge and friendship, which by themsolvos constitute a
largo program, but also with the creation of psychological tios, that is
to say, of a community of foolings, purposes, and interests which will
load us in our united march into tho world to como, which wo hopo will bo
a world of poacc, security, and good will, in which God may again sayt
"Poaco to mon of good will".

In the first place o must examine tho fact that if wo aro to spoak
of tho United States on the ono hand and Latin Amorica on tho othor, it is
bocauso difforont cultures are attributed to those largo social units. It
is taken for granted that the Unitod States has a culture distinct from
that of the Lmorican ccuntrics to the south, which although forming
separate political ontitics, aro groupod undor tho inclusive denomination
of Latin Amorica. How oxact or inexact this grouping may bo wo shall not
discuss horo. For my purposes this torm, Latin Amorica, is useful, and
that is sufficient. But the fact of knitting togothor twenty countries
undor ono namo, has a root which goos deep in tho them of this talk.
It is dosirod to indicate by this grouping that thoro is among the twenty
republics a unity.which ombracos common racial, religious, linguistic
and cultural origins. And this is true almost all of thom stom from tho
Hispanic trunk, Spanish or Pcrtuguoso, mixod with tho aboriginal races
of mnorica; tho Roman Catholic faith prodominatos, thoy speak twin languages.
and tho principal fountain of their culture is Hispanic*

The Unitod Statos, on the other hand, arc considered to bo of Anglo-
Saxon origin; English is spoken, their religion is Christian also, but
largely of various protostant denominations, and the principal fountain of
thoir culture is tho British.

Thoro are, therefore, on this continent, two cultures of difforont
origins: tho Hispanic and the Ango-Saxon, and this historic fact indubi-
tably gives to tho United States, on the one hand, and to Latin Amorica,
on the other, distinctive foaturos cf thoir own. Novortholoss, it may not
bo said with absolute accuracy that the culture of the United States is
Anglo-Saxon and that the culture of Latin meorica is Hispanic. Thoro
have boon factors which since the arrival of Columbus on those shoros have
tintod the cultural characteristics of Europe with now colors. Tho
aboriginal factor is one of them and the geographic factor is another
Especially in Latin mnorica, and particularly in those regions having






advanced Indian civilizations, like those of Mexico and Peru, the American
Indian influences with his blood and with his "philosophy of life" the
fresh nuances which culture must take in those lands.

Those now lands have, besides, a magnetism, a special force, which
places the man who lives in then in a now mold, which fills his blood with
an impetus different from that of .Europo, which stirs something in his
spirit which cannot be exactly defined, which may be said only to be
American. It is the "tolluric influence" of which the philosopher Koysorling
speaks. It is this influence, together with others of a social and politi-
cal order, which has permitted the United States, the "molting pot", to
forgo different races and different creeds into a type having its own
special physical, moral and intolloctual qualities. To quote Walt Whitman,
"through those States walk a hundred millions of superb persons."

And this element of the soil is common to the north and to the south.
The geographical unity of Amorica is, in the words of a Uruguayan poet,
"like wings disproportionately open between the heavens and the oceans,
and in the center, a handful of mountains linking together two lands and
two destinies". Many illustrious travellers of Europeo who have crossed
the hemisphere, have noted this similarity in the natural features of both
Americas, which is consequently rofloctod in man and his deeds, just as the
lineaments of the son recall those of the mother. This geographical unity
creates, thoroforo, a spiritual unity, also, and it is not strange that we
Americans of the south or the north, fool more at homo in any country of
this hemisphere than in other parts of the planet. The influence of the
soil is not to be forgotten when an endeavor is made to find the spiritual
affinities uniting use

What I have just said does not mean that the Americas, by the mere
fact of being a continent apart from Europe and having a different nature,
have created by themselves an authentically unique and independent culture,
Many controversies have boon caused by the statement made by some writers
to the effect that America has its own culture, that it is this culture
that we must develop and encourage, that we must stop looking toward
Europe, because Europe does not suit our ways and purposes*

Perhaps partially to clear up this point it will be necessary to
separate that which exists from that which is sought as an aspiration, I
believe that the above mentioned statement is rather a prediction and a
desire than the confirmation of a fact; because to say that the culture
which up to now has boon developing in the Amoricas does not carry in its
veins the blood of Europe is the same as to deny one's parents. But no one
obliges children to copy the lifo of their parents, neither nature, nor
the circumstances of time and place permit such repetition. We must recog-
nize our noble European forefathers and make ourselves worthy of so mag-
nificent a culture; if possible surpass it. But it is a fact and, there-
fore, not reducible to a theoretical hypothesis, that we have boon fed,
since our birth to Western culture, with European thought and fooling,
both of which continue to be oven today the principal and almost exclusive
source of our knowledge, feelings and customs.

The American hue which the cultures of our countries already possess,
especially that of the United States, has boon deepening and will continue








to grow brighter as wo advance into tho.futuro. ,Lot us not try, like way-
ward children, to floo tho paternal homo, in the night and blaspheming;
timo with its slow, natural impulse is giving us the virility to convert
oursolvos from children to mon.

Among tho Latin Americans, especially among those who preserve in liv-
ing flosh tho horitago of groat aboriginal civilizations liko Moxico and
Poru, efforts have boon mado by somo to change the direction of the cul-
tural dovolopment in order to mako it flow again in tho rivor bcd damned
up by tho arrival of tho conquistadors* I boliovo that it is not possible
to altor tho course of a rivor whoso bod has boon changed by a cataclysm,
oxcopt by moans of artificial onginoering works, at groat cost and with
groat difficulty. But this would be an artificial work, and I boliovo tho
boat development to bo tho natural, which in this case is tho Europoan oul-
turo in the American environment, and with tho aboriginal -contributions of
tho continent. To thoso who want the autochthonous wo may say that the
waters of a rivor, no matter how much change the rivor bod has sufforod,
retain always the flavor of the spring whore they wore born.

Whon tho Latin American countries bocamo indopondont, at the beginning
of the last century, after throo centuries of colonial lifo, thoy woro
already firmly marked with the stamp of Hispanic culture and civilization.
Tho political liberty obtained did not cut the cultural tios, and Latin
Amorica continued in groat part to drink from tho European currents pass-
ing through Spain and Portugal. But liberty now permitted a moro gonoral
contact with other countries, in conmorcial interchange, as woll as in
political scientific, artistic and literary, an intorchango which during
the oxistonco of tho colonial status had boon impossible bocauso of tho
obstacles intorposod by the mother country* Tho light of Franco bogan to
shino ovor Latin America, and the influence of French culture bocnmo tho
strongest during tho development of the now nations. But the principal
field of this influence during the first half of the past century was tho
political.

The United Statos, with its now domocratic-ropublican organization,
also was bound to attract the attention of tho youthful southern republics,
which sought models to follow in organizing their institutions in con-
formity with their democratic idoals, and thoy woro forcibly compollod to
look to this country as to an older brother thoy might follow, given tho
fact that the United Statos already had forty years of indopondont lifo
whon the groator number of the Latin Amorican nations obtained their
freedom. Franco contributed tho postulates of hor revolution and the doo-
trinos of hor philosophers and thinkers, and the United States tho example
of their already organized civic life The influence of the United Statos,
thoroforo, was of a practical nature,

Franklin and Jofforson have boon, without doubt, the two Americans
who havo had the grontost influence in the formation of South Anorica.
Franklin has continued to be universally known in our countries. In 18l9
thoro was published in Chile tho Spanish translation of the "Lifo of
Franklin" by Mignot, and a Chilean author, Valdos Vorgara, brought out
a "Life of Franklin" which has gone through various editions, the last of
which was published in 1937. Domingo Faustino Sarmionto, the groat Argon-
tino writer, statesman and educator, called Franklin "My Patron Saint".








I still remember the maxims of the groat Amorican which appoerod in our
primary school books, which wore used by all Chiloin children. Theso
books continue to be for me a sort of symbol. The series was called "Tho
Amorican Reader". Did its author, itho beloved Chilean teacher, Jose
Abolardo Nufoz, have a Panamoricanist purpose in writing it for the children
of my country? Ho could have entitled it "The Chilean Reader", like others
recently published. I have not the slightest doubt that the author had this
purpose, because the book is filled with Panamorican intentions. The in-
fluence of the United States on its author is evident. In 1878 our Govern-
ment had cominissioncd him to study teaching methods in Europe and the United
States. It would not be at all strange if in editing his textbook for
children he was influenced by the knowlodgo he gained hero of similar works,
such as McGuffoy's Readeor

It is curious to take note that during the first half of the past
century there existed a very markod tendency of cooperation among the var-
ious Latin Amorican countries, vwh. helped each other to obtain their respect-
ive freedoms, which is easy to explain because they had not yet formed the
fooling of nationality, and they considered themselves parts of the Spanish
colonial empire. Even with the United States there woer a groat many rela-
tions of a practical nature. Horo came the loaders of the revolution of
independence to seek aid, and then, the organizers of the Republics to pro-
mote commercial relations and study the institutions of this country which
might servo in ours. Novortholoss, this rapprochomont of the United States
with Latin Amorica was limited to this practical aspect and the cultural
contacts wore only occasional and between is .lated personalities of the
Amoricas. There was no cultural interchange or interest in such exchange.
WVhat oncouragod the contact was a necessity and a fooling of practical
cooperation rather than a true friendly interest of one culture in another.
But this necessity might have served as a basis for a greater development
in relations of all kinds, which unfortunately was not taken advantage of by
either of the two.

The policy of imperialism developed by the United States at the end
of the past century and during the beginning of the present, had an unfavor-
able effect in the southern republics. The Amorican began to be lockod on
with misgivings, ho was characterized as the "dollar uan", whoso only pur-
pose was for pecuniary profit and whoso riothods wore at times unscrupulous*
The demonstrations of force by the United States against some republics,
such as ioxico, Cuba, Nicaragua, and Colombia, completed the already somber
picture. The happy initiative of President Roosevelt in inaugurating the
"Good Neighbor Policy", has overcome in many respects the lack of confi-
dence which oxistod; but porplos do not forgot easily and are slower to
react than governments, and I do not believe it would be necessary to
examine too closely the hearts of the Latin Amorican peoples to find there
still, unfortunately, much resentment. Only time and unequivocal acts of
good will, vill eradicate this fooling completely, and for this reason, I
am confident that there w,:ill be an atmesphoro of frank friendship and coopera-
tion on the part of our peoples.

Nevertheless, and this indicates the greater force of culture which
dominates despite the negative or contrary work of governments, it was in
this period of "Dollar Diplomacy" and of the "Big Stick"h, w"hen we really
began to know each other and to understand each other's culture .








I said we "bogan to know", because actually tho influonco of mnorican
art and litoraturo was but slight during tho second half of the past con-
tury and the beginning of this oiho L now art and litoraturo, rofloctions
of thoso of Europo, woro unable to attract Latin linorican minds which
doubtless sought more nearly porfoct models. Bosidos, the language obstacle
was and continues to bo the principal ono for a bettor and greater knowledge
of our respective cultures. English, a language of different structure
from that of Spanish or Portuguoso, is difficult to loarn, and there aro
not many today in our countries whc master this language. Despito the fact
that in the groator number of then English is studied as the principal
foreign language (in Chilo, for oxample, it is compulsory during the six
yoars of secondary studios, Fronch, Italian or Gorman boing oloctivo);
studios in school aro not sufficient to enablo ono to master such a language
as English, and thoso who havo complotod thoir ordinary secondary studios
aro capable only of constructing current phrases or of reading simple
matter. In addition, for reasons you may inagino, English has always boon
considorod a commercial language, and is studied for that purpose only, and
not as a vohiclo of a superior culture. This is a gonoral projudico which
it is necessary to destroy.

It is not at all strange, thoroforo, that French has boon the indirect
medium through which wo havo como to Imow something of Amorican culture and
to receive something of its influence on cur litoraturo.

Before ontoring moro into dotail about what I havo just said, I boliovo
it to bo nocossary to explain in a fow words the influonco oxorcisod in
Latin haorica by Franceo When cur countries became independent, Europe was
undor the spell of romanticism which from Germany had oxtended itself to
Franco, England, Italy and Spain. Our cultured classes, composed of a small
olito, since the mass of the population was largely illiterate and partici-
patod in the groat political and cultural movements only as tools or rotinueo
wore obliged to follow dovotodly tho hispanic tradition, for with few
exceptions the Spanish language was the only medium through which to rocoivo
the cultural wave of Europoe Spain herself at this time was not outstanding
in lottorso arts or scioncos, and continued her docadont trajectory after
hor magnificent 16th and 17th conturios, during which she was one of the
tordhos of civilization of the world, Hor literature and hor art only
paloly reflected the greater scintillations of Franco and England. Circum-
scribed by this one medium of culture the Spanish language, to which may
be added the scarcity and slowness of communications, the art, the litora-
turo and the sciences of Latin amnorica woro retarded with respect to the
advances of Europo, and it may be said in gonoral, produced nothing of im-
portancos

But at the end of the century, the greater extension of education,
and the accelerated contact with foreign cultures, began to make themselves
foltJ and Franco came to occupy almost complotoly the place of a cultural
guide, which had boon maintained for centuries by Spain. Cultured people
prided themselves on their ability to road and speak French, which, having
a Latin structure and# thoroforo, more similar to ours, was moro assimilable
and accossiblo. The last decade of the past century and tho first of-this
saw a veritable worship of things French in intellectual circles throughout
Latin Amorica. Groat poots, such as Rubon Dario, wore inspired by Franco
and her litoraturol thipkors such as Rodo, followed tho lines laid down








by the French thinkers; tho novel, paintings, sculpture, architocturo,
followed a French pattern. To this vory day this influonce onduros,
attonuatod only in part by tho now movomonts of rocont yoars.

Through this French influonco iLnorican literature and art came to bo
known to us. Tho poems of Poo, as "Tho Ravon", "The Bolls", "Annabol
Loo", otc., which may be said to bo popular in cur countries became known
through the translations of Baudolairo, and many of the Spanish versions
nado in Latin America (and thoy aro numerous) of Poo, are translations
from the French, and not directly frrm English. Tho samo occurs with
Emorscn, William J-eos, VThitman. Tho soloot fow who came to know Whitman
at the beginning of the century, like Rubon Dario for oxamplo, did so
through the translation of Bazalgotto.

Something curious occurred with Brot Hnrto. His novolss translated,
woro road assiduously. Tho romance and advonturo in thoso ntvols perhaps
favored their diffusion, as it did the adventures of Buffalo Bill, and the
detective exploits of Nick Carter. But Brot Harto is road, also by the
intolloctual elite and his influence was felt on our novel and our story
to give them a doopor Amorican, homoliko fooling, deviating sonowhat from
European paths followed boforoe I attribute to the natural force, almost
instinctive of Brot Hartc, which denotes a certain primitivonoss more in
accord with our temper and nature, the poor he exorcised in our midst.
But wo may not consider him as having served as a model either for his toch-
nique or intrinsic literary value, because in that caso proforonco would
have boon givon to other novelists of groator breadth and scope, such as
Dickons, whom Brot Harto considered his mastore

There is equal reason for the reception accorded to WYhitnan in litor-
ary circles, although Whitman has not roachod the greater public. Apart
from the grandeur of the poetic work of Whitman, which places him among
the greatest poets of all timos, his native force, almost instinctive as I
have said, his primitivonoss and rudonoss, mako his poetry closer to the
Amorican fooling, of the north and of tho south, and when reading him wo
fool there is a root common to all mon of this hemisphorc.

This is the Lnmorican "fooling" to which I have already made roforonco,
and which has scarcely ccrmo to floor in works such as thrso of Whitman,
Guiraldos, Azuola, Rivora, Gallogos, Lowis and Sinclair, only to name tho
most outstanding.

In so far as the other arts arc concerned, the influence exorcised by
the United States in Latin mnorica is practically nihil, and has only begun
to bo folt in very recent yoars.

The scientific influonco has boon felt only in a technical and practi-
cal aspect. But wo must mention the groat number of geographical, histori-
cal and archoological oxpoditions, otc. which, since 1838, have boon sent
constantly by the United States to the other countries of the Amoricase

meorican education has mot with groator favor among us, especially in
recent timos. The works of Dowoy are very well known and the now methods
of ,morican teachers .re studied and in part applied in our schools








Latin Amorica, with its tradition of Hispanic culture and its strong
indigenous ascondoncy, has boon slower than the United States in dovolop-
ing its own possibilities for civilization and culture. Born to indopondont
lifo later than this country, it did not havo, bocauso of the absolutism
of the Spanish system, the social and political tradition which permitted
the United States to organize itself moro quickly, and devoto itself with
ease and security to tho formation of its nationality. The history of tho
continuous revolutions of Latin Ajorica has como to bo proverbial. None
of our countries has escaped from this disturbance, a product of the desire
to find tho formula which might pormit us to build our organization on
bases adoquato to cur tonporamont and noodso Chilo was the first to bo ablo
to establish her institutions with stability at tho beginning of tho past
century, and dodicato herself with rolativo tranquility to the promotion
of hor production, her culture, and to her political and social dovolopmont*

Givon this situation, it is easy to understand tho lack of cultural
intorost which cur countries woro able to arouse in tho United Statos. And
outside of the picturesque aspect in which wo wore painted, and aro still
painted, with the vivid colors of a strange pooplo, ongagod always in rovo-
lutionary affairs, or in romantic advonturos with guitar and song, little
or nothing was known of our countries in the United States during the past
century and the first throo decades of the prosont. The intellectuals and
artists of the Unitod States, like thoso of Latin meorica, sought in Europo
the masters of th;,ught and of art,

VWo have come, down to recent days, to see the awakening of a general
interest throughout this country in Latin Amnorica, and to noto certain cul-
tural influoncos of the Americans to tho South over those to the Northe

This influence has boon unoqual, that is, not all tho countries of
Latin Amerioa havo oxorcisod in oqual measure tho small influence of which
wo are speaking. This roquiros some explanation.

Dospito the common denomination of "Latin Amorica" with which wo are
currently labeled in tho United States, and which wo have accoptod in this
brief chat for practical reasons, it must not bo thought that all the
Latin Amorican countries aro homogonoous. There are difforoncos among thon,
somotimos quito wido, in various aspoots, such as racial, economic, social,
political and cultural. Tho ethnic dovolopmont, within the historic con-
ditions of tho different regions of Latin Amorica, has not boon tho samo,
and thus, for example, thoro is a groator porcontago of Indian population
in tho composition of the Moxican, Poruvian and Bolivian nations than in
that of other countries such as Uruguay, Argontina, and Chilo3 in which
the Indian element hardly exists, the Indian blood in the whole population
boing but a drop& Climate is another differentiating factor* Tho coun-
trios of the tropical zone differ in customs and tomporamont from those of
the subtropical or from those of the high interior tablolands, like thoso
of Bolivia, and yet moro from those of tho tomporato and cold zonos, liko
Chile, whoso southern region, tho most oxtonsivo of the country, is moro
similar to Norway than to any othor region of Amorica.

Thoso factors have oxorcisod thoir powor to givo certain special charac-
toristics to each country or region, which are reflected in customs and
habits of lifo, in social, political, and economic conditions, and thoro-
fore, also in cultural aspects*







On the other hand, communications between the various Latin American
countries and with the United States, have been and aro also of diverse
kinds and grades. The Unitod States has had and continues to have more
froquont and permanent contact, as is natural, with those countries which
are closer to it, such as Mexico, tho countries of the Caribbean, especially
Cuba, and those of Central America, particularly since the opening of the
Panama Canalo

It is logical then that the countries which have had bettor or more
rapid communications with the United Statoo should bi bo.bir known in this
country, and that their cultural influonc. Could hav'. bcon fo!t to a greater
degree than has that of countries .lying farthor awayMs Thi vknolodgo of
the neighboring countries of the Unibod Statos, an of tho grouping that is
commonly made of all the ropublicSd 0 t h 3uSthr undor tho denomination of
Latin America, raises at timnc a little confusion in the Aaorican mind by
attributing custom peculiar to only somo particular country to all the
others in the rest of the continent. and it is not rare to see caricatures in
which a Chilean is shown lot us say, with the dross typical of a Moxicano

Mexico and Cuba are doubtless the countries which have had most contact
with tho United Statose The great Mexican painters of the last opochp like
Jose Clomonto Orozco, Diogo Rivorap David Alfaro Siquoirosp with their
murals, have found hero admirers and imitators. The same thing has happened
with Mexican music especially the popular music, and songs such as
"Estrollita", "A la orilla do un palmar" are hoard continuously over the
radio or are whistled by Americans in the street,

The popular music and dances of Cuba are also too well known and appre-
ciated in this country for me to insist on mentioning them. Any one of you
knows more of rumbas and congas than I doo

Of the South American countries, Argentina has imposed her tango,
and recently, the Bra'ilians have also increased the possessions of this
country with their popular tunes and also with their painting.

The pottery and silver work of some Latin mnorican countries, ospooially
Moxico and Peru: also have won favor with the mnorican taste, and, at the
same time, may be noted the influence of the hispanic-amorican typo of
architecture, in much of the building and construction of this country
especially in the southwest, which is not at all strange, since that part of
this country, in addition to its Spanish tradition, is more directly sub-
joeted to the Mexican influoncoo

But this influence of some cultural aspects of Latin Amorica on the
United States is as yet incipient and superficial. It is limited to certain
neighboring countries, and in general, only to the picturosquo. There is
not yet a true general intorchango, nor is there oven an approximation
of the fundamental in both cultures, the hispanic and the Anglo-Saxon, to
give it some denomination.

As we have soon from what has boon said, the cultural contacts between
the United States and Latin Amorica may be summod up in the following
manner: During the period of the conquest and the colonies, there wore
properly speaking, no relations of any kind, duo especially to the political,








economic and administrative systems established by Spain in her colonies,
which permitted no-commorco with others, and provontod any political or
cultural contact of hor colonies with other countries through tho .foar of
the "contagion" they might suffer, particularly in tho religious and
political aspects Onco independence was gained by the Latin American
countries, there was a certain political influence of a practical nature
from the United States on the other republics; but otherwise, only sporadi-
cally was there noted any reciprocal influence, chiefly of some important
personalities rather than of tendencios VIo may then say that during the
past century, in general, both cultures cooxistod on the continent with
almost no contact Only during the present century, or rather in recent
years, have we boon able to see the birth of a real interest between the
north and the south.

This brief resume permits us now to see the present with greater
clarity, and to proparo oursolvos for the futuron .t this time, and above
all after this war, when mncons of communication will be abundant and rapid,
the cultural interchange of the whfle continent must take on an accelerated
rythmn, Our peoples will fool the more Amorican and related to one
another, the bettor we know each other and the moro we fool the common task
and the common destiny that History has reserved for this hemisphere.

All modern moans of communication, highways, ships, planes, the radio,
the motion picture, the press and the book, must play a role of first im-
portanco, and to the political and intellectual loaders belongs the respon-
sibility of a greater understanding and comprehension of our cultures,
understanding and comprehension which does not moan the,imposition of one on
the other, but, as has boon said, "a bettor mutual comprehension of one
another's ways". To education is reserved one of the essential clues to
this rapprochement.

A short time ago, a distinguished statesman of this country, on return-
ing from a tour of Europe, Asia and Africa, declared that the best seeds of
friendship for the United States among those peoples through whoso countries
he had travelled wore sown by the meorican missionaries and educators.

The recent invasion of North Africa by the Amorican-British forces,
with the perspective of a liberation of France, aroused storms of enthusiasm
throughout Latin meorica. Because the Latin peoples of Amorica love
Franco they love her because the thought and the spirit of France has be-
come a part of our minds and hearts.

Those two recent examples indicate the influence culture may exorcise
on good understanding and friendship among peoples, a friendship that goes
much deeper than political or martial contingencies, which is beyond the
particular government that controls a country, which puts its roots into
peoples with serenity and firmness like the century-old trees of the
foroste







INTER-AIERICAN RELATIONS UNDER TIE- STRESS OF W;R

by Pablo iMx Ynsfrca


The present omorgoncy is a supromo tost for intor-Amorican relations.
Nevor before have wo come so fully to roalizo the dependence of the conti-
nent as.a whole on the bonds that bind together the pooples that inhabit
it. In tho past, under different world conditions that are now in tho
process of rapid and bewildering disintegration, we may have boon oxcused for
not placing this problem in the rank it always desorvod. Today we cannot
continue such a neglectful, loose attitude any longer. Intor-Amorican
relations have become a paramount concern to every responsible man and woman
of this hemisphere. The necessity of a woll-dofinod policy in the relation-
ships of all the limoricnn nations taken as members of a single continental
territory presses more and more upon us*

Indeed the continent is a unity in its main outline, but it is far yet
from being an organic unity. Geography alone, as things stand nowadays,
constitutes a disadvantage rather than an advantage. The problem consists
precisely in the fact that the Amoricas cover an enormous geographic area
that loaves it open to attack on many sides and that very little has boon
achieved so far to offset this vulnerability in a practical or effective
manner

The factors that have delayed the working out of a common program of
close continental cooperation until recently might be summarized in the
following throo: (1) the refusal of the United States to acknowledge its
position as a world power with world responsibilities; (2) the alleged
racial differences between both the Northern and the Southern halves of the
homisphoro; and (3) the division of Latin imorica into twenty independent
and not always friendly national units*

(1) The reluctance of the United States to act decidedly as.the world
poor that it is, has its roots in historical facts as well as in goo-
economic reasons, and in a peculiar national idiosyncrasy. It may be said
that the United States, because of the tremendous momentum of its growth,
found itself a world power before it could cast away its provincial habits
of thinking. The growth of its soul did not keep pace with the growth of
its body. Whon Tlashington mado his farewell address emphatically warning
his people against foreign entanglements, his horizon was confined within a
few sparsely populated settlements which had recently and painfully emerged
from a long colonial status. To got entangled in outside world troubles
would have quito easily exposed the newly-born nation to a reversion to its
previous subjugated condition. The duty of the moment was to concentrate
on the internal problem of national consolidation. There wore no oxtornal
ties or interests for the United States that may have called for hazardous
enterprises beyond its continental boundaries, though the war of 1812 was
pretty soon to show that it was not absolutely so.

Hardly throo quarters of a century had elapsed when the ontire outlook
underwent a radical change. The United States rose as a world power of
first magnitude. Without relinquishing its position as a producer of raw
materials along the old colonial lines, it jumped to the side of the other







industrial countries and became their competitor in world marketss, amazingly
well equipped for its new roloc To bo a producer of agricultural and pas-
toral products meant the necessity of an outlet for thorn, and virtually
nothing olsoJ but to bo a workshop of manufactured commodities croatod
other vital connections with the rost of tho world, and demanded accordingly
the reshaping of former policies.

It was this roadjustment of onrly ideas with now conditions, both in-
side and outside, that the United States had found difficult to attain, and
that prevented it for a long time from building up a concrete continental
policy with a view to unifying continental action. The jealousy displayed
by the proclamation of theo Monroo Doctrine toward hemispheric immunity did
not sot forth any corresponding plan intended to back up that doctrinos
Instead, there was something like a drift in an up and down stream of vacil-
lating and insecure trends.

Internal conflicting forces wore at play behind such an unstoady atti-
tude. The agricultural and pastoral Unitod States was at variance, in its
appreciation of some fundaiontal problcns, with the industrial United
States. Because of this, they had alrondy clashed in the Civil War, and so
in the ensuing period they would preclude the selection of some clear inter-
national program. They onvisagod two different world panoramas. For the
farming group the world should continue to bo a consumer of agricultural
and pastoral products, as of old; for the industrial group, it should have
a triple function--that of a buyer of manufactured products, that of a field
for capital investments, and that of a seller of seme essential raw nator-
ials required by the industrial machinory4

In the endeavor to conciliate those views and interests, the scale
would one time swing to cno sido, and the next time to the othor, Naturally
this could happen only at the oxpohso of any genuine international policy*
No international policy is possible unless internal equilibrium provailas
Hence the saying--vory pertinently rocallod in a recent lecture by Professor
J. Lloyd Mocham of the University of Toxas--to the offoct that the intor-
national policy of the United States consists in not having any. To be a
world power and not to have any international policy suggest the condition
of a blind giant--a paradoxical combination of utmost strength and pitiful
helplessness.

But the important point, which should never be overlooked, is that if a
country does not care to have any international policy, others may who do-
care, wichTho In3scapablo coro-Tary that bocauso of tho absonco of an intor-
national policy of its own a country may bo foroodo submit _tto the ntor-
national policy of others.

This is why no world power of the magnitude of the United States can
afford to go along without a definite and forward world program: which is
even more true in the case of the United States because this country occupies
a central position with regards to the throe continents whore the struggle
for world power has raged over since there was any human history.

I mentioned a peculiar national idiosyncrasy of the United States as
also responsible for its omission in shaping a clear-cut foreign policy.
By it I moan the so-callod insularity, that strange trait of the Anglo-Saxon








people which nevor resign themselves in spite of their insularity, to
stand still within the limits of thoir islands. But insularity implios,
notwithstanding this conspicuous lack of consistency, a certain distrust
to act outside onots own familiar scenery, and obviously the Amorican
people have inherited some of it from their Anglo-Saxon ancestors. Wash-
ington's farewell address was undoubtedly prompted by this temperamental
distrust to some extent. However, horo again tho American people aro con-
fronted by a question which does not deopnd upon their national tamper
or willingness* Y.hothor willingly or unwillingly, they ougjt to proservo
their own position as a world ponvr, and in so doing they have necessarily
to overcome thoir insular inclination. Otherwise, they may bo compelled
to become the tool of another world power, and to act under a foreign in-
fluenco for the sake of foreign interests, but at their own risk.

(2) Tho fact that the Amorican continent is inhabited--broadly speak-
ing--by two distinctly different human groups settled on two distinctly
different territorial sections showed itself as one of the most baffling
challenges to any .tentative effort to bring about a unified hemispheric pro-
gram. It was classed as a problem of racial divergency or incompatibility.

Yet, this reference to race does not help to draw the true line of do-
marcation btweeoon the two .moricas. It is an old comnon-placo that neither
the Anglo-Amoricans nor the Latin-Amoricans belong to any pure racial stock*
Furthermore, the mental attitude and volition of any lar;o human community
are not dotorminod by any racially inherited inspirations, but by environ-
mental factors, most of them omboddod in the past and transmitted either by
tradition or education* The difference botwoon the two iAmoricas, thereforeo
should be stated in terms of history and culture rather than race.

In support of this conclusion it should be sufficient to recall that
there are thousands and thousands of individuals of pure Anglo-Saxon paren-
tage born and reared in Latin America who think, act, and react exactly like
their fellows of Spanish extraction; and vice versa, this is equally true
of individuals of Spanish origin born and roared in the United States.

History has the largest share in tho long aloofness of the two Americas--
both colonial and recent history. North and South America were settled by
two rival powers who among other things bequeathed them their own mutual
prejudices. The distrustful attitude of Spain appeared to be moro justified
than that of England. Spain came first and wanted, quite logically, to
hold what she had conquered. Shortly after a century of feverish, almost
frantic, activity, her colonial empire of America evolved its definite form,
precisely at the moment when she gave the first unmistakable signs of ex-
haustion. At that moment, too, England started her American career. She
did not encroach on any Spanish dominion in her initial stops, but paved her
way as a maritime power in a rather rough fashion, which was not most appro-
priate to dispel any anxiety that may have disturbed the heart of Spain over
the future of her overseas provinces. In fact the proximity of the English
in America proved to be a permanent source of worry for Spain throughout
the colonial period. The only respite she ever know was afforded to her by
the Independence Y~ar of the thirteen British colonies. But it was a very
short one, which, after all, did not weaken the English aggressiveness to
any material dogroo, as viewed from the Spanish colonial anglo.








This trying rivalry for colonial supremacy loft a bitter sentiment
in tho Spanish soul, a sentiment which was carried over to tho Spanish-
American sub-consciousnoss in the form of a congenital distrust for ovory-
thing of English origin. Tho bonds with Spain woro broken, totally broken,
far moro complotoly than the ties between England and the United Statoss
but in tho bottom of the Spanish American hoart thoro always remained a
vaguo fear that behind any action tingod with some English hue some
devilish English trick might bo hidden.

In the course of the ninotoonth century this attitude was shifted to-
ward the Unitod Statosc Notwithstanding a profound and sincere admiration
for the political and social institutions of this country, and something
like an awe-inspiring sentiment toward her material achiovomonts, the Latin
Americans cannot help entertaining some misgivings as to the ultimate
design of any North-American move. It is, indeed, the shade of the old
colonial ghost that used to haunt the soul of their Spanish ancestors, but
still a ghost which could have long since vanished if the United Statos,
from the time of achieving a dominant position in the continent as a first-
rate world power, had planned and carried forward a far-sighted and con-
sistont policy.

Instead, the United States followed an uncertain course hardly adequate
to croato an atmosphere of friendliness in the continent at largo and, con-
soquontlys to dispel old proconcooptions and suspicions. Although a faith-
ful, a devotedly faithful champion of Pan Americanism, she persisted in
placing certain restrictions on Pan Amoricanism which showed that she was not
proparod, perhaps on account of national rosorvations, to mako all the
sacrifices required by the hoped for culmination of that vast continental
aspiration*

It was not until the inauguration of President Roosevelt's Good Neigh-
borts Policy that the United States embarked upon an all-ombracing and un-
reserved continental policy, designed to frame a program of collective
defense upon the basis of close cooperation on the part of all the countries
concerned. But oven so, oven when the slightest shade of a doubt regarding
the real intention of the present policy should havo disappoarod, not all
the rosistoncos wore actually removed. Take the case of Argontino, for in-
stanoo, and her evasive conduct* Undeniably she acts under the influoncoo
or on the pretense of the former Latin-American approhonsion, although
some national characteristics of her own should also bo reckoned withe

Tho gonoral conclusion, thone that the gap between the two Amoricas
is the negative work of history rather than of any allegedly inherent
racial divorgoncy, cannot bo avoided. The past does not prove that they
woro, or they aroe tomporamontally--or racially, if you wish--opposod to
cooperation with each other, but that they had not attomptod, so far, to
draw up in earnest a program of cooperation within the scope of genuinely
continental lines. And with such a program only the unfortunate heritage
of history can bo corroctode

Lot us turn now for a moment to the cultural side of tho problem. Cul-
ture is the real mould in which any society shapes its personality. Anglo-
Amorica and Latin-America belong to two difforont cultures. The point
to bo decided is whether or not those two cultures are contradictory








I roalizo that the time and tho space at my disposal would allow me to
treat this highly interesting subject only in a very superficial manner.
But some fundamental facts can clearly bo discerned within the present
limitations.

Anglo mnorica and Latin America speak two European languages which
are far loss dissimilar than is commonly believed. (I am taking Spanish as
tho typical Latin-omerican tongue solely as a matter of procoduro and, fur-
thormoro, because all the arguments concerning Spanish are equally appli-
cable Portuguoso.)

English and Spanish are considerably closer to each other than to any
other language of the Gormanic or Slavic groups. English is usually classed
as a Germanic language, but, without professing to be a philologist at all,
I dare say that the structure, the vocabulary and oven the intonation of
the English language do not give any striking Germanic impression whatsoever.
Instead, vocabulary, structure and an endless absorption of Latin words
lend it a surprising resemblance to any noo-Latin tongue. The more notice-
able difference between English and Spanish lies in the fact that the former
is an idiomatic language in its main features and the latter is a graminatical
language; but this difference does not open an abyss between the two as do
the doclontions of the German language, for example, which is presented to
the students as a presumptive cousin, or older sistoro or whatever the kin-
ship may bo, of the English.

Therefore, the languages spoken by the two cultures of Amorica do not
constitute any impassable barrier or any serious hindrance between theme
Some forty years ago, the most illustrious of the Latin-Amorican poets,
Rubon Dario, impressed by the tremendous expansion of the United States8
raised this question, "How many millions of us Latin Americans shall speak
English?" implying that the fate of many millions of us was to lose our
mother tongue under the swooping waves of the colossal English-spoaking
flood from the Northe VTo see now that such fears wore not warranted at all.
Witnossing the interest that Spanish has awakened in the country, you might
just as well pose the question to yourselves, "How many millions of us
North Amoricans shall speak Spanish?" -- a question which would not reflect,
indeed, any worry, but quite the opposite. Those fears wore unfounded
because the Spanish culture of Latin miorioa is still in the primo of its
vitality, and in such a station of evolution there is no danger for any cul-
turo to be suffocated by any other. The contact of the two Amorican cul-
tures will, contrariwise result in a reciprocal enrichment Anglo Amorica
and Latin Amorica, far from trying to exclude each other, are seeking cul-
turally to complement each other; and this will bring about the most
grandiose cultural conjunction over accomplished within the compass of
western civilization--that profoundly human and profoundly Christian western
civilization made universal by the colonial genius of England and Spain
and now, once more, mortally threatened by the irreducible Germanic bar-
barism.

(3) Geography, colonial antecedents, and individualistic proclivities
doop-soatod in the Spanish soul contributed to split Latin America into
nearly a score of independent republics-. Whon the struggle openly started
against the Spanish rule, the different revolting sections had to act sop-
aratoly, and entirely at their own risk. There was no possibility for them







to prearrange any plan whatsoever. Some of them were farther off from each
other than from Spain, like Mexico and the La Plata River provinces,
and had no reciprocal connection of any kind. Therefore Latin America
had to fight not one war but several hazardous wars in order to got rid
of its metropolitan yokoe

Local rivalries mado collective effort oven more difficult within
some singlo administrative units Personal dislikes added to the general
confusion* The lack of experience in public affairs of many of the early
loaders of the revolution loft important problems unsolved. In some cases
oven the main goal was overlooked. In Buenos Airos, for oxamplo, the con-
flicting ideas and tondencios created such a misty atmosphere, that the
patriot governments in the decade of 1810-20 hesitated between monarchy,
an English protoctorate, or a reversion to tho Spanish rulo

With the exception of the Bolivar initiative for the Panama Congross
after the last Spanish strongholds wore captured, there was no serious
attempt to establish any common bond among the now nations. They woro,
either too busy with their internal troubles, or too jealous or distrustful
for any cooperative work. Furthermore a powerful and dominant factor of
disparity made its appearance from oarly days and embitterod tho relations
of many neighboring republics--the disagreement as to their rospectivo
territorial heritage. In the words of an English historian "...Spain
bequeathed to the emancipatod Spanish-American nations not only her own
frontier disputes with Portuguese Brazil, but problems which had not dis-
turbod her, relating to the exact boundaries of her own vico-royaltiosp
captaincies general, audioncias, and provinces."l

Spain did not care much to make any precise demarcation among tho div-
isions of her American dominions as everything belonged to her. But this
undefined condition of the Spanish administrative areas gave rise among tho
independent republics to angry quarrels which more than once plunged them
into devastating wars. Practically all the major wars among the American
nations* in the North as well as in the South, derived from disputes over
boundary lines or over the ownership of a tract of torritorye

Happily enough, with one or two exceptions all those causes of friction
are by now removed, It may be said that the Amorican republics have defined
once and for all their geographic personalities. This is indeed a posi-
tive reassurance for continental peace.

But the definition of the territorial possession of every individual
American republic is not all the task they should accomplish in order to
preserve their future. Present events confront them with another tremendous
task, the success of which is of vital importance for them. This task is
not domandod by the menace to only a tract of their territorial property,
but the very pattern of life they have chosen to live.

The task of the moment is 'cooperation,'.for the sake of the American
continental safety and for the sake of the two sister cultures to which the


P. H. Box, The Origins of the Paraguayan War, University of Illinois
Studios in tho Social Scionces, Vol. XV, numbers 3-4, 1929.







American continent belongs. No Amorican republic can defend hersolf through
isolation, and no American nation can expect the slightest advantage from
the victory of the axis. Old prejudices and susceptibilities should give
way to a real spirit of docidod collaboration. The South Amorican nations,
especially, should be responsive to this duty, for thoy aro farther from
the real effective contor of continental defense, which is the United States.
Without intimate cooperation with the United States they might weaken thom-
solves and weaken the whole continental dofon'soa Only complete blindness
can prevent them from seeing the throat that is suspended over all our
pooplos, from North to South&


HOW CAN VIE PERPETUATE THE PRESENT POPULARITY OF SPANISH?

by William C. Zollars


Prior to the depletion of the ranks of the male students in our oduca-
tional institutions by selective service, the popularity of Spanish had boon
increasing since 1936) gradually at first and then rapidly. Though the
study of modern languages has declined recently along with decreases in on-
rolmonts in our colleges and universities, Spanish onrolmcnts have fallen
loss than the others. High school registrations in Spanish still show an
upward trend and Spanish is being introduced each year into moro and more
secondary institutions.

In view of those conditions, it is the duty of all friends of the Span-
ish language and of Pan-Amoricanism to do their utmost to maintain the pros-
ont popularity of Spanish. In socking its permanence in our curricula, wo
may count on the excellent cooperation of various public officials. But
teachers of Spanish are not yet cooperating in sufficient numbers along fixed
lines and with preconceived plans to accomplish the most lasting and offoc-
tive results in every phase of our endeavors. The struggle to give Spanish
a permanent place in our schools is being carried out by a relatively small
percentage of those who are devoting their lives to teaching Hispanic cul-
ture and hemispherical solidarity.

Many of us are probably giving considerable thought to cultural objec-
tives. No other aim is more important for mutual understanding among the
Amorican republics. However, largo numbers of students who have studied
the intricacies of Spanish syntax for several years know very little of the
historical background of Latin-Lmorica and of its social institutions,

Moreover, the practical side of Spanish as a means of communication
receives far too little attention in our classrooms. Recently I knew several
excellent college students who failed to pass qualifying examinations in
Spanish for important governmental posts because they had practically no
knowledge of commercial terms or of any other phase of Spanish vocabulary
which was not contained in the word-lists. The blame for this situation
falls on the teachers who did not adapt the content of their courses to moot
the changing demands of our day.

Only a small number of our teachers are teaching conversational Spanish
to the many students who will be closely associated with Latin Amoricans in







the present and the post-war periods. Tho ancient methodology of instruc-
tion in Latin and Grock, which fails to attract a largo porcontago of our
prosent-day youth when applied to a living language, still prevails in
most of our classrooms.

In only a few states have our teachers made really strong efforts to
give Spanish a place in the curricula of our elementary schools. Yet I have
never failed to secure at least some cooperation from state and local school
executives whom I have tried to interest in this branch of our instruction.

If Spanish is to be a permanent feature of the educational life of the
vast majority of our communities, all of us have work to do. More of us
must stress conversation from the beginning. Some Doubting Thomasos may
claim that this is an impossible or an unwise stop, but I have soon too many
proofs to the contrary to agree with them, Certainly conversation adds zest
and interest to instruction, Some of our teachers may not bo fluent in
conversational Spanish* This difficulty can easily be overcome in the
numerous summer and extension courses in Spanish which are running in our
colleges and universities. If there is no class in conversation in a par-
ticular neighborhood, a nearby college or university would likely organize
one if there wore sufficient demand for it* In every section whore I have
been recently, civilians and army folk are anxious to join such classes
and they increase the onrolmonts to the required figures.

Frequently I have hoard the opinion expressed that several years of
study would be necessary to prepare our elementary teachers to handle simple
Spanish conversation in the grades. My experience shows that those ideas
are mistaken ones. Whon we organized courses in elementary Spanish conver-
sation in Florida, our State Suporintondont wrote to the county superinten-
dents and school principals and roconmmndod the project. Courses for teach-
ors wore organized in the extension divisions of colleges to moot the now
demand. "Blitz" courses solved the problem. Of course it would have boon
bettor to give the teachers longct and moro thorough instruction but we
believed that it was urgent to consolidate our gains and to prepare for the
future before the enemies of language teaching could use their insidious
propaganda against us. Wo realized that our high school and college students
of Spanish of tomorrow would come from those elementary schools. A half-
loaf today is frequently bettor than a whole loaf tomorrow*

Do the state and national officials of our various Associations not
believe with me that it would be well to appoint a group of real workers in
each state to cooperate along the lines which I have suggested?








RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED AT TIH ANNUAL 'METING OF TIT
FLORIDA BRANCH, AIERICAN ASSOCIATION OF TEACHERS OF SPANISH
ROLLINS COLLEGE, WINTER PARK, FLA., APRIL 2)4, 19L13



(1) That members, individually and jointly, work for the passage of
federal legislation designed to provide scholarships for teachers
and prospective teachers which would enable them to study in the
Latin American republics in order that they may absorb a first-hand
understanding of the culture and acquire an oral command of Spanish
and Portuguese.

(2) That members, individually and jointly, work for state legislation
to promote the appropriation of funds for a similar purpose.

(3) That the teacher-training institutions of Florida be asked to
emphasize courses which will enable prospective teachers to gain
an oral command of Spanish and Portuguese and a true appreciation
of Latin American culture.

(L) That the Florida Branch of the American Ass'n of Teachers of
Spanish commend the State Department of Education for its leador-
ship in implementing a curriculum in public schools designed to
aid the foreign policy and present war policies of the federal
government, involving a true appreciation and understanding of the
Latin American nations.

(5) That the Florida Branch of the American Ass'n of Teachers of
Spanish continue to work cooperatively with the State Department
of Education and similar agencies and groups in developing ways
and means of implementing the furtherance of Spanish and Portuguese
instruction in public schools with proper emphasis upon hemispheric
understanding which might bo developed in the field of social
studies.

(6) That the Florida Branch of the American Ass'n of Teachers of
Spanish sponsor so far as its funds and influence -will permit the
production of materials relating to Latin America which would be
appropriate for use in elementary and secondary schools as woll as
for adults.

(7) That the Florida Branch of the American Ass'n of Teachers of
Spanish recommends that the State of Florida require two years of
a modern language for certification of all teachers in the public
schools of the state.

(6) That members lend their influence in making possible the develop-
ment of hemispheric good will and plodge themselves to work for
academic freedom in the classroom which permits the dovolopmont
of a world-wide point of view consistent with the ideals of
democracy.






INTER-AMERICAN WORKSHOPS FOR TEACHERS

By HAROLD E. DAVIS

Division of Science and Education

Office of Inter-American Affairs


This month groups of United States teachers will gather in some 23
teachers colleges and universities for summer inter-American teacher work-
shops* In groups of 25 to 200 teachers, they will study and plan together
the best moans of interpreting for thoir students the other American repub-
lics in regular school programs next fall. Preparing teaching plans and new
text materials, studying how to utilize the language, the history and the
music of the other Americas to enrich instructional programs, this army of
teachers will be in a position to make a notable contribution to the inter-
American program of cooperation and solidarity.

The summer teacher workshop is no longer a novelty in this country. In
fact, it has taken an important place in the educational world during the
past decade. The Commission on Teacher Education of the American Council
on Education has used it with far reaching results. The Eight Year Study of
the Progressive Education Association, the Cooperative Study in General
Education sponsored by the General Education Board, the North Central Asso-
oiation's study of the preparation of high school teachers, and the program
recently undertaken by the Southern colleges and secondary schools, with
the support of the General Education Board, made use of this effective
instrument for preparing groups of teachers to face new educational problems
and the demands of a new educational program.

The secret of the teacher workshop's success lies in the manner in
which it challenges individual initiative to join in a cooperative enter-
prise. Each teacher brings to the workshop his own problem or project.
There he finds the stimulus of others working on similar problems, and the
advice of a competent group of consultants. Programs are enriched by occa-
sional looturos, but the normal procedure consists of cooperative work
in informal groups.

It was natural enough, thereforoa that colleges and universities during
the past two yoars, should have turned to this method of teacher training
to moot-the demands for educational implementation of the Good Neighbor
Policy, and the program of hemispheric solidarity. The first emphasis,
quite naturally, came in the field of language study.

Tho University of Denver, the University of Wyoming, and others, spon-
sored intensive summer programs for the preparation of teachers of Spanish
and Portuguese in the summer of 1941. Last summer ambitious programs were
carried on at Mills College and at Lincoln School of Teachers Collegeo Here,
too, the main center of attention was language study, but the field was
broadened considerably to include all aspects of Latin American culture
Those programs wore carried on in cooperation with the Office of Inter-
American Affairs*









The first of the workshops this summer will open at the University of
Denver on June 21. Their expansions in the face of the many demands made
upon our educational institutions by the war, is evidence of the greatly
increased interest in inter-American questions on the part of teachers
throughout the country. It also is a striking manifestation of voluntary and
enthusiastic cooperation of teachers and teacher-training institutions with
the government in a cooperative attack upon a major educational need.

No two of those workshops will be the same. In each case the nature of
the program will be determined chiefly by the resources available in the
institution and by the interests and needs of the particular institution*

In general, however, there will be four typos.

1) Workshops with a major emphasis on Spanish and Portuguese
language and culture.

2) Workshops concerned with teaching English as a foreign language.

3) Workshops concerned with the problem of what Latin American
subjects should be taught at one or all educational lovolst
elementary, secondary and college.

4) Workshops primarily concerned with the educational problems
centering in our Spanish-language communities in the United
States.

The workshops at Mills Collegeo and Teachers College, Columbias are
outstanding examples of the first type. Mills also belongs to the second
typo, as do the workshops at the University of Florida, and the University
of Texas. The Texas Collogo of Arts and Industries will conduct a unique
workshop for Mexican teachers coming from border towns like Matamoros, who
wish to improve their English and increase their familiarity with United
States life.

The third group includes the largest number of institutions: The
University of Chicago, George Poabody Toachors Collogo, University of Nebraska1
Marquotto Univorsity$ West Virginia University, University of Louisvillo,
University of Alabama, Lohigh Univorsity, University of Kansas City, and one
in St. Louis sponsored jointly by the St. Louis Schools, St. Louis Uni-
versity and Washington University*

Several of those workshops have boon undertaken with the cooperation of
the public schools of the city or state concerned. The interests of teachers
in them will have a wide range. They will include children's literature
children's songs, folk dances, and materials to be used in the study of
reading, geography or history in the elementary schools. Secondary school
teachers will pursue problems concerning the teaching of Spanish and Portu-
guese, the content of courses on Latin America, or the problem of what
Latin American materials should be incorporated in the present curriculum.
Some teachers, it is hoped, will concern themsolvos with the more basic
problem of what the aims and objectives of inter-American education should
be and with the construction of tests in terms of those objectives. College
instructors in workshops like the one at the University of Chicago will be







moro concerned with the organization of courses specifically in the Intor-
American field. Some of them, too, will concern themselves with broader
aspects of orienting our education to the needs of the permanent inter-
American program.

In some-ways the most significant, and certainly the most distinctive
group of workshops is the fourth. Last summer the schools of the County of
Los Angeles under the leadership of Superintendent C. C. Trillingham, took
the initiative. In a workshop for teachers in communities with a large
Spanish-speaking population, a beginning was made in a program to provide
special training for these teachers, to enable them to make a more direct
approach to the special problems of the communities in which they taught.
Individual and community health, vocational guidance, the teaching of
English to children from Spanish-speaking families, cultural understanding
through appreciation of Latin American cultural backgrounds, School recrea-
tional programs in which children of both Anglo-American and Hispanic-
American backgrounds share games, songs and other recreational forms, adult
education--these are a few of the fields which the teachers of Los Angeles
explored.

This summer will find similar workshop programs at the University of
Denver; New Mexico Highlands University, Las Vegas, New Mexico; Arizona
State Teachers College, Tempo, Arizona; Our Lady of the Lake College in San
Antonio, Texas; Southwest Texas Teachers College, San Marcos, Texas; Clare-
mont College in cooperation with the schools of San Dimas, California) and
in Los Angelos, where county and city schools will cooperate with the Uni-
versity of California at Los Angeles.

All of these workshops include plans for follow-up work. Teachers will
work at teaching plans, or plan programs of action which they will carry out
during the ensuing year. Perhaps most distinctive in this respect, is the
workshop at New IMoxico Highlands University. Here twenty-five teachers
from small towns in the neighborhood of Las Vegas have been selected for
training in a special program intended to make the school a center for
community education. After those teachers have received the training of the
workshop they will return to their home communities to continue their pro-
gram through a regular series of educational broadcasts from the University.
Some of those broadcasts will be directed to school children, others to
adults. They will include instruction to improve the Spanish spoken through-
out this area, and to develop pride in the rich Spanish cultural heritage.

A mission of distinguished Mexican educators has boon invited to visit
the workshops in the Southwost. They will advise on plans and programs and
hold conferences with groups of teachers.

Before the conclusion of their visit, the Mexican educators will spend
a week in conferences with educational loaders from this country, planning
a long range program for dealing with educational problems in the Spanish
American communities of the United States.

One of the most significant contributions of those Inter-American work-
shops is that they are a direct approach to the problem of training teachers
already in sorvioo. If education is to play a continuing role in the develop-
ment of hemisphere solidarity, our teachers must become exports on the









31
geography, people, history and language of our southern neighbors. There
are many evidences of the increasing interest among United States teachers
in inter-American affairs. This has not only aided in producing hemis-
phere solidarity in the war effort, but it is expected to play a far more
important role in the growth of permanent friendly hemisphere relations in
the postwar world.











LAS CONSTITUC IONES DEL NUEVO MUNDO

Constituciones Polfticas de AmBrica. Por Andrds Maria Lazcano1 Con pr6-
logo de Juan Clemente Zamora. 2 Habana: Cultural, S. A., 1942. Vol. I pp.xi,
587; Vol. II, pp. 559.


Un studio comparado de las constituciones, permit al letrado y al es-

tadista servir al pueblo. Mientras "nosotros, los del pueblo" establecemos

constituciones, las proposiciones pueden ser suministradas al pueblo, sola-

mente, despues de un trabajo preliminary, por part de especialistas. Gene-

ralmente, el estadista estd incapacitado para ocuparse en investigation cons-

titucional; la funoi6n del letrado es la de servir al estadista,3 quien, en-

tonces, puede servir al pueblo inteligentemente.

Aunque la modern democracia constitutional se origin en el Nuevo Mun-

do, los principles centros de studio constitutional comparado estaban en

el Viejo Mundo. El trabajo initial de tales dootos como Posada, results en

la constituoidn Espaiola de 1931. En gran parte, bajo la direcoi6n de Jo-

seph-Barthelemy, Francia lleg6 a ser el centro de los studios constituoio-

nales, los cuales cesaron con la caida de la Tercera Repdblioa Francesa.

Despu4s de la eliminacidn de Espaia y Francia, el centre mundial de la in-

vestigacidn oonstitucional comparada se trasladd al Nuevo Mundo, donde de-

bi6 haber sido desde 1787.

Con respect a las constitucionos del Nuevo Mundo, las valiosas oolec-

ciones constitucionales espaiola y francesa son arcaicas, ya que no abarcan

los importantes desenvolvimientos constitucionales latinoamericanos, de la

deoada pasada. En las actuales oircunstanoias, dificilmente puede esporarse

que las colecciones de las constituciones del Nuevo Mundo, hasta nuestros

dfas, se realicen en el Viejo Mundo. El present trabajo, por lo tanto, al










ofrocer una coleccidn hasta la fecha, es de lo mAs bien acogido. Ademds, el

autor ha provisto de tiles pianos para facilitar la investigation compara-

da* Su valioso studio preliminary analiza las varias constituciones y da es-

pecial atencidn a las mas recientes garantfas socioecondmicas, suplementan-

do la traditional Declaraci6n de los Derechos, Conexiones con el Viejo Mun-

do estan provistas por medio de referencias a disposioiones constitucionales

del perfodo de la Post-Guerra Mundial I. Quiza,la caracteristica mas origi-

nal e ingeniosa del trabajo, consist on la presentaci6n de cuadros sin6p-

ticos, para sintetizar las disposiciones constitucionales comparable sobre

t6picos particulars. Este trabajo, en su conjunto, es un digno representan-

to do los esfuerzos del Nuevo Mundo para desarrollar studios constituoio-

nales comparados.

En un pr6logo muy interosante, el professor Zamora indica la creciente

importancia de los studios constitucionales comparados en el Nuevo Mundo.

Ciertas omisiones y limitaciones estdn anotadas para ayudar el future

trabajo en esto nuovo campo. La Constituci6n Canadiense merece quo se la

incluya en la familiar de las Constituciones Americanas, adn cuando Canadd

no es miembro do la Uni6n Pan-Americana. Debido a la influoncia on las re-

ciontes constituciones del Nuevo Mundo, la Constituci6n Espajola de 1931,

deberfa habersela dado, por lo menos, la misma atenci6n, que la dispensa-

da a las constituciones de la Post-Guerra Mundial I de otros paises. En

el caso de unas pocas constituciones Latinoamericanas, tiles referencias a

disposiciones comparable de constituciones mas antiguas, hacen possible iden-

tificar las disposiciones mas remotas incorporadas en las constituciones

mas nvevas; desgraciadamente, esta pr&ctica no ha sido extendida a todas

las constituciones en la coleccidn.










El problema de la lengua merece especial consideraci6n. Como el traba-

jo es enteramente en Espafol, las constituciones americana, brasileHa y hai-

tiana, aparecen en traducci6n. Para aquellos que estdn familiarizados con

los textos constitucionales originales, el peligro de que la traduccidn sea

err6nea es pequeno. El riesgo de perder el precise pensamiento originalmen-

to intentado podria ser roducido por medio de la reproducci6n del texto o-

riginal. La solucion ideal seria el sistema de columns paralelas para los

textos en ingles, espaiol, portugu4s y frances. Una colecci6n de las cons-

tituciones del Nuevo Mundo, en estas lenguas, tendria la mAs amplia deman-

da. A pesar del valor y oportunidad del trabajo del autor, la demand serd

escasa en las parties de la America en donde no se hable espafiol.

Aunque el autor ha circunscrito su atenci6n a las cartas constituoio-

nales, se espera que seguir& mis adelante. El pr6ximo paso envuelve el es-

tudio de la extension hasta la cual las constituciones estgn actualmente

en vigor; todas las constituciones son excelentes sobre el papel, pero si

ellas no son judicialmente puestas en prAotica, el sonido es vaco y sin

substancia. C6mo los tribunales han protegido sus constituciones Con re-

ferencia a la Constituci6n Cubana, el autor estd en una posici6n ideal pa-

ra contestar esta pregunta. Una descripci6n mas complete de la jurispruden-
6
oia constitutional del Nuevo Mundo necesita ser presentada, y el proyec-

to atraerd la atonci6n y la cooperaci6n de muchos hombres de letras. En dl-

timo tdrmino,los estadistas y los pueblos estaran agradecidos.

George Jaffin *

1. Juez de la Gorte de Apelaci6n de la Habana.

2. Profesor de Derecho Constitucional, Universidad de la Habana.

3. En notables y recientes cases, limitadas colecciones constitucionales











fueron suministradas.

Ver Irish Free State Constitution Committee, Select Constitutions of the

Irish World Prepared for Presentation to Dail Eireann by Order of the Irish

Provisional Government (1922); Shiva Rao, Select Constitucions of the World

(1934) (reimpresi6n para la India de la colecci6n irlandesa); Biblioteca

Nacional de Filipinas, Planas Constitucionales para Filipinas: Colecci6n de

Textos Constitucionales Antiguos y kodernos para informacidn de los Miem-

bros de la Asamblea Constituyente (1934).

Una necesidad similar surge en el process de revision constitutional.

Ver New York State Constitution, Convention Manual, pt. 2, vol. 3, Foreign

Constitutions (1894). Sin embargo, en 1938, cuando la Convenci6n de New

York consider6 una posterior revision de la Constituoi6n, no fueron incluf-

das en la colecci6n preparada al efecto, las constituciones extranjeras.

4. Cf. Altamira y Crevea, Constituciones Vigentes de los Estados Americanos

(1926); Perez Serrano y Gonzdlez Posada, Constituciones de Europa y Am6rica

(1927); Dareste y Dareste, Les Constitutions Modernes (14th ed. by Delpech

and Laferri6re, 1928-1934) en 6 voldmenes, de los cuales el cuarto, dedica-

do a Latino Amdrica,-fu6 publicado en 1932; Mirkine-Guetzevitch, Les Cons-

titutions Des Nations Americaines (1932). En las dos dltimas colecciones

varias disposiciones constitucionales estgn solamente sumariadas.

5. Para aquellos que no estan familiarizados con el texto original, hay un

ricsgo mas serio. De este mode, si un letrado de Latino Amdrica descansa

solamente en las traducciones del autor de "Justicia y Equidad" o Debida

Formaci6n do causa, clusulas do la Constituci6n Americana, estd destinado

a qrder el significado original*

6. Para un andlisis de las decisions constitucionales de Argentina, con-







36





sditese Zavalia, Jurisprudencia de la Constituoi6n Argentina (1924);

Hroncich and Novaro, Derecho Constitucional Argentino y Comparado (2nd ed.

1959) 342 (un intent de comparaci6n de las principles decisions ameri-

oanas y argentinas); 3 Gonzalez Calder6n, Derecho Constitucional Argentino

(3d. ed. 1931) 137.

* Procurador especial, Departamonto de Justicia, Procurador Mayor, Comisi6n

de Seguridados e Intercambioc









SANCH O S A L DA A (1)
de
Jose de Espronceda
--------------------
por William C. Zellars


Jose de Espronceda (1808-1842) naci6 en Almendralejo, Badajoz. Estudid

en Madrid con Alberto Lista y a una temprana edad manifesto su talent poe-

tico, Fud progresivo en la polftica. Sus conexiones con la sociedad secret

de los numantinos y otras intervenoiones en los asuntos politicos de su 4-

poca resultaron tres veces en su destierro o su prisidn. Despuds de la

muerte de Fernando VII en 1833, desempei6 algunos puestos en el gobierno.

Sus amores tempestuosos con Teresa Mancha se reflejan en algunas de sus pro-

ducciones literarias. Su fama literaria se debe prinoipalmente a sus obras

podtioast Sancho Saldaia es su dnica novel.

La accidn de la novel se verifica en la segunda mitad del siglo XIII

durante la sublevacidn de don Sancho en contra de su padre, Alfonso el Sa-

bio y tambidn durante la sublevaci6n de los infants de Lacerda en contra

de don Sancho en su propio reinado.

Los amores son los de Sancho Saldaea conde de Cuellar, quien es uno de

los leales seguidores del prfncipe don Sancho, y Leonor de Iscar, hija de u-

no de los adeptos mas files del rey Alfonso. Saldaia y Leonor son amigos

desde su infancia. Por largo tiempo el abriga la idea de casarse con ella.

Sus planes, sin embargo, se alteran cuando 61 se une a las fuerzas de don

Sancho para pelear contra don Alfonso. El padre de Leonor es leal a don Al-

fonso, y por eso rehusa permitir el matrimonio de su hija con Saldaia, a

quien consider traidor.

Saldana se lleva un ohasco en el resultado de su amor y se deja hun-

dir en una vida de libertinaje. Por algdn tiempo estd enamorado de Zoraida,
--------------------------------------
(1) Madrid 1834. Usamos la edicidn de Madrid, 1914.
Este artfculo os el primero de una series de tres titulada "Tres novelas
del Romanticismo".










esclava mora de su castillo. Ella le correspond con su devoci6n y ejerce

en el tristo condo una influencia siniestra. Cuando reflexiona, Saldaia se

haco cargo do esto y vuelvo otra vez sus amores a Leonor, pero el padre de

sdta continda oponiendose severamente a la idea de su enlace.

Salda~a ahora desesperado determine casarse a todo trance con Leonor.

Por eso la hace raptar, pensando encarcelarla hasta que ella decide casarse

con 41, a pesar de la oposici6n paternal* Esta accidn inflama la ira de Zo-

raida, quien nunca ha cesado de querer a Saldafa, Desde este punto en ade-

lante ella tiene el espfritu rasgado con odio y amor para Saldada y acari-

cia constantemente ideas de venganza en contra de su rival.

En el fnterin, Leonor encuentra un defensor en Usdrobal, uno de los a-

ventureros de la guarnici6n de Saldafa. Usdrobal le cobra afecto a Leonor

sin que ella lo sepa y proyecta un plan de ayudarla a escaparse. Para reali-

zar su proyecto, Usdrobal alista la ayuda de Jimeno, paje de Saldafa. El

plan fracasa cuando Jimeno, en vez de cumplir con su promesa, trata de ha-

cer asesinar a Usdrobal por haber protegido 4ste a Zoraida una vez en con-

tra de los requerimientos amorosos del aventurero. Usdrobal se escape, no

obstahte, y se une a las fuerzas de Hernando de Iscar, hermano de Leonor,

siendo Hernando ahora el cabeza de la familiar por raz6n de la muerte de su

padre.

En este tiempo el prfn6ipe"Sancho ha arrojado a su padre, Alfonso X,

del trono de Castilla. Ahora llega Abraham, mensajero judio de los reyes de

Francia y Arag6n. Visita a Hernando de Iscar y le persuade que ayude a los

infants de Lacerda, quienes se rebelan contra el rey Sancho. Result que

Hernando de Iscar es poco despuds capturado por las fuerzas de Saldana y

llevado prisionero al castillo de Hernando.

Leonor mientras tanto se ha negado con constancia a obtener su liber-










tad mediante un enlace con Saldana, y Zoraida ha hecho un infierno la vida

de Saldaia con amenazas de violencia hechas en contra de 41 y de Leonor. A-

demns Jimeno, quo ha concebido un odio profundo para Zoraida por raz6n de

la resistencia que ella pone a sus requerimientos, acusa a Zoraida de ser

bruja e insta a Saldaia a que entregue a Zoraida a la Inquisicidn para ser

probesada. Saldafa cree que Zoraida es culpable y cede a la peticidn de Ji-

meno.

Saldaea ahora para realizar sus deseos de casarse con Leonor amenaza

a esta con prop6sitos de matar a Hernando de Iscar si ella no consiento. Co-

mo su dltimo recurso, ella cede para salvar la vida do su hermano, pero ds-

to mientras tanto se escape,

Usdrobal aparece como el campe6n de Zoraida en el juicio de Dios y ga-

na la libertad' de la mora matando a Jimeno, quien sirve de su acusador* Zo-

raida adn fire en su determinaci6n de que Saldaia no se casarg con nadie

sine con ella, vuelve a su castillo; da de putaladas a Leonor enfrente del

altar de la boda y huye. Saldana expla sus pecados haci4ndose monje. Hernan-

do de Iscar va a morar en la corte de Arag6n.

Las fuentes do esta novela so pueden encontrar en la rebeli6n del prin-

cipo don Sancho contra su padre, Alfonso el Sabio.

Los elements hist6ricos de Sancho Saldaia son: primero, el relate de

la rebeli6n; segundo, on la desoripci6n de la rebeli6n subsiguiente de los

infants de Lacorda en contra de don Sancho despuds de que dste se hubiera

apoderado del trono.

La dnica tesis del autor de esta novola es la do alabar a Alfonso X

de Castilla como monarca y defender su accidn de bajar el valor de la mo-

neda castellana. Asi se opone a las opinions del padre Mariana que cita

(1). La trama de la novel es clara, pero Espronceda dedica tanto espacio

(1) I, 72-73









a los episodios menores y a la historic, que la novel result bastante e-

pis6dica. Sin embargo,el interns del lector se mantiene vivo porque tiene

siompro a la vista ol rotrato del tirano SaldaEa, la lucha constant en el

alma de Zoraida, la quo ostd rasgada por colos por una parte y el amor por

otra part. Tambidn agadon inter6s la identidad oculta de Zoraida, quien re-

sulta ser la hija perdida del prominent Abraham, y la presentaci6n del

juioio largo do esta muchacha injustamonte acusada de brujeria.

Una atmssfera romintica so produce por las frecuontos amonazas apasio-

nadas de Zoraida on contra do Saldaia y mediante escenas lIgubres tales co-

mo las do los viajos nocturnos de Zoraida y la lucha de Usdrobal por su vi-

da quo se vorifica on una oscalera oscura cuando Jimeno y sus socuaces tra-

tan do asesinarlo.

Come obra de arto literario, Sancho Saldafia tiene poco valor. Sus per-

sonajes anormales la ponen on la corriente del romanticismo pore no hincha

la corrionto on sumo grade No so podo docir quo marque un avance en ol

desarrollo de la novel hist6rica.







OUR CONTRIBUTORS

Mr. Carlos Gonzenbach Freire, a native of Quito, Ecuador, is a
graduate student at the University of Florida specializing in Plant
Pathology. In his spare time he acts as secretary of the Inter-Ameri-
can Institute. Before registering at the University of Florida, Mr.
Gonzenbach taught botany as Assistant Professor in the Central Univer-
sity of Quito. In 1937 he visited the Galapagos Islands and other parts
of his country as a member of the Pedagogical and Scientific Mission of
Ecuador.

Dr. Fausto Soto is First Secretary of the Chilean Embassy at Washing-
ton* As a member of the Chilean bar he specialized 1929-1933-in Inter-
national Law. Between 1933 and 1936 he was professor of Philosophy at the
Chilean Military Academy. Since 1936 he has held high rank in the Chilean
Embassies at Madrid, London and Washington. He is the author of several
treatises and poems.

Dr. Pablo Max Ynsfran is a native of Asuncion, Paraguay where he
taught in the Colegio Nacional and in the Escuela Normal de Profesores.
A member of the Paraguayan Chamber of Deputies from 1924 until 1928,
Dr. Ynsfran was later Charg4 d'Affaires of Paraguay in Washington. During
the administration of President Estigarribia, 1939-1940, he was Secre-
tary of Public Works of Paraguay and at present is Visiting Professor at
the University of Texas*

Dr. William C* Zellars, on leave of absence from Florida Southern
College, is Professor of Spanish at Louisiana College in Pineville, Louis-
iana. Dr. Zillars is a Director of the Instituto de las Espasias en las
Estados Unidos, Seccion de Florida and is a member of the Consejo Consul-
tivo of the Revista Interamericana. The Revista is proud to have publish-
ed Dr. Zellars articles in every issue since its founding in 1939.

Mr. Harold E. Davis, Program Officer, Division of Science and Educa-
tion, Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs

Mr. George Jaffin is a Special Attorney in the Department of Justice
of the United States Government and Senior Attorney with the Securities
and Exchange Commission. Formerly the Editor of the Columbia Law Review
and member of the faculty of Johns Hopkins University, Mr. Jaffin is the
author of several other Pan-American constitutional studies which ha-1
appeared in numerous Latin American periodicals.