Revista interamericana;

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Title:
Revista interamericana; revista dedicada al estudio de la cultura iberoamericana ..
Physical Description:
v. : ; 28 cm.
Language:
Spanish
Creator:
University of Florida -- Institute of Inter-American Affairs
Los Pícaros de Quevedo
Publisher:
s.n.
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Latin America   ( lcsh )

Notes

Language:
Contributions in English or Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
v. 1- agosto 1939-
Issuing Body:
1939- published by the Institute of Inter-American Affairs, University of Florida, in cooperation with Los Pícaros de Quevedo.
General Note:
Reproduced form type-written copy.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 07270757
ocm07270757
Classification:
lcc - F1401 .R445
System ID:
AA00002854:00004

Full Text



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UNIVERSITY

OF FLORIDA

LIBRARY


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REVISTA


IN TE-RAMERICAN


REVISTA DEDICADA AL STUDIO DI LA CULTURAL IBJROAMERICANA

Redactor
Sr. Manuel D. Ramirez


Consejo Consultivo


Dr. Rollin S. Atwood
Dr. Walter J. Matherly


Dr. 0. H. Hauptmann
Dr. William C. Zellars


VOL. II. JUNIOR DE 1941 NO. 2.

SUMAPIO
PAgina
Manuel D. Ramirez ...... Homenaje a la Republica de Panama .............. 1

Ootavio Mendez Pereira ...... Problems de la Educacin' Universitaria -
La Universidad Initeramericana ............. 3
William C. Zellars ...... Two Novels of Jorge Washington Montgomery ....' 8

Latin American Students at the University of Florida ................... 16

Braulio S&nchez-Sez ....... Inquisiciones en Torno a la Mistica Espafola
El Tribulado Pedro de Rivrdeneira ........ 17
The University of Havana Summer School .................. ,.............. 22

Harold P. Wexler ...... Persistent Factors in the Economic Development of
the West Indies ............. 23
Periodicals Received Regularly by the Inter-American Reading Room of the
University of Florida ....... ....... 27
Faustino Prado ...... A Los Pueblos de Americn ........... ............2 28

Manning J. Dauer ...... The Western Hemisphere and the War ............. 33
Libros Recibidos ...... .......... ................... ......... ....... 36

Our Contributors ......**. ...... ........*.................... 37
-----
La REVISTA INTERAMERICANA se edita por el Institute de Asuntos Interopericanos de
la Universidad de Florida, Gainesville, EE. UU., y se public semestralmente en
los idiamas oficiales de las Republioas Amerioanas.

La REVISTA INTERAMERICANA es enviada a los centros educacionales de las Americas
interesados en el mejoramiento do 'relaciones oducativas y culturales entire los
passes americanos, y establece oanje con oualquiera instituoi6n iberoamericana en
el Hemisferio Occidental.


192186





1.


IDMENAJE A LA REPBELICA DE PANAMA

por Manuel D. Ramfrez
En este nuiero, los directors de la Revista Interamericana de la.Universidad
de Florida contindan la innovation quo fue iniciada en el ultimo numero de nuestra
publication, es decir, dar homenaje a las veintiuna republican americanas. Espe-
ramos sinceramente que este numero dedicatorio llegue a las manos de todas aque-
llas entidades quienes se interesan por el bien comun de los pauses en el hemis-
ferio occidental, para que sepan que aqui laboramos con unos objetos muy desinte-
resados con el fin loable de establecer mejores entendimientos docentes y cul-
turales entire nuestros pueblos, Es nuestro feliz empefo de ayudar los esfuerzos
de hacernos conocer mAs ampliamente, usando nuestra modest publication cano vo-
cera interamericana. Sin masque decir, pasemos a la nacion a la cual tenembs el
sumo placer de dedicar este numero, el pals hispanoamericano que tiene mas- oortu-
nidades internacionales que ninguna otra nacion iberoamericana por su position
geogrAfica la Republica de Panama.

Es un honor el nuestro poder presentarle al lector una de las figras mes des-
tacadas de nuestra hermana republican. El "guest writer" de este nuier6 no nece-
sita presentaciones, ya que es muy bien conocido en:todo el hemisferio occidental
por sus labores como educador y escritor. El Dr. Octavio MEndez Pereira, ex-
rector de la Universidad de Panama, es una de las figures principles en el desa-
rrollo educativo y cultural de la republican panamefia y a el se le debe muchisimo
por la creaci6n de la Universidad, que muy pronto ha torado su lugar entire las
mejores .instituciones dooentes en la America latina. No hay duda ninguna que el
doctor Mendez Pereira hoy da es uno de los gulas ma~s formidable hac.ia una nueva
concordancia entire las Americas, la ibera y la anglosajona, y la Republica de Pa-
nama debe de sentirse muy orgullosa de poder llamar a este erudito su hijo.

Panama en lengua indigena signifioa "abundancia de pieces segun unos, y "lu-
gar de las mariposas," .segun otros, pero cualquiera que sea no cabe duda de que
esta republica, una de las mas pequenas entire la hermandad americana, es un para-
fso verdadero. La Republica de Panama limit al norte con el Mar de las Antillas,
al sur con el Octano Pacifico, al este con Colombia, y al oeste con Costa Rioa.
Lo que mrs llama la atenci6n del turista que cruza este pals encantador ea 1a exu-
berancia y variedad de su flora. El clima de Panama se haoe bastante agradable
durante el afio entero, aunque a veces hay un poco de calor que es algo fuerte.

La Republica de Panana se puede decir que fue descubierta dos veces. El piimer
descubrimiento de Pnnamd fue otro triunfo de Crist6bal Colon, pero un triunfo que
ha recibido muy poca publicidad, ya que el Almirante lleg6 a esta region en busca
de un estreoho que lo condujera n las Indias Orientales. No obstante, para los
historiadores este descubrimiento ha sido de gran importancia torque esta pequena
repdblioa hoy dia ocupa una posicion de much importancia economic y diplomatica-
monte. Poco despues del descubrimiento, Colon fund la primer colonial panamena
donde dej6 a su hermano al mando. Desgraciadamente, los indios se sublevaron y
atacaron con furia a los coloniales hasta casi matar a todos los espaioles que
quedaban. Como en 1510 nuevas colonies fueron fundadas en o oerca del, Istiab do
Panama, y principalmente por los esfuerzos de Vasco Nuioz de Balboa. El segundo
descubrimiento de Panama fu ocomo a modiados del siglo diocinueve, un periodo
nuevo de actividades eoonomicas en el Istmo que continue hasta el establecimientp
del Canal de Panama. Durante el siglo antes del segundo descubrimionto, Panamt
habia sufrido cultural y econ6micamonte debido al abandonwmiento de los galeones
espafioles que ya no paraban on las tierras panameias desde 1749.

Con el objeto do facilitar ol trAfico international, el Canal de PanamA se opn-.
struyo a traves del Istmo de la republican. Fue construido por los Estados Unidos







de America en diez aHos y tres meses, proximamente, y cost 375 millones de dola-
res. Antes que el gobierno norteamericano obtuviese la oportunidad de construir
el Canal, una compafia franoesa bajo la direction del famoso Fernando De Lesseps
(el del Canal de Suez) habia comenzado a abrir el Canal, pero por la falta de re-
cursos y debido a la malaria y a la fiebre amarilla tuvo que suspender los traba-
jos. Luego vendio sus derechos a los Estados Unidos que comenz6 su obra saneando
la region. Se celebr6 un tratado entire la republican panamena y el gobierno nor-
teamericano.en virtud del cual Panama cedi6 a los Estados Unidos una faja de diez
mills ancho, cinco a cada lade del Canal, y que se conoce con el nombre de Zona
del Canal. El Canal fue oficialmente abierto al trafico international en el ano
1914, y por acuerdo legal el gobierno norteamericano le paga a la Republica de
Panama $430,000 anualmente por el use do este privilegio.

El oomercio de Panama es bastante active, particularmente el comercio de impor-
taci6n, dobido a que el pals no produce todavia lo suficiente para su consume. Lo
que mas export Panama son bananos, cacao, ore, cocos, concha madre-perla, la ta-
gua o marfil vegetal, el manganese, las pioles y madera. Con una poblaci6n de
573,351 habitantos, la Republica de Panama os dividida en nueve provincias, cada
una do las cuales tiene su gobornador. El president de la Republica es elegido
por voto popular y tiene sois ministros en su gabinete.

Cuando la Republica de Pananm primero recibio su libortad en 1903, no habia
sistema ninguno on l. educaci6n del pueblo, porque esto fue abandonado durante la
epocr on que Panama era part de la Republica de Colombia. Pero desde esa fecha
Panamm ha progresado muchisimo en el campo de education pui.ica. En los Ultimos
veintisiete afios de independencia ha aumentado en mas de quince veces su matr"cu-
la oscolar y las escuelas se h n multiplicado en analoga roporcion. Fue come en
el ano 1750 cuando el Obispo Castro de Luna Victoria fundo la primer universidad
en Panama, pero esta dur6 poco tiempo debido a la persecucion de los jesuitas en
America. La Universidad Nacional actual fue creada bajo la administraci6n del
president Harmodio Arias on el ano 1935.

Muy pocos panamenos se distinguieron en el mundo politico durante las guerras
para la indepondecia de Espfiaa, poro recientemente la Republica de Panama ha sido
representada por tales figures como Harmodio Arias, Juan Demostenes Arosemena,
Ricardo J. Alfaro, Augusto Samuel y Jorge Eduardo Boyd, etc. Ful como a mediados
del siglo diecinueve que empezaron a aparecer figures muy destacadas en la naci6n
panameia. Entre ellas aparecieron Justo y Pablo Arosemena, quienes se distinguie-
ron no s6lamente come abogados, sine tambien come estadistas, oducadores y oscri-
tores. MAs adelante apareci6 la figure mas sobresaliente de Panama durante los
ultimos afos del siglo diecinueve y las primeras dos d4cadas del siglo actual.
ssta era la de Beliszrio Porras, quien se di6 a conocer come estadista, revolucio-
nario y catedrltico en universidades de distintos passes. Su ncabre quoda en la
memorial de todo panamefio con sus obras, Trozos de mi vida, su autobiografia, y
Las campfias del Istmo, Otro pancmoio ilustre ha sido un companero do Porras, don
Susebio A. Morales, quien se distingui6 con sus obras acerca de los aspects his-
toricos, juridicos y economicos de la Ropublioa de Panama. Entre los literatos
de osta naci6n encantadora so encuentran Ortensia de Icaza y Ricardo Midr que mu-
rio hace unos a7os.




"En medio de esta voragine toca a los pueblos de America la misi6n de fortalecer
y superar lo que hay de permanent y valioso on las normas economicas, politics
y morales quo necesita la humanidad para perdurar," Oscar Schnake, Ministro de
Fomento de Chile.







P"OrIJI, rAS LA EDPTCACICF' !. IF0UT ITI-.TIA


LA ?Tp'l'I0;.i r.ITT?-J-.;* ?ICLAA *1

por O.ctavio i4ndez Fereira

S.-Pin merson, mn n.l iire'liftS, po rn*so :-ran educadror, la culu.ira restab.ce. el.
eq:;15i .rin, r.-no n! horaire ei su lugar eEntr sus: i giales y superiors, reLni-n.. er.
4l 1 s:. En i.-.i'ento.'- e aqusitc' de 1- sir -fla' y le d lvierfe ma tienpCo ele peligro de la
S 0y t s K.r0-r: S2:tirltos. ,% -1 !
.1
-Este cr'estibn; le irincinitc s'rienrtores tronnr:utables ae snntiniennto: altruis-
tas, ete propii3 to de i, rnsf'or'r; las actividades mentales en energia norl. ests
'--.'r-..t' as:' eirtNte:: por -*.'in .:",w.: blen eniendid]a, debe ser el fondo d e 1
r: ivisibcn y recr.rrinzank.i.: de 3 r.a: al-t: jd tivos.en la 2ri'is r'r w'u striiase.
el 0-.r0do *.: la .icfualido}'l, 1. 1- ha i,1 .-niCicar ipnnor la e.3.cuel er armonri con
la :id .', ,r'nstitu{rla or f : :t-:. de saneamiento moral e intelectual doe Is humanidad
y .rli, 1 amAo t--, mayor .-it.1 a la fneci6n social y humana de la cultu-
llrn- h / m n r -
"urC -a- si. rs i-nr 1 :oine "Horma ,n;. : sth I':l;t' e iee corner p.ar0e.is con el
memento pirituo1. del .:11A:. y en. 3rn con las inquietudes y realidades d!el
pue'.1.i en 1 *. .. ,l. seo'1 .'.r..n 1-. r:, enaontrar la. formula scci'l *de :p4z yr de
'n-'.'li-. '...-cs ue 'st:-ity '.~i .* el fondo angustioseo .- todos lcs *-onflicti no-.
tuales 'de ute, nivleso que so -irr'-.io, el problema universitario tient qua nl;!n-
tearse r-. r t. 0l ,I ?M y a i '~.y rr.rz. "de la vids actual comn rro Pta..nist y 0'omo
,':I. co.-. ::ir,:-n y ccao f'nr.-. renovadora metida an .-, entraia de 1. hor' -'
las rutQs ,. p*.rv-.nir p'r ;:sfur ;Pro de su1-erscrn .
EM, ,:, no do@ los ir.:r!-.ti-'t. de una universidad modern este de sePntir .
tratar d'o r.- ..: r ls "hondas conmociones.que sacuden a lahumanidad, -r" ir sus
r, r.+-- --.r. .. r-r c, rs: a la oalle y renovar su iocr.i: c e- onla -i '.-., -Vz-
clar su "li]tur.-" c6n las ,rn--l's inqiui.iid.-.:'s desl mundo que la rodea, ccn los Enjos
fondos de 1' exi;. S' '1on] tiv
Ya no 2 1- uii"- r Aidades darso el .i do V ivir .:neolfad.s .n I.! forn:.-
oi6n ? '-t-r.n e in stir' .es. puros,-mientras fr:r' de :-os rules sonl" :l .u-
raodn irr.:stri to d.. I q. !; di. ht nann. Y n rsta *.r-r;.~-l]i. uni'r'rspl qu h-' to-
. a '. : ;:r ';p:'"-, W-r .hechos f':-ni :l 1nt -lea tlen:r .que srit-r A: I:- visit: del
.J-. c 'r la nrr : del c n ~ -- ; ir'1 : :r: 1. ooo eler. o n o d- I !n: s- 'wm n-
na y ln Aint'.r -r. .l r.ci de los f' stores politinio, ecoon.r.in-ics, irNt. 1 .c+.u" is,
moranles y r eci" 1 'del .hi'i-..rro.o ;.
Acaso,. .2 -re.:-,c -: 5 nt-o e '' 1 .de esstor .?.'r: f e'tor' s -,olri dJ.' surgir r. l ,in

-II
din el h1i wi, snr. 1 ,quo l- h-c t-. bus.s n i..1 c- r t ?,ur. :q.litric m s ,'-.no
y mas pr,'punc,- -v;1 N"'.- pu ..U v.. ificrs 1 nueva civil iAn. s Y !
univern i un'r~, i-: !.-ri n tn-in, .la 1 .:' 1 a f ,-tl.lr Ect- tr. nsf r-
mn :., r.. --,.t 1t -. : los f' :tor:s n'tos pr:i. pror iu irl- r-
ticulan'n-l :.,I r-.:ion r nr.r -r so:r los r, n,-rce y s-ohre lA s ru_! l. s,
H rq.gq ..nplio- r..'.. *. poe :s p 1' r' ]r.I' 1 b- s.. do unn univ. rasidrd rmo'lern.; intcr-
amneric-n* ,-aC o ] qu3 r. '..riI' el Pr..aid*nt Roosevelt Tr- qu.:. t'..nu su -si-jn-
to en P'm '.* U' n in ." -r i quo 1 1 1c r: int':..' rv.iccs ps., rn .- 'r
In cultur- in 1 Q gr .rd .: inlui .i- -ai -1 rnundo y roiCrr- r un- n.m.jor ncr pr::';i in
y bonocim.i.-nr to ,.., 3o3 hcnl'r.s y 1- s r-sr,,, st con:o dal rmedio :n qun vix.ve.:n .rn ast-
h. i: .ric. 16 :) i;' rii' ". hu:'-W :'r y vit' 1 r". r qi'l l ': ul tur- con r1 c ont.:-
rii'ln soci:- c: it vi,--. los yu ii..-T i. i- :rl : tos n : b. ':,. s-
tar, fen it: iri ..:n. :l'mon y -' In rl. 'us prrnl i : r.


I* r v 1i-..n ly r. On W Qir .d: r Tr v ,ir., r: siA.; : f' -f Ur i' rsit+.' r
P- n'.mn., fnr tht. Intv:r-Ai- :rion Wde 1 on l "; i ''.ult ur ] Conl r.nc.. h'.ld f. 1 ih
niv..rsityv of i'i.nriid., April 14'--1", M'-.D1. An Eqrlis'h v-.rsion, wril.t-.-n.by th.,
th.or : s nul-li s .: 3. t.' }ro.: ..-dtl ~s c' 'g o t eonf r .ne: .i ntion.- to .





4.-
La solidaridnd amerionna impuesta por In geogrpfia y la. historic, fortificada,, on
el orden spiritual, por-la simpatic y la comunidad do ideoles e intereses y en el
ordon politico par la similtud de instituoionos democrrticns y nl amplitud de los
convenios juridioos, no podrA nuncn ser una renlidad moral firm y permnnonte --
ast lo ha oomprondido Roosevelt -- si no se asionta sobre la educnci6n de la juven-
tud, que os la llnmada a oronrlo su olinia spiritual.
Las vinculnoiones juridic.as o intoloctua.les que crean in codific ncion del dere-
cho intornacionnl, In unifionoion del derecho comercinl, el fomento de la coopern-
ci6n inteleotunl y do Ins relaciones culturnles por, el intercambio de publicacio-
nes, las exposiciones y nsamblons, serr.n siempre, en efecto, hermosas teorins si
no so asient.n sobre fuerzns espirituales'y morales cimentadns desde in escuola en
el matorial human, m.sculino y fomonino, llamado a aplicarl.s y a convertirlas en
conquistas sincerns y efootivas do in colectividad.
Toner come cr.mpo do experimentncion e invostignio6n los grrndes problems del
pnas y del continent dondo so vivo, sin olvid.r el rest del mundo, y servir de-
sinteresadamente con Ir. ciencin a nl mrnsa del pueblo en que os factor de inquietud
y de superncion In juventud, pxroco, puos, ser ol sentido-espiritual con que ha de
informarse la nueV n univcersid.d rmoricr.na.
Si nuestro tiempo dobe volver per Ir.s divisas morales, si In ciencir debe ser
hoy mis que nunon instrument de bienestrr y do concordi. nl alcr.nco de todos, uri-
pulso de csperr.nza y do superaci6n, ontoncos a Ir universidnd Ic correspond adies-
trar a la juvontud parr. q u no aotue soprrrda de In masa de su pueblo, ni distan-
ciadn do lns de otros prises por odios religiosos, diferencias rmcieles o incom-
prensiones psicologicns. Si ol saber -- lo he dicho .ntes -- no os mero drto o
conocimicnto, sino posoer uncr filosoffi do In vidn, estr.r bion oriontndo on el
mundo de Ins ideas y de Ir. ronlidtd, si sor culto signifion nnte todo poster un
dinemismo interior del ospiritu que dirijr Ins representaciones e inclinr.lones
personales, entonces la misi6n de unn universidad ante la civilizncion material
,ctu.l no debe ser una fuorza cioga que pong. la ciencia y la teocnicr nl servicio
do lns bcjas pnsiones do eso bVrbaro dc presa que es el llcmado hombre civilizado,
sine un sontimiento y una ooncioncia superiors do la vida, ontendido per vivir ol
trr.tar do nlcnnzar objetivos olcvndos y nobles. Lo corresponderf- a la universidad
intermeoricann., asi fundidn. con In vidr. re.l y a. vidr. ospiritur.l, hccr de todo
cl continent una sola entidnd cordial por In mozcln do sus juvontudes, unn soln
fuerza do los nuovos vrlores quo hen do constituir el verdrdero mundo nuevo unido,
on el derecho, In justicia, In. culture y in solrridnd demodrr tica, unido como un
solo sistemrn nervioso, cpaz do vibrrr simptctiocmente rnto los mismos estimulos de
pz y concordia, de humnnidad y solnridcd nr.oionwl o internncion.l. Lo correspon-
dorA tanmr a su cargo In tarea oducntivrw do Ir conciencin americana, la sociali-'
zcion del debor colectivo, In solrridr.d on los principios que so proclrmnn cdmo
patrimonio do Ir.rgs conquistns morn.los y ospiritunles. Le tocare imponor el
ciudadrno do Ir. patric grande, que estc por oncima de Ins fronteras y Ins trrbns
rr.ci-los y roligiosrs, soror interests ropublicnnos y colectivos, on una prlrbra,
intervonir diroot.mento, oficnzmontc, on 1. mrrchn del progroso y la civilizancion
do Amirion, quo debo sor prtrimonio y conquista a In vez individual y universal
do nuestros pueblos. Le toorAr, on fin, por oncimr, do todo, reintegrar en el
hmabro su dignidrd y sus vnloros do tal, come sujoto do corr.ezn y de pensnmiento,
como sujeto cient{fico y sujoto omocionrl, cnpnz por lo trnto de nobles incitacio-
nes, lo mismo on el or.mpo do In sonsibilidnd quo on el del intelecto. L. culture,
no solo os conocimiento sine fecundizncion del espiritu, clevnoion rl mistorio que
lo roden y rl infinite quo lo llamn a otrrs osforns do cosrs eternas,
La funcibn investigndorn quo tendrA r. su onrgo Ic universidad intorrmoricnna
dobert apliorrso asi a los problomas universales, y on espocirl n los problems
quo so rofioron a Amiricr, con ol objoto do oncontrnr solucionos quo contribuynn
nl mojoramiento mntorirl y ospiritu.l dol Continento y, sobro todo, r In armonin
do sus intorosos, culture instituciones.
Deber, tr.mbien ln Inbor do la universidad interamericnna trntar de pond on con-
tacto a los ostudiantos y a 'los hombres do cioncia y do aclton entire es ycon ia
vida real do oadr uno de sus pueblos'y :dosportir on :ellos Ia respons.bilidr.d vte






cl dostino oolectivo del Continente y su obligaci6n de intervenir lo mismo en los
problems y conflicts interns que en los internacionales, para 11evar a sus so-
luciones, junto con la cienoia, ya que queda dicho, la comprension y la armonia.
Asi nuestra universidad, al convertirse en centro de acercamiento entire las na-
ciones colombinas, se constituiria al propio tiempo en fuente de orientacion de
las investigaciones cientificas, en centro de consult y de consejo, de iniciati-
va y de ayuda en todas las dudas y todos los problems; en laboratorio de perfeo-
cionamiento individual y social donde se plasmen todas las ideologias, aspiracio-
nes e ideals, en vfnculo de union entire los pueblos, orisol de nuestras naciona-
lidades, fuente de dinamismo y accion, de iniciativas de amor y tolerancias.
En el segundo Congreso Cientifico Panamericano celebrado en Washington en 1915
el Delegado de Panama don Narciso Garay, actualmento Secretario de Relaciones Ex-
teriores, apoy6 con un brillante trabajo, la iniciativa de Mr. William J. Bryan,
Secretario de Estado de la Union Americana, para la fundacion de una universidad
panamericana en Panama, al mismo tiompo quo ln del Rector entonces del Instituto.
Nacional panameeo, Dr. E. G. Dexter, quien, en comunicaci6n dirigida al Presidente
de este pris, indicaba nuestro suelo para "punto do contoato ncademico entire los
passes do habla castellann y los de habla inglesa del mundo occidental."1 Conside-
raba esto educrdor norteamericano, on los mementos mismos en que iba a abrirse el
Canal al trfioo international, quo con citedras de lenguas modernas, un institute
para el studio de Irs enfermodades tropicales, unp. fnculted de derocho que faci-
litrrn el conocimiento del c6digo romrno y del "Common Law," podr{a Panama atraor
estudiantos de ls republicas hormr.nas.
Pero fue quien esto describe, como Presidente de la Dclegacibn panmoina al Ter-
cer Congroso Cientifico Pinamericano celebrado on Lima de 1924 n 1925, quien lo-
gro, despues de presenter y discutir unr tosis sobre una "Universidnd Bolivariana
en Panama," que encrrnarn los idclcs de solaridnd y armonia contincntrles del
Libertndor, la sprobaci6n do un. rosolucion en favor do In organizaclon en Panama
de unn Universidrd P.nrmericana "como medio de vinculaci6n do todos los pn{ses del
Continento," Aprobo as{ mismo este Congroso, en relaci6n con tal Universidad, la
crenci6n on Prnama de unr oficina control bibliogrrficn y de informaciln cientifi-
cn y litcrrri.c
La crisis fiscal y ccon6mica quo desdo 1929 so produjo on ol mundo y otros fac-
tores quo no as del caso senrlar aqui, impidicron rorlizrr este proyecto de uni-
versidad panomoricnna, del cual qued6 como base prr'cticr, sin embargo, el Institu-
to Gorgas de Medicina Tropical, fundado al crlor do aquellos iderles en el .edifi-
cio quo iba a ser in Escuela de Medicina.
Ahora el proyecto revive on momonto mis oportuno, despues do la Conferencin de
Crncilleros quo echo on Panamr las bases do In solnridrd y cooperation americanas
previstns por Bolivrr, y con los nuspicios dol Presidente Franklin Dolrno Roose-
velt y del Prosidonto Augusto S. Boyd, quiones hnn visto con clara vision de esta-
distas amoricanos, In trasoendencia de un" institufirnztal y In siturci6n privile-
girda de Panam& pa. dr.rlo alberguo.
Por su position on el centre del mundo entro dos mares quo le traen n sus cos-
tas todos los products do la tiorra y do la. industrial, todas Ins iders y todos
los aires do renovacion, todos los idioms y todas las rnzes, todos los gormenes
de tolornncins y novedndes, Pr.nnamr os, on ofocto, como ya lo aprob6 cl Teroor Con-
groso Ciontifico, ol lugcr idorl prr, ln univorsid.d internmericrna.
En olla so fundon ls r,.zns y so ponon on contrcto sin mezclarse las dos len-
guns principles del continent, on ell. so ve como un ospejo de sincoridnd del
pannmericanismo, el ejomplo pr ctico do Irs relacionos pncficn.s del pueblo mas
poderoso con uno do los mas dobilos do Amorioc; en ella so oruzan todas lns 1neas
comorcinles del mundo per In tierra, per el mr.r y por cl nire y on olla el Tr6pico
muostrar today In exubornnoin y todo ol podor dol hombre y de lr oiencia parn domi-
nrrlo on sds excesos daninos.
Para ol studio de In higiono y 1a snnidr.d, de l.as onformodades tropicales, del
comeroio mundial, de lr ndministrroin. y dol gobierno, de nl ingenieri' de cnarles
y cominos, del. dorocho intornaoionpl, do I. agriculture, y Ir agronomin, de la.s
lenguas mAs h.blrdas del Continente, pnra aIn ducecion democr ticn on ln oonviven-







oia de razas dietintas, paia la propaganda y difusion de las ideas, ning n.-pa{s
ofreoe las facilidades que ofrece Panama.
Que esouela de medicine cuenta en America con hospitals com los de Ancon,
Santo TomAs y Panama y al mismo tiempo con un Institute de Medicina Tropical como
el Gorgas? Que esouela de derecho puede mostrar tan cercanos en la practice el
derecho ango-sajbn y el derecho latino? Que escuela de comercio tiene a la mano,
como Panama y In Zonn del Canal, tantas lines de vapores, tantos problems de
protecoionismo y libre cembio, de nlm scenes de deposito y distribucion, de comisa-
riatos, provision de vapores, turismo, etcl Que escuelr de idiomas pueda disponer
de dos pueblos unidos y separndos a In vez, que h.blen el espanol y el ingles, co-
mo Pnnama y la Zona? Qu4 escuela do ingenieria est& al lado del canal mrs rande
de la tierra, con un admirable sistemn de esclusas, enormes talleres de mecanica,
areenales de guerra, aerodromos inmensos, diques parro in reparaci6n y construccibn
do buques y una red do onminos modernos? Que escuelr. de educr!cion, en fin, abriga
en su seno, oomo If escuela pannmeia, classes donde se reunen niffos de todas las
razes en el mas democrtico e interesanto do los morteros? Ciencia, crtes, his-
toria, cuestiones internrcionrles, exposiciones industrinles y nrtisticas, tienen
su lugnr de mns grande resonancin on el Istmo de Panainm, puente del mundo, antenna
y tribunal para las ideas.
Y como este pals no conservn las vicjns y nrraigrdas tradicionos de las univer-
sidades clsioas y est(i, por esto, "libre do idenles muertos quo impiden sembrar
idonles vivos," una universidnd nuov internncionrl puede nacer en el sin dificul-
tad con criteria liberal y rmplio, en que el nspecto do 1r culture predomine sobre
ol purnmente profesionnl y sea ftcil dosarroll.r los idoales amrericenistas de paz
y solideridad, p.ra In clara vision de los problems oconomico-sociolcs, politicos,
religiosos e intelectur.les de nuestros pueblos, sin perder de vista, es claro, Ir.
colaboracion obligrda con las otrns universidndes en el adelrnto do las cioncins
y Ins artes.
Ln Universid"d Nnoionr.l actual de P-m.rni6 on vez do scrvir do obst culo para
unn instituci6n tel, constituirnr unr brse y un nucloo vivo do doscrrollo. Esta
Universidnd vr a cumplir openas su primer lustro do existencia y on ell- no influ-
yeron, ni In Universidrd de San Javier fundadn por los jesuftns durnntc In colonial,
de 1749 n 1781, ni 1. ensefnnza universitnria del Colegio del Istmo on que so con-
virtio durrnte unos tries lustros dospues do In emancipncion de Espni., cl Colegio
Seminnrio, ni los cursos superiores que durr.nte In Republica sirvioron de heraldos
r In que rl fin es unn vordadorn univorsidad do espiritu modern, cultural y pro-
grosistn.
Adem s de los studios profesionalos do postgradurdos en srnidrd e higiene, en
medicine tropior.l, on dorocho, ingeniorin, comorcio, nariculturr, administrrcin,
longuas, oducnci6n, In univrsidnd internmoriconn podria abrir cursos culturrles
y curses do vorano de studios hispanistas y nnglicistas, do historian mcricana,
do administrmcibn publion y gobierno, do dorecho internacionrl, do historic diplo-
mnticn y pollticr., de filosofin, poriodismo, problomns econlmicos y .socinles, pro-
blomns educativos, do ciencins fisioo-quLmions y natur.les, do arquitecturr., de
rrtes plnsticas, do misicn, etc., etc.
En osta form, do cursos librcs y cursos de verano al r.do de los curses siste-
mraticos de postgradundos, so podrinn instituir trntos curses como lo demand ol
interos general o lo recl.men los sucosos do roturliddd. Para ellos, In universi-
dad invit.rin a las persons mrs eminontes on cndn ciencin o hotividrd y, con la
dobide. nticipacion, distribuirif on los diversos paises do America ol progr'amr
del curse respective, rooibirir. solicitudes para ingresar on el y obtendria para
los asistontos Ins facilidados de transport y nlojnmiento provimnento noordadas
entro los gobiernos.
En conoxi6n con los cursos podrinn orgnnizarse excursions instructivns nl Ca-
nal y n los praises vcoinos, a Ins rogionos indigenns, a los monuments nntiguos, a
los hospitrlos y obras do sanidhd, a los canisarirtos, lmnrcenos do deposito, etc.
Concebida in nuovr univorsidrd come ocsa do studios complemontarios., 'omo hodk
gar o oiudrd internroionnl tniPvrsithri do postg r.duados quo pongm.n on prgctican
la convivonoin de rrzs,;, do colors, do oredos polltioo y de religions, a waste







oar&oter tondra que'subordinarso su organization.
Dosdo luogo, para que pueda aloanzar ostos altos fines, la universidad inter-
americana tieno que sor ante todo y sobro todo autonomna, es door, no star sujota
a los interosados politicos do un pa{s, do un gobiorno o do un grupo, ni en lo do-
ocnto ni en lo administrative. El prinoipio do la libertad de investigation y de
la libertad de cotedra tondra que ser, por otra part, la base de today la cultural
quo on aquella so imparta para quo en ella imperen el respeto a las ideas y las
corriontes del pensamiento. Y cl principio otico que concede a los hcobros y a los
puoblos today su dignidad y les asegura la usticia, la igualdad y el dereoho, ha
do inspirar la obra social do esta oducacion superior universitcria.
La organizaoi6n quo so da a la univorsidad interamerioann defender. en gran
part de la forma como so obtengan los reoursos para su funcionrmiento. Estos re-
cursos podr&n provenir de dotaoioncs por parte de personas o entidades particula-
ros y do susoripciones o contribuciones por pirtc de los gobiernos de los pauses
do Ameriea. Desde luogo, quien esto describe estt autorizndo para docir que el Go-
bierno do PanamA desde ahora ofroce los torrenos adecuados y necesarios para le-
v.nt"r los edificios de la ciudad universitrria y cualquier otra contribucion que
est' dentro de sus posibilidades. Unr. acci6n del Presidente Roosevelt podra en-
oontrr.r, sin duda, In forna de provoer los domas recursos necesarios.
Habra do tenerse en cuenta, dosdo el primer memento, In relacion organizada de
las demAs universidades amoriaonas (dol Norte y del Sur) con la interamerican.,
pcrn In mayor influenoia do 6sta on la coordinrci6n do todos los fr.ctores que le
sonala su misi6n do servicio intornacion.l. Aquella relnci6n se traducirl prac-
ticamento on una ayuda mutun y en ol fortalocimionto del sentiAiento do solidari-
dad continental y estarla centralizdan on unc ofioinn de coordinaci6n en nl uni-
vorsidad interamerioana. Los centros universitarios do investigation se canjen-
rian sus trabajos por medio de esa oficina y propondrian las cuestiones y problo-
mas quo en su concepto reolamaran unificrcion de puntos do vista. Otra oficina
contralizarla el interoambio de publicncionos y la bibliografia del Continente y
un centro editor international s6 ocupriac en In proprjanda americanista y la di-
fusion continental de In oultura, on la castellaniz.cion do la cultural oxtranjera
per modio do la traducci6n do obras importantes del saber universal y on la ver-
sion cl ingles de todo lo quo ofrezca interest do nl cultural en castollano.
Si oste plan de la universidad intoramericonr llega a realizarse, no hay duda
do quo ants do una decada sus resultndos camenzaran a mostrarse o a sentirse como
una podercsa fuerza ppra nl prz, in cooperrcinn y In solideridad internacionales.
Y cl mundo amerioano ya no serina i osperanza sine la realidad de la democracia.

CONCLUSIONS

1). Organiceso la Universid.d pnn~nmericnna aprobada por el Tercer Congreso Cien-
tifico de Lima, come una Universidad Interemoriona de postgrndurdos con asiento
on ln Ropublica do Panama.
Estntutcs ospecirles reglamentnran el funcionamiento do esta Universidad, cuyos
fines osenoiales seran los siguientess
a) Sorvir come fuorza unifiondora do bionosthr social, do paz, culture y soli-
daridad on la democraoia, ontre los difcrontcs pueblos del Continento;
b) Contribuir al nooeroamiento spiritual ontro nuestros pueblos por la coordi-
naciAn do su lrbor academica y universitnrir. y do sus investigaoiones ciontifioas;
a) Constituirse en centro do consult, do distribuoi6n y difusion do-la cultu-
ra y los idocles americanistas.
2). Camisi6nose al Gobierno do los Estados Unidos parn quo, do aouerdo con los
demas gobiornos de la Uni6n Panamoricana, estudien los medios mas adocuados para
ins~taar, organizer y sostoner en'Panama la Universidad. interrmerioana ya acordada
por ol Toroer Congroso Ciontifico.

"No importa quion gane la guorra, tongo nl conviooi6n de que ouando tormino habrA
mns luz y esperanza on este 'homisferio quo on cualquier otra parte de nuestro agi-
tado mundo," Henry A. Wallace (Estados Unidos)* .






Two Novels of Jorge Washington Montgomery

por William C. Zellars
This author (1796?-1841) was a native of Alicante. After studying Humanities
in Exeter, England, he returned to his native land and became a student of the
Spanish Golden Age. Fbr some time he served as translator for the United States
Legation. His works include: Tareas de un s olitario.o ueva colecocion de nove-
las, Madrid, 1829 (likely a collection of short stories) ronica de la donquista
de Gradada, Madrid, 1831 translatedd from Washington Irving); El bastard de
-astilla, Madrid, I. Sancha, 1832; Narrative of a Journey to Guatemala in Central
America in the Year 1838, New York, 1839. His two short stories, El cuadro mis-
terioso and El serrano de las Alpujarras, imitations respectively of Irving's
Young Italian and Rip Van Winkle, were edited by H. W. Longfellow and first pub-
lished in America in 1830. These two stories were republished in 1861 in Bruns-
wick, Maine, in a volume entitled Novelas espanolas y coplas de Manrique con
algunos pasajes de Don Quijote.

In 1834 El bastardo de Castilla was reprinted in Boston by Silver Burdett &
Company under the name of Bernardo del Carpio. On the title page of the latter
novels appear the words primera edicidn americana de la l1tima de Madrid", and
on the- reverse side of this page we are informed that this edition has been re-
vised and corrected by Francisco Sales, instructor in French and Spanish in
Harvard University. A comparison of the two editions shows that Mr. Sales made
no changes worthy of mention in the Boston edition except the change of name.

Montgomery was among the first Spanish novelists of the second quarter of the
nineteenth century who showed marked English influences in his work. These in-
fluences will be the basis of this study.

The story of Bernardo del Carpio as it is narrated in El bastardo de Castilla
and retold in the Boston edition of this novel is as follows:

Alfonso el Casto of Leon, while on a hunting trip in the mountains, is
attacked by a wild boar. A young shepherd, Garcfa Velasoo, rescues him. The
King does not reveal his identity to the boy but, learning that he longs for a
military career, invites him to appear in the royal court next day in the name
of the "Caballero de la banda roja".

When Garofa informs his father, Ruy Velasoo, of what has happened, the latter
gives him a likeness of his mother and the youth departs. On arriving at court
Garcfa rescues Edolftida, a young woman of the royal household, from the danger
of a runaway horse. A conversation that ensues between these two arouses the
jealousy of a courtier, Alvar Flnez, who is wooing her, but a duel is avoided
by tho King's arrival.

That evening Garofa serenades Edelfrida, and is attacked by Finez. The fol-
lowing day Garofa asks the King to allow him to avenge his wrongs by meeting
Fanez in a duel. The monarch gives Garoea the alternative of leaving the matter
of punishment in his sovereign's hands or else of waiting until his own deeds
and valor crown him with knighthood and the right to proceed as he may please.
Garoia chooses the latter course, the King fits him out with armor and weapons,
and the young shepherd sets out to fight against the Alarabos.

Soon Garofa defeats in a duel the Moorish governor of the Castillo de Carpio,
Abindarrezi but spares his life A perpetual friendship onsuos betwoon Garcia
and his former adversary andi the lattr informs Garofa that a conspiracy


I --`-.---------~-...' ~~..';~ ;'~.----.~c-------~'L-






threatens the safety of Alfonso el Casto. Even one of the principal caballeros
of the court, according to Abindarrdez, is in the plot.

Soon after these events, the King, who has been negotiating with Charlemagne
over the question of naming the latter as heir to the Leonese crown, convokes a
junta of nobles to meet in San Esteban de Gormaz to consider their wisheS in the
matter. While Alfonso is enroute to this point, he and his escort are attacked
by the forces of don Bueso, a rebellious noble, who has planned to capture the
King. Garoia, who has been forewarned of this attack by Abindarraez, leads his
followers to the rescue of Alfonso. The latter kills don Bueso and the royal
forces are victorious. Alfonso is deeply grateful to the former shepherd boy
and tells him to watch his arms that night so that he may be dubbed a knight
next day.

The King and his party, including Garcia, now take lodging in a nearby convent..
One of the nuns proceeds to dress a wound that Garcia has received on his arm,
but the sight of a mark that he bears on his arm causes her to faint. Later on,
while he is watching his arms in the chapel, the same nun comes in and tells him
that Ruy Velasoo is not his father. Hereupon Garcia shows her the likeness of
his mother that Ruy Velasco gave him and she swoons again. .He catches her in
his arms to keep her from falling, but at this point Alfonso enters the chapel,
sees the nun in Garcia's arms and, thinking that the youth is profaning a holy
place, expels him from his presence.

Garcla now returns to his former abode and Ruy Velasco makes him some start-
ling revelations. The nun who fainted in the convent is the King's sister,
Jimena, and Garcia is her natural son, the fruit of the intense love of Jimena
and Sancho Diaz, Count of Saldana. As a result of Garcia's birth, Jimena was
sent to a convent and the Count fled with his infant son and left him in the
hands of Ruy Velasco. The latter has long kept secret the child's whereabouts,
as the King, fearing that some day the boy might aspire to the crown, wanted him
in his power.

Furthermore Ruy Velasco, far from being only a humble mountaineer, is really
Count Fernan Ramirez, a former courtier, to whose wisdom in public office the
King owed much of the success of his reign, During a war with the French, troa-
sonable arrangements were consummated for the surrender of the Leonose capital
to the enemy. By using forgery Alvar Fanez, another noble, made Alfonso think
that Fern&n Ramirez was the traitor who perpetrated this act. The unfortunate
FornAn was imprisoned, but his jailor allowed him to escape.

Soon afterward FernAn joined his wife and fled with her to escape the King's
wrath. During the journey a girl was born to the count's wife and the latter
died near a hermitage. The child was placed in the care of a widow who lived
in the vicinity and the count made the acquaintance of the hermit.

This hermit revealed to Forn&n his own life's story. Ho was actually Rodrigo
Arias do Mondoga, a famous Zamoran. During the course of his army life, he had
an argument with a fellow-officer, Benavides, on the question of women's virtue.
Rodrigo defended the virtue of women and Bonavides offered him a wager that he
could go and seduce Rodrigo's wife, Elvira, and bring back proofs of intimacy
with her. The Zamoran decided to punish Bonavides for this presumption and
staked a diamond on his wife's virtue. Bonavidos departed and returned in a
short while with proofs that convinced Rodrigo of her infidelity. Horoupon
Rodrigo hired a man to go and kill Elvira and later becamo a hermit in order to
oxpiato his sin.
"Venmos en la grr.ndeza de la Amoribr. unida el vnlor de oda. uno de nosbtros en
perfoota vigilanoia." Pedro dn Costa Rego (brasilefio).






In the jta that Alfonso attends after the scene in the convent, the nobles
refuse to confi~ r Charlemagne as the heir to the crown of L#6n. This act causes
Charlemagne to decide to attack this kingdom. The Moors have not wanted the pow-
erful Charlemagne in Spain, so Almanzor, King of Toledo, and Marsilio, King of
Zaragoza, lend their troops to aid Alfonso in resisting Charlemagne, who is
threatening to invade the Leonese kingdom.

After the arrival of his Moorish allies, Alfonso holds a tournament to test
the courage of his knights. Bravonel, a supposed Moor who has arrived at the
head of Marsilio's troops, is the victor. After receiving the famous sword of
Pelayo from Alfonso's hands as a prize, Bravonel reveals to the King that he is
Garoia Velasoo. The King restores Garcfa to his favor and friendship, elevates
him to knighthood and gives him the name of Bernardo del Carpio, choosing for
the youth's surname the name of the castle where he won his first victory.

Bernardo has for some time been wondering about his father's present plight,
so he now tries to ascertain from the King the whereabouts of the Count of Sal-
dana. The King evades a direct answer and tells Bernardo that he will perhaps
see his father some day. However, Bernardo is also interested in seeing Fernan
Ramirez restored to royal favor and intercedes for him, even revealing to Alfonso
the hiding place of this former courtier. But all of his pleas fail to convince
the King of the innocence of Bernardo's protector.

After failing in his efforts, Bernardo begins to fear for the safety of Fer-
nan and shots out to warn him of the King's unchanged attitude. On the way to
the mountain hut, Bernardo takes the wrong road and seeks shelter in a cave from
the rain. In a dream he sees his mother pointing out to him a strong man who is
pulling an old one along. When Bernardo in his sleep rushes forward to liberate
the old man, he awakes and finds that his horse has entered the cave and pulled
a stone from the wall, forming an aperture. Bernardo passes through the aperture
and at length finds his father, who is imprisoned in a coll. Bornardo entreats
his father to floor with him, but the Count of Saldana refuses to leave as he
prefers that Bornardo seok his liberty from the King.

When Bornardo arrives at the hut of Ferndn Ramorez, he finds the place in
disorder. A mountaineer informs Bornardo that the King's soldiers have been
thoroe but cannot toll him anything of the fate of the protector whom Bornardo
lovos.

On returning to the court, Bornardo finds that Edolfrida has learned of the
King's plan to arrest Fornan and has sent a messenger to warn him, but the messen-
ger has not returned. Bornardo dresses himself in mourning, goes to the King,
informs him that the Count of Saldana "vive muriondo" in the Mota do Luna, and
asks the monarch what is the prioo of his father's liberty. Alfonso gives Bor-
nardo the rank of general, tolls him to march against the French, and promises
him that, if ho returns victorious, his father's liberty will be his reward.

Bornardo now takes charge of his forces and is joined by his Moorish allies
and also by the Castilian and Navarroso forces. He awaits the French on Spanish
territory near the Pyronees. Whon the French advance on Spanish territory, the
famous battle of Ronoosvallos begins. In Charlomagno's army oaoh division is

"Si las escuelas, los cologios y las universidades de Nortemenrica deolnrarnn ee-
gundo idioma al idioma espnmol, cun ounndo solo fuese en los Estados del Sur,,
Norteionmric abrirfa de un solo golpo, y sin nooesidad de aumentar su presu-
puesto de propaganda, el mas amplio camino para la conquista del espiritu
sudamoricano," V. Lillo Catal&n, director de la Revista de Bjenos Aires,.




11.


headed by one of the "doce pares"' Oliveros, the emperor's nephew, "famoso en
batallas de gigantes",.Roldan, "venoedor en mil batallas y terror de la morisma";
Gaiferos, Reinaldos, Eto.

The. Asturian mountaineers are soon terrified by a left wing attack made on
them by a squadron of French knights and their confusion spreads to all the Span-
ish troops. Bernardo, Abindarr&ez and Aben-Alamar, another Moorish leader, cannot
stop the flight of the sons of Spain, but suddenly an old shepherd takes an oak
limb and beats the terrified soldiers over the head. His action causes them to
turn back and face the enemy.

Finally the battle resolves itself into a personal encounter between Bernardo
and Roldan. The latter falls when Bernardo wounds him under the arm. Roldan's
efforts to blow his horn in order to summon aid end fruitlessly when he expires.
Bernardo takes his enemy's sword and, failing in an effort to break it against
a cliff, "dio con ella de punta en el penasco con tal pujanzs que (segun ouentan
las histories) la envaino today en la piedra viva".

After Roldan's death the French flee. Oliveros has fallen before the attack
of Abindarr&ez and Reinaldos has succumbed to Aben-Alamar., Gerardo, the Duke of
Rosellon, who has been wounded and is now a prisoner of the Spaniards, reveals
to Bernardo and others that he is the man'formerly known as Benavides. He pro-
ceeds to declare that his story of the seduction of Elvira, the wife of Rodrigo
Arias de Mendosa, was untrue, Gerardo's page hears this confession and falls in
a swoon. After being revived, the page, who is a woman disguised in man's cloth-.
ing, tells those present that she is Elvira herself, the woman whom Rodrigo and
Gerardo have long believed dead.

The Duke of Rosellon now discloses how he accomplished his deception of Rod-
rigo. He had a coffer that, as he told Elvira, contained valuable articles and
asked her to keep it for him, specifying that she must not let it out of her
sight. When the coffer arrived at her house, Rosellon was hidden in the "Caballo
do Troya". The supposed treasure chest was placed in Elvira's room. While she
slept Rosellon emerged from the coffer, stole her bracelet, observed the fur-
nishings of her room and took note of a birthmark on her loft side.

Whon Benavides returned to Rodrigo he told the latter that Elvira had yielded
to him and had given him the bracelet, and then described the furnishings of her
room. Rodrigo was not fully convinced by this evidence of his wife's infidelity,
but when Bonavidos described.to him the birthmark on her side, he accepted this
knowledge as proof of her misconduct and forfeited to Benavides the diamond that
he had wagorod on her virtue.

Soon after those happenings Rodrigo hired a soldier to go and kill his wife,
just as he later told Fornan Ramirez that ho did. However, here Elvira relates
the rest of the happenings. The soldier whom Rodrigo sent to kill her enticed
her away from home by tolling her that he was commanded to go with her to her
husband. On the way the soldier disclosed to her what her husband had hired him
to do and explained to her why Rodrigo wanted her slain. She protested her
innocence, the soldier:gavo her some of the money that Rodrigo had given him in
advance for slaying her, and spared her lifo. Then she disappeared voluntarily
until she should bo.able to establish her innooeneoo After eighteen years of
wandering she found herself in Franco and, deciding to return to Castilo, dis-
guised herself in man's clothing and became Rosollon's page.

The war ends with the defeat of the French at Ronoosval'los. Bornardo meets
Alfonso at the Castillo do Luna and presents to him the shophbrd who turned the




12,


tide of battle in favor of the Spaniards by beating them over the head with an
oak limb. -This hero is none other than Fernin Ramirez, whom-Bernardo recognized
on the field of combat. Alfonso, although he is not entirely convinced of the
inooence of Ramirez, pardons him.

Alvar Finez has opposed a pardon for Ramlrez. It happens, however, that the
Duke of Rosellon is the same Frenchman to whom Le6n was betrayed years before,
and he now reveals to Alfonso that Fanez was the real traitor in this matter.
Moreover, Abindarriez informs the King that Fanez was the accomplice of don Bueso
in the attack" that was made on Alfonso and his forces when they were en route to
San Esteban de Gormaz. The treachery of Fanez and the innocence of Fernan are
established. The traitor is imprisoned and later exiled.

Elvira's husband, the hermit, appears now at court and discloses that Edel-
frida is the daughter of FernAn Ramirez. Anarda, the widow in whose care Edel-
frida was left after her mother's death, has made a deathbed confession to the
hermit in which she told him what she did with the child who was entrusted to her.
Wishing to obtain favor in the court, Anarda told Ramirez that his child was dead
and handed the little girl over to the King's sister who, thinking that the widow
was the child's mother, wanted to raise it in the royal household. The hermit
now admits to the King that he has had his own wife slain, but the monarch remits
the sentence for this crime. Hereupon Rodrigo and his wife recognize each other
and are reconciled. Rosellon's and Bernardo's words corroborate her claim to
innocence of infidelity.

Bernardo is reunited at court with his mother and he and Edelfrida are offi-
oially betrothed. The King grants to the young hero the personal satisfaction
of taking his father out of prison. When Bernardo reaches his father's cell,
he informs the Count of Saldana that Jimena is there and that she will be there-
after the Count's legitimate wife. Saldana kisses Alfonso's hand, takes Jimena's
hand in his own, embraces Bernardo and falls over dead.

Jimena now chooses a fitting retirement instead of the honors corresponding
to her station.. The Duke of Rosellon returns to France without having to pay a
ransom for his liberty. Bernardo and Edelfrida are happily married and he, with
his military triumphs, gives "nuevos blasones.a las armas del ray".




A study of the sources of Bernardo del Carpio and its original, El bastardo
do Castilla necessarily takes into account both novelistic technique and the story
itself. Let us first consider points of technique.

As we have previously stated, Montgomery attended school in England where he
likely had ample opportunity to become acquainted with Scott's works. Further-
more, Montgomery began his novelistic career after Scott's works were well known
in translations in Spain. In a study that the present author made several.years
ago of the influence of Scott's novelistic technique on various Spanish histo-
rical novels, he observed that Ivanhoo and The Bride of Lammermoor contain nearly
all the points of technique that Scott uses in most of his other works.I Bearing
this fact in mind, we can see several points of close resemblance between Ivanhoe


1. "Influenoia de Walter Scott on Espana", R. F. E., XVIII, 149-162.







and the novels of Montgomery that we have outlined abovo,, namely:

(1) The meeting of King Alfonso and Garoia Velasoo while the King is on a
hunting trip recalls the introduction in Ivanhoe of Gurth and Wamba while they
are partaking of savory viands of gamo in the forest.

(2) The reappearance of Elvira, years after she has supposedly been slain,
reminds us of the soon in Ivanhoe here Atholstane reappears alive after he has
supposedly been killed in battle. However, Elvira's role as the page of a high
military officer rooalls also the drugging of Imogen in Shakespeare's Cymbelino,
the belief of her brothers that sho, whom they have not recognized and have con-
sidered a boy on account of her use of boyish garb, is dead; and her later appear-
ance in Cymbolino's court as the servant of the Roman general, Lucius.

(3) Elvira's use of a pago's clothing in order to accompany the French army
into Spain also reminds us that Wamba in Ivanhoo dons the habit of a Franciscan
friar in order to effect entrance into the castle of Front-do-Boouf and take the
place of his master, Codric the Saxon, who is imprisoned there. Bornardo's use
of Moorish garb in order to enter the lists and regain Alfonsots favor reminds
us of Ivanhoe, though Montgomery may have taken this point of technique from the
scone in Cymbolino whore Imogen, intent on mooting her husband at Milford Haven,
escapes from semi-imprisonment in her father's palace by impersonating her own
woman-servant.

(4) The belated identifications of Alfonso, Garola Volasco, Ruy Volasoo, Edel-
frida and Elvira as persons of high estate remind us of the final identification
of "The Pilgrim" and "The Disinherited Knight" as Ivanhoe himself; of aThe Clerk
of Copmanhurst" as Friar Tuck; of Locksley as Robin Hood; and of "The Black
Knight" as King Richard.

(5) Alfonso, during his first interview with Garola Volasoo, does not reveal
his identity, but invites the boy to appear before the King next day in the name
of the "Caballero do la Banda Roj" and gives him a chain as a "sonal do mi
roconooimicnto y prison do tu voluntad". This use of a chain to pledge faith
recalls the scene in Ivanhoe whore The Pilgrim and Brian agree to meet each other
in knightly combat. The Pilgrim gives Brian a piece of the True Cross to bind
his word while Brian, as an evidence of his good faith, places his golden chain
in The Pilgrim's hands. Moreover, this point of technique recalls also the
touching soeno in The Bride of Lammormoor whore a piece of gold, broken into
two parts, serves as a pledge of true love between Lucy Ashton and the Mastor
of Ravonswood.

(6) Finally, Montgomery's style recalls Scott's in descriptions of landscapes
and persons.



Montgomery's opportunities for knowing Scott's works, the popularity of this
Scottish author's works in Spain at the time that Montgomery's novel was first
published, and a careful consideration of the points of similarity betwoon
Montgomory's technique and that of Walter Scott load us to the conclusion that
Montgomory was undoubtedly influenced by at least some points of Scott's tech-
nique. However, we believe that ho was influenced also by Shakespeare. We have
already mentioned several points in Montgomery's novels that are very similar to
certain ones in Cymbolino. Lot us now consider other similarities that make
still stronger the likelihood of Shakosporian influence in Montgomory's two
novels.





14.
In determining the fsourees of the story of Benavides and Elvira, we have to
consider two much earlier versions of the same tale, namely the one recounted by
Queen Filomena in Boocacoio's Decamerone (Day the Second, the Ninth Story) and
Shakespeare's version of the same tale, which he probably took from Boccaccio,
and dramatized in Cymbeline.

While the tale of Benavides and Elvira as Montgomery tells it is undoubtedly
a retelling of the same story that was narrated by Queen Filomena, yet several
points tend to show that Montgomery depended, at least at times, more on Shake-
speare's drama than on Bocoaccio's account, namely:

(1) In Cymbeline, as in Montgomery's novels, the supposedly wronged husband
experiences a deep remorse over having caused his wife's death. Bernabo, the
supposedly offended husband of Ginevra in Boocaccio's story, feels no pangs of
conscience for having ordered her murder. In all three versions the supposedly
slain wife reappears alive later.

(2) A spirit of Christian forgiveness is evident in Montgomery's novel on the
part of Rodrigo toward the man who has so grossly deceived him. This feature
appears also in Cymbeline, but Ambrogiuolo, the villain of Boccaccio's story,
suffers horrible punishment for his wrongdoing.

(3) The tale of the old shepherd who rallies the fleeing Spanish soldiers in
Montgomery's novels reminds us of the scene in Cymbeline where three rustics,
by their exhortations, cause the Britons to turn a rout into a victory. More-
over, the old shepherd of Montgomery's novel and the rustics of Shakespeare's
creation are all actually nobles.

(4) Very likely Montgomery was acquainted with both of these preceding-ver- .-
sions-of this story, but his idea of working it into the main plot of his novels
recalls the play within a play device used in Hamlet.

Quite obviously Montgomery takes the name of Abindarriez from the character
of this name in El Abenoerraje, The devotion that exists between Abindarraez
and his beautiful Zayda in Montgomery's stories recalls strongly the affection
that existed between the character of this name and his lovely wife, Jarifa, in
the Moorish novel to which we refer. Moreover, the AbindarrAez, of each novel
is wounded in the thigh by his adversary. Finally, in Montgomery's stories, as
in El Abencerraje, a perpetual friendship between Moorish and Christian adver-
saries follows their duels. But if we concede some truth to the legend narrated
in El Abenoerraje, Montgomery makes a glaring anachronism by placing this Moorish
character in events that occurred some six hundred years before his timeI:

Turning now to a consideration of other sources of Montgomery's account of the
life of Bernardo del Carpio, who has not until now actually been identified with
any definitely historical personage, we see that his version corresponds in four
main points with the story of Bernardo's life as told in the twelfth century
oantar of Rodrigo de Tolodo, namolyt (1) Bernardo was the son of Jimena,. who was
a sister of Alfonso el -Casto; (2) The Count of Saldana, Bernardo's father,, suf-
fored imprisonment and Jimona was sent to a convent by Alfonso ol Casto as a
punishment for their relations; (3) Bernardo repeatedly endeavored to obtain his
father's liberty; (4) Bernardo was the actual slayor of the great French hero,
Roland, in the battle of Ronoosvalles. .


"La interdependenoia oconomion do las- naciones americanns, tan desoada por los
gobiernos y gran pnrto de la pdblaoion de diohns naciones, aumentaria rnpida y
considorablemente si tuviese un cimiento de relaciones intelectunles y cultural.
les mfs s6lido y m&s amplio" Nicholas Murray Butler (Estados Unidos de America).







Let Us pause a moment here ot consider another account of the battle of
Ronoesvalles as it is narrated in the greatest of French epics, the Chanson de
Roland, which was probably written around 1000 A.D). In this story Carolus Magnus
has fought seven years against the Saracens of Spain. Marsile, a Saracen leader,
sends representatives to the Emperor with false promises of peace. The leader
of these emissaries conspires with the French leader, Ganelon, to bring about
the death of Roland, who is not only the most valiant of the French warriors but
also the nephew of Carolus Magnus. ihen the latter takes his main army into
France to celebrate Michaelmas at Aix, Roland is left in Spain with the rearguard
and is attacked by the Moslems. Roland stubbornly refuses until too late to
blow his horn and summon his uncle's aid. By the time that he does blast out a
cry for help, nearly all the famous French Peers are slain. Roland dies a hero's
death after breaking his sword so that it will not fall into pagan hands.

Historically, matters did not happen thus. Carolus Magnus did send an expedi-
tion into Spain in 778 A.D. and his rearguard was destroyed in the Pyrenees in
an attack made on them by the Basques. Roland, Prefect of the March of Brittany,
was among those who were killed. Although the causes of Carolus' invasion were
substantially those set forth in Montgomery's novel, yet it occurred thirteen
years before the accession of Alfonso el Caste to the throne According to the
Primera cronioa general, however, Carolus Magnus, who had been fighting against
the Moors, ceased this struggle in order to make. war on a handful of Spaniards,
among whom was Bernardo, who determined to resist the emperor's efforts to become
heir to the throne of Leon. Led by Alfonso el Casto and Bernardo, who headed
troops from Arag6n, Asturias, Navarre and Vizcaya, the Spaniards' victory was
principally due to Bernardo who, as we have already said, slew Roland.

Obviously Montgomery changes earlier accounts of this battle in having Roland
serve as commander-in-chief without Alfonso being present and in having the Span-
iards meet the French as the latter were entering Spain. The story of Roland's
belated efforts to summon aid with his horn, as related by Montgomery, has its
counterpart in.the Chanson do Roland, as we have already shown. However, Mont-
g-mory adds new laurols to Bernardo's exploits by picturing him as the one who
alone commanded the Spanish army as well as by representing that the battle fi-
nally resolved itself into a personal duel between Bernardo and Roland and that
Bornardo finally drove his fallen enemy's sword into a cliff. Furthermore, the
way in which Bornardo met his father in Montgomory's version and the circumstan-
cos of the passing of the Count of Saldana appear to be products of our novelist's
fancy. Likewise Montgomery invents the romance of Edolfrida and Bornardo, the
circumstances of the latter's meeting with his mother, Alfonso's meeting with
Bornardo in the forest, as well as the main portion of Bornardo's cxpericncs unith
Abindarr&oa. Bornardo's wife was, according to tradition, dona Galinda, daugh-
tor of Count Alardos do Lastro. Don Buoso, instead of being a rebellious noble,
as he is roprosonted in the novel, was actually a French noble who invaded
Alfonso's kingdom and was slain by Bornardo, not by the King. Montgomery's final
assertion tha t Bornardo, after his marriage, gave "nuovos blasonos a las armas
dol roy" is likely untrue in part. While Bornardo valiantly served his monarch,
according to tradition, yet ho was also a source of trouble to his uncle on
account of the lattcr's repeated refusals to liberate the Count of Saldana.

The principal aim of Montgomery in writing El Bastardo do Castilla was tho
motivation of a great Spanish hero. To the idealization of Berardo do Carpio
he subordinates all other aims and tends to follow the theory that a novel should
be ploasing'and should tend to represent matters as they should be, not as they
arc. If the result i.s a novel inferior to others of its genre in historical or
legendary accuracy, it is still a very pleasing story. And throughout the course
of the narrative the reader receives an accurate picture of the best of Spanish





16.


and Moorish chivalry described by a man whoso soul was filled vrith a simple
Christian fath and loyalty to the Catholic Church. No word of propaganda mars
its pages. Whilo Montgomory's work is not to be rated among the mastorpieoes
of Spanish litoraturo, yot his skill in constructing a plot and his dexterity
in weaving into this plot influoncos from other writors make him rank as one of
the best authors of historical novels of the second quarter of the nineteenth
century, and wo believe that ho suocoodod in producing one of the most pleasing
accounts of Bornardo dcl Carpio of all the authors who have written about this
opic horo down through the centuries.



Bibliography

Boccaccio, Giovanni: Dccamoronc., od. Hoopli, Miilano, 1932.
El Abonccrrajo sogun Antonio do Villogas, od. Adams and Starck, Now York, 1927.
La Chanson do Roland, od. T. A. Jenkins, Now York, 1924.
ltzo and Dargan: History of Fronoh Litorature, Now York, 1927.
Northup, George Tyler: An Introduction to Spanish Literature, Chicago, 1925.
Primora Cronioa General, od. oncndoz Pidal, in N.B.A.E, Tome V.
Scott, Waltor: Ivanhoc, od. Carrio E. Tucker Dracass, New York, 1905.
Shakospearo, William: Cymbolino, od. William J. Rolfc, Now York, 1909.
Idei, Hamlet, od. Samuel Thurbcr, Now York, 1897.
Zollors, Guillormo: La novola historic on Espana, 1828-1850, Notv York, 1938.
Idom, "Influoncia do Walter Scott on Espana", R.F.E., XVIII.




LATIN-AIERICAF STUDENTS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

Through the Institute of Inter-American Affairs, the University of Florida is
slowly becoming the "melting pot" of the Americ.s, for it has made possible uni-
versity studies for scholars from over half of the Latin-American republics. Over
six dozen students from Latin America have crossed the verdant campus of the Uni-
versity, representing Costa Ricn, Mexico, Panama, Cuba, Colombia, Brazil, Chile,
Venezuela, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Peru, Argentina, Ecuador, and the
island of Puerto Rico.
The scholastic endeavour of these students has been so diversified in nature
that they have registered in the Colleges of Business Administrrtion, Engineering,
Agriculture, Arts and Sciences, Goneral College., the School of Architecture and
Allied Arts, the School of Pharmacy, the College of Educrtion, and the Graduate
School.
The first student to graduate under the auspices of the Institute of Inter-
American Affairs was Grogorio H. MIndez of Puerto Rico, who received his Bachelor
of Science in Agriculture in 1933, two and a half years after entering the Univer-
sity. The young Puerto Rican returned to his father's plantation to help intro-
duce now methods that he had learned hero. Since the establishment of the Insti-
tute of Inter-American Affairs in 1930, the number of students from the other
American Republics attending the University of Florida has shown considerable in-
crease. No special attempts have boon made, however, to get more students, and
careful attention is given to the selection of students who are admitted to the
University. During the 1940-1941 academic year, twenty two Latin American students
have enrolled., representing Argentina., Bazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba,
Peru and Puerto Rico.
Latin American students attending the University of Florida are encouraged to
participate in the extra-curricular nativities of campus life and several have
represented the University in the world of sports.





17,
INQUISIGIONES EN TORNO A LA MfSTIA ESPANOLA

EL TRIBULADO PEDRO DE RIVADENEIRA

par BraUlio Sanchez-Slez

No son muy felices ni generosas muchas historians literarias, que apesar de pa-
sar por doctas y que tienen impresiones de dooentes, tratan de "hacernos ccmpren-
der" una genesis, que sustaioialmente linda con lo mediocre. Y no son dooentes,
porque guardian una aAimadtversin a oiertos olasicos, los ouales pasan inadverti-
dos, manteniendose obsouramente sus nombres, de generaci6n en generation,
Entre los m&s desconocidos, ingratamente postergado, se encuentra don Pedro de
Rivadeneira, o mejor el Padre Rivadeneira, pues era un cabeza mayor de las huestes
del batallador San Ignacio de Loyola. Por que ese desconooimiento, cuando su obra,
su action, su espiritu y actividad, dontro de la cultural oastellana, como del pen-
samiento filos6fico espanol, estA enouadrado preferentemente, con todas las carac-
teristicas de los especificados y do los legalmonte elegidos?
Aqui podrfamos anotar, que en esto de aquilatar o do estimular, enfocando a los
hambros del pasado al present, so cometen bastantes desaguisados, y on ocasiones
prisma mss, la voluntad o el omor propio de una persona, que los gustos o las pre-
ferencias, que franoamonte en mnteria do clasicismo, somos todos los historiadores
literarios, algo farsantes...
Tambien puede ser propicia la oportunided, esto de darse de sopet6n con un li-
bro ourioso y estar nuestro 6nimo propiciatorio pare demostrar algo de nuestra
cultural y erudita argamasa. Tambion on ocasiones, insist, depend de las cireun-
stancias o de la necesidad. La vida de los escritores antiguos estA a merced de
la voluntad do los presents. Y en ol caso del atribulado Pedro de Rivrdenoira,
del cual, infelizmente, muy pocos fucron los apologists que encontr6 en su coani-
no, y es par olio, quo su vida y su obra esta por oompleto virgen do comentaristas
a fondo, desgraOiado trasconejamiento que deparn la adverse fortune.
Quion fue y que realize, esta general ilustre de la Compahia do Jesus, que al
mismo fundador combatia en sus arriscadns empresas? Fue todo en su tiompo. Ac-
cion y peroepio6n definida, lucha poligrosa y constancia inaudita, parn lograr los
mas p~rfootos metodos y gracias a tan donodados paladines, pudo lograrso la reali-
zacion de tamania empresa, como la alcanznda por San Ignacio de Loyola. La obra de
la "temible" oanpafila, no fud esonoialmonto'roalizada por un solo hombro. La. ob-
scuridad de muchos otros, fue su gloria. Si bien no nos concierne en este momen-
to un studio del hombre bajo el aspecto de su pasi6n political, no deja de ser un
tema en demesfa curioso, pare dejnrlo por endeble. Pero, felizmente, despierta
bastanto ouriosidad este pc.dre Rivrdonoira, on toda'su vida y andanzasa condicio-
nes tan magistrales, que no podemos dejarlo de mano,'pues es tambidn un rico mode-
lo de perfecoi6n, el cual nos sirve pare cquilntarle, en today la grandeza de su
genio multiforme.
Aqul, on nuestras manos, so enouentra una de sus obras mas curiosas y ms sim-
ples. Se trata de. su notable trrtndo sobre las tribulaciones, vale decir el libro
de "nuestros dosastres," pues fue el'lonitivo consolador de la :"Compac a,'t cuando
el dosastro do la "Arm.da Invencible," ordonada contra los herejes, por el magn&-
nimo so-ior Folipo II, ol tnoiturno.
Pues bion, este libro os muy'poco conooido en las actuales genoraoiones, por
quo as obra, que en oierto modo, define un temperamento en continue combat, thm-
bien, contra las aociones del alma tribulada, on un medio propicio a la tribula-
cion.
Grande fue su genio, insist, y muchos imitaron su conduota, esa conduct ind6-
mita que le atenaoeaba do consuno, Busoo por los oaminos dol mundo, no la osoncia
del saber, saber human, par ejorcoirci de su video, come Vioente Espinel y Mateo
Aloman, a fin de mostrar a ese mundo,' las condiolonos del hombre volcndas a la
"luoha por la vida," oomo esos maeostros insuperrIblos de la'"pioeresca" realizaron.
No, Pedro do Rivadentira tonia otras razones mns a la mnho, on las dutlos pudo





18.


adiestrarses el saber para enmendarse en las andanzas y luchas,. y no fraoasar en
las empress, vale deoir, una gula de la prudencia para amortiguar la desesperan-
za. Ese y no otro, e eel m4todo.
Mientras los picaros, oomo Alfarache y Obregon, y tambien don Pablos, el bus-
c~n, como Ginesillo de Pasamonte y el mismo Gil Bias de Santillana; descubren en
los oaminos de "ese mundo apioarado," el element de ccmpaginaci6n, en las maEas
del pueblo, puliendolas, adiestrandolas de acuerdo a sus instintos, para vida y
obras.
Las tribulaciones de Pedro de Rivadeneira son de otra condici6n y calidad mas
diferente, la oual determine la diversidad de entroncamiento. Este oaminante,
camo el potreoito Juan de Avila, proouran algo muy distinto en done acioatear sus
emooiones. El de Avila, para la mayor gloria do la humana grey; en Rivadeneira,
para su perfeoto ejercicio de vida, a fin-de no fracasar en sus encaniendas, y
llegar a seguro puerto, con el minimo esfuerzo, y la mayor conquista. Si bien no-
tames en este castellano la firm terquedad'de la raza, tambien existen otras mag-
nificas cualidades del hombre astuto y fino, que sabe colooar la pujanza de su
genio, con el menor esfuerzo y no apresurarse en las largas jornadas con impropios
y violentos esfuerzos, cuando paso a paso,'se puede llegar a la meta. Asi, como
el largo camino y la soledad del caminante, le deja sobrado tiempo para In modi-
taoion, asf, tambien hace su prueba, para educarse los nervios y modificnrso el
deseo, que el avizorante Satanis tiende a destajo.
Es pues, oaminnnte impenitente, como lo fuE Juan de Avila, por los caminos de
Espafa; asi Pedro de Rive.deneira, en los senderos del universe: ambos en procura
del amor divino, para los ataraceados on humanas desdichas.
Al parecer, nos alejamos algo de esta ruta trazada, mus no tnnto. Es evidence
que Rivndeneira, come buen ostollano, tonia su form y menera de proceder., Ese
proceder era tan evidenoiado, que no so conformaba con esouchr las cosas, era
precise constatarlas y para lograr tal cosa, se evidonciaba la necosidad de que
sus propios ojos viesen lo que la escritura fijaba.
Ante todas las cosas, una gran neoosidnd de saber. El espanol, as mas amigo
del cnmino que del libro que so lo indiquc. Ver part career. Y, tanto en un mis-
tico, por mns asoetico que sea, como on ci mis dislocado perillan, senior de trapa-
landas y.de agudezas, preoisarn, ante todo: ver pnrn career. Esencialmente human
y oomo tal utiliza, en bien de la componetracion do cuantas cos.is observe, para
mejor examen de las pasiones y luchas del mundo. Ver para career, as algo mas de
lo que puedan imaginarse aquellos que algo interpretan del espiritu espaiol, pe-
notrando dontro do las cubiertas, para ver el contonido esencial de la raza. Es
puos, una necesidad fisioa quee el espniol, per mas aspoeto que tenga de indiferen-
to, es, on sustanoia un doterminado para oonstatar esa veracidad, y la realize, on
la oportunidad que se le prosente, a fin de satisfacer lo que le acuicia, en su
manera poderosa do aquilataoi6n y despollejamiento de la vanidad.
Si, San Ignacio de Loyola busoa la cooperaci6n do Pedro de Rivadeneira, o si
este fue a el, no es ouesti6n ahora do exrmen, lo que nos interest es definir de
esa sinoeridad, y ver el porqu4 de su independencin do oriterio y la causa do su
disoonformismo en obcsiones con el prop6sito de inquietar incluso al mismo
fundador do la orden, qu comprende, de inmediato, que el padre Pedro do Rivade-
noira sabe y tione sus propias ideas, sin pormitir que so hagan con luces .o sin
ellas, la mns minima interpolaci6n. Porque tal razon y no alteran la amisted y
riien ambos? Por la misma raz6n de la imposibilidnd, de que una montaoEi se enfren-
to y luoho con la que refleja l.c olrlridad y espejo del lago. Esto os, lo qye su-
oodio on las andanzas de los dos gonoralos formidables en sus aspects, y mas quo
todo, on sus acoionos y obras para con el mundo. Vor para oreor os la supreme as-
piracibn de osto insigno maestro, y oomo osa os unn pasion on su alma se hrco so-
Hor do los onminos, para rofutarso asr mismo.
Poro: quo onminos son esos? La propin vidal Y, como es esparol, en esa vivir
mooo su oxistenola. Bien sabo quo para soguir el trafico desfile, que es a la voz
tri4fago mistorioso del mundo, precise unn os.a impresoindible: dinero,. Dinoio,
on vordad, ocmo punto do apoyoj as6 lo doterminaron los sabios y prudentos maon-
boos, pore tambi6n so puoden recorror eosos ominos del mundo sin blaonoa Tengamos







en ouenta a los de la picaresoa, Como tambien a ios misioneros por ouyas razones,
misticos y juglares, haipones'ymendicantes, conservan dentro de la debida propor-
oi6n, entronques tan definitiv6s de unidad;
Todo p~earo se mete a santo. (No todos, confesemos). Es decir, que santidad y
buceo del mundo, se dan la mano. Y, es bueno aootar, que por ser pioaro se deni-
gra al sujeto, como tambien distinguir, que todo p"caro, no deba tener sus prin-
cipios, recordemos la "moral" del senior Monipodio, por que la picaresca, no es en
si maldad preconoebida; sino cirounstanoial, no engendrando maldad neta, por lo
tanto, al solo placer de la maldad determinada, mIs bien podria parecer a modo de
pasatiento, tan comun al espiritu de lo espaeol. Todos tenemos cierta predisposi-
oibn a lo picardeado, y cuando tratamos do algo que nos concierne y de fAcil obs-
tentaci6n al mundo, de inmediato nos ponemos a salvo, disculpandonos del error, al
ser tomados por picaros netos, ansiosos de desnortear la pioardia, como sistema de
gobierno, entire nuestros semejantes. Y es por ello que los quo mas se defienden
de ser picaros, o tomados por tales, son on esencia, los que m's anatematizan con-
tra la picarosca.
Razones tuvo, en suma, quien dotermin6 sobre las conoomitancias que existian
entire picaros y santos, por que es pioardia taebien birlarle al demonio elements
para el inferno, vale door, desviar el camino a las almas.
So gn mis cortos alcanoes, fueron esos padres, frailes y monges primitivos, mas
que sefores de los caminos que salian mis bien que a conquistar files para el
Sagrado Credo, salian a restarle predominio al propio espiritu del mal, y se arma-
son de ouantas armas existian para igualar condicionos a tan furioso y apicardeado
caballoro. Ejemplos no nos faltan, en el largo process de la historic del mundo,
y si nos deteafmos a meditar, examinando de consuno las peripecias de tan santos
varones, comprenderemos y daremos razon, r. la encomionda efectuada, alabando esos
procedimientos para rester meritos a los enemigos de In fe y la cristiana caridad
del universe.
Pedro do Rivadeneira y a esta figure me atengo supo gozar, y goz6, de la
sal de los caminos, con todas sus ventajas e inconvoniencias. Gozo, porque ya es-
taba on sus ilusiones, saber per "carne propia," lo que era bueno, o male, asi, de
esa guisa aprender sin lazarillos lo que existla de bueno o viciversn, para sus
detorminaoiones y ojoroicios.
March a pie, sin onoontrar obst&culos. Si los encontro, supo muy bien guardar-
se do proolamnrlo, y por otra part hizo perfeotamente, porque el comentario o su-
ceso, nada so gana on hacorlo'historia popular, sea ella del color que fuese, pues
mantoniendola inedita siempre, existe un placer rec6ndito en hacerla revivir,
siompre en forma distinta, ouando la evoca el recuerdo interior.
En ase libro enoantador de las "Tribulaciones," es en donde narra las inquietu-
des de su alma y podemos soguir el sendero quo se traz6 y do sus esoarmientos para
los futures oaminantes divines. Ante todo, exist en 41, ese ardiente deseo y
amasijo del espanfol, osa firmeza de haoer valer su hombria y predisposicion natu-
ral, como dotorminado para tal objeto. Y si asi no fuese, mal podria pareoer es-
paonl, y muoho menos serlo. Coan ms firmeza y con mAs psicologia que en las an-
danzas del Ibato Juan de Avila, puesto quo en Pedro de Rivadeneira, est&, ante to-
do, eso afan disoutidor-enmendador do hacer predominar los b sicos principios de
la "Ordon," si, sobretodo la "Orden," incluso, por encima de todo; sin perjuicios
ni demoras, incluso oant&ndole cuatro froscas al mismo fundador do osa orden, va-
le decir, a San Ignacio de Loyola.
Puos bien, esa diferencia quo indioaba, distinta on much con las inquietudes
de el Beato Juan de Avila, por que este era tan simple y do tan dificil asociamien-
to a otras ideas que no fueson las quo parten del propio y human don de la oarin
dad; que si enoontramos pardlelos, os tan solo, en ese afan de aquilatar las co-
sas, come elements director, en la verdad, que de las cosas proceden.
Si antes era ver para oreer, pues ahora viendo y tocando,es deoir, tener direc-
oi6n oxaota, entree el serni n de ver, y la segurida'd de lo que se toca; y esto es,
procisamonte, lo que aceron 4 los dos padres de la iglesin en sus ansiedaded.
Las "Cartes Espirituales" de el c Beato Juan de Avila, y el 'oibro de l'a Tribu-






laciones," do Pedro do Rivadeneira, so complementan ambos, y est&n unidos en las
roaizSaoiones de aotos y de ejemplos, pare lan mayor gloria .de Dis.
Naturalmento, quo para dilucidar con cortoza ol porque de esas'uniones, tene-
mos quo partir de los puntos personalisimos do los dos caminantes, vale decir,
ponsar, que cada uno de estos tgmperamentos libres, eran on sustancia, fuerzas sin
ataduras, que sit~en los onoadenaba, a eartntemente, la fe, o la oongregacion u
orden, procoden, realizando, cuanto esta en sus interiors pidiondo a gritos li-
boraci6n, sin andarso con roquilorios y futiles rodeos.
Pensamos., y on eso afn del pensamionto quo busca libertad a las esferas mas
extran-as, de esa inquietud; debo delimitarse el cerebro, a una sola idea fija,
cosa por otra part muy dificil, tratandoso de gentes racialmente inadaptable a
los sistemas fijos.
So dice comnumente, que el espanol as un olemento reacio a toda idea de orden.
No lo croo. Me parole mAs bieh, a la imposicion do 6rdenes arbitrarias. Cuando
so manda, no es muy amable la orden de mandar. MWndn Dios sobre la tierra, y to-
dos somos siervos de su ley. Y cuando Dies manda, lo hcoe con humildad, porque
Dios, es en si la ropia humildad divina.
Es por esta razon, quo ouando mandan otros que no tienon en tan sagrado minis-
terio la fuorza secret do Dies, ya ese mando esta contaminado de impurezas, y de-
ja do ser, por lo tanto, amable y human parr. transformarse en duro y seco manda-
miento, como ordenado por guerreros do rocias armaduras, ompuiando armar causado-
ras do la muorte involuntaria.
Pedro do Rivadeneira tieno ante todo ol ospiritu do su orden dontro de su pro-
pia sustancia. Quiero indicar oon osto, quo siendo asi, obodece a una fuerza de
intimaoi6n, no muy humilde, come no es, netamente de humildcd, la orden jesultica,
puosto que est trazada on dura y fdrroa organizaciTn military, posiblemente en su
finalidad, de poner disoiplina en los rebaios del mundo.
Clrro, quo la fuorza del espaiol militant citomos rvlores'para asenter pre-
cedentes como los do San Ignacio de Loyola, Fray Luis de Lo6n, Santa Teresa de
Jesus, Padre Bartolomo de Las Casas, Padro Mariana, come el mismo padre Rivadenei-
ra; osa fuerza, tione ya muoho de torquodad, y sepamps quo el espanol, o lo espa-
fol, se oimonta e eesa terquodad, por lo eual roalizn los mas extraios actos y si-
gue los oaminos mas invorosfmiles. Ya esa fuereza stA minada de amor propio, por
el cual so realize lo human y divine, a fin de lev.ntar on vile las montafins, y
cruzar los mares en simples barquichuolas, como la cosa mas natural del mundo.
Podro do Rivadeneira es una voluntad'on mrrchi, on idonticns forms, que lo fue su
mnximo maestro, el fundador, incluso, tambion, do l. misma pasta del Bacto Juan de
Avila.
Torquedad maravillosa, en pocura do idealidad, pues en ellos no en otros -
prodomin6 siempre al dosinter s humnno, en bien de todos, par laI mayor gloria del
altfsimo.
Ponsamos y casi podri mos estampnrlo quo ese desconocimiento en torno a esa vi-
da inquieta-tribulada, do Pedro do Rita'deneira, previene, mayormente, do su desa-
pago a lo normativo, y ouando vi6 quo ln "Ordon," tan suspirada, so fundamenftM
on otras rezones ajenas al human sorvicio do Dios, lucho y se cundro ante el su-
perior divinizado, pare abrirle lcs ojos a fin do quo aI. fuerza de osa maravillosa
"Orden," como mision do humildad on los rocnntos do la tierra, no llogase a ser,
cano propendias partfoula de tierra, tambibn aouioiada por las ambiciones del in-
fierno.
Y osto me hace rooordar las amonestaciones do Juan Luis Vives, ouando en su va-
lioso tratado '!De Conoordia y Discordia," oncarocoa al emperador Carlos I de Espafa
y V de Alomania; el alojamionto do la conquista por la violencia, y dejaso de user
ol nombro dol "Todopodoroso," para dostruir, inoondiar y matar a los quo no trap-
sigian con su ~politioa," porque todos, entiondase bien, scmos hijos de Dios, in-
oluso los mismos ateos.
Quien tonga un p0oo do calma y ponetro on ol adusto laberinto de ese manual del
"tribulado" Podro de' Rivadenoira, omprendor& algo del ospfritu de la orden, en la
quo fu figure .an prostigiosa, por. su. lovantisco ospiritu, poregrino imponitQnteo
para ol oual, la vida, os un duro ejorcicin y los que per olla transitan todo6







sin possible escapatoria tienen por fuerza de la raz6n, que enfrentarse con los
acontecimientos que salen, en las multiples veredas 6 encrucijadas.
Para aquilatar la vida de este military tonsurado, que fue Rivadeneira, se neoe-
sita por fuerza saber oamo y donde se encontr6, para situar las amarguras y arre-
pentimientos de que hace memorial en su atribulada narracion, libro de una epoca,
la mrs terrible de su petria, cuando un rey lo quiso todo para la gloria del Senor,
y los elements aniquilan sus esperanzas, posiblemente porque no eran todo lo hu-
mano que tendrian que haber sido.
Si un ouerpo ya de si, ascetico, amargado de consuno con los agrios y conscupi-
centes panoramas del mundo, que inevitablemente so ven, examinando y aquilatando
todo ello, tiene que ser fuerte come la material mls dura, impossible de amilanarse
o condolerse de las visions, sin encalabrinarse, o encocorarse por tan-violentas
represontaciones del mundo; tieno quo historiar, indudablemente, cosas peregrinas.
Y no es, por quo sea la vida una continuada dosazon. Nada de oso. La vida es
buena, cuando no buscamos en ella, nada mas, que lo que humanamente puede dar.
Forzarla a parir, os igual que provocarla en aborto, y tarde o temprano, la tierra
cansada, muere, coma el ser, porque ol ser, tengamos en cuenta, quo tambien es
tierra. M&s, si a la tiorra llegrmos en plan de serenidad, y cada ser, labra el
pedazo de su modest ambicion y ejorce un plicido convivio con el hermano fronte-
rizo, y la bonded y el amor, florece sobre ln tierrn, iis, para que osto sea asi,
os prooiso anto todas Ins cosas, quo el hombre sea bueno, sobrio y simple, y no
codicio la fruta del ajeno oorcado. Es decir, que on vez de ser un demonic, sea
un angel. Pero, es a todas luces impossible, que el hambre sea bueno y realice
cunntas situaciones le depare el destiny de ccuordo a una extricta moral. Es muy
bueno eso, pero muy diffiil do adnptarse a tnl precepto, por que moral, o la morel,
puede parecor cos. de mitologai, prrn! los quo son reacios a los principios de mo-
rnl.
En unn palabras que no les convengr. ser buenos. Por que para ser moral, es
necesario toner paciencia y condiciones do srnto, cosa muy dificil, por cierto.
En ostas, y ~Ctns amUaMas razones, basa Pedro de Rivedoneirn su bell tratndo de
las almas atribulndcs o tribul.dais, ppra el caso es lo mismo, come ojorcicio divi-
no do un temperament amargado, quo no toniondo mis esperanzns, trnta de fabricar-
so una ospocial, por que su esperanzn-alionto do vida, on algo grande, sin local,
ol hombre no puedo vivir.
Comprondamos que es preciso conocor Ir vida discola de esto sujoto, para condu-
cirnos on su propio tratrdo, y saber, incluso, In moral do in epoca. Srbomos que
fuD uno de osos temperEmentos travtesos, llonos de inquietudes, que llon6 el siglo
XVI, y robas6 luego cl siguiente, que fue, precisnmonto cuando la Compaia de
Jesus, proclaim su accion do gobierno, de acuerdo a una moral mns elastic, en
vista do las malquorencias del mundo.
Pedro do Rivwdeneira era, ni mns ni monos, quo do In mismr. talla, de la do in-
finitos aventureros, quo poblrron ol viejo y el nuovo mundo, con las hvazoias mas
porogrinas. Tione una condici6f muy distinta, a la de muchos grades conduotores
do la orden, y si bion sirve parn obedeccr solo on detorminadas ocasiones esta
formado para aleccionar, Todas sus innumerables obras, biograffas apologeticas,
ostan efeotuadas con un patron de conformidad admirable, Vue sirven parn la pro-
paganda do la oompanla, on doterminados moments, much mas, que las mismas cartas
y consojos del mismo fundador y general superior. Puode mes, que la acci6n dol
padro Layncz, La Puente, Ld Palm., Mariann, Nieromberg y S&nchoz; porque la predi-
on do Pedro de Rivndnenira, ostaba onchide de muchisimos elementos profanos, alam-
bicndamento preparndos, quo lograban cnutivar 6a loctor mis reacio, morced a los
sabios adobes, sin despertr.r maliciosos roolea.
Es que, despues de todo, Rivndeneirc, siendo come lo era un creyente admirable,
de la mejor buena fe, ocmprondia tminbien, que s6lo era necesario, saborse asi mis-
mo bueno, y seguir por el mundo.el trazrdo camino, tal como se es.
Esto y plenamente seguro, quo al unico que lo coriocio porfectomente bien fue
San IgnaQio do Loyola, y tenia nl cortoza de que todos los dosplantes y dosasose-
gomiontos do "Perioo" puos .as lo llanmaba, familiarmonte eran'de la m ds:`pra






y buena fe, y podia contar con uno de los mas fervientes trabajadores por el bien
del mundo, y de la Sagrada Compaiia, come tal cosa sucedio. Es precise releer
ese sabio y magnifico "Libro de las Tribulaciones," del padre Pedro de Rivadeneira,
realizado en una epoca de expectation de la raza, precisamente ante el desastre de
La Invencible, aquella armada la cual habia sido creada para aplastar los enemigos
de la religion, a los cismiticos protestantes, pero que no quiso la suerte acom-
paiarla en el exito.
"Libro de Tribulaciones," libro encantador, que es uno de los manuales mas sim-
ples y bellos que tengo leidos, y al cual Angel Ganivet, el admirable creador del
"Idearium Espahol" varies siglos despues encontr6 una ruta para tan magno y
sano ejercicio para comnrender e interpreter el m6dulo de la raza.


THE UNIVERSITY OF HAVANA SUMMER SCHOOL

La Habana, Cuba July 21 August 30

The University of Havana has just announced its first Summer School Session for
foreigners, designed especially for North American teachers and students.
The University of Havana, one of the oldest in America, was founded on January
5, 1728 at the Convent of San Juan de Letrin by the Dominican priests of the Holy
Cross. For many years its site was an old building which still stands on O'Reilly
Street between San Ignacio and Mercaderes Streets. The Faculty, which at the time
was almost entirely composed of clergymen, was ultimately secularized in 1842 and
gave instruction in medicine, law, philosophy and the sciences. This is a far cry
from the present University of Havana which consists of the following twelve Fa-
culties or Schools: Philosophy and Letters, Sciences, Engineering and Architec-
ture, Education, Agriculture, Law, Social Sciences and Public Law, Commercial
Sciences, Medicine, Pharmacy, Odontology, and Veterinary Medicine.
In 1902 the University was moved to its present site on a prominent hill not
far from the city life of Havana and easily reached by trolley, bus or taxi. On
this commanding elevation stood a group of military buildings which were turned
over to the University. These old structures disappeared gradually and today are
replaced by modern and beautiful buildings that can compare with those of any uni-
versity in the world. Bsidcs this main campus, which comprises the Administra-
tion, Library, Science, Pharmacy, Commercial Sciences, Education, Engineering, and
other buildings, which together form the "Recinto Univorsitario," the University
owns other promises not far from this central nucleus.
The Summer School of the University of Havana was established in order to offer
foreign students, especially those from North America, an opportunity to study
courses dealing with Latin America under crapble instructors who are generally
specialists in their respective fields. By attending the University of Havana
Summer School, teachers of Sprnish from the United States will be in direct con-
tact with Spanish-speaking people in a Sprnish-sporking country. A Irrge number
of the courses offered will be in Spanish, but there will be a few given in the
English lrngurgo, especially those darling with the cultural, geographic, histori-
crl and scientific aspects of the Republic of Cuba.
The strff of the Summer School of the University of Hnva.n consists of some of
the best known instructors, well known in this country, and a number of guest in-
structors equally recognized throughout the United Strtes. Led by Dr. Rodolfo
Mondez Potatc, Rector of the University of Hravna, the Summer School staff in-
cludes: Dr. Luis A. Bartlt, Socretary Gcner.l; Dr. Luis Howell Rivoro, professor
of the Faculty of Sciences; Dr. Jorgo Mo~arch, outstanding Cuban mon of letters;
Dr. Srlvrdor Massip, eminent geographer; Dr. Juan Clemonte Zrmorr, professor of
the Faculty of Social Sccinces and Public Law; Dr. Fornrndo Ortiz, internationally
known Cuban folklorist, linguist, critic and sociologist; Dr. Medrrdo Vitier, pro-
fessor of the Mr.tnnzas Normal School; and a number of others.
A series of lectures on Intjr-Americnn relations and a number of excursions to
historicr.l points of interest in Cuba are also planned for the first Summer School.






PERSISTENT FACTORS IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE WEST INDIES

Por Harold P. Wexler

West Indies: Aborigines. Geography. Propensities

Aborigenes.
At the time of Columbus the West Indian groups of islands were inhabited by
tribes of two distinct South American ethnic stocks; the Greater Antilles by a
branch of the Arawak people (known as Tainan); the Bahamas by another Arawak
branch (the Lucayan); and the Lesser Antilles by the Caribs.
These people varied in degrees of progress. One product they all knew was
tobacco. The Caribs were of a low intelligence and were cannibals. The Arawaks
had reached a higher degree of intelligence than the Caribs, but they never
approached that of the Mayas.2 Very little is known of the Carib language except
that it is spoken by a few of their descendants today together with some French,
English and Spanish. They have mixed with African and Spanish stocks to a con-
siderable degree. As late as 1796 it was spoken on the island of St. Vincent
and spread to British Honduras and Yucatan by Indian workers.3

Geography.
The West Indies are the summits of a submerged mountain chain, the continua-
tion of which towards the west must be sought in the mountains of Honduras. In
Haiti the chain divides, one branch passing through Jamaica and the other through
Cuba, the Cayman Islands, and the Misteriosa bank.4
This long chain of islands is made up of two major types of rocks -- limestone
and volcanic. The limestone formation extends from Yucatan through most of Cuba,
the Bahamas, the Virgin Islands, Antigua, Eastern Guadeloupe, Barbados, Tobago
and part of Trinidad. Volcanic rocks make up the rugged mountainous backbone
of Jamaica, Eastern Cuba, Haiti, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts, Dominica, Martinique,
Guadeloupe, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Grenada, and Trinidad. The West Indies con-
sist of moist trade wind shores, central plateaus and mountains and a drier
leeward slope.5
Because of changing elevations the climate varies at different altitudes.
Most of these islands lie in the path of the north-easterly trade winds. There
is a definite dry season and a considerable rainy season.6

Propensities
Wild fruits and vegetables are abundant on the islands which are capable of
producing many other things. Those islands with a volcanic soil can be used for
the growing of more diversified crops than can those with a limestone soil.


1. Encyclopedia Brittanica (14th edition, Ency. Brit. Co. Ltd., New York,
1938), Vol. 23, p. 536.
2. Ibid., p. 537.
3. Berendt, Dr. C. H., Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithso-
nian Institution (Washington, D. C., 1873), pp. 363-364.
4. Encyclopedia Brittanica (14th edition, Ency. Brit. Co. Ltd., New York,
1938), Vol. 23, p. 538.
5. Klim, Starkey, Hall, Introductory Economic Geography (New York, 1938,-39,
-40), pp. 359-360.
6. Ibid., P. 361.

In 1789 Thomas Jefferson wrote a letter to his nephew, Peter Carr, and referring
to the studies the young man was pursuing, gave him this advice: "Spanish: Be-
stow great attention on this and endeavor to acquire an accurate knowledge of it.
Our future connections with Spain and Spanish America will render that language
a valuable acquisition."






Cuba has a limestone soil and sugar cane seems to grow there best. The results
of this one crop tendency among the islands will be shown later.7
Jamaica, Puerto Rico and Haiti have a.volcanic soil and are much more diver-
sified than Cuba in resources and development. Consequently they are not so
hard hit by world depressions. All throe produce sugar, coffee, tobacco and
tropical fruits.8
Among the smaller islands Barbados and Granada have the same climates.. Both
can grow sugar:.cane, but Barbados can grow only sugar cane and a few vegetables.
Granada can raise sugar cane, cacao, nutmegs, spice, cotton and vegetables.
These are examples of the capabilities of the islands economically and agri-
culturally.9


European Nations in the West Indies

Spain
When the Spaniards came into the West Indies it was not for the explicit pur-
pose of colonization. They came to exploit the islands and to send back to Spain
all the material wealth that they could gather to fill the fast emptying royal
ooffors.1
Until 1500 the attempts to settle the islands failed miserably. After the
eight years from 1492 to 1500, of the some 300,000 Indians found in the islands
only one-fourth remained. The rest had been worked to death in the mines or had
been killed in fights with the Indian tribes found on the islands. This treat-
mcnt of the Indians did not occur to such great lengths on the mainland. This
diminution in the native Indian population resulted in a great wave of negro
slaves being poured into the West Indies, creating a great economic problem
which has re-echoed down through the history of the islands and remains the main
economic problem of the islands today.2
The negroes wore used in the sugar cane fields. This crop was introduced
into the islands by Columbus. Citrus fruits, rice and bananas brought from the
Canaries in 1516 flourished exceedingly. The culture of cacao, tobacco and
paprika was learned from the Indians and later introduced into the European mar-
ket. Cotton was indigenous to the islands,.and tobacco was raised and intro-
duces into Europe from them.3
Since the mines had not proved so successful, many negroes were put to work
in the sugar cane fields To this time sugar had only been known in Europe for
a few centuries and was still a costly luxury.4
Because Spain allowed only certain cities to develop as large trading centers
in the West Indies, many became strong enough to control sugar output in return
for royal favors. Cuba was one of the first islands upon which such cities
were established.5
The attempt by Spain to maintain a monopoly on trade and to draw treasure to
herself from her new colonies was an incitement to contraband traffic which de-
generated into piracy. England, France and Holland sent ships to the islands to
trade but were kept out by the Spaniards. They soon fell to forcing their goods
upon the colonists and compelling payment.6

7. Ibid., p. 361.
8. Tbid., p. 362.
9. TiE., p. 362.
1. Nwt~on, A.P., European Nations in the West Indies (London, 1937), p.. 16.
2. Ibid., p. 17.
3. TT., pp. 20-21.
4. Fike, A.K., West Indies (New York, 1903), pp. 60-61.
5. Jones, C.L., Caribbean Backgrounds and Prospects (New York, 1937), p. 61.
6. Fiske, A.K., West Indies" (Tew York, 1T03), pp. 61-62.





25.
France
The heavily armed convoy system of Spain kept France out of the West Indies
until 1680 by which time the French had begun to establish themselves on the
islands of Guadeloupe, Martinique, western Haiti and a half dozen scattered
islands. French colonial objectives were the same as those of Spain -- exploi-
tation for the benefit of the mother country. Her many wars on the continent,
however, kept her from enforcing these objectives as much as she desired.7

England
Great Britain, having become a Protestant power, had no respect for the title
of possession which rested upon the Papal bull concerning the New World.8
From the time of the first English settlement on St. Christopher and on near-
by Nevis island in 1624 until the end of the 17th century one may witness the
rising power of Britain in the West Indies. She slowly obtained one island after
another. A strict colonial policy had each island producing exactly what it was
told by the mother country. Slavery played a large part in the development of
these islands. By 1700 England controlled the Bahamas, Jamaica and many of the
Leeward Islands.9

The Netherlands
By 1577 the Netherlands were freed from Spanish rule and began to go about
establishing themselves in the West Indies. They sent out fleet after fleet
to attack Spanish ships; hinder Spanish trade and obtain its markets for them-
selves. Many ofithe buccaneers and pirates were sent out by Dutch trading
companies. The Dutch showed the French and English how to grow sugar cane after
they had failed in growing tobacco, indigo, and cotton. Certain Dutch capita-
lists had established sugar cane plantations along the coast of Brazil for over
80 years. The Dutch finally settled in Curacao, Aruba, and Bonaire after having
been pushed from ,a prominent place as a trading nation in the West Indies.
Her European rivals proved too much for her.10


Major Island Possessions of European Nations in the West Indies

Martinique
This French island is so broken up by its volcanic origin that no large
plantations exist to any great extent. The land is divided into small land-
holdings and is owned by the natives who work it with their families. This
makes for independence and cheapness of living and a universal labor problem.
The colored colonial is free and happy under these conditions.1
The island is 43 miles long and 20 miles wide; is very mountainous; well-
watered; and of volcanic origin. The population is about 250,000 with 85%. ne-
groes. Illiteracy is very high, about 62%. The standard of living and purchas-
ing power of the people is extremely low-. Fort de France, the largest town has
only 35,000 population. There is no street railway; poor lighting; no adequate
sewerage and water supply; but good main roads.2
Steamers call mainly from France. There is a great difficulty in obtaining
return cargoes to the United States as most of the export trade is with Europe.
Outside of rum and sugar there are no exports of considerable value. A very


7. Ibid'., p. 62 and 300.
8. Ibid., pp. 71-72.
9. Newton, A.P,, European Nations in the West Indies (Longon, 1937), p. 225.
10. Ibid., pp. 190-193.
1. Herrick, R. The Race Problem in the Caribbean (The Nation, New York,
June-, 1924), Vol. 118, No. 3076.






26.


mild coffee is grown as well as limes, pineapples and vanilla. Most of this,
if exported, goes to France. Manufacturing is practically at a standstill. Her
exports get free entry into France. All banks are or were of French origin. All
commercial houses are stocked with French goods.3 During the last few years
electricity has been introduced into the island, and an American bank has opened.
With France in its present condition, Martinique is at a standstill in all re-
spects.

Curacao
The population of this Dutch island is about 60,000 with about 85% negro popu-
lation. The capital is Willemstad. It lies 41 miles from the coast of Vene-
zuela. It receives little rainfall and water reservoirs are necessary.4
Willemstad is located on a naturally fine, deep harbor. There are some very
good roads on the island. It is the shipping point of practically all of Vene-
zuela's oil. There are few industries and there is a great need for employment
for the people. Sisal has been introduced since 1916, and if it is successful
will prove a boon to the people. There is little livestock as food for them
is too expensive. Nature will not allow much agricultural development.
The good harbor facilities make the island a valuable coaling port. Most of
the articles exported from Curacao originate in Venezuela and Colombia. The
United States sends 70% of the total goods imported int6 the island from the
rest of the world, while Curacao's oil exporting places it on a par with the
rest of the world.. There is a preference for American goods because of proxi-
mity. It is not controlled strongly by the Netherlands. The island today is
in the same difficult position as its neighbors.6

Jamaica
This is one of the larger islands of the West Indies. There is strict econo-
mic control here for the benefit of the mother country. It is 144 miles long
and 49 miles wide. It is very mountainous with valuable unexploited mineral
deposits .
The harbor at Kingston, the capital, is one of the finest natural harbors in
the world. Kingston is a very modern city. The island is well known as a
tourist resort. There is no month without some rain. Steamer service to the
island is very good. There is a good system of roads hero, and a government
owned railway.
Jamaica is essentially an agricultural land. Its chief products are bananas,
sugar and rum, coffee, pimiento, tobacco, ginger, oranges and plant dyes. The
forest reserves on the island are very good, and there is much valuable mahogany.
There are a few local manufacturing plants such as cigar factories, tanneries,
distilleries, potteries, iron boundaries, and match plants.9

2. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerco, Special
Agents Series # 141, West Indies as an Export Field (Washington, Govt.
Printing Office, 1917), p. 40.
3. Ibid,,pp. 45-60.
4. Ibid.,pp. 75-90.
5. Ibid., pp. 75-90..
6. Ibid., pp. 75-90.
7. Encyclopedia Brittanica (14th edition, Ency. Brit. Co-., Ltd., New York,
1938), Vol. 12, p. 872.
8. Annual Report on the Social and Economic Progress of the People of Jamaica
(His Majostio's Stationery Office, Jamaica, 1934), pp. 1-3.
9. Encyclopedia Brittanica (14th edition, Ency. Brit. Co., Ltd., New York,
1938),Vol. 12, p. 873.







Jamaica has a governor appointed by the Crown. Many early British tax laws
still exist such as stamp tax on documents, excise tax on tobacco and liquors,
etc. Canadian and English banks cover the island.10
One important trend in recent years has been the steadily increasing amount
of land being sold in small tracts to individuals all over the island..1
In summation we find the island possessions in the West Indies definite
victims of the persistent factors running throughout their history. Factors
controlled and made, in part, by man, and in part by nature. Those made by
man are changeable, but those immutable factors imposed by nature are unvarying
and will continue to effect the lands until the end of time. Adjustment to
nature's demands and the modification of those of man are the end and aim of
all action in this question.


10. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Special
Agents Series # 141, West Indies as an Export Field (Washington, Govt.
Printing Off., 1917), p. 95.
11. Annual Report on the Social and Economic Progress of the People of Jamaica
(His Majestie's Stationery Office, Jamaica, 1934), p. 10.



PERIODICALS RECEIVED REGULARLY Bf THE INTER-AMERICAN READING ROOM OF
TIE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

Agriculture in the Americas, Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations, U. S.
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
Among Us, newsletter of the Committee on International Relations, National Educa-
tion Association of the United States, Washington, D. C.
Anales de la Universidad de Santo Domingo, Ciudad Trujillo, Repiblica Dominicana.
Argentine News, Argentine Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Worship, Buenos Aires.
Atenea, revista mensual de ciencias, letras y artes, Universidad de Conoepci6n,
Concepcion, Chile.
Boletim da Uniao Panamericana, Pan American Union, Washington, D. C.
Boletim do Instituto Brasil-Estados Unidos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Boletin Bibliografico Mexicano, Instituto Panamericano de Bibliografia y Documen-
tacibn, Mexico, D. F.
Boletin de la Comision Protectora de Bibliotecas Populares, Ministerio de Justi-
cia e Instruccion Piblica de la nacion Argentina, Buenos Aires.
Boletin de la Union Panamericana, Pan American Union, Washington, D. C.
Boletin Informativo del Instituto Cultural Argentino-Norteamericano, Buenos Aires.
Brasil Acucareiro, Instituto do Acucar e do Alcool, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Bulletin of the Pan American Union, Pan American Union, Washington, D. C.
Chile, Una Voz Argentina, Buenos Aires.
Colombia, Colombian 'Information Bureau, New York City.
Commercial Pan America, Pan American Union, Washington, D. C.
Correio da Manha, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Correio do Povo, Porto Alegre, IBazil.
Educaoi6n Antioquena, Direoci6n de Educaci6n P6blica, Departamento de Antioquia,
Medellin, Colombia.
El Estudiante, 6rgano estudiantil national, Bogota, Colombia. .
Foreign Commerce Weekly, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Cocmerce, U. S. Depart-
ment of Commerce, Washington, D. C.
Foreign Policy Bulletin, Foreign Policy Association, New York City.
Foreign Policy Reports, Foreign Policy Association, New York City.
Foreign Trade Series, Pan American Union, Washington, D. C.

(Toe Continued)




': 28. .

S A,.~A LOS PUE LOS DE AMERICA

r por Faustino Prado

RabLOGO

-I. ItfSPANIDAD

Una flor de granado, maravilla
que el sol feoundo fervoroso baia,
fue el rojo fruto que el len, de Espana
coloco en elescudo de Castilla.

Y era tan rio aquel caudal, que aun brilla
vertiendo luz en epica montafa,
que rcnpe.el fruto y, en valiente hazafa,
lleva hasta el Nuevo Mundo su semilla.

Germenriiril que, en lanzas espafolas
manejadas por bravos oampeones,
cabalg6 con audaoia entire las olas...

Y a la virgen America en discordia,
enseiando a rezar veinte naciones,
fecund6 on ol jnrdin de la Concordia.


II. CUBA

Sohre ol tibio regazo do la onda,
como una gema firica en precioso
broche do espumn, ostA el miravilloso
vergel de las Antillas. Y la fronda

oubre la dulce oafia con su oronda
dargs do nlmntibt sobrol mas hermoso
rino6n torrostro, donde ol orgulloso
palmer los ciolos con su .ir6n ahonda.

Ni unn niubo mpa-nndo el firmanmnto...
Fingen, bajo los impetus del vionto,
los paisajes un coo do plegaria...

Y ol mambi, milherido sobre ol llano,
rdcibd bajo l' oiolio soberano
el boso do la. ostrolla solitaria.

-.III, SANTODOMINGO" '

'" Tierral I Tiorral Fells el navegante,
-r~deado do misticn curooin, ..
a.olino sus mirrdas on 1n olr :.
.quo la playn conquist :agoniiannte, -

ir E morddo pond6n on v.oilcnto
ostrndarto mrgnifioo treomola
:junto a la Crus, y nlogro a la Espacola
todo al gozo do hispAnioo somblanto-.






Aquolla primer huella del marine
en el eje central del continent
desperto la ambicion de un gran destinos

y una raza gigante y creadora,
dejando alli su centro permanent,
hizo un mundo gemelo de la Aurora.


IV. PUERTO RICO

La mano suave del Caribe tienta
con caricias astutas de serpiente
el contorno armonioso y sonriente
de tu cuerpo gentil de cenicienta.

Un dia infeliz, indomita e irredenta,
sofaste ser dichosa e independiente
del estado espailol, cuando inclemente
te hiri6 el verdugo y te rindi6 la afrenta.

LIgrima virginal que el genio hispano
cultivo entire crecientes maravillas
con fe de Cristo y con amor de hermano:

Slibre! i libre seras' que las semillas
del fecundo lenguaje castellano
ya florecen en todas las Antillas!


V. ARGENTINA

En la ancha pampa, que el ombu gigante
atraviesa con ramas poderosas,
aun suenan las milongas cadenoiosas
del gaucho Mart{n Fierro. El arrogante

Parana, con sue aguas rumorosas,
habla de San Martin, el del semblante
hosco y guerrero, y el pavor constant
de las luchas tiranicas de Rosas.

Al Norte el valle fertil; In llanura
oubre el Centro; sefala el Occidente
la abrupt cordillera; el mar a Oriente.

Y, entire cimas de mistica blancura,
como corona de Ins cosns grandes,
Cristo bendice ul muro de los Andes.



"La America puede hacor lo quo nuncn so ha hecho, porque America es un continent
sobre el cual se ha volcado today unn civilizacion en su memento mLs brillente y
cuando ya los hombres so han alejado much de la obsoura barbarie de los tiempos
primitives," Jose Manuol Cortina.







VI. OHILE

"Pals desolador y de la Muerte"
Almagro te llamo, decepcionado
ante el valor salvaje y arrojado
del araucano al decidir su suerte.

Td, sobre el Ande, como sierpe inerte,
abrazando al volcan y al risco helado,
brindas al continent entusiasmado
una espina dorsal several y fuerte,

llena de recias cumbres y titanes
petreos, que el condor al pasar escala
o atraviesa en sus naves Magallanes...

Todo ungido del ultimo lamento
de libertad que, derrotado, exhala
Caupolican muriendo en el tormento.


VII. URUGUAY

De aquellas mitol6~icas espigas
de una raza que fue no hay ni memoria...
No menciona en sus paginas la Historia
sus haza~as, sus duelos, sus fatigas...

Mas, viven sus impulses. Enemigas
legiones retroceden, y la Gloria
besa a los "treinta y tres" de la victoria,
y al valor impert6rrito de Artigas.

Si han muerto ya los pumas y jaguars,
y los heroes descansan olvidados,
aun desciende enigmatico a los mares

el Uruguay, que lento nos musita
los hechos que ha vivido. Y animados
Zorrilla San Martin los resucital


VIII. PARAGUAY

Aguas del Paraguay y el Pilcomayo,
que aun aterran los ecos del combat,
lamed la herida que ensanch6 el embate
en el pecho del bravo paraguayo.

Libre el indio que ayer fuera vasallo,
sin temor de que un amo lo maltrate,
va recogiendo el delicioso mate
de la feraz campiia.. Sin desmayo

lucha Francia con belicas legiones,
y, armas en mano, marchan con pressure,
desde el infante tierno hasta el anoiano,





31.


los hijos de las fSrtiles misiones
para impedir que arrasen la llanura
huellas del invasor o del tirano.



IX. BRASIL

Castilla y Portugal! Dos ambiciones
con rumos diferentes y una meta,
nos trajeron la lirica saeta
de las grandes iberas emociones.

Ebria de recorrer otras regions
aquella raza de expression de atleta
cruz6 los mares en la nave inquieta
para darle su genio a otras naciones.

En recio batallar, por ambas zonas,
volvieron cetros en innoble ganga...
Y Portugal, unsiose de otra suerte,

anido en el caudal del Amazonas
un pueblo nuevo: aquel que en Ipiranga
clam6 indignado Independencia o Muerte!


X. BOLIVIA

La conquista ambiciosa, aventurera,
en ti clavo la pica exploradora,
y el metal que en sus cumbres atesora
el Potosi corrio a tierra extranjera.

El indio despojado no se aplaca
del enojo que causa ser esclavo,
y ol que siempre viviera libre y bravo
clama al dios vengador del Titicaca.

A cambio de su plata les trajeron
los hombres blancos barbaras cadenas...
que la fe y el idioma se lo dieron

misioneros de Amor y de Esperanza...
Como aquel que, olvidado de sus penas,
les di6 su nombro y les leg6 su lanza.



"Cada nacion soberana de America ha de trabajar y luchar, no s6lo por la prospe-
ridad y grandeza propias, sino tambien por la de los demas del Continente, por-
que el progress, la vitalidad, la independencia y la cultural de cada pals ameri-
cano integran y multiplican la fuerza, la grandeza y la libertad de toda Ameri-
ca," Roberto M. Ortiz, president of the Republic of Argentina.







XI. PERU

El imperio do Manco es triste carro
uncido a la dorrota. Decidido,
con el "trece" valicnto y atrovido,
pasa la raya ol capit&n bizarre.

Come se desmorona un dies do barro
asi cede el ejorcito aguerrido
de los incas, absorto y confundido,
ante la grey do Almagro y do Pizarro.

Huayna Capao muri6; pore era much
el valor y corajo do su gento:
vod sine que on Junin y on Ayacucho,

derrotando al roalismo decadent,
cant6 un pueblo con ansias do aguilucho
el himno do la Patria indopendionto.


XII. ECUADOR

Vasto jardin cociido on cl abrazo
del Ecuador: ardionto en la ospesura,
fresco on ol vallo, golido en la altura
donde bostoza fuogo ol Chimborazo;

tieno onsartado on colorido lazo
dol tropical conjunto la hormosura,
del vallo la foraz agriculture,
y del hiolo dol Artico un pedazo.

Bollo vorgol dondo al pasar rolincha
el corool del guorroro victorioso
on las faldas convulsas do Pichincha,

quo alumbra cl rayo o ostromeco ol truono,
o oobija ol cirActcr roligioso,
dictatorial y grave, do Morono.


EL PAISAJE CHILENO
El paisaje chileno, no ofrece en manera alguna, uniformidad. Tiene en cada re-
gi6n, caracteristicas distintas a la vez que novedosas, con toda esa original va-
riedad que singulariza a los parses montafosos. Yen el caso de Chile, es precise
agregar a esa circunstancia, de que es un pals que se extiende estrechado.entre la
cordillera y el mar, con una longitud tan desmesurada en que caben todas las lati-
tudes; lo cual imprime al paisaje aspects inesperados, en que influye, fuera del
factor topografico, el clima, que obra en este sentido en forma muy interesante en
cada region, pues es el element natural que pone su sello caracteristico, al dar-
le unn fisonomla inconfundible, ya sea risueia o poetic. Chile esta cruzado de
norte a sur, por un camino de hierro, del cual se desprenden todos los ramales que
van hacia la cordillera o el mar. Si una persons tuviera la paciencia de hacer el
viCje desde Pueblo Hundido hosta Puerto Montt, podria informarse de las caracteris-
ticas mas salientes del pcisaje chileno, come en una especie de dibujo hecho a
grandes rasgos, porquo la mayoria de los detalles mas importantes, que se acentian
hacia la cordillera o el mar, so perderian on porspoctivas apenas esbozadas.
Chile, Una Voz Argentina





S3,


THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE AND THE WAR

por Manning J. Dauer

The success of the dictatorship in Europe raises serious questions about the
relations between the United States and Latin America. These questions are not so
difficult hut that they can be solved. Once before in our history, when we were
occupied with the Civil War and the Emperor Maximilian was placed as a puppet ru-
ler on the throne of Mexico, the situation was just as critical.

There are several complicating factors in the present situation in Latin
America. Undoubtedly, Germany and Italy are making every effort to foment distur-
bances in this area. The German organizations are especially active and are sup-
ported with adequate funds, These organizations operate through two approaches.
In the first place, they maintain contact with all individuals of German back-
ground who will consent to cooperate with them. Each Latin American country has
its counterpart of our own German-American Bund. The leaders (or former leaders),
such as Arthur Diettrich in Mexico, Julius Delidorff in Uruguay, and Alfredo
Muller in Argentina, are as well known in those countries as is Fritz Kuhn in the
United States. Relatively, however, the German minorities in the Latin American
countries are rather small. In Uruguay, there are only 11,000 individuals of
German origin; Brazil has the largest German population with some 900,000, while
Argentina is second with 250,000. By themselves, therefore, these German organi-
zations, which do not embrace even a majority of the Germans in these countries,
could probably accomplish little.

The second group of organizations which would make this program more effective
are the native Fascist groups such as the Brazilian "Integralists," composed of
those Brazilians who desire to establish an absolute form of government. In the
history of Latin America native dictatorships have often been known. Today many
of the countries are headed by dictators, but as yet none are definitely committed
to cooperation with the German or Italian governments. Such organization as the
Integralists would wish to emulate their European examples. It is not at all im-
possible, therefore, that such cooperation might be established. The problem then
is doubles first, that of preventing any of the parties out of power from co-
operation with the German and Italian organizations and seizing power; and second,
that of preventing any of the dictators already in power from cooperating with the
Nazi or Fascist groups.

Without some such cooperation by citizens of Latin America along the above
lines, German intervention in Latin America, even were the British navy removed as
a barrier, would not likely be attempted. We have the authority of Hitler's own
Mein Kampf for this statement. He there outlines that any military subjugation
would be possible without any cooperation of local groups.

The policy which the United States needs must follow should have several phases.
The most obvious of these is that of military preparedness. To this need the
public is already awake. Necessarily wq must continue to give attention to see
that on the land, on the sen, and in the air, an efficient program of a'ming is-
carried rapidly forward,

Of equal or greater importance are certain other phases of our policy. It .can
safely be stated thatthe overwhelming majority of the peoples of Latin America
are not anxious to come under the rule of Hitler or Mussolini. However, there are
certain cultural and economic ties with Europe which will strongly influence Latin
America. The economic questions are the. most pressing at this time. They ill.
"Con contrafuogos del entendimiento so apagan los incendios de la ignoranoin,"
Santiago Argolllo (Nioaraguense).




M4.


have to be considered first.

The primary problem presented is that Latin America must have Europe as an out-
let for its produce. The continent of Europe takes the bulk of Latin American ex-
ports. We in the United States took only twenty-five per cent in the trade year
of 1957. In the case of many of the products, we cannot increase our purchases
because we already have an exportable surplus of the same articles. For example,
in 1937 Argentina exported $156,000,000 worth of wheat and $150,000,000 worth of
beef products. In that same year Brazil exported $64,000,000 worth of cotton,
Canada (if she be brought into the picture for the purpose of indicating her
general position) exported $124,000,000 worth of wheat; and Venezuela over $150,-
000,000 worth of oil. In considering any immediate solution, it is impossible to
propose a solution of continental self-sufficiency. The various countries of the
Western Hemisphere cannot live by trading with each other. It is absolutely ne-
cessary that they trade with the whole world.

It should be borne in mind that economic stagnation in Latin America is already
far advanced. There is no such armament boom in these countries as in the United
States. The Latin American republics are already faced with the problem of large
surpluses of raw materials. Some of these surpluses are being held off the market
through loans advanced by the United States. But this is at best only a temporary
expedient and only a partial solution. There has been an increase in the amount
of intra-continental trade, but again this has offered a remedy for only a small
part of the problem of surpluses.

In regard to this problem, it is difficult to see, however, that Latin America
could benefit by not cooperating with the United States. In the event of a German
victory in Europe, Germany would attempt to force a political bargain in exchange
for markets. The attempt would be made to play one country against another to the
disadvantage of all in the Western Hemisphere. The only solution would be to car-
ry on all marketing outside the hemisphere through a single cartel. In this car-
tel management should be cooperative all countries participating in its manage-
ment.

The final factor in the Latin American situation is that of cultural considera-
tions. Perhaps there are two items of equal significance. In the first place,
there are large numbers of Indians who, like those in the United States, are not
yet assimilated to Western Culture. This is among the reasons for a high percent-
age of illiteracy in Latin America. In the second place, the cultural tradition
of Latin America is much closer to continental European culture, especially that
of Spain and France, that to that of the United States. Spanish, Portuguese and
French are the official languages of Latin Amerioa. Students attending foreign
universities have usually gone to those countries. It is the literature of those
countries which forms the background for that of Latin America. Finally, the
political modes of the continent are strong influences.

The most that can be done in this field is to give greater attention to Latin
America in our program of education. We can also try to stimulate interchange of
travelers, students and lecturers. In this field, Germany has employed the sti-
mulus of heavy governmental subsidization. Our own government has established a
Division of Cultural Relations in the Department of State.

If intelligent action is taken on these economic nnd cultural problems, the
political and military aspects will be simplified. The people of the United
States should recognize that if Latin America is not cooperating economicallyand

"Los pafsos do Amrica tioenen trndioionos e interoses comunes y su armonia y su
mutual cooperacoin oonstitUyon una.nocosidad do la hora presente" Tomas Manual
Elio (boliviano)-





38.


politically, the cost of holding them by military force alone could bankrupt the
United States in the long run,

It is also fundamental that all of this program must be cooperative to be ful-
ly successful. In the management of the economic program that has been outlined,
there must be cooperative management. In our part of the policy, intelligent
knowledge and understanding of Latin America is essential. We must also beware
of the tendency that always exists in our relations with Latin America, to let
the mattei'be settled by immediate military occupation. Mexico, for example, has
followed certain policies which we regard as unfriendly. She has confiscated
American oil properties. It is quite a step, however, from this to say that she
is also friendly to enemies of the United States. As a matter of fact, she has
recently deported a number of known Genman agents and shows every evidence of con-
corn over German activity. Consequently, we should not be misled by those who
seek, in this period of confusion, to assure economic advantage or greater securi-
ty for their own investments in these countries by urging that the marines should
land. This is not to deny that it would be wise to intervene if any government-
wore shown to be definitely favorable to the Italo-Germnn bloc, should that bloc
win the war. It is to say, however, that on the final stop of our own interven-
tion, we should look before we leap. We should bear in mind that in the main the-
Latin American peoples are as concerned as are we with preserving their freedom
of action. In the past we have incurred great hostility by our interventions
simply to protect our own interests. We should carefully avoid raising this son-
timont again.

One other item about this policy is that even in the event of a German victory
over Englnnd, much as that would be regretted, we would probably not lack time-to
organize the policy outlined. Germany could not move effectively in this hemi-
sphere until three other matters were accomplished: (1) the elimination of the
Russian threat at her b.ck; (2) the re-organization of the continent of Europe, at
least sufficient for economic support for her military machine; and (3) greater
attempts at infiltration of her program into Latin America. All of this is no
small matter, especially the second item. Even if Hitler has the best of luck, he
would not be rerdy to move outside Europe at once. We would then certainly hrve
no time to procrastinate, but there would be time if we take advantage of it.

With the United States now moving more rapidly toward direct intervention in
the war, the question of relations with Latin America continues to be of import-
nnce. On the one hand, there will be the matter of making effective the inter-
vontion of the United States. On the other hand, all parties need to consider
carefully what the policy of the world will be once peace returns. Here it has
not been possible to discuss the interesting question; but if a period of recon-
struction is forthcoming, there are a number of factors which need consideration.
Not the least of those is how the Western Hemisphere can participate in the post-
war world. All pc.rties c.n well give this attention, with the aim in view of try-
ing to establish a system which will function more satisfactorally than the one
which has broken down.






'"Amerioa estl oonsagrada oomo.la onsr gr.ndb do la paz y quo los ameriranos son los
padres autenticos, los intdrpretes mas autorizados do nla justicia; quo America es
cuna do razas que snben morir por ues snntos ideales y quo saben igualmente de*-
poner Ins arms, canoelar onojos paVr. rooorrer despues en uni6n, abrazados, el
camino infinite de In civilizeoion l" Antonio Sosa (Paraguay).







LIBROS RECIBIDOS
New Books Received Recently By The Inter-American Reading Room

Argentina. Cunisibn Naoional de'Cooperaci6n Intelectuals La Difusion de la Cul-
tura Argentina. Buenos Aires, Gerinimo J. Pesoe y Cla., 1941.
Baquerizo Moreno, Alfredot Ensayos, Apuntes, y Discursps. Guayaquil, Imprenta
i Talleres Munioipales, 1940.
Bazil. Institute do Acucar e do Alcool: Anuario Acucareiro. Ano VI 1940,
Rio de Janeiro, Grafioa Rio-Arte, n.d.
Egas M., Jose Mariat El Prinoipio del Uti Possidetis Americano y Nuestro Litigio
de Fronteras oon el Peru. Guayaquil, Imprenta Municipal, n.d.
Estrada, Temistocles Jt Relaciones histiricas y geograficas de Manabi. Guayaquil,
Oroncio Portugal, 1939.
Falquez Ampuero, F. Js Gobelinos. Guayaquil,. Imprenta i Talleres Municipales,
1939.
Figueira, Gast6n: Para los Nifos de America, Buenos Aires, Lilreria del Colegio,
1937.
Figueira, Jose Henriques: Vida, Leociones y Ejercicios de Lectura Expresiva y
Literature. Libro quinto. New ed., Montevideo, A. Borreiro y Ramos, S.A., 1940.
Jimenes Borja, Josei Cien Afios de Literatura y Otros Estudios Cr{ticos. Lima,
P. Barrantes dCa., 1940.
Miami. University of Miamit University of Miami Hispanio-American Studies. Lec-
tures delivered at the Hispanic American Institute. Number 2. Coral Gables,
1941.
Muguerza, Alberto: Observaciones Fenologicas Sobre Espeoies y Variedades de Fru-
tales Cultivadas en la Zona de 25 de Mayo (Provincia de Buenos Aires), Buenos
Aires, 1939.
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OUR CONTRIBUTORS


Former Reotor of the University of Panama, Dr. Octavio Mendez Pereira is a well
known educator, writer and diplomat in the Western Hemisphere. He was the Secre-
tary of Public Instruction of Panama and Minister Plenipotentiary to Chile, France
and Great Britain, and a member of various international congresses in which he
officially represented his country before assuming the presidency of the National
University. Dr. M4ndez Pereira is a member of many intellectual and cultural or-
ganizations in Europe and Hispanic America, and is author of many books and ar-
ticles on education, philology and literature.

Dr. William C. Zellers is an Associate Professor of Spanish at the Florida
Southern College in Lakeland, Florida, and is a Director of the Institute de las
Espafas en los Estados Unidos, Seccion de Florida. Author of numerous books and
articles on Spanish literature, Dr. Zellars is a regular contributor to the
Revista Interamerioana.

Braulio S&nchez-S&ez is Professor of Spanish and Ibero-American Literature at
the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil. A native of Spain, Sr. SAnchez-Seez has
spent a number of years in Argentina where he has studied and,taught in the Insti-
tute Nacional del Profesorado Secundario de Buenos Aires. An ardent lover of the
Portuguese language and Brazilian culture, he has published many books and arti-
cles in this field and on Hispanic-American literature.

A junior at the University of Florida, Harold P. Wexler is a student in the
field of Inter-Amorican relationss and is enrolled in the College of Arts and
Sciences at the University. Recently elected president of Los Picaros de Quevedo,
honorary Spanish fraternity, he plans to study at the University of Havrna Summer
School this year.

Faustino Prndo is a junior in Electrical Engineering at the University of
Havana where he received his inspiration to dedicate a poem to each of the Ameri-
can republics in the Western Hemisphere. He is the author of a number of poems
and articles.

Dr. Manning J. Dauor is an Assistant Professor of History and Political Science
at the University of Florida. Author of a number of articles on history and poli-
tical science, Dr. Dauer is the editor of The Journal of Politics. He is also
Secretary of the .Phi Beta Kappa Chapter at-te University of Florida.

Manuel D. Rnmirez, editor of the Revista Interamericana and Secretary of the
Institute of Inter-American Affairs of the University of Florida, graduated from
the State University in 1937. After a year of teaching, he returned to the Uni-
versity of Florida and received his Master's degree in 1939.