Revista interamericana;

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Title:
Revista interamericana; revista dedicada al estudio de la cultura iberoamericana ..
Physical Description:
v. : ; 28 cm.
Language:
Spanish
Creator:
University of Florida -- Institute of Inter-American Affairs
Los Pícaros de Quevedo
Publisher:
s.n.
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Latin America   ( lcsh )

Notes

Language:
Contributions in English or Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
v. 1- agosto 1939-
Issuing Body:
1939- published by the Institute of Inter-American Affairs, University of Florida, in cooperation with Los Pícaros de Quevedo.
General Note:
Reproduced form type-written copy.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 07270757
ocm07270757
Classification:
lcc - F1401 .R445
System ID:
AA00002854:00001

Full Text



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UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARY


THE GIFT OF


Dr. A. C. Morris







AEVISTA INTREAMj:CANA ,

REVISTA DEDICADA AL STUDIO DE LA CULTURAL INTERAMERICANA

Redactor Sr. Manuel D. Ramirez

Asistentes Sr. Jose Alonso Iglesias# Sr. Jaime E. Stearns

Consejo Consultivo Dr# 0. H. Hauptmann Prof. Francis M.
DeGaetani, Sr. Federico Reynolds, Sr. Raul Ramos, Sri Perce-
val F. Lisk

Vol. I. Agosto, 1939 No, I*


ARTfC ULO DE FONDO

por Manuel D. Ramirez

Es un gran placer para mi tomar esta oportunidad para expresar mi apreoio
en nombre de Los Picaros de Quevedo a aquellas personas, aunque no directamente
relacionadas con nuestra organizacin o universidad, quienes han contribuido con
tan buena indole a la primer edition de la Revista Interamericana..
Con su permiso tambien tomare esta ocasi6n para solicitarle a cada y oual
lector, tanto como a cada escritor, de aceptar este equeaiisimo esfuerzo de nues-
tra parte no come un chef d'oeuvre, una obra que sera apreciada inicamente por
su merito literario o linguistioo, sino come un alba de la era nueva eo este gran
movimiento Panamericano. Es nuestra sincera oreencia que un interest mAs agudo
se puede desarrollar en interamericanismo si los estudiantes tanto como los pro-
fesores de nuestras universidades so dispongan a estudiar y escribir sobre His-
.panoamdrica. Nuestro empoio as hacker ofectivo el refran francs, "Tout oom-
prendre, o'est tout pardonner," Cudntos do los concoptos falsos prejuiclos
que dividen naciones serian evitados, ougnto ai paz del mundo seria fomentada si
hubiara un libre intercnmbio dQ ponsamionto y sentimiento national? Sin embargo,
los suplico que no tomemos solamente la posici6n do hispan6filos, porquo opina-
mos quo podemos servir on mIs do una forma a nuestros contompor~neos fraternales
do las Amerioas.
SEn este moment as muy propio mancionar algo do la historic do la organiza-
cion a la cual so le debe much por su noblo osfuorzo do aproximarnos a ostas
roalizacionas; a sabor, Los Plcaros de Quovado, fraternidad honorffioa on la
Universidad do la Florida. n oel o4fio do 19S2 un grupo do j6venes, dirigido,
por los buenos oonsojos do los profosares 0. H. Hauptmann y Francisco M. DeGae-
tani, dAndoso cuenta do la necosidad de alguna sociedad que fomentara y doearro-
llara 0l studio do los aspoctos culturales, socials y oomeroiales do las Ame-
ricas, dooidib on introducir una nueva fraternidad honoraria. No fug hasta ol
aio siguionto, sin embargo, cuando pass dofinidos fuoron tomados para la orga-
nizacion de dicha fraternidad.
Desdo aquel aro memorable, Los Pioaros de Quovedo ha sido un important,
como dice el norteamoricano, "cogo n the wheoT," de PTanamericanismo en este es-
tado0 y ha apadrinado programs iistruotivos sobre la estaci6n radioomisora de
la Universidad, WRUF; un certamon manual do declamaoi6n on ospanol para oscuelas
superiors del estado de la Florida; polfculas espnrolas en el Florida Student


177597







Union; programs docentes con personaJes como el Dr. Juan Clemonto Zamora do la
Universidad do la Habanas y recientemente festoj6 a un equipo atl1tico de dicha
univorsidad que vino a jugar on esta oiudad no hace muchb'tiompo,
Es monster mencionar otros rasgos importantos quo domuostran la posioi6n
sobrosaliente de Los PAcaros en costa universidad. Muy encantado estoy do anun-
ciar que nuestra faternidad sot& envuelta en un proyeoto quo todos osperamos
quo nos conduzca a un entendimiento todavia mAs profundo con otras instituciones,
y quo tambidn hemos hecho posiblo que la Universidad de la Florida nos reserve
una soccin especial en los dormitories conocida bajo el nombre do la Secoion
Interamericana. En osta vivirln juntos estudiantes de todas las Amsricas.
Tambin deseo expresar mi agradecimiento Al Institute de Asuntos Intorame-
ricanosi con el cual estamos colaborando on la publioaoion do esta revista.

**


INSTITUTE OF INTER-AMBRICAN AFFAIRS

Recognizing the universal need of an agency to foster better cultural and
oconamic relations between the United States of North America and the other Ameri-
cas, the University of Florida established the Institute of Inter-American Affairs
on Juno 2, 19503 with the specific aim of encouraging the exchange of students,
teachers and professors between colleges, universities and secondary schools of
the American republics.
Since the founding of the Institute, many foreign students, professors, vi-
sitors and lecturers have honored the University with their presence on this cam-
pus, and have carried word to their home countries of the vivid interest of the
University of Floridft in Inter-American relations. Among other ideals of the In-
stitute are (1) to foster international good will between the Americas, (2) to
promote the teaching of Western Hemisphere languages and civilizations in schools,
collogos and universities, (3) to hold conferences and institutes on Inter-Ameri-
can Affairs, (4) to stimulate specific studios common to the Americas, (5) to
promote an inter-play of cultural ideals, and (6) to stimulate interchange of i-
deas.
At the time of the announcement of the Institute of Inter-American Affairs
here, Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler said "The establishment of this institute is a
heartening sign at a tine when our public opinion needs all the onlighntent and
stimulus possible to study and to understand other peoples, other lands, other
languages, and the whole vast field of our international relations and interests,
I trust that one result of the existence and work of this institute may be a
strengthening of the stimulus to the study of the Spanish language and literature,
to the and that an increasing number of American youth who are looking forward to
careers of scholarship or of prcactial affairs may gain such a command of this
beautiful and useful lanruane as to be able to meet representatives of Latin Ame-
rica on terms of intimate understanding and companionship, whether in this coun-
try or in any country of Central or South America."
Among the eminent poisons serving on the advisory council of the Institute
are Dr. Stephen Duggan, director of the Institute of Intefnational Education;
James G. Stahlman, president of the 1Nashville Banners Dr" Leo 8 Rowe, director
general of the Pan American Union at Washington; Dr. Wallace W. Atwood, president
of Clark University; Dr. Hamilton Holt, president of Rollins College; .ML.Wilson,
under secretary of Agriculture; John C. Cooper, vice-president of the Pan American
Airways; John W. Studebaker, commissioner of education; and Mrs. Ruth Bryan Rohdo,
former minister to Denmark. The University faculty committee on Inter-American
Affairs, headed by Dean Walter J. Matherly, includes Dr. Clifford P. Lyons, Dr. 0.
H. Haupta~nn, Dean Joseph Weil, Dean Harold H. Hume, Dr. Manning Dauer, Garland
Powell, Francis i. DeGaetani, Dean Winston W. Little, and Dr. Rollin S. Atwood,
who is also acting director of the Institute,







LAS DOS AM RICAS

por William C. Zellars

Cuando analieamos la situacion del mundo actual y consideramos las acolones
de los hombres quo dirigon la politioa mundial, nos damos cuenta do quo domina
on allos ol apotito insaciable do la ambici6n do conquista y la sumisi6n de los
pueblos m&s debiles, pore no las nobles fuorsas del espiritu. En nuostro tiempo
ol ospiritu est& en crisis. Los postulados mas bells del hombre, esculpidos en
cl mArmol otorno do la Humanidad, son pisoteados per los militaros y los caudi-
llos quo olvidan la osoncia profunda de la vida el amor para entrogarso bes-
tialmonto a la fuorza instintiva quo haooe del sor human un puiado de carne ar-
diondo o un animal sanguinario dosooso do matar para vivir su propia ambici6n.
Dondo est& la sombra do los maestros vonorados? Donde nl filosofia del bien y
la bolloea? Dondo el alma pura quo brota como un jacinto o un lirio sobre el
fango do la vida? Donde ol amor y ol respeto al hombre? Donde la fraternidad
humana? Nada. Nubos quo van y vionon con sus viontros llenos do nmenazas y fue-
gos infornalos prontos a incendiar a la madre tiorra. Estr4pito do caionos y
disoursos horoicos quo ongafian al hombro y lo llovan a la muorto. Palabras quo
so disparan como proyectilos para matar ol corazon do la misma vida. Armas quo
se construyon para oxtirpar la cultural y la civilizacibn. Y, sin embargo, do
esta Humanidad dosesperada y fr&gil, cambiablo come los viontos quo cruzan el
aired y sacuden las aguas y los Arboles, nacen las esperanzas mas bellas del hom-
bro. Junto a las maquinas de guerra brota ol canto optimist do los hombres
justos quo croon en ol ospiritu come on la unica tabla de salvation. El sabio
on su laboratorio; el profosor on su escuela; el escritor on sus obras y el obre-
ro on su trabajo sueiian y piordon su vida y su propia fclicidad para construir
la justicia y folicidad futuras. Y su alma canta come los pOjaros en el alba
quo doshcaon sus oancionos do gorjeos cuando von ol sol, los rios, los lagos, la
naturaloza abiorta y bolla. Por quo tanta desesperacion y desoncanto? Por quo
tanto dolor sobre la tiorra? Sombras do dostrucoi6n y do muorto> alejaost El
hombre quiere cantar y amar para vivir. Y las dos Americas, unidas como dos
hormanas, son la nuova esporanza del porvonir y de los hombres. Entond monos,
hormanos, no a travos de los tratados comorciales y do la explotacion; no a tra-
vos do arms y falsodados. Entend monos a la luz del ospfritu, abriendo nues-
tros corazonos come t{midas aves quo quieren volar para gozar dcl mundo. Las
dos Americas doben oantar su himno do paz y do concordia para croar la nuava
cultural y ol nuevo ospiritu. EntondAmonos sincoramento y camuniquomonos nuos-
tras osporanzas, ilusionos y sufrimiontos. Quo cada cual lea on ol alma de los
otros para compronder mojor la suya propia. Quo vongan do nuovo los maestros
los filbsofos, los pootas y los hombros de buona voluntad. Yo los veo unidos y
cobijados bajo las mismas sombras patornalost

,.. "El hombro eleva a su trabajo un himno
y oanta por cantar, ya quo cstA alegro.

La musica del mundo os para todos
y el hombro canta porque cantos quibre.

(Claudio Indo: Ofronda terrena).


"Un peribdico, por insignificant que sea, marca In altura do la civilizacion do
un pueblo," Bonito Juaroz.






INTELLECTUAL BACKGROUNDS OF RECENT PERUVIAN EVENTS
(Papor read at Gainosville, November 25, 1958, in Spanish Section of
South Atlantic Modern Language Ass'n.)
por Roberto E. McNicoll

In many ways Peru is a true daughter of Spain.. Thus, once due allowance is
made for the essential differences of the two countries, the Hispanic nature of
Peruvian culture and ideology may serve as a valuable guide to the understanding
of this South-American republic which once formed the keystone of Spain's impe-
rial possessions in America. One parallel between Peruvian and Spanish history
may serve as an introduction to those remarks, In Spain a new realism and a new
clarity of vision followed the shock and disillusionment of the war with the
United States. The famous "Generation of 1898" produced its able, iconoclastic
writers who sought to reform and modernize Spanish institutions and place that
nation back on some basis of equality with the other states of Europe. In Peru
a somewhat similar effect was produced by the "War of the Pacific" which began in
1879. Peru's whole national history up to. that time had been merely a sequel to
its life as the proud and wealthy Spanish vice-royalty. The same ruling class
continued in power maintaining its Spanish titles of nobility and its feeling of
superiority to the other former colonies of Spain. But some of the neglected
areas of the colonial period had been forging ahead as nations. Chile, the des-
pised captain-genoraloy to the South, had been receiving a certain infusion of
European immigration and an equally significant infusion of British capital which
enabled it to reach out for a higher place in South-American life
Conflict came in the nitrate area of the Atacama Desert. Peru and Bolivia
together owned all this coastal area in which sodium nitrate had boon discovered
early in the nineteenth century. They had banded together economically and po-
litically to maintain their monopoly of the valuable commodity. A secret defen-
sive alliance was signed by Bolivia and Peru in 1873. Bolivia and Chile also
had a treaty promising that Chilean companies operating in the nitrate zone
should be subject to an existing ten cents a quintal tax on the exportation of
nitrates. One Anglo-Chilean company obtained -a onession from the Bolivian
government during the dictatorship of Melgarejo. Later the Bolivian Congress
demanded that this company pay an additional fee on the exportations of nitrate,
not as a general tax but as a specific consideration for the validation of their
concession This precipitated difficulties between the Chileans and the Boli-
vians The Chilean company protested that the new tax was in violation of the
treaty a position also taken by the Chilodn Government. When the Chileans re-
fused to pay the tax, the Bolivians confiscated all their properties. At this
point the Chileans sent an army to occupy Antofagasta and the nitrate area of
Bolivia.
Peru tried to mediate between the two countries and bring about a peaceful
solution, but its delegate was charged with the existence of the secret treaty
of 1873. When this was admitted, Chile declared war on both the allied nations.
In the four years of hostilities which followed little Chile with a population
equal to about half the total of its two adversaries proved itself the military
and naval superior. In an expedition which recalled the revolutionary thrust of
San Martfn and the Irish Admiral Cochran,. another Irishman, Patrick Lynch, led
a naval expedition which captured the city of Lima and occupied that capital for
a period of two years. The Peruvian armies retreated inland into the sierra,
leaving the country without any government with which the Chileans oouTd-d'(ale.
The period of Peru's national disgrace finally endod with the Treaty of
Anoon, in which a government picked by the Chileans agreed to the outright ces-
sion of the Peruvian province of Tarapaoa to Chile while two other provinces,
Taona and Arica, were given over to Chile to be held pending the outcome of a
plebiscite which was to take place within ten years.








The effect of this war with its rude awakening for the Peruvians who had
felt their country to be one of the loading nations of America was noted imme-
diately in the work of mature writers. Its later results were oven more impor-
tant. The generation which was growing up during the war times and the tragic
years which followed seems to have boon greatly stimulated because it produced
an amazing number of men of talent. This generation, sometimes called the Ge-
ner-tion of 1910, since that was the year in which the greater number attained
maturity, produced the first novelists of Peru and a series of political and
economic thinkers who tried to awaken their country and reform it to the newer
commercial and industrial model which was the ideal in the first years of the
nrosont century.
For any study of recent Peruvian life the era of the War of the Pacific
for-s a convenient starting point. As Luis Alberto Sanchez says in a recent ar-
ticle in the University of Habana journal, "A nosotros naoio la novela despius
do l. Guerra del Pacifico" (1). Moreover, there was first expressed in more or
less eloquent form the tenets and the preoccupations which make up the present
political and social programs. Four main themes may be given to simplify the
mass of reformist tendencies which appeared in this "literature of disillusion-
ment" as Jorge Basedre calls it (2). First was concern for the Indian, starting
with a mere humanitarian interest in his conditions of life and passing through
a study of his s-cial and economic institutions which still survived under Span-
ish rules, to culniiWte in a cult of everything Indian fusing with the modern
Mexican cult of "Indo-America." The book Luis Alberto Sanchez considers the first
Peruvian novel, Avos sin nido, wrs written by Clorinda Matto de Turner and was
an impassioned plead f~F thesiorra Indian, still the most significant element
of the Peruvian population. 'Scond, and closely connected with the first, was
criticism of the wealthy, aristocratic ruling class of Lima which drew its live-
lihood from Peru but which was spiritually and intellectually a stranger in its
own country. Paris and Europe formed the cult of the educated who sought to be-
come vadpt in European culture but ignored the possibilities and even the axis-
tence of the Peruvian back country with its Indian population. The traditions
and even the glory of this cultivated society came to be held by reformers as
obstacles to the development of the real nation. Lima was criticized as being a
little European colony set down on the coast, ignoring the brooding majesty of
the Andes and its enigma of undeveloped resources and a misunderstood native po-
pulation. Politically this reformist move took the shape of regionalism which
sought to reinforce the political importance of the provincial cities as a check
to the uncontrolled power of the metropolis.
The third theme of the reformers, allied with both the preceding, is a pro-
blem coextensive with Latin America. That is the land problem. The latifundis-
ta not only'exploited the Indian serfs but made difficult the developnmFn of new
enterprises and the growth of a land-holding middle class. The land problem
with its multiple aspects held an important place in the writings of all refor-
mers. The fourth consideration of the reformers revealed a vein of anti-cleri-
calism. The traditional Church was attacked because of its alliance with the
ruling classes, its lack of concern for the economic welfare of the Indians, and
because it itself was an anti-economic institution as the largest land holder and
greatest drain on the taxes of the nation, since Peru still maintains the State
PAtronage of the Church. These four main trends are found? in varying degree in
the writings of 0ll the post-war reformers of Peru.

Luis Alberto Sanchez, "Notas sobre la novel peruana contemporanea," Universi-
dad do la Habana, No. 19, October, 1938, p. 66.

Jorgo Basadre, Perus Problema y Posibilidad, Lima, 1931, p. 156.








The ancion reCimo was not without its defenders in the now generation. The
now spiritT cfonoversy and reform proved stimulating to both parties in the
debate, though some turned frankly from concern with the present to study again
the brilliant epoch of the Viceroyalty, Thus the inimitable Ricardo Palma wrote
his Tradiaiones Peruanas oven while engaged in rebuilding the National Library
from tho wrecked condition in which the Chileans had loft it. Some of the new
writers sought to save the boost of the colonial regime and its aristocratic glit-
tor even while working cut a more modern social order.
The first writer to show the effect of the War of the Prcific and one who
was to be hailed as master by the whole generation of reformers was named Manuel
'onzilez Prada (1846-1918). Luis Alberto Sinchez says of him in his Historia de
la literature americana, #FuJ el oscritor mbs lapidario y el espiritu m as diamn-
'ETnquo ha dado el Per" (3). GonzAles Prada began his studies in the tradition-
al Spanish manner, writing verses and making a profound study of the mystic Fray
Luis do Loen. During the War, he enlisted in the army and served in the Battle
of Mirafloroe in which the Chilean army besieged the outskirts of Lima. During
the occupation of the capital he retired to his home and refused to leave it as
long as the Chileans remained in the city, Patriotic as most Peruvians he felt
his nation's disgrace and subjection koenly. When peace came the former poet ap-
pears in the role of a fiery reformer excoriating the institutions which made
possible his country's defeat. He even wont so far as to preach rovanchef 4His
words 'striking sparks and terrible'..* are those of a Jeremiah accusers" says
Carloton Boals* (4).
A Peruvian Voltaire, his first and principal animus was directed against the
Church. This from an early student of Luis do Leont Starting as a critic of cort
rupt cloricalism, he ended by becoming atheistic and opposing religion per so.
The economic absurdity of a vast number of priests and nuns living on t bounty
of the country seemed to him as reprehensible as the effect of the superstitions
they maintained. In 1903 he wrote an article denouncing the immigration of more
and more foreigners to enter the religious communities of Peru*
"Immigrants who come to exercise a trade or a profession have to over-
come great obstacles and often are not able to establish themselves. Those
who bring in only a tonsure and a little Latin do not fail to find a spa-
cious nest in which to lodge nor fertile soil in which to grow,,. The cleric
or friar, no matter where he comes from, finds no rivalries nor resistance,
his shaven head is his passport and recommendation, proof of honesty and
sign of omniscience.
What has Lima become? A Dead Sea in which the churches and monasteries
stand out like islands without water or vegetationi. Thus a city which in-
oludes more than a hundred edifices devoted to worship and religious educa-
tion has not.a single municipal school worthy of a civilized nation" (5).
Gondzlez Prada reviewed the whole course of the national history with a very
pessimistic interpretation. The political parties, he said, were no more than
syndicates of ambitious individuals the leaders nothing more than agents 6f the
great business houses or soldiers who saw in the presidency tho last stop in a
military caroor (6). All ofithe many domestic struggles had worked no healthful
change In other countries "revolutions come as a painful but frightful step in

iLuis Alberto Sncheszi s iqrIf d la literature asoeichaup Santiago do Chile,
1931, p. 363.
4Carleton Beals, Fire on heo Aadesj Philadelphia, 1934, pi 442.
Manuel Gonzaolz Prada, Horas de Lucha, Lima, 1908, ppi 2304231
6
Ibid, p. 2.







the evolution of the people. They shod blood but they create light" (7). In
Peru, this was not the case. After the poor Indians had killed each other by
fighting on both sides of a civil struggle, the same group of leaders would ga-
thor around a festal board with fraternal embraces to divide the spoils of of-
fice. He scorned the vaunted aristocracy of Lima. It had become one of profi-
teoos and plantation owners. The first should have I faszoned on its coat of
arms a hand reaching into a money sacks and the second, a hand blandishing a whip
over the back of an unfortunate plantation serf. Those of proud lineage which
could be traced back to Pizarro's immortal Othirteen of Gallo" were also linked
by innumerable unofficial matings to the humble natives of the sierra and the ne-
groos of the coast (8). He ended this particular philippic by theblasting, but
unfair, assertion that the religious fervor of a Liman matron could serve as a
measure for the percentage of African blood contained in her veins, The pure no-
gro displayed greater religiousity than the quadroon, the quadroon more than the
octaroon, and so on in decreasing intensity up to the pure white (9).
The impact of such statements on a proud and religious society can easily be
im.gined. Later writers have pointed out that he was only a "rebellious bour-
goois" and although he gave lectures on "The Intellectual and the Worker," he
was merely bringing to Peru the middle-class positivism which had ruled Europe
for several decades (10). The intellectual, but conservative Catholic, Victor
Andres Belaunde, who is himdolf one of the greater minds of this generation of
1910 in Peru, admires Gonzalez Prada as a literary artist but denounces him as a
philosopher in political and religious matters. He admits that he gave "stimu-
lus and new vigor to the fallen and humiliated national spirit," but at the same
time his anticlericall complex* had disastrous consequences in "artificially
creating the religious problem in Peru." Apparently Belaunde's most valuable
criticism of Gonzalez Prada was to point out that he was purely Spanish in type.
With all his new radicalism, there was still present the individualism, the spi-
rit of affirmation, the fanaticism of the Spanish temperament. A new age and
the "Sciencne of Europe had merely cast into a new mold the old Hispanic nature,
(11). An excellent summation of his role in Peruvian letters is given by Carle-
ton Boals who voices the opinion of the modern Aprista group "He was a sort of
purifying flame, but could not create in accordance with his critical under-
standing, perhaps because as D'Ors has stated he galloped in two centuries* (12).
The next highlight in the development of a now liberal literary tradition
in Peru is supplied by the life and the career of Josd Carlos Mariatogui, while
a follower of the liberalism of Gonzalez Prada, went a stop farther and became
Peru's first Marxian writer. As each member of this generation of reform advanc-
ed his own particular theory regarding the evils of Peru, he found it necessary
to review the entire history of the country and point out the origin of the so-
cial conditions which caused the backwardness of the modern nation. Mariatogui
performed this analysis according to the Marxian interpretation of history, iden-
tifying the needs of the masses with those of the European piolotariat.
The personality of Mari; egui is fully as interesting as his works. Unlike
Gonzdlez Prada, who after all was connected with the Peruvian aristocracy, Ma-
riatogui was a member of the small Peruvian middle blass which finds itself se-
parated by a gulf from the aristccrnts but only a step above the masses.
Ho was a self-taught man and began his career working in the daily news'
papers of Lima. He was crippled and continually in danger of death from the tu-
berculosis which sapped his vitality and ultimately caused his death. Yet,though

Manuel Gonzales Prada, o2. cit., pp. 112-113.

8bid,. p 192.
9Ibid p. 198.
O1Jdrgo Basadro, o. cit., p. 165.
11Victor Andres Belaunde, La Realidad Naoional, Paris, 1931, pp. 163-168.







imprisoned and exiled, by the force of his flaming intelligence he exerted an in-
flounce on his country which today is strong in the form of political party which
is virtually founded on his teachings.
An apochryphal story told by Waldo Frank typifies his personality. During the
time that Mariategui was developing into a revolutionary writer the dictator,
Augusto B. Legula, was in power in Peru. Legula closed up Mariltegui's paper and
gave him a scholarship to go abroad. As Prank tells its.
"It was a delicious form of exile, since the poet was hungering for
Europe and there was attached to it not alone a patron's purse but a pro-
mise" (13).
I-:riAtogui was in Europe during the post-bellum years of 1919-1923. There he
oame into contact with the socialistic movement and its leaders and acquired a
vast and abiding faith in the justice and expediency of the socialist cause.
When he returned to Peru,.he was called to the Presidential palace by Legu&a.
Continuing Frank's description of the interview which probably never happoneds
*In a small republic ruled by a single will, there are many favors to
be meted out to a brilliant young writer who knows the ways of the world.
Dictators need talent; a man like Loguia can always find a lucrative and
serviceable post for a man like Mariategui -- provided Mari&togui is will-
ing. Ho can make him editor of a paper, have him elected to Congress, place
him in the Ministry of Education or, if he still hankers to go abroad, he
can turn him with the flourish of a pen into a diplomat or a consul.
Mariatogui sitting with President Leguia needed patronage more than
ever. He was still penniless; he had found a wife in Italy and they had re-
turned with a child, and his obscure tubercular disease was still gnawing
at his limbs. Ho had been too busy to spend his little purse on European
doctors; he had gone to Europe to meet ideas and men, not to trouble with
his body. But his body was going its own way, and the youth now sitting be-
side the President was more than half a cripple.
Legula smiled on M~riategui. He saw the fleshless figure clad in black,
the exquisite hands; he saw the head, narrow at the chin, magnificently
broadened at the brow, the firm mouth, the eagle nose, the eyes black, brood-
ing,. hard as metal., LeguLa saw the message of the eyes and he stopped smil-
ing..
*Mr. President," said Mariategui, *I should have come, even if you had
not sent for me. Since you sent me to Europe, I owe it to you, Sir, to have
you know at once the state in which I returns I am your enemy, Mr. Presi-
dent. I am going to dovoto my life to fighting you and what you stand for"
(14).,
Mari&tegui proceeded at once to publish a book, La esaona contempor&nea,
(Lima, 1925), which revealed the power and the appealofT1snow viewpoint.
Three years later he brought out his masterpioco, Siete ensayos do interprotaci6n
do la roalidad poruana. In this work he applied to eecoanc in"erpretat on to
eo- whole course of Peruvian history and pointed out the manifest weaknesses of
the existing set-up. He had none of the virulence of the earlier writers like
Gonzalez Prada. His statements were careful, documented, restrained, scientific
As Basadro says, "His style is precise as an enginoer'sasoptic as a physician'st
(15).. A relatively small number of problems reeooive the major part of his atton-

12Carloton Boals, op. cit., pp. 442-440.
13Waldo Prank, "morica Hispana," gcribner's, Now York, 1930, p. 166.
14Ibid, p. 167.
15
Jorgo Basadro,, op. oit., p. 197.







tion, The economic evolution of the country, the problem of the Indian, of the
land system, of education, religion. regionalism, constitute his major themes,
While his method of approach was new and valid, he suffered some from the social-
istic occupational diasase, a myopia born of the rigid application of proconceiv-
ed theories, As Basadro says, *Ono always knew whither his arguments were going
to load, just as one always knows the end of a Yankee moving-picture" (16)o
In beginning his book, Mariltegui warns his readers, "I am no impartial and
objective critic. My judgements are nourished from my ideals, my sentiments, my
passions. I have a strong and declared aimt to contribute to the creation of a
Poruvian socialism" (17). This higher form of academic honesty, preferable per-
haps to the contemporary American pose of "objectivity," reveals a sincerity and
an o.rnestnuss matching the ability of the author. He points out that the Span-
ish conquest of the Incan Empire implanted a foreign and unbalanced economic
system on a people which had previously enjoyed a collective society admirably
adapted to the region and the needs of the inhabitants. The European system, un-
supported by a numerous immigration as in Anglo-America, failed to reach a state
of equilibrium during the whole colonial epoch. The republic began with the same
difficulties. The period of the guano and nitrate booms formed a new monied
class, "confused and interlaced in its origin with the earlier aristocracy form-
ed principally of the descendants of the encomenderos and large land owners"(18).
The physical revival of Peru after the loss of these assets in the War of the
Pacific did not result in the development of a unified modern state. The feuda-
lism of the vast estates with their Indian onganchados or serfs persisted at the
same time that the Lima business men were active in capitalistic enterprises of
the modern type.
Mariategui set forth for the first time the real tragedy and problem of the
Indian population in its sociological aspects. For him the problem of the Indian
was merely part of the problem of the system of land tenure. The large land-
holders, kept the native population in a feudal condition which prevented both
the return to the communal-system of the Incas or an advance to large numbers of
small, privately owned farms. Even education, while the same economic conditions
were maintained, could do little to advance the status of the Indians. Marite-
gui favored a return to a modified form of the old Indian system of communal ex-
ploitation of the soil -- a system which in fact persisted in many parts of the
sierra although unrecognized by law and discouraged under four centuries of Euro-
poan domination. This Incan communism, he pointed out, was something quite dif-
ferent from the modern communism advocated by the Marxists. The first was an
agrarian system which grew out of the needs of the country and the times. The
second postulates modern industrialism as its basis (19)o The plan of the Poeu-
vian state should be to regain the advantages of the pro-colonial economic system
with whatever alterations a new time and now conditions should make necessary.
The middle-class reformers who lokkod to Europe and the United States for models
were disregarding the character of the population and the heritage of both the
Incan and the Spanish economic systems which had determined the line of national
development. Such statements as those of Francisco Gardia Calderon, another of
this generation of talented Peruvians, to the effect that the country would ad-
vance as European immigration increased, revealed that a foreign model was being
followed which could not function until a foreign population was imported to give
it the necessary basis. Mariatogui did not believe, as did the middle-class re-
formers, that every native institution represented a backwardness which would

16Jorge Basadre, o. cit,, pp. 197-198*
1Josa Carlos Mariatogui, Sitoe onsayos do intorprotaoinz do la roalidad peruana,
p. 6.

Jos6 Carlos Mari&togui, o. cit., p. 15.,
19 p 6
Ibid, p. 63o




10.


have to be eliminated before Peru could take its place among modern nations.
One of Mariategui's essays attacked another problem which is fairly general
in Spanish America. The University, he said, had never been either a popular or
a national institution and was in no way ministering to the regeneration he felt
the country needed. rSpain loft us an aristocratic, ecclesiastical, and literary
concept of education" (20). The revolution introduced a cult of egalitarianism
which had only a temporary vogue and was hold to apply to the creoles but not to
the Indians. The Spanish idea of a classical and literary education for the few
continued. As Dr. Manual Vicento Villar~n said 'We are a people infected with
the mania of old and decadent nations, the illness of talking and writing but not
working," The educated Peruvian wished the calm, the peace, the security of a
bureaucratic position in Lima -- not the risks, the hardships, and the possible
profits of pioneering in the jungle or the sierra, or the tumult and uncertainty
of an active trade or business. Mari&tegui called for a reform of the Univorsi-
ty to throw it open to the entire population of the country, Indian as well as
white, to remove the oxclusionist and aristocratic concept of education. The
government of the University would be divided between the state government and
the students, instead of being left in the hands of the politico-ptofessional
group which was merely another segment of the ruling oligarchy.
Differing from his predecessor, the caustic Gonzalez Prada, Mari&tegui came
to the religious problem without the animus or bias of a partisan. The age of
the free-thinkers was past, MariAtogui said. They had made a violent attack on
the dogmas of the Church only to uphold another set of dogmas, those of orthodox
atheism or rationalism. The Church should be studied purely as a social phenome-
non. In this respect the Church was only the largest of the-large land holders
and should be restricted just as all others in that group. The ancient privi-
leges and exemptions enjoyed by the Church should be pared and controlled by the
State in line with its general policy. The Church was to become a matter for
its communicants only, playing no part in the economic or political scene.
Such were the major tenets of the famous seven essays. MariAtegui's attack,
bulwarked by the application of the economic and sociological thought of contem-
porary Europe was a serious challenge to the status uo. Controversy flamed up
resulting in a series of books and articles which highlighted every phase of Pe-
ruvian life. Mariatogui died in 1930 at the ago of 39. His influence on the
present, however, was personal as well as ideological. When he returned from
Europe in 1923, he f\.und that a new leader of the Peruvian youth'had been fight-
ing for University reform and the liberalization of institutions. This was Vic-
tor Ratl Haya de la Torre who combatted the Leguia dictatorship and formed the
APRA party with a platform including the major aims of all this series of refor-
mers. The name APRA comes from the words Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Amerioa-
na. Mariategui met and found common intellectual ground with the young leader
and joined his party, fighting for its main ideals in his magazine Amduta up to
his very death. Haya do la Torre is a man of action and a politician as well as
a writer, His work has developed a whole group of writers whose views set forth
the idealized Indo-Amerioa and reform in favor of the laboring Indian masses of
Peru which constitutes the strength of his appeal.
The Apra is the principal factor in the present political scene in Peru.
Only by the sternest measures on the part of the ruling Creole aristocracy can
the rising tide be held back. It is not the purpose here to explain at length
the present political conditions in Peru. But there has been a definite evolu-
tion of liberal ideas commencing after the War of the Pacific and now culminating
in the very radical Aprista program. Like the similar struggle in Mexico, all
the forces of the conservatism of four centuries of Spanish domination are now
in open opposition to the underlying force of the native population for the first
time organized as a conscious group by means of this liberal propaganda gaining
force for nearly sixty years. The Aprista revolution when it comes, will be some-

Jos Carlos Mari gui t, p 89
Jose Carlos Mariatogui, op. -lt", p 89,







thing different from the coups d'etat and changes of government in the past. If
sincerely carried out in Tho way itF s being organized it will mean a complete
overturn of the carefully nurtured society of the Creole ruling class and the os-
tablishment of something Haya do la Torro calls a really American communism bas-
od on the ancient institutions of the Peruvian Indians, modified only by the no-
cossary changes of an age in contact with European developments.
Any study of modern Peruvian literature must take account of this conflict
now going. Writers of the liberal groups inject it into all their work. This,
to thom, is the Peruvian reality and they dismiss with scorn the elegant writers
of the "Pericholi" school, aristocrats writing of the charm of colonial Peru for
the daelOctttion of the cultured European group whose approval is their only cri-
terion. They regard the dilletantes who trace colonial goneologies and study the
nicatios of life in the colonial epoch of the "thrice crowned City of the Kings"
as the unhealthy offspring of a decadent society which will be swept aside when
the proper day comes.





OJEADAS DE CUBA

por Leonard T. May

Da un paseo on guagua si no to import lo que te ocurro. Probablemente ocu-
rriraw
La expresion on la cara del turista americano al mirar el letroro que dice,
"Hay sandwiches "
Y tambien el ott ameoricano que fug a Cuba para apronder a llovar porfecta-
mento una cana. E; rocordo comprar cinco caias diforentes, pore aunque ponso
much, no pudo rocordar on oual "bar" las doji.
Eso podazo mcrono, que se pega on ol pan no es ol rosultado do una caida al
suolo, sine un podazo de la hoja grande do plAtano en que so envuelvo cada hogaza
do pan antes do ponerse on ol horno.
El joven onamorado on Cuba puedo dar un ramillete. de rosas a su novia todas
las nochos sin gastar much. So pueden aomprar ramillotes muy lindos por diez o
quince centavos, tan profusas son las flores alli.
La explosion quo suena todas las nochos a las nuovo on la Habana viono do la
fortaloza "La Cabaifa." Descargar un cai-n a esta hera as una costumbro que so ha
porpotuado deode los dLas on que sirvib para quitar de las calls a todo ol mundo
a excopcicn de los soldados espafoles.
Dosdo ol afio 1589 la historic de la Habana ha estado unida con "El Morro,"
fortaleza famosas Ningun otro lugar as mas rico on interest hist6rico.
La isla de Cuba tiene una extension de 730 millas y una anchura que varfia
ontro 30 a 70 mills. Contiene 41,164 mills cuadradas.
Es costumbre llevar un saco (o "une americana") a todas horas para pasear
por las calls, aun mAs quo on los Estados Unidos. Andar sin saco as lo mismo qu~
dooir "Soy amoricano y no s6 las costumbres" o "Soy muy pobre," o "me falta la
culture."
Ahora hay muy pocas mosoas en Cubal los cubanos han aprendido ol valor do
las buenas reglas sanitarias, desde la opidomia de la fiebre amarilla en la isla.
Cuba tiono una loteria national, "oroada para el sostenimionto do los niflos,
onfermos,,y dosvalidos de la ropdblica."
La oupula del capitolio est cubierta do oro de 22 quilates. En el control
del suolo hay un diamanto de 32 quilatos rodeado del oro de las plumas que firma-
ron muchos de los documents importantes on la historic do la isla de Cuba.




IZ-


DR. ALFREDO ZAYAS Y ALFONSO, UN BIOGRAFiA

por Rafael CuBllar y Zayo.


No es posiblo que on un trabajo cmao osto, puoda doscribirse, ni aun scmera-
mento la vida del Dr. Alfredo Zayas y Alfonso, ol cuarto Presidente de la Rep4-
blica do Cuba. Solamente su actuaciln on la political cubana durante el gobierno
espanol y, despuos on la Repdblica, llenarla varies volumenes, ya que fuo un ada-
lid do nuostras luchas por la independoncia y, el eje de la political contempora-
no.. Porb ya quo se me pide un trabajo acorca de su personalidad, escribamos al-
go,
Nacio Zayas on la oiudad de la Habana el dia 21 do febrero del al o 1861.
Fueron sus padres Don Jose Maria Zayas y Lutgarda Alfonso. En nuestras relacio-
nes oon l, ya on los ultlmos -aos do su vida y, on sue conversaolones siempre
intoresantes, muchas voces le olmos decir, que entire sus mAs dulces recuordos,
estaban aquellas horas do &sporo trabajo, a que su cuidadoso padre lo sometla en
ol aprendizaje de los primeros conocimientos y, aquellas lectures de moral muchas
de las cualos oran obra original do Don Jose de la Luz Coballero. Su padre fue
un gran oducador y, ol quo sustituy a Luz Caballero en la direcci6n del Colegio
El Salvador.
Dosdo muy joven di6 muestras do su gran talent y, de sus aficiones litera-
rias; y all& per el aio de 1878, cuando apenas habia cumplido 18 ados deaedad,
di6 a conocer estos, sus primnros versos, titulados Voqtivo do mis Versos*g
"Y sA que cantara alegre
si yo tuviera alegr{asl
quo mis sentimientos fio
al coraz6n do una amiga;
y esa amiga confident
os In duloe Poesia,*
En ol aiio do 1891 fund on uni6n de Enrique Hernindez Miyares "La Habana
Litoraria" quedando al poco tiompo omo inico duoeio y director y, on el aio do
1893 actu6 come poriodista on ol periodico "El Pals do la Habana"% Hasta el aso
1895 que comenzo ol perfodo revolucionario quo trajo la indepondencia del pals,
la labor de Zayas fue puramente intoleotuall abogado do gran habilidad y do ro-
cursos montalos, poeta, periodista, conferoncista, Sus grandos afioiones a los
studios historicos y su amor sin limited a Cuba lo hicieron figurar ontre los es-
critores quo mis intonsamento so ooupaban do los problems de la patria.. Publi-
c6 artcoulos y folletos quo llamaron la atenrcin per su ostilo litorario y por
la intensidad de sus oonceptos.
Entre sus pooslas, la quo mas lo pone do relieve como poeta inspirado, tanto
en su lirica oomo en su pasibn per la patria, os la siguiento composicin hocha
poco despues de llegar de Espafn, deportado come revolucionario, on la oual ex-
terioriza toda la enorgia do su caractor de qua siempre dio pruebas y, todo ol
sontimninto patriotico quo enoorraba su corazone
"Hijo de tierra on quo el vcrdor eterno
con torrontes de lus el sol inunda,
ol pAlido fantasma d.el inviorno
viorte on mi soenopostraoion profunda.'
Asi empioea osa poesla tor minando con nla siguientes estiofase
kQuiao o mirir oyondo del solibio,
ol alogre piar on la yagruma,
y sintiondo on la frento ol rayo tibio
del Sol, quo rasga matutina bruma.
En la margen florida del Almendares,
quo nunoa agosta ol aterrido invierno
al inofable son do los py6maros,..
alli anhelo dormir mi suoelo otorno






Alli dormir, dormir hasta el instant
on quo irradie on el Cielo, ol primer lampo
del Sol do libortad, quo fulguranto
saque la sangre quo matiza ol compo.
Puedan ontonces on el mArmol yerto,
golpoa. mis hijos con tromantos manos
y olamar, cual si oyora al padro muertot
ya os libro Cuba y libres tus hermanosl"
En ol auio do 1896 abandons un tanto su vida literaria para dedicar la mayor
part do sus actividades a los trabajos rovolucionarios, abrazando los ideals do
Marti; y, surge ol Zayas rovolucionario. Su actuacion rovolucionaria a partir de
ose focha fuo anonima, coinoidiondo su oonduota, con la propaganda del Partidd
Rcvolucionario Cubano. El manifiosto do Montecrtsto era su evangelio. Fue agen-
to rcvoluoionario con el psoudonimo do Manuel Vivar y, delegado do la Rovolucion
on la Habana. Su aotuacion fuN tan intonsa quo dosoubiorto por el gobiorno es-
paiol, fuN dotenido y condronado a presidio, habiondo side dqportado a Chafarinas,
para cumplir alli su condona, Indultado a fines del afno do 1897 so traslada in-
mediatamonto para Key West y, alli continua su labor rovolucionaria hasta la tor-
minaci6n do 1a guerra.
En ol aono do 1898 al cosnr ol gobierno espaiol on Cuba, pasa Zayas do un
poriodo a otro do nuestra historic, como ol viajoro quo despuos do un rooorrido
por intrincados laborintos, emprondo al aparacer la aurora republican, una nuo-
va ruta. Al dosaparocor al revolucionario con la victoria de sus ideals, surge
cl politico quo con la magnitude do su oerobro, su gran cultural, con la experien-
cia do los oaos, llego a sor, on el andar del tiompo, ol mojor politico cubano,
ojo y control do la political contompornnoa y, uno do los mas grades estadistas
do LAmrica.
Organizador dol primer rxstido politico do Cuba, el Partido Nncional con un
prograna on quo so dosenvolvian los principios del program, manifesto de Monte-
oristo, so o1 vY actuar oon una fucrza do volunted incomparable, sin mirar hacia
atras, sino adolanto, allanando dificuitadas, sunvizando aspetozas, predicando la
union ontro los vonceores y, el respeto a los vencidos, para quo no se malograra
ol triunfo do la revolucion. ya quo muchos espaioles do ontonces, con algunos ou-
banos ospaoolizados, no crcaaq on la virtualidad do la Ropiblica y, conspiraban
para hacer mas larga la int6rvenoi&i del gobiorno americano on la administration
dol pals. La actuacion do Zayas dosdo ol affo do 1898 hasta cl 20 do mayo do 1002
on quo tomo posesi6n Don Tcabs Estrada Palma de la presidenoia de la Republica no
pudo sor mrs fructkfdra, habiendo puosto do manifesto su gran talent do osta-
dista" Miambro do lc Colvoncion Constituyonto quo rodactM la Constituci6n del
afo do 1901 y Sonador dol primer Sonado do la RtepUblica Zayas comionza a partir
del ato do 1902 una nuova otapa do su vida la del ostadista,
Rolatar aqui su actuacion on ol Senado seria impossible. Basta dooir que su
palabra oloouonto resonaba diariamonto on ol recinto senatorial y las principals
loyes quo so dietaron para organizer la administration republican fuoron eodoe-
tadas per 1.
En el affo de 1908 fu ologido'viooe-presidente do la Ropiblica on un paoto
colobrado ontro ol Partido Liberal, quo 61 presidio y el Partido Liberal HistOri-
co del quo fu6 jofo el Gonoral Josa Miguel G&nmez Postulado oandidato presiden-
cial on dos ooasioncs fuA dorrotado do mala manor poro su amor a la patria y su
onomiga a todo lo que fNora rovoluoion y derramamientos do sangre entire hermanos,
hizo quo acatara al candidate tiunfanto. Postulado nuovamonte candidate presi-
doncial on cl a-o do 19 0 por los partidol Conservador Naoional y Popular Cubano,
sali6 electo presidonte per una votaci6n enormo. Zayas fu6 ol unico cubano y,
tal ves ei nico hcabre de America quo todos los ciudadanos votaron per &l. En
ol aic do 1912 votaron per o0 locs afilindos al Partido Liberal, en el aio do 1916
votaron por 41 los Liberalos tambien y on el aio do 1920 votaron su candidatura
presidenoial, los afiliados al Phrtido Popular Cubo.no y los del Partido Conserva-
dof Nacional. En oso peorodo de tiempo no existieron on Cuba mas que esos parti-




14.


dos polfticos, do dondo rosulta quo on distintas oportunidades votaron por 1 to-
dos los oubanos.
1E 20 de Mayo tomA pososion el Dr. Zayas do la prosidencia do la Repblioa.
Enoontr6 exhaust ol tosoro, divides los particles polFticoa, muchos oubanos aun
pirmnnoolan oxilados con motive de la rovoluoi6n dol oia de 1917, comuna douda
oxtorior pavorosa y otras interior quo aumnntr.ba onstantement per set mayores los
gastos prosupuestalos que Ics infresos, con un Congreso hostile on su mayoria, con
un supervisor americanc, quo intervenhi todos los asuntos del gobiorno. Para mu-
chos cubanos so vislumbrnba una aurora do ceaso quo levaraa an Republica al
caos con ia canda indefootiblemonto del president. La labor primora dol Dr. Za-
yas fu1 rostabloccr la paz moral ontro los cubanos llamandolos a todos parn qua
lo ayudaran a rosolvor las dificultades por quo atravesaba ol pafs. Muy prrnto
oonsiguiO su objetivo primtro. A los sois moses do su gobiorno ya no hnbic un
solo oxilado politico y los partidos todos comentaron a prestarle su concurso don-
tro y fuora del Congroso. Las libertados p4blicas fuoron rostituidas y ol ciuda-
dano so sontia soguro do sus derachos. Una voz restablooida la paz moral, comonzs
su obra ooonmnion, robajando los prosupuestos do la MaciOn desdo ciento quince
millonos lo pesos a unos sesonta sin desorganizar los servicios publicos. El pri-
mor fio prosupuostal fu6 do un 'ran 4xito para Zayas al corrar los prosupuestos
sin deficit. La Naoion tonia una douda flotante interior arrastrada do antorioros
gobiornos quo era prociso saldar. Para olla so hizo un ompr'stito por valor do
cinouonta millones do posos oon los cualos so ayudo a pagar osa douda quo pasaba
do sotonta y cinoo millonos do pesos A los tros affos do adninistracin, ol go-
biorno habia pagado la deuda flotanto, habia pagado al emprdstito de la guorra
ouropoa y, tonia slempro on la tosororia mna do vointo y oinco millonos do poses,
deopuds do cubiortos todos los gastos presupuostalos. En ol ordon do la econoqia
fiscal fu4 el gobiorno dol Dr. Zayas superior a todos los gobiornos quo tuvo la
Ropdblica,
Una voz rosuolto cl problema ccon&mioo do la naciAn, abord6 ol Dr. Zayas ol
problema do la in iorncia americana on los asuntos interiores. Esa labor demos-
tro su gran cnpa.cidad do estadista. 1E hooho cierto fug quo Mr. Crowder a los dos
aios do sor Zayas prosioente do la Repoblioa, dcj6 do ser reprosentanto personal
del prosiionte do cls Estados Unidos para convertirso on un embajador cano otro
cuclquior diplcmatico y, in soberania cubana se asontt sobre bases sIlidas do ou-
banidad y nuestra perssnalidacn ocno nacion dejo do se' discotida dospuds do quo
el sonado rmerionno aoepto los puntos do vista del president Zayas, con respect
al doreoho de soberania quo tonia Cuba sobre Isla, de Pinos.
Inclinada su political al sooilismo moderado, inicio y c'i fuorza al movi-
mionto obrero tondionto a mojorar su vidr pero atendionto tambiDn al capitalista.
Siompre ontendi6 quo tan funosto era ataoar al obroro como al oapitalista. Por
eso labor siompre por ol mejoramiento do las class obroras y defondi 1 el capi-
tal dol quo teonan quo vivir aqullos.
Su respoto a la libortad do la pronsa no two lfmitos. Durante su gobierno
so croo el planfetismo oubano, quo muohos oonsidoraron deliotuoso per los concep-
tos injuriosos quo so virtioron contra ol prosidonto. Hay un anucdota quo pone
do roliove osoe oncopto do la libortad do oconioncia quo tuvo Zayas. Era Secro-
tario do Gobornr.oin cl Coronel Francisco Martinez Lufrio, hombro patriota y ve-
homonte en sus decisions. Un poriodico do la Habana, El Horaldo, habia ompron-
didc una violonta oampaa' contra el president, ol Coron~l Martin Lufrio y ol
Dr. Colso Cuollar del Rio* prosidonto del partido del gobiorno. Un do d ls artf
oulos do uos pori6dico mortifioc tanto al Coronol Martineo Lufrio, quo le planted
al president una ouestion do confianza, si no so prooodfa eonrgioamento contra
dicho pori6dioo. No hacfa nun un afo quo habfa tomado pososein ol Dr. Zayas. Bl
prosidonto aprovoo6 oso asunto para dar a conocor a su Socretario do Gobernaoi6n
su punto do vista, quo soria la pauta do seguir duranto su gobiorno. Despuos do
loor datenidamente ol artfoulo quo estimaba injurioso lo dijo a su Seorotarlo,
"Cicrto as, quo result injurioso ose artfoulo. A mi no mo proooupa su.cnontnld
porquo aqui todos nos conooemos y a nadi6 os capaz do career lo quo on l4 so dico,




15.


poro si Ud. lo consider dolictuoso quorrlloso ante los tribunals do Justioia,
Y ahora dosoo qua Ud. conozoa ma manor do pensar sobre la libortad do pensamion-
to, En Londrosllo dijo, oxisto la plaza do Trafalgar, quoe s un punto quo osco-
gon los oiudadanos do aquol pals para oxponor sus ideas politionas A posar do
tenor aquol pals un rogimon monarquico, los republicans, los soocialistas y los
anarquistas oxponcn sus doctrine, sin quo las autoridados les moleston. Yo quio-
ro hacor do Cuba una gran plaza de Trafalgar. Aqui todos los ciudadanos tondr.n
ol deroeho do docir lo quo lo vonga en ganas, sin mas limited quo la cly, do la
cual har&n uso los quo so siontan ofondidos. No consentire on persecucionos ni
nnda quo quobrante aI litortad del pensamiento, que ha sldo la mayor y mejor da
las quo el hombre ha cbtenido." Eso criteria del Presidento Zayas fue norma do
su gebiorno.
En estas palabras puede sintetizarse ol gobiorno 'ol Dr. Zayas. Restauro
las libortPdos publicas, restituy6 el crdito interior y exterior de la nacion,
respoto la absolute libertad del pensamiento, permanecio fiol a sus prinoipios
democraticos, fu& suave y cuando fuS precise energico on sus decisions ccmo go-
bornante, y, consiguio lo quo ningin gobornante ha obtonido, quo duranto su go-
biorno no so porsiguiere a nadie por sue ideas politics ni so derramara una solar
gota do sangro.


*


CONFERENCES OF THE INSTITUTE OF INTER-AMERICAf AFFAIRS

The first Conference of the Institute of Inter-American Affairs at the Uni-
vorsity of Florida was held in 1931 for the purpose of determining a definite
educational program which would increase true understanding and mutual respect
among the peoples of the Western Hemisphere.
During the four-day conference the following tpoics were discussed "The
Place of Education in the Development of Understanding Among Peoples," "The Place
of Agricultural Education in the Development of Inter-America.n Understanding and
Good Will," "A Definite Inter-Omorican Educationnl Program," "The Nature and
Scope of the Research Work to be Carried on by the Institute of Inter-American
Affairs to Increase Intellectual Undorstanding in the Americas," and "The Place
of the Press in the Devolopment of an Inter-American Educational Program." Among
the speakers woros President Wallace W. Atwood of Clark University; Dr. John C.
Morrianm former president of the Carnegie Institution of Washingtonj Dr. William
John Cooper, United States Commissioner of Educations President Bradford Knapp
of Alabama Polytechnic Institute; Harold H. Hiume, past president of the Florida
Horticultural Society; Dr. David Fairchild, Principal Agrioultural Explorer of the
United States Department of Agriculture; Dr. V. A, Belaunde of the University of
Lima, Poru; Dr. Rollin S. Atwood, acting director of the Institute of Inter-
Amorican Affairst Honry Grattan Doyle$ dean at the Gonrge Washington University;
James A. Robertson, editor of the Hispagic American Historical Review; and Joseph
L. Jones, Foreign Editor of the United Press Assooiations.
The mooting of the second Conference of the Institute of Inter-American Af-
fairs was held in connection with the formal presentation of the FPIAC Medal to
the University of Flokidal Tho FIDAC Awaid, piosentad to the University of Flo-
rida in 1933, is given each year to the university in the United States, regard-
less of size, that has done the most work in furthering international good will
and friendship, and is awarded by an organization of veterans' societies of ten
allied countries in the World War representing more than 8,000,000 men.
An all-day program was arranged with musical numbers, banquets and speeches
by some of America's most distinguished men such as Col. Alvin M. Owsloy, past
commander of the American Legion and now United States Minister to Denmark, Arm-
strong Perry, Charles Hann Jr. and others.






COLOMBIA LA NOBLE

por Andras Davis Salazar
pFu on la osouela do mi pueblo, pueblo quarido dondo el capricho del tr6pico
ha puesto la nota alogro do sus atardooeros brillantes, dondo per primer voz of
unas palabras que sonaron molodiosas, olocuontos y honchidas de sentimionto noble,
pose a la terrible monotonia del hablar do mi vioja maestras Coolombia os nuestra
patria; dobomos amarla, dofenderla y honrarla." Doasd oso ontonoos ompez6 a ani-
dar on nuo.tras montes infantiles un rumor do patria, Incompronsible quiszs, por
su grandoza, pore bollamente incomprensible, ingenuamento sinooro, MIs tardao
cuando mis libros do historic me hablaban do la grandoza do sus hombras y la goo-
graffa dosoriptiva me docia do sue bellosas naturals, con indocible oetusiasmo
mo doloitaba on contomplar aquellos paisajos ompapados do molodia, y a vocos, co-
mo osoptico a tanta maravilla y como dudando do las proozas dol Croador, una ves
mAs miraba on dorrodor para oonvoncormo do quo oso torrufo fasoinanto tonia oxis-
toneia real y quo osa hormosura sublime habia sido croada oon un oncanto sobre-
natural, oso hechizo goografico quo quoria ooquotamento confundirso on el capricho
do un suueo, todo oso osplondor agigantaba con noble ompoao mi incrodulidad, mira-
ba luoeo ol azul infinite do su ciolo, y on plegarias sincoras quo delataban mi
orgullo daboa racias al Soior per su bonded infinite.
Bay noohos, on quo sumido on moditaciones profundas, evocando quizas sue
grandezas y regooij3ndcmo on mi tcrtura nostalgica, pardoemo oir, on el murmullo
de un eco, aquellas palcbrrs quo sonaron tan elocuentos y ahora tan sublimosa
"Colombia os nuestra patria; dcobomos amarla, defenderlt y honrarla," Y adn re-
cuordo quo r l salir del aula me sorprondi yo mismo con un dosoo inexplicable do
golpearmo al pocho y do gritar con furians Yo soy Colombiano, poi la graeia de
Dios."
La historic de ese pueblo quo producia en mi eso instinto do coraje, aumen-
taba mi soborbia y habia dias que hubiora querido agarrar del cuello nl mundo y
decirle oon un gosto imporioso quo desportara su onvidiat "Conozoa nuostra histo-
rial Conozoa nuoatros horoos quo osculpioron su nombre inmortal coon proozaa quo
desaafan las mrs atrovidas p&ginas do la historic universal Dosde los tiempos
do angustti dol yugo osparol hasta los dias folices do nuostro prosento, Colombia
ha vivido gloriosamonto y gloriosamento vivirv su future cano rindiendo homenaje
a sus libertadores. Progrosista como os, on modio dol escopticismo del mundo,
tradicionalmento hospitalaria, solamonto os soborbia come horoncia do osos valien-
tes heroes quo tionon su panton on lo mas profundo do nuostros oarazones, y fo-
liamento olosa do la soberanla do su suolo.
Poco a pooo, on a.ios reoientes ol mundo so ha dado ouonta do quo alli, aca-
rioiado per dos mares quo con su vaivin poronno m&s bion parocon contagiados do
ritao tropical, simbolizando con sus olas un saludo fraternal do sus voolnos, all&
sobre ose gir6n de la America naoiento, hay un pueblo quo per Bas do cuatro oon-
turias ha dosportado la oodicia humana con aus riquosas fantiatioas. Afos'ha quo
los amblciosos conquistadors oyoron do la layonda sagrada do "EI Dorado#s la vi-
si6n quim&rioa do inmonsos lagos cubiertos do oro on polvo idolizando un Chiboha,
quo di6 orioen al naoimionto do eso pueblo quo hoy florcoo altivo, con vigor on-
vidiablo. "El Dorado" oontemporinoo, quo con genoroso desprendinionto ofreco Co-
aombia, os mas promotedor, monos asquivo y mas seguro. Amiga inno'gablo do juven-
tudos laboricsas, procuradorn del desarrollo intolootual, nuestro pueblo ofreco
en su prosonte, no la esplendorosa fantasia do sus lagunas aurificas ni sus mito-
16gioos millonos quo porturbaron el suoto de aquollos aguerridos soldados del
Reino Espafol, sino el manantial tentador de sus vastas oportunidados, oomo deri-
vacion logion do su poderio floresciente. All repose un future quo habrA do
sorpronder al mundo. Casi brusoamonte homos salido de un estdo. de letargia y
poosia quo fastidiaba nuestros asppritus omprendedores. Homos heoho un voto do
dinamismo y aoci6n para no contrastar con la hora moonica on que ol mundo actual
viva,







Sin emba.rgo, ontro el chirrido ostridonte del hierro rodanto y la horda semi-
onloquacida de muched.umbre contaginaca de apuro on las metropolis, aun a si flota
on su ambionto, indiferonto a ose ruido infernal, la tradician gentil do su abo-
lengo, la exquisite hiralrula do una onoer.ci6n sin fanatismos, y por siompro ha-
brt do sor el ideal dol poregrino por sus postulados proverbiales do hospitalidad
y gentiloza. Y no hay dia quo al ovocar su nombre, nn vongn on alas del reouerdo
la fraso colebre quo inmortalizo on mi monte mi vioja macstra$ "Coloabia os nues-
tra patria; debomos amarla, dofonderla y honrarla,"

*


INTER-AMERICAN YEAR EXCHANGE PROGRAM

Guided by the ideal words of Comenius, writing in 1645, "Lot us bring togeth-
or our thoughts, in order to lot disappear all that which may exclude ourselves
from the light of the spirit," the Institute of Inter-American Affairs of the Uni-
versity of Florida is striving to develop mutual understanding between nations of
the western world by having each of the more important universities and colleges
of the American republics set up mutually acceptable curriculum for work which may
bo taken by visiting students from other countries.
The general plan of the educational program of the Institute is to acquaint
all Inter-Amorican students with the geography, history, political economy, social
conditions, language, literature, art, drama, music and customs of the country in
which the university is located. The curriculum will consist of 15 months resi-
dence in the country, first three months of which will be devoted to an intensive
study of the language of the country. The second period of the year's work is a
full academic year of university study consisting of those courses which will on-
able the student to become acquainted with the country. As far as is practicable
each university will set up a general one-year liberal arts curriculum,adjusted to
the Inter-American year program. As demands occur and as facilities are available,
additional curriculum will be set up for the students who are desirous of special-
ized study.
The third part of the year's work includes approximately three months travel
in the country. Points visited will be those places which will give the student
a broader appreciation of the outstanding educational, cultural, industrial and
agricultural developments of the country. In this manner the student will be able
to got a first-hand impression of other nations and will be able to appreciate,
respect and understand the viewpoint of the republics which he is visiting.
The same program may be followed by a graduate student as well as an under-
graduate student. The Institute roocmmmonds the third or junior year for under-
graduates and is making arrangements for a general liberal arts training. These
stops have been taken and arrangements have boon completed with the Universities
of lHvana and Panama, and similar plans are pending with approximately 14 other
universities in Latin unarica.
The Inter-American year program for elementary and secondary school teachers
is also arranged by the Institute with the cooperation of the department of edu-
cation of Cuba and the Department of Public Instruction of Florida. Teachers cho-
son for the exchange will carry out a 15 months program similar to that of the
student, but will teach instead of study during the second period of nine months
in that country. This arrangement has already boon carried out on several ocoa-
sions whore Spanish teachers in Florida have gone to Cuba and taught English, and
English teachers in Cuba have come to Florida and taught Spanish, It has been
done, however, without the three months of intensive language study and the throo
months of supervised travel.

By royal decree of Charles V given in 1551 the necessary authorization was secured
for the establishment of a Royal and Pontifical University in Mexico.





18.


POBTAS HONDUREOS RAM6N PADILLA COELLO

por RaIl Ramos


Duormo ol jovon poota su suono,sin finon ol viojo camposanto do la ciudad
do Cholutoca, allay dondo cropitan los ospasmos do la focundanto madro tiorra bajo
ol soplo suavo y tibio do los rumorosos ciprosos.
Cuando aponas contaba un ourrto do conturia, on ol prociso instant on quo
abrlnnsolo los potalos do la vida, el infaliblo dostino puso un trlgico fin a su
oxistoncia, como une recomponsa a su vida do dosafueros y bohomicas caminatas.
Padilla Coello ascendi/ los poldanos de la gloria con paso lonto y firme,
traspnso Ics dintoles do lo quo ora una esperanza para convertirse on unr reali-
dad, y yv llogando a la onspido de sus aspiraciones so entree on 1razos dol mis-
torio sin un dolor, sin una queja, como so ontroeara a loa grades placereO do la
vida.
Dotado do un tomporamonto artistico'asombroso, fuM poeta on cl verdedoro sen-
tido dol vocabloe Dario con la gracia y el Marquos do Bradomfn con ol romanticis-
mo, lo dioron roalco a sus versos, unas voces dzja vor on su ritmo la influonoia
do Chooano, mas, otras, so abraza froniticamento a a poosia modorna a la quo debo
sue m4s ballas roalizacionos.
No fu6 poca la gloria do Padilla Coollo al dar a luz sonotos como "La Monja"
y "La Virgon Desnuda" quo, aunquo lojos do sor modolos do porfoccion, son natura-
los y armoniosos onoorrando on cnda verso, on cada ostrofa, un poema do belloza y,
porsonificando cl gusto ostgtico del poeta, dAndonos una vision gloriosa, al pro-
sontar una virgon dosnuda, do cnrnos blancas y roseas quo nos haoo recorder los
tiompos do Baco, aquolla antiglodad pagana quo rondia oulto al Dies do la trago-
dia.
Un drama do amor y do dolor vivido on un mundo tenobroso y frfo fug today la
oxistoncia'dol poet hondurcjo quo rocorri6 todsas ls inquietudes y vagabundoos
do la vidal su propio dolor, su propia traegdia fueron su inspiraciong canto con
plono oonooimionto do sus capacidados onviando su monsajo etorno a travds do los
ticmpos, dojando dospuos esto mundo para irso a dormir su suoio sin fin, alli don-
do cropitan los cspamos do la focundanto madro tiorra bajo ol soplo suave y tibio
do los rumorosos ciprosos.
He aqui las poosias a quo antes mo rofioros

LA MONJA


Come humana protosta alultrajo del rito
quo oblige a ser cstoril y a no poder amar,
orufanso los sonos-altivos, do granite, -
do aquella monja tristo con rostro do asahar.....

Sus pupilas do fuogo tonian como un grito
do desoos no oxtintos ni con tanto luchar,
y tomblaban sus carnos al influjo maldito
do mis ojos quo ansiosos la solian mirar.....

Esa nocho, a la bordo dol vapor arrimada,
paroci6mo la imagon do la blanca onclaustrada
quo supiora del bose tontador do Don Juanj

Y sonte on mis ontrnias, podoroso y vohomonto,
ol dosoo profano do bosarlo la front
con un bose quo fuera mi proterito afan.


Rnmon Padilla Coollo




19.


LA VIRGEN DESNUDA

Un vago desporezo do fiora coam oloajo -
corriblo serpontoando del cuollo haste los pies,
cay6 junto a sus plants ol intimo ropajo,
y esplondida y lascive surgi6 su desnudez.. ...

El bosquo tuvo un sordo mugido do corajo,
cual si sintiera su ansia do macho desportar,
cl vionto so hizo tibio, tomblo como cl boscaje,
y con gomir do niffo su cuorpo fuw a besar.

El sol fu4 un solo canto* un canto do esplandores,
abrioron sus corolas magnIfioas las flores,
y un satiro on la fronda muri6so do placer.....

La virgon, ontro tanto, sonricndo complacida,
hundibso on la torsura del agua adormocida,
jugando con sus rogios pezonos rosiclor,

Ram6n Padilla Coollo.

*

PREGUNTAS AL DEPENDIENTE DE UN HOTEL HABANERO

por Loonard T. May

? For quo' me cdi aquolla mujor una palmada en la cara cuando yo le dijo a ella,
"Tionc 1cs Icmos muy lindos y un poscuezo perfccto?"

? Es cso hambro "Botica" el posoedcr do todas las farmacias nqui?

? Como vamos a saber si nos sacamos la loteria?

? No duermo nadie en La Habana?

1 Quo cara mts lindal t Quo figurat t Que piel tan suave, como una flori
t Hombra, ? on ouanto tiompo sahro hablar espanol? Quisiora conocorlal

? Por quo tionon las calls dos nombros distintos aqui en La Habana?

? Por quo no podomos usar los sollos amoricanos, quo ya tenomos on las cartas?

? Es verdad quo hay on La Habana m&s do 6000 lugaros on quo so vondon liooros?

Mo dican quo una botolla dc .Bacardi ourar& ol maroo, ? os verdad?

? Por quo no tionon fesforos do rcadora aqui?

? Los sombreros do jipijapa, vionon do PanamA o dol Ecuador?

? Tionon todas las calls do La Habana aun un torcor nombro, TRANSITO?

? Dan corvoza gratis on los "Jardinos Tropioalos"?

? Estoy vordadoramonte on Cuba o as osto un suofo?






BORINQUEN, LAND WHERE THE AMERICAS MEET

por Fodorico Reynolds

Far out between Atlantic and Caribbean on a path from Europe to tropical Ame-
rica, the Spanish culture of Puerto Rico meets lifo from North America. Waving
palms of this oastermost of the Antilles bow to cooling trade winds and its moun-
tain peaks look to sea a thousand miles to Florida and fourteen hundred to New
York. On a warm gray dawn approached by boat it rises midst rolling foam into
the light of sky, a black mass looming more large and groon as day grows and
clouds swooping overhead change from gold to silver. At ship's rail since two
hours age, passengers peer at El Morro's frowning walls and pointed sentry boxes
silhouetted sharply on the sky. The waves rest at harbor's entrance, and gleam-
ing white, cl capitolio risos among giant lacelike radio towers; the cathedral's
cross points heavenward, and apart from the old city, tall, modern palaces of com-
morce smile toward port in pale hues of green and blue the customs house is pink
and all roofs are of soft tinted tile.
La Marina Park with ancient lamp posts of coquina surrounds the fine corroo
and loads to San Juan's streets; old world streets, narrow, overhung by balconies
of delicately wrought iron; wide, twentieth century avenues, flanked with parks
and lovely architecture. In Puerto Rico houses open their windows as doors to the
sky. Ancient walls stand now as during centuries of Spanish rule and paving
blocks that knew footsteps of conquistador and pirate echo with busses, tramways,
autos, taxis, while coated and hatted business people throng shop and office. At
almost every intersecti-n attend courteous, well uniformed police. On sidewalks
too narrow for two to pass without stepping aside, porters bear on their heads
loads amazingly bulky, threading a way among vendors of tropical fruits, lottery
tickets and notions. In Puerto Rico ten-cent stores pass through the streets on
trays carried by peddlers; all one need do is wait until he sees the article he
wants to buy.
At entrances to powerful banks branches of world known institutions, beg-
gars cry "one penny, mister." Coffee and tobacco aroma fills the air and hand-
some store windows display New York merchandise. Ancient and modern here stand
side by side as do wealth and poverty, and leisure is punctuated by hurried foot-
steps in an air of enterprise and progress. We find everywhere the links between
old Spain and modern America and closely interwoven with the best from both Ame-
ricas. The architecture is so picturesque that one at first fools that the walls
are only movie sets and scarcely expects to find the buildings being used. Every
town has a plaza with fountain, monument, benches, faced by a crumbling church so
sturdy that for centuries it will only grow more mellow. Here the kind and
friendly denizens of this two-world land are fond of strolling in the evening.
They love to dress well and to dance and sing to gay music, fox trots, tangos,
rhumbas. Menus in the restaurants are in both languagos and mashed potatoes and
apple pie find a place along with asopollo, pastelos, aguacatos. Soda fountains
sell bottled drinks and lindberghs (a kind of ice cream named in honor of the vi-
sit to the Island of the celebrated flyer). San Juan and some other towns boast
fine theatres and libraries, for culture is not neglected in Puerto Rico. Schools
are crowded to capacity and the University's enrollment is nearly two thousand.
Important researches in tropical medicine and agriculture are carried out with
enormous value to the mainland. Nearly everybody reads newspapers and discusses
the happenings of Europe and Asia as though they occurred on the Island itself.
Splendid magazines are published; books and periodicals of all lands from Argen-
tina to the United States are displayed for sale in countless shops and stands.
Nearly everyone in San Juan speaks English as well as he does Spanish.
The most delightful feature of Puerto Rico is the ease of getting about.
Well over ten times as densely populated as the United States, naturally there are
found rather large villages almost every few kilometers and several large cities
besides; Ponce, famous for its distilleries of rum, and Mayagozs, the center of a







remarkable needlework industry on the Island. When one desires to travel he will
find at the plaza dozens of public cars arriving and departing for almost any-
where on the Island. The windshields announce the cars' destinations in letters
of bon ami, and drivers eagerly await another passenger or two before setting out.
Fares are surprisingly low about one cent a kilometer but it is necessary
that the prospective passenger be ready and able to bargain with the chauffeur,
else he will be overcharged according to his appearance. Rather narrow and wind-
ing, the highways take us through breathtaking scenery greon mountains, verdant
valleys; bamboo lines the road bed and flamboyant trees arch completely across
the pavement. In spring they are dense flaros of red flowers and in summer lacy
green shade trees with a few flowers. Bright fbbiaged begonia plants color the
road banks and rod hibiscus flowers flourish throughout the year. Fields of cane
and pineapples stretch far over the valleys and on mountain sides hang quaint bal-
coniod homes in rainbow colors. A swoot potato patch grows on an almost perpen-
dicular mountain slope and a banana plant full of fruit can be reached from the
window, In most yards are cows, pigs and chickens. Puerto Rico's cows have an
appearance of well-being far beyond that of the people. Standing in tall, rich
grasses they seem to be without logs, and tied to a chain the animal seems occu-
pied at the hopeless task of eating enough grass to keep from becoming lost in it,
for no sooner has she eaten her way across the small pasture plot than the grass
on the other side is again above her shoulders.
The people of the United States are someday going to discover what an ideal
tourist spot is Puerto Rico and spend money which will supplement an agricultural
economy; the inhabitants will put their hands to the fabrication of souvenirs and
there will be more and batter hotels; Puerto Rico will indeed be a paradise in
the tropics as well as an important buyer of products made in the States and an
important outpost of national defense. Almost any time of year will do for a va.
cation in this exotic atmosphere under our country's own flag, You haven't seen
America until you've visited this "Island of Enchantment" an excuse for a sea
voyage with a reward of scenery unsurpassed. The interior is more agreeable than
the coasts. There are several mountain resorts and some magnificent beaches on
the sea. The Island can be toured in two weeks and a month leaves one back again
in his workaday world dreamy with memories and lovely visions of tropical scenes,'
tropical stars and moon, to treasure the rest of his life.

*


INTER-AMERICAN INSTITUTE READING ROOM

Like many an attractive news-stand on the sidewalks of New York that boasts
of "news from all over the world," the Institute of Inter-American Affairs of the
University of Florida can boast of one of the finest collections of current maga-
zines and periodicals from Spanish America on the local campus. The news room of
the Institute is one of the latest features added to the program for fostering
better relations with the other Amoricas.
The Pan American Union of Washington,-D.C., is the greatest contributor to
the Institute's reading room. It furnishes the foreign trade series, bulletins
covering the latest foreign statistics of the Latin American republics, compiled
from official sources; the bibliographical series, collections of bibliographies
on Pan American topics, inter-American relations, history, geography maps, and
library science; the cooperative series, a sorios of articles on various phases of
the cooperative movement; Commercial Pan American, a monthly mimeographed review
dealing with economic and financial suects; P norama, a mimeographed review do-
voted to matters of interest in Inter-American intellectual cooperation; Pan Ame-
rican Bulletin, a monthly publication covering all phases of Inter-America-n rea-
tions and published in English, Portuguese and Spanish; the Pan American book
shelf series, a collection of books dealing with Latin America; and others.




22.


GABRIELA MISTRAL, POETISA CHILENA

por Francisco M. DoGaetani

El alma fomenina ha sido un mistorio mudo hacia el cual, por el amor y el in-
tolocto, so han inolinado con avidoz los hombros de todos los tiampos. Han queri-
do conocor ol socroto femonino do como las mujeres,oon su moral tan distinta y con
su moo ro ser particular, afrontaban el problema do la vida. So esporaba quo el
advonimionto do las mujores a la literature haria esta dosoada revelacion pero ful
vana desilusion porque las musas inspiradoras so han limitado, por lo general, a
repotir las palabras do los hombros inspirados. Con esto motive dice Cansinos
Assone, "la nota intima y confident, la revelaci6n personal, la voz femenina no
canta on los libros do nuostras oscritoras,"
Por costa rain me he propuosto exponer, en lo quo sea possible, la aficacia
quo tiono Gabricla Mistral para rovolarnos ol alma femonina.
Dobido a la dificultad do onjuiciar un arto, todavia vivo y por consocuencia
objoto do toda clase do incomprensionos y pasionos, no podr&'sor m~s que un in-
tento, quiz& un abro-caminos quo alguicn raalizarA m&s tarde y llovara a cabo mns,
much mas cabalmonto.
Lucila Godoy Alcayaga, major conocida por su soudgnimo, Gabriola Mistral, na-
ci6 on Vicufia on 1890. Erpozo su vida litoraria on un memento do grave crisis pa-
ra la litoratura chilena. Cuando Los sonotos do la Muerto rovolaron al publioo
su nombre, so vonia dosarrollando una lon~ a ro6eovi on i la poos{a. La gonera-
cion anterior docafa por falta do profunda vibration humana y do honda omoci&n.
En oso moment tal o cual poota vordadoro so dojaba oir un instant. Una do osas
vocos as la do Gabriola Mistral cuya producci6n acogia con palabras ontusiastas
Ruben Dario. Forma part do un movimionto gonoral quo so nota on otros palsos
sudamcrioanos con la obra do somojantos pootisas come son, por ejomplo, Dolmira
Agustini, Alfonsina Storni, Juana do Ibarbourou y Maria Enriqueta. Estas mujeros
podrian colocarse on un grupo quo reaociona contra el Modornismo hacia un recogi-
mionto l{rico. Nos prosentan un nuovo fonomono en el cual so invierton los valo-
ros, los hombres do la opoca son debilos y allas son fuertos y precisamonte en no
sor timiras tionen un algo del Modernismo. Siguen usando los metodos, la tecnica
y las formas litorarias do los hombros quo las precedian sin aiadir cosa nuova.
En ol Modernismo, quo os opoca masculine y do gran invoncion, los jefos son hom-
bros mientras quo ol pcst-modernismo, quo so nos presenta como una sorie de os-
cuolas o tcndencias, tiono su grupo do mujores cuyo tema es dnico ...... alas
mismas y sus ostados espiritualos. El amor, y come consecuencin la maternidad,
os ol toma dominant.
Pasemos ahora a considorar mas dotonidamonto a Gabriola Mistral. Dosdo 1918
cuando so le concodi6 ol promio a sus sonotos on los juegos florals quo oses fo
so colobraron on Santiago, figure olla como la primera lirica chilona. Su poosfa
hondamonto subjotiva ha tonido y tiono todavla una gran influencia en la juventud
hispanoamoricana, poro (como pasa siompro con los imitadoros) so han quadado solo
con ol vaso vacio do sus versos y han dojado esoapar al divino licor cuyo secreto
unicamontc olla posoe.
En 1923 aparocio la primora odioion do Desolacion, coloccion do versos quo
oscribi6 a la largo do muchos anos y on momantos ospirituales muy distintos. No
hay pucs dosolacion on la totalidad do las pAginas aunque si on la mayoria do
ollas. Quiza para o*cusarso un poco puso al final do su libro un votot "Dios mo
pordone osto libro anargo..."
La pasi6n suelo sor ol mojor reactivo para la sonsibilidad. El poota no as
nms quo un animator quo transmuta su sontimionto do la vida hacia cuanto lo rodoo,
vistiondo con sus ideas ol mundo sensible. Poro tras ol poota est& la mujor.
Tambion Lucila Godoy supo do su dolor y subo hasta sus labios ol dojo amargo do
su angustia. Un amor unico onturbi6 la paz do sus horns. Grande y apasionado

"La libortad bion valo al saorificio do la vida," Manual Gonzaloz Prada.






dobi6 do sdr ouando pudo desgarrar este ooraz6n tranquilo y esa alma do mujer
fuerto.
Mistral condujo al amado al altar de los suplicos done 61 mismo so infligio
la muorte poro nunca desoorrib ol velo quo cubre el recuordo do tal hora do tra-
godia quo osa hora solo a olla le portenece. Algunos do sus mojores poomas ha-
blan do oste drama que ha cuajado on la sal amarga do sus poemas. Quod6 en ella
ol amargo doloito do su vonganza, pore 6sta es tambinn la ipoea do su consorcio
con ol gonio, uno do sus aureos instants do gonio. La inspiraci6n romp&ondo con
anoostrales projuicios dio a su alma el atrovimiento quo so roquoria para docir
cuanto an olln so agitaba y sin hipocres{a nos refioro lo quo sentia, La obaesi6n
lo la muorto y ol romordimionto do la conciencia son la esencia de los poemas do
dolor on quo seioren su genio,
El amor constitute la column vertebral de su obra, motive unificador central
al quo convorgon todas nls orientaoiones do su preocupacion. Ha inteleotualizado
los anhelos quo la vida fisica no habia do satisfacerle. 31 sontido de la muorte
os prcfundo y desgarrador on esta mujor poro se hall tambion rofundido on el com-
plojo amoroso.
Gont6 la tragedia dcl amor do su juventud do tonos distintos; aludio,a vecos
con sobrada claridad, al luctuoso sucoso quo la doj6 viuda; gritty en demand do
un hijo y dofondio on las mujoros ol sontimionto, a vocos vorgonzanto, do la ma-
tornidad. Poro quiso quo su quoja no fuoso la quo a dabil y habitual do las mu-
jares sine otra on voz robusta.. Es su arte ospontaneo y cuando la hire implaca-
blemonto ol dolor, los gomidos on quo prorrumpe su corazon constituyon la mas bei
llas oxpresiones de la pcotisa y son profundos quojidos arrancados a tin alma son-
sibloe Prosoncia el sufrimionto y oncuontra un oxtraio y anargo goce atostiguan.
do los ostragos causados per ol dolor.
La fuonto inspiradora do Gabriola Mistral ost& allmontada por los sentimion-
tos autdnticamonto humans uco samoto a un oxamon intolectual, actitud op la quo
vicno a onoontrar la solution do su posado problomat dosconformidad front al am-
biontc poquonio y a la avaricia do la vida, horoncia amarga de los artists do to-
dos los tiompos. So ha consurado on ella ciorto concoptismo idooligicoo la dure-
za do su vorso a vocos prosaioo; las frocuontos obscuridados do sus ponsamiontos,
Es indudablo quo on sus poomas suolon advortirso falta do fluidoz o incohoroncias
forzadas do longuajo, todo lo cual rosulta oxplicablo on una obra y on una 6pooa
quc lloga a pocar do puoril on su soncilloz antes quo onor on la flaqueza rottri-
ca. Es viva, fuorto, profunda, aunquo doscuidada en su forma. No os copioso ol
caudal do su pensamionto ni abundant la variodad do sue temas pore ha oncontrado
on su lira tones vibrantos quo son temas otornos do la poesia ... el amor y la
muerte.
La gran poetisa so vo n monudo limitada per una forma inoxperta dondo falta
el rofinaminnto artistico. No abundan los recursos do In culture litoraria, his-
torica o filos6fica para impartir vnriedad a sus conoepciones.
Do la Mistral van a subsistir pocos pcomas, los contados on quo hay un equi-
librio cabal entire lo quo el poota quiso decir y lo quo su gusto insoguro lo dej6
quo dijoso. En sus domes obras hay un singular talonto litornrio, no ya ol gonie.
Sionto, ponotra, adivina, habla ritmicamonto, intuye, a rates obscuramente, quiz&
cuando la inspiracion os mis honda y terrible.
Poro qui6n no oonvendrA on quo ol haber esorito un solo poema o el habor des-
oifrado el estado dol Knima fomonino os uha labor do artist y por lo tanto impa-
rocodera2 Quion anima no haco sine crear, infundiondo vida, y s6lo vive lo quo
palpita con cl hervor do la sonsibilidad. Gabriola Mistral nos ayuda a comprondor
un nuevo mundo, la sonsibilidad do la mujor, Do lo dicho so vo quo si quoremos
oir la voz sincora y franca do la mujor pronuneiado con la molodua del canto if-
rico, o on ol intimo modio tone do la confidencia; si queromos oscuchar ol grito
do la pasibn femonina, ol amor al hombro proolamado con el mismo fervor quo on
otro tiompo ol amor a JosGs oxcit6 do una Santa Torosaj si quoromos vor hasta qu6
qxtrdmos do dolirio os capaz do oxaltarso un alma do mujors on una palabra, as
quoromos ver saltar todos los l!mites dcl austoro docoro fomonino y rasgarso con




24.


vitalidtd todos los volos, para dojar patonto ol misterio, sor& prociso quo nos
asomcmos a la obra llone do passion y vibracion fomonina do Gabriola Mistral o do
alguna quo otra pootisa sudamoricana.



*



INTER-AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL CONFERENCE, APRIL, 1940

In conjunction with the Inter-Amorican educational program at the University
of Florida, the Institute of Inter-American Affairs will hold a conference here
next April in commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Pan
American Union and the tenth anniversary of the founding of the Institute. Offi-
cial guest speakers from the Central and South American countries will deliver
lectures during the congress.
The purposes of the Conference are to make the educational and cultural de-
velopment in the other American countries bettor known and appreciated in this
country, to adjust entrance requirements and curricula to facilitate the carrying
out of the Inter-American year exchange program, and to discuss the content of
courses and curricula in the American universities loading toward four year de-
grees and graduate degrees majoring in Inter-American Affairs.
The Inter-American Educational and Cultural Conference of 1940 will be the
third conference sponsored by the Institute and will be divided into seven sect-
ions covering the major fields of human endeavour. Sections in the Conference in-
olude languages and literatures; history and geography; government and public ad-
ministration; art, architecture and music; agricultural, industrial and social
problems; press and public opinion; and, education. Outstanding men of letters,
government officials, school administrators, museum and library directors and edu-
cators will be among the Latin Americans who will be invited to lead the sections
of the conference. Outstanding Unitod States representatives from each field will
be invited to lead the discussions at the round table meetings.
It is the desire of the Institute officials to have educational and cultural
exhibits from each of the Amorican republics placed on display in order to give
the people of this country an idea of the growth and development in the various
fields of Latin Amoricr. An art and architectural exhibit will probably be one of
the outstanding features of the conference. The site for this exhibit has not
boon selected as yet, but plans are being rushed to have everything ready for the
convention. At the conclusion of the Inter-American Educational and Cultural Con-
feronce, the official guests from Latin America and North America will take a tour
around the state of Florida to visit the major points of interest before departure
for their respective hames.
The most important mooting of the conference will probably be the section on
Intor-Amorican education, for at this particular session plans for the Inter-Amo-
rican exchange year program will be discussed in full. Curricular revisions for
better understanding among the elementary, secondary and collegiate institutions
will be made in order to standardize the whole program for exchange students. A-
mong other things, the plans for the exchange of teachers and professors will al-
so be in the limelight during the session.
Although the final nominations for guest speakers from Latin America will de-
pond on the persons who are planning'to attend the Pan American Scientific Con-
gross to be held in Washington, D.C., the Institute fools that among the prominent
mon who will form a partial list from which to choose speakers aroe Drs* Juan Za-
mora and Jorgo Roa, professors at the University of Havana; Angel Guido, Univer-
sity of the Litoral, Argentinai Gabriela Mistral, Chilean poetess; Juvenal Horntn-
doe, rector of the University of Chile; Pedro Honriquez Urona, professor of lin-
guistics at the University of L& Plata, Argentina; Carlos Chavcz, famous Mexican
symphony conductor; Romulo Gallogos, minister of education in Vonezuela; otco




26.


S0EM SEMANTIC AND LINGUISTIC NOTES ON THE SPAJISH SPOKEN IN TAMPA, FLORIDA

per Manuel D. Ramiroz

INTRODUCTION

According to Ernest L. Robinson, the incident of the first coming of the Span.
ish is of historical interest to Tampa, but the second coming of the Spanish in the
latter part of the nineteenth century was of real benefit to the city (I). The
west coast city, capitalizing on the immigration of the Spanish colony, caused moro
or loss by the advent of the cigar industry, has taken groat strides toward metro-
politan growth since the spring of 1886.
Many historians concerned with Florida agree that P nfilo Narvaoz was the
first white man to arrive in the present site of the city of Tampa, but it is his
commander, Hernando DeSoto, who receives the credit for landing in Old Tampa Bay.
Today there may be seen in the heart of the city, in Plant Park to be exact, an oak
tree with a bronze plaque commemorating the landing of DeSoto and his followers in
1528.
From the landing of the Spaniards until 1823, when three companies of United
States soldiers established Fort Brooke, a government army outpost, on the shores
of Tampa Bay, very little is known about the area later to became one of the larg-
cat cities in the state of Florida. Not until 1842, the year in which the Seminole
War came to an end, did the west coast city assume its present name of Tampa, For
a number of years practically no one lived outside the garrison with the exception
of those hardy pioneers, perhaps many of whom were descendants of the first com-
ing of the Spanish, whc comprised the Spanish settlement known as Spanishtown Crook.
The year 1884 may be considered an important date in the growth and develop-
ment of the city, for Tampa was connected by rail with the outside world at this
time. In spite of the introduction of the railroad, however, no industries of any
importance had boon established there until the coming of the cigar industry.
In November, 1884, Gavino Gutidrrez, a Now York broker and importer of Spanish
and American goods, had come to the growing village prospecting for a site suitable
for a guava product manufacturing plant. Not'finding the desired location there,
he decided to return to New York via Key Wost, the southernmost city in the United
States, where he met Ignacio Haya and Vioonte Martinez Ybor, cigar manufacturers in
Cuba, When these two gentlemen informed Gutidrroz of their intention to move their
factories to Galveston, Texas, because of labor troubles, the latter suggested that
they investigate the possibilities of establishing their firms in Tampa.
After much discussion and argument concerning land and property for the esta-
blishment of cigar factories in Tampa, Messrs. Haya and Ybor finally purchased pro-
perty just outside of the city limits for $5,000. Although the Ybor and Eduardo
Manrara factory workers were on the ground first, the Lauroano SSnohoz and Haya
building was first completed. After a close race, S nchez and Haya started manu-
facturing cigars in May, 1886. However, since both manufacturers initiated the
cigar movement in the city of Tampa at approximately the same time, no distinction
is generally made concerning the founding of the site later to be known as Ybor Ci-
ty. If tha reader should ask the average Latin cigarmakor about the origin of Ybor
City and the cigar industry, the latter answers, "Quidn sabe?" and if the English-
speaking person should be questioned on the same subject, he answers, "Who knows?"
The only difference in the two is that the English response doesn't involve the ex-
pressive shrug of the shoulders and the hopeless movement of the hands.
As the two factories caught their stride and began to turn out large quantities
of cigars, the owners began to pave the way for other factories and to provide cof-
fee houses and restaurants, clubs and theaters for the Spanish and Cuban workers,
who would not be satisfied unless they had their own people around them and their

rnest L. Robinson, History of Hilboroug County, Forida, (c.1928) p; 60-6.
Ernest L. Robinson, Historyof_ Hiilsborough County, Florida?, (c.1928); pp. 60-62*







social lifo. This naturally led to a greater immigration of Spanish and Cuban
people into the west coast city, which was slowly taking on the semblance of a me-
tropolis.
During the Spanish-Americon War, Tampa became an important base for the ship-
ment of military equipment and troops to Cuba, and for several months harbored a
huge military camp within its limits. In 1902 the city enjoyed a building boom
which surpassed any that had ever occurred there. It was during the 1927-28 "Boom
days" that West Tampa, another Spanish-speaking suburb of the city of Tampa,through
the persistent efforts of Col. H. C. MacFarlano, began to develop as a cigar cen-
ter. After having enjoyed a period of 29 years as an independent city, West Tampa
passed from legal existence as a municipality on January 1, 1925, when it was an-
nexed to the larger city of Tampa, usually referred to as "the octopus" by West
Tampans before the "anschluss," During its period of growth and development, West
Tampa's factories, especially the famous Cuesta-Rey firm, furnished the cigars for
King Alfonso XIII of Spain and many other notables. Fornando Figuredo, who for a
number of years. hadbeen treasurer of the island of Cuba, was the first mayor of
Tampa's twin sister.
The Latin population of Tnmpa approximates 40,000, while the Latin colony of
Ybor City, largest Spanish-speaking suburb of the city of Tampa, is composed of
about 24,000 people, 33 per cent of which are Spanish, 25 per cent Italian, and 41
per cent Cuban, with one per cent of people representing Mexice, Chile, Puerto Ri-
co, Honduras, Argentina and other Central and South American countries (2). The
majority of the Spanish colony come from the province of Asturias, while other pro-
vinces like Galicia, Valencia, CataluRa and Castilla are also represented. Of
course, most of those Spaniards crme to Tampa by way of Cuba and Key West. The Cu-
bans increased steadily in numbers during the ten years following; 1886, when the
first cigar factories were built and operated.
It is important to keep in mind that nearly all of these innovations and se-
mantic changes, which are discussed later on, are of a popular, rather than a
learned, nature; consequently, they as6dom if ever appear in print. Most of these
terms and expressions, as well as phonological changes, were probably introduced
into the Spanish languAge in other parts of Spanish America before their introduct-
ion into Tampa Spanish, but a large number of contributions to Hispanic phraseology
are coloquial and many are duo to the influence of English, the official language
of the United States of North America. It is the object of the writer to show the
changes which have taken place in Tampa Spanish, largely on the part of the bi-
lingual generation, and not to criticize the language spoken in that city.

2
"Ybor City," Tampa Topice, October, 1937, p. 13.




PART I. SEMANTICS

Alogar (vn.), 'To argue, dispute.' (In Castilian the verb alegar simply means 'to
allogo, affirm, quote, maintain.' The change in meaning here may be due to
tho. related, idea of argument in tho'quoting of facts, citing passages, etc.
o.f. alogar 'to dispute,. Honduras, Colombia, Puerto Rico, Malarot, Dic-
cionaro o Amoricanismos, p. 23S 'to dispute,' Argentina, Segovia, DIc-
ionario o argntinismos, p. 151)

"Siompro est& alogando ose hombre,*."


"La amistad do los pueblos, es la garantfa del progress oomdn," Alfredo Flores.





27.


Bodoga (n.f,), 'Grocory store.' (The gradual change in moaning of this term from
its original significance to the present is quite interesting. In Spain,
bodoga refers to the wine cellar or the place whore wines are kept, In
punish America the term is defined as the store where wines and other li-
quors are sold. o.f. bodega, 'store,' Cuba and Venezuela, Malarot, Dic-
cionario do Americanismos, p. 70: 'in trains, the store-room for merchan-
disoe,' CTeh, Toro y Gisbort, Pequerfo LaRousse Ilustrado, p. 144.

"Voy a la bodoga para comprar unas manzanas...3

Caor adverb (v.a.), 'To be pleasing, to like; to displease, to dislike.' (Pri-
mary meaning of the verb is 'to fall.' oaf. eaer en ligero, sympathizee'
oaor uno pesado, 'to displease,' Cuba and Puero RT-o, aar~T et, Diccionario
de Amoricanismos, p. 91.)

"Esa muchacha me cae muy bien..."

Cajoneria (n.f.), 'Box factory.' (The Academy Dictionary defines ctjoneria as a
'set of drawers in a piece of furniture, chiffonier.' The change here ap-
parently is due to analogy to panaderia, lecheria, carniceria, etc. Cajon
moans 'box.')

"Trabajo on la cajoneria.,,"

Cami6n (n.m.), 'Truck, automobile,vehicle for transportation*. (The Qastilian ac-
ceptation for cami6n is 'a low cart or carriage on wheels, drawn by a horse.'
This is an example of extension of meaning, for the new definition is still
based on the original idea of a transportation vehicles)

"Tostigos oculares le dijeron a la policia que el ch6fer del camion...
no fu6 culpable," La Prensa-Traduccion, Tampa, March 11, 1939.

Canon (n.m.), 'Apartment of a duplex.' (The word cao6n means 'cylindrical tube or
pipe, cannon, canyon.' The Tampa significanceof the term may be derived
from the related idea of a single boring in a double-barrel rifle or gun.
o.f. can6n, 'tree trunk,' Colombia, Malaret, Diccionario de Americanismos,
p. 10- ---

"Ellos viven on ol oafin do al lado,.."

Cigarro (nm.), 'Cigarette.' (The idea is closely related to the original mean-
ing, 'cigar.' The Spanish term for cigarette is cigarillo. c.fe cigarro,
'cigarette,' Costa Rica and Cuba, Malaret, Diccionario do Americanismost
p. 131.)

"Estaba fumando un cigarro en la osquina..."

Corte (n.f.), 'Courthouse.' (Castilian acceptations, 'place where the sovereign
resides, a monarch's retinue, yard, civility.' This term is also used in
the plural form with the same significance as given above. Las cortes,
'senate and congress of deputies of Spain,' Cuyjs, Appleton's ew panish-
English and English-Spanish Dictionary, p. 153. c.f. 'tribunal of justice,'
Halarot, iMcolonario e Americanismos, p. 154.)

"Un trabajador de la WPA y quo tiene 55 aios de odad fuS procosado en
la corte de lo criminal ayer...," La Prensa-Traduccion, Tampa, May
26, 1939.







Chavota (nef.), 'Cigar loaf cutting blade.' (Castilian acceptation is 'bolt, pin,
-. forelock, key, pivot.' c.f, chaveta,'cigar loaf cutting blade,' Puerto
Rico; 'tool of shoemaker,' Andalusia, Malaret, Diccionario de Americanismos,
p. 183; 'person without reason,' Segovia, Dicci onario d'l Argentini os
p. 189.)

"Cuando fue a la fabrica so lo olvid6 la chaveta..."

Chulear (v.n.), 'To pursue pleasure to excess.' (According to the dictionary of
the Real Academia Espaoola, chuloar means chuloar, 'to provoko,' Sogovia, Diocionario do Argentinismos, p. 118.)

"Siompre ost& chuloando...,

Estaci6n (n.f.), iFilling station.' (Perhaps by influence of the Englishi the
word estaci6n has changed from its original meaning of 'stato, condition,
season, depot, situation,' to that given above.)

"Dos bandoloros bion vestidos asaltaron dos ostaoionos gasolineras
mayor por la maiana...," La Pronsa-Traduccion, Tampa, March 17, 1939.

Fajarse (v.r.), 'To fight, combat, struggle.' (The Academy dictionary lists the
term fajarso as 'to band, bolt, girdle,' but does not give the definition
given above. c.f. fajarse, 'to fight,' Cuba and Puerto Rico, Malaret,
Diccionario do Amiricanismos, p. 247; 'to whip,' Segovia, Diccionario de
Argentinismos, p. 121.)

"No so fajon mas, muchachos..."

Flamenco (n.m.), 'A tall and thin person.' (Primary meanings 'flamingo; one from
Holland.' This term may also be used as an adjective. c.f. flamenco,
thin, slim,' Honduras and Puerto Rico; 'knife, blade,' Argentina, Malarot,
Diccionario do Americanismos, p. 251.)

"Es un flamenco el quo viono por ahi,.."

Frogar (v.a.), 'To annoy, irritate, bother,' (Castilian acceptation for fregar
is 'to rub, scrub, mop, scour.' The definition given above is figuratve
in meaning, c.f. frogar, 'to whip, beat,' Cuba and Puerto Rico, Malarot,
Dicoionario do Amoricanismos, p. 255.)

"Siompro ost& froegndcmoe...1

Gasolinera (adj.), 'Gasoline, pertaining to gasoline.' (The term in question un-
dorgoos a functional change as well as a semantic change in Tampa Spanish.
Original meaning is 'boat with gasoline motor,' Roal Academia Espanola,
Diccionario Manual e ilustrado do la Longua Espa ola, p. 989.)

"Fuh horido do un tire on ol asalto a una cstaci6n gasolinera aqui ol
pasado viornes," La Pronsa-Traduccion, Tampa, March 10, 1939.

Goma (nef.), 'Automobile tire.' (Dofinition given in Tampa Spanish for the term
goma is not far from the original acceptation, 'gum, India-rubber.' This
is another case of extension of meaning.)

"Regalaro una goma gratis a los quo compren tres," La Prensa-Traduo-
cion, Tampa, May 26, 1939.




29.


Husmoar (v.a.), 'To search, hunt look for.' (The correlated idea of search is
probably the reason for the slight change in significance in the storm giv-
on above. The Real Academia Espoa~ola dictionary defines husmoar as 'to
scent, smell, wind,')

"Tanto las autoridados do la ciudad como los del condado estIn husme-
ando on la barriada da Ybor City desde ayer, on busca dol asesino,"
La Prensa-Tradcuccion, Tampa, May 22, 1939.

Loza (n.f.), 'Hardware.' (Castilian, 'chinaware, porcelain, crockery.' This is
Another case of extension of meaning.)

"Vo a lavar la loza, andal"

Mancjar (v.a.), 'To drive, as a car.' (Castilian acceptationt 'to drive, ride or
train a horse.' The idea of driving is transferred from animal to auto-
mobile in this case. Extension of moaning.)

"La m&quina quo guiaba Fuertoa so volco cuando choco con otra maquina
quo manojaba un individuo do la raza de color," La Prensa-Traducci6n,
Tampak March 23, 1939.

Mantocado (n.m.), 'Ice cream. (According to the Real Academia EspaSiola diction-
ary, mantocado is definoc as 'biscuit kneaded with lard.')

"Siompre oompro mantecado en Los Holados..."

Maquina (n.f.), 'Automobilo.' (This is a case of restricted meaning. From the
general acceptation of 'machine,' mAquina is now the automobile. Other
terms used for 'automobile' are cocho, auto and carro, c.f. mlquina, 'au-
tomobile,' Cuba and Puerto Rico, Malaro", ioccion'aio de Americanismos,
p. 343. In Puort Rico, the terms carro and auto are also used for the au-
tomobile.)

"El no sabo guiar la m~quina.*."

Maroma (n.f.), 'Gymnastic feat, stunt.' (The original meaning for maroma was
'rope, cable' and from the fact that maromero means 'tight rope walker,'
the related idea is left that maroma must be the feat or stunt itself*
c.f. George E. MoSpadden, Some Semantic and Philological Facts of the Span-
ish Spoken in Chilili, New 'E ico, University of New Mexico Bulletin, p.89;
T.alrot, Diocionario dea-Me-ricansmos, p. 346.)

"Estaba haciondo marcmas en el gimnasio..."

Maromoro (n.m.), 'Acrobat.' (Castilian acceptation* 'tight rope walker.' This is
another case of extension of meaning from the specific to the general. The
term is no longer reserved for the tight rope walker, but applied to all
types of acrobats.

"No habian maromeros on esto circoe..*


"Hay quo obtenor una armonia intornaoional fundada on el acuordo de los intoresos
do todos por ol respoto leal do los derechos do cada uno.* Jose Enriquo Rod6.








pararso (vr.r), 'To stand up,' (According to the Real Academia Espoaola diction-
ary, pararso moans 'to stop, detain, halt oneself; discontinue, cease from
motion.' Acording to Menondoz Pidal, the term pararse in its present sig-
nificance was used in Old Spanish, e.g., tMando el Cid quo se llegassen
todos los sus vasallos *,. ot desque fueron todos ayuntados, el Cid parosse
on pie..." and from Lazarillo do Tormne, Tratado tres, "Mozo, pirate alli,
y veras c6mo hacomos esta oma.j, cf. paarrse, 'to stand up,' Lisandro
Espino, Ensayo de Critica Gramatical, p.S3 Malaret, Diccionario de Ameri-
canismos, p 9T Sogovia, Diccionario do Argentinismos, p. 89.)

"PArate, niio, y no seas tan necto4"

Posar (v.n.), 'To regret, dislike' (This change is not an altogether local one,
for pesar is used figuratively in the significance given above in other
Spanish speaking regions in the western hemisphere, c.f. osar, Ito re-
gret,' Segovia, Diccionario de Argentinismos, p. 90; Lisandro Espino, En-
sayo do Critica Gramatical, p7 38.)

"Mc posa much habor ido con Juan,.4

Porfiar (v.n.), 'To argue..' (Castilian acceptation is 'to persist.' The idea of
persisting gives the point of argument for the new definition of porfiaro
c.f, George E. LcSpaddon, Some Semantic and Philological Facts of the Span-
ish Spoken in Chilili, New -oeico, University of New iMoxico Bulletin, p.95)

"No sigas porfiando conmi-o, muchacho..."

Quedar (v.n.), 'To fit, to be adapted as to size and shape.' (Primary meaning is
'to remains' From the connotation of fitness of objects that must remain
in a place in order to fits the present definition above is given to quedar
in Tampa 8panish. c.f., d r6 fe E. McSpadden, Some Semantic and Philologi-
cal Facts of the Spanish Spoken in Chilili, New Mexico, University of New
7e1 xi TulTti0 t p. 93.)

"Te queda muy bien ese sombroro..."

Remolcar (v,a.), 'To tow, take in tow, as an automobile., (The new significance
given remolcar is not far from its original definition of 'to tow, take in
tow,s s a boat, ship, etc This is another case of extension of meaning.)

"Remolcamos automovilos..."

Ropolar (v.n.), 'To argue, dispute, quarrel.' (According to the Real Academia
Espanola dictionary, repolar moans 'to pull out the hair, to nip, to clip.'
cf. repolar,'to vex, enrage, offend,' Mexico; 'to regret,' Chile, Malarot,
Diccionario do Americanismos, p. 446.)

"Siempre est& repelando con su esposa.,*o

Saco (n.m.), 'Coat.' (This change in meaning is purely American, for the Casti-
lian definition of saco is 'sack, bag, bagful, measure, sacque.' The Pe-
quefo LaRousse Ilustrado lists saoo, 'garment for men,' as an AmericanTsm.)

"Se quito el saco por el calor..."

"ashington y Bolivar, augustos personajes, lorid del Nuevo Mundo, honor del g6-
nero human, junto con los varones mas insignes do todos los pueblos y do todos
los tiompos," Juan Montalvo.







Tabaqueria (n,fo), 'Cigar factory.' (Castilian acceptation, 'shop where cigars
are sold.' This is another case of extension of moaning, for Tampans or-
dinarily refer to the place where the cigars are made when using the above
term. The Academy dictionary now limits the above definition to Cuba.)

"Trabajo en aquella tabaquer{a..."

Traste (n.m.), 'Dishware, hardware.' (Original definition of traste is 'stop or
fret of a guitar.' In the province of Andalusia, however, the word may be
used to refer to a 'glass or cup for sampling wines,' Poquoeo LaRousse,
p. 913, c.f. trasto, 'piece of furniture, luggage, rubbish, toy, play-
thing,' Malaret, Diccionario do Amoricanismos, p. 494.)

"Guidado, niia, quo me vas a romper los trastes..."

Trompotilla (n.f.), 'Hiss, demonstration of displeasure.' (Castilian acceptations
small trumpet, oar-trumpet.' This change in meaning may be due to the re-
lated idea of the action with the shape and form of the trumpet, c.fe trcm-
petilla, 'hiss, demonstration ot displeasure,' Cuba and Puerto Rico, MaTa-
rot, Diccionario do Americanismos, p. 497.)

Vacilar (ven.), 'To dissipate, to pursue pleasure to excess,' (The Academy dic-
tionary defines vacilar as 'to vacillate, waver, fluctuate, hesitate, reel,
staggerr' The change in meaning here may be purely local instead of Ameri-
can*)

"Estaba vacilando toda la semana*.."

3
PART II. SPANISH LOAN WORDS FROM ENGLISH

Baquear or baquiar *................. to back up (as an automobile)

Baro,................................... bar (a liquor shop)
Apparently the term is also used in Argentina. cof, "Fueron a un bar cercano,.,n
Manuel GlIvoe, La Sombra dol Convento, Buenos Airos, 1922, p. 78.

Bateria............ ....... .. battery

Bloforo....... ......................... bluffer

Budin or pudin*..*...................... pudding

Bungalow, .......... ..... ....* ..... ... bungalow
c.f. bungal6, Fernando Ortiz, Glosario de Afronogrismos, Havana, 1924, p. 72.

Bur6.... ............................**. bureau, dresser

Control.... ...... ....................s control
cf. "Me encontraba en el cuarto do control cuando ompoez a hundirso dijo ol
tonionto," La Prensa-Traducci6n, Tampa, May 26, 1939.

Craca. .... .F....................... Florida cracker


3Noteo Phonetic spelling is used in Spanish throughout this list. A number of
words, however, are spelled exactly as pronounced in Tampa Spanish.







Cranquoar or cranquiar**................ to crank (as an automobile)

Crismas... ....*....*.. .......********** Christimas

Quartos furnidos........*............... furnished roams

Chansa---------------n-- ---------- chance

Chaporon. ........ .. ...... ........*..* .. ohaporon
4
Chcquoar or choquiar *................. to chock

Cherife..... ...... ............... sheriff

Chofer.............. .................. chauffeur

Enforzar,............................... to enforce

Filmacion 6*... ....................* filming

Filmar,...,............................ to film

Flonquear or flonquiar.,,. ............. to flunk (slang)

Fotingo,.. ....... ..... ..... ......... Ford (slang)

Furnitura............................... furniture

Garage...............................o., garage

Guisqui or huisqui ., .............. whiskey

Lidcro e........o..e.............*.....* loader

Lofoar or lofiar........................ to loaf

Listorinha9.......... ...... ..... ....... Listorine

Lonchar0l...... *. .....................* to lunch

Loto.................................... lot (as a city lot)

4c.f. F. M. Kerchoville, A Proliminary Glossary of New Mexican Spanish, Universi.
ty of Now IMexico Bulletin, July 15, 1934, p. 61.
5.f. n... chafor do una ambulancia quo choco con una miquina la tardo do la pa-
rada do Gasparilla..," La.Pronsa-Traduccion, Tampa, March 10, 1939.
6cf. Ibid, March 17, 1939, "Quedo confirmado rociontemente quo Hollywood os una
do las comunidades mas oxogntricas ouando, con motive de la filmacion de una pe-
licula so somotio a 26 mulas...
7c.f. Hugo Wast, Desiorto do Piedra, Now York, (o.1930), p. 183, "Entoncos habr&
quo omborracharlo... ProoTcamento he trado una botolla do un gfisqui tan do su
gusto... Una botella de Caballo Blanoo."
cof. La Pronsa-Traduccion, Tampa, May 27, 1939, "*,. dospues do haborso de lfdor
duranV' 15 vuoltas tuvo quo retirarse do la compotencia al roventarsolo una goman,
9cof. Korchoville, o. cit., p. 64.
10c.f. Idom,








Mitin *,-...r............

Motooiclo lol2,,'..... ........... .....



Paniqude.. 5*. ..***********S.*****...* 5 5*

Parquoar or parquiar,...................

Piquiniqui...... e...-.................-

Pompa..e..................,............o

Pompear or pomnpiar................. ..

Rulal ......Ses.5s eesseo
14
Sangfichi or sanhuichi ..............

Soda.* 0 .a0 0a.. #.& .. 500 .00 a 5 0 0

Suoral5, o 0* 0 ,, *............ ......

Tasaoio6n.. e**..... *e* e......*.* *.. .ee

Tax18 ...................................

Tiquote17 .... ..........................

Yanqui*. ..... .. 5.. ..... ...............*


meeting

motorcycle

nickel (as United States five cent piece)

cako (pancako)

to park (as an automobile)

picnic

air pump

to putp air (as an automobile air pump)

ruler (as a measuring dviloo)

sandwich

cold drink (soda)

sweater (Winter garment)

taxation

tax

ticket

Yankee


nof. La Prensa-Traduocion* Tampa, March 10, 1939, "El mitin east abiorto al pa i
blioo y todas las personas.interesadas on las escuelas y on los niffos.*-,
12c, f Korcheville, op. cit, p. 64.
13cf. IIbid, p. 66,
14cf, Idem.
1. The toem swoator is pronounced sueter in Cuba and in other Spanish American
countries' .
16cf. La Prensa.Traduccibn, March 9, 1939, fEstoeo debit %.. a los otros taxes
quo hIZ sido impuestos a la industrial tabaoalora.,.
17c.f, tiquote, Lisandro Espino, 'nsayo do Critioa Gramatical, Panmanm 1925i
tlque Kerchoville, op. oith, p. 7 .. '"


(To Be Continued In Next Issue)


"Sin la libertad dol ponsamionto no puede oxistir la libortad civil ni la politi-
oa," Leonardo Lope Jrs





34.


OUR CONTRIBUTORS

Dr. William C. Zellars is an Associate Professor of Spanish at the Florida
Southern College in Lakoland, Florida, and is Director of the Instituto do las
Espaias on los Estados Unidos, Seccion do la Florida. Ho is author of La Novola
historica on Espolna, 1828-18501 Influoncia do Scott on Espanai Elomentry Collo
Spanish B blio rahy of tho Spanish Historicl Nol Sott and Certain Spanish
s torical Novelists, otc.

Dr. Robert E. McNiooll, Assistant Professor of History at the University of
Mioni, Coral Gables, is one of loading spirits in Pan Americanism in this state,
and is especially interested in Latin America,

Leonard T. May, student at the University of Florida, is one of the best in-
torpreters of Latin American music on the campus. An excellent guitarist, May is
always willing to play for Inter-American programs. Ho spent a number of years in
Cuba and is very familiar with the Spanish language.

Rafael Cuollar y Zayas, grandson of Dr. Alfredo Zayas y Alfonso, is enrolled
in the College of Agriculture of the University of Florida, and is one of the best
liked students on the oampus. Cuollar was recently elected secretary of Los Pica-
ros do Quovedo, honorary Spanish fraternity.

Andros Davis Salazar, the inimitable Colombian orator, is a student at the
University of Florida,and was formerly president of Los Picaros do Quevedo, honor-
ary Spanish fraternity. During the year of 1938-39, Davis taught Spanish at the
Daytona Beach Vocational School,

Raul Ramos, student from Honduras, is majoring in bacteriology and has been
enrolled at the University of Florida for tio past two years. Ho plans to trans-
fer to the bacteriology school in St. Louis, Mo.

Frederick Reynolds, graduate of the University of Florida, is now connected
with the Experiment Station of the University. Graduating with honors and a mem-
ber of Phi Kappa Phi, Reynolds is one of the outstanding men interested in Latin
American Affairs. During the year 1938, he taught in the public schools of Puerto
Rico.

Francis M. DoGaotani, Instructor in Spanish and German at the University of
Florida, graduated from the local institution in 1929. A member of Phi Kappa Phi,
honorary national scholastic fraternity, and Los Picaros do Quevedo, honorary
Spanish fraternity, DoGaetani is well known by both his colleagues and his stu-
dents. Ho is now acting in the capacity of Assistant Director of the Institute of
Inter-American Affairs, and has the distinction of being the first student of the
University of Florida to participate in the exchange program of the Institute.

Manuel D. Ramirez, editor of the Rovista Intoramoricana and president of Los
Picaros do Quevodo, is a graduate of the University of Florda. After one year of
teaching at the Florida Military Institute in Haines City, he returned to the Uni-
versity to work on his master's degree, and is now affiliated with the Institute
of Inter-American Affairs,