Proposal for an Inter-American Cultural and Scientific Center


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Proposal for an Inter-American Cultural and Scientific Center
Inter-American Cultural and Scientific Center
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iv, 213 l. : illus., tables. ; 28 cm.
University of Florida -- Graduate School
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University of Florida
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The objective in preparing this proposal has been twofold: first to pre-

sent a plan for the development of an Inter-American Cultural and Scientific

Center at the graduate level which is within the capability of the University

of Florida to develop and operate; and second to provide the faculty with an

opportunity to express its interests in regard to an expansion of the present

program of inter-American activities. Hence, about thirty faculty members

took individual responsibility for writing the various sections of this report

which were then coordinated through the Graduate School. The report may

not have the coherence that could have been achieved by single authorship,

but it is far more representative of the cooperative action and decentralized

operation required for a Center that must be administratively coordinated

with some thirty academic departments in six colleges.

The Center proposed would increase several fold the graduate program

of the University of Florida in the field of inter-American studies. The ex-

panded program would provide for acceptance annually of some three hundred

graduate students from Latin American countries who would become candi-

dates for master's and doctor's degrees in humanistic, social, scientific,

and applied science areas of the University. It would also expand the Uni-

versity's graduate program for U. S. students who plan a career either over-

seas or in this country involved with inter-American relations. There is

clear evidence that both Latin American and U. S. graduates will continue to


find wide opportunities for employment in higher education, business, and

government in positions that will make use of advanced education including a

knowledge of inter-American relationships.

The University of Florida is prepared to expand its activities in the

inter-American field. It lacks only the financial support necessary for a

sound development. This report is an adequate expression of the enthusiasm

of the faculty in this regard. The interest of the administration may be

evaluated simply by noting that the vita sheets (presented in the appendix)

for those faculty members who have performed research, investigational

studies, teaching, or other activities within Latin America, or in relation

thereto, include the President, the Dean of the Graduate School, the Dean of

Academic Affairs, the Provost for Agriculture, the Dean of the College of

Medicine, the Director of University Libraries, and several other academic

officers. It seems unlikely that any other university contains in its adminis-

trative officers and faculty as much accumulated experience in relation to so

many countries of Latin America. Recent visits to South America have pro-

vided additional evidence that the development of an Inter-American Cultural

and Scientific Center at the University of Florida would receive enthusiastic

endorsement by university administrators and government officials in Latin

American countries.

Gainesville, Florida L. E. Grinter
January 10, 1961 Dean, Graduate School




Introduction ....... ... ...... .......... .. 1
Historical Development of the Inter-American Program ..... 7
School of Inter-American Studies, 1950-1960 ...... 22
Educational Activities of Students--Inter-American Program,
1950-1960 . ... . 30
Research and Sponsored Projects in Latin American Area,
1955-1960 .......... ................ 38
Faculty Report on Inter-American Activities Summarized. 43
University of Florida--General Information . .. 46


Plan and Flow Chart for Inter-American Center .. 59
Reception Center and Latin American Services Office 65
University Libraries--Latin American Collections 74
English Language Institute .................. 84
Institute of North American Culture .. .. 89
Institute of Latin American Languages . 93
Graduate Institute of Humanities, Education,
and Cultural Relations ............. ..... 98
Graduate Institute of Economics and Commercial Relations 107
Graduate Institute of Sociology, Law, and Political Relations 117
Graduate Institute of Agriculture, Biology, and
Tropical Resources ... ........... 126
Graduate Institute of Science, Engineering, and
Environmental Health . . ... 139
Graduate Institute of Caribbean Studies . .... 156
Graduate Institute of Brazilian Studies . .. 166
Graduate Institute of Central American Studies. .. 175
Graduate Institute of Spanish South American Studies .. 183
Latin American Research Services Bureau . .. 194
Institute for Inter-American Conferences and Special Projects 197
Inter-American House--Cultural-Social Center ... 203
Budget Estimates for Inter-American Cultural and
Scientific Center ............. ......... 208


Index of Names ......... ....... ....... 213


Background for an Inter-American Center at the University of

Florida. --As will be clarified in the following historical section of

this report, the University of Florida has operated a School of Inter-

American Studies for many years and has maintained a continuing

educational activity for Latin American students for more than half

a century. The extent of the relationships of faculty members of the

University with Latin American countries, and the importance of

their work in the growth and development of those countries has been

of great significance. It is believed that the activities summarized

in this report will adequately substantiate this statement even though

it will be impossible to mention even by title more than a fraction of

the research, educational, investigational, and consulting contacts

involved over the years. It is also impossible to give an adequate

picture of the influence upon Latin American development of the

hundreds of Spanish, Portuguese, French, and English speaking

nationals of southern countries who have studied at the University of

Florida and then returned to their homes to become influential citi-

zens in the fields of agriculture, architecture, education, commerce,

engineering, science, law, pharmacy, and finally medicine with the

recent development of the College of Medicine and the Health Center.

Through faculty, students, and alumni the University of Florida has

close ties with every country south of the United States. Its recent

foreign student group, involving registration of some 200 students

annually, has represented all the Latin American countries except


Unsatisfied Educational Needs. --For the past several years the

faculty of the University of Florida has urged at every opportunity that

the University expand its activities for the benefit of Latin American

students and also its official contacts with Latin American countries

in contradistinction to those contacts so admirably conducted by faculty

members on an individual basis. Some activities of this nature have

developed, as for example the University's contract through the Ag-

ricultural Experiment Station with the Government of Costa Rica

sponsored by ICA for research in several areas of agriculture. Pro-

posals for educational exchanges have been submitted to foundations,

but, as is well known, the combined support by both private and public

agencies of educational interrelationships between the United States

and Latin American countries has been quite limited. Although this

situation is improving it is only three years since the Graduate School

of the University of Florida prepared a report at the suggestion of one

of the large foundations that emphasized the extreme shortage even of

travel funds to permit a doctoral candidate or a professor to visit a

Latin American country for field research. Hundreds of such contacts

and extended studies could have been developed merely by outside

subsidization of research travel, with stipends or salaries paid

through normal channels. However, the situation has now become so

critical that a major program is needed. This report presents a

program that could fill a significant part of the need for enhanced

educational exchange at the graduate and advanced conference levels.

The program envisioned is within the competency of the University of

Florida. The cost represents about a 10 per cent increase in its

annual budget. The present faculty would form the essential nucleus

around which an expanded faculty would be developed by internal

training and external recruitment. These additional activities would

increase the graduate student body by 20 per cent and the over-all

number of students by 3 per cent. The requirements of the program

are therefore readily predictable and within the limits of reasonable


Summary of Proposed Program. --The University of Florida

proposes to organize an Inter-American Cultural and Scientific

Center for three hundred additional graduate students from Latin

America and the United States encompassing nine graduate institutes

and the necessary peripheral functions such as expanded library

collections, research services, English and Latin American language

institutes, a program of study of North American institutions, a

cultural and social center, and an institute for handling arrangements

for conferences at an advanced level, short courses and interchanges

for cultural, scientific, and other educational purposes. Five of the

nine graduate institutes are planned for the particular service of Latin

American students. They are shown in parallel blocks at the mid-

section of the flow chart on page 61. Four other institutes are for

students from the United States and elsewhere who are preparing for

careers in relation to Latin America.

Graduate Institutes for Latin American Students. --These institutes

are designated as (1) Humanities, Education, and Cultural Relations,

(2) Economics and Commercial Relations, (3) Sociology, Law, and

Political Relations, (4) Agriculture, Biology, and Tropical Resources,

and (5) Science, Engineering, and Environmental Health. Experi-

ment may dictate some reorganization or expansion of the subjects

involved, but the objective will be that of providing programs of

particular value to the students of underdeveloped countries. Ex-

perience at the graduate level has demonstrated that about one-half

the students from underdeveloped countries do not fit readily into the

programs of regular academic departments. The programs of such

departments, planned with the needs of American graduate students

in mind, give insufficient attention to the problems of development

for countries of low economic, technological, agricultural, or edu-

cational advantages. The proposed graduate institutes would provide

degree studies with courses drawn from a broader base than is usual

in graduate programs for American students. There would also be

seminars designed especially to give detailed consideration to the

problems of underdeveloped regions of Latin America through the

perspective of the special knowledge accumulated in each individual

graduate institute. American students majoring in related areas will

be encouraged to attend these seminars.

Graduate Geographical Institutes. --The four regional graduate

institutes classified as (1) Caribbean Studies, (2) Brazilian Studies,

(3) Central American Studies, and (4) Studies of Spanish South

America are designed particularly, but not exclusively, for North

American students. In all institute seminars much will be accom-

plished by the interactions of students from several Latin American

countries with students from the United States. The North American

students will have the objective of ultimate employment in education,

government, or industry in positions related to Latin America. Most

graduates will spend a period of employment in a Latin American

country. The unique opportunity presented by these regional or

geographical institutes will be to combine graduate study in any

subject-matter field with a study of one of the four geographical

regions of Latin America. There will also be an opportunity for

certain students to develop a broader training for application to a

given geographical area than might be feasible under departmental

degree requirements. In other words, an American student may

choose to major in a graduate department such as economics,

agronomy, or sociology, and enroll for a minor in the seminars of

one of the regional institutes. Conversely a student may choose to

develop a major around the core studies of a regional institute by

selecting related subjects from several departments and other in-

stitutes. Such "area studies" will be approved by the faculty of an

institute rather than a department. This plan has been in operation

for several years in the School for Inter-American Studies with

responsibility for development of M. A. and Ph. D. programs placed

in the hands of a special graduate faculty of an interdepartmental

character. The success of this operation justifies the concept of

the expanded regional institutes shown on the flow chart which would

have a similar objective.

Advanced Conferences and Short Courses. --The influence of the

Inter-American Center can be much enhanced in the area of exchange

of information at an educational level by placing a strong emphasis

upon the temporary residence of Latin American scholars at the Uni-

versity of Florida, where they will lend great strength to the graduate

seminars. However, many other scholars should be brought to the

University from Latin American countries for shorter periods of time


to take part in high-level conferences with North American scholars,

government officials, and industrial representatives. Florida is a

natural setting for such conferences and short courses. One example

is the current international Winter Institute of Quantum Science being

held in December, 1960. Conferences on agricultural, economic,

humanistic, political, social, medical, engineering, educational, and

legal problems would develop rapidly with appropriate subsidization.

It would be a part of the plan to arrange travel itineraries for visiting

Latin Americans to other cities or institutions so that a perspective

of American life might be obtained. Conference activities are con-

sidered of such significance that they will be administratively or-

ganized under a separate institute for conferences, short courses,

and related activities for exchange of information. Based upon ex-

perience with the operation of the annual Caribbean Conference, it is

anticipated that four major annual conferences covering geographical

areas of Latin America and numerous lesser conferences and short

courses devoted to timely scientific or cultural subject matter would

be desirable. It is planned that at least two hundred Latin Americans

would be brought to the campus each year by these conference ac-



The Culmination of Seventy Years of Development. --The inter-

American program at the University of Florida has reached a high

level in its steady development since the 1890's. Even the casual ob-

server on campus would be struck by the great variety of activities

which embrace some phase or other of Latin American life or interests.

There are nearly 200 Latin American students enrolled, and they

represent all the countries to the south except two. Their own Club

Latinoamericano commands a consistently active participation of at

least a hundred members, and its paper interestingly portrays for

all students, as its name suggests, "The Latin Way. There are fifty-

two masters and doctoral candidates in ten departments whose research

rests primarily on some phase of Latin American life from agricultural

economics, animal husbandry, and biology, to history, political

science, and sociology. For the past three summers, Florida stu-

dents have studied through group projects at the University of San

Carlos in Guatemala and at the Instituto Tecnologico de Monterrey in


More than thirty-five staff members devote their primary at-

tention to Latin American courses, while perhaps a hundred all told

engage in some activity closely related to Latin American interests.

Their publications in this field are many. The University also has the

editorship of such well-known professional publications as the Latin

American Monographs, the Journal of Inter-American Studies, and


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the Hispanic American Historical Review. Library holdings on

Latin America number over 34, 000 volumes, with additional re-

sources in documents, microfilms, and periodicals. One might well

ask, then, how did this come to be? The answer lies in a number of

deep-seated factors which over the past seventy years have produced

a steady development of the inter-American program of the Univer-

sity of Florida.

The Period from 1890 to 1928. --The first of three broad periods

of Latin American studies at the University fell between the years

1890 to 1928. It could be characterized as an initial phase in which

interest in Latin America was first awakened and some course work

was begun. The geographical proximity of the state to the Caribbean

Sea has always been a fundamental factor in interesting the University

of Florida in the Latin American field. In the academic year of 1890-

1891, the first Latin student--Tomas Angel G. of Havana, Cuba--

enrolled in a preparatory course at the predecessor institution, the

Florida Agricultural College. In the 1890's, some fifteen Cubans and

a Central American comprised the foreign student body with the ad-

dition of a Canadian and an Englishman. Business and commerce,

agriculture, and general preparatory courses were their main in-

terests in this early period.

The involvement of the United States in the Spanish-American

War was accompanied by an initial rise in the number of Cubans en-

rolled, but from 1903 until 1928 the foreign student body never

exceeded twelve persons in any given semester. Gradually, students

were enrolled from Brazil, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay,

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Peru, and the Canal Zone. Their interests continued heavily in

agriculture but began to extend to mechanical and civil engineering.

Correspondence courses in agriculture were first offered in 1909-

1910, and these attracted Latins in greater numbers than did the

regular courses offered at the University. From this early period,

the location of Florida provided climatic and soil conditions which

when researched and taught at this University for its own students

also served the needs of Caribbean students in subtropical and

tropical agriculture, horticulture, agricultural marketing, sanita-

tion, highway construction, water supply, and so forth. While their

academic interests were served mainly by these technical studies,

this small Latin American element was also active in founding such

extracurricular student organizations as the Cosmopolitan Club (1918)

and the International Relations Club (1926).

Development of Working Relations with Latin America. --For

their part, Floridians were increasingly awakened to the important

location of the state with regard to Latin American trade and com-

merce. In the year 1894-1895, a Miss Aurora Mena of Havana became

the first instructor of the Spanish language, and thereby initiated

Latin American studies in this institution. The catalog in which the

Spanish course was described stated that:

Our business and social relations'with the Spanish-speaking
people.of. Mexico, Central America, the West Indies and South
America are, year by year, becoming closer; hence a knowl-
edge of the Spanish tongue may be of great practical value to
the students now in our schools, who will, in a few years, be
leaders in business, in politics, and in society. Recognizing
this, our College has introduced and encouraged the pursuit of
Spanish as one of the important studies.

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The Cuban War further convinced the administration of the need for

Spanish, and, for one short year from 1903-1904, when the name of

the institution was changed to the University of Florida, all students

were required to take one year of Spanish in order to receive their


In other phases of the University's development, this period was

of very modest importance, except as a stimulus to early interest in

Latin America. Only in history did a specific course on Latin America

appear in 1927. A senior thesis was required of bachelor's candidates

at the turn of the century, and one of the earliest "theses" was

written on "The Monroe Doctrine" in 1902, with a few others of Latin

American content following. No graduate degree with Latin American

subject matter appeared in this period, although the University did

grant the master's degree at the time. Finally, a first step in the

area of staff collaboration with Latin American academic institutions

came through the appointment of Peter Henry Rolfs (then Director

of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station) to establish and

direct the Escola Superior de Agricultura in Viscosa, Minas Geraes,

Brazil, in 1921. The University worked closely with that school in

the following decade, setting a pattern that later grew into wide-

spread activity of the staff in such collaboration in the 1940's and

1950's. All this initial activity reflected a growing realization in

Gainesville of the geographic, commercial, technical, and cultural

factors linking the State of Florida in a completely natural way with

the Americas to the south.

The Period from 1928 to 1947. --A second clearly distinguishable

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period in the growth of the inter-American program developed during

the long and able presidency of Dr. John J. Tigert from 1928 until

1947. In those two decades, the early natural conditions tending

toward inter-American cooperation at the University were supplemented

by strong administrative direction which served from the beginning

to institutionalize such interests in an integrated program for their

positive development. As a result, a solid and widespread basis of

inter-American activity gradually extended throughout most phases

of University life, which is still the case today. Also, fortunately

for Latin American studies, succeeding administrations down to the

present time have continued to support and expand the inter-American

program since 1947.

During his eight years as a United States Commissioner of Edu-

cation in Washington, Dr. Tigert became convinced of the opportunity

afforded by Florida as a "point of confluence for the Latin and Saxon

ideologies and cultures." Upon assuming the presidency at Florida in

1928, he sought a formal way to extend the inter-American activities

beyond the limits of the state and even the nation. From 1928 until

1930, President Tigert corresponded with Dr. Leo S. Rowe, then

Director General of the Pan American Union, and he also sought the

counsel of such Washington officials as Dr. Julius Klein, U. S. De-

partment of Commerce; Dr. Leon M. Estabrook, U. S. Department

of Agriculture; and John Barrett, Chairman of the International Pan-

American Committee and previously Director General of the Pan

American Union. Dr. Wallace W. Atwood, President of Clark Uni-

versity, offered useful advice, and Dean Walter J. Matherly of the

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University's College of Commerce and Journalism and Dr. Rollin S.

Atwood were prime movers on a campus faculty committee to set

down a program of action. The Institute of Inter-American Affairs

(IIAA) was the result, and it was incorporated in the University

Constitution in 1930.

The Institute of Inter-American Affairs, 1930. --The IIAA was

governed by a faculty committee on Inter-American Affairs and an

executive director, both appointed by the President. In addition, advice

was available from an advisory council of persons not on the Univer-

sity's staff. The IIAA had charge of Latin American students on cam-

pus, and it advised on course work to train American students in

Latin American subjects. When Dr. Rollin S. Atwood became director

from 1930 to 1942, he personally aimed at two goals: (1) to build a

sound and integral program, and (2) to foster that program as a broad

university endeavor by administration and faculty members rather

than as a more narrow activity solely the concern of the IIAA. Spe-

cifically, the purpose of the Institute was defined as follows: (1) to

foster international good will between the two Americas; (2) to hold

conferences and institutes on inter-American affairs; (3) to stimulate

interchange of ideas; (4) to encourage the exchange of students and

professors between colleges and universities of the two continents;

(5) to promote an interplay of cultural ideals; (6) to stimulate

specific studies common to the two Americas; and, (7) to advance

inter-American interests in agriculture, in trade and commerce, in

education, in health, and in other fields of human endeavor.

The rising sentiment of Pan-Americanism in the 1930's ultimately

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culminated in the period of high good will in the Americas called

"the Good Neighbor Era, and Florida felt she was a pioneer among

southern institutions and the equal of the eight or ten non-Southern

universities with Latin American programs in the academic phase

of that movement. Three important events marked Florida's official

program to build inter-American cultural and academic exchange

under the Tigert administration, each heralding new hope for its pro-

gram and each failing due to world forces that diverted the University's

limited funds to other activities.

The First Latin American Conference, 1931. --The first annual

conference of the IIAA was held with great fanfare in 1931, an occasion

in which the University chose to combine her celebration of the

twenty-fifth anniversary of the Buckman Act--establishing the in-

stitution at Gainesville--with the important new step into inter-

American affairs through the IIAA. Supported by Florida's Governor

Doyle E. Carlton at the state level, the conference also called upon

national and international figures for contributions. Stephan P.

Duggan, Director of the Institute of International Education cooperated

in the four-day meeting, and Dr. Victor Andrds Belaunde of Peru and

Dr. James A. Robertson, editor of the Hispanic American Historical

Review, also participated actively. During the ceremonies, the Uni-

versity marshal who presented delegates and supervised the academic

procession was a young major named James A. Van Fleet--whose

ultimate fame came in a field outside Latin America. Roundtables,

papers, and discussions were organized on (1) Inter-American Un-

derstanding, (2) the Role of Agricultural Education, (3) Research to

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Increase Intellectual Understanding, and (4) Inter-American Edu-

cational Activities. The 2, 300 all-male student body donated flags

for each of the American republics, and twenty-one semitropical

trees were planted in a central square named the Plaza of the Americas

to commemorate the University's desire to build a living and growing

inter-American program.

A second major event brought early hope that Florida would indeed

emerge as a recognized international leader in the inter-American

field. In 1932, at its Lisbon Congress, the Federation Interalliee

des Anciens Combattants (FIDAC) awarded the FIDAC Educational

Medal to Florida "as the most outstanding in work in furthering Latin

American relations of all the [U.S. ] colleges, regardless of enroll-

ment [size]." Other institutions receiving the medal had been Cali-

fornia, Carleton, Chicago, Clark, Columbia, Georgetown, Princeton,

and Vassar, and this citation by the inter-allied federation of ex-

service men of World War I was hailed in Gainesville as one of "the

greatest honors that has ever been paid the University of Florida. "

However, plans for a second large conference in 1933 to celebrate

the formal ceremony at which the award was to be made were can-

celled due to lack of funds. The paucity of state funds during the years

of the Great Depression continued to limit the development of the

IIAA throughout the 1930's, so that Florida was unable to capitalize

fully on her program, despite its initiation in the heyday of hemi-

spheric good will under the policy of the Good Neighbor.

Inter-American Educational and Cultural Conference, 1940. --A

third occasion arose in 1940 for the IIAA to promote an international

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meeting when it held the seven-day Inter-American Educational and

Cultural Conference in April, 1940. At that time, the University was

emerging somewhat from its financial limitations, and, as the St.

Augustine Record described it, "all of Florida is talking Pan Ameri-

canism...." The time seemed right for emphasizing an all-Latin

American speakers' program to reflect the national policy of that

time toward hemispheric solidarity in face of the Axis advances in

Europe and America. The Carnegie Endowment for International

Peace helped underwrite the expense of the meeting, and the IIAA

hailed the event as commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the

Pan American Union and its own tenth anniversary. A twofold pur-

pose was sought: (1) to publicize in the United States the educational

and cultural advances of Latin America, and (2) to discuss ways and

means of improving teaching of Latin American courses at the ele-

mentary, secondary, and advanced levels in American schools.

Several resolutions were taken to extend Latin American courses,

interdepartmental studies, Portuguese language teaching, under-

graduate student exchange, and to introduce common elementary

school materials for the entire hemisphere. In the early 1940's

the University actually acted in each of these areas, but the barrier

of depression was soon replaced by that of wartime restrictions on

the University's facilities from 1941 until 1945.

Aid to Latin American Students. --Outside the field of conferences

and international exchange of ideas and professional know-how, the

University gradually and steadily broadened the collective activities

of students, course work, and staff members. The number of Latin

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American students on campus grew from eight in 1930 to a wartime

high of forty-two in 1945, a steady but rather insignificant growth

except for the fact that it occurred during a period when all types of

Latin American exchanges were inordinately difficult to achieve. These

few students were considered as unofficial ambassadors of good will,

however, and they formed a small but important focal point for campus

activities. On the academic side, special English courses were de-

veloped for them starting in 1930, and special English language and

cultural institutes were held in 1943 and 1946. Special Institute

Scholarships were created in 1932, and the tradition of granting

tuition-free scholarships and some room and board scholarships

dates from that time. By 1945, Florida had awarded more Latin

American scholarships than any other colleges except Iowa State

College, University of California at Berkeley, and University of


In addition, an Inter-American Dormitory Section inaugurated

in 1939 was the basis for a continuing Florida tradition which insists

on Latin Americans being housed with American roommates so that

both can benefit from their social contacts. The Latin students took

part in campus activities and shared heavily in the production of a

five-year publication called the Revista Interamericana, which was

published in both Spanish and English from 1939 until 1944. That "Inter-

American Review" eventually published articles on all phases of inter-

American activity from literature and politics to international re-

lations. These same students gave Spanish-language radio programs

over the University Station WRUF, night classes in Spanish and

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Portuguese, language films, and so forth. While they tended to under-

take technical courses in architecture, agriculture, engineering, edu-

cation, pharmacy, and business administration, they also found time

for extracurricular activities on the track and tennis teams, soccer,

and swimming, as well as being cheerleaders. In later years, they

returned home to positions as department heads in government

agencies, to university and technical teaching posts, to private

businesses such as newspapers and architecture firms, and to de-

velopment of governmental and commercial agriculture programs.

Latin American Activities of U. S. Students and Faculty

Members. --Their American counterparts in the student body en-

joyed a marked expansion in the number of courses with Latin

American content from which to choose, especially in the Colleges

of Commerce and Arts and Sciences. From 1928 until 1947, special

courses were developed in Spanish American literature, civilization,

geography, trade, Portuguese, and sociology, and an area study

program appeared in 1941. The University Library began an active

acquisitions program in 1930, and in 1939 the Inter-American

Reading Room of the IIAA became a focal point for book and periodical

acquisitions from Latin American colleges and embassies. The Uni-

versity awarded only the master's degree in this period at the graduate

level, and the first M. A. thesis on "Our Haitian Policy... (1929)

was followed by twenty-one master's theses with Latin American con-

tent in economics, education, history, pharmacy, and Spanish from

1929 until 1947.

Faculty members also participated in the growing inter-American

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program with lectures, committee work, interchange and consulta-

tion with other universities and governments, and through their re-

search publications. Much of this activity is summarized in another

part of this report. Some of these appointments were of national

status, as in the naming by Henry A. Wallace of Agricultural Dean

H. H. Hume to a national committee for Latin American cooperation

in education in 1940. Dean Hume also accepted the chairmanship of

the administrative committee of the important Inter-American In-

stitute of Agricultural Sciences at Turrialba, Costa Rica, in later

years. Foreign visitors who participated in campus activities in-

cluded Ernesto Montenegro (Chile), Pablo Max Ynsfran (Paraguay),

Carlos Davila (Chile), and, later on, Alberto Lleras Camargo

(Colombia). The latter two men were both directors general of the

Pan American Union under the Organization of American States in the

post-World War II period, and two earlier directors of that body--

Dr. Rowe and Mr. Barrett--had also cooperated with the IIAA in this

important second period of Latin American studies growth from 1928

until 1947.

The Period from 1947 to 1960. --The third and present period in

the.. inter-American program of the University opened with the presi-

dency of Dr. J. Hillis Miller in 1947. This period has been one of

maturity in all phases of inter-American interests and studies since

it has provided (1) for administrative reorganization to direct ade-

quately the various aspects of the program, (2) for rapid expansion

in enrollment in the program of Latin American and U. S. students,

(3) for refinement and adequate offerings in courses and degrees, and

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(4) for extension of teaching staff to meet the needs of a broad teach-

ing program in Latin American studies. This was a necessary phase

because the inter-American program established in 1930 needed read-

justment and modification with a view to better integration of its

activities, and President Miller made clear from the beginning his

stated objective to seek a renewed development of inter-American

interests at the University after 1947. He particularly aimed at over-

coming the problems of paucity of funds and lack of general interest

in Latin America. The administrations of Acting President John

Allen and President J. Wayne Reitz in the 1950's have continued to

reflect and advance this same approach.

From the Miller administration came a clear division between

Latin American students and Latin American studies. By 1950, the

present School of Inter-American Studies was founded primarily to

coordinate graduate studies, while a Latin American Area Studies

program at the undergraduate level was left within the College of Arts

and Sciences. In 1952, an Adviser to Foreign Students was placed

over all students from abroad, and the non-Latin foreign students

rapidly overtook the Latins in number of enrollment in the 1950's.

A counselor for Latin American Agricultural Students was provided

in 1952 to cover that important group of students. Outside of agricul-

tural studies, the Latin American tends to specialize as always in

technical areas like architecture, business administration, education,

engineering, and pharmacy. Enrollment has increased nearly sixfold

in this third period since 1947, and the University's philosophy

toward these students continues to hold that "the foreign student is an

Historical Development

asset, that he can contribute even more to us than we give to him,

and this is a truth which should be emphasized continually by the

University. "

Recent Growth in Latin American Activities. --Latin American

studies for American students have flourished in the period since

1947. Specialized Latin American courses were added in art, music,

political science, and Inter-American Area Studies. The latter pro-

gram particularly aimed to prepare graduates for posts in business

and government, as well as in teaching. In this period, the doctoral

degree was granted for the first time for Latin American specialists

in Inter-American Area Studies beginning in 1953, for education,

geography, and sociology in 1954, and for history, political science,

and Spanish in 1955. Provision for a teaching faculty in depth as well

as in breadth was primarily achieved after 1947, and the result can

be measured in another section of this report. Mention was made

in the introduction to this statement of the number of advanced degree

candidates and the size of the staff in 1960. In December, 1960, the

eleventh annual conference on the Caribbean area since 1950 was

held, and University of Florida staff members delivered nearly all

of the twenty papers on aspects of ecology, economy, education, art,

government, history, and international relations of the Central

American area. No other example could better illustrate the long

road that inter-American studies have traveled in the past seventy

years at the University of Florida.

Conclusions and Summary. --The nature of the inter-American

program in the decade from 1950 to 1960 forms an important part of


Historical Development

this general report, and it can be studied in other places in more

detail. However, certain fundamental characteristics can be dis-

tinguished in the past development and present nature of the inter-

American interests at this University which go far toward explaining

its present broad program. It is important to repeat that these are

longstanding, deeply-rooted, and durable characteristics within the

traditions of this institution.

To summarize: (1) Florida offers a natural geographic and cli-

matic advantage over all other American universities by virtue of her

location as an extension of the United States into the Caribbean world,

but with direct connections to the nation's all-important Atlantic sea-

board; (2) this natural advantage alone would sustain an inter-Ameri-

can program, but successive University administrations since 1930

have chosen to promote actively inter-American interests at this in-

stitution; (3) the combination of natural advantages of location with

positive administrative direction has shaped an inter-American pro-

gram since 1890 which is notable for its breadth, depth, continuity,

progressive growth, and potential for service in hemispheric edu-

cation equally for Latin Americans and North Americans.



Purpose of the School. --For nearly ten years the School of

Inter-American Studies, the successor to the Institute of Latin

American Affairs, has followed a course laid down for it in the

University Constitution. That document stipulates that it shall be

the aim of the School to foster intelligent understanding and ap-

preciation among the peoples of the Western Hemisphere. The

School also shall encourage and undertake specific studies and

surveys on subjects common to the Americas, hold conferences

and institutes on inter-American affairs, encourage research

projects and publications dealing with Latin America, stimulate

interchange among the Americas of lecturers, professors, and other

specialists, and advise and consult with inter-American interests

in all fields of human endeavor. President Miller, who was re-

sponsible for setting up the School of Inter-American Studies, in-

structed the Director of the School to coordinate course offerings

relating to Latin America as well as all inter-American activities

at the University of Florida, and to serve as a contact for the

School by informing United States firms doing business in Latin

America about our aims and objectives. Financial aid has been

sought for various objectives, including scholarships, fellowships

and assistantships, travel grants, research grants, publication

grants, and "cooperative grants, especially in connection with the

annual Caribbean Conferences. Since 1950 contacts have been


School of Inter-American Studies

formed with more than five-hundred business firms, foundations,

cultural and educational groups, public and private associations,

and government agencies in the United States as well as in Latin

America. In the majority of instances these contacts have been

maintained, and cooperation of various types has been secured from

these groups.

Special Activities. --To facilitate many of these activities, the

School of Inter-American Studies organized two advisory commit-

tees, one of United States citizens and the other of Latin Americans.

These men and women are political, economic, and cultural leaders

in their various countries, and the School has had the benefit of their

suggestions and comments with respect to the over-all program. The

names of all individuals and organizations interested in the Latin

American field in various parts of the world have been included in a

master card file with approximately 7, 000 names and addresses. In

the past ten years, government agencies more and more frequently

have proposed to the School of Inter-American Studies various co-

operative activities, some of which have been financed by govern-

ment agencies. This has led the School to expand its activities into

radio and television and into the compiling and publishing of surveys

of various types. The inter-American program at the University of

Florida now has a world-wide reputation as a leading center for the

study of Latin America in a variety of fields and disciplines. Indeed,

such wide attention has been attracted to the School that in 1960 two

Japanese scholars visited the School to learn about its organization,

aims, and program so that they might return to their universities


School of Inter-American Studies

and set up Latin American area studies there.

The Caribbean Conference. --At the inception of the School of

Inter-American Studies in 1950 it was decided by the President of

the University that an annual conference on the Caribbean should be

held which would bring to the campus scholars, businessmen, and

government officials from Latin America and from the United States

who would discuss their various professional and personal interests6

and give both students and faculty the benefit of their experience

and opinions regarding the multiplicity of general and special topics

relating to the Caribbean area. Consequently, in December of each

year since 1950 a three-day conference on the Caribbean has been

held on the University of Florida campus. In each instance more

than twenty papers have been presented by scholars, businessmen,

and government officials from the Americas on integrated and co-

ordinated topics. To give prominence to these conferences the Uni-

versity of Florida Press has published a volume of proceedings of

each conference. These books have been sold throughout the world

and have attracted extremely favorable attention from scholars as

well as those with a practical interest in Latin America.

Except for the first conference the University has invited the

cosponsorship of a leading United States firm engaged in business

in Latin America. Conferences one through six were cosponsored

by the Aluminum Company of America through the Alcoa Steam-

ship Company, Inc. The seventh conference was cosponsored by

the United Fruit Company, the eighth by Esso Standard Gil S.A.;

the ninth by the Texas Company, through Texaco Caribbean, Inc.;

School of Inter-American Studies

the tenth by the International Petroleum Limited, and the eleventh,

held December, 1960, by Esso Standard Oil S.A. Limited. The

titles of the conferences were as follow: 1950, The Caribbean at

Mid-Century; 1951, The Caribbean: Peoples, Problems and Pros-

pects; 1952, The Caribbean: Contemporary Trends; 1953, The

Caribbean: Its Economy; 1954, The Caribbean: Its Culture; 1955,

The Caribbean: Current Political Problems; 1956, The Caribbean:

Contemporary International Relations; 1957, The Caribbean: British,

Dutch, French, and United States; 1958, The Caribbean: Natural

Resources; 1959, The Caribbean: Education; and 1960, The

Caribbean: The Central American Area. The roster of scholars

who have attended these conferences and presented papers reads

like an "International Who's Who" of Latin American experts. About

half the conference speakers have come from Latin American


Since the first conference it has been the custom to award

honors in the form of a citation of merit to men and women who

have made an outstanding contribution relating to the Caribbean

area. Forty-seven individuals have thus far been honored. In this

connection it should be mentioned that at the inauguration of the

School in 1950 the University of Florida, at the June commence-

ment, conferred honorary degrees on Dr. Benjamin A. Cohen, Dr.

Wilson Popenoe, Captain Colon Eloy Alfaro, and Dr. Emerterio S.

Santovenia, all leading Latin Americanists.

Publications of the School of Inter-American Studies. --Another

important activity of the School of Inter-American Studies has been

School of Inter-American Studies

through its publications. Besides the series of Conference proceedings

published by the University of Florida Press, there are three

separate continuing series of publications sponsored by the School,

which are supported by outside grants. In January, 1959, the School

began to issue the JoI~lal of InterAtt-erican Studies, a scholarly

quarterly with articles published in any 6f the four languages of the

Americas. The Journal begins its third year in January, 1961. The

second series is entitled Latin American Monograph I i' is a medium

for scholarly studies shorter than book length aid,.longer than

periodical articles. To date twelve of these have been published and

two are in press. The third series is entitled Grandes Figur'af de

America. These are brief biographies in Spanish of leading Latin

Americans who have influenced the thinking of their times, Five issues

have appeared in this series. Every three years the School of Inter-

American Studies, in cooperation with the Pan American Union,

makes a survey of investigations in progress in the field of Latin

American studies. The first of these was compiled in 1953, the

second in 1956, and the third in 1959. From time to time special

bibliographies are issued by the School.

In cooperation with the School, the Inter-American Bibliographical

and Library Association publishes a quarterly "Doors to Latin

America" comprising a guide to current books about Latin America

published in the United States. Each year in May the School publishes

a bulletin describing its organization and activities. This is dis-

tributed throughout the world to enable students, scholars, business-

men, and others to learn something of the nature and objectives of

School of Inter-American Studies

the School and to show the activities of the University of Florida in

the inter -American field.

Cooperative Activities. --Two summer school programs for stu-

dents of the University of Florida have been organized in Latin Amer-

ica. The School works closely with both the Universidad de San Carlos

in Guatemala aid with the Instituto Tecnol 'gico y de Estudids

Superiores de Monterrey in Mexico in offering summer school courses

for University of Florida students. At the present time the School has

ten fellowships of $100 each for deserving students who are accepted

for the summer session at Monterrey.

The School of Inter-American Studies cooperates closely with

various off-campus organizations. These include the Inter-American

Academy; the Association for Latin American Studies, of which the

Director is president for 1960; the Inter-American Bibliographical

and Library Association, of which the Director is also president; the

Southeastern Conference on Latin American Studies; the St. Augus-

tine Inter-American Center with its Grove of Educators of the Amer-

ica; the Colonial St. Augustine Foundation; the Pan American Foun-

dation; The Americas Foundation; the Tinker Foundation; and others.

Graduate Program in Inter-American Studies. --As originally

conceived, the School of Inter-American Studies functions at the

graduate level within the framework of the Graduate School. Its

objectives are (1) to provide knowledge of the historical and cultural

growth of Latin America from the earliest times, and (2) to give a

blear understanding and practical knowledge of the past and present

cultural, social, economic, and political conditions of the countries


School of Inter-American Studies

to the south. The general threefold program of the School is de-

signed to prepare students (a) for teaching and research in Latin

American fields, (b) for service with government agencies, or (c)

for careers with business organizations engaged in developing, im-

proving, and promoting the economic life of the Latin American

peoples. Degrees offered in the School include both the master's

and doctor's. All students taking degrees in the School find it possible

to work out with their advisers a "tailor-made" program leading to

the accomplishment of their own personal objectives. This made-to-

order program enables the student to concentrate on a definite ob-

jective and at the same time to develop related subject-matter fields,

as well as to master theory and research techniques in his chosen

field. Financial assistance to graduate students includes graduate

assistantships, fellowships, and scholarships. The School requires

of the student a functional knowledge of the language in which his

thesis or dissertation lies. The student is also required to travel in

the geographical area of his research. Atempts are made to assist

the student in finding travel and research funds, and to assist him

in publishing the final results of his research. For this purpose the

School receives special grants from foundations and other organiza-

tions which have developed an interest in the School of Inter-

American Studies.

In April, 1959, the U. S. Department of State issued a circular

on area programs in the United States in which it listed Latin

American Area Study Programs in nineteen colleges and universities

in this country. Of these programs, the one at the University of

Florida was the largest and among the most important. Its faculty


School of Inter-American Studies

was the largest and its course offerings were the most diversified.

Its graduate standards and requirements were as high as any in the

country. Its publications were more numerous than those in other

institutions. There were no figures on the number of students major-

ing in the area study programs, but it is certain that the University

of Florida has one of the largest groups of graduate students studying

about Latin America.

Current Enrollment and Applications. --During the present se -

mester the following statistics concerning graduate students study-

ing about Latin America at the University of Florida are significant:

one in agricultural economics; seven in animal husbandry; four in

biology; one in dairy science; four in economics; five in geography;

nine in history; fifteen m Inter-American Area Studies; one in politi-

cal science; and five in sociology. This makes a total of 52 graduate

students studying about Latin America and working for the master's

or the doctor's degree.

Each year more and more students throughout the hemisphere

and from overseas apply for admission to the School of Inter-American

Studies as well as to other departments teaching about Latin America.

Every year, too, we turn down dozens of student applications because

we cannot provide them with financial assistance. Each year several

score students write to inquire about our inter-American program and

ask for publications relating to it. We believe that we attract so many

students because our standards are high and because our faculty is

composed of many outstanding authorities. The location of Florida near

to Latin America and extending into the Caribbean with a Mediterranean

climate of course also attracts students to this area.



Pattern of Growth. --The preparation of young men and women

for service in business education, and government is the primary

activity of the University of Florida in its inter-American program,

and, in retrospect, the University has had an impressive record

in the training of Latin American students in a large number of

fields. It has also trained a significant and growing number of U. S.

students in the field of Latin American studies, and on each of these

fronts it is apparent that the service to Latin America through the

University of Florida has been and continues to be an increasingly

vital force.

In the first period of development from 1890 to 1928, about 79

students were enrolled from ten Latin American countries. Cubans

were first in number, followed by Brazil and Puerto Rico. Those

early students divided their attention, for the most part, between

agriculture and engineering. In the second broad period of develop-

ment of Latin American student enrollment from 1928 until 1949,

the number of students in residence rose to a total of 331. Again,

Cubans were first in number followed by Peruvians, Puerto Ricans,

and Colombians in that order. While there had been only a few

scattered degrees awarded in the period from 1890 to 1928, the

awarding of degrees was stepped up year by year. In the years from

1941 until 1949, some fifty-five degrees were granted to Latin

Americans, thirty-one bachelor's degrees, twenty-three master's


Educational Activities of Students

degrees, and one doctorate. Agriculture and engineering again led

the field of major courses, but architecture and business adminis-

tration began to appear more frequently in the list of earned degrees.

Decade, 1950-60. --The real maturing of the inter-American

program can best be illustrated by the last decade of inter-American

activities. Taken on a basis of total enrollment in the Spring semesters

of each year from 1950 to 1960, there were 1, 544 students enrolled

from every Latin American country except two. Table 1 of this

section provides details. The greatest enrollment was from

Colombia, Cuba, Panama, Venezuela (a new entry on the list of

leading countries), and Puerto Rico in that order. These students

received a total of 209 degrees, with agriculture, engineering, and

architecture leading the fields of study. In addition, the awarding

of degrees in the field of Latin American studies (including U.S.

students) reached an advanced stage in this same period, with the

Graduate School granting a total of 93 advanced degrees for which

the thesis or dissertation was written on some topic of research

related to Latin America. The nature of this activity from 1950

to 1960 appears in summary form in Table 2 of this section. The

growth in graduate work is clarified by Table 3 which shows the

1960 enrollment of 25 master's candidates and 28 Ph.D. candidates

who have selected thesis or dissertation topics on Latin American

related problems.

The Impact of Recent Latin American Graduates. --As a con-

sequence of the rapidly growing numbers of Latin American spe-

cialists trained at the University of Florida, there is growing up an




.0 cd 0 04 d 0

| E;z t g d ) 3| Annual
60 ; C & i S N
0 v40 0 ~ ~ )U 0 ~ Nos.
Years v U A U3 0 Z a0 m. > C
m~~~~~~~~~P 13~ (3( NWC. ( ZS. .

1 10

2 13

1 12

3 13

5 10

5 7

2 3

3 6

1 2


1 2

12 5

15 5

18 4

16 6

13 1 4

15 1 4

12 5

15 4

48 2 3

82 1 5

56 1 4






3 4

2 6

2 15

3 12

3 3

4 6

4 5





4 1



1 1



1 1

Totals: 16 23 24 80 404 78 302 6 49 29 28 51 20 50 115 43 6 111 109 1644















M.A. or M.S. Ph.D.

Agriculture 1

Biology 3

Economics 5

Education 5 1

English 1

Geography 4 2

History 18 3

Inter-American Area Studies 11 6

Journalism 1

Political Science 3 1

Sociology 5 5

Spanish 16

Speech 2

Totals: 74 19


Fall Semester, 1960-61

Fields M.A. or M.S. Ph. D.

Agricultural Economics 1

Animal Husbandry 6 1

Biology 2 3

Dairy Science 1

Economics 1 3

Geography 2 3

History 4 5

Inter-American Area Studies 5 10

Political Science 1

Sociology 2 3

Totals: 25 28

Educational Activities of Students

increasingly influential body of professionals serving the Americas

as University of Florida alumni. The majority of Latin American

graduates has gravitated to the field of university teaching although

they may simultaneously hold positions in business or government.

As an underdeveloped area of the world, Latin America represents

a vacuum for technically trained young men and women. Recent

Florida graduates have been drawn into key positions in all sectors

of business, education, and government service in their homelands.

They have been able to achieve rapid promotion, key positions,

high status, and great responsibility with relatively lower degree

training than would an American, Eruopean, or Canadian graduate.

Also, the relatively heavy percentage of graduates in agriculture,

engineering, architecture, business administration, and other

technical fields seems to be in direct response to the primary needs

of Latin America in the educational field.

While it would be impossible to summarize the hundreds of

cases of Florida graduates in this report, it can be stated generally

that they have tended to take employment in the two primary fields

of education and government service. After these two occupations,

business activities are the next most important, while there have

been occasional dentists, naval engineers, and agricultural mis-

sionaries among the graduating students. Any listing of graduates

would contain the names of the major Latin American universities

and technical or research institutes as places where their services

have been utilized. In the business area, graduates have worked with

American corporations, or their Latin American subsidiaries, such

Educational Activities of Students

as the United Fruit Company, Esso Standard Oil, General Tire and

Rubber, Pan American World Airways, J. C. Penney, Sears Roe-

buck, and Westinghouse Electric Corporation, to mention a few.

Examples of positions held by graduates. --Some illustration of

the achievement and service of Latin Americans who for the most

part have graduated in the past decade, can be shown in the follow-

ing sample summary of data for graduates in agriculture, engineer-

ing, and other fields:


Carlos Enrique FERNANDEZ, Guatemala. B.S. in Horticulture, 1954.
Chief, Experiment Station of Chocola, Guatemala; Head, Coffee
Research Department, Guatemala; Associate Horticulturist,
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Turrialba,
Costa Rica.

Aroldo FRENZEL, Brazil. M.S. in Ecology, 1955. Plant Ecology
and Plant Physiology Section Chief, Plant Biology Department,
Institute de Biologia e Pesquisas, Curitiba, Brazil.

Victor Antonio LARDIZABAL GALINDO, Honduras. B.S. in
Agronomy, 1955. Land appraiser for the National Development
Bank, Republic of Honduras; Director General of Natural Re-
sources, Republic of Honduras.

Gerardo MENDOZA VALCARCEL, Bolivia. B.S. in Agriculture,
1957. Head, Poultry Department, Secretary of Agriculture
Division, Republic of Bolivia.

Edgardo Jose QUIROS FERRO, Panama. B. S. in Animal Husbandry,
1958. Head, National School of Agriculture; Head, Department
of Animal Industry, National Institute of Agriculture, Republic
of Panama.

Jose Roberto VILLEDA TOLEDO, Honduras. B.S. in Agriculture,
1957. President, Agronomy Society of Honduras, 1957-1958;
Director General of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, Re-
public of Honduras.


Alberto BLEN, Costa Rica. B.S. in Civil Engineering, 1953. Head,
Department of Highway Inspection, Materials Testing Laboratory,
Public Works Ministry, Republic of Costa Rica.

Educational Activities of Students

Jorge HAYN, Nicaragua. M.S. in Engineering, 1954. Professor,
School of Engineering, National University of Nicaragua; Chief
Engineer, Department of National Construction, Public Works
Office, Republic of Nicaragua.

Julio NOLTENIUS V., El Salvador. M.S. in Engineering, 1944.
Professor of Sanitary Engineering, University of El Salvador;
Second Chief Engineer, Institute of Rural Settlement, Republic
of El Salvador.

Other Fields

Julio CALA G., Colombia. B.S. in Architecture, 1954. Professor,
Design and Construction, University "Gran Colombia, Bogota;
Assistant Dean, College of Architecture, University "Gran
Colombia. "

Esteban NUNEZ MELENDEZ, Puerto Rico. M.S., Pharmacy, 1941;
Ph.D. in Pharmacy, 1953. Associate Professor of Pharmacy,
University of Puerto Rico; President, Puerto Rican Association
of Pharmacy, 1958 to present; Pharmacist of the Year, Puerto
Rico, 1957.

Daniel MONTENEGRO, Chile. B.A., 1942. Phi Beta Kappa, Florida
1942; career officer in United States Foreign Service; Vice Con-
sul, Berlin; Public Affairs Office.

Orlando FALS BORDA, Colombia. Ph.D. in Sociology, 1955. Guggen-
heim Fellow; Dean, Faculty of Sociology, National University of
Colombia; Director General of Agriculture, Republic of Colombia.

Conclusion. --In these few brief summaries of positions held by

graduates of the University of Florida in a variety of fields and spe--

ciatiies, it can be seen that these young men have responded to a real

need in the Americas for specialized personnel in many sectors of

national life. If the positions of a thousand alumni could be pre-

sented, the picture would be one of great influence in education,

business, and government in nearly all countries of Latin America.


An incomplete survey of faculty research, and investigational

projects carried out in Latin America or on Latin American

materials or specimens, produced reports from more than sixty

faculty members. Of these about one quarter were in biology, one

quarter in agriculture and the other fifty per cent were divided more

or less evenly between the humanities, social sciences, and physical

sciences, or the engineering areas of the university.

Faculty Projects. --An inspection of the faculty reports indicates

such diverse activities as the following: prehistoric and historic

geography of Northwest Mexico; economic development in Chile; a

study of colonization of the eastern slope of the Andes; a sociological

study of Brazilian society; a sociological study of Colombian society;

tropical climatology with emphasis upon Amazonia; Jose Milla, Central

American historian; Juan Jose-Arevalo's administration of Guatemala;

commercial law of Latin America; growth of export trade between

U. S., Venezuela, Haiti, and Dominican Republic; history of the

Latin American peoples; human migration from the Andes; coloniza-

tion of the "jungle" of Peru; mineral developments in Peru; model

statute based in part on the type of legislation prevalent in South

America; strategraphic distribution and taxonomy of Puerto Rican

larger foraminifera; study of damage to banana plants from wind;

study of San Micolas Harbor, Aruba; pulping of Cuban bagasse;

radio astronomy in the Southern Hemisphere; observations of Jupiter


Research and Sponsored Projects

and Saturn from Chile; herpetofauna of Panama; herpetofauna of

Costa Rica; two tree frogs of Mexico; mariine-trtle research in

the Caribbean; comparative language behavior; Mediterranean

fruitfly in Central America; archeological investigations in Carib-

bean islands; infectious diseases of subtropical areas; South American

tree frogs; mammals of Guatemala; unabridged Spanish-English

dictionary; Jermie papers from Haiti, 1780-1800; Latin American

periodicals of 1960; origins and development of Mexican militarism;

the military in colonial Mexico; plastic arts of Central America; sea

power and Chilean independence; history of Brazil; Antonio Hariiio,

Precursor of Columbian independence; livestock and poultry diseases

of Costa Rica; agricultural development in Costa Rica; trace element

interrelationships, a problem of great importance in Latin America;

agricultural economic problems of Costa Rica; shifting populations

in Guatemala; plant disease survey in Honduras; distribution of

bahiagrasses to our southern neighbors.

Sponsored Projects (1955-60). --The above quotations give at

least a picture of the breadth of interests of the faculty that is con-

cerned with Latin American problems. In addition, the list of

sponsored projects given in the following table indicates the in-

vestigational and educational projects for the period 1955-60 that

have been of sufficient interest to outside agencies to attract fi-

nancial support. Of course, this table does not reflect direct grants

to individuals for travel, study, consulting or investigational work

in Latin America that do not become a part of the business operation

of the University of Florida.


Sponsor Project Leader Period Amount Subject of Research

Alcoa Steamship Co.


1954-56 $ 5,000

Growth of export trade between the United
States and Venezuela, Haiti, and the
Dominican Republic

American Philosophical

American Philosophical

American Philosophical

Univ. of Costa Rica




Carr, A. F.




750 Level of speciation in two allopatric tree-
frogs of Mexico

775 Origins and development of Mexican militarism

1, 950 Study of odonata of North America and Bolivia

1956-57 14, 780 Visiting professor of biology at Univ. of
Costa Rica

Creole Foundation

Creole Foundation

Ebasco Services Inc.

Guggenheim Foundation

International Coopera-
tive Administration

Republic of Nicaragua


Smith, T. L.







12, 000 Acculturation of Guajira Indians

853 Attend Seminar on Agrarian Reform at
Centra Univ., Venezuela

8, 400 The pulping properties of 21 species of
Nicaraguan hardwoods

1954-60 10, 000 Human migration from the Andes


Meyer, H. K. 1954-57 12

1, 238 Animal husbandry survey in Camaguey, Cuba

5,. 776 Vocational and technical education at Managua,


National Institutes of

National Science

National Science

National Science

National Science

SNational Science

National Science

National Science

Phipps Florida Founda-

M. L. Price Research

Rockefeller Fdtn.

Rockefeller Fdtn.

Project Leader



Smith, A.G.+
Carr, T. D.

Carr, A. F.

Carr, A. F.

Carr, A.F.



Carr, A. F.






























Subject of Research

Leptospirosis and Ascarasis

Study of odonata

Planetary radio astronomy from the
Southern Hemisphere

Ecology, migration, and population of
Chelonia M. Mydas in the Caribbean

Reproductive ecology of Marine Chelonia

Ecology of Marine Chelonia

Paleontological study'of the vertebrate
fauna of the Greater Antilles

Systematics and evolution of the amphibia

Caribbean Conservation Association

Study of zooarcheological materials at
Tilcal, Guatemala

Travel in Caribbean area to develop the
University's library collection

Central American studies of tropical scils


Rockefeller Fdtn.

Rockefeller Fdtn.

Rockefeller Fdtn.

Rockefeller Fdtn.

Rockefeller Fdtn.

N Taylor Corp.

Taylor Corp.

U. S. Information

U. S. State Dept.

Wenner-Gren Fdtn.
and others

Caldwell, David K.


Project Leader

























$ 11,288











Subject of Research

Studies of tropical soils under conditions of
shifting cultivation

Development of the University's research
library on the Caribbean

Latin-American student counseling service
in agriculture

Dr. Hermino Portell Vila--Caribbean
studies program

Study of plantation system in Saio Paulo,

Development of hardboard from Cuban and
Phillipine bagasse

Pulping of Brazilian eucalyptus

Latin American information project with
Univ. of Sio Paulo, Brazil

Seminar in Economics for Bolivian students

Prehistoric, historic contact, and Spanish
colonial archeology

Study of the shore fishes of Jamaica, BWI


Because of the proximity of the University of Florida to the Caribbean
and Central American areas and because of the presence on the campus of
the Institute of Inter-American Area Studies, the faculty of the University
has long taken an active interest in Latin American affairs, and recruitment
in many fields has been carried on with special attention to Latin American
scholarship and experience. Of 87 faculty members queried, 59 have pub-
lished 612 papers dealing directly with Latin America. Sixteen have taught
in Latin America; 20 have visited the area for cultural purposes; 67 have
carried out a study, research project, or consultation requiring residence

of several weeks; 29 have resided in a Latin American country from two

months to a year; 31 have resided in a Latin American country for more
than a year.

Curricula vitae of faculty members who have figured in Latin American
affairs will be found in an appendix of this report, but brief comments may

be inserted here concerning an illustrative sample whose relations with

Latin America have been extensive. Some noteworthy associations are

omitted, such as the extensive research on Caribbean turtles mentioned

Dr. T. Lynn Smith, Graduate Research Professor of Sociology,
is the author of four standard works on Brazil, including the success-
ful college work, Brazil: .-Peoples and Institutions (second edition,

1954). Professor S&mith has visited every Latin American country, a

number of them many times. He has served in the United States em-


Faculty Report

bassies in Rio de Janeiro and Bogota and as adviser to the Brazilian

government on agrarian reform, and he has lectured at many South

American universities and been awarded honorary degrees by the

University of Brazil and the University of Sao Paolo.

Dr. Robert W. Bradbury, Professor of Economics, has the ad-

vantage of having lived in Mexico City from his fifth to his seventeenth

year. In his mature years he has been Director of the Division of Latin

American Relations at Louisiana State University, and he has been

employed by the Department of State in Panama, Mexico, and Brazil,

and by the Alcoa Steamship Company in Venezuela, Haiti, and the

Dominican Republic. He served as Visiting Fulbright Professor at

National University of Asuncion, Paraguay, and as Coordinator of

the Bolivian Economic Project carried on in 1959 and 1960 by the

University of Florida in cooperation with the Department of State.

Dr. A. Curtis Wilgus, Professor of History, has served as

Director of the School of Inter-American Studies since 1951. Before

that time he was Director of the Center of Inter-American Studies

at George Washington University. He is the author of five college

books and some three hundred articles on Latin American history

and inter-American relations and has traveled and lectured through-

out the Latin American world for nearly forty years. A former

head of the Department of History now returned to full-time re-

search and teaching, Dr. Donald E. Worcester, is co-author of

the widely used college work, The Growth and Culture of Latin

America; the present head of the department, Dr. Lyle N. McAlister,

is the author of The "Fuero Militar" in New Spain and substantial

Faculty Report

articles on other phases of the military history of Latin America.

Dr. Raymond E. Crist, Research Professor of Geography, has

taught and conducted research for periods as long as five years in

Venezuela, Puerto Rico, Colombia, Peru, Cuba, and Costa Rica,

and is the author of more than sixty articles on Latin American

subjects. Albert S. Muller, Professor of Plant Pathology and

Counselor of Latin American students in Agriculture, taught and

conducted numerous surveys of plant diseases from 1926 to 1953

in Puerto Rico, Brazil, Venezuela, Guatemala, and Honduras. Dr.

Alex G. Smith, Professor of Physics, spent three months in each

of 1959 and 1960 in Chile supervising the construction and operation

of a radio astronomical laboratory.

Among younger men, Dr. Hugh Popenoe, Assistant Professor

of Soils, has spent more than five years in Central America study-

ing tropical agriculture with special emphasis on the effects of

shifting cultivation on soils. Dr. Harry Kantor, Associate Professor

of Political Science, is the author of The Ideology and Program of

the Peruvian Aprista Movement (1953; Spanish edition, 1955) and

The Costa Rican Election of 1953: A Case Study (1958) and has also

conducted political studies in Mexico. Dr. Walter Payne, a Florida

Ph.D. in History and Assistant Professor of Social Sciences, holds

a master's degree from the University of San Carlos in Guatemala

and taught there for several years. Walter L. Furman, a candidate

for the Ph.D. in Mathematics, has just completed a dissertation

on mathematics programs in Latin American universities.


History. --In 1905, the University of the State of Florida, the

East Florida Seminary, and the South Florida Military and Educa-

tional College were consolidated into the University of Florida, a

combined state university and land-grant college, to be located in

Gainesville. In 1910, a reorganization of the University resulted in

establishment of the Colleges of Arts and Sciences, Agriculture,

Engineering, the Division of Graduate Work, the Division of Uni-

versity Extension, and the Agricultural Experiment Station. Since

that time the following administrative units have been added in the

historical sequence listed: Colleges of Education, Physical Educa-

tion and Health, Pharmacy, Architecture and Fine Arts, Business

Administration, the School of Inter-American Studies, University

College, School of Forestry, School of Journalism and Communica-

tions, the Colleges of Medicine, Nursing, and Health-Related

Services. The main campus now consists of about 1,800 acres,

and the University has a total of more than 15,000 acres when its

research stations located throughout the state are taken into

account. The value of its physical plant is approximately $65, 000, 000.

Enrollment in the Fall of 1960 was 13, 100 students.

Educational policy of the state is established by two administra-

tive bodies. The State Board of Education, at the summit of the

state's educational structure, has five members: The Governor as

chairman, the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the State

General Information

Treasurer, and the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. The

Board of Control has jurisdiction over and managing control of the

five state institutions of higher education in Florida, including the

University of Florida. The Board of Control consists of seven citizens

of Florida appointed by the Governor.

Instructional Organization. --The University has three basic

divisions of its instructional activities other than extension. The

first of these is University College. All freshmen and sophomores

who enter the University of Florida enroll in that College. The College

offers a basic general educational program. In discharge of this

obligation, over 42 hours of comprehensive courses are offered.

Students must either take the elements of this curriculum or take

acceptable substitute courses. Substitutions are encouraged on the

part of those students planning to major in one of the physical sciences,

mathematics, or engineering. University College provides for

superior students by programs of acceleration, examinations by

application, and honors sections of its courses.

The second area of instructional activity is contained in the

upper division of the University, which consists of the colleges and

schools enumerated above, except University College. Admission

to the upper division colleges normally follows completion of 64

hours of satisfactory work in the lower division, together with the

satisfaction of certain pre-professional requirements.

The Graduate School comprises the third area, and is composed

of the Dean, the Graduate Council, and the Graduate Faculty. It

establishes policy and standards of graduate work in the University,


General Information

and coordinates the graduate program of the various colleges and

divisions. Admission to the Graduate School is through graduation

with an undergraduate record of "B" for the junior and senior years,

except in the College of Education and the College of Physical Edu-

cation and Health. Applicants are also required to make a satis-

factory score on the Graduate Record Examination. Satisfactory

score is defined as 500, except in the Colleges of Agriculture and

Education. The Graduate School offers the master's degree in more

than eighty areas of concentration, the degrees of Specialist in Edu-

cation and Doctor of Education, and the degree of Doctor of Philosophy,

with a major in agricultural economics, agronomy, animal husbandry,

bacteriology, biology (zoology), chemical engineering, chemistry,

civil engineering, economics, economics and business administra-

tion, electrical engineering, engineering mechanics, English,

entomology, fruit crops, geography, history, inter-American area

studies, mathematics, medical sciences (anatomy, biochemistry,

microbiology, and physiology), pharmaceutical chemistry, pharm-

acognosy, pharmacology, pharmacy, physics, plant pathology,

political science, psychology, sociology, soils, Spanish, speech,

or vegetable crops.

Through the University's sponsorship of the Oak Ridge Institute

of Nuclear Studies at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the facilities of these

laboratories are available for graduate research.

Student Body. --The University operates on a semester system,

and conducts an eight-week summer session. During recent years,

the University has increased its admission standards, and otherwise

General Information

encouraged students with high intellectual attainments to enter the

University. As a result of these efforts, in 1960 56 per cent of the

entering Freshman Class stood in the upper quintile of tests given

to all seniors in Florida high schools; and 30 per cent stood in the

second quintile. The remainder were in the third quintile. Students

in the lower two quintiles were not admitted to the University.

The enrollment for the University of Florida for the past four

years is as follows:

1956-57 10,997
1957-58 11,207
1958-59 12,306
1959-60 12,710
1960-61 13,100

The distribution of students in the Fall of 1960 is shown by college

in Table 1 and is typical of the enrollment during the above period.

Figures for 1959 are also shown, since the slight changes are in-

dicative of recent trends.

Graduates. --Some idea of the standards of grading at the Univer-

sity of Florida, and of the high attrition rate in spite of the admission

standards, may be gained from Table 2, which sets forth the number

of students graduated from each college during the past few years.

Graduate degrees are shown separate from undergraduate degrees,

in order that some idea of the breadth of the graduate program can

be gained.



Nutiber of F. T. E. Students*
COLLEGE Fall, 1959 Fall, 1960 Fall, 1959 Fall, 1960

University College 7199 7300 3695.07 3680.00

Agriculture 335 363 424.87 446.67

Architecture & F. A. 307 313 584.38 608.78

Arts & Sciences 1337 1439 3757.84 3830.68

Business Administration 507 498 958.33 1008.97

Education 980 1049 658.34 710.06

Engineering 1021 1064 1093.23 1044.67

Forestry 49 46 41.03 33.90

Health Related Services 39 60 11.47 30.86

Journalism & Comm. 111 134 124.40 137.78

Law 330 346 326.35 315.67

Medicine 192 196 332.89 381.71

Nursing 60 69 78.20 92.53

Pharmacy 128 127 151.94 159.99

Physical Education 115+ 96+ 629.09 529.51

TOTAL 12710 13100 12867.43 13011.78

*F. T. E. Students determined by dividing Student Semester Hours produced
in the College by 15 for undergraduate and by 12 for graduate.

+Does not include Required Physical Education registration.


1956 THROUGH 1960

College or School 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960

Undergraduate Degrees

Agriculture 159' 149 121 112 88

Architecture 115 89 116 120 118

Arts and Sciences 226 291 325 341 394

Business Administration 281 319 349 281 263

Education 267 252 263 275 283

Engineering 229 300 347 372 347

Forestry 9 17 19 16 18

Journalism & Comm. 75 75 88 90 66

Nursing --- -- -- --- 25

Pharmacy 54 48 66 50 55

Physical Education 29 37 45 31 53

Total Undergraduate 1444 1577 1739 1688 1710

Law 65 74 88 83 89

Medicine -- -- --- --- 40


Master's 391 379 365 375 381

Doctoral 70 57 74 78 91

General Information

Faculty. --To discharge its teaching, research, and extension

obligations, the University has approximately 6, 000 employees, of

whom 2, 558 hold academic appointments. Of the latter number, 578

are graduate assistants or part-time employees. The University has

a total of 2, 173 full-time equivalent academic employees. Of the

members of the teaching faculty with the rank of assistant professor

and above, 68 per cent have received their doctorates and these

degrees represent 90 universities throughout the world.

The faculty has a tradition of research and scholarship. Some

indication of this is the fact that approximately 1,500 books and

articles have been written by the faculty during the last year. They

have been called upon to participate in the work of the government,

various foundations, and scholarly organizations established for

specialized purposes. Members of the faculty temporarily absent

from the campus are, or recently have been, working in various

foreign countries, advising the governments or educational institu-

tions of these countries. Costa Rica, Pakistan, France, Brazil,

and several other countries in South America, Burma, and Italy are

among such countries.

Budget. --The budget of the University during the year 1960-61

is slightly more than $40. 5 million, excluding debt service of

revenue certificates which are funded with dormitory rentals. The

budget of the University, broken down as to salaries, expense, and

operating capital outlay, with respect to the various operating units,

is set forth in Table 3. In this connection, it should be noted that

grants and donations plus other incidental income, amount to ap-




Salaries Expense OCO Total

Education & General

Ag. Exp. Station

Ag. Ext. Service

Health Center

Nuclear Sciences

Engineering Industrial
Experiment Station

Total Budget

Subtotal from
General Revenue

Subtotal from
Trust Funds

Other Activities:

Auxiliary Activities

Working Capital Fund

Grants and Donations













$ 2,785,950






$ 6,629,815

$ 4,468,140





$ 644,050










184,000 1,779,542





660,956 7,601,480







Total Operating






General Information

proximately 25 per cent of the total operating budget. The remainder

is from state appropriations. The figures do not include the building

program of the University, which is the subject of a separate budget.

Foreign Students. --The University has maintained a program to

encourage foreign students to enroll in the University. To advance

the program, the University established an office of Foreign Student

Adviser, which handles correspondence with prospective foreign stu-

dents, sends admission forms, and processes foreign student ad-

missions in cooperation with the Admissions Office. It also conducts

a comprehensive orientation program for new foreign students,

provides counseling services to all foreign students throughout the

year, handles employment permission and other immigration

matters, and cooperates with the Gainesville Council for International

Friendship and other agencies in providing hospitality to foreign stu-

dents and visitors. The College of Agriculture pays particular at-

tention to Latin American students and has a counselor to aid stu-

dents from that area.

Buildings. --The University provides housing accommodations for

approximately 6,400 students. There are more than 2, 800 rooms

for single students in twenty permanent residence halls and a tem-

porary hall. About 900 apartment units, two-thirds of which are in

temporary structures, are available for married students. An off-

campus housing section acts as a referral agency for students and

faculty to privately operated accommodations in and around Gaines-

ville, and works closely with property owners in encouraging im-

proved standards for facilities and improved relationships with


General Information

In addition to the dormitory units, the University has 83 major

buildings, with approximately 2, 848, 800 square feet. The latest

major addition to the campus has been a Health Center, consisting

of a Teaching Hospital and a Medical Sciences Building. Construction

was started in 1954, and the amount invested in the buildings is ap-

proximately $16, 000, 000.

Libraries. --The University Libraries consist of the Main

Library and branches for agriculture, architecture and fine arts,

chemistry, education, engineering and physics, extension, forestry,

law, the medical sciences, the laboratory school, and Florida History;

and reading rooms for physical education and journalism. As of

June 30, 1959, the total holdings numbered 875, 088 catalogued

volumes; 9, 280 periodicals were currently on subscription.

Press and Publications. --The University has a Press, the pur-

pose of which is to encourage, promote, and publish original and

scholarly manuscripts which will aid in developing the University as

a recognized center of research and scholarship. The scholarly

publications of the University, in addition to those of the Press, are

as follows:

Professional journals:
The Journal of Politics
Southern Folklore Quarterly
Southern Speech Journal
University of Florida Law Review

Bureau of Economic and Business Research:
Economic Leaflets
Estimates of Florida Population, by Counties
State Economic Studies
Special Bulletins
Building Permit Activity in Florida
Florida Construction Review

General Information

Florida State Museum:
Bulletin: Biological Sciences
Contributions: Social Sciences

The Graduate School:
University of Florida Monographs: Humanities
University of Florida Monographs: Social Sciences

Public Administration Clearing Service:
Civic Information Series
Studies in Public Administration

School of Inter-American Studies:
Bulletin: Inter-American Studies at the University of Florida
Grandes Figura de America
Journal of Inter-American Studies
Latin American Monographs

Edited for regional or national organizations:
Annals of the Entomological Society of America
Florida Anthropologist
Florida Entomologist
Florida Historical Quarterly
Hispanic American Historical Review
Institute of Gerontology Series
Newsletter of the Florida Association for Health,
Physical Education, and Recreation
Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences

The Surrounding City. --Gainesville, the county seat of Alachua

County, is a community of approximately 50, 000 people, about 33, 000

of whom live within the city limits. Centrally located between the

Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, and midway between Miami

and Pensacola, Gainesville lies in an area in which the soil and climate

are favorable to agriculture--a factor which combines with several

industries and a wide variety of commercial businesses to give the

city an exceptionally well-balanced economy.

Its largest business is the University of Florida, which employs

more than 5, 000 persons, with a payroll of over $20 million. Gaines-

ville is served by the Atlantic Coast Line and the Seaboard Airline

railways, the Greyhound and Trailways bus lines, Eastern Air Lines,

General Information

and numerous motor freight lines. It is located on U.S. 441, a major

north-south arterial highway. Other excellent highways radiate in all

directions from the city.

One newspaper--the Gainesville Daily Sun--three radio stations,

and an educational television station serve the city. Commercial

television is received over a number of channels.

Recreational facilities include many nearby lakes for fishing,

swimming, and boating, and the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf beaches

are within a two-hour drive from Gainesville. The city maintains an

excellent community recreation program, with recreation centers,

city parks, and summer camps. The Gainesville Country Club has

one of the best golf courses in the state. A new public library has

about 24, 000 volumes.

Alachua General Hospital, with a recent 6-floor addition, has

approximately 300 beds. The Teaching Hospital of the University is

part of the J. Hillis Miller Health Center, and accepts only referral

and emergency cases.

The religious life of Gainesville finds expression in forty-three

churches representing the major faiths. The great variety of civic

and cultural organizations of the city includes active service clubs,

a Boy's Club, Fine Arts Association, women's clubs, Little Theatre,

and Parent-Teacher Associations. It may be said without question

that Gainesville is an attractive residential and educational city.








Aft o


Conceptual Plan. --The main concept expressed in the plan for

the Inter-American Cultural and Scientific Center is that Latin

American and North American graduate students be brought together

for advanced study at the M.A. and Ph.D. levels to exchange ideas

and viewpoints while preparing themselves for leadership in their

individual roles in society through their chosen professions. For the

Latin American student this objective is to become either a teacher

or a researcher in education or a professional employee of govern-

ment, business, or industry within his own country. The advantage

of a period of study in the United State s to a Latin American student

is to contact the most advanced thinking in his scholarly or profes-

sional field and to learn the methods and procedures of a highly de-

veloped industrial society to which his nation aspires. The objective

of the U.S. student in the Center will be that of attaining an under-

standing of the cultural, social, economic, and political life of a

region of Latin America so that he may serve the United States in

developing a better working relationship with that region either by

foreign service or by employment in government, industry, or edu-

cation in the United States.

It is clear therefore that the basic objectives of the two groups

are quite different although they are also closely related in that

each needs an understanding of the cultural background of the other.

Their close association over a period of a year or more in a resident


Plan for Inter-American Center

study center will accomplish this objective. At the same time each

student will have the opportunity to achieve his separate and, in

fact, highly individualized objective. The individualization of edu-

cational programs is possible because the Inter-American Center

will be closely integrated with the departments of a large university

having a diversified graduate school enrolling 1, 300 or more graduate

students outside the program of the Center. The choice of graduate

studies available is best visualized by noting that there are eighty

departments and divisions directing work for the master's degree

and forty that direct the work of doctoral candidates.

The Flow Chart. --The meeting and interchange between Latin

American and U. S. students is symbolized on the flow chart by

showing the stream of Latin American students from the top down-

ward and the flow of North American students from the bottom up-

ward. The need for and the work of a number of associated in-

stitutes and offices will be discussed later so that the central ac-

tivity may be clarified at once. This educational activity is

symbolized by the five graduate subject-matter institutes shown in

parallel at the center of the chart plus the four graduate regional

institutes shown in parallel near the bottom of the chart.

The Nine Graduate Institutes. --The five subject-matter institutes

are planned to meet the main educational objectives of Latin Ameri-

can students, i.e., humanities, education, and cultural relations;

economics and commercial relations; sociology, law, and political

relations; agriculture, biology, and tropical resources; and science,

engineering and environmental health. The four regional graduate


Unrelated Flow to
Governmental and
Industrial Laboratories
Bureaus, etc.

Latin American
Student Services-
Reception Center
Housing- Counseling

To Government or
Industry after brief
period for counseling
and arrangements

Graduate Graduate
Instituteof Institute of
Sociology. Agriculture,
Law and Biology,
Political Tropical
Relations Resources



Institute of

Institute of

Plan for Inter-American Center

institutes are planned to meet the needs of U. S. students who are

preparing themselves to become experts and perhaps teachers of

Caribbean, Central American, Brazilian, or Spanish South Ameri-

can culture, economics, politics, and technology. It should be made

clear, however, that the seminars offered by each graduate insti-

tute will be open to and attended by Latin American and U. S. stu-

dents so that an interchange of knowledge will take place. This will

become evident as the plan for each graduate institute is developed

in the following sections of the report.

Subsidiary Functions of the Center. --Beginning at the top of the

flow chart there is shown a Reception Center and Latin American

Student Services Office. A large amount of preadmission correspon-

dence, arrangements for an interview near the applicant's home

in a Latin American country, followed by admission and counseling

along with assignment of housing will require a well-staffed office.

It is open to later decision as to whether this office should be ex-

panded to serve many more Latin American students than the 300

per year to be accepted into the program of the Inter-American

Center and into the teaching departments of the University. Additional

students could be accepted for counseling and then be directed to

other educational institutions or into a period of observation or

apprenticeship in industry or government as a special service to

the U.S. government.

Those students needing English language study would be placed

in the English Language Institute for a short period of intensive

practice preceding admission to graduate study on acceptance by

Plan for Inter-American Center

another institution, by a government bureau, or by industry for

specialized training. A large percentage of the Latin American stu-

dents would either be given an intensive period of study or would

enter a semester-long seminar in the Institute of North American

Culture since most foreign students need greater familiarity with

U. S. customs and institutions to become oriented into the work of

a large state university. Correspondingly, U.S. students would

usually need an intensive period of study of one or more Latin

American languages provided by an Institute for Latin American

Languages. All students would meet for dining, social and cultural

activities, and recreation at the Inter-American House and

Cultural-Social Center.

Special Units of the Center. --Other blocks on the flow chart

indicate the importance attached to continuing development of the

special Latin American collections of the University Libraries and

to the provision of research services such as translation, machine

computation, editorial, and publication aids for the resident faculty

and visiting scholars of the graduate institutes. Finally, there is to

be an office or institute for inter-American conferences and special

projects. An educational or scholarly activity of the magnitude of

the nine graduate institutes sh uld serve a wider audience than its

graduate students alone. Its researches provide the subject matter

and its reputation provides the magnet for drawing together con-

ferences, short courses, and panels of distinguished scholars,

scientists, or government and industry leaders for the interchange

of ideas between representatives of several nations. Such meetings

Plan for Inter-American Center

are also great stimulii to the graduate students selected for at-

tendance. Ten years of experience in conducting the annual

Caribbean Conference is convincing evidence of the value of such

activities both in the exchange of information and in building un-

derstanding on an international basis.

The following sections of this report will discuss in much

greater detail the activities of each one of the institutes or special

offices represented on the flow chart and mentioned briefly above.



Background. --The University of Florida has for 30 years

recognized the special needs of Latin Americans and other students

from abroad and has provided special services to meet those needs.

In 1930 the Institute of Inter-American Affairs was created for this

purpose, among others. In 1950 the Institute's academic functions

were reassigned to the newly organized School of Inter-American

Studies, and in 1952 its student service functions were absorbed in

a coordinated and professionally staffed Foreign Student Office

serving all students from abroad. In the ensuing eight years the en-

rollment of foreign students has doubled (from 207 in 1952 to 420

in 1960), and the largest regional or language group remains the

Latin American. The foreign student program of the University has

expanded to include a much more selective admissions process, a

reception and orientation program, a broader and more effective

counseling service, an English Language Institute, international

student organizations, broader contacts with Americans on campus

and in the community, a special expert counselor for Latin Ameri-

can students in agriculture, an alumni contact program, etc. In

addition to regularly enrolled students, English Language Institute

students and sponsored groups of visiting students from Latin

America have been served. The following proposal, therefore,

represents an expansion of an already existing program which has

been functioning effectively at the University of Florida for many years.


Reception Center

Purpose of Latin American Services Office. --Because of the

broader responsibilities envisioned in the Inter-American Center

plan it is proposed that the name of the Foreign Student Office be

changed to "International Services Bureau, of which the Latin

American Services Office would be a separately staffed and operated

unit. The Latin American Services Office would perform the fol-

lowing general functions:

It would coordinate correspondence and prearrival procedures,

reception and orientation, registration, counseling, termination

procedures, and alumni relations for all Latin American students

enrolled in any of the various institutes and activities of the Inter-

American Center.

It would provide such reception, orientation, counseling, pro-

graming, and courtesies as are appropriate to meet the needs of

distinguished scholars, lecturers, and leaders in all fields of en-

deavor who come from Latin America and the Caribbean to the

Inter-American Center.

Services for Regularly Enrolled Students. --The Latin American

Services Office would perform the following services for all students

from Latin America who enroll for credit in any of the institutes of

the Inter-American Center:

Prearrival information. --In cooperation with other units of the

Inter-American Center the office would coordinate and itself carry

on much of the correspondence with persons from abroad inquiring

about enrollment. Special printed materials appropriate to the

needs of students abroad would be prepared, as they now are, and

Reception Center

staff of the Inter-American Center traveling abroad and alumni

living abroad would be utilized to meet personally with interested


Admissions processing. --The office would send out application

forms and instructions, and would coordinate relations with the

various selection committee established in Latin American coun-

tries. It would receive applications and would transmit the admis-

sion application itself to the Admissions Office and fellowship ap-

plications to the appropriate departments for decision. The Latin

American Services Office would review information received on

applicants' facility in English, financial arrangements, and

general adaptability for study in a U.S. university. The office

would receive notice of action on the admission and fellowship

applications and be responsible for transmitting the decisions to

the applicants. Those admitted would also be sent information on

the health examination required by the University, health in-

surance, obtaining the visa, what to bring, travel arrangements,

port and University reception services, etc.

Reception services. --The Latin American Services Office

would expand its present service of meeting all foreign students

who notify us of time and means of arrival. Newly arrived students

would be brought to the Center for initial processing, assignment

to housing, and any other necessary procedures.

Housing. --The Latin American Services Office in cooperation

with the University Housing Office would make suitable arrange-

ments for housing all newly arriving students. Single students

Reception Center

would normally be housed in University residence halls with U. S.

student roommates. Married students would be housed in apartment

units provided on the campus for the purpose. Transportation would

be provided as needed to assist the new student or family in finding

their quarters and transporting their belongings. The present

practice of close liaison with professional personnel in charge of

residence facilities would be maintained, including direct work

with American roommates and neighbors in order that they may

be aware of the problems of foreign students and may be encouraged

to be of assistance in every way possible.

Orientation. --The Latin American Services Office would con-

tinue an already established orientation and registration program

for new foreign students. This has long given special attention to

graduate students, and includes English and placement tests, in-

formation on the academic system, Graduate School procedures,

the registration process, health and counseling services, govern-

ment regulations, campus and community resources, use of the

library, extracurricular and social programs, etc.

Counseling. --The Latin American Services Office would have

on its staff professionally trained and experienced counselors to

assist students with any problem of concern, whether directly re-

lated to their University studies or not. While staff of the several

institutes would be primarily responsible for the academic counseling

of students, the present practice of close coordination and frequent

referral between the counseling staff and the faculty would be con-

tinued. Careful consideration would be given to the probable need


Reception Center

for providing a traveling or resident counseling staff in Latin Ameri-

ca for preadmission counseling. Alumni in Latin American countries

would be available for this service.

Language tests. --The Latin American Services Office would

coordinate arrangements for English language testing of all newly

arriving students in cooperation with the English Language Institute,

and would be responsible for transmitting test results and their

interpretation to academic counselors so that the particular student

may be given an academic program suitable to his capacities. The

English Language Institute would provide such additional English

instruction as necessary, ranging from intensive, full-time instruc-

tion to a single English course to supplement the regular academic


Health insurance. --The Latin American Services Office would

be responsible for carrying out the present University requirement

that all foreign students have adequate health and hospital insurance

to supplement the regular infirmary services provided for all regis-

tered students. Insurance coverage is also required for families

in the U. S. with foreign students.

Extracurricular and social programs. --We believe at the Uni-

versity of Florida that in most cases the out-of-class activities of

a foreign student are the chief means by which he makes friends with

Americans and learns to understand the United States and its people.

Considerable effort is made to encourage foreign students to par-

ticipate in the established extracurricular and social activities with

American students. Professional organizations in the several de-

Reception Center

apartments and colleges, various international student organizations,

religious groups, and others are the media for these contacts. A

variety of cultural events are available to students without charge,

and the program of the Inter-American Center itself would add to

these opportunities. In addition, we would continue the well-

established program of community contacts and hospitality for foreign

students and visitors carried out in cooperation with the Gainesville

Council for International Friendship. Special activities are also

provided for the wives of foreign students, including English

classes, cooking classes, visits to clubs and churches, etc.

Relationships with government and private agencies. --The

University already has well-established relationships with the

Department of State, the Institute of International Education, the

Pan American Union, the U. S. Office of Education, the U.S. De-

partment of Agriculture, the International Cooperation Administra-

tion, the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, a number

of foreign embassies, and other agencies that have responsibilities

for or interests in students from Latin America. The Latin Ameri-

can Services Office would join with other University offices in con-

tinuing and expanding these relationships in the interests of Inter-

American Center students.

Predeparture orientation. --Recognizing that there is some

danger of becoming disassociated from one's own culture and the

problems of one's country in a two-year sojourn abroad, the Latin

American Services Office would be responsible for organizing

predeparture orientation to prepare students both for readjust-

Reception Center

ment to their home situations and for adapting the training received

here to the needs they will find at home. This program would make

use of the large number of University staff members with wide ex-

perience in Latin America, as well as visiting professors and other

authorities from those areas. The reorientation program could well

serve the needs of Latin American students completing their work

at other U.S. universities as well as those enrolled in the Inter-

American Center at the University of Florida.

Departure processing. --The Latin American Services Office

would instruct departing students on immigration procedures, tax

clearances, University termination procedures, certification of

documents, travel arrangements, and any other departure problems

that may arise. The office would also be responsible for arranging

for the University of Florida attendance certificate for any whose

program does not allow completion of a degree.

Alumni follow-up. --The University of Florida has already be-

gun a program of regular contact with alumni abroad. It is planned

that the Latin American Services Office would coordinate an ex-

panded program for Latin American and Caribbean alumni to in-

clude the sending of professional materials, journals, the alumni

magazine, and a newsletter adapted to their particular interests,

The program would also include personal contacts by University

staff visiting the various countries from time to time.

Services for Participants in Special Programs. --It is expected

that the Latin American Services Office would serve the participants

in the English Language Institute, the American Studies Institute,


Reception Center

and the Institute for Conferences and Special Projects, in the same

ways as those described above for enrolled graduate students, but

with the modifications appropriate to their special purposes and

the shorter period of time that many of them would remain at the


Services for Distinguished Visitors. --The Latin American

Services Office would become the University center for coordinating

prearrival arrangements, reception, and housing of distinguished

scholars, lecturers, and other leaders coming from the Latin

American and English-speaking Caribbean areas. The office would

coordinate arrangements for visitors' programs on the campus,

and where desired would arrange itineraries for additional travel

in the United States.

In making arrangements for distinguished visitors the impor-

tance of courtesies befitting their stations must be kept in mind.

The Latin American Services Office, in cooperation with other Uni-

versity officials, would undertake to see that visitors meet people

of stature in their professional fields, that they have appropriate

opportunities to speak to U. S. audiences if they so desire, and that

they be accorded such official courtesies by the University as seem

appropriate. Funds should be available through the Inter-American

Center for appropriate official entertaining.

Services for U.S. Students and Scholars. --The Latin American

Services Office would provide information and counseling for U.S.

students and faculty of the University of Florida and other institutions

planning to undertake study, teaching, or research in Latin America.

Reception Center

Staff. --The projected staff for the Latin American Services

Office follows:

1. Director
2. Probably two qualified and experienced counselors with
special training in dealing with problems of intercultural
3. Secretarial and clerical staff headed by an administrative as-
4. Graduate assistants on a one-third or one-half time basis to
help with various aspects of the program and to gain ex-
perience in intercultural work.
5. Student assistants and part-time help as needed.

In-service Training of Staff. --It would be essential for the pro-

fessional staff of the Latin American Services Office to have oppor-

tunities to attend important professional and Latin American studies

conferences regularly held in the United States, and to make periodic

visits to various Latin American countries. The latter experience

will not only promote more effective work through deeper knowledge

of the backgrounds from which students come and the problems they

will help solve when they return, but it will also enable direct

counseling of prospective students and direct contact with alumni.

Space and Equipment. --The Latin American Services Office

should be located near the main entrance of the Inter-American

Center. In addition to necessary offices and work space, its facilities

should include an attractive waiting room large enough to accommo-

date newly arriving groups of visitors. It should have ready access

to conference and meeting rooms. It should also have for its regular

use at least two station wagons or small buses, and occasional use

of a large bus, to meet and transport participants in the various

programs of the Inter-American Center.


Policy Involved. --The function of a library in an institution of higher

education is largely that of providing support for the instruction and research

which is done in that university. In keeping with the interest of the faculty

in the Caribbean area and in Latin America, through the years the Univer-

sity of Florida Libraries have acquired by purchase, microfilming, and ex-

change a significant collection of books, periodicals, and documents from

the countries of those areas. This policy extends back two decades and has

been increasing in momentum as the University has grown in size and depth.

In 1949 the University Library was given the responsibility by the Associa-

tion of Research Libraries in the United States of being the educational in-

stitution in the United States primarily responsible for acquiring materials

from the Caribbean area and since that time it has been the policy of this

library to acquire one copy of every major publication in any of the countries

in this area. By 1958 this acquisitions program had become of enough signi-

ficance to justify an annual publication of the list of books acquired from

this area. This publication is used as a reference book and buying guide by

institutions in both the United States and Europe.


University Libraries

Breadth of Holdings on Latin America. --While the area of greatest em-

phasis has been the islands of the Caribbean and the countries immediately

bordering this sea, there has been a consistent effort to acquire material

from all of the twenty Latin American republics. As a basic step in this

direction in 1949 arrangements were made with the national governments of

many of these countries for the exchange of official State of Florida publica-

tions for the documents of the respective countries. As of 1960 we are

carrying on active exchange of publications with 75 current agencies in 27

countries in Latin America and from them are receiving currently some 735

serial titles. The University of Florida Libraries contain approximately

5000 volumes of government documents from Latin America.

Among libraries, universities, and museums, as distinguished from

the governmental agencies in Latin America, this library since 1948 has

also carried on an active exchange of periodicals and books by members of

the faculty of the University of Florida or published by the University of

Florida Press and at this time has active exchange programs with 221 insti-

tutions in 21 countries in the Caribbean and on the continent of South America.

Additional thousands of volumes have been acquired through purchase.

It is estimated that the number of volumes in the University Libraries per-

taining to Latin America as of 1960 totals 40, 275 and this number is growing

at the rate of approximately 8, 000 volumes per year. In addition to the

University Libraries

material which we acquire through exchange, the annual expenditure for

purchase of books and journals is at the rate of approximately $23, 000 per


The library is especially strong in its collections of documents, perio-

dicals, and reference books for this area. The collection of Latin American

bibliographies is perhaps as comprehensive as found in any university li-

brary in the country. With the assistance of the Rockefeller Foundation the

University engaged in a six-year microfilming program which will result in

adding an estimated 3, 000 reels of microfilm of Caribbean newspapers to

the library's files.

The education and experience of the members of the library staff who

administer its Latin American program are included elsewhere in this re-

port. They are recognized leaders in the profession. In terms of salary

the library is spending some $30, 000 per year in staff time devoted to ac-

quisition, cataloging, and reference service connected with Latin American


Government Documents Collection. --The purpose of the foregoing state-

ment has been to indicate the library's contribution to the University's total

program in Latin America. As would be expected, however, no group in the

University is more aware of the needs of the library in this respect and the

benefit to the University which would be derived if the collections and

University Libraries

services could be improved. At the present time not only at the University

of Florida but in the United States generally the most critical need is in the

area of government documents from the Latin American countries. Such a

high proportion of significant publication being done in these countries orig-

inates with government agencies that it is virtually impossible to do any ex-

tensive research without a file of these publications. Yet, because of the

relative instability of the Latin American governmental agencies, these are

very difficult to obtain. It is felt that it would be a major contribution not

only to the University of Florida but to scholars in all parts of the country

who are engaged in research in Latin America if there could be a really

comprehensive collection of government documents available in an institution

in the United States. It is vitally important that enough funds be made avail-

able to allow for photostating and microfilming copies of missing volumes in

these sets wherever they might be found and of equal importance that there

be funds to enable these documents to be obtained immediately upon their

publication. It is realized that this would be a difficult and relatively ex-

pensive undertaking, but it is felt that its value to research being done at

present and that planned for the future would justify the effort and the ex-

pense. Indeed it is anticipated that if such a collection could be established

and maintained, scholars from Latin America would greatly benefit by having

a comprehensive collection in one location. With the new methods of

University Libraries

photocopying, material could be sent very economically to any place in

North or South America.

It is believed that even with its imperfections the collection of documents

at the University of Florida is among the strongest in the United States and

that the development of this collection would be "building on strength."

Periodical Collection. --Another contribution to the world of scholarship

concerning Latin America which the University Libraries would like to pro-

vide is a really comprehensive collection of the major periodicals from all

countries in the Caribbean and on the continent. Dr. Irene Zimmerman of

the staff of the library's reference department is perhaps the recognized

authority in the United States on Latin American periodicals in the humani-

ties and social sciences. To the extent of our resources we have endeavored

to develop a strong basic collection of periodicals; nevertheless, there are

many gaps in our holdings.

Of some 700 major periodicals titles in the humanities and the social

sciences the library has extensive holdings in about half of the titles, less

extensive in another quarter, and relatively few of the remainder. It is thus

evident that many thousands of dollars would be needed to complete our hold-

ings of these major titles in humanities and social sciences and another sub-

stantial amount would be necessary to purchase additional titles of secondary


University Libraries

In the field of the sciences our collection is relatively strong in the pure

sciences and natural history in general, but there would need to be sizable

purchases in the biological sciences, agriculture, and environmental health.

While the emphasis might be different, the same problem would exist in al-

most any university library in the United States, and there is a real need for

a comprehensive collection of Latin American periodicals not limited to the

major journals but including several hundred additional titles.

Relation to other Collections of Latin American Material. --A basic

premise in the planning of an expanded program in the acquisition of Latin

American publications is that the University of Florida Libraries should be

prepared to draw upon the libraries of other institutions, both in this coun-

try and in Latin America, in providing service to the University personnel,

and that we would avoid unnecessary duplication of anything which is being

done adequately in these institutions. In 1960 under an extension of the

Farmington Plan, a program developed by the Association of Research Li-

braries for the cooperative acquisition of publications from foreign countries,

arrangements were made for coverage from Latin America. The responsi-

bility of acquiring all current books from an individual country was assigned

to a given university. The basic program of the Farmington Plan, however,

does not call for the acquisition of periodicals, documents, or newspapers.

Recognizing the great importance of this class of material in Latin America,


University Libraries

it was requested that the university libraries assuming the responsibility for

acquiring material from a given country in Latin America make an effort to

acquire documents, periodicals, and newspapers from these countries, but

it was recognized that the difficulty and the expense of doing this was so

great that it was felt that they could not be asked to subscribe to all of the


Another cooperative project of the Association of Research Libraries is

the acquisition on microfilms of major newspapers and gazettes of the world.

It is anticipated that this project will be expanded to the point where it will

provide adequate coverage of the newspapers of the area. It remains that

no adequate project has at this time been made for the documents or the

periodicals. Yet the potential importance to the United States of develop-

ments in Latin America is so great that it is almost imperative that some

place in this country there should be a really comprehensive collection of

periodicals and documents from the countries of this continent. This is the

reason for the request for funds to develop collections in these two types of

material. It is stressed that the assembling at the University of Florida of

comprehensive collections of documents and periodicals from Latin America

would constitute a reservoir from which, either by library loan or micro-

film, material could be made available to people all over the United States

and to Latin America also.

University Libraries

Budgetary Needs. --In order to provide facilities, publications, and

staff for such a project to serve the special group of graduate fellows, fac-

ulty, and visiting scholars who would be attracted to the program being pro-

posed by the University of Florida, it is estimated that something like 37, 000

square feet of special library space should be provided for reading areas,

stacks, cubicles, seminar rooms, and staff.

In terms of funds for the immediate development of the library's hold-

ings to support a strong center of Latin American studies, there should be

available over the first two or three years a capital fund of $150, 000 for

publications and $150, 000 for special staff to acquire and process this mate-

rial, and there should be an annual fund of $75, 000 for publications (docu-

ments, periodicals, and books) and $75, 000 for salaries on a continuing



Relationship to Latin America. --Although the relationship of the Uni-

versity Press to the Latin American program is mentioned in connection

with the library-translation-publication bureau, the Press should be ex-

pected to play a major part in the total efforts of the center. The Univer-

sity's Press is recognized as perhaps outstanding among the United States

academic presses in its publications having to do with Latin America. Since

its establishment in 1945, it has published fifty-three books in this field.


University Libraries

Handbook of Latin American Studies.--One of its major and continuing

publications is a standard, internationally known, and universally used refer-

ence tool, the Handbook of Latin American Studies, formerly published by

Harvard University Press, and since Volume 14, by the University of Florida

Press, which has recently released Volume 22. The manuscript for this

selective annual bibliography is prepared in the Hispanic Foundation in the

Library of Congress, at a direct cost of approximately $25, 000 to the United

States Government for editorial salaries. The critical evaluations of 50 out-

standing specialists in Latin American matters who annually and voluntarily

give their efforts as Contributing Editors of the Handbook would represent an

equivalent sum donated to the cause of scholarship. The Handbook of Latin

American Studies finds a world-wide place on compilations of most valuable

and frequently used reference works; it is an indispensable tool for any inter-

American investigations in the fields of the humanities and social sciences.

Continuing Publications. --Reflecting again the inter-American interests

of the University of Florida, the Press publishes the papers presented at the

annual Caribbean Conferences sponsored by the School of Inter-American

Studies. The tenth volume of these papers has just been released, along

with volume thirteen of a series of Latin American Monographs issued under

the joint aegis of the School and the Pan American Foundation. The Press is

also the exclusive distributor of the Caribbean Commission publications in

University Libraries

the United States and all its territories (except Puerto Rico and the Virgin

Islands) and in the Dominion of Canada.

The two monograph series in the humanities and in the social sciences

which are published by the Press will provide excellent outlets for publica-

tion of studies in these fields related to Latin America.

In addition to these continuing efforts, the Press has published numer-

ous important individual titles on Latin America submitted by University of

Florida faculty members as well as by inter-American scholars in this coun-

try and abroad.



Aims to be Achieved. --The English Language Institute of the University

of Florida, which has operated successfully for some years, is a nine-week

intensive course. Its primary object is to give the student as complete prep-

aration for doing college and university work in an English-speaking com-

munity as the limited time permits. The student's command of English must

be fourfold: he must be able to read English; he must be able to write Eng-

lish; more importantly, he must be able to speak English, since most of his

communication, in class and out of class, will of necessity be oral rather

than written; most importantly of all, he must be able to understand the Eng-

lish he hears in classes, on the campus, and in his off-campus life.

The ability to read and write a second language can be acquired in vari-

ous ways: our American students of German or Spanish, for instance, can

acquire the ability to read a second language in class, but their skill is not

ordinarily reinforced by much use of that language outside the classroom.

Similarly, ability to speak a second language may be in part acquired in the

classroom, but again without this necessary outside reinforcement. The

student's ability to understand the second language usually means his ability


English Language Institute

to understand the teacher of the particular course, a teacher who, in most

instances, will be using more careful German or Spanish than the student

would hear on the streets of a German or Spanish city. Ability to understand

English, and to use it as a daily tool in an English-speaking environment,

requires considerably more skill than is required of our American students

in courses in German or Spanish. The ability of the student to understand

the teacher of English in an English Language Institute is no guarantee that

he will understand the professors who lecture in other subjects, since pro-

fessors are hired for competence in their subject matter rather than for the

distinctness of their articulation; nor does that ability guarantee that the stu-

dent will be able to understand people in the city with whom he may have

business to transact.

The aim of any English Language Institute must therefore be to empha-

size all four aspects of the problem: reading, writing, speaking, and listen-

ing with understanding. The foreign student is usually better prepared in the

first two of these aspects, which will be the least useful to him, than in

speaking and listening, which are vital to his success in college.

Experience at the University of Florida. --The English Language Insti-

tute of the University of Florida keeps the foreign student occupied for five

or six hours a day, five days a week, for nine weeks. The normal program

includes one period of lecture-discussion on pronunciation, one period of

English Language Institute

lecture-discussion on structure (sometimes called grammar), one drill

period on pronunciation, one drill period on structure, one social period,

and one period devoted to integrating all the separate aspects of the student's

study. In the pronunciation classes, the student is taught, not only to pro-

nounce the various sounds of English, but given much ear training in differ-

entiating such pronunciations as beet, bit, bait, bet, bat, but, boat, and

boot, or pin, tin, kin, thin, this, sin, shin, and chin, which involve dis-

tinctions either more numerous or of a different kind from those he has to

make in his native language. Similarly, he must learn to hear and differ-

entiate the bewilderingly different systems of time, tense, and aspect illus-

trated by he had gone, he has gone, he was going, he went, he has just gone,

he goes, he is going, he will go, he is going to go, he is about to go, he will

have gone, plus negative and interrogative versions of most of these forms.

The drill sessions have normally been held in small separate groups, the

lecture-discussion sessions in one large group.

In addition to the daily classroom routine, students in the English Lan-

guage Institute of the University of Florida have had opportunities for the

background reinforcement already emphasized. For at least a part of their

stay in the institute they have American roommates. They are usually enter-

tained at the homes of staff members and other English-speaking families

in Gainesville. They get a chance to practice English in restaurants and

English Language Institute

stores and in casual contacts on the campus. Such opportunities would be

almost wholly lacking in a non-English-speaking community.

In the past, the institute has generally operated with two full-time

teachers, a secretary, and a group of graduate assistants varying from two

to five according to the size of the registration. Responsibility for procur-

ing, counseling, and attending to the details of visas and housing has fallen

to the competent and sympathetic personnel of the office of the Adviser to

Foreign Students. The nine-week session has been successful up to a point,

but it has been found necessary to give additional help to many of the students

who have been through such a program either here or at other English Lan-

guage Institutes throughout the country. The University of Florida has pro-

vided additional help in the form of nonintensive courses, usually with three

hours of class instruction a week, throughout the regular academic year.

For the purposes of the North-South Cultural Center, an expansion of these

services is clearly desirable. Ideally there should be three separate English

Language Institutes, one in the summer, one in the fall and early winter, one

in the late winter and spring, of twelve weeks each, and each as intensive as

the current nine-week institute.

Expanded Program of Instruction. --For such a program, an increase

in staff and facilities would obviously be needed. The Adviser to Foreign

Students would need more help. The teaching staff of the institute would need

English Language Institute

to be expanded: another full-time teacher would be needed in order to re-

lease the director for administrative duties and general overseeing of the

program. The number of assistants would need to be increased; for the best

service to the program they should be hired as full-time instructors, so that

they would not need to divide their attention between the institute and their

own university classes, as the present graduate assistants must.

Specifically, any increase comparable to the estimated scope of the

project should require the hiring of three full-time teachers at a scale equi-

valent to those generally prevailing for professors and associate professors,

and of five or six teachers at a scale equivalent to those prevailing for in-

structors. There should be one instructor for every ten students.

Additional space would be needed too. In the summer of 1958, with a

registration of over 60 students, the one room in which the staff of the insti-

tute could meet all the students at once was barely large enough, and addi-

tional rooms suitable for meeting the students in small groups for drill

sessions were difficult to find. The building designed for the Cultural Center

should therefore provide one large and five or six small rooms which will be

available for the English Language Institute.

With this additional staff, and these additional facilities, the English

Language Institute of the University of Florida should be able to do a far more

effective service than any institute located in a Spanish-speaking community.



Objectives Served by the Institute. --This division will function primarily

as one of the service sections of the Inter-American Center. It will not

recommend the award of degrees. Its essential purpose, providing a basic

orientation to the culture and institutions both private and public of the United

States for incoming Latin American students, will be a continuing need. By

and large, the overwhelming majority of individuals embarking upon a course

of study or research in a new society feels the need for some kind of reason-

ably detailed orientation to that society. Recent studies and the experiences

of those in the field of student exchange indicate rather clearly that most

students, including graduate students, coming to the United States are mark-

edly deficient in any knowledge of the history and contemporary culture of

this nation. This is especially true for those students coming from Latin

America because "North American Studies" are virtually nonexistent in the

universities and secondary school systems of that area.

The need for an Institute of North American Studies, separate from the

utilization of any existing department, is quite evident. Any effort to pre-

sent a meaningful, over-all portrait of the North American past and present

must of necessity be interdisciplinary in character. As a consequence,

North American Culture

it must draw its materials, and to some degree its personnel, from the dif-

ferent departments and colleges of the University.

Organization. --The organization of the Institute of North American

Studies need not be large. Presiding over the unit would be a director who

should be a specialist in the field of American Studies. In addition, one

full-time, permanent faculty member with a specialty in twentieth century

United States history should be associated with the division. The part-time

services of a number of faculty members from various departments and col-

leges of the University, equivalent to one full-time position, would round out

the staff. Each of these individuals should have had experience in Latin

America. From time to time, a visiting professor or a postdoctoral fellow

from Latin America, or the United States, specializing in inter-American

relations, might participate or assist in the program.

Since virtually all graduate students as well as most postdoctoral

fellows and many of the visiting professors from Latin America will parti-

cipate in this aspect of the Center's activities, the Institute of North Ameri-

can Studies will have at least two hundred participants each year. It will

also work with those Latin American students and research scholars who

pass through the Center on their way to other points in the United States.

Program of Studies. --The number and kinds of courses to be given by

the division are tailored to the needs, time available, and level of Latin

North American Culture

American arrivals. During the regular academic year, the following offer-

ings are envisaged:

1. A two- to four-week survey of North American culture and institu-
tions, past and present, for Latin American graduate students beginning
their two-year stay at the Inter-American Center.

2. A full semester course surveying North American culture and in-
stitutions, past and present, more fully and intensively than (1). This is
designed for those beginning graduate students from Latin America who want
a broader background and particularly for those entering related fields
covered in one of the degree-granting institutes.

3. A one- to two-week intensive survey of North American culture
and institutions, past and present, on a more advanced and sophisticated
level for postdoctoral fellows and interested visiting professors from Latin

4. (3) may be repeated from time to time during the course of the
year for small groups of Latin Americans who pass through the center for
orientation and language instruction prior to moving on to other points in the
United States.

In addition, a six-week summer course, comparable to (2) above, will be

given for early graduate student arrivals from Latin America, as well as

for any interested postdoctoral fellows. All of the courses outlined above

are variations of the same theme: a relatively succinct portrait of the his-

tory and present state of American culture for foreign students with little or

no previous knowledge of the field.

For those Inter-American Center participants who wish more advanced

work in the field of North American Studies, or who want to pursue degree

study in the area, seminars and courses will be available through the


North American Culture

Graduate Institute for Humanities, Education, and Cultural Relations, as

well as in the various departments of the University.

Aside from the usual facilities such as offices and classrooms, this

section of the Center will need a sizable collection of books, a number of

films and some maps, all relating to various aspects of the United States,

past and present.

Other Values. --The Institute of North American Studies, though one of

the Center's peripheral activities, will serve a basic function in helping to

orient Latin Americans who come to the United States. It will contribute to

their understanding and appreciation of this country; it will assist them in

gaining greater insight into the functioning of this society, all of which will

enhance the effectiveness of their work and study at the Center. And, after

they return to their own countries, it will also serve as a real--though in-

tangible--factor in promoting inter-American relations.