Peruvian textiles & artifacts

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Peruvian textiles & artifacts a special loan exhibition marking the event of the 21st annual Latin American conference, February 18, 1971, through March 14, 1971
Alternate title:
Peruvian textiles and artifacts
Physical Description:
20 p. : ill., 1 map ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
University of Florida -- University Gallery
Publisher:
University Gallery, College of Architecture and Fine Arts, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Indian textile fabrics -- Exhibitions -- Peru   ( lcsh )
Indians of South America -- Antiquities -- Exhibitions -- Peru   ( lcsh )
Indians of South America -- Clothing -- Exhibitions -- Peru   ( lcsh )
Genre:
catalog   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Peru

Notes

General Note:
"Items on loan from the Birmingham Museum of Art ... et al.."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 00157268
lccn - 78198192
ocm00157268
Classification:
lcc - F3429.3.T3 F55
ddc - 980.4
System ID:
AA00002837:00001

Full Text







February 18, 1971, through March 14, 1971


A special loan exhibition
marking the event of
the 21st Annual
LA TIN AMERICAN CONFERENCE


PERUVIAN


TEXTILES


& artifacts

items on loan from:
THE BIRMINGHAM MUSEUM OF ART
Birmingham, Alabama
THE BROOKLYN MUSEUM
Brooklyn, New York
THE CARTER COLLECTION OF PERUVIAN TEXTILES
Florida State University
Tallahassee, Florida
THE COLLECTION OF MR. & MRS. PAUL CLIFFORD
Decatur, Georgia
THE FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida
THE COLLECTION OF MR. & MRS. RUSSELL CHICKEN
Jacksonville, Florida
THE KAY H. NUNEZ COLLECTION
Tallahassee, Florida
THE TEXTILE MUSEUM
Washington, D.C.
UNIVERSITY GALLERY
College of Architecture and Fine Arts
UNI VERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE






INTRODUCTION


T by Professor Ina VanStan
Florida State University
F Tallahassee, Florida
EATIN
MERIGkA
The spectacular nature of many pre-Columbian Peruvian textiles, with their
bright colors and striking designs, attracted the attention of a number of anti-
quarians and collectors of curiosities, in the mid-Nineteenth century. Toward
the end of the century, many of these textiles were finding their way into
private and public museum collections in Europe and North America. These,
Of together with many more specimens obtained in the same manner at later
dates, constitute the major part of the peruvian textiles seen today in museum
and private collections around the world. Unfortunately, in only a very
j few instances has information been recorded concerning the locales from
which these textiles came, or the conditions under which they were recovered.

s-3'^ Although there are records of very sumptuous Peruvian fabrics being sent
to Spain in the Sixteenth century, following the conquest of Peru by the
Spaniards, none of these examples are known to have been preserved. Thus,
the only historically documented examples of pre-Columbian Peruvian tex-
tiles, examples which were presumably of Inca origin, have been lost. This
leaves all of the remaining Inca and pre-Inca textiles in the category of archaeo-
logical materials, since no written records concerning these fabrics were left
by either the people who made and used them or by the people who saw
them in use.

As a result, specific and accurate data concerning these textiles are available
only in the cases where archaeological records have been kept carefully and
the results analyzed and published. Such records have been made for only
a very small part of the textiles now housed in the world's museums. Custo.
marily, archaeologists have taken great care with ceramic and other durable
materials and have documented and studied these extensively, while parallel
studies of textiles, in the few areas where these have survived, have tended
to be neglected, especially by American archaeologists. For these reasons,
comparative data concerning the exact provenience of specific textiles seldom
have been used as the foundations for the Peruvian textile classification used
in museum listings and display descriptions. E \cept for the well known, ela-
borate Paracas Necropolis examples, most of the textile identifications are
based on the similarities between the ornamental designs of fabrics and those
occurring on more durable and less easily transported artifacts of stone and
clay. This classifying has been done on the assumption that the presence of
corresponding designs in different materials indicates that such "matching"
items were contemporary products from the same area.

The accuracy of this assumption may be questioned, especially in the case
of textiles, since many of these constituted the clothing which people wore
as they moved about from place to place. Also, textile techniques, that is,
the methods used in the construction of textiles and in much of their orna-
mentation, differ so widely from those used in the making of non-textiles
lack any type of distinguishing patterning must also be taken into consideration.







PrA


IE


30. PONCHO-SHIRT
Interlocked tapestry. Cotton warps, alpaca
wefts.
South or Central Coast. Tiahuanaco
Period.
1.055m., 1.04m. X2
TM-91.301 Textile Museum
Washington, D. C.







mentation, differ so widely from those used in the making of non-textile
artifacts, that no comparisons of these can be made. The fact that many
textiles lack any type of distinguishing patterning must also be taken into
consideration.

Certainly, the highly developed textile arts of Peru, which display some of
the most complex and intricate techniques known to man, as well as a tre-
mendous variety of ornamentation, should provide their own bases for
blassification, determined by textile, rather than non-textile, evidence. Until
such time as many more studies based on archaeological textile evidence have
been made and published, most Peruvian textile labels must be considered
as being prefaced by "probably" or "believed to be".

The problems involved in setting up determinate textile classifications are
numerous. Not only is there a lack of recorded archaeological information
for those cloths which were collected in the past; the practice of collecting,
without recording the information that is available, continues. For the many
examples which have been unearthed by land erosion, by road cutting and
grading operations, or have been retrieved from fields that have been under
cultivation for generations, the general locations from which they came are
the only data available. Much of the material from these and other despoiled
sites is salvaged by the huaqueros or Indian laborers who live or work nearby,
and make surreptitious collections and sales of any artifacts they are fortunate
enough to find. For these huaqueros, to name a site would mean revealing
the source of a meager supplementary income and thus invite competition
and probably also the intervention of the police. A practice of altering or
dividing some of the specimens, removing sewing and cutting off ragged
parts, in order to make the pieces more attractive for sale or display purposes,
continues. These procedures, while quite understandable to anyone who
has seen the condition in which many pieces come from the field, greatly
hamper the textile student in his attempts at classification. They also make
it difficult for the bona fide restorer to find evidence on which to base his
restorations. There is a continuing loss of textile materials both in the field
and in museum and private collections. This is due largely to the fact that
textiles deteriorate rapidly unless handled with care and stored and displayed
under optimum conditions. Each of these factors contributes to the diffi-
culty of setting up a satisfactory textile classification, but probably the
greatest problem involved is the extensive scope of the undertaking.

The geographic area from which textiles have been recovered stretches from
northern Chile, throughout all of the Pacific coastal region of Peru. just
how much further the civilizations that produced elaborate textiles extended
cannot be determined accurately due to the presence of climatic conditions
unfavorable to the preservation of textiles. The regions from which most of
the textile artifacts have come are usually designated as: the SOUTH COAST,
including the Paracas peninsula and the Nazca and Ica valleys; the CENTRAL
COAST, encompassing Pachacamac, the Rimac valley with the sites within
and in the immediate vicinity of the city of Lima, nearby Ancon and, a
little further north, the whole Chancay valley; the NORTH COAST, with the
Trujillo Area and Pacasmayo, to mention only a few of the well known
archaeological sites.






A..'".. ."O : R:.

": ."* ': .. :.... ^ ':" ^ : .:/ . -
..----------::.:L ""::'I


Lambayeque Valley

*Cupisnique
Huaea Prieta .' "
Zhicama Valley
*Chan Chan .

PERU

OChavin
S *Recuay
Huarmey Valley



O*Chancay
Ancon
-c Rimac Valley Ancon
> Y Lima
m *Pachacamac .War
n Omas Valley
0 Mach
n
m rC *uzc
z S Paracas
SO c u c a j e
Inca Valley Cahuachi
,Cahuachi
Rio Grande Valley ;


Ocona Valley





PERU: Map shows major known pre-Columbia sites and culture areas.


3RAZIL. .

: ',*


u Picchu
:o


v ..... ".'..'."






It is from the northern region that very early textiles were first reported. Some
from Huaca Prieta being dated as early as 2500 B.C. With the beginnings so
long ago, the time period, ending with the Spanish conquest in 1532, like
the geographical area, is extensive. The older dates have been established by
the carbon 14 method, but, with the possible exception of the reign of the
Inca dynasty, none of the dating prior to 1532 can be exact, since no calendar
system or recorded dates are known to exist for any part of the long span
preceding the Spanish conquest. Thus, dates have been assigned on the basis
of developmental progress and design changes determined by archaeological
evidence, chiefly ceramic sequences.

In addition to place and time designations, or in place of these, style names
have been used in textile classifications. Many of these styles carry place
names, usually indicating the locale where the particular variety of patterning
was first found, or the place believed to be the source of its origin. Generally,
these have been based on ceramic ornamentation and the matching of textile
designs to those of the pottery, rather than to sequences of textile types. Poli-
tical or social names have been used as style designations, in some cases, indi-
cating the particular civilization that predominated at the time and place of
the production of the artifacts. Some of these styles had quite limited dis-
tribution; other spread over a large part of the Peruvian area. Of the latter,
the three great pan-Peruvian styles Chavin, Tiahuanaco, and Inca are
the best known. The Chavin is the earliest and is believed to have been the
precursor of the Paracas designs. Tiahuanaco, somewhat later than Paracas,
stemmed from a great Highland culture and, as seen in textiles, where con-
siderable design modification has taken place, is known as Coast Tiahuanaco.
The Inca, the last of these, although quite distinctive in some respects, was
largely a composite style. It was the Inca civilization that the Spaniards
destroyed.

While the Inca forces conquered and dominated all of central and parts of
northern and southern Peru and, in turn, lost this area to the Spanish, the
Chimu people to the north, with their capital near modern Trujillo; were
never completely subjugated. The name Chimu has come to denote a late
northern design style which covered somewhat the same area as the earlier
Mochica style.

Today, many of these names, which should have quite definite connotations,
are used so loosely that it frequently is difficult to determine the limits
implied by any of the more popular style names. This is especially true
where these are used in textile classifications.

Looking at the textile artifacts as textiles rather than as a design-carrying
medium reveals that the cloths show almost every basic weave which man
has known. In addition, many techniques other than weaving were used by
the ancient craftsmen of Peru. They were expert spinners and dyers, using
the wool provided by native llama, alpaca, huanaco and vicuna. (Sheep were
a Spanish introduction.) Cotton, both brown and white, was cultivated. For
dyes, all types of natural materials were used plants, insects, shell fish
and minerals. The use of mordants was known and an endless range of
colors was produced. Color was used lavishly, but the ancient Peruvians also
recognized the decorative value of texture variation and produced mono-
chrome fabrics ranging from rug-like textures to the sheerest of openwork




































FRAGMENT
Painted plain weave. Cotton warps and
wefts.
South Coast. Early Nazca Period.
0.32m., 0.68m.
TM 1962-36.32 B & D, Textile Museum
Washington, D.C.






cloths. Patterning was produced by texture as well as color contrast. For
all the famous patterned textiles, a much larger quantity of plain unbleached,
undyed, chiefly cotton textiles were produced and used for various everyday
purposes. These, which are little known and seldom displayed, probably will
eventually reveal more about the domestic lives of these ancient peoples than
all of the elaborate textile and other artifacts, which probably were chiefly
ceremonial objects reserved for the use of important individuals, for special
festivals or celebrations, and as offerings for the dead.

With ever increasing interest in the amazing accomplishments of the ancient
craftsmen of Peru who produced superb textiles centuries before the Spanish
set foot on their continent, it seems that their products will again have a
"place in the sun", where they can be admired and cherished. Certainly
they constitute one of America's greatest heritages.


7. WEAVER'S BASKET
Rectangular work basket containing small
implements as well as cloth samples.
Paracas (?)
2%" high x 5%2" deep x 3%" long
FSM-96029, Gift of Mr. & Mrs. Robert P.
Ebersole
Florida State Museum
Gainesville, Florida





































































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a. C--,

, 4E-Sl






1. STIRRUP SPOUT VESSEL
Brown ware with incised design.
North Coast. Chavin, c. 500 B.C.
C-70-39-UFG, University Gallery
Gainesville, Florida
2. VESSEL WITH POURING SPOUT
Ceramic.
Recuay, 200 B.C.-A.D. 200
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Russell B. Hicken
Jacksonville, Florida
3. VESSEL WITH WARRIORS
Ceramic.
Recuay, 200 B.C.-A.D. 200
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Russell B. Hicken
Jacksonville, Florida
4. BORDER FRAGMENT, CENTIPEDE GOD MOTIF
Paracas
151'2" long x 2" high
1-559, Carter Collection
Florida State University
Tallahassee, Florida
5. TEXTILE FRAGMENT
South Coast. Paracas Cavernas Culture,
c. 400 B.C.
12" x 14" high (sight)
#64.59, Richard & Betty Joyce Griffith
Collection
CATALOGUE Birmingham Museum of Art
Birmingham, Alabama
6. LOOM
A handloom complete with sample of
unfinished weaving.
Paracas (?)
17" high x 18" wide
FSM-96027, Gift of Mr. & Mrs. Robert P.
Ebersole
Florida State Museum
Gainesville, Florida
7. WEAVER'S BASKET
Rectangular work basket containing small
implements as well as cloth samples.
Paracas (?)
2 '2" high x 5'2 deep x 33" long
FSM.-96029, Gift of Mr. & Mrs. Robert P.
Ebersole
Florida State Museum
Gainesville, Florida
8. PONCHO-SHIRT
Looping, worked close. Alpaca, vicuna(?)
fringe.
Cerro Uhle, Ocucaje, lea Valley, South
Coast. Paracas Period.
0.680m. x 2, 0.565 m.
TM 91.934, Textile Museum
Washington, D. C.
9. BORDER FRAGMENT
Plain weave, stem-stitch embroidery.
Cotton ground, alpaca embroidery.
South Coast. Paracas Period
0.537 m., 0.093 m.
TM 91.123, Textile Museum
Washington, D.C.


10. SHOULDER-PONCHO
Plain weave, stem-stitch embroidered
borders.
Cotton, alpaca embroidery.
South Coast. Paracas Period
0.56m., 0.385 m.
TM 91.563, Textile Museum
Washington, D. C.
11. TEXTILE
Paracas
a. 32cm. x 6 cm., w/o fringe
b. 6.5 cm. wide x 29 cm. long,
fringe 5 cm.
#34.561, George R. Brackett Fund
The Brooklyn Museum
Brooklyn, New York
12. TEXTILE
Paracas
20 cm. long x 18.5 cm. wide
#33.570 The Brooklyn Museum
Brooklyn, New York
13. TEXTILE
Paracas
29 cm. x 26 cm. (at widest points,
w/o fringe)
#34.154B The Brooklyn Museum
Brooklyn, New York
14. TEXTILE
Paracas
39.2 cm. long x 4 cm. wide
#34.562.1, George R. Brackett Fund
The Brooklyn Museum
Brooklyn, New York
15. SLING & CARRYING OR "TUMP" STRAP
Vegetable fiber cords covered with over
wool yarn.
Embroidery in stem stitch. Polychrome.
Paracas/Nazca, ca. 700 B.C.-A.D. 600
120" long expanding to 3 %" wide in
center.
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Clifford
Decatur, Georgia
16. FOUR BEARS OR JAGUARS
Dark brown on red ground
Nazca
14 L," high x 4%" wide
1-504, Carter Collection
Florida State University
Tallahassee, Florida
17. TEXTILE
Cotton loose weave.
Nazca
76 cm. long x 43 cm. wide
#30.1448, Gift of George D. Pratt
The Brooklyn Museum
Brooklyn, New York
18. PAINTED DOUBLE SPOUT BOTTLE WITH CAT
MOTIF
South Coast. Nazca, Middle Period,
c. 300 A.D.
C-70-40-UFG, University Gallery
Gainesville, Florida























































4 -?






19. MINIATURE BAGS
Two joined miniature bags. Basket weave
with over embroidered step pattern in
red. Possibly used to hold amulets on
sleeve.
Nazca Hacinda Tello, Palpa Valley.
2% x 4"
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Clifford
Decatur, Georgia
20. FRAGMENT
Painted plain weave. Cotton warps and
wefts.
South Coast. Early Nazca Period.
0.32m., 0.68m.
TM 1962-36.32 B & D, Textile Museum
Washington, D.C.
21. PONCHO-SHIRT
Plain weave with double-running stitch
embroidery.
All alpaca.
South Coast. Nazca Period.
0.320 m. 32, 0.610 m.
TM-1960.12-8 Textile Museum
Washington, D.C.
22. PONCHO-SHIRT
Slit tapestry weave. Cotton warps, cotton
and alpaca wefts.
Tunga, Nazca Valley, South Coast. Inca
Period
0.743 m. X2, 1.090m.
TM 1961.37.5 Textile Museum
Washington, D.C.

23. TEXTILE FRAGMENT
Textile. Coarse brown cotton, plain
weave.
Starfish motif in blue, orange and yellow.
(Found with #24 & #25)
Wari, Coastal (Huacho). ca. A.D. 700-
1000
35" square
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Clifford
Decatur, Georgia
24. WOODEN HEAD
Wood. Painted with pastel brown, cream
and black.
(Found with #23 & #25)
Wari, Coastal (Huacho). ca. A.D. 700-
1000
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Clifford
Decatur, Georgia
25. DOUBLE SPOUTED VASE
Polychrome on cream ground. (Found
with #23 & #24)
Wari, Coastal (Huacho). ca. A.D. 700-
1000
7" high
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Clifford
Decatur, Georgia
26. THREE TEXTILES
Wari
a. Textile fragment with 2" rows of
different colored panels, containing
stylized condors with snakes.
5%" x 23" long


b. Textile fragment with cats and
squares.
2'2" x 20'2" long
c. Small Pouch
2 x 4 12." long
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Clifford
Decatur, Georgia
27. TEXTILE FRAGMENT
Wari
44 cm. long x 20 cm. wide
#34,550, George R. Brackett Fund
The Brooklyn Museum
Brooklyn, New York
28. STIRRUP SPOUT VESSEL WITH CRAB GOD
MOTIF
North Coast. Mochica III-IV, c. 300 A.D.
C-70-41 -UFG, University Gallery
Gainesville, Florida
29. PAINTED STIRRUP SPOUT VESSEL WITH
RUNNING BEAN MESSENGERS
North Coast. Mochica IV, c. 400 A.D.
C-70-42 -UFG, University Gallery
Gainesville, Florida
30. PONCHO-SHIRT
Interlocked tapestry. Cotton warps, alpaca
wefts.
South or Central Coast. Tiahuanaco
Period.
1.055m., 1.04m. X2
TM-91.301 Textile Museum
Washington, D. C.
31. HAT
Pile on a knotted foundation, top of simple
looping.
Foundation cotton;, pile and looped top,
alpaca.
South Coast. Tiahuanaco.
0.12m wide, 0.11m. high
TM-91.306 Textile Museum
Washington, D.C.
32. HAT
Piled on a knotted foundation, top of
simple looping.
Foundation, cotton; pile and looped top,
alpaca.
South Coast. Tiahuanaco.
0.11m. wide, 0.11m. high.
TM-91.346 Textile Museum
Washington, D.C.
33. TUMI BLADE
Running Messenger, copper with silver.
Chimu c. 1000 A.D.
14" high (sight)
#64.104.41 Birmingham Museum of Art
Birmingham, Alabama
34. PONCHO
Sleeves and body are of a cream plain
weave with tapestry border.
Stylized birds in brown, cream and red.
Separate fringe on hem and cuffs.
Chimu, ca A.D. 1000-1470
55" high. 15%1/" wide
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Clifford
Decatur, Georgia


















TEXTILE FRAGMENT
South Coast. Paracas Cavernas Culture,
e. 400 B.C.
12" x 14" high (sight)
#~4.59, Richard & Betty Joyce Griffith
Collection
Birmingham Museum of Art
Birmingham, Alabama


32. HAT
Piled on a knotted foundation, top of
simple looping.
Foundation, cotton; pile and looped top,
alpaca.
South Coast. Tiahuanaco.
0.11m. wide, 0.11m. high.
TM-91.346 Textile Museum
Washington, D.C.










35. EFFIGY BOTTLE
Squash-shaped bottle with mouse.
Grayish black.
Chimu (?)
Extreme height 91/"
FSM-101424 Florida State Museum
Gainesville, Florida
36. PONCHO-SHIRT
Slit tapestry weave. Cotton warps, alpaca
wefts.
Central Coast. Chancay Period.
0.500m. X2, 0.597m.
TM 1960.6.3 Textile Museum
Washington, D.C.
37. COCO BAG
Interlocked tapestry weave.
Chancay
5%" x 9%"
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Clifford
Decatur, Georgia
38. MUMMY BUNDLE MASK
Textile envelope stuffed with leaves. Red
face outlined with metal. Yarn hair
and gauze streamers attached.
Chancay, ca. A.D. 1000-1470
15" long x 14" wide
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Clifford
Decatur, Georgia
39. WOMEN'S SEWING BASKET
Woven reed sewing basket, containing
thread, spindles, needles and weaving
tools.
Chancay, ca. A.D. 1000-1470
12" long x 6" wide and 3" deep
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Clifford
Decatur, Georgia
40. BAND FRAGMENT GOLD-COLOR GROUND
Multicolored jaguars, yellow ground.
Central Coast.
17%" long x 1" wide
1-516, Carter Collection
Florida State University
Tallahassee, Florida
41. BAND FRAGMENT
Multicolored birds.
Central Coast. Chancay
914" long x 1%4 "
1-515, Carter Collection
Florida State University
Tallahassee, Florida
42. MANTLE BORDER SECTION
Double bird motif.
Paracas
8%" high x 3%" wide
1-621, Carter Collection
Florida State University
Tallahassee, Florida


43. BORDER FRAGMENT
Three rows of birds, multicolored on red
ground.
Central Coast.
18V high x 3%" wide
1-502, Carter Collection
Florida State University
Tallahassee, Florida
44. BAND FRAGMENT
Birds and standing figure.
Central Coast. Chancay
24%" x 2"
1-544, Carter Collection
Florida State University
Tallahassee, Florida
45. BORDER FRAGMENT
Brown birds on white.
Central Coast.
8%" x 1"
1-631, Carter Collection
Florida State University
Tallahassee, Florida
46. DOUBLE CLOTH FRAGMENT
Central or South Coast. Chancay
8%" x 1%"
1-580, Carter Collection
Florida State University
Tallahassee, Florida
47. BORDER FRAGMENT
Red bird and five brown birds.
Central Coast.
6%" x 1%"
1-581, Carter Collection
Florida State University
Tallahassee, Florida
48. UNFINISHED BORDER FRAGMENT
Multicolored.
Central Coast.
14" x 1%" high
1-627, Carter Collection
Florida State University
Tallahassee, Florida
49. END OF LOIN CLOTH (?)
Gold-color ground with brown and red
coloration.
Birds and cats motif.
Central Coast. Chancay
26" high x 21" wide
1-557, Carter Collection
Florida State University
Tallahassee, Florida
50. SQUARE
Loom-made square cotton mesh with sup.
elementary stitches.
Huarmey, Central Coast. Chancay Period,
0.76m., 0.71m.
TM 91.292 Textile Museum
Washington, D.C.
































14
















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Af







51. CHILD'S PONCHO
Deity figure on brown gauze ground.
Chancay
14" x 13%"
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Clifford
Decatur, Georgia
52. CHILD'S PONCHO WITH BIRD BORDER
Chancay c. 1000-1470 A.D.
15" x 14"
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Clifford
Decatur, Georgia
53. COMPLETE LOOM
Loom with double cloth in brown and
white.
Heddles and shed rods in place.
Chancay, ca. A.D. 1000-1470
65" long x 7" wide
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Clifford
Decatur, Georgia
54. DOUBLE BODY VESSEL
A double body vessel with standing figure
and bridge spout.
Brown on cream (or white.)
Chancay
9%" high
FSM-10423 Florida State Museum
Gainesville, Florida

55. ARYBALLOID JAR
Human with monkey on right shoulder,
bird on left.
Two strap handles. Brown and cream
color.
Late Chancay
22%1" high
FSM-101432 Florida State Museum
Gainesville, Florida
56. POTTERY FIGURE
Stylized nude female figure. Black on
white.
Late Chancay
25" high x 15" wide
FSM-102224 Flprida State Museum
Gainesville, Florida
57. TAPESTRY FRAGMENTS
Fisherman on balsa boat surrounded by
fish and birds.
Central Coast
14" x 13"
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Clifford
Decatur, Georgia

58. TEXTILE PANEL WITH YELLOW AND GREEN
FROGS
Central Coast
20" wide (sight)
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Clifford
Decatur, Georgia
59. TEXTILE WITH FEATHER MOTIF
Central Coast
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Clifford
Decatur, Georgia


60. GAUZE FRAGMENT WITH DOUBLE-HEADED BIRD
Central Coast, c. 1000 A.D.
22" x 27"
T-70-43-UFG University Gallery
Gainesville, Florida
61. TEXTILE STRIP
Double cloth showing cats and birds.
Central Coast
4%" x 30%" long
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Clifford
Decatur, Georgia
62. COCO BAG
Double cloth.
Central Coast
21" x 8 '"
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Clifford
Decatur, Georgia

63. COCO BAG
Double cloth weave.
Central Coast
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Clifford
Decatur, Georgia
64. SMALL BAG WITH TASSELS
Small bag, plain weave with interlocked
cats heads.
Unfinished burial piece sewn together at
top.
Three button tassels with red fringe show-
ing stylized birds in red, black and
yellow.
Central Coast
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Clifford
Decatur, Georgia
65. CLOTH FRAGMENT WITH PAINTED CAT
Central Coast
3" square
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Clifford
Decatur, Georgia
66. DOLL
Textile, weaving spindles and cotton. Face
loom woven. Legs made of spindles and
arms and legs yarn wrapped. Hair yarn.
Red, yellow and brown.
Central Coast
12% high
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Clifford
Decatur, Georgia
67. DOLL FILLED WITH BEANS
A sack body containing beans.
Rounded head with embroidered features
and yarn hair, Head cloth and dress.
Browns, yellows and reds.
Central Coast
8%" high
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Clifford
Decatur, Georgia
68. GAUZE FRAGMENT WITH CAT HEAD
Central Coast
25" x 26"
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Clifford
Decatur, Georgia
































72. PONCHO-SHIRT
Interlocked tapestry. Cotton warps,
alpaca wefts.
lea Valley (?), South Coast. Inca Period
0.785m., 0.952m. X2
TM 91.147 Textile Museum
Washington, D.C.
mm%13






















Washington, D.C.






69. SHOULDER PONCHO
Brown and white, embroidered border.
Central Coast
13" x 28"
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Clifford
Decatur, Georgia
70. SHIRT BORDER WITH DEEP RED FRINGE
Central Coast
Border, 7" high; Fringe, 6" high
Approximately 5' long
1-605, Carter Collection
Florida State University
Tallahassee, Florida
71. FEATHER-WORK PONCHO
The feathers are sewn in overlapping
rows on a cotton, plain-woven ground.
Central or North Coast. Late or Inca
Periods
0.97m., 0.68m.
TM 91.395 Textile Museum
Washington, D.C.
72. PONCHO-SHIRT
Interlocked tapestry. Cotton warps,
alpaca wefts.
Ica Valley (?), South Coast. Inca Period
0.785m., 0.952m. X2
TM 91.147 Textile Museum
Washington, D.C.
73. TUMI BLADE
Llama handle, silver.
Spanish Period
8" high (sight)
#57.50 Birmingham Museum of Art
Birmingham, Alabama
74. TUMI BLADE
Alligator handle.
Spanish Period
6" high (sight)
#57.47 Birmingham Museum of Art
Birmingham, Alabama
75. TEXTILE FRAGMENT
All over bird pattern. Red and navy.
8 4" high x 14%" long
1-599, Carter Collection
Florida State University
Tallahassee, Florida


76. WOVEN GEOMETRICAL WIDE BAND
Red and gold-color and white with
diamond motif.
34W" long x 7" wide
1-558, Carter Collection
Florida State University
Tallahassee, Florida
77. TEXTILE FRAGMENT
Probably Chancay
Corn motif with birds and bird border.
10" high x 15" wide
R22, K014, Collection of Mrs. Katherine
H. Nunez
Tallahassee, Florida
78. GAUZE FRAGMENT
Probably Chancay
22 2" wide x 17" high (maximum)
65-35, Collection of Mrs. Katherine H.
Nunez
Tallahassee, Florida
79. BIRD AND FISH DESIGN
Central Coast
Brown paint on neutral ground.
8%/2" high x 6%" wide
160a, Collection of Mrs. Katherine H
Nunez
Tallahassee, Florida
80. PAINTED FABRIC FRAGMENT
Brown.
7%" wide x 5%" high
160b, Collection of Mrs. Katherine H.
Nunez
Tallahassee, Florida
81. PAINTED FABRIC FRAGMENT
South or Central Coast
Orange and brown on neutral ground.
6" wide x 4%" high
160c, Collection of Mrs. Katherine H.
Nunez
Tallahassee, Florida
82. DOUBLE CLOTH
South or Central Coast
Red and white with squirrel (?) motif.
6%" wide x 5%" high
Collection of Mrs. Katherine H. Nunez
Tallahassee, Florida














































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38. MUMMY BUNDLE MASK
Textile envelope stuffed with leaves. Red
face outlined with metal. Yarn hair
and gauze streamers attached.
Chancay, ca. A.D. 1000-1470
15" long x 14" wide
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Clifford
Decatur, Georgia


"X-^V-1^











ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


In 1526, while still at sea and enroute to conqqier Peru, the Spaniards encountered their first Incas.
These Indians wore gold and silver ornaments which immediately commanded the attention of Ihe
Europeans, but they were also impressed by the fine quality and sophistication of the Incas' "wool and
cotton mantles. Other pieces of clothing (were) colored with cochineal, crimson, blue, yellow...
(and were) worked with different types of ornate embroidery in figures of birds, animals, fish and
trees."*

This spectacular textile tradition, seen here by Europeans for the first time, was by then already
ancient. Reaching back as far as c. 2,400 B.C., weaving predates ceramic production in Peru. This
fact, coupled with the impressive beauty of the textiles themselves, inspired the Gallery to under-
take the presentation of this exhibition.

Although we have included a small selection of ceramics in this exhibition, our first intent is to
highlight the textiles. To date, the more permanent ceramic ware has held the central attention of
anthropologists and art historians and the high achievements of the ancient weavers has been com-
paratively neglected. This, perhaps, is due to the fact that most examples of textiles come chiefly from
the dry coastal areas where climatic conditions favored preservation. In the interior of Peru, with
changes of terrain and greater humidity, not to mention a lack of systematic archaeological work, our
samples and knowledge dramatically decrease. Therefore, this small exhibition can only present us
with an intriguing preview of a wide and rich area of human endeavor which has yet to be fully
revealed.

In this exciting undertaking we have had the encouragement and aid of many people and the Gallery
is particularly grateful to all those generous institutions and collectors who have made this exhibition
possible by loaning us their precious objects.

We are especially indebted to The Textile Museum in Washington, D. C. and its knowledgeable Director,
Dr. Alan R. Sawyer. Dr. Sawyer's kindness includes his interest in making a number of masterpieces
from the Museum's collection available to us, and delivering the opening lecture for this exhibition.
Also at The Textile Museum, we wish to thank Miss Nora Fisher, Western Hemisphere Department,
and Miss Petronel Lukens, Assistant to the Director and Registrar, for their thoughtful help with loans.

We are equally in debt to Professor Ina VanStan at the Florida State University for her enthusiastic
interest which extends from her excellent essay for this catalogue to arranging the loans from the
Carter and Nunez textile collections in Tallahassee.

Also a significant number of beautiful items are on loan here from the collection of Mr. Paul A.
Clifford and we are particularly grateful to him for his kind support and extended interest which
assured the success of this exhibition.

Other individuals and institutions to which the Gallery is pleased to extend its appreciation are:
Mr. Michael Kan, Curator of Primitive Art, the Brooklyn Museum; Mr. Richard F. Howard, Director
of the Birmingham Museum of Art, Dr. William R. Bullard and Dr. Ripley P. Bullen of the Florida
State Museum; and Mr. Russell B. Hicken, Director of the Jacksonville Art Museum.

Here at the University of Florida we are happy to have the continuing support of the following:
President Stephen C. O'Connell; Vice President Frederick W. Conner; Dr. William E. Carter, Director
of the Center for Latin American Studies, Dean Fred Cantrell; Dean Robert S. Bolles; and Professor
Eugene E. Grissom.

Personally, I wish to express here my heartfelt thanks to the Gallery staff, Mr. Steve L. Hodges,
Assistant Director; Mrs. Marjorie Burdick, Secretary, and Mr. Bernard Horovitz, Student Assistant,
for their professional dedication and hard work toward this and all other projects of the Gallery.


Roy C. Craven, Jr.
Director


*Codex CXX, Imperial Library, Vienna.







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