The art of the Taíno from the Dominican Republic

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
The art of the Taíno from the Dominican Republic
Physical Description:
48 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Scott, John F ( John Fredrik ), 1936-
University of Florida -- University Gallery
University of Florida -- Center for Latin American Studies
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)
Bacardi Art Gallery
Jay I. Kislak Reference Collection (Library of Congress)
Publisher:
University Gallery, College of Fine Arts, University of Florida :
University Presses of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Taino art -- Exhibitions   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
catalog   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Dominican Republic

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliography.
Statement of Responsibility:
by John F. Scott.
General Note:
At head of title: The University Gallery and the Center for Latin American Studies presents.
General Note:
"Exhibiting institutions: The University Gallery, University of Florida, Gainesville, February 17-March 17, 1985; the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York. June 3-October 15, 1985; the Bacardi Art Gallery, Miami, Florida, November 7-December 13. 1985."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 12663386
lccn - 85136261
isbn - 0813008239 (PBK)
ocm12663386
Classification:
lcc - F1909 .S36 1985
System ID:
AA00002836:00001

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EXHIBITING INSTITUTIONS


THE UNIVERSITY GALLERY
University of Florida, Gainesville
February 17-March 17, 1985



THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART
New York, New York
June 3-October 15, 1985



THE BACARDI ART GALLERY
Miami, Florida
November 7-December 13, 1985





The University Gallery and
the Center for Latin American Studies
present


The Art of the,


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from the Dominican Republic


by John F. Scott

Artifacts on loan from
the Museo del Hombre Dominicano
and
the Fundacion Garcia Arevalo
of Santo Domingo, D. R.



UNIVERSITY GALLERY
College of Fine Arts
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Copyright 1985 by The Board of Regents of the State of Florida
Printed in the U.S.A.
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The Taino Indians of Hispaniola were among the first "Americans" en-
countered by Columbus in the New World. The Tafno, a friendly and
peaceful people, contrasted markedly with their cannibalistic neighbors,
the infamous Caribs who inhabited the Lesser Antilles and the Bahamas.
The more sedentary Tafno of Hispaniola (now divided into modern Haiti
and the Dominican Republic) were content to fish and live off the boun-
tiful land. They also fashioned spectacular ritual objects that today have
the power to move us with their elegant beauty.
Taino art was the direct product of Taino religious beliefs, and it portrays
rinch visual spectrum of design and imagery. Startlingly abstract, Tafno
art objects have a clarity and a directness which strike the contemporary
observer as being modern in form and in concept. It is also of con-
siderable interest, to anyone aware of the beautiful Pre-Columbian ar-
tifacts of Florida Indians, to note the striking similarity that late Tafno
ceramics bear to some Weeden Island wares. This stylistic relationship
further enhances assertions by archaeologists, such as William Sears
(FORT CENTER, 1982) and others, that the Antilles formed a direct cul-
tural bridge between the peoples of northeastern South America and
those of Florida. As we move toward the observance of the five hun-
dredth year of Columbus' discovery of America, we here at the Univer-
sity of Florida, the Center for Latin American Studies, and the Gallery
are especially pleased to bring this first major exhibition of Tafno ma-
terials to North America.
We are indebted to many who have worked hard to bring this important
display to fruition, and I am delighted to record my deep appreciation to
the people of the Dominican Republic and especially to Ing. Elpidio
Ortega, Director General, the Museo del Hombre Dominicano, and his
staff, whose cooperation and support have been the chief mainstays in
this undertaking. Equally enthusiastic and generous has been Sr. Manuel
Ant. Garcfa Arevalo's gracious act of augmenting the works loaned by
the National Museum with other significant items from the world-re-
nowned Sala de Arte Prehispinico, Fundaci6n Garcfa Ar6valo, Inc., col-
lection. I wish especially to register my deep personal appreciation to Lic.
Jos6 del Castillo, who graciously hosted me in Santo Domingo. Many
others at the Museo del Hombre lent their generous interest and time to
this project, and I wish to thank Directora Isabel Mendoza, of the Depar-
tamento de Museograffa y Conservaci6n, for her care and help. I am par-
ticularly grateful to Sra. Marfa Luisa Valdez, Investigadora, and Sr. Pedro
Jose Vega, Muse6grafo, and his wife Leonora, who all rendered invalu-
able assistance on my visit to Santo Domingo.














We here in Gainesville are very gratified that the exhibition will travel to
New York and Miami following its inaugural showing at the University of
Florida. To my museum colleagues who are undertaking these two sec-
tions of the tour, Ms. Julie Jones, Curator, Department of Primitive Art of
the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and Dr. Juan Espinosa of the Bacardi
Gallery, I express my deep appreciation for their interest in presenting
this important exhibition in their institutions.
Here at the University of Florida, I am exceedingly indebted to the UF
Center for Latin American Studies and its Director, Dr. Helen Safa, for
supporting and sustaining us in undertaking this significant project.
Also, the Center's Deputy Director, Dr. Terry McCoy, has once again
shouldered many additional burdens to help bring this collection to
North America. Dr. Martin Murphy has rendered concerned help with effi-
cient dispatch, which was appreciated.
Others on our campus I wish to thank are President and Mrs. Marshall
Criser; Vice President and Mrs. Robert Bryan, Academic Affairs; Dean
and Mrs. Joseph Sabatella, College of Fine Arts; and Mr. Phil Martin,
Director of the University Presses of Florida, and his dedicated staff.
Once again I am grateful to our good friend and editor, Mrs. Myra
Eisenberg, for her professional editing skills and good labors in assem-
bling this catalogue.
The Gallery's loyal and dedicated staff continues to perform miracles in
preparing materials for this and other exhibitions. Mrs. Marjorie Burdick,
the Gallery's Secretary/Registrar, continues her conspicuous contribu-
tions to the Gallery and the University with seasoned skill and patience.
Ms. Nancy Gustke, the Gallery's former Graduate Assistant, and Ms.
Karen Kilgore, the Gallery's current Graduate Assistant, have performed
many useful chores in carrying out their goals related to this exhibition
and have further aided our Student Assistants in the installation of this
exhibition. They have my deep appreciation for all their duties profes-
sionally performed.
My final appreciation is expressed to my colleague Dr. John Scott who,
with professional dedication, patience, and good humor, has researched
and written this excellent catalogue. From the very first he has worked
diligently to enlighten us all and to aid us in understanding the high
achievement of the Tafno.

Roy C. Craven, Jr.
Director
University Gallery






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DOMINICAN INDIAN ART BEFORE COLUMBUS


John F. Scott
Department of Art
University of Florida



Most Americans know very little about the Indians first encountered
by Columbus on Hispaniola. The culture of these peoples was eclipsed in
the popular imagination by the high civilizations brought to light shortly
thereafter by Cortes and Pizarro. The approaching Quincentenary of Col-
umbus' discovery of what he erroneously thought were the Indies makes
this an appropriate occasion to reexamine the society and the art of these
first Indians known to modern European man.
When Columbus' sailors of the Santa Maria first sighted land in the
Bahamas on October 12, 1492, three different ethnic groups lived in the
Antilles (West Indies): the Arawakan, the Ciboney, and the Carib. The
Arawakan were subdivided into the Taino (the dominant group), the
Lucayo of the Bahamas, the Ciguayo of the Samand Peninsula in the
northeastern Dominican Republic, the Macorix in the northcentral
Dominican Republic, and the Igneri in Trinidad.
Although the word "Taino" refers to the high culture of the late
Prehistoric period (A.D. 1000-1500) in Puerto Rico, the Dominican
Republic, and eastern Cuba, it is also the name of the major language of
the Greater Antilles, part of the large Arawakan language family spread
over much of the South American mainland, especially the Guianas.
Many Arawakan words entered general usage in Spanish and then
English-canoe, hammock, tobacco, maize, hurricane, iguana, manatee,
cayman. The Indians' original names for their islands have survived in
some instances (Jamaica, Cuba, arid Haiti), but most have been obscured
by later Spanish names-Quisqueya has become Espahiola or Santo
Domingo; Borinqu6n is now Puerto Rico.
The speakers of Arawakan inhabited all the large islands of the
Greater Antilles. In remote areas in both western Cuba and Haiti lived a
rather primitive group traditionally called Ciboney by their Arawakan
neighbors. They were few in number, were unimpressive culturally, and,
consequently, were easily ignored. We don't even know what language
they spoke. Their location in western refuge areas suggests they were
pushed there and assimilated elsewhere by the more numerous and bet-
ter organized Arawak who came up from South America.
The cannibalistic Carib had killed or driven the Arawak men from the
Lesser Antilles, probably only a century or two before the Spanish Con-
quest, and had taken their women; this resulted in a curious culture in
which the men and the women spoke unrelated languages. Like island
Arawak, island Carib has many linguistic relatives on the South
American mainland, interspersed with mainland Arawak; no doubt the
conflict between the two peoples and life-styles was raging long before
they both attempted to settle the islands.






The Taino was the major Arawakan group of the island of Hispaniola.
The Spaniards commented on their friendly nature and hospitality,
although these Indians had little the Europeans wanted. The Tafno were
agricultural: the women did much of the farming and domestic work; the
men hunted and fished. Shortly after the arrival of the Spaniards, native
Indian foods such as manioc and yams were supplanted in importance by
plantation crops, such as sugarcane and coffee, and the rapidly vanishing
Indian population was replaced primarily by Africans brought in origi-
nally as slaves to work the mines and grow the cash crops of the planta-
tions.
Because they were unwilling to work for their conquerors and were
vulnerable to new diseases, the island Indians diminished in number and
were neglected even by the Spaniards of the sixteenth century. With no
Indian survivors on most of the islands, only a few scholars and anti-
quarians were interested in the Pre-Columbian cultures. Art collections
were primarily in private hands or in storage at university anthropology
departments. Most of the earliest work was done by visiting scholars such
as Jesse Fewkes (1912) and Herbert Krieger (1929). Around the middle of
this century, Cuban scholars became the first local investigators to begin
serious research into the culture of the Tai'no and other Indian groups.
Puerto Rican interest was aroused in the 1960s. Dominican national col-
lections were consolidated after the Civil War of 1964-1966 to form the
Museum of Dominican Man, which opened its doors in 1973. Most of the
pieces in this exhibit are from that Museum.
Taino culture belongs to an evolutionary level known in the Circum-
Caribbean area as "Neo-Indian," a term which parallels the Neolithic of
the Old World. But men inhabited the West Indies before the Neo-Indian
period, arriving in Hispaniola by 2600 B.C. with a well-developed
toolmaking industry. Stone datable to 14,000 B.C. from El Jobo,
Venezuela, has provided the earliest evidence of worked human tools in
South America. The culture of these earliest Americans, called Paleo-
Indian, is parallel to the Paleolithic industries of the Old World, and sug-
gests a similar dependence on big game hunting. Apparently, lack of sail-
ing skills kept men off the islands during the Paleo-Indian era, although
some suggest balsa rafts brought men to the south coast of Hispaniola as
early as 5000 B.C. Later, increased dependence on shellfish drove men
into more intense collecting, especially along the shoreline. Shells made
into woodcutting tools provided the means to fashion the first dugout
canoes in which people could navigate the Caribbean, stepping-stone
fashion, island-by-island. Presumably they came from South America by
way of Trinidad and the Lesser Antilles like all other immigrants,
although no trace has been found on these islands. The first arrivals on
the small eastern islands (probably during the fourth millennium B.C.)
were the ancestors of the historic Ciboney. The developmental stage of
both the Ciboney and their prehistoric predecessors is called Meso-
Indian, a term parallel to the Mesolithic of the Old World.
As on the mainland, stone tools mark Meso-Indian man's presence
and seem to be the focus of his handmade crafts, although perishable






materials such as clothing, wood carvings, and even feathers and body
painting (still dominant arts among Amazonian Indian groups) may even
then have been important. Chipped stone, especially silex, was important
in toolmaking, and sometimes aesthetic concerns are evident in the
choice of material and the beauty of the fractures (#1). More regular
outlines and continuously curving surfaces appear in the new ground-
stone industries, especially in ax heads and implements for grinding
foodstuffs. Of the two types, the ax heads can be more securely dated
than the grinding tools. The so-called butterfly type (#3), an oval with an
indentation across the narrow dimension to permit attachment to a han-
dle (see the monolithic axes, #4, 5), is found clearly in Ciboney-style
assemblages from Haiti (Rouse 1948: pl. 85d). Stone balls (#6, 7),
sometimes considered bolas because some of them are grooved, were
probably used for ritual purposes rather than for hunting, because they
were found in children's graves (Veloz 1972: 206-209); the ungrooved
spheres could not have been functional. Also used during this phase were
perforated circular shell pendants with incised geometric decorations
(#8), which were probably worn like gorgets.
Many grinding tools had aesthetic qualities as well as functional uses.
The beautiful conical pestle (#9) has a graceful hook at the end, sug-
gesting a bird's head. It combines the geometric abstraction of nature
with the suggestion of a living creature, a recurring combination in Tafno
ceramics as well as stone. A mortar (#10) suggests the forms found in
pre-ceramic levels in the central valley of the Dominican Republic,
related to the same cultural complex in northern Haiti from which the
butterfly ax heads derive (Veloz and Ortega 1973).
The Neo-Indian nature of Tafno culture was established after the
domestication of plants led to a dependence on agriculture, but, unlike
the Old World Neolithic, the Antilles lacked significant domesticated
animals, having only mute dogs and parrots. Thus, the men still hunted
and fished; the women established the family near their gardens. Villages
became permanent, populations grew larger, and society became more
structured and hierarchical.
The Taino lived in villages of wood and thatch structures. Because ar-
chitecture was not built to last in the land of the hurricane, no dwellings
were built of stone. Rows of uncut stones were used to delimit the batey,
where communal celebrations, dances, and a ball game were held. The
batey thus served as both the central plaza of the village and the ball
court. The people were governed by chiefs, the most important of whom
were treated with great deference. A noble class was distinct from the
commoners and the slaves, a distinction that art helped enhance.
Costume was not elaborate, but round earspools (#62), delicate jewelry
(#63) and amulets (#64-69) indicated class differences.
Talno crafts were as gracious and attractive as the people. In earlier
periods shells were utilized for tools but then also became material for
personal adornment. Wood was undoubtedly a favored medium for the
men, although little has survived except some sacred idols and










































92.




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prestigious seats (duhos), which had been stored, protected, in caves
(#91, 92). Weaving was an important craft for the women, who produced
baskets and textiles from coarse fibers and domesticated cotton. Doll-
like cloth idols once were common, although only in Turin, Italy, has a
unique specimen been preserved. Stamp seals (#59, 60) and, rarely,
cylinder seals (#61) decorated cloth and even bodies with color. The
ubiquitous hammock is a representative of these crafts, although no Pre-
Columbian examples have survived. After the Conquest, the hammock
became such an admired solution to the problem of sleeping in a humid
tropical climate that it spread widely to other parts of the Caribbean and
Gulf of Mexico.
Settled life and greater specialization encouraged more complex
technology, such as the firing of pottery, and made the breakable
ceramics practical possessions, which they would not have been in more
nomadic life-styles. Ceramics provide a favorite means for the ar-
chaeologist to record man's presence and changes in his skill and taste.
The arrival of the Arawak ethnic group into the Greater Antilles is
signaled by finely made pottery, often beautifully decorated with abstract
curvilinear designs executed in white over a red slip. This style was
brought from the lower Orinoco River, Venezuela, where it first appeared
with the Saladoid culture (ca. 1000 B.C.). It slowly penetrated the Lesser
Antilles, especially Trinidad, where it became known as Igneri. The
Saladoid style entered Puerto Rico about A.D. 190 and southeastern
Santo Domingo (La Caleta) about A.D. 240 (Garcia Ar6valo 1977: 17).
This marks the point of westernmost expansion of the Saladoid in-
fluence. The form of Saladoid vessels is reflected in #11, although this
example no longer has the painted decoration characteristic of that style
and is probably later. The presence of agriculture in the east suggests the
grinding tool was used for turning the staple manioc root into meal. The
bitter manioc meal, called cassava in Spanish America, was made into
bread following an elaborate system of squeezing the poison out through
sieves and allowing the meal to dry in the sun. This technique almost
certainly came from the Amazonian areas of South America. Because
no true excavations have been undertaken in La Caleta, we do not know
whether graters are associated with these earliest artifacts in the Domini-
can Republic.
Utilitarian objects in this exhibit include Tafno graters (#12, 13) con-
ceived in silhouette form, embodying the concept that the tool had a
spirit, a concept that no doubt existed in the earliest examples, although
the spirit representations were not carved explicitly until later. Such sym-
bolism is also evident in the weapons. Ax heads during the Neo-Indian
period are shaped like flower petals and thus are called petaloid (#16-18).
During the Tafno period, these, like many other functional items, were
enhanced both aesthetically and in spiritual value by being converted
into effigy forms. The ax head was inserted into a hafted wooden handle,
as seen in the ceremonial monolithic ax (#19) animated with a small
monkey on top, who holds its head away from the blow that forever
threatens. Even the ax blades can be animated; piece #20 most closely






adheres to the original petal shape, but with grooves creating the distinc-
tion between head and torso and torso and limbs. Deep incisions are re-
stricted to very small areas-the fingers and the closed eyelids. Highly
polished petaloid ax heads of beautiful stone, some of them ax gods, are
found earlier in Costa Rica and in Mesoamerica. In a previous study
(Easby and Scott 1970: 240), I suggested that communication between
Central America and the Greater Antilles may have occurred via the
trans-Caribbean reefs, and, through this connection, stonework such as
owl-headed maceheads and effigy metates were introduced. Daggers
shaped with effigy handles (#23, 24), each carved of one piece of beauti-
ful hard stone, most probably evolved from the petaloid ax shape, as did
the burins (#25, 26), which occur with only 4% of the frequency of the
petaloid axes (Herrera 1964: 54).
The Tafno style that arrived later, perhaps around A.D. 700, clearly
had its origins on the Venezuelan mainland. Taino pottery is very dif-
ferent from the earlier painted ware, and modeling and incision are used
more frequently than in the Saladoid material. The surface is never
painted but remains the color of the clay from which the ceramics were
formed. The modeled style, derived from the early Barrancoid tradition
of the lower Orinoco River, frequently expresses its makers' belief in the
continuous presence of the spirit world by the addition of small faces-
called adornos (after the Spanish)-on the rims, spouts, or shoulders of
the vessels. Such decorations derive from the earliest (ca. 3100 B.C.)
pottery in all the Americas, discovered at Puerto Hormiga on the Carib-
bean coast of Colombia. The crescent shape of the vessels, however, re-
flects later South American pottery styles (Sanoja 1983: 44).
Perhaps the earliest style vessel of this shape is represented by #27,
attributed to the Macao substyle of northeastern Santo Domingo (Veloz
1972: 126). The geometric incisions on the side of the bowl also link it to
the decorative technique of the ancestors of the sub-Tafno culture of
Jamaica and central Cuba. Typical are the flattened strap-like handles
with effigy faces looking at each other across the opening of the bowl.
More characteristic of the developed Tafno style are pieces #29-34. Their
handles have been totally converted into effigy spirits, and the incisions
are no longer straight-line geometric but are now undulating forms, sug-
gesting they, too, are living organisms. However, the "boat-shape" we see
in this pottery is not related to the actual shape of the dugout canoes
utilized by the Tafno at the time of Spanish contact.
Deep-set eyes characterize adorno types interpreted as owls, ar-
chetypical creatures of-the night air. The arching rim on one side of the
short bowl (#44) bears the decorative modeled image. The bird's body
has been reduced to a pair of legs which hold the colossal head vertical,
although it tips far forward. Its huge oval eyes arrest the attention of all.
Not completely animal, this figure has human ears with earspools.
Pestle handles, carved in a variety of forms-small owl heads (#47),
anthropomorphic birds (#44), and full-bodied seated humans of great
force, although only small size (#49)-also reveal the presence of
animating forces. The large number of decorated pestles may suggest



































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49.






they had specific reference to the individual to whom they belonged.
They may have been personal deities as suggested by the similarity of
#49 to the large wooden guardian spirit (zemi) in the Malag6n collection
(Easby and Scott 1970: Number 240). They cannot all be disembodied
srits, identifiable by lack of a navel, since the figure on #49 has a very
pronounced navel. The only consistent aspect seems to be the deeply
>' sunken eye orbits, although sometimes even these are blurred in the
abstraction of the image. Nevertheless, some of these images must
render spirits, which were summoned by the pestles during meal prepara-
tion.
Related in concept are the three-cornered stones (#53-55). Their con-
cave undersides suggest they may have been worn against the waist by
ball players. Although this is possible, their more basic meaning is
revealed in the carved faces of these stones, the image of the Lord of
Manioc, Yucahuguama, the supreme being of Ta'no mythology. A Cuban
professor of literature at Yale, Jose Juan Arrom (1975: 22), believes the
tricorn represents the generative power of the god, as symbolized in his
three names: Manioc-Sea-Grandfatherless. Alternate translations agree
the name refers to a god as powerful as the sea and the mountains (Arnaiz
1983: 144). The face usually shown on these tricorn stones is that of the
deity, although it can also have a zoomorphic aspect (#53). Tricorns were
buried in the manioc fields to fertilize the crops and, in turn, the people.
Is the three-pointed shape then, an abstraction of the manioc tuber, with
its swelling upward force exaggerated to suggest a connection with the
turgid male generative organ (#53) or milk-filled female breast (#55)?
Phallic and mammiform swellings characterize some bowls (like #37,
which has four protuberances around the rim with nipple-like incisions)
and large jars, like #35, which has a phallic spout, and #36, the heart-
shaped body of which has breast-like shoulders which on other pieces
have nipples on top. The iconography of fecundity seems very important
to the Tafno.
Other dominant artistic types have been related to specific deities in
the Taino pantheon by Arrom, based on his analysis of the single
ethnohistorical account made for Columbus by Fray Ram6n Pane during
the last years of the fifteenth century. The original manuscript is no
longer extant, but it was extensively copied by subsequent writers: Peter
Martyr d'Anghiera, Fray Bartolom6 de Las Casas, and most completely
by Ferdinand Columbus in the biography of his father, the Admiral
Christopher (1959: 153-169). On the basis of Pane's analysis, Arrom has
identified representations of the deeply wrinkled face of the already dead
Bloody Old Mother. Although she died during childbirth, her Hero
Quadruplets were cut loose and peopled the world (Arrom 1975: 132).
The male figure (#56), which has similar wrinkled patterns around the
eyes, may possibly be the only one of these Hero Quadruplets with a
name, Deminan Caracaracol. Not only does he share facial features with
his mother, but he is identified by his hunchback, caused by his father
striking him when he asked for manioc bread (Columbus 1959: 157). The
complex incised patterns on his hump are stylized scabs from which






would later emerge a female tortoise. Deminan Caracaracol is the culture
hero whose second name in the original Tafno, Guarocoel, means "our
grandfather."
The amulets in #64 are thought to have been widely used by men.
These, like many other representative images, were called zemis (guard-
ian spirits), and, according to Peter Martyr d'Anghiera (1964: 191), these
small ones represented small demons, which the Tafno would tie, via a
horizontal drill hole in the back, to their foreheads before a battle. The
curve of the little stone amulets would make them fit very nicely against
the forehead. It would be intriguing to know if they were worn on occa-
sions other than into battle.
Many of these effigies seem to be kneeling, even when the details of
.the legs are not specified. They wear headbands, of a kind known from a
few surviving woven examples, which may emulate the cord by which the
amulets were fastened to the foreheads. The Tafno also believed these
figures would give them "rain when it was dry and sun when they needed
it" (Anghiera 1964: 191). Some amulets resemble frogs in profile, a dou-
ble meaning which supports the rain motif. An unusual, but by no means
unique, example, #68, shows two figures, presumably the sun and the
rain gods, so identical and fused they have been called the "Siamese
Twins." The beautifully divergent curve which separates them suggests
both their closeness and the constant struggle of each to establish a
specific personality: sun and rain-opposite conditions, intimately
joined-a concept given visual expression in this amulet.
An important variant form of the amulet has a vertical as well as a
horizontal hole the entire length of the figure (#64-67). Although it may
have secured decorative feathers, it possibly held a powerful
hallucinogenic powder which was inhaled to induce trances during
rituals; the Tafno also had similar inhalers with two holes diverging from
one opening in the bottom. The plant from the seeds of which the powder
was ground is called cohoba and is still used by the Guahibo tribe of Co-
lombia, who also make the double-pronged inhalers. The twin holes
would fit into the user's nostrils; the single opening can also be used by
blocking up the other nostril.
The grinning, deep-socketed facial features on three.vertical amulets
(#65-67) made of shell refer to the image of the Lord of the Region of the
Dead, Maquetaurie Guayaba. Apparently, inhalation of tobacco and other
narcotics spiritually transported the Tafnos into the world of the dead.
They did not fear this world but rather considered it a cool garden of
delights, full of sensual pleasure including the nectar of the guayaba
(guava). The name of the lord of that region is an echo of the name of this
delicacy (Arrom 1975: 98).
The practice of inhaling the powder during the cohoba ritual gave rise
to a number of art forms that enhanced the hallucinogenic experience.
The rites also involved purging oneself before entering the temple to in-
hale the drug. A long implement often made of manatee rib (#70) was in-
serted down the throat of the prospective participant to induce vomiting,
thereby purifying the system. Once purified and seated inside the temple,






76.


























77




f77






the individual faced the idol (zemi), which bore the powder on a ledge
over its head. The seated male idol (#72) is of the type which may repre-
sent the god Baibrama, who symbolized the good strong growth of the
manioc,
The wooden figure (#75), while possibly representing the same deity,
is traditionally called Corocote. Paste residue in the cavity of one eye in-
dicates that both eyes were once inlaid, possibly with shell or gold. We
are not certain of the purpose of the container. It may have served as a
funerary urn for the remains of an important chief; such a purpose has
been attributed to a drum-shaped wooden urn found in a cave in eastern
Cuba (Arrom 1975: fig. 42). Pane commented on the veneration of
ancestors' bones: "Almost all those in the Island of Espanfola have many
cemies of different sorts. Some contain the bones of their father, of their
mother, of relatives, and of their forefathers" (Columbus 1959: 159).
Small elegantly decorated bone and shell utensils seem likely to have
been used in the taking of potent ritual foods. The manatee bone bowl
(#76) has spirit faces on either end, much like some pottery forms (e.g.,
#30), but the images are fiercer, more apotropaic, as befitted the potency
of the material about to be eaten. Two small spoons (#77, 78) also appear
to have been used to measure small quantities of ritual substances. These
could include components of the cohoba ritual or tobacco, since no Pre-
Columbian pipes have been found on Espafiola.
An image of the Lord of the Region of the Dead also decorates some
stone heads, the concave rear curve (see profile of #79) of which cor-
responds to the curve of the body. Their distribution in the Dominican
Republic is limited to the southeast sector around San Pedro de Macorix,
although they have also been found in Puerto Rico. We can conclude they
were characteristic of the Tafno group in the area which formed the chief-
dom of HigUey at the time of the Conquest. These heads may be con-
nected with the ball game, a secular endeavor engaged in by both sexes,
although the women had less stringent rules. The male players were for-
bidden to touch the rubber ball with their hands but were permitted to
use their shoulders, hips, heads, and other parts of their bodies. The
stone heads may have been tied around the waist as an implement
against which the ball could ricochet; however, no-historical accounts
mention men wearing anything more than a loincloth (Stern 1950: 30). V
The ball game was played in a plaza (the same area used for community
dances) known as a batey. The area was delineated by vertical stones,
many of which were inscribed with figures in a style similar to #82,
although this piece is much smaller, rather like an amulet. Perhaps the
figures commemorate ball game competition. Similar figures are painted
on cave walls throughout the Dominican Republic.
Oval belts, once called collar stones, were also used in the ball game.
Gordon Ekholm (1961) convincingly showed that these fitted comfort-
ably around the player's waist. They recreate in stone a lashed, flexible
wooden belt. The upper left of piece #84 shows clearly the joint where the
two ends overlap, although this oval has been so abstracted that one can-
not see the actual overlap or the simulated lashings. However, the much





thicker #86, with its strong textural pattern on one side, suggests a
plaited sleeve into which the two ends of a pliable sapling are fitted to
secure the unit around the waist. As such a sleeve is pulled, it tightens its
grip around the object inside. Elbow stones (#81) may be segments of
such forms, the rest being made of lashed wood or plaited sleeves.
Presiding over major festivals and ceremonies such as the ball game
and the cohoba rites were the village chiefs, who were never spoken to
directly and were carried in litters. They were identified not only by their
material wealth, such as gold nose ornaments, but also by their right to
sit on ritual stools known as duhos. Smaller seats made of stone (like
#87) are usually undecorated. A carved animal head projects from the
front (#88) of some. Although these look like the grinding stones known
as metates in Central America and Mexico, such rectangular mortars were
not part of Tafno culture. They preferred round mortars such as #89, with
a flat surface and, in these cases, sharply incised borders. A few metates
of Costa Rican type are known in the Greater Antilles, but they are exotic
imports perhaps arriving even after the Spanish Conquest of the
Mainland; none came from Hispaniola. The larger duhos (#92) are of
wood, preferably the hard guayacan (ironwood). This stool ingeniously
incorporates the form of a recumbent zemi who cradles the sitter against
his own body. Like other wooden objects, and even some of stone, thin
sheets of other materials, such as shell, were inserted into the duhos to
indicate eyes, teeth (#91), jewelry, or decorative bands such as the bead-
work worn by chiefs as symbols of their importance.
The chiefs established a visible order to Tafno society which
regulated it without repressing it. A happy, gentle people, the Tafno did
not glory in grandiose undertakings or ostentatious displays of power.
Only their art now remains to attest to the graceful rhythms and har-
monious echoing of the gods' presence in the lives of the people.


REFERENCES CITED

Anghiera, Peter Martyr d'
1964 Decadas del Nuevo Mundo, Study and appendices by Edmundo O'Gorman,
Vol. I, Mexico City: Porrna.
Arnaiz, Francisco Jose, S. J.
1983 "El mundo religioso taino visto por la fe catolica espafiola," Las Culturas de
America en la epoca del descubrimiento: Seminario sobre la situacidn de la in-
vestigacion de la cultural taina, pp. 141-153. Madrid: Comisi6n Nacional Para
la Celebraci6n del V Centenario del Descubrimiento de America.
Arrom, Josd Juan
1975 Mitologia y artes prehispanicas de las Antillas. Mexico City: Siglo Veintiuno
Editores.
Columbus, Ferdinand
1959 The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his Son Ferdinand, translated
and annotated by Benjamin Keen. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
Cruxent, Jose M., and Rouse, Irving
1969 "Early Man in the West Indies," Scientific American, CCXXI, No. 5, pp. 42-52.
Easby, Elizabeth Kennedy, and Scott, John F.
1970 Before Cortes: Sculpture of Middle America. New York: The Metropolitan Mu-
seum of Art.


























Ekholm, Gordon F.
1961 "Puerto Rican Stone 'Collars' as Ball-game Belts," Essays in Pre-Columbian
Art and Archaeology, S. K. Lothrop et alia, pp. 356-371. Cambridge: Harvard
University Press.
Fewkes, Jesse Walter
1912 "A Prehistoric Island Culture Area of America," U.S. Bureau of American Eth-
nology, 34th Annual Report, pp. 35-281. Washington.
Garcia Arevalo, Manuel Antonio
1977 El arte taino de la Repetblica Dominicana. Barcelona: Artes Grificas Manuel
Pareja.
Herrera Fritot, Rend
1964 Estudio de las hachas antillanas; creacidn de indices axiales para las petaloides.
Havana: Departamento de Antropologfa, Comisi6n Nacional de la Academia
de Ciencias.
Krieger, Herbert W.
1929 Archeological and Historical Investigations in Samand, Dominican Republic.
Washington: Smithsonian Institution, United States National Museum Bulletin
147.
Oviedo y Valdds, Gonzalo Fernandez
1959 Historia general y natural de las Indias, ed. Juan Perez de Tudela Bueso. Madrid:
Ediciones Atlas, Biblioteca de Autores Espafioles.
Rouse, Irving
1948 "The Arawak," Handbook of South American Indians, IV: The Circum-Caribbean
Tribes, pp. 507-539. Washington: U.S. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin
143.
Sanoja Obediente, Mario
1983 "El origen de la sociedad taina y el formativo suramericano," Las Culturas de
Amdrica en la 6poca del descubrimiento: Seminario sobre la situaci6n de la in-
vestigaci6n de la cultural taina, pp. 37-47. Madrid: Comisi6n Nacional Para la
Celebraci6n del VO Centenario del Descubrimiento de America.
Stern, Theodore
1950 The Rubber-Ball Games of the Americas. New York: American Ethnological
Society Monograph 17.
Veloz Maggiolo, Marcio
1972 Arqueologia prehist6rica de Santo Domingo. Singapore: McG.raw-Hill Far East-
ern Publishers, Ltd.
___ and Ortega, Elpidio
1973 El precerdmico de Santo Domingo, nuevos lugares, y su possible relacidn con
otros punto del drea antillana. Santo Domingo: Museo del Hombre Dominicano
Papeles Ocasionales NO 1.






CATALOGUE


1. SCRAPER
Chipped flint, 12 cm. x 5.3 cm.
El Curro
Meso-Indian, 2600 BC-AD 200
MHD/PREH 03-1-5


2. KNIFE
Chipped white silex flint. 15 cm. x 4 cm.
Meso-Indian, 2600 BC-AD 200
MHD/PREH 03-1-3


3. BUTTERFLY-SHAPED AX HEAD
Ground stone, 17.5 cm. x 25.5 cm.
Meso-Indian, 2600 BC-AD 200
MHD/PREH 1-7


4. MONOLITHIC AX
Pecked light gray stone, 24 cm. x 12 cm.
Meso-Indian, 2600 BC-AD 200
MHD/PREH 1-127-1


5. MONOLITHIC AX
Chipped at tips of blade
Polished black stone, 21 cm. x 14 cm.
Meso-Indian, 2600 BC-AD 200
MHD/PREH 1-1272


6. SPHERE
Dark gray stone, 5 cm. dia.
Northwestern Hispaniola
Meso-Indian, 2600-1000 BC
MHD A 394 5L


7. SPHERE WITH SPIRAL DESIGN
Stone, 5 cm. dia.
Meso-Indian, 2600 BC-AD 200
MHD A 393


8. THIRTEEN SHELL PENDANTS
Geometric incisions and drillings
Strombus shell, 11.5 cm. dia., central perforation
2 cm. dia.
Meso-Indian, 2600 BC-AD 200
MHD A 134


3. "










































.........









9. CONICAL PESTLE WITH HOOKED TOP
Pecked stone, 26.5 cm. dia. 8.5 cm. thick
MHD/PREH 1.1242


10. CIRCULAR MORTAR
Raised ridge at edge,
Pecked stone, 26.5 cm. dia. 8.5 cm. thick
Cabrera (Maria Trinidad Sanchez provence)
Meso-Indian, Couri complex, 2600 BC-AD 200
MHD


11. TWO-TIERED VASE
Incised on upper body, undulating grooves in lower
body
Buff pottery with grayish-white areas, 19.4
cm. x 11.4 cm. dia.
Neo-lndian, AD 200-1500
Fundaci6n Garcta Ardvalo


12. DOUBLE-HEADED GRATER
Two vertical flanges on top containing simplified
faces in low relief
Pecked gray stone, 40.6 cm. x 30.5 cm.
Neo-Indian, AD 200-1500
MHD A420 23L


13. EFFIGY-HEADED GRATER
Truncated, oval shape with human head on top
Pecked stone, 40.5 cm. x 25.5 cm.
Neo-lndian, AD 200-1500
MHD A 419 23L


14. TORTOISE-SHAPED GRATER
Pock-marked coral, 23 cm. long
Northwest Hispaniola
Neo-lndian, AD 200-1500
MHD A 490 51L


15. FLAT-BACKED TORTOISE MORTAR
Ground stone, 14 cm. long
Neo-Indian, AD 200-1500
MHD A 486 51L


16. PETALOID-SHAPED AX HEAD
Polished stone, 13.3 cm. long x 5 cm. wide
Neo-lndian, AD 200-700
MHD








































































13.







17. PETALOID-SHAPED AX HEAD
Polished stone, 15.2 cm. long x 5.4 cm. wide
Neo-Indian, AD 200-700
MHD


18. PETALOID-SHAPED AX HEAD
Polished stone, 13.2 cm. long x 2.5 cm. wide
Neo-Indian, AD 200-700
MHD


19. MONOLITHIC AX HANDLE TOPPED WITH
MONKEY
Anthropomorphic foot at base of handle
Polished stone, 33 cm. x 14 cm.
Neo-Indian, AD 200-700
MHD A 405 24L


20. HUMAN-EFFIGY AX HEAD
Enlarged head and incised hands pressed against
torso
Polished stone, 25.2 cm. high
Neo-Indian, AD 200-700
MHD A 372 24L


21. HUMAN-EFFIGY AX HEAD
Abstracted face and pinched torso
Polished stone, 15 cm. high
Neo-Indian, AD 200-700
MHD A 080 24L15


22. HUMAN-EFFIGY AX HEAD
Figure has hands on torso
Polished dark gray stone, 20.3 cm. x 9.5 cm.
x 6.4 cm.
Neo-lndian, AD 200-700
Fundaci6n Garcia Ardvalo


23. INCISED HUMAN-EFFIGY DAGGER
Incisions on ribs, hands, feet, and face
Polished stone, 22.5 cm. long
19. Neo-Indian, AD 200-1500
MHD A 376 17L


24. HUMAN-EFFIGY DAGGER
Ground features and drilled holes between arms
and body
Polished stone, 20 cm. long
Neo-lndian, AD 200-1500
MHD A 375 17L























































24. 23.








25. INCISING TOOL
Stone, 20 cm. long x 2.7 cm. dia.
Neo-Indian, AD 200-1500
MHD


26. INCISING TOOL
Stone, 10.5 cm. long x 1.6 cm. dia.
Neo-Indian, AD 200-1500
MHD


27. ROUND BOWL WITH EFFIGY-FACE STRAP
HANDLES
Geometric incisions around shoulder and modeled
faces
Black ceramic, 7 cm. x 12.5 cm. dia.
Saman .area
Neo-Indian, AD 700-1000
MHD A 271 47C


28. BOAT-SHAPED BOWL
Geometric incisions on bowl and stylized bat motifs
on angular handles
Ceramic, 12 cm. x 14 cm.
La Cabuya (San Pedro de Macoris)
Neo-Indian, A.D. 700-1000
MHD A 266 47C

29. BOAT-SHAPED BOWL WITH EFFIGY HANDLES
Ovoid incisions on rim, two modeled busts of
figures on inverted rim with arms overhead
Pottery, 6 cm. x 15.4 cm. dia.
Boca Chica (National District)
Tafno, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 354 47 C


30. FLANGED BOWL WITH EFFIGY-FIGURE
HANDLES
Parallel incisions around inverted rim, and kneeling
figures applied to flange
Pottery, 9 cm. x 28 cm.
Boca Chica (National District)
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 009 47C 01


31. BOAT-SHAPED BOWL WITH EFFIGY-HEAD
HANDLES
The inverted rim is incised and appears to be a
larger bowl nesting inside a smaller lower bowl
Ceramic, 10 cm. x 19 cm. dia.
Taino, AD 1000-1400
MHD to be inventoried
















34.





iC








32. BOAT-SHAPED BOWL WITH EFFIGY BUSTS AT
EACH END
Incised lines around inverted shoulder
32. Ceramic, 19.4 cm. x 28.5 cm.
Tafno, AD 1000-1500
Fundacidn Garcia Ardvalo


33. BOAT-SHAPED BOWL WITH BAT EFFIGY
AROUND SHOULDER
Modeled face on front, feet at rear, geometric
incisions on inverted shoulders
Pottery, 22.9 cm. long x 17.5 cm.
Tafno, AD 1000-1500
Fundaci6n Garcia Arevalo


34. BOTTLE WITH ANIMAL EFFIGY AROUND
ELONGATED SPOUT
Creature modeled around the spout
Burnished pottery, 13 cm. x 9.6 cm. dia.
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 667 41 C


35. TOP-SPOUTED BOTTLE WITH TWO FACES ON
SIDE
Dark fire-clouds and incised circular patterns
Gray pottery, 24.2 cm. x 17.8 cm.
Tafno, AD 1000-1500
Fundacidn Garcia Ar~valo


36. TOP-SPOUTED HEART-SHAPED JAR
Incisions forming faces on opposite sides of neck
Pottery, 59 cm. x 42.5 cm. x 20 cm.
Tafno, AD 1000-1500
Fundaci6n Garcia Ardvalo


37. TOP-SPOUTED HEART-SHAPED JAR
,. .Incisions on neck
Pottery, 47.6 cm. x 42.5 cm. x 18 cm.
Taino, AD 1000-1500
Fundaci6n Garcia Ardvalo


38. ROUND-BODIED JAR
35. Slightly incurved neck decorated with effigy faces
and incised patterns
Ceramic, 11 cm. x 5.5 dia. at mouth
La Caleta (National District)
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 20 47C 01
































































37.









39. INVERTED-RIM BOWL
Modeled frog on side with incisions on shoulder
Ceramic, 14.6 cm. x 23.5 cm. wide including frog
Tafno, AD 1000-1500
Fundaci6n Garcia Arevalo


40. FOUR-LOBED BOWL WITH UNDULATING
INVERTED RIM
Incisions on mammiform swellings, between them
is a modeled head
Ceramic, 11 cm. x 16.6 cm.
La Caleta (National District)
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 589 44C


41. SEVEN-LOBED BOWL WITH LEVEL INVERTED
RIM
Side decorated with incisions ending in
punctations
Ceramic, 12 cm. x 19.7 cm. dia.
Tafno, AD 1000-1500
Fundaci6n Garcia Arevalo


42. LARGE DISH
The inverted rim is decorated with oval incisions
and two effigy faces on opposite shoulders
Chocolate-colored ceramic, 11.3 cm. x 45.6 cm.
dia.
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD


43. TOP-SPOUTED JAR WITH LARGE-EYED EFFIGY
HEAD ON NECK
Deeply modeled humanized-owl face with phallic
spout
Ceramic, 30 cm. x 20.5 cm.
Tafno, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 263 41 C


44.. OWL-EFFIGY CUP
Sloping sides with flared, arching rim on one side
upon which an owl face is modeled and incised,
legs modeled to base
Ceramic, 18.8 cm. x 18 cm. maximum width to
base
La C6cama (National District)
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 301 44C


















b


.I.










45. BOAT-SHAPED BOWL WITH INCISED ABSTRACT
FACE
Modeled male and female symbols on each end
Ceramic, 11 cm. x 18 cm. maximum width
Juan Dolio (S. Pedro de Macorfs)
Tafno, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 603 47C


46. CYLINDRICAL BOWL WITH ABSTRACT FACE
Everted rim with incised face
Ceramic, 10 cm. x 11.8 cm. dia.
Juan Dolio (S. Pedro de Macorfs)
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 300 44C


47. BIRD-HEADED PESTLE
Pecked stone, 17.7 cm. x 11.5 cm. dia. at base
Tafno, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 446 30L


48. HUMAN-HEADED BIRD-EFFIGY PESTLE
Pecked stone with wide base, 19.6 cm. x 12 cm.
maximum base
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 218 30L


49. HUMAN-FIGURE PESTLE
Handle composed of deeply carved body
Polished black stone, 24 cm. to base, base 14 cm.
dia.
Ingenio Angelina (S. Pedro de Macorfs)
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 071 CL 21


50. JANUS-HEADED PESTLE
Polished tan stone, 22.2 cm. x 12.4 cm. dia.
flared base
Tafno, AD 1000-1500
Fundaci6n Garcia Ardvalo


51. PESTLE WITH CROUCHING HUMAN FIGURE
Ground gray stone, 15.6 cm. x 10 cm. dia.
flared base
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD






































































51.









52. ANIMAL-HEADED PESTLE
Ground stone, 17.1 cm. x 9.6 cm. slightly
flared base
San Juan de la Maguana
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 640 30L


53. THREE-CORNERED GRIMACING FACE
Polished black stone with incised designs, 12 cm.
x 17.5 cm. long
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 383 46L


54. THREE-CORNERED CROUCHING ZOOMORPHIC
FIGURE
Light-colored stone, 13.5 cm. x 20 cm. long
San Pedro de Macorfs
Tafno, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 102 46L 08


55. THREE-CORNERED CROUCHING ANIMAL
Polished white stone, 15 cm. x 23.5 cm. long
x 10.8 cm. thick
Taino, AD 1000-1500
Fundaci6n Garcia Ardvalo


56. EFFIGY VESSEL OF STANDING MALE FIGURE
Ceramic with slight incisions, 20.5 cm. x 16 cm.
Juan Dolio (S. Pedro de Macoris)
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 033 48C 21


57. SEATED MALE EFFIGY VESSEL
Ceramic, 22.5 cm. x 18.6 cm.
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 685 48C


58. SEATED FEMALE EFFIGY VESSEL
Ceramic, 28 cm. x 19 cm.
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD


59. RECTANGULAR SEAL
Grooved designs on flat side
Pottery, 7 cm. x 5.4 cm.
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD














53.









4.








60. ROUND SEAL
Grooved design on flat side
Pottery, 6 cm. dia.
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD


61. CYLINDRICAL SEAL
Grooved designs around drumlike exterior
Pottery, 4.5 cm long
Macao (La Altagracia)
MHD A 157 45C


62. SIX CYLINDRICAL EARSPOOLS
Spool-shaped objects with small conical projections
on one side
Pottery, 1.5 cm. dia. maximum
Juan Dolio (San Pedro de Macoris)
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 121 37 H/L


63. TEN NECKLACES WITH CENTRAL PENDANTS
Some effigy central pendants
Stone drilled horizontally, sizes not given.
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD 654


64. TWENTY-SEVEN ANTHROPOMORPHIC AMULETS
Stone, bone, and shell, sizes vary from 2.5 to
6 cm. high
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 136


65. ANTHROPOMORPHIC AMULET
Full-figure, skeletal human
Tubular shell, 13 cm. high
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 130 2H


66. ANTHROPOMORPHIC AMULET
Full-figure, skeletal human
Tubular shell, 12.5 cm. high
Tafno, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 138 2H


67. ANTHROPOMORPHIC AMULET
Full-figure, skeletal human
Tubular shell, 10 cm. high
Tafno, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 137 2H















66.







68








!4
-. 68.











68. AMULET OF TWO JOINED ANTHROPOMORPHIC
FIGURES
Incised teeth, hands, toes
Stone, 5 cm. high
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 125 2L


69. ZOOMORPHIC AMULET
Two perforations in upper center
Shell, 6.5 cm. high
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 123 2H


70. CURVED SPATULA
Smooth with incised handle
Manatee rib, 31 cm. long
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 228 19H


71. STRAIGHT SPATULA WITH PELICAN TOP
Smooth except for incised bird profile and drilled
hole underneath
Bone, 27 cm. long
La Caleta (National District)
Tafno, AD 1000-1500
Museo Pante6n La Caleta


72. SEATED ANTHROPOMORPHIC SPIRIT WITH
PLATE ON HEAD
Pecked stone, 41 cm. high
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD 473 26L



73. RITUAL SEATED OWL
Polished stone, 12 cm. x 7.3 cm.
La Isabela (Puerto Plata)
Tafno, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 477 26L


74. RITUAL SEATED MALE FIGURE
Polished stone, 35 cm. high
La Isabela (Puerto Plata)
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 475 26L






































70.









75. CYLINDRICAL STANDING MALE GOD
COROCOTE
Concave dish on head and remains of paste in
eye orbits
Yarey-palm wood, 26 cm. high
Tafno, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 119 26M



76. BOWL WITH FLANKING EFFIGY HANDLES
Double holes on each side for suspension
Manatee bone, 4.8 cm. x 14 cm. at handles
Juan Dolio (San Pedro de Macorfs)
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 350 47H


77. EFFIGY-ANIMAL-HANDLED SPOON
Incised on handle with heads sharing same mouth,
visible in opposite direction
Strombus shell, 5.6 cm. long
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 128 16H


78. BIRD-EFFIGY-HANDLED SPATULA
Bone, 11.5 cm. long
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 722 19H


79. HEAD WITH CONCAVE BACKING
Polished face, pecked backing
White stone, 18.5 cm. x 14 cm.
San Pedro de Macorfs
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 398 7L


80. HEAD WITH CONCAVE BACKING
Polished white stone
14 cm. x 9.5 cm.
Juan Dolio (S. Pedro de Macoris)
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 401 7L


81. ELBOW-SHAPED FORM, POSSIBLY PHALLIC
Two low relief ridges and incised vertical lines
Pecked stone, 18 cm. high
La Romana Province
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 493 12L






































80.







79.







82. SEATED FRONTAL ANTHROPOMORPHIC SPIRIT
IMAGE
Pecked sunken relief on crudely formed shape
Stone, 15 cm. high
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 483 26L


83. CROUCHING SPIRIT IMAGE
Grooves above and below a central face, crudely
formed
Roughly pecked stone, 9.2 cm. high
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 403 26L


84. SLENDER OPEN OVAL BELT
Polished stone, 45 cm. major axis
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 091 3L19


85. MODELED OVAL BELT
Surface with incised patterned panel
Polished stone, 43.8 x 27.6 cm. x 9.5 cm. high
Tafno, AD 1000-1500
Fundaci6n Garc[a Ardvalo


86. THICK OVAL BELT
With angular patterns incised into side
Pecked stone, 40 cm. greater axis
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 491 3L


87. CEREMONIAL THREE-LEGGED SEAT
Smooth stone with concave upper surface
7.9 cm. high x 21 cm.
Tafno, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 233 18L


88. CEREMONIAL FOUR-LEGGED ZOOMORPHIC
SEAT
Concave upper surface with mitered rim and
projecting abstracted head and tail
Pecked stone, 5.8 cm. x 31 cm. long
Cabrera (Maria Trinidad Sdnchez)
Tafno, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 232 34L


89. OVAL MORTAR WITH RECESSED NOTCHES
Ground stone with broad raised rim, size not given
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 561 34L


















































85.




















90. FLARING OVAL MORTAR WITH FLARING OVAL
NOTCH
Ground stone with angled, raised rim, 46 cm.
long x 29 cm.
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A


91. FOUR-LEGGED ZOOMORPHIC EFFIGY
CEREMONIAL SEAT
Incised panel near curved top and shell inlay in
mouth
Wood, 29 cm. x 36 cm. long
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD


92. FOUR-LEGGED ANTHROPOMORPHIC EFFIGY
CEREMONIAL SEAT
Incisions on front legs, broken arms replaced by
grooves along side of torso
Guayacan wood, 49 cm. x 30 cm. deep
Taino, AD 1000-1500
MHD A 117 18M


































































Photographs by the Museo del Hombre
Dominicano, excepting numbers 3, 9, 32,
33, 35, 36, 43, 46, 53, 85, 91, and 92 by
Roy C. Craven, Jr.



































































#33.






















University Presses of Florida
THE UNIVERSITY GALLERY
College of Fine Arts, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611