Citation
Chivalric language and style in Don Quijote.

Material Information

Title:
Chivalric language and style in Don Quijote.
Creator:
Mancing, Howard, 1941-
Place of Publication:
Gainesville
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
iii, 204 leaves : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Archaisms ( jstor )
Chivalry ( jstor )
Comic books ( jstor )
Ions ( jstor )
Literary criticism ( jstor )
Novels ( jstor )
Parody ( jstor )
Seas ( jstor )
Verbs ( jstor )
Words ( jstor )

Notes

Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 198-203.
General Note:
Manuscript copy.
General Note:
Thesis - University of Florida.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
By Howard T. Mancing.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
000537910 ( ALEPH )
ACW1116 ( NOTIS )
13018570 ( OCLC )

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CHIVALRIC LANGUAGE AND STYLE IN DON QUIJOTE














By
HOWARD T. MANCING


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY











UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA











ACN


ttrr
U ~ S


I wonT7.


1%.I;


to acknowl


indebtedness


mem bers


Allen

and e


Super i


werT


effort


have


who 0

been


SCmr


Committee


guidanc


great


e and

uppreci


,end


co~nti


especially


'ibut ions


must


Drs-


in time

also


express


~S 2 tii~


wife


Naincy


, without


encouragement


would


have


been


lost.











TABLE OF


CON TENTS


Page


Acknowledgients

Introduction


Chapter


The Style


Novels-


Chivalry


S. ...*. 20


Chivalric


Parodies


Chivalric


Chivalric


Styl


iMotif


Don Quijote


Variations


Chivalric


NI amne s


Conclusions

Bibliography


* ** *.....tt ***** **6* *44 *t 4***tt~44 **

..t .* .#t .. 4~***~~ 0e** %4.,...... *4


190

198


Biographical


Sketch


~cj












INiTRO DUCT" L IOUl


This


dissertation


had


or igin1


in rep


re a-.


ings


i~Qu1;ooT


during


which


became


particularly


interested


archaic


language


employed


Don


Quijote


imitation


his


heroes


from


nove


chivalry.


scope


*n a


rest


was


gradually


adened


extent


that


this


diss er t


action


result.


effect,


this


not


mvii ik=e


circle"


fi st


which


scr


Leo


ib es


Spitzer' s


I, zt x'Uci:


"Dhilolo


a detail,


followed


a conviction


tha


retail


Sconnecte i


Dab p


ically


with.


work


art.


I di


scoveredC


that


chivalric


style


CervaLntes


novel


4.asi.


best


been


only


imperfe


ctly


treated.


fact,


features


IDon Oni~.J


jote,


style


has


pro bably


be :en


studied


least,


although


has


been


commented


pract i-


cally


every


student


work


Ur ~or


xvox' ~k


En-s


ed length


de al in


wj it h


n ove


HeJ lmut


Hat


zfeld


s .l "Quiioteo co


:120 0 b


-t


1 lenguaj


which


must


style


remainar


.1 K)


st ar


o
- ~ ~


J ot


t ing


q~ Lp


po ijt


Cncal


for


duero


C.si~ydy


Sentido y forma
-- A@.

Li3.lso


. 3


Zicr.


C


study,


value


.18 di re c _j


related


author s


conception


e at e (1.








work


compreh


ens iveness


or critical


value.


Among


authors


shorter


studi


havani


to do


with


more


lamitec.


atu.r


style


Don Quijote,


followirt


g might


singled


for


prai


se:


A1ado


Alonso,


%dAward


Riley,


hart {n


Riquer


ilia


ar a,


L~eo


Spit


zer


lack


stylisti


relati


to Don Quijote,


and


Cerv


gener


has


been


noted


several


times,


Mart n


Riquer


has


tated


that


style


Don Quijote


an asp


"sobre


evident


emenl


se ha


dicho


davia


ultima


abra.


William


nher


s op


inion


was


similar :


ti~ucoo


aueda


por


estudiar


estilo


Cervantes


tanto


esde


punt o


sta


iiistcSr l'iC o


Con,")


e el


esttCi


y quiz6


entire


las


inas


importantes


e intere


Sani


tar


eas


quedan


por


hacer


est6


un exam en


3 fl C.


minuc io so


SUS


obra


s en


busca


reflejo


su temperanmento


artlstico.


Within


specific


ral


matter


realm


style


concerns


chivalric


Don QuiJote,
_ N'iaim- r inii m*TTiiiM --w


style


has


as a rule


only


been


remarked


on in passing


has


often


been


misundl.erIs


tood.


following


are


typical


comment


chivalric


style


Don Quiiote;


coniusin


contra


dic-


tory


as they


are


, they


can


heart


chivairJ


style


e~V~rva


nO `fel


caballero


llega


a la


burl e


sea


affect


'~'A~t'


len


andante


tr,*Jrl~Ij erzji '


cas


vec


ierte


en la


obra


cervan


t ina


1 estilo


OtiS-








un propdsiIto


diefin


juast'


fica:


-L~iizt


e s tilo


amnptl o so


art


it ic ial


de lo


caballerlas


Whle~n


Don


Quijote


evidently


spirit


Romances


of Chivalry


archaic


poetical.


"Hay


mues-


tras del


estilo


reduiudant


e y


ec-t ad


como


cuando


don


jote


tilo


imita


lenguaj


ret6rico


brill


e de


4-' d


libro s


Sen el


caballerias


scurso


dichosa


O S-


edad


estilo


arcaico


cuando


don


jote


saluda


alas


m~OzlS


vent


en su prim


era


salida.


"Never


[Cervante


fal


, or aff


acted,


or vain


with


vanity


pen,


exce


way


speaking


or th


burle


nation.


sque,


suit


"Otros


charact


rozos


Qujoe


retdrico


affect


ados


propisito,


o chi


st-io sc~jen-te


arcal-


cos


. [son]


parodias


lengu


cuito


alti


sonant e


Iibro s


caballeria


Don Qu1ote5


ere


sauna


ironizant e


plena


humor,


h zca-,


today


ell3.a.


imit


novelas


caball.erfas


Una


intenci6n


critical


L en


gust


poraposo


se comprueba


en la


crew-


ciente


ironia


par


Co~n


mal


stilo


caball


eresco


"Gear-


van.tes


l engua


Quilote


paro


dicula


caballer


horribi


esco


prec loslsmo


chivalric


azrrlirni t~coas


style


estilo


abtundnt e


agen s


Cra


a lif


redundant,


iquada,


acirdoL


CornS


r.;


C' ~. 4E3.


Quixote,


cavaleiro


andante


0


2"' C3


Gi(i .t~f


o"3-a


Ire








mvnce n


* n t


st~;at er~n


provide


a rep


res


enta


tive


S SIam-


pling


critical


in i.on


what


a71~raC


chivalric


style


Tb'


aug11sa


most


them


do not


use


thi


par-


ticular


refer


parody,


satire,


bjurl.


eC que


etc.,


novel


chivalry,


which


our


purposes


anount


essenr


tiall


same


thing.


Most


these


e crit-


are


Vagacj,


to what


mean


chivalric


style


and


SOnIcIE


them


are


cont


radictory.


chivalric


style


was


call


tilo


estuJi


burlesca


afect


y retdrico,


acidn


engua


ft Itarolla7


tica.L,


" el


tilo


redundant e


afectado


. retdrico


brillante


*4 ar-


caico,


" "f


alse,


affected,


or vain,


" "ret rico


affect


clii


samont e


arcaico


" alsoo


len


pomp


oso


C rcA


ridicula


s horrible


ecio


smo s


arr


micos


stilo


caball


eresco


"r"ie dvndanitec,


iqu.ada.


refer


(four


a style


tines),


as be in


rhetorical


affected


(three


(four


, false


tirnx~


archa


twicec


gid,


studied,


poetic,


brilliant,


va in,


pompous


Cam2*


pletely


confuse ij


only


term


here


cifi


c enough


have


real


s ign if i c


aneC


one


most


often


repeated


archaic.


Let


us look


more


detail


most


serv-


scholars


have


had.


about


arc


a~~ ism


cir


as parody


Dont_QuA iota.


Erniia i


Car illa


cnarac


teri


C-, --


chivalric


style


en~


e s-


rl


C-l


,C*J t ^







a veces


flO.r


Obviously,


word-rplay,


descriptions,


etc ,


charac t


erIze


other


sty]


nove


edition


chiv


UY3 P1Jj Pl~r t T-


Y exaa


SCa.rilla


e 'a cities


are


little


use


a serious


atte


to distinguish


chiv


style


from


ro--th e' --* C


novel


jador


is more


ecific


more


valuable


when


obser


ves


s sub


stituted


"cuando


quiere


rome


habla


antigua


caballere


sea"


andid cites


examrpl


,andc


when


notes


that


second


person


plur al


-edes


ending


in proparoxytones


is regular


throu


glio uti


Don


Quijote,


where


eas


* 1%~h


other


acc entuat ion


"puede


decirse


en todos


estos


Cases


hay


afect


ada


imnitacidn


tilo


an-


tiguo .


2 Here,


then,


are


specific


traits


par-


odic


chivalry


style


that


canl


look


for.


ci. e


five


exo


ellent


examnp


chivalric


style


oes


not


mak


further


observat ions


char-


acteri


language.


Diego


Clemency n,


throughout


his


commentary


on Don


not


from


t ime


time


Cervantes


conscious


for


puxrpo


ses


arody


imnit


ates


lan


guage


novel


f chivalry


For


example I


when


Don


Quijot


greets


ladiese"


CatsI


tie"


with


"Non


fuym- i?


vuestras


mercedes


e
0 tt .


se not6


Sla propi


con


se pone


oca


de D.


Quijot


engna


C,.em b-r ado


ar-


_Q~Z;1;~Si~O









su obra,


JA brso


caballer


cualt7


uflos


ser


re al mente


an t


aguo


usa


Cl~a


e del


sigl~o


en que


escr


ibieron,


otros


afect abnli


irnitarlo


25


drawiri


at tent ion


individual


arch


r! ctr~n


and.


comrpar


their


use


Don Quiiote


their


use


var


ious


nove


f chivalr


OLe m~enhe Sn


prov:


id es


valuable


clues


fu.r th.


und


or s


t; cn rA v,


parodic


chivalric


style


of Cervante


might


added


here


probably


one


since


Clemency S


read


Don Qui
e ,aril *im.. di:


22Sq


with


such


an exten


sive


oun d


novel


chivalr


insights


into


relationships


be two


latt


end Cervantes '


novel


have


roven


invaluable


this


writ


3*ett~d


are


ess


a true


walder~s t andclin


role


chivalric


theme


and


style


Don Quli uote


~C CIe-


menc in


himself


says


a "Ie


prop


Cuelo


extend


erme


en '


noticias


tomr


libro


caballere


scos


, porque


sij~enrcl o


cada


raros,


y por


consiguient e


menos


conoc3.-0


'pu


eden


lectores


tener


alguna


mayor


en e m ~o


con


ear


Miguel


Cervant


Mart Sin


Ri qUer


is one


few


contempt


rary


scho


ave


under


scored


e essential


nature


portance


parodic


chivalri


style


Conviene


jot


men I


que
i5n


-ns1 '


Mjr


vert fan


lect


~lro


ores


fllfn5n


en u. aspect


erfectam


del


e


to
nte


siglo


par,


con


XVII


dico
t o da
y cue


el Qui-
su in-
actual-


VIA~~~~~~ CV IJ t): ii 1'- '. 1:2 k it


cli


rjo~t_~Bu:i jo t~


~i"il


1Y',


I


,


I S I \


Jl .1 \


i I J LJ









encuentra


osasrt


en lat


nave


forma-s


senoras


comoO


fecho,


iN on


fuyo2.e


aguet


"cau
voce


tivo,


or an


etc.,


e n*er


arcaicas


en t


en cuenua


Ic~ilp O S


e Cervant


Riquer


og n i


yeS


that


U-Se


archa


isms


cons


tituye


dra


toque


pasa


par6


dicos.


Cecilia


Lara


made


an imp


ortant


contribute ion


understand


irE


nature


chivalric


style


Don Cu ijote


has


clearly


stinguished


betw


een


chiv-


alric


and


rhetorical


styles,


giving


cific


example


how


archai


char a


teri


zes


chivalric


style


Don Quijote.
--I*III-----| *- I.!, i*-..saote', 1,.1-M K. H


Even


more


confuse


contradictory


than


ar3-


acteri


ions


chivalric


style


Don QuiLot e


ref


rred


above


are


statement s


made


critics


with


regar


pass


Don Quijote


chivalric


style


which

All


they

those


consider


cited


repre


above


tentative


, as previously


noted,


that


when


Cervantes,


usually


through


Don


Quijote,


rodie


or ridicule


novel


f chivalry


uses


this


style


. Palacin


Igl.e


cons


ers


Golden


Arms


and


Lett


or~S


speech


s by


Don


Quijote


best


examnpl


. Lara


san.?-


viei


D>on


Quijote


does


not


assume


s spec


ifically


chivalr ic


role


A his


ic-nl-i,


"fluen


e clara"


oppo


to his


chivalric


speech


wh ich


"redundant


, antiquada.


ishe s


very


sharply


between.


an "estilo


1 2 .~~ a A.... I *1 C.--I I -


"


1


rr


1 .' 1~.'


1


-


--


1


.7









Romrera-N 1 avarro


dist-inguishes


uJ.:te


stinct


styles


rather


than


two:


"estilo


redund


ante


*-irint


wh ic h


Don


Quijote


uses


when


imit at in


novel


chivalry,


"estilo


retdrico


br~illanz


" which


use


his


Gold


spee


'"e st i _o


area


" which


USe


when


address


girl


Romrera-N avarro


indeed


means


that


there


are


thr


mec t


style.


ere,


then


c iJ.Y'Jal X


c style


not


include


archaic,


when


hails


prostitute


Don


Quijote


is not


UIS Jng


a chivalric


4-y E


seem


more


u jk


however,


that


Romera-N


avarro


means


that


ese


are


real


caspe


swri~e


general


chivalric


Tant


then


this


case,


"estilo


retdrico


brillante"


Golden


ech


must


a third


aspect


same


style,


which


would


Rome ra-Navarro


in agreement


with


Palac in


esias


rather


than


with


Lara


first


appear


Lara


s distinction


most


logical.


Romera-


Navarro


ave


confusing


written


read


on Cervant


, and


as are


many


fac t


those


incorrect


a St


E;m!on


There


another


point


on whi


opinions


critic


are


vij~-I


variant


Tih i


concerns


Cervante


attitude


toward


novels


chivalry


as reflected


in Don


- .1LU


I-i.


-L


1-


- .. I-


1..


- 1


Sn~ c


I


..


r i









Criticism


had


tended


fanll


into


ma i 9


opposing,


categories


Firs


ree


are


those


believe


that


Don


Qui-


3jote


among


other


thin


a parody


novels


f chiv-


airy,


and


thlerf ior~e


that


attitude


toward


these


novels


present


Don Quiiote


essentially


negative


crit-


jecaN


The


bob.i


C)9 ofl


Orte


might


taken


representative


this


group:


"Para


est-tica


e senc i


ver


o bra


Cervantes


como


una


pol4mica


cont ra


las


caba-


llerias


Most


critics


cited


abov


would


share


this


opinion,


probably


become


most


commonly


held


view


on this


matter


twentieth


century.


Mart in


Riquer

llegado


very


emphat ically


a decir


takes


Ualiote -


thi

era


point


un grand


view:


libro


ca-


ballerfa


o la


subl imac idn


idealizacidn


este


genero,


advert ir


su parodia,


es pr


Riquer


ec isament e


briefly


todo


sums


contrario,


opposing


sea


view,


one


which


might


called


ess


entially


a "nineteenth-century"


opinion,


which


Miennde


y Pelayo


ador


Arauca


were


adi n.


g exponent


For


them


Don Qui.te


was


latest


novel


chivalry.


latter,


for


example,


lo hondo


de la


novela


c aball1e


resc-a


habia


Una3


gran


6Qu6


poes


es don


Ce rv


ante


Quijote,


staba


33-no


un verd


enamorado


ero


eLla.


caballero


a t a


andante?


Y csmo


ama


Cervant


hr -pt


poesia


en don


Quijote! "34


.


v. .


.


IT .


pr o cl a icr s


.


.


T









nature


parody,


iii s i sLts


that


parody


stems


from


an admiration


that


which


parodie


and.


that


admiration


is as ess


ential


an aspect


divergent


views


of parody

can rrofi


t


as humor.

ably be r


4.I


Perh-nap~s


'econciled.


Still


another


problem


presented


presence


parody


chivalric


style


Don Quijote
*Ii^^.iinii~coacr -ilpi-. -- a>-


to do


with


stribut ion.


Fitzmauric


e-Kelly


says


that


"as Don Quijote
=-><:*_ _-_ __ii. >*^ *iii -ir: iii. n-c


eSSEs


parody


books


of chivalry


become


stent,


tyle


grows


more


suppi


e and


adaptable.


Maldonado


Ru i z


feels


that


praim e ro


capi tu.o


libro


e caball


rias


en lu


See


undario.


opinion


kLontoliu


that


Part


obra


pierde


por


complete


alre


parodia


eleva


plano


superior


una


ejemplar


universe


come


dia


h~umana


Serfa


descono-


cer


el Don Quijote,
k ^-:j-,- *-'*i iii!i 1 fnL- -~ 4 *i --. i


considerarlo


exc


lusiv


C)ml'


como


una


rodia.


Diametrically


ose


Idar


Riquer,


that


par6dico


un solo


, pue


moment


precisamnente


pierde


en la


Quijote
^*^.., a-= ri*' inil-r n ii


t ira


su character


libros


caball


erlas


basa


toda


su estructura


sucederse


sus


sodios


Fed


rico


Onis


adds


that


e novel


ckliv-


airy,


"esta


literature


fant 4.


stica,


est;


present


c'-jm


en la


o bra


Cervant


como


motivo


locura


hi-


dalgo


IvianchaiL


0 0


libro


caballerias


vienen


a scm


rinnf


7:*


1 rt


n san n i q -!t t


nhs?=r rr








been


completely


mgEno3r


or not


recognized


all


fact,


"4


student


Don ui. ote--H
^^'^*'*-^ --d~ftf^* -^ T f^"^ yv ^t^~lii ^ W^*


atzfeld,


Tarr,


Lar


ave~


even


gun.


to realize


iinportance.


refer


use


ch ivalr ic


motifs


, a phenomenon


which,


zfeld


studio


ed with


regard


to Don


Quijote'


chivalri


mission


par


Due inca


" but


which


can


eas


extended,


as will


shown


in Chapt


below,


other


features


chival r


style


langua


, and


undoubtedly


many


other


level.


style


Cervantes


employs.


Certainly


a major


consideration


aspects


style


tiono


which


Don


Quijote


just

consi


been


der


mentioned

himself a


that


knight-errran


imita-

t, and,


according


"U'-i


, "the


life


a knight


imita-


tion.


Don


Quijote


. cuando


su art


algmn


Spro cura


pintor


imitar


qumere


al ir


originals


farno


ruas


'inico


s pintores


sabe


esta


mesma


regla


corre


por
que
lo
bre


todos
sirvenl]


los mas
para a


de hacer
prudent


oficio


dorno
hace


suiri -


ejercicios
s republic


e quiere
imitando


alcaw
a Ul


curenta


, y
mzar
ises


asi
nonm-
. en


cuya


vivaQ


persona


de
mos


de un hijo
entendido


como


ellos


quedar
tudes,


trabajos


prudence ia


V ii


nos


pint a


sufrimiento,


lio,


piadoso
capitian,
fueron,


empl o
esta


a lo
mesma


en p


8mbn


ersona


a sagacidad
pintmndolo


como


venider


sKuer


ero


ca ball


eros


IHorero


como
neas,


deL


un retrato
tambin.


valor


un valiente


ni des


habian


cribie'ndolo


ser,


os hombres
Amadis fue


valientes


, a qulen


d ebmo s


imritar


~para


SM-S


var-


norte,


enamor
todos


aquellos


deba.I


baridera


aijlo r


caballer a


rii tlln1 c!


5i nint


nfl nor


C) r~i


pn c {f


(7rflnn


- I,'C:


I


hrt, s


i








val id ity


technique


imitation


established


Cervant es


Prologue


Part


when


he has


his


-i. lc


to him,


'' S61o


tiene


aprovecharse


de la


*S~i~ I a ni


en lo


fue re


e scn biendo,


cuanto


ella


fuere


mas


perfect


tanto


mej or


sera


esori-


biere"


Prol.


. The


Canon


Toledo,


often


cons id-


ered


a spoke


SmnalY


Cervantes,


praise


verisimili-


. la


acidn


en quien


consi


perfcccidn


describe"


,and


says


that


imit ac ion


es lo


principal


4-


comedia"


Particularly


concerns


Quijote


and


role


Imight- rrant,


imitation


important


aesthetic


criterion


Cervantes.


addition


difficulties


involved


attempt-


make


sense


mass


criticism


relating


this


aspect


Don Quijote,


another


problem


was


encountered:


fact


that


reliable


editions


most


novels


chivalry


rre
Cad.fc


not


avail


able.


best


edi-


tions


chivalric


novels


win


Place


edition


Amaclr: s


Ca~J a


(Liadrid,


9-1962),


which h


Vols.


I- I"


have


publ i


shed


to dat


Oth


ers


cli


George


T. Northup,


Tristan ce Leon:Is
alumiii n d ei in all ~ i tnr rr' i ilr' i ll *u-m~ r i l .* ** n ** i. :i mmiimiii-i r-iduim r m *ni-m** ***mmi iii


(Chic


ago


Mart in


Riquer,


edo,


Tirante
i--l-. -pia t imeTilj .in .mi -


ci


Blanco,
-- X .. -* l- -m r-l --::Bb -


vols.


(Earcelona,


1947-1949);


Charles


Philip


a n e r,


El libro del cauallero Zifar


r) oit


ed.









are


NB AE


fo LmJi


series


are


edited


yangos (

Bonilla


Amrad.s de Gauia


(Palme


in de cn laterra
w-.^i-im -..jiin!jin.aiii a-:m.jiivi. i mr iir a+ "^^ ^h vji. -1indiesd "W K "


rLas serras de~e~


, Olivares de Cast illa,


mand

and


four


other


short


rove


f le


mP o r


tance).


These


editions


are


un even


qual ity


potentially


most


useful,


Pal.mner mi


di Jnga


terra


p
Las se~y~~'as de Esnlandian,


have


had


their


artgua


altered,


or "mod


rnized,


Sin


such


a way


as to make


these


less


work s


valid


Other


any


study


novels


langua


chivalry


style


include in


mos


those


censured


)on Quijote,
'- -fj1~iiiil -*r'i ,-,~--- mif ** -iiii i *> -u SM


therefore


interest


examples
c~~lk. c


worst,


although


typical,


aspect


s of


chiv-


alric


style,


simply


exis


in any


sor~


modern


edi-


tion.


Novels


such


Belian s de Grecia,


El Caballero de


la Cruz,


Amadis de Grecia
- -*iiii n n ii- *-n- i ina.r -- kiuu ia '"m m~~f i W ahj--


have


not


been


so much


as re-


printed


since


sixt


eenth


century.


would


an inter-


estin


anct


worthwhile


project


study


manuscript


some of

of them


these

which


novels

could


then


produce


used


reliable


modern


in stylistic


editions

linguistic


stucLid e


Chapter


present


study,


then,


I look


firs


novels


chivalry


and,


usa-


what


ata


available,


draw


SOrne


concluskimn


about


langua


style


novels


chivalry.


Chapter


attention


focused


on literary


arodie


s o0


this


st vl e


which


nflr


f C ..


9


** l^J








literary


effect


they


produce


are


studied.


Chaprn


Ill


look


more


closely


Cervant es'


use


this


type


parody


Don Cijote


relating


other


aspects


novel,


s uwh


character


devel o pment--part icularly,


course,


relation


Don


Q tti jote


himself.


Finally,


Chapters


chivalric


examine


name s


role


Don Quijiote


of chivalric


their


mot


relationship


development


novel.


nope


that


several


valuable e


results


have


come


from


this


study.


first


a series


sugge st ions


further


possibilities


studies


made


areas


langu


already


and


been


style


suggest ed


novels


as will


chivalry.o


further


As has


pointed


later,


novels


chivalry


have


rece


ived


little


critical


attention


offer


wide


areas


study.


Second,


think


that


chapter


on literary


parodies


chivalric


style


sheds


some


light


general


phenomenon


parody


Spanish


literature,


another


subject


which


has


not


been


stud-


in great


depth.


greatest


value s


derived


frl om


this


study

the n


are


those


ovel


sue,


concerning )U

h a landmark


on Quijote.
---. --- -*q Hc.bif r

literature


the

that


firs

any


place,


study


which


furthers


under stand i ng


or interpretation


ri~~fl vr ..,r~~ ~ p. *t-' ~~P% *VY r-. 4- '4 *, r.1-r. V, -, tn- %- ,r~r~1rr


In hrrt


,.1


,.*lh CI


'7h


*L, .


hril


1 *r~7 ~lh








been


fully


understood.


This


dissertation


intended


clear


at least


in part


some


confusion


surround-


ing


this


feature


style


Don Quijote.












NOTES


LinAJ cs and.Tlnrar Ii
-W n THm-.J^iiiii a ^ -w*~i^ i.^ ^ ^ii^i|'*.- .ij^ii~ W ^ :^ .-^ ^ G -^ X-.~E^lJ-.- L m iir> J i


(Princeton,


1948),


KLrn


ed


(Madrid,


1949).


^Madrid,


1949.


4"Las


prevarica


revista de filolo
*i 111111 .n 1 1 .a .i. :- nir ralniii limmi *itf n i aiiiri m i--rl Ir


cion


I s tE~.l


omnticas
I (1948),


S t-mock;e


H Nue va


'E


alba


bella


perlas


cria


Descrip-


tion


-in


Novel
(1956


f Cervant
125-137o


es" *Bulletin of Hisanic Stud-


"Don


VII.


Quijot


(Sept.


caball


-Oct.


ero


56),


por escarnio
47-50.


" Clavilero,
f- e **- i- jir *~ i-i Tii-~


tilo


(Sorocaba


e ritmo


Paulo),


o Quixote
(1956), 29


" Miscelanea Universitas
-59.


8tegusi


Linraistics an
of Don Quijotu,
129.


Persp


ctivism


" itoderar Historye
biModern Lantzusse


llrll~ 4 % Uar*nr*na. -~7


in
and


Notes


Port


LXXV~iII


aijote,
igaific
(1962),


ance
113-


Cervantes el "Qui ote"
---Wll---s~:.1pl4lavil -'pills --b --- '*-'llaw a-winf--- ..>t --. ei ne-. miplathiwg-- U-- l mi. -- .I* rf f H -*** *= lli|*Jl'-H *..J -- =--i|---


(Barcelona,


1960),


10"Estudios


cervantinos


revista de filologia hhispanica
M a'll- i 'e'w' J- "-**-- IHaiJI-^*wg:' dlininalH *:**,:.v4=mu-l--:Juia: r n| M mwI- -. hripl-- l mi rqa. ,,,,,ad'<-- IM lUNi i.ks s heum i~i ** *i .'^J... r ,e i i kb..-|.ape d a ahi:,, ai-ni-u


rec
II


ient


es (1


(1948


937-1947),
100.


N fueva


art in


tilo


Alon


dried,


, Cencia del le.1a,
& 460


'1 y+lFnl '


Gregorio


l enkRua


esD nanola


.


Pal ac in


" Le linsue


Igl.e sias,
del mondo.


"El


Quijote
t
tll, (V.


y la
271.










nola


14
(New


A, Romera-NE
York, 1928),


rro, Historia de la literature esna-
. 266.


Saavedra


15
15Henry
(London


Edward Watts, Life of Ijiguel de Cervantes
, 1891), p. 179.


16
Marcel ino


figuel de
Cervantes


Cervawntes


IMen ndez
y labor


y otros studios


y Pelayo,
acidn del
Buenos Air


"Cultura
Quijote,"
es, 1942),


literaria de
San Isidoro,
97.


1Hatzfeld,


El "Quijote" como obra,
*Mflwwh --.-r -i--- *--~I~n i~ -i- nri TT -' 1* *** in-*F *r -ir*n ainr


9-10.


18


335.


19
Lara, e


'%E st ilo


e ritmo,


20"Cervantes, testimonio de epocas artlstica
tin del Instituto de Investigaciones Literarias, VII
*m n n *n**-i 1111*n n r ni ir p 'iir*n r -i ** v ~ ii ii-- rri- r ini** 1*i i ^i l ^ ^-m ^^ ,h -~-O*^ ~ m'l s*'''''Tr 'f,' T i* ii-r T ig Tm M f


s," Bole
(19537,


(Madrid,


21
12Julio
1905),


Ce jador
57.


y Frauca,


La engaeCrats


'Ibid.,


23Ibid.,


129-130.


552.


Gdmez,
n. 6.


24Diego ClemencSn, ed.,
Don Quijote de la Mancha
i~w ::: -i^,-: .n :T.~ *,^3^D^i,~i~~wjif-aai^i^' ^ r;* *m et .^f~~-a-f-:*Tin .'


annotated by Miguel de
, Vol. I (Paris, 1910),


Toro
23,


25bi.


26
Ibid.,


422-424,


J 2tCervantes y el 'Quijote,
-JI:M|| 1 ii~i'*r-i~iir*-i~iin* i~^jT n~~~-Jr~'i* tiJi -a ^'*iij -k ~-- 'fPBW ^X Ai *


189-190.


2"Don


Quijote,


caballero,


29t-.,n -f _


I










porarlkes


31
31These, along with
. will be mentioned


criticisms
Chapter I.


his


conterm-


32
32Meditaciones del "Quijote"

33Cervantes el "Quijote,"


(Madrid,


1914),


. 170.


186.


34Historia de la len ua y literature castellana,
1915), 220.


as Criticism,


NephI1Qg


36James


Literature


(Lond


37
37Antonio
(Barcelona,


Fitzmauric
on, 1908),


Mald ona
1947),


Kelly,
. 156.


o Ruiz,
. 142.


Chapters on Spanish


Cervantes, su vida y sus


M38anuel
(Barcelona, 1937)


'p


Montoliu,
p. 386-387


Literature castellana,
i-..an~inm i-.^ iin'-i ii *NHi r t*^ cp*~c*g< *"iijn g^ m r 1 j Kan


39Cevn2L1"u


. 120.


40 Esa en -rica


(Madrid,


1955),


333-


334.


Hlui


on chiv
things,


ra.


41The Waning of the Middle Ares (London,
zinga also discusses the "illusion of so
iry [which] curiously clashed with the r
P. 56.


1927), pc
city based
reality of


are
This
well
text
and


from the
edition
as on ac
indicate


In the
which
to use
sible


page
conver


the
th
to


s and all
edition of
was chosen
count of i


the


pa


this


station


quote
e verb
accept


subsequent
Martin de


because


ex


rt and c
edition
with San


cellenc
chapter


cia


in the


ren


such


whi
in
take


citations from Don Quijote
Riquer (Barcelona, 195b).


its


e u
nu


convenient si
The citations
ers of Don Ou


.ch the mat
the Sierra


U,


Don
es.


Gre gorio


z


e as
in the


.i .


.)- ** r4t 4' a~:


erial


11'ore Fna


yuijote
I find


Palac.in


ote
-'- W J--f'.


s located.
from


impos-


Igle-


(Madrid,


35 a


(1950),


obras


imitar sev
statements


more


Thj


Irtb


'








de lo
ed. (
tes n
que e
y que
(Barc
disse
guage


s libros de
tadrid, 195
.o pulid ni
n lit-eratur


elona


:1on


ama
n


3.S
ri ov


0


caballerias,
) p. 25, or


imnitd


a anti


" En torno al "Quijote,
Eugeino Guzman's that


novela
... 2 t


caballeresca,
i-I


" 2nd


e


rvan-
puesto


a y en arte es imposiobe apropiarse o ajeno
" El "Qui.jote" y lo libros de caballerias
.), p. 97. One of the main purposes of this
to demonstrate the extent to which the lan-
els of chivalry is imitated in Don Quijote.
^-~~~~ ~~-a*. 1 .-,- -- ..^ v ^ ^ .^


Novel
-.e---h t-


4See.
(Oxford,


Edward
1962),


* Riley,
. 29.


Cervantes's


The ory


441bid.,


61-66.


-











CHAPTER


iKE


,j~i 1~r tj


OF THE


N OVELZS


CHIVALRY


This


chapter


serve


primarily


backgro und


material


for


chapters


that


foll ow.


a critical


review


summary


those


stud


C .iudei


Intro duc t ion,


that


wh? I.


characterize


ch have


novels


with


of chivalry,


1 &11~~O&1
C,


lSPeyC


style


-qrc a~ s, -i -a--


ially


de Gaula.


reader


will


struck


app


aren't -


Er-~~


ences


on the


scholarship,


critics,


OnSJ-S


tencies


crand fault


on the


sin


~u-tLir


various


chivalric


novels.


Saragossa


in the


year


150


Garci


Rodriguez


Moontalvo


published


Los ouatro libros del


itrtl~oso


-cauai


lero
-- -,i -* i>


Amnacti s


tieCau0


had


taken


earlier,


more


primitive,


there


e- vo lume


via rI


atinh


story


val ianlt


Ama.d:[s


Gaula,


retold


expanding


four


V`O ILuDrnr c


invent ion


final


r~ *
'nj-s


publish


volvune


ing


being


event


gave


entirely


impetus


C xvii.


a vogue


who-b C


v~as


enthrall


Spain


virtually


Europe.


Montalvo


other


authors


related


further


adventure s


A~inad i 5


nc1. his


numerous S


Sons,


,Th)SnL


OnIS,


etc.,


o n2


,








novel


A rival


series


kn own


almer in


Cycle"


was


be gun


1511


with


Palmer in


01 iva


There


were


other


ser


many


dual


nove


s in


this


nre


enjoy


a tremendous


popularity,


s erine


4-.


were


muc h


criti


C ism


Martin


Riquer


has


mad


a convene


arid.


ic al


organ


;ion


various


critic


six-


teenth-century


moralists


ser


ious


critics


rec


novels


hivalry:


authors


novel


s of'


ch ivalr


are


lazy


and


unoccupied,


was


the ir


time


writing


absurdity


illiterate


ies


writ e


badi


liars


, enemies


truth


and


story.


read


nove


chivalry


are:


inclined


sensuality


and


vice.


Swas


ters


because


time.


nove


chivalry


should


ohibi


revise


burned;


C anno~


u~ndi


ers


d how


such


books


are


per-


mitt


print


More


than


enty


well


-lu-I


o~n-


eenth-century


wri t


ers


a an


ILtd.


Vives


, P


ero


xia,


Alfonso


Vald









show


s how


Cervan


, in Don


Qua :9 at


$. itvc1s


each


critic


isms l


chivalric


nove


these


com-lairnts,


one


which


interest


here


that


that


novels


their style


bad.


chivalry


Don Qui
Jk-<. t4 f --- ^iH'--


are


antie


dly


written,


Cervantes


has


Canon


that


such


novel


S" Sofl


ros"


arr


ecs


s that


"son


mas


~fos


de reprehension


hasta


aqul


ha~n


compuesto


semejant


libro


s sfin


tener


advertenc ia


a ningun


buen


dis--


curso,


arte


y reglas


por


done


pudieran


5UJ.~


arS e


cerse


famo


SOS


en prosa,


como


son


verso


cipe


s de


esia


grie


i-na"'


484).


inquis


ition


barber,


held

style


Don


is one


Quijote


s library


criteria


the

which h


prie

the


chivalric


example,


novels


c onG.


are


Fl o ri sinart;e


emned


fire


Hircari~ja,


eca.use


dureza

el Bla


y sequed

co is pr


n~rlr,


served


estilo"

>cause


(I,

"por


, 69),


while


su estilo,


T irante


este


mejor


Sibro


mundo"


72).


pagecs


novel


Cervaates


es jan


exam


chivalric


oSe


Pel ic iano


S il va.:


razdn


sinrazdn


a mi


razdn


ce hace,


man era


nztzbn


enflaqucce,


con


raz6n


me quejo


vues


tra


ermo


sur~a;


. los


eQ tors


ole-


e ve


tra


divin


idad


,-~~ -v -~ ..# -i -I A


e con


estrellas


Dur i


n


Si.


e arl y


uvu yvrv v*


*









ese


, says


Cervantes,


were


immediate


e cause


of Don


jote


s madn


ess


"Con


esta


razone s


perdia


pobre


caballero


juic io"


Many


critics


chivalric


novel


had


their


favorite


v~h ich1


cons


lii ere ct


lacking


fault


others


. Cervantes


preferred


Anaadis de Gaula,
-* .<

Palme-


rin de In glaterra,


Tirante


Blanco.


taste


others


varied,


Amadis


was


almo


st always


included


among


laudable


represent


atives


genr


This


was


invariably


style


as much


other


factors.


Even


meticulous


Juan


Vald4


pra


hSeS


style,


though


with


some


reservations:


"Entre


an escr.


cosas


SUBS


cabe


c omunment e


tien


por


mejor


estilo


escrivid


quatro


libros


Amnadis


e Gaula,


y plenso


tienen


razdn,


bien


en muchas


parties


demas


iadamnente


afetado


en otras


muy


descuidado;


unas


ve-


ces al


estilo


otras


axa


suelo.


Literary


same


criticism


pattern:


through


general


centuries


has


condemnation


followed


nove


cli v-


airy


and


general


aise


A~adSs


de Gaula,
I t. .-1 a.. I -


par~ti


ularly


with


respe


style.


Most


stat


E~ernex


quot


Introduction


as describing


chivalric


style


Don uiote
_--.-... ^^ku^^K-.Jc* *--^^_^i~iM"it~ e~^i^^aM


also


refer









ean


Cassoa


their


I ir IT a


"'poCmposo


forrulario.


Bell


menut Ji.onu


"t ;her


- ~


'--5r~~


romances


chiv-


alry.


Riquer


calls


chivalric


style


"altisonante.


Turning


Amad I
-- -~


specifically,


see


lavish,


usually


~sLmenhl


C 3iJ1fl


raise


s style.


es-


tilo


es exc


elent e


121


e correct


According


i enendez


y Pclayo,


~t~- It


characterized


"la


gra-


closa


"muy


cas


reto


tidad


j, ca


su1 estilo";9


pulida.


and


estilo


novel '


Cs rodado


prose


y suave,


natu.ralm


ent e


C~let;L~ai i


, y muy


CalS


tizo


el len


aje.


style


t? ~-V~


s "elegant


ino "


accordcir


Romera-Navarro


correct


excelencia


estilo


when


remarks


y lenguaj


Awadfs


sido


elogiada


uiiaut


una-


flaif atrio t C i


en todo


tiempo.


is not


necessary


continue


cite


examples.


Critic ism


has


COns


istently


held


that


style


novels


chivalry


that


Amad fs


de Gaul a


these


stat ei enr ts


I2ll.v e


sel domn


been


back


with


s p c if--


i~cs.


fact,


Lnt il


about


last


decade


a half,


there


were


trem


Cmd Uj'


Cs udIO es


concerning


language


style


any


novels


Lry,


1954


it.. .l p :Rnn


Barton


Sholod


.h~ Iia *r; 1.i r


anti


nlTAP -


seque


wnirk


1 im. tP


C~S


h* i c:


R ri. a u.e r .


:Ib~:d "


.i II Il Ilr:


I :









reliability


such


mat t


crc,


necessitated


omission


Plio3e! t;


orthoO


fromr


consideration.


However,


Sholod


st ill:.


make


some


interesting


observations.


notes


that


be Lh-


- -#-


-ais-


type


verb


endings


for


second


person


plural l


are


evident.


con,-


clus ion


fl(ii


that


former


endcin


areaa


sign~s


extinction.


present


tenses


future


dicative"


Sentences


are


usually


quite


long


ando


complex


con junctions,


especially


oue,


sotmoolo~n,


are


used


xtend


length


sentences


49 );


post-


ponement


verb


general


rule


(pp.


50).


in d~e ljnit e


possessive


observes


articles


adjective


that


USe


demon strat ive


extremely


definite


adjectives


with


54).


cites


examples


does


not


refer


frequency


appear-


an.ce.


Because


nature


work,


much


vocabulary


Amad )~
A
a-n--- ~ *


fal3.


;rxltn


certain


categories


which h


can


identi


battle


bravery,


lar


saffo,


a total


-e -4


hazana
m 'e.. .


those


soc
oW"--Wilan wit-+4-


over


cate


orro,


(pp.


examples


acometer

61-62);


are


agravlo


cenir,
|a- .1 a.k'g--l .


i-S


etc.


courageous


Sholod


wide spread


cab.l gar,


br) ave


e Ls









etc


evil


kn i ght


cruel,


mezquino,


so-
CimWW~


berbio,
niimi1111 iT -i~.^ F* 1, **'.-v~ m


etc.


instruments


battle,


over


type


love:


knight


fighting


aficidn,
e, --.a^'^*- -* w *


demons


Lf13


encend.i
.n.. % ..aw- ~ -*^[ f


rates


nine


miento,
^***it^w'-' 'B 't-.^ w -


devotion


ardiente


love


, etc.


through


fid


lity;


64);


deeds:


aten-


der


, complir
r ~ ~ ~ Swafi C-.--B.r.^- .<


servir,
- -'EA. *-&*f-'v~un-^-^ m '


aec


64);


when


apart,


knight


1

l ady


hope


sp e rar
an-no-''


dream


sonarr


that


time


when


they


c 61.


eac


discomforts


ove


h other's


include


areas


dolor,
kn**mina tl-lfV -


abrazar)


, presurelianza,
' i ~ ~- cu- in,1- *n *ri i n T jii


I~r E;`,4 a,


etc.


64);


knight


prec iado


great


prow


ess


beauty;,


Shis


lady


Oriana's


codiciada


beauty


and


(beldad,


requerida f
ferr osarnimioiaou-.-
fermosurx)


her


great


virtue


vir-


tud)
-F~a-.ii n


are


continually


memory


(membrm Z ana,


mme~rnori


yen-=


samiento,
< "w:- fT,^ -a,.. j-u *


mento,


r em e rabrax1 %a


promesa,
I- ,--:. '*tern j J>- t '


etc.


Amna


64);


fidel ity:


reward


devocion


marriage


, jura-

(bodas,


c asami~ien~t o


matrimonio)
.'*h -0**:. l |


65);


religion:


abadeza,


capellin,


ca illa,
--i -njj~j -i- -^n-- *-^-


alt ar


fdlol~o


reliquia,


orac idn
- -s- 'ef---ft--l^ **^-^*-.


, devoto,
- l~m--tT^^T&- **--


sagrado
rn-Ne- T i-: t -ii,-:-


Serdo.nar,


.~+ ti~mar,


many


more


nature :


animals


such


cocodrilo,
-im *l~l**^ii i-fj -i- -'* --N -rf -


dna


falcdn,


grifo,
-i h M3JI--9~J


ledn,


r alnf'm'cCn


S 1 ;II er


etc.


65);


other


natural


elements


such


as arboleda.,


cielo,
\. ~*J-0-L4\


floresta,


Ins_5Ula,


mar,


mont;e,


rena,


yerba,


ical


etc.


landscape


detail


including


scription


plain


is rare,


or mountain,


typ-


m~ore'


usually


some


sort


wooded


field


which


adventure


awaits


. 63









"One


mo s t


characteristic


features


lan guage


Am2T adt S s


that


exa


ggerat ion.


*~ r


comn-


only


used


achieve


effe


are:


adverbs


I.


much,


tan,
w-- i-ii i


tanto


ject


iVejS


granae


grandes,


much,
- -** *viJa-H~t. -- '


much,


muchos
M nf- iiir --- ,.iii..


muchas,


ta l,


tanto,


tanta,


tantos,


ta~nta;s"l


78).


The


interjection


exclamation


widely


used:


Ay traidor
eagcftlyw -tt:Bm mIit^~c h a ilvetmllm-~ weu-^hA^U :4^Bfu-:f


'I


mis on ora1


tMelicia


Bios


etc.


(pp.


76-78).


laos


proper


names


are


formed


on certain


stems


have


certain


repeated


endings:


stems


and


prefixes:


among


most


common


are


(Mlb


aclin)


which


prefix


names,


din )


And-


SBran-


( Andalod )


andalisa


Ant-


Gal-


(Ant


,Bal


(Galaor)


Gmn-


(Bal. a-


(Gand


Gar-


(Gar in )


Gas-


imin)


tJan -


(langunes


(Leoni


Ileo-


, iad-


(Madaman)


2 Sar-


(Sardcxmrnn)


etc.;


, and


proper


with


names


and


in the


M follow


novel,


order


begin


(pp.


with


97--99);


suff


ixes


most


common


are


-eta


(Darioleta)


-in


( Ba~-


rin)


-6n


(Ant if6n)


-ote


iote,


Gale ot e


Ianr


za-


rote,


Marlot


, -ales


(Gandale


-r


(Esplandi n)


-anda


gan~l


(Grinf'e


-el
- -ar ^fj


I
S


(Enil)


ondaj


I.
-is


-eo


(Amad is


(Bruneo)


(pp.


-esa


-102


Ther


s wide


spread


"'Ca


epithet.


1''rntflrlo, C5


arIE~!


Or ian -]


tI.I I v-C


4'
n-xmr~


Ar-na 1' ~ii


( iO'


Amnri {P


SCin n-t110n~r0


9 L,


.








mundo,


Arnatdis


Gaul a


leal


enamorado;


nat


i1on-


ality


or location


Angriote


Estravau s,


Mandac il


Fuente


behavior


(10)


Darctr i n


Sober-


bi o~


Gad ion e


Foll n,


etco


heroism


Antim6n


liente,


Sand


aramtin


el Ledn,


etc.;


appearan


Bravor


Brun,


:; off ic


or quality


Arcala'us el.


cant


ador,


Urganda


Desconocida,


etc.


(pp.


105-107).


a,.i


time


never


cede


used


mascul in


with


feminine


names:


Don


name


s but


Bruneo,


often


Don


Galaor,


etc.


107).


There


are


i rates


ay anees
ms 4'- n*"-iktf~-j*f


Bal~n,


Andandona,


agant e,


etc.,


Lamon.


&Plria


, Ard.in,


Amadi s


' dwarf,


and


nine


enchanters


enchantre


sses


, such


as Elisabat,


Urganda,


etc.


107).


Sholod


states


that


"the


vocabulary


Amadis


an extr


ordinarily


modern


one.


That


either


word


are


in current


use


are


easily


under


stood


present-day


reader.


course


many


word


char


acteri


stic


time


s in


58).


which


lists


work


many


word


was


written


, phr


cases


are


use


sent"


, verb


(pp.


forms,


under


ead~in


not


make


ear


which


were


ac-


ceptable


early


t e en th- c century


are


archaic


now,


which h


were


archai


c when


e Amadics


wa s


pu bl i


shed


inte


resting


discovery


was S


mad


e about


one


year


Ft t- -- .


~r


..


*









his


1503 edition),


from


Book


III,


dating


fro m


around


1420.


fragment


s were


published


BRAZ~E:


lowin


g y


ear


Aln ton Iio


Rodriguez-Hon ino,


compared


early


texts


Wh iKontalvo 's


order


show


that


content


original


volume


s by


almost


one-


third


perliar


fourth


, the


that


overall


when


e added


length


would d


0 own


rema in


original


approximately


same.


camente


first


not


Rodr


apr


three


:f jae~"-z-Mdon


ec1 ant


books


specify


fundamental


fourth


stylistic


states


that


diferencia


stilll


s" be


Month alvo,


difference


which


tween


does


refer


Rafael


apesa


fragnen


found


L an g~a


fragment


typic


del Anadis


early


g~uarcian


fifteenth


century


su lenguaje


USGS


estuvieron


ant icuado s


en la


4poca


copia,


hacia


Lape


noted


that


use


definite


art icle


with


ssessive


adjective


'nis


fechos'")


mainten


anc e


atonict


pronoun


vos


vos


men-


bred


es")


were


commonly


used


1420


cons


idered


archaic


unt il


sixt


een


century


(pp.


. The


same


true


adverbs


toste,


SU S( ,


yutsog,


well


as the


conjunc


tion


mnaver e
f-*.f-kIklki


which


appear


manusr;cr i


fragments


224).


never


!ves


way


a1 -, I


I,


'-I


exrulint~! (j.


I 'I


n


r


I


1 *


I


I


^









Howev


Lape s a


believes


that "lo


conservador


lenguaj


ece


a una


actitud


tica,


a una


preferencia


deli-


berada


ent iendo


F
mas


bien


refl


estado


linguA


stico


propio


un texto


compu


esto


en e


anterior,


modern


en cuanto


era


compa


ible


con


uso


vigente


hacia


1420


y respe


en e


res


o" (p.


Samuel


Gili


Gaya


His


study


purp


ose


Amadis
*>Mf~K-e B~- ^e- n~d


was


wa.s


study


rentes


estrato


lengua


hallen


supe


rpuesto


en el


pulido estilo
gl J-a^^"- i -.l *-r- r*:-!n. *Hi*ln


ref


erenc


e to


phr


ase


used


Men4n


Pelayo,


d earlier]


con


Hodriguez


Montalvo


re-


elabor6


original


antiguos,


con


tenera.


al gun a


guia


acerca


su arc


also


m~x


~imno l


primer a


sorpresa


con


encuentran


hoy


ores


e Amadfls


es 1


Gil i


extraordinary


y Gaya


puodcrnida


notes


, unlike


case


many


earli


contemporary,


after


wor


there


are


very


few


words


A3nadis


not


easily


~nci.


.erstood


press


ent-d


rea


. He


feel


that


this


expl


care


rmas


teni


endo


en cuenta


Amad s de Gaul a


influy6


en la


form


ac i6n


er aria


asic


on gra


much


mayor


gene


ralm


ente


cre


1L~:uch


voc abuilar


ludinr


neolo


isms


of hon


talvo


(not


en-


published


voca


ario"


d de









Gui


y Gaya


our~3uA


feels


rr
~1)


eat ly


that


rhythm


Montalvo 's


beautiful,


ing


rhythm


prose


oflerate


He refers


here


spec


ically


general


narrative


prose


style


and


er-


vante


' parody


chivalric


style


cursus


Cervan-


s far


erior


that


Montalvo


, but


latter


ser


than


that


any


other


ixteenth-century


prose


writer


Cervante


' (pp.,


9-10).


With


respect


what


considers


major


purpose,


Gili


Gaya


stat


that


vian t alv o


followed


sources


ose


, but


took


aI c re~a s


ingly


frequent


liberties


chant


modernizing


text, until


finally


decided


a fourth


book


his


own


14).


The


modern


zation


language


was


much


less


exten


sive


Book


than


fol-


lowing


books,


as proven


proportion


aroh a i sifi


which


are


found


first


book


are


never


repeated


later.


reutar,
n"'- ..


Example


torger;
__Ti Z_^J -.M-f a-:b-


are


a few


use


cases


verbs


imperfect


cal


and


endura r,


conditional


end in


-IL.


(qui


eriX4,


pro bar o


-y-6);


use


entonce


(without


appears


in the


after


books


omre-
-- a-jbTl


cillo


ended;
** *icm r *ia > i11


sessive


("en


uxia


villa"


etc.


There


arep


others


which h


ear


with


decl inning


frequency


Books


, such


d irnin i


shin


use


pluperfect


indicative


verbs


ndin,


in -ra: tn


.e use


pero


increasingly


prose,


infl.uenc ed


fl o w-


-









giving


way


C an\


USe


the


pronouns


no ;


VOs


be in


more


and


more


frequently


reply


ace


nosotros
*i ,i ii~ ^*A* c- ifi~iiiii -ri i-


vosotros


, etc.


14).


Gili


y Gaya


feel


that


ese


serve


action


can


also


help


identify


MSon t al-v 1O


interpol


nations,


which


divides


into


three


moral


reflections


very


~infre quen


short


k I


, but


ever


more


quent


J.on


other


element


of fant


asy,


arid


erary


and


storical


serve


at ions


(pp.


~rfl*


1963


Arnadfs


study


s the


mos


Ruth


Naomi


L in ~CV-


arc


stic


haisms


study


novel


date.


Her


purp


ose


wa.s


answer


these


estions


"ci)


what


extent


ilontalvo,


alter--


L angurL


Books


'-III,


extirpate


eso


e el


erne


favor


a more


modern


idiom;


what


egree


did


ntalvo


employ,


Book


earlier


mod


res


si~on


to giv


work


an archaic


cast


keeping


with


manner


first


three


e books


and with


usual


prac


lj; c e.


of writ


ers


chivalric


novel


study


nonS


on a nic


copy


ara


S~Sa


J~5


tion


which cont


fol.ios


a im.s


four


ooks


which
*r h -' ^ *


*the


(about


one-thix


each


book


are


includ


her


t1r. A








pronounced.


fifteenth


century


written


was


archaic,


and dur n


sixteenth


century


los


rat ion..


Fjel


stad


is not


surprised


f inid.


a nigch


percent


retained,


"since


initial


perhaps


most


obvious


33).


Her


medievalism


re sul


that


on the


an archaizer


distribution


could


this


employ"


phenome-


non


are


follows:


Book


50.45%


Books


Book


Book


66.06o
33.94%


'- III


63.30%~


Book


1671
1105


57.6 6%


40.77%


.34%


first


book


only


one


with


a majority


over


therefore


most


modern


this


respe


When


reached


fourth


book,


his


original


contribution


story


, Montalvo


consciously


continued


use


this


archaic


form


his


prose.


Old


Spanish,


vos


was


regular


second


person


direct


indirect


pronoun


form.


entif


century


ga~n


give


way


oS0


Though


infrequent,


vos


survive d


early


Amadfis


decad


stribution


s .3%eent2


voS-osS


century.


as object


pronouns


f' if-t









Again


arc


al C


form


is first


serve


later


imitated


Month alvo,


a le


s~ser


than


weas


case


with


second


person


plural


verb


ending


-ades


-ed


-ides


were


regular


until


fourteenth


century,


when


began


to disap


pear


certain


types


verb


fifteenth


century


loss of


-d-


was


increasingly


more


common


until


hort


ene


-ais


C'


F
-is


forms


be came


domi-


nant


dur in


ars


between


1475


However,


worcas


accented


antepenultimate


syll


able


older


form


asted


well


into


seventeenth


century.


Fjel


does


not


make


thi


last-mentioned


stinc


tion


sent in


e following


g frequency


appearance


-des


ending


second


person


plural


verb


forms:


-des
. -id.. ii


Neither


does


indicate e


a ratio


be twe en


s and


more


modem


form


Still,


corre


atmi


that


use


-des


end wings


nove


repre


sen


SanlY


obvious


archaiz ing


tendency"


82).


pasnish


sse


ssive


ective


was


often


noed


with


demonstrate iv


e adje


active


,th


e inde finite


arti-


cle,


and,


espe


cially,


definite


arti


cle.


earl


-'


In


- d-










demonstrative


indefinite


def init


active


arbici


e article


Totals


(pp.


116-117)


Again,


lack


data


a ratio


be t we en


obsol


escent


and.


modern


forms


detra


from


value


stati


repea


appe


aa sn Ce


older


form


Cons


stent


with


previous


results


, that


, a lar'


number


first


three


books


specially


Book


II),


one


Fjel


stad


list


s the


follow win


words


being


ant i-


quated


early


xteenth


cen


ury:


acucia
ayuna
1al
ansi
asaz
ayuso
ca
catar
cormano
desque
fiuza


2zia


guisa
ynoljos
luenro


maguer
membrar
membranza
so (prep.
solaz


for








obsolescence


each


word


substantiated


testimony


Valdes


arnd7i


Corominas


(pp.


128-129).


There


very


wide


vari anc e


frequency


several.


word s,


trend,


especially


last


bo ok


downward.


total


CVVnrEfl


archaisms,


or number


d if f r--


archaisms, found


each


book


138)


Althou


there


is a constant


decline


here,


noted


that


this


rangS


remains


airly


regular


throu


first


three


books.


his


last


book,


,iontalvo


retained


many


archa-


,csflc


quite


as many


in the


first


three.


all,


a total


5634


archaisms


were


found,


with


following


stribution:


Total
Percent


1496
6.46%$


1663
29.65'


140
5.0


10
18.


138


socon6.m


book


contains


high


pore


archaic


forms,


fir


three


contain


significantly


more


than


last.


St ill,


number


of archai


sins


final


book


obviously


represents


a conscious


aesthetic


aiml


author.


-- S -


icS:


wl0'l;


,. I









del Rey Cadamorx Libro

Clamades y de Clarmonda
r -i.ir~nn.--^ "*'Mrri~ir^---^iii~rii'iii.ii~~ii-ajc- -m- -".h-^:-~i'iiiiini-*iiiiii n*i


dcLCotePriuie


found


, ~istoria de


Libros de caballer:as


(NEts,
a-


Vol.


XI),


Adolfo


Bonill a


L~artan.


Lapp


following


incidence


Oi.


Can


Par
-..** B-M ^ii


Cla
--Ji *-ir -


f-n 8


Sr
I,
3%


3%4~


6%
94%.


4
98%


novel,


01. or3Lo ,
1111 i-.... -.^.u -j ._, i .- .: .,, J


uses


archaic


almost


exclusively,


while


others


reverse


percent


ges,


even


in these,


occasional


appearance


e of


this


archaism


would d


have


effect


giving


a slightly


arch


flavor


prose.


This


most


common


arc


haism


found


novels.


results


a comparison


direct


and


direct


object


p r onoun.


use


vos
aP.^ -^--~l


are:


Oli


vos
OS


Can

193
58


Par

108
1


Ci a


each


four


novels


there


a preference


obsolescent


vos.


way


which


writers


these


novels


employed


archaic


-des


second


person.


plural


verb


endings


verbs


accented


penultimate


syllable e


inconsistent:


n r. fir,


7 i-


fo~ul d


ni








tart1fli


contains


an extraordinarily


high


rat io


this


archaism,


is a marked


feature


style


C f~(


never


pears


in the


other


novel


Obvio


usiy


there


were


cert


arch


sinss


appealed


more


some


authors


than


others.


use


ssessi


after


another


motive


follows:


O1 i


Can


Par


demonstrate ive


indefinite
definite


adjective


e article


article


134)


(ppe


ssessive


used


with


some


frequence


with


definite


article,


especially


Can amor,
-ii-i *in~ M~s fc -;'.-I*B',


wh ich


shows


ghes


incident


e of


use


with


demon


strative


adjective


and


indefinite


article.


A number


words


are


designated


being


obsolete


or obsole


scent.


The ir


total


number


appearance


(not


here


broken


do m


according


individual


novel


are:


alimanes
animalia
ansi
ayuso
ca
cabe
cedo
cormano


crueza


desi









exhaudir
fenestra
filosomia
l. ongawnent
luengo
luene
magtUer
melezina


membrar
miraglo
minorciel
suso
SUS3O
turar
vegada
veleo-
veleno


(pp.


170-171)


wor


high


frequency


are


conjunctions,


adverbs


,ald.


prepositions


cabe


, dende


des.-


, etc.).


total


number


ar chaisms


s di


stributed


way: Oi
Oli


al arch


aism


archaisms


studied


Can
1342
25.5


Par
1395


Cla


Only


Clamades
^*if~i- *3--' ..mn[ .-*r^-*j-


there


a rel


actively


infrequent


use


arch


sms,


even


here


essence


over


hw~dred


a relatively


small


number


page


s enough


draw


rea


der


s attention.


Lapp


computes


ere


sting


ratio


arch


aisms


u n


narra


tion


of dial


og~u-e


03. i


Par


Cia


narra


tion


per


S


per


A -









believe


that


probably


only


accident


that


idenc


elements


higher


dialogue"


. 183).


studio


es by


Sholod,


Gili


, Fj


ad and


Lapp


are


only


ones


ava


ilabi


e which h


cone


em~r


them


elve


with


the lan


giza


style


chivalric


novels


. Numer-


ous


consistent


s and


shortcomings


are


evident,


some


cone


lusions


can


drawn


which


pertain


this


dissertation.


statement


s by


Sholod


(that


l anguF~a


Amadls
a -HH mi n-i~nr*in


"bas


ically


modern")


Gil i


Gaya


"mod


esr-


nidad


su vocabulario")


do not


seem


agr


with


}el


Renai


Lapp


ssance


speech


(such


novels


time


as the


chivalry


they


were


matter


does


written.


"The


mirror


Archaisms


lan guage


living


abound


14).


Actually,


these


statements


are


mutually


exclus


their


Rather,


authors.


they


merely


Sholod


indicate


Gili


Gaya


are


different


aims


effect


stre


op-S


ssin


many


modernity


archaic


nove


1 inguis


spite


stylis ti


o bv i-


feature


upon


which


both


comment


some


length,


ereas


e others


attempt
4-


analyse


extent


nature


archai


sins


studio


ave


something


siredc


~acrn a


91~n,'i na


UT73 C~ C. c~J n l- L I 1


Inr. 41n


nA4ti


0 ")


^ *-* -- ..-!


c


haFnrn


,.j r


^_ >* -


^"1


II TILI I II








ratios.


For


example,


states


that


possessive


adjec itive


very


often


used


with


definite


article,


examples,


rences


each


but

book


fails

and c


supply


ompare


number


number


occur-


times


possessive


adjective


used


alone.


categorization


vocabulary


Amacd is


has

been


some


interesting


helpful


know


potential,


frequency


again


would


appearance


have


d io-


tribution


various


words.


Future


studied


s of


this


other


novels


chivalry


might


establish


a commonly


used


"chivalric


vocabulary,


" which


alone


with


"pastoral,


"picaresque,


" "mystic,


" etc.


vocabularies,


could


eventually


make


important


contribution


understanding


nature


sixteenth-century


Spenish


prose


style(


style(


individual


authors.


Finally,


some


Sholod


s observations


(such


those


inter sections


exag


geration),


though


again


reinforced


statistics,


are


commented


upon


others


are


pertinent.


finding


Rodrfgu ez-iMo iono


Rafael


Lape


concern in

literary


they


Am adis
rai~i a.i-rnriAi


historian


pertain


fragment s


than


directly


are


literary


primitive


more


critic

Amadis
h- j -i a ** r nic-ni


interest


rather r


since

than








least


part


spark


that


off


subsequent


schol-


arly


interest


in the


novel


li ii


Gaya


very


likely


correct


in his


belief


that


influence


Amnad fs


on the


d e vel o pment


six-


teenth-century


prose


wa S


greater


than


generally


thought.


en -)
.ihert.


room


for


more


detailed


study


influence


novel s


style.


Another


po int


Gil i


Gaya


concerning


affinity


be twe en


C uSSU S


i~ o %a.l v'


that


Ce-v anf-


tes,


an extremely


ere


sting


one,


again


worthy


fur-


their


study.


A sharp


point


disagreement


exists


between


Gili


Gaya


and


Fjelstad


matter


degree


archaism


four


books


Amadis.


former


finds


Book


most


archaic


a regular


progre


85)-~on


towards


modernity


each

I and


book.

III


The

quite


latter

close,


finds

while


Book

agre


he most

that the


archaic,


last


with


book


most


modern0


must


noted,


however,


that


base


the ir


opinions


on different


criteria.


Gili


ayae.


using


number


those


archaisms


appear


that


with


appear


exclusively


diminishing


frequency


Book


through


Books


I I I,


ar cha i sm;is


eac


while e


Fjelstad


book.


counts


latter


does


total


admiti ii


number


a decline


"I-tv- I-) 1. I I I It rv '-A, 12 -


nr o'h


R2.1.;)F


fcnir


bn nksc:


(47~


~1 ic.h


v !


II U4..


I '


P-


iL tt


&J-


I i l 1








in the


first


book


never


repeated.


There


seems


way


reconcilin


two.


again,


further


more


exhaustive


study


called


for.


G~i.


says


that


linguistic


observation


ena


e him


identify


e passages


interpolated


Miontalvo,


oes


his


mono


graph .


This


unfortunate,


as they


would


offer


scholars


an opportunity


unciers


tand C


better


author,


aes


theti


, style


, purpo


edit in


primitive


text,


etc.


cause


a microfilm


Fjel


tad'


copy


150


study


Amadis


original


liimne


base


dia


certain


advanta


over


Sholod.


unfortunate


short


a rj cin


her


work


e basin


conclusions


on a study


only


one-third


work.


points


when


discuss


stribution


of f-


versus


that


there


an occas


iona1


"run"


on one


or the


other


,at


one


point


finding


ratio


o one,


another


point


one


Thi


may,


, "be


to a momentary


modern


arc


hais


g impul


part


emender


or author,


conceivably,


like


wn1 imk


composite


or.


this


is true


with


respe


this


specific


matter


, it might


equally


true


or all


other


archai


sms


SSince


this


ssibility


ever-presen


critic


would


rr1rn


mad


her


o!7 0frl4 i nlni


~r~fl U9


tI~ oo


n i1


fr T


hcrl


mn sP


u-


*H^ I 1 fr-J









elstad's


most


valuable e


contributions


come


whlen


computes


modern


both


numb e r


forms,


oes


occurrences


with


archnai


versus


vos


versus


is not


a bia.


consis


a ratio


tent,


between


this


t wo.


with


-ade


versus


I,


use


ssess


with


another


adjective.


studies


aken


t h er,


establish


certain


fact


150


edition


linguistically
1 aCl


arch


Amnadis de Gaul a


MIont alvo


was


o bviou.sly.


eait


some


extent


( although


rn con~< s ;e n-tl~)


modernized


him.


When


composed


fourth


book


-,


nov


con-


tinue


employ,


a conscious


aesthe


echn ique


-
'-I-
- -i-4..L


gu is


archaisms


, although


a le


sser


extent


than


per-


mitted


them


remain


first


three


book


Some


thes


e archai


sms


are:


direct


indirect


object


pro-


nounl


VOS


second


son.


plural


verb


end3in


-ad


-edes


- ide


, use


ssessive


with


another


ad. j e


active


, and


certain


voc


abulary


style


wor dso


Amadls


The


may


arc


ha isms


prop


which

cons


charac


er-


"style


markers


The


which


study


c on s t it-Iut


other


a w'styli


chivalric


stic


novel


set.


Lapp,


sely


mod


on Fj


stad'


shows


that


hese a


nymous


authors

eN^- fl fh l VI n-" .^ 1 r^ l>1


/" -


b


6hl?


1


d- n


n^


h













't&V]t3 CO


*>1


4I


fl-

-' p4
~J94


UC 4::",


U~i 41 1'


C/ i L24>i2


it


C. A.~ t (:i~ K;


use o0 f--


Vt ttt -


'us~


4 1-i> yr
Cr~. ~-


-Jr
~-.C.>
--~ ~.


-~4-


V.


*'
'~ <(A,


r 4- '12
-- ( V V-i.


- I
-~ ('~ C


.,
V


- C> -


> + -te t
C. Lu .. e'


4 :


>2~~~t v'~ j


-" .,..,L


- ,- -


of many


waie ac


~(2 -' -~
- ~


V.?:


' r. -


~. c i ,


iS
- .~ ~-.


Pt, -
'~0
hi A -' ~i; -~


-Lw C>I-


xv>! a 4


(I
ii> Ph -*^^~1- i
_.. *,


4 -
Ct ~ ;-
,- 'IA>)-


C! 2)LS lUKE'


I-


.7
Cs) ~ -.
L~ A. C<


4 -'
~Ltztu1Ct 03


r. ON'CtL:


44~j


n-o>- c c;i
C)


-


11(2 \':


&Si 'i&C t Lz. 4


1r jr .t


V~:. flc i icc. -I-


>tr iS nf.r


1: F


this sot"-


1One student of l Oj (


4 -
~I* C ('~


* -


J; >trr n


14


nfl~' -Th<2 tc


tL t L .
^-~- '^ I'''- / L *2-_ -,


-1cxra tho uao or s aite1 it. 21


4 *- I C


-*


is ]52X0>


the


The iUc o

lite rary
chivalry

some fr~cii

part of t

WrOkl Eo

1eu ,.SFt S
Tfl r. n1 nfl


-< <


Carf, isms V*'S -3 C' -'


C

1. J~24 c
4)
4


1~.


eRr ~
4
on-i' ~''~i V
~ .. -

the


nf' Lntr


r
AS 'U stri:: t
.4
,tIIIAL tANS 0
0. ~> -i 1% 4<)
-. a 1
~1 -~ fl

4-
C. '


hem],

:va


V h->- (fri.
S., .4

on tho


ftc


wsr TC:


flZ>Q0 SE2r


tr rf Co


CI :I


to enjoyth


2 K


t -jl r


i'2 CC/`


*~'*~ **~~~>4~4. *~ A.~ ~ 'S t ~ .~ ..t..t14 >~' -s-' 4$ ~-- S -- ---.4
1 -
t~QI2r~ ~-~- p 0<~ -~ L ~
the Pct.ts xjieri
utec~ to tw:>~cA -Lie :cea 0 lii c*
U I>. out ~'
< -, Vi
drab won JI~K0 .~ xvhere the 1Q02>' S 0
4- .-
i:o2)D~ot c. 1i&.LUiitj4. tL.
V 1 -, ~1 C'
4-
i.evatea .ttLJ 221- t.
the vern:tc:u12r5 Lit a MOYS C -
v~th -Ira OX a bV.2UY) C tO WI'1 IC li th

looked b@cTh with ~r Ide 2~4


C

L


11 r ir$


Ci


~ -,


I;


?: i


"












NOTES


Cervantes y el "Quijote,
^i~iii*A riir' ar i~'<-i' pi.iir -B -*w \9 .1^J:i:,* *iiirifc*a.- ais jjaa^Anc-: *I -** iii iir'-. *.T s a.nr--c


2Ibid.,
*--ir-i*ira


64-67.


dried,


19ilo)o de 1a lenoaa,
1955), pt 17&7


Jos4


SMontl;e s .- Os


4La lenIua de Cerv.ntes.,


5cervantes,
i--u l--ain *m i^n nrm -a-iihiT iimi-al w na


traln s.


Pin a


'VP
(mexico


City,


1939),


Aubrey


Bell,


. 109.


Cervantes
^h>.j|Ml-'-c S!-f*l- iiMlg~n^-!


(NLo rm anl


Okla0,


1947),


7Cervantes2__1 "Ou ijote,


8Gregorio B Pal
ratura espanola (Mexico
jA neaf-JL i w-a~ii*hi "** fl-t(^^^S-.^ nrl. TiI n


acin
City,


Iglesias
1949),


Historia de la lite-
. 93.


90rf enes de la novel,


Vol.


(h~adrid,


1946),


342.


lIbid,


357.


lJulio Cejador y
teratu.ra castellana, Vol.


Frauca, Historia de la
I, Part II Taarld, 1i


'P.


li"-
102.


1e
-uillmil ib -E -^ --i .-+ rgr.,ll ia4 -^jw mag e jta ^ :--iiiin| .' m trt, td"^M^' *C-Jtg"^ #*Cdi'-i'a@ "h- :!HIi'"igg^-TinC


'3Hitra


100.


unpu bl


J,,


Study
thesis


of the Langruage
(Columbia Univ.,


of the
1954).


Amadis de Gaula,
**.iii jj'--*-- lit C Is TI-- ,rilr. irn r i- in iil .-nai rriniBi-~i; i


r5


L1ap ?S a


no-t es


this as a common characteristic


58-59 .


CELL


555.








16Age


palsaje


hany


c ast 1 02 io


C s t' a


tion


cuente


enblat


es un llano,


muchos


son


asentado


.a rxqueza
of Arnadis


boles


al tos


, de


s so bre


says


un a


montana


CuafLu.O11


espeso


una


1 muncdo,
Gaula (


17Again Rosenblat


es Le


sLIP:


eriativa,


alta


rn~s


muros


ena


in the


enios


agrees


3)-nf


Aires


"La
CO- "- JP O


mati


escr pl
o una


cidn


lore t


'rosas


Thertes


en los


1rouI
196


expre


Ori


palacios


action


, pp

sidn


2an


edi-


011~1-


mas


re-"


es 'la


exi~S


a,
oreo


en 1


-ios


par'
CO Sl


era


qtue
marav


la ve


.1


queda
" ibide
Jak-- ^:^~'iJ^^ ^ ii


espantad;3o


su Lerino


sura a


primer


manu ser it;o


d


bin de la Real Academia Esraanola,
Ma j-i--ampl* **-. *-iith ..-ali in*-jiwisw nnhmin .j ase- am..:***:^ n- *^ ii~ nj"rc^ jma n -iit ^I. .J-J *Mluiiamen-gi ga 'mnri<">* iam111111 wn -****' cg ji *a.i. *jmi-i.-:'fnijj


LeMn


-adfs de Ga.ul a
I (195), 215


" Bole-
-t~fi e ,Tii. --.a Mi


200.


la Real
S e-j^ B~. ** ji *Ha- ;jf,,, .. .*.. ^-^*^^ '* ^ ^ "^^ '^ H ^ ''^*


20"El lenguaje del
Academia Espanola


Arna d. f t


manu s
(1956),


ito," Boletin
224.


21Amadis de Gaula
-ai-n uin~i~r*T T*ir*niii>*- 1 r 'n


(Barcelona,


1956).


22
"Archaisms


(State


Un iv


ers


ity


in Amadls de Gaula,
Iowa, 19b 3)


" unpubl.


PhD


diss


23See


Robert


les


PYa18ish Liangoagre
iLdau. Manual de


j-~?A72j:


, 1943),


(Ro: w


cx:~


, pp. 12


Spaulding,
pp. 88-90;


York,


1942), p


How
as-.- w: C ei*


Snanish


Will.iam


Grew (Be
Enwi-stle


Riami~i


air-4iu, .-... ist ri a es anu la
1-124.


Iendnd


rke


ley


, The
ez
(ha-


242e


Vald s
d Kenis


Tb Sxtenh enur


Didlogo p 67;
ton, The Syntax
( Chicago, 1937


IMenende z


Pidal,


of Cas tilian Prose:
), p. 63.


Pidaal Ma
de plurai
(1893), 7


25See


nuala
en la


reset,


RHistoria, pp.
, J.Cu .ervo


cas


, 189-190;


't'iELS


tell ania


segun


VI Romrani


L "en ndez


per
XXII


sons


-I).


2o5


IC, r, 1


apesa


His t~or~i


. 190;


Pidal,


h J L-. ',


uorx'es


19


1' --,~a


P


l


I


113


iG4;


r~en~ndez


*










Amadis
to his


28 .B
Angel
no fue n
abridged


Rosenblat 's


uniZCa


refers to the spi
to justify his ed
nuar legitimament
hoy dindole las d
vela moderna" p.


unar_


obra


mnodnrn _ize


rit as
itorial
e la tr


imen
13.


v~iel.L


chan
adici


stones


nthusiasti
arcaica,
d edition


as t
ges.
dn d
la


c state
in the


language
e adds:


el origin a
expresi56n


in.en t;


that


Introduction
novel, p. 13,


e, as he attempts
"'No es conti-
1 al refmundirlo
propias de la no-


29~


discussion


Enkvi st


"stylistic


sets"


below.


39Archaisms,

31Ibid
-funfmIIHIII'lie ulibhjiq


DIefini
(Londo
items
consis


express
in "The


32These
ng Style,
n, 1964),
that only
tent with


ve sy
Styli


stemr


.1


Lansuage Notes,
as "1'Lensemble


erins


are


taken


from


Nils


Linguistics and Style,
who defines the former


appear
Amado


Alonso'


a work,


ic Interpretation
LVII (1942), p.
des faits particu


1'individu, 6crivant ou parlant,
que la langue (la societY) lui f
Romance ThilJolopy, V (1951), 14.
that "the aim of stylistics is t
and a statement of their context
Yeates Sedelow and Walter A. Sed


importance
crimiLnators


"A Pr


*ef


of d


ace


and Literary St
* ._- ann -li T-i,,*, ,,,,iu.evipalli.^d.i s. b- ll ^ma -.... lf


is


cover


" "style
;o Comput
;yle, ed.


ins


mak


markers"]
national S
Jacob Le


ed
as


Erik E
. John


'I


same text,"
defin ition
f an author


of
490,
lier


Liter
and
s qui


tho


style


an epoch,


ary Texts,
Charles B


ca


par rapport
'ournit," in


;he
;ua


Enkvist co
inventory
-, 0 i *


J.


I .ny nnr r


low
ing


use


cannot
tylistic
ed (Kent


" Modern
uneaus


.ractrisent
au matiria


"PLa


ntin


stylis
ues to


of style
a-i


d" p. jo.
, state that
of stylistic


overs-tre


tique,"
say
markers
ally
"the
dis-


ssed,


," The Computer
Ohio, 19o6), p.


Word,


33michael
(1959),


Riffaterre,
161.


"Criteria


for


Style


Analysis,


34"Prhasn


. 185.


nkvist,


spencer
linguistic
This is


"the


I


*











CHAPTER


CHiIVALSRI C


PAR7 lB0!IS


"Paroady"


has


been


defined


"a humorous


aes-


the tically


sat isfying


composition


prose


verse,


usually


written

trolled


without


malice


stortion


which,


mos


means


striking


a rigidly


peculiarities


c~~na-


of sub-


ject


matter


and


style


a literary


wor


or author,


or a


school


or a type


writing,


are


exagger


ated


such


a way


as to


lead


implicit


value


judgement


original.


Tradition


seems


dictate


that


any


literary


genre


that


enjo


great


popularity


will


eventually


find


self


parodied.


2 This


was


case


literature


gods


antiquity,


and


neoclassic,


romantic,


natural-


istic


heroes


heroines


eighteenth


nineteenth


centuries.


continue


s to


true


twentieth


century


western,


detective,


science-fiction,


e sp ion age


lit-


erature.


WetS


inevi


table


that


should


true


literature


epic


chivalric


heroes


during


Ren-


aissance.


Men nde


Pidal


divides


critic


heroic


tradition


into


three c


tegories:


moralistic


criticism









epic


aro


dies


Ita.i~an s


Pulci,


Boiardo,


aind


Ariosto,


Spain,


area.


Romancero,


which


achi


eve


great


test


popularity


during


cades


teenth


century.


Dun


s and


s marly'


small


volume s


romances
k F ig *-.hlgmi liamn i win-'miid ii-o


were


printed,


and


1600


saw


public action


Romancero general,
-*m ih JiiiiK jiB ^.- *jn Si ii~---*i- i~i i 1**i r ~ jiiin


which


con-


tainted


nine


artes


Flor de romances
*-- eN~~^f~BI^^ltPl^~Br~^^lF^^t-y^-*f^ llB't^'^-t-^


series


Romancero
dulri-llm~-i- etfu -~ 4- -- **. -:**- ni


, the


chivalric


tradition.


repre-


C'sented


f lr nious1.


Lianyl


poems


are


tradit ionally


heroic,


epic


, chivalric


, relating


an adventure


from


Cid,


Bernardo


Carp io,


or the


many


characters


from


Arthurian


or Carolingian


cycles.


Because


often


originated


reflect


centuries


a primitive


before


were


state


l am


preserved


guage


orally,


This


they


illus-


treated


following


excerpt


from


a romance


from


legend:


Delante


Danaa


Ximen


pone


por
Para


a pe
muert


ey
una
dir


tarde
justi


e su


contra


padre.
a pide


don
que


Rodri
hu6rf


de
la


Bivar


a y
-"Si


bien,
oue 1


no pued


muy poca


engo
. lo


nego
en di


cios
s imul


edad.


o non


angas y
de honra
arse


sabes,


way s









--"Callades


que me dad
que yo dar
para todos


pena
buen


vuestros


, dona
grande
remedio


ma~l


Xim ena,


es.


Pero yo fa
con 61 que
de tomalle


para


con


n partido
os est6 male
palabra


vos


Contenta


conl


me


que qulen
aquese me


rce
hu
smo


case.
Cf-Jv


quedd
ue 1e
ana la
ampar


Ximena
face,
fizo
e.4


l angu.


marked


some


forms


which


were


archaic


sixteenth


century:


non,


ficiere,


Caii edes,


diadie s


far4rt


$ vos


face


fizo,


their


presence


has


stylistic


ig6n if i


chance,


since


time


composition


poem


they


wer e


in current


use.


There


dozens


romances


this


type.


There


are


also


many


romances


in the


chivalric


tradi-


tion


composed


du nn


sixt


enth


century,


often


well-


known


writers.


are


written


current


idiom


therefore


do not


contain


archaisms.


Then


there


are


a number


romances
S-wI


wh ic h


ridicule


chivalric


tradition.


following


beginning


a romance


Gdngora:


Dies


con
que
C-^ r.i I


5'?flOTS


oraq
ex6


Vn


viv
6n


id Beler
difunto,
testament


~' -I ~A vCrt A -,-..l *' V\ 1


'ma


fae e


,11


Y <,


n


n








verl


Vi~ne


)Do ialda,


diel
que
a J


dol


Conde


Y hall
sobre


C on?


orinale s


riend
de su


sobre
envue


ose


o ond3


Roduli'o,


en No


Sucr'l
a muy


tn-esrd


deos
de


flluj


ilorar im
el muerto


lto


le dixo:
cese tan


rmnlugo
piugo.


trist


lu-to,
eran


or~inalE


epAtuuno,


spaclo
portuno,


cor


en un paino


--"Am
necio


sue io


iga Belerma,
diluvio


axte


y abog
Estese
donde


haya


pogo


ar


vues


Vu S


aila~


IUuran?


sue


buen


po0o
este


os quiso


tambien le
y si murid
quer4l1ese


i Qu6t


culpa


quil
abi
de


tros


s gus-
darte,
e cupo


su alma,


sin
much


S '.S


erto


cubo.


vida


mUC


pecho,


su escudo.


tuvist


vos


su ent i
quien


que le
Iduriera


rro,


como


entierre:
61 acat


sienao
bruto m
n como


just,
uere,
bruto?


en Paris


done
que a


los
Vov
ese


tien
ll_1 i


antep


e su


lila


asa


ulcro,


leran


s suyo


a Ilont


corac


envialde


si por


a pre


bilan


e s an


os truxo,
guntar,


OS tuvo.


this


poem


Menende z


Pidal


says


that


"todo


artificio


Gdngora


consist


en emnplear


mas


cruda


vulgaridad,


lle-


gando


hasta


soez


irreligioso


obsoeno,


para


corroer


disolver


sentimiento


caballeresc


e fide


vju









Duardo s


/ iczncz


SOane


aspects


Tirante el Blaco,


Pelea que hubo don Carnal con la Cuaresma


from


Juan


Ruiz


Libro de buen amor,


cantigas de mal dizer


there


one


anonymous s


poem


in the Romancero


which h


unlike


others


in one


gj~ill


icant


respect.


combine s


ridicule


chivalric


with


imitation


archaic


ch ivalric


language


"Duena,
mirad bien


si habedes
por mi faz


debria


que
Non


a qui
fazer


mi dolor
pongals
non es d


n tuertos
injuries


Miembreos


aze


ser


vos
en al


bulena


non
dere


senora


esta


hon


j enda,


ezca. o


rr; in. C,


les
chas


mia


primer


sels
que
Yen


anaos


non


astidian


todos


en cte


ayuso,


reque
anos


stas.


non


fini


eron


mis


ore


razones


m i.s


vuestra


cong-oxas
os anos


oca


smientan.


rlmeros


que
para
Los
non


usar
otros
reed


nina
homes


cua


resTue


sta


en cabello,
pequena.


tro,


astes


senora


m i.s


temi endo
jay, Dio
En los d
part ime
volv v


Diste


vero


, quidn
s tltimo


a las
hall


de
esmei


vos


qluien


s encinta:


enc inta


F-.e


vera:


meses


tierra


casa


en hembras.


escusa,


Striste


e jquien


la
vue


creyera!


stro


are


vos f


iZO


c asar


erCa:


"'


i-


e:








ello


vero


o non,


sta


vegada


yea,


pues


non


orballo


ser


nina


ni star


zella


Faced
manana


co0mo


a la


a ganar


senora


IMadalena,
peroonang


con


Venid
donde


qu3.en


vos


tend


puridad


a mis
remos


vos0


enra.


acio


esta,


folgaremo s


en uno


mi a
vere


que mis
si asi
ficidn


non


home s


vean.


sati


VUe3S


es fal


ni malquerencia


a deuda,
sLa


values


tra.


Donde


non,


tarde


cuidad
tempr


casa


ano


sea,


esto


sagu


tengo de
--Esto
Camarero


a la


duena


estando


to mar


escribid


e la
Quin


enmienda.


Gerin


eldo


Reina,


en celada


ona
puesta.


This,


unlike


other


poem


Romancero,


ISa


true


parody


fullest


sense


word.


is cer-


tainly


humorous,


even


though


type


humor


may


not


appeal


some.


moe


the requirement


aesthet-


'CS


etc.


Most


important,


exhibit


controllede


stortion


most


striking


peculiarities


subj


Vflrj&fr


style"


chivalric


tradit ion.


situation


parallels


that


knight


return


from


his


sear


adventure


am


court


his


lad


here


Gerineldo


, steward


Queen


(Gu


enevere


courting


Queen


Sdue h ~


Quintanona.


is adCl









tradit


wona


1 lover's


lament


lastly 's


al oofn e ss


his


advances


ere


redu.


ox;es


l evel


this


respect


not


unhi


prey


iously


Quoted


romance


gora.


different


s in


style.


g chapter


was


stated


that


most


ificaxnt


style


markers


novels


chival ry


are


archaisms.


This


romance


emplo


numerous


arch


sms


obvious


ar o y


chivalric


nove


initial


use


time s


fazienda,


face


, fazer


, face


, firieron,


fizo,


Faced


folgaremo s


lines


, 10,


pose


once


hembras


J..in


e 28)


Vos


use


an obLj


pronoun


five


t imnes


(hunes


, 27


1341


44).


.second


person


plural


verbs


s the


-des


type


enr~din


used


three


time s


(habedes


grades
r i~c rr ii0 i-ri:- "iii~


satisfazedes,


lines


while


modern


form


seen


three


t ijmUe


s (pongais,


mediastes


, vais


lines


, 41),


including


U imp er


ativ


Three


use


en. din


trades,


distedes,


Distedesnme
ir ** ii ni ~i ** i 1 1 n m


cannot


classified


archa


as this


form


was


pre


serve


in pr


oparoxytone


until


much


later.


archaic


nega


tive


non


USe


d exclusively


(lines


II1.,


53).


first


line


4laberx


use


so-


lete


sense


of tener.


A number


archaic


words


are


employed


(al,


mientcs,
-:.-*iir ^:^1 -i: T -- : "


membrar,


dende


avuso


homes,
^ *****- a* -


Iuenes


rnman~crca,


.tn-rn(


\rfl c-ar1 q


lnnninq..


fl!5 mi 1r qffll -.


Fnrmi Fnnrl


.1 fP c:


es.


36


17


1


re-


.-"1


ul


1 -









words


poem,


an e xtraordinar ily


bhigh


per-


cent age


(just


over


are


archaic.


Th~i.


po ifl,


One


of it


kind


Romanc ero,


has


little


distinguish


within


genre,


a case


can


made


a source


s importance,


model


for


part


-pa


sh literary


Cervantes'


history,


Don Quijote.


case


simply


this:


rornanel e


"Dluenia


habedes


honor,


g its


first


occurrence


liii giii sti c


parody


chivalric


styi.e


pain,


time


a writer


consciously


pur


use


a style


full


arch


sm s


in parody


chivalric


romances


novels


cliFv-


alry.


second


time


this


took


place


'-'-C'
04 K)


Don Quijote.


difficult


establish


very


high


probability


that


Cervant


was


familiar


with


this


romance.
--0-'-&* im- *-- n *


Menende z


Pidal


has


astute


traced


intfluven ce


Romancero


conception


execution


Do u ijo-t-e


concluding


that:


lejos de
s ficcio
ncero el
cura de


gran
obra.


a la
i


en qu
cando
ydndo
dad,
niiclo"


e


re a
nov


la
sus


rte
Asa
ci6
ela


pug
nes
pri
Don
de
. la


n


ci ones


was a con0en0.
forj6 el prim
o /"icm ,1viriy4V n Q


nar Cervantes
de la poosia h
mer impulse pa
Quijote, y en
la innsiracidn


'Jo


que, de
caballer


str


con


CW~fl -I no F


ra
el
y


e..,


4-
3JJmta~
n
nomaflo
del or


fritu
cibid
la


ero


na


heroicopopular as
uvendo los moldes


'I


esca


al mnu do de
en el mundo


321na


n~ CVf a'nr


fr
la
de


sequible
I- n r i Io


ag.aba,


qu im
la
mod


ar


is-

ran-


era y tra-
cotidiani-
elo0 al


Clr


rnnrn0 a


fin,


con


la


1 Roma
eal lo


<
*-
<


i


I 1 (.


r E- *








Considering


publication


datc s


vo lume


containing


this


particular


certainty


that


romance


CErvanL-


1592


es was


1600,


family


a virtual


with


almost


imp os


cons


immediate


source


for


passage


s from


iii jo 1e


with


a similar


style


spirit


such


as the


folio


wan,3


--No
desa
ria


las


fuyarn
nisado


profe


ninguno,


como


vues


vue


alguno;


so non


cuanto


tras


mas


ras


merce


ca a 1


toca
a tan


resen las


ni at


an~re


aLtas


demu


eroan


caball


Lao erie


doncellas
ran.
, 2, 44)


--Bien
much


arece


sand


me sura


S


en las


ermo


nisa


, y es
causa


proc
des


ede;


ni mos


ero


non


rede


vos
mal


porque


os
mio


acuit


non


serviros


, 44)


Cert


similarities


are


immediately


apparent:


setting


a chivalric


situation


with


a ridiculous


madman


stitut


innY


ace


a knight


noble


ladi


a castle,


la~n


go-8~


full


archaism


(fuyan,
-* -v:^ ^*


las vueestras mercedes,


desanu isacdo


zips',


facer-


fermosas


I non,


vos,


acuitedes,


mostredes
il_______i...._ini _11 *. -*f -4~ir .


, non,


al).


chivalric


spee


s by


e have


important


significance


novel,


will


studied


detail


next


chapter.


After


public


Quijote


other


e are


.- 4-S *- -- --~ ~ 2 --..


- -~ -' r act.


i


1


a in


*


L_~ .,


I








published


spurious


second


part


Don Qui jote
~~-i -,-tr *4- j -nniii-.^fJa .-.,-'*


in 1614,


not


fail


limit at e


s aspect


style


original:


SOJBRE~IS


A LA


CRITO


DE LA CARTA


TNFP TT~JC iL~.i&


DEIL


TOEOSO


"Si
asaz


sura,


que mis
dades.


amior


bulle
a oue


cedo


cuit


dulce


afinc


bella


S ~r


ensanara


ax a


OS


enierni


con0


rnl S


vengajn
U;)


eno ,


m ~r


Vofict~,s


vile


Estra


salndez


rep
non


que
era


ermo-l


con


roche.
atiendo


todas


veces
el pe
tiene


mas


mis
gen
ando


n


.. ... I


erz as
mene


en d


stero


envuzelto


sam n.enro sin
remembranza


altas


guisa
demand


fall.
o es


fembr


, que


sa:


acer


maguer


on sapgre


polilla
uo est4
uo entire
de. Emp


al gi


rnulrC


atim~S


uer-
has


c e clo


esta


una


r'e inaciS


ero


alta


ora


smesuranza


vos


tenido


son


perdonedes; qu
de perdonare.


vuestro


imperial


Esto


yerro
pido


acatamiento.


or arnare,
finojos
Vuestro Y


digno
ante


vida.


---li


caball


ero


Triste


Fita,


don Quijote delay ;iancha.T11


en el


sandio
rostro


vii
una


caballero!
de las mrs


iAsi
fermo


has
sas


ferido
fembras


que a
fallar


duras
! Pe


pen


ro


en todo


querr


follonfa,


el muncd


ciel


S in


cas


podra


e tan
o .12


grande


-Non
re ina


vos


cuitede


Cenobia;


ermol


asaz


s:Lma


ser


mal


ero


andante


caballero


si non


vos


ese


bien


venga


alevo
sin r


s sanfce
sias qu
eproche


ces d
e vos
que


e aquel
han fo
si sois


estudiante


0, que
ermosa


odais
embra,


decir
que


tambien


uricO


caball
me jore


ero


s del


e desfi
rmundo. 1


tuerto


fIlany


arch~aisn~s


mentioned


bef


ore


are


evident


here.


Mnsgl:


P nriTl fln


(1 Fmpz*;Y


tbhrnP


n~r~ r;4 .-


J -


ri *- ,-^ i---









(hasta).


There


are


three


example s


-des


verb


e~nd in


none


where


lost.


Vos


used


four


times


only


once.


Non


seen


three


times.


There


are


eleven


obsolete


words:


afincado,


at encr~


maguer,


ceao


, ledo


remernbranza,


erne ro
_.__ __^q -.t .-i.


, acatamiento
1- ii~gilr *- ini *i**i lniir .1rit~


There


are


examples


infinitive


which


retain


ion


bsol


terminal


ion


-axe


amarZ~e


perdonure


author


false


Qu lote


Vas


quick


selze


uDon


this


obviously


comic


evice,


used


it extensively


work.


scene


second


of Tirso


Molina


A~ar por senas


one


characters,


a delirious


state,


says:


IMONT OYA


Lindabride s
a lo amnadis
Girdonla, a
Micomicona.


o alo
Dulcine
&Que de


nuevo
a de


sme


en tsanta
que Artus
tal fermo
tQuidn vo
i Ual haya
el sortij
si quien
No os le


CI


zSois la
a lo Febo;
o, Oriana;
lo Primaledn;
a lo Panza,
quijotel,
la hIancha?


sura vos puso
uita? &Qu1 f
encantadero


sura malt
s fizo tu
el torno
o de Brun
vos busca
volviis a


-I I


Infanta


adas,


rat


erto


I


mal


bizco?
aya


elo,


os hall
boca.l6


Later


cmn


. ene


there


also


occurs


this


exchange:


po nnla;-


I h**lrr Y1T-r. (








IhONQOYA~k


Para


ARniE


Para


por un
fiaros


secret


ThEAX


trocarl
intent


I ON TOY A


Non


SCad
fago


esas


eces


archa


isms


here


are


VOS


time


2 os)


'p.


timue s.


one


h--),


non


(once,


no).


jl anl.ca


Pb i.CS


uses


above


to help


establish1
sh


prob


able


date


play


as 1615,


E$OUS


enmity


tween


Tir


and Cervant


less


this,


an example


of how


paro


valric


Jtyle


Don Qui jote


was


imit


other


writers


seventeenth


century.


Just


Guille'n


Castro


WaZS


first


dramatize


r-l


was


-I s


br i


Donl


ijote


into


theater.


soon


as he


appears


stage,


Don


Quijot


e sp


eak s


mulon


lines,


following:


ferm


osa


oncella


cab


tuerto?


allero


i Arred
andante!


raos


de ll.a,


s agr


aV IaC


~










mas


azo


fuert


casti


villain ia!


erto


con


me has


, giant
gantea!


tflr2r7


e fiero


senora


Dixie inef~


a este


vue


stro


c aba


llero


en esta


S S~OJ1


cuita


ayuxri


en el rnundo


sola!


Non


llor


escodero.


si era
soy, f


eri


alno


Baldo


Quijot19
vinos.


Casti;rO


emplo


time s


sse


ssive


adjective


with


demonstrative


pronoun


(este


VUe


stro


cabalil


non,
^-at^^..^-..^^


and


-des


twicec


Though


carries


title


e Don


Quijote c


.incuau~


essent


iaily


a dramrati


nation


Cardenio-Luscind


ernando-Doro


tea


episode


, and


Don


jote


not


really


one


principal


first


scene


see


Caldero'n


Barca'


daZ~ia


duende


a s14n


write


fol-


Iiowin


letter


mysterious


lady:


est


"Fermosa
dolida d
minorals
sabidor


en este


pasa


magller
vida de


vegada
s feri


que
mias


en~a,


cualquier


axixa


cuitas,


foll6n
encanto


vos


caballero,


rue


mrez


go vo s


quino,


vos


en vuesso


das


c(ue


entire


muerto


cue


amaiicj
nombre,
en desc


sea


asaz


quer


pagano


La con-
iadosa


ais
mal


~aa


san 0


orn1Unai


en ella.;


'fuei


tenudo


lacer
andrin,


que
de l


se-


as


bat al la


non


es 1


a su deer


-








S amen


technique


evident


here:


words


letter


there


are


arch


a).ms


about


total.


Ca~lL!


eron


V1C'fC


t times ,


VO S


time


, ?on


(twice),


a--O


ve ada,


enudo


(obso


Vuel SSo


e f


arlc


1-: 2l


form


vue


tenido),


stryo),


verb


MagtCier,


manmparar


amaparar
omV1T^T


Comment in


this


pass


, Valbuena


Brione


that


eighteenth


cent ur


was


marked


imitations


C e r~v uLnte


St C


chivalric)


style,


of whi


h Cald


er6n


here


preced


ent.


Also,


after


eilf in


an eignt e enth-c ent ury


example e


this


type


language


4 he


states,


"GCre cmosf


e es


primer


moment


grem


acertado


dramaturge


p ar a


siglo


C'i a i


XV"I


como


dest


Calder6n


~C a


es el


valor


Cervant e


. Debe


Inc


erse


notar


como


excepci6n


cerven-


smo


, dis


into,


G-u iI n


astro.


Lope


Ruiz


Alarcdn,


T ar


Molina,


igror an


o no le


mientan.


g~ran


inteli


ncla


y compr


ensidn


author


deL


vil.a


suenoo
-ijt-mj-i ciii ii *'*


sible


valore


en lo


bido


obra


oe m~


vanlt in .


Valbuen


Brione


enthus


plastic


here.


tru


Castro


s use


this


St yl e


a different


nature


than


Calder6n'


because


Don


Quijote


a ch


amaa


astro 's


. Thi


, of


course


case


with


Avellaneda,


not


mentioned.


seen


ear


lier


s


f-t;ecn









Arnar por senas.


still.


ossibl e


make


a distin


tion,


however;


Tirso


make


Qlir~ c:


t reference


Don Quijote


well


chival


nove


whuli


Calder5n


ref


was


almost


that


Franc


SCO


.eve


unexc


diled


mac~


0 at ir E


the Spanish


Slan


guage


should


author


of f


our


romances


in which


arch


chivalric


. The


first


entitle


est ament


Don


jote"


contains


only


a few


scattered


archai


sms:


"Escribid,


Dies


buen


quietud


caballero
mantenga


estamento


por


volunta
Y en lo
eondis


Ali


oir


strimera.


ero


a usanza.


fabld


ano1


juicio


vuesa


Pan


dijera,


anc


.sen-or,


qu ien


vos


fabia,


cab


ecera


romance


is quit


e lonz


120 lin


-r~E


archaisms


contained


line s


ove


fa ro,


vuesa


, fabl5,


V0E31


fa-


bla,


vunEl


are


ones


poem.


Ititter









hijas


Ru i-D iaz,


" have


a serious,


genuinely


ch iv alric


tone


theme


rather


I -i~u


a parso


one.


remaining


romance


Ls a gem


~u ev e do


s wit


artistry:


fi tedji .o


dia


era


que rapar
cuando, d


SO3S


y floja la mart
boquiabierto y


C.'.-


lii


mascar
panza;


sobr.'e


in ga
cabi


la,
zba


roncan lo


Comb1


una


vaca


Guardal e


SU S


suc$ 'S


yernos


Bermudo,
guardam,


apart dndol e


p E SCu~e zo


moscas


cara


cuando


irna~S


voc


salidas


por


fuerza


no dichas


sino
se


mie do


oyeron


ac Ia gar
e volunta


pu3 aaas,
el palac


se
dic


escucharon


-i


ndo:
esto


Apenas
vieron


cuando


en la


"' Guar


entrd


tender


hic ieron


cua


dra,


6n 1"


~por I


ando


la zarpa
sabidoras


su temor
1 mal ol


pobre


o


le5n


a sus
r de


br
los


agas
dos


engana,


y por
los a


cuerpos


ven ~r
ledn,


pues
no le
El
detra


por
SUS


aca


a lo


miedo
sigui$


menor,


muerto
erfume
tarrado


s dos


F e sn


Unesrm


esconderse


COS


tillas


deja


Lan


Z fl.


mata;
perfume
espaldas
Gonzale


a ga


, abrumrn


con


tablas.


Diego,
por un b


a escon


mas


determine


)oquerdn


dierse


ens


, done


arta


van


retorno


viandas.


Bermudo,


vio


el le6n,


s









Desoertd


abriendo


raClOs


grito 1
aturde


eone


e voices
Envi6ie


borr


tramoos
laganas
e dio al


asca;


le6n,


acobarda:


enemlgo s
alabras


a su leon


era


por
rec


511S


o cte
ernas


tel oso


Alll
"Senor,


respo


no rece


fianza


pre
smac
16Th


leis


gunt6,
ia.
rnudo:
nada.


s se guardian
Castilla como


1 rerec
a F ernaril


e va


iendo


vueso


ascua.
escano


ernlos
"


hall


bo he m ia


hecho
Las


ovillo
narices


en la
del


botarga.
buen Cid


a saberlo


el axitan,


que
los


le
vap


truj


ore


eron
de


las


nuevas


zas


Sali6
lleno


corrlose


cubierto d
de telaraf


el Cid
guisa


erra


mirarlo,
fabia:


estabais


tennis
home
que de.
"Conhu


much


mas


aguar


SCO


e esper
habedes


Cond


traza
jeringa,
a batalla.
vantado:


pues
los


que
tan
yant


mal
pre
areas


sto
a 1


0 VOS
bajd6


Saga,
1 miedo


ancas


"Sac irad


es a Ti


vos


ase


zona


era,


pues
segidn
Gil


con


todo


vos


hum


Diaz,
Cid


sepult


trayendo


es rabie


SC' f


edad


escu


contino


en la


dero


acompa


narices


en
ras


a Di
con


ego
una


mientras


n11rno


con


rno que
e ensena


otra


falta,
I


tapac


3


.










dinde


sacad


SUS


e S


a voce


t id o s


c3Et.


VOS


parlafn ,


O i:r nos


ch illanJ'


, Senor,
codo roC


pasa
mar


a Valenc


de ningudn
no haber


St'S


mura


cabo


do le


l as


cond


asgan


no merece


erno


el nombre


esta


ser


pues


tanta


vidor


part


C~U S


vueso
alcanz


Saijudo


001-


mal


ri~r a


t al ant e


el Cid;
e encara


esta


vez,


amrngos


con


descubierto


habe'is


caca.


"&Pavo
estando
fincando


r


con


e un
vue


ledn
sas a


en coinmana


fo bS


rmas
mia.


que para
"Por Sa
mirindovo
y que, de
me revolv


seguro


Liiiin,


n a

eis


esa


stima
las


bastaa?


corro,


SCO


tra
y a


entranas


anz


prec ia


face


en el


trips
refrain


vor


ansia


coraz


vos


canta.


sLn
fac


6


as, vos
acatar
is del


"Ya


valiente
fagavos
echaos,
"Calle
--dijo,


Dpuro


en esta


vuesa
corazd
temor


Col


quest
colada


buen
des,
co n


pre


sura,


casta,


Ipas,


vos


V2Caca.


fizo


a vegaa
limpio:


cond
el C
la vo


Id,


z


m


en co
call
uy ba


lada.
edes
ia--.


cosa que
pdblica n


non


Ji ce


es secret
se faga.
valentfa


fice


cosa


necesaria;


si probais
tendredes
"ias animo


fice


fazania.


es menes


p tr a


echarse


en la


privada,


r ilC-I ~ fl S fln 'I


ur


n


----


/^ t-


rr ,r








"Id, in
vuesa esp
y decidla
miontras
"Y non
y obedece
aquel ref
la caca.


fante,


Gsa


que vo
yo vos
fableis


CL


a doria


Sol,


dichada,
s limpie,


busco


Un


si os agraaa,


que
de,


ama.
I


aconseja
callarla o


This


genuinely


humorous


, though


rather


indelicate,


romance


is an


exce


Silent


examp,


of Quevedo' s


technique


fac ilit y


with


many


lanrgua


word-pla


only


(Colada


/colada/


use


colada,


archaism,


line


132


servidor


, line


107;


Conde


auce esconde
tife -^F^H^ff^^^^-:^^^+Hffnf~-J~ii~ jfw-' l f


, lines


etc.),


and


incongruous


combinations


words


es.


arc


alsms


ar e:


times),


vos


connusco


times),

(obsol


-des


times)


vueso


con nosotros)
*M- -1rr*11rg-mrii- *- ** r- -


times),


Shobistes
* fc.- iiriiiii.ii^-iiI ij


non


(arch


(twice),


c form


hubistes),


el C id


(archaic


use


definite


article


with

home,


vocative),


yan tar
SI -llWWiSillmlHMIHfS


' i212


and sex

cont ino,


rerrd.


vocabulary


cedo


words


talante,


haber


the archaic


Cid


meaning


himself


tener,


acatar,


certainly


not


vejada,
1 \ ~ a3-1"


held


ended


ridicule


as are


ondes


Carrion,


former


has


a good


deal


his


stature


lowered,


especially


non-heroic


vocab-


ulary


Queveao


associa


with


him


opening


lines:


masc ar,
--ni -^-an*i----ri


panza,


gorra~


boquiabierto,


cabizbz~Jo,


r on cand ocoo


una vac a,
.k- *- i iu- ^-^-rmrh f "


etc.


1


v.


~I ar









chivalric


style


marked


s.rch- a is; n


through


sixt e enth


seventeenth.


c enturie


are


general


divi-


sions


wh ic


0811X~


made:


Pgndf


dc Galan


later


novel


chivalry:


a consc


o10US


ser


* emi


action


l an-


guarge


previous


cen


tries


were


written


original


sources


Amad is


some


other


chivalric


novels.


Anonymous


six


te enth-o


century


romances


caL-


elected


Ronancero general
^ J __: ..j.- ... -- *1 -- T -,,,^ i i~ ifin i ^ ^ ^ ii ^ ^ M .-.. ^ _M -.. -- .i -- ...* S k


(1600):


remnant


epic


valr ic


legends


ese


rved


through


oral


tradi--


tion


ajn in


an archaic


lang u.aa


"Lu en~a,


habede


honor":


an anonymous


romance


diff


ere


from


referred


above


in its


distortion


chivalric


theme,


differ


from


other


first


burle


sques


example


on chivalry


genui:Lne


s archa


parodic


style


chivalric


style.


Don Ouijote de la PIancha
an .**t -nlisem i-an .- m_____ m__i___ i l__i_ n -r -ilrln i i n~- ** ll11 llnum


(1605


-161


Cer-


vante s:


firs


own.~i


writer


employ


this


style


s ane


sort


spirit


as moves


romance


" U efi a,


abede s


honortT


; this


then


becomes


source


Ute


man ife st


onis


s phenomenon


Don Quijote de la. 1ancha


Part


(1614)


Avellaned


Don Quijote de la Ilancha


astro.


direct


v:~li









Amar por scnas


(prob.


1615)


Tirso:


reference

their app


ervan


e aran2c e


in the


novel

work,


charac


use


not

chiv-


alric


tyle


parody.


duende


Calderdn:


style


used


Don Quijote,


without


presence


ref


erence


Cervant


wor


"P?&xrara


conde


Carr in"


Quev


after


showing


in another


romance


that


knows


Cervante


use


chivalric


style,


and employing


in two


non-


parodic


romances,


vedo


II cyC C


this


romance


same


tone


that


charact er i


zes


original,


"I~juena,


si ha-


honor.














NOTES


other de
ion) see
1962), p


1
Riewald,
finitions


Gilbert
. 69; A


"'Paro'


of
High


pa:
et


~nue mar t


* 1..


dy as urLulcism," pp.
rody (less satisfactory
The B natomy of Satiree
e todensieock, "The Comi


..1


2;


0-129. For
in my opin-
(Princeton,
of Expres-


sion in Cervantes' Don .uijote
n- Q u 111i M --- **.r--i -
versity of Wisconsin, 1928), p.
Parodies: An Antholo'w from Ch
(New York, 19), p. xiii; Lrs.
(Oxford, 1935), p. 9; Juan Vale
(Madrid, 1958), p. 1076.


S(unnubl. Phi)


92; iwNighrt


aucer


,ac


bo


donald,
hm--and


Herbert Richardson,
ra, Obras cormiletas ,


After


Parody
Vol. IT


2Ramdn LI
ridad propende a
caballeresco (lila


enindez
promov
drid, 1


Yicial.


s th


er
948


at todaya grand popula-
" Cervantes y el ideal


31bid.,


12-13.


Palencia


4Romancero general,
(Taarid, 1947), pp.


Vol.
277


I, e
-278.


Angel


Gonzalez


5Ibid.,


430-431.


Cervantes y el ideal,


with


roman

the U


Romancero general, I, 16
minor variations can also be
cero, ed. Francisco Ioarfgue
* or. 47-48. I am rra.tefui


I -if


S


ity of Florida for


4-165.


found in
z-ifonino,


to P


Joh


calling


at


.e same romance,
Las fuentes del
Vol. IV \Tiadric,
n J. Alien of
mention to this


romance.


8iuer,
Riquer,


ed.,


Don Quijote,


496,


e


9Th
the romance
a^v' nwwm^- nifTlj...^i~-


re is a possible
and Don Otuijjote.
a\ ny nTl'f~friv ~ I fl~r ILi


ermediary


iiAt


i T


is ano tner
r^ /
Yftif 01 -, 7


source


be twe en


romance


0n 0 0


Beer


r ISnrn-


-,* ....


I


1
J


I


--


It


I








En aquel siglo
ando florecid


yel m
pared


en unas
detras


tuvo
mas
mas
mas
mas


>05S


ilayo


en medio


vistas


uni


a sabidor
un hijo
valiente
derretido
sabidor q
menbrudo


d


dorado
Amadis,
vlvia
e Abril


secrets


zaquizaml,
a Urganda
Gandal :fn,


quec
qu
ue
que


Macias,
e el Cid,
Roldin,
Mierlfin,


--"Asi


otorguen


los cielo


de
que


CO


ventures


n quIen
Fue a r


y vio c
la once
atindose


e


1


un caiz
gas una
olgar y


revolver
rca de


p
duena
dormir.


cab


eza


la Dinmararca,
un cenogil.


aunque e


lu-n


en las salas
mirabanse el
y hartabanse


ca
de


de


* 1


se na
Pari
o al
reir


C


lian


visto


otro,
. (Romancero general
6r1J


The burle
is remini
traces of
preterite
is unimpo
almost he


sque o0 mne
scent of "Di
archaism he
of ver). W
rtant. But


si


have been f
likely that
than "Duena


tant, u
familiar


chivalric a
ez anos viv
re: folgar
whether or n


se


with


had this
habedes


n
i


O


import


archaisms.
this romance
in mind when


d of chivalric
d Belerma," but
and video (Old S
t G-$ogora is th
ant to note the


Cervantes
also, but
he wrote


may
it
his


person
there
panish


ages
are


author
infrequent,


very
is le
novel


well
5S


honor.


pp.
cero


De Cervantes y Lope de Vega (B
50-51. See also Alfonso Reyes, "Cer
" Obras completas de Alfonso Reyes,
, 19^5 ,pp. .347" 4T.


t.eno
vant


Vol.


Air
y
VII


;, 1940),
. Roman-
(I~ ei-.o


(Buenos


Fernandez de
Aires, 1941),


Avellaneda,
. 16.


Don Quiate de la iMancha
^ naiiriiiaiilin-^< rj, n w a *i -~ -su *i"iiH.r .1iM i. iiiiiimni i r hii.,- *iimu nii^ iii r r r


1 0


cu


[


.e










14This


is an examp


conscious


extension


archai


feature
in this
Manual,


Zn-n


tenden


case


eve


relS


nfth


cent


ormat ion
ury0 See


tor ing


Ilen nd


a Latin


l an ~u


151n


also
pass
ten


writ
ages
chapt


troducto


edition


caDl


. 24,
Avell


an e


SOn-n1


valric


et,
styl
the


p. 8,
e are


C' ui., o-


1 ir


Blanca


Edo


iol ina,
Vol. I


Obras drar~'ticasic
C
77drici, 19467757


omrole
1792


'libid.
_________
S
'8lbac,
-a- a-~ -'


. 1794.


0 17


176


19Guillin


Castro


, Obras,


Vol.


iJaJr itt,


1926),


3 4 -


espada
p. 44.


20Pedro


C aZ~ d


erdn


Val buena


Er ione


rca, Comedias de ca1a
s Vol. Ii-1adrid, 1954),


21Ibid.


22bid.,
"Ibid.,


IiVj~i,~L


Franc


Blecua


Vol.


500 0.
IBarce


eve


lona,


Obras comol etas,
- pp. 93193o.


Jos4


24bid.,


5Ibid.


, pp.


118-119,


114 6-11 47 .


1049-1053.












CHAPTER


THE


CHIVALRIC


STYLE


DON jOU IJO T


this


chapter


role


chivalric


style


Cervantes


'Don Quijote


will


st udi.


an more


Cacil t


order


to do


.3C irnnv' rnvi- RZi


define


some


terms


they


will


used


here


"speech.


Whenever


character


says


something


which


quot


author,


considered


a "speech


Don


Quijote


Caballero


B S quei


(I-3fJr


C3 S---C,


(II,


623)


cons


idered


a "spe


ech"


just


ion


'.3sc


o~i ~s e


Don


Quijot


Golden


-106).


A "chivalric


speech"


any


speech


a chivalric


context


which


nflr+


ains


archaic snm,


no matter


how


long


or short


speech


or hovwa


many


or few


arch


aisms.


A "non-chivalric


speech'"


is any


speech


which


con-


-t alimC.


archaism.


subject
dlin-o*CIF-angm f:-. r- -4


discourse


may


chivalr3ic


there


chivalric


archaism.


A distinction


that


must


kept


mind


one


between


chivalric


style


archaic,


parodic


sense)


rhetoricalL


style e


Introduction


ccn fu--


r~~~~~~t~I in' Nt,1 ,1 .,-1\TYnC


s ay s


ri il e c -t i y


~i~nen


I


r"l ~Y:


n


n r7~*I


7! yii









Certa in


speches


Don


mm-nm


as the


Golden


Arms


Letters


disolArse si,


should


;uacJ~udcd


example es


chivJlric1


ycl.e


They


conl


:-t ira


archaismn


are


not


flC X


recall


reader


styl-:


novels


chivalry.


Rather


their


c =tr e t


complex


struct ion,


en l


Yr f


a vocabulary


syntt a


very


much


keeping


with


%o


literary


precepts


Renai cannce


bears


cZ Y2GSC3tfl


ance


polished,


cultured


Cs tyi e


moral i


historians


te-nth


cen tury.


There


are


sixty-six


e~C:


hes


Qu ir-'


jote


novel.


These


can


vided


into


cate


ries:


ir~v


cation,


challenge,


COil-4


versation,


oath.


epistle.


novels


chivalry,


whe n


a knight-errant


about


undertake


a dan


OilS


adventure


invo


whom


has


dedicated


himself.


3 Don


Qu.ijote


imit


rates


this


pra


ctice


,at


times


employing


archaic


chivalric


style :


-- i Oh
zdn!
y rep
darm .
cao az
cora a


prince
M0cho
rochara


no
sen


parn
ora8


, que


cij


aSfavio


con
cer
do


nea, senor


eli


a


e cautivo


fehabedes fCtcho in I( I
riguroso al inc0 into
la vuestra teneosuxra.
:aros deste vaestro su


awtas cuitas por vue


mm
do


tro asmor Tpa
, 42-43)4


corca-
irms
1d-
0


eco.


~flL A


orrocime, sen~Or


C


rmaa


en
- -


esta


pri


tia~r a


afrent


61


s ~r c f L


c









--iOh senora de
del debilitado


que vueLvas
cautivo cac
atendiendo.
**- -i.^" *--* -^ :- ,*::..-_>-*--


la
cora
ojo


allero,


iermosura,
-^n mlor
rI> tty- ?lT ^
.tJ '-ij *U ,


tu gr
amjan a


en fite


Ahora


cza


avent


rzo y vigor
es tiemnpo
a este tu
ura estr


3, 51)


-10h soni
fermosura
que pox' s
en esto r


ora


artx
C,


alma,


ocor
sfac
roso


re


Thjl ,1ni~nc,3


a este v.estro
a la vuostra mu
sance se hala


lor cde la
caballeron
ha bondad,


, 88)


Don


Quijote


continually


issues


a challenge


or shouts


d e f~ia~n o


real


imagined


enemies,


such


as the


mer-


chants :


-Non
estoy
estoy


fuyvis, gente cobarde
ue no per culpa rnmia,
aqui tendido.


; gent e
slno de


cautivaa at en-
mi caballo,


windmill-giants:


--Non fuyades cobardes
un solo caballero es el


vile


criaturas,


aco r
8, 8


Biscayan:


-Si fu
hubiera
c autiva


eras


caball


casti gado
criatura.


ero,
tu s


coImo
andez


no lo eres, ya
y atrevimiento,


--Ahora lo veredes,
6oui Quijote.


dijo


Ag?:


responded

88)


whit e-shirted


fig ure s :


--Deteneos
y dadne cu
adcdnde vai


ant
s,?


rtbSal~l


eros,
quidn
s lo


o quienquier
sois, de d6n


que


on aq1UellaiiS


qure se~is,


7


I










barber:


Defiendete


cautiva


voluntad


conl


Cr1a


an2ta


tura


, o entrie'game


raz6n


se me


--Cualquiera


tftulo
micona


encant


rieto


cue dije
ado, corn
licencia
saffo a


re


o0


e sido


mi
para


senora
ello,


s in ula-


con


a prince
o le des


.sto
Mico-


miento,


bat alla.


450)


penitents:


una


--
dsta:
mosa
dan c


luntad
fecho;


seme
paso


lo dir


one


senora,
laras n


y que
y yo,


flj ar tr!


adelante
merece.


replied
1 punto


cuyas
iuestras


algun
que n


lAgr


imas
la


notorlio


on el


agravios,


pase


cons


Sj-.n


dan~


Quijot


dejEis


y
lie


e,-


hire


trist


a esa


her-


semblante


contra


de cu~ls ad o


mundo
entire


e la


para
que


eseada


su vO-


le habedes
desfacer
un solo


libe


rtad


, 514)


largest


oup


of Don


Quijote'


chivalric


speech


simply


that


a "typical"


conversation


between


knight-errant


someone


else.


Don


Quijote


especially


likes


Impress


women


with


s chivalric


speech,


as he


does


with


st itut


inn:


-No fuyan
a* --i U- a-1 if-^
guisalo a.L
profeso no
mas a tani


demu


las us


guno ;


n
-in


toca


ras
~ #~*~*


ca a ia


ni at


merce de s


ordcn


ane


doncella


faceri


COmo


ni teman desa
caballeri f qT


aim1X


vu~e


press


e-


e


cuanto
encias


estran.


, 44)


--Bien
much


parec
sandez


me sura


oeias


en 1


fermo


n3S a.


SaVS


leve


, yes
causa


- ~ ~ ~2 a- ---


e


nrn r.


.~ h -^ --~-r


ac: i


r


~n *n h


*r









--Nunc a


fuera


caball.


ero


arnlas


bien


servido


CO Tfl 0


fuera


don


Quijote


cuandoIC


done


e~llarts


su alde a
curaban


vino:
Vll ;
d.^1;


pranc
o Rocinante,


esas


del


su rocino,
es el nombre,


senoras


nmi{as


mi caballo,


que,
las
desc


puesto
fazan as


que
fech


:ubriersa ,


presents


este


ijote


no quisiera


a


vues


t4


ja uerza ae
romance viejo


de la Lancha


de
ro


scubrirme
servicio


acomodar al
de Lanzarot


es mio;


fasta


~ro


que
me


proposito


causa
pero


que sepais m
tiempo vendra


me manden


y yo


scubra


lady


obed


seo


"frees"


from


i nombre
en queo


antes


In2s


ezca


t engo


today


vuestras


valorb


senor
mi br


serviros.
I, 2, 46)


fln ac'nn rn


--La vuestra
su ersona Io


soberbia


suelo,


derrib


penis


dor,


sabed


fermn o sura,


v~uest


ada
sab


senora m
e viniere


ros


este


f.a,


robadore
mi fuerte


el nombre


lla:no


don


Lao


en talante,


yace
brazo;


vuestro


Quijote


er de
porque


y porque


liberta-


de la I ancha,


caballero


par
del


y herm
benefit


dadante
osa dona
cio que


y aventurero,
Dulcinea del
de mi habdis


cautivo


Toboso,
recebido,


en pago


no quiero


otra
parte


cosa


SinG1


os prese


por


vues


quo
nt4is


volvi
ante


tra liberty


Tob


esta
ad h


OSO


, y que


senora
fecho.
S--n-f
(I> o.
( 11 Sl I N 4 ** Il


wife


innkeeper


Juan


Palomeque:


--Creedme,
venturosa


formnosa


por


a ml persona,


por o qu
envilece;
os digo q


rla el
ceroslo


los


altos


dido


hab


que
tele


pero


tend


servio lo


mient


ras


ciel


tan.1 suj et o


senora,


Eloja
s tal,
cirse


Ldo e
que
que


mi escudero


n est


podis
e vues


Ilamar
tro castillo


si yo no la alabo


alabanza


os dir~i


eternamente


que
la


habedes


vida


amor1


O ue


a sus


quien


escrito
fecho,


aurare;


no me


leyes,


propla


soy.


S61io


en ma memo-


para


agrade-


y plugiera
tuviera tan


]los


ojos


ren-


uc ela


C,-lf~ \ I IY ~~~ 1 I ~1r ~. *l1 ,fy' r 1 n


S~Z


SU


h n r:n n


s


,3; nMin.~


Inn


__ *


r^








--Quisiera
senora, de


con.


fecho;
de per
donde


vista
pero 1
seguir


yago


hallarme


poder


t rminos,


pasgar


V1XeCS


a q-uer
a los


tra


talrnaita


grain


buenos,


molido


fermosa
- *.f -.*-. lf^ ~ ^nW#--i- ~


merced


fermo sura


fortune, que no s
ponerme en este


y que brant


ado


, que


alta


como


habedes
e cansa
lecho.


aZUn CIlle


mi volruntaad


fuera


sibilid
tengo d
senora


esto


quisi


impossible.


ad
de
Gte


ot ra
a la


r~InS


era
mas,


mayor,


5)-.n


ma


hubiera


caballero


rosa


occasion


en que


satisfacer


es la


tub incea


escondidos


?J ar a.


a la
ade a


prome
del


vues
esta


tida
Tobo


pensamlenTos;
no fuera vo


an co


medio,


pasar


gran
(I,


bondad me
1i6, 148)


tra,
impo-
que
lnica


san-


ventu-


puesto.


Dorotea,


Pr inc e


Micomicona:


--No
did6


os responder
on Quijote--


palabra,
ni oire


fermosa


mas


cosa


senor a-


vues


-respon-
tra


fac ienda


, fast


levant4is


tierra.
, 294)


--Yo


vos


jote--


le
como


mi rey,


mi corazdn


--La vuestra
otorgo el don


otorgo


conce


haya de
i patria


libertad


gran
que


ene


fermosura
pedirme q


--res


cumpi. ii'


pond i6


en dano


aque
avet


Qui-
o men-


lla


295)


se levante,


u1lser


spues


habers


ela


y pud


s en


paci-


fleca


ose


voluntad


sidn
hacer


vues


vues


ado,


tra


per


sona


qued
lo


arae
que


a vues


WaIS


talante os
ocupada la


vinmere;
memorial


entendimiento,
Dosible aue vc


porque


cautiva


a aquella
arrostre,


mientras


voluntad,
v no di&


por


plenso,


tuviere
perdido
mas. no


Ca-~


sarme,


aunque


con


ave


finix.


306)


also


addresses


himself


innkeepers


(knights


lords


castle


which


stays


in i on


Quijote'


conception


world)


when


dubbed


a knight:









eraba
senor


--No


vuestra,
os digo


liberalidad
a uel dda m
noche en la


armas; y
ue tanto


m1e no S


inc--re


d.on


me ha
habei


capilla
man ana


deseo


spondidl


gran
don


marnificenc ia


Quijote--y


dido


sido


otorgado,


armar


este
coimo ---
comb


, para


es que


caballero,


vuestro


tengo
powder,


cas


tillo


dicho,


002dbZ


Ott-'


vuestra
marnana c:


esta
velard


e cumplir
debe, ir


por todas
aventuras


a cargo


como


' 0 C


cu'a


en pro ao.e
la caball


soy,


parties


los
erfs


cuyo


mene


cte CSo


busc


erosos,
os cabal


a seme


ando


como
leros


jante


esta
andan-


z aias


jncl in


, 48)


as he


about


leave


inn--


cas


Ju~an.


Palo-


meque:


--Muchas
alcaide,
y quedo
dfas de


vengta


agravio,
a los qu
tuertos,
memorial,


income


meto


y muy
que e
obliga


i vidar
e algon
sabed a


e poco


ndarme


p0


faceros


gra'ande
n este


s son


vue


C -*WI ~* -rr~~


isimo


stro


a agr


acte


s mercede
castillo
ceroslas


os las


pa garl


soberbio


mi oficio


j~uedien


st'igar
hallai
no hay
orden d


isfecho


senor


he recibido,
todos los


en hacero


fecho


y vengar


alevo sa
s alguna


S o10


es otro


a lo


Recorre


cosa


este


cilla;


caballero


y paga


a today


rece


vues
17, 1


sI~n o


algim
valer


reciben
vuestra


jaez


s pro-
de
voluntad.


tra
56)


Finally,


there


are


a few


soc


hIa~n


eous


occasions


on which


Don


niece,


Quijoto


housekee


chival


per,


priest,


style


barber


his


when


brought


home,


hn'91v


wounded,


after


his


first


s al 30


--T ngan
de mi ca


fuere


todo


ball.


sibl


, que


vengo


Llevenme


a la


sabia


malferido


a mi lecho y
Urganda, qu


ferida .
(I,


por i
ll.ae


cure


culpa
, si
cate


5, 65)


e cisl









desa


ejecucidn
v acudir


rman ra--


I-nj-


-i *o


sn a mo-~-aquf:


desfacer


enca3a


f'txcr zas


socorrer


a los miserable


goatherd,


Canon


of Toledo


priest,


etc.,


as he


sees


c~ry fl


oaoch


penitents:


--Agora .


orden
i-r-i^Jdes


ero sa
el mu


1n


anx dante


a libertad


va cautiva


se han


compania,
do caball


vereaes


cuan


e 'os


caballerfa;
de aquella


agora
buena


estimar


o impo
sen la


digo
senora


s caball


que
qu
ero


rta


1rrn-r1-


dantec.


, 513)


There


single e


example


chivalric


oath,


after


Don


Quijote


has


done


battle


wit h


Biscayan:


--Yo h
ya lo
mente
grande


juramento


sanT1O


estuin


-e LC


marque


six so br~ino


mantle
aunque
sadas,


cua


Criador


Vex'~


ritos, de
de Mantua


h


gelios,
acer la


cuando


Valdovinos,


ni con


dellas


has


su mujer


no me
tomar


ft


acuerdo,
entera ve


)lgar,
las


todas
done
vida


jurd
e de


y
day


cosas


mas
que


vengar


comer


otras
aquf


nnganza


lar
hizo


mul ert e


pan


que,


xpre-
dec a-


cosas
pore
tal


fizo.


100)


final


example


is not


a speech


h at


all,


rather


letter


Don


Quijote


writes


to Dulcinea,


imitation


Anr~adis


Gaula


other


knight


from


novels


chiv-


alry.


This


been


call


"modelo


mas


aca


bado


chivalric


style


novel:


CARTA


TY'% Thfl


QUIJOTE


A DULC INEA


DE;L


TO13h


Soberana


al ta


senora


nr~fl~C S


si









i tus de
.e yo se


en esta


scenes
a asaz


son
de


cuit ea,


en ni afincamiento,


sufrido
ademais


, mal podre


ser


mague -r


sostenerme


fuerte


, es nuy


durad


erao


acion,
modo


i oh
que


acorrernme


en gu
a tu


buen
bella


por


o soy;


Scon


sto;
cru c


escudcero
ingrata


CaIU sa


si no,


aca


a mi de


Sancho


arnaa.a
;do:
haz


vida


daM


enerll


enter
mia!,


areas


habr6


sati.


viniere
sfecho


seo.


Tuyo


L as


inuert


CABALLERO


TRISTE
, 247)


FIGURE


thirty


speeches


Scho


sen


special


conS


eration


because


their


relatively


high


degree


f archaism,


there


are


wor


total


ds and

vocabul


104

ary


archaisms,

is archaic.


which


meanr.s t

average


hat

speech


words


long


contains


archaisms.


re main in


g thirty-


chivalric


speech


Don


Quijote


cont


a-in


word


only


archai


sms:


l~c/


average


speech


words


length


contains


only


arch


aisms.


tot al


numb


woro


xty-six


speeches


8374


there


a total


arch


aisms,


so th


2 O1/O


vocabulary


arc


aic.


average


speech


127


words


long


CfOn


a ins


arc


haism


w~oul a


sampling


adv ant


Wrll ft


display


quote


more


a reduce


than


frequency


archaism


SIn


tYeItJ


Sor more.


than


half


$ the


only


archar-









tUrn


condic idn


caballero


y concierto,
a de promoter


es que


este


del
sin
lo


Toboso


par
que


donia
mas f


press
Dulc
ere


ar5'Se


para


e su


mi p
que


arte


ante


volluntad.


, 96)


vue


espac larse


trecho
incoinmo


mal
d~ad


a las


este


acornoadado,


en el


mundo


letras,


merce


stra


tillo ;


no hay
que no
mas si


exit? 33 a?


e aunaue e
estrecheza
d4 lugar a


las


e s-


laS


armas


raen


como
esta


tra.en


fermosa


gula
as 1


done


adalid.


etras


ella


a la fermosura,


vues


, a quien


mercer


deben


s6lo


abrirse


tarse


mont


a~na


merced,
estrell


~vuies


tra


armas


manifes
riscos.


, para
digo,


tarse


s cas


dividirse


dalle
en est


acog


ida.


paral


acompanlen


merced.


trae


su punto


consiago:


api:


hermosura


tillos,


y abaj
Entre


; que


slno


arse


apar-


1a


vuestra


aquf


--la~


L cielo que
f hallara las
en su estremo
, 434)


--Fermosa


don


tra petici<$n,


celia,
porque


no ha
estoy


lugar


por


ahora


impedido


VUeCS-


entire


nerme
cima


0 que
ahora


en otra


a una


yo
dir


entret


y que


pama


o pido
poder


--Corre, hijo
palafren y de


Leone


besa


S-i. Sn g


eza


aventura


en que
podre h


enga


en tanto


no di


palabra


cer


correcd
en esa


deje


por s
decid


batalla


veneer


licencia
socorrerl


ned


Sancho
azor


a la


e en


cle


sto.


erviros


ere


Mas


es lo


a vuestro
lo mejor


en ningun


prlncesa
su cuita:


moao,


adre que
ue pudiere,
en tanto


bilic omicon a


ella


e sacar
454)


a aquella
el Caball


, y
que


mainos


me da


a su gran


licencia


senora


ero


fermosura


las


ire


della.


del
los
y que
bear


a servirla


alt


E3Zai


tuyo


me mand
cuenta d


en cuanto


are.


en tu emba


iS J


mira,


no encajar
jada.


erzas


Sancho,


algun


(II,


pudieren


como


refran


hablas


--S


756-757)








these


speeches


Don


Quijote


be gin s


using


ani-


among


his


opening


wor


, thus


reminding


reader


once


chivalric


styl


, even


though


no more


archaisms


follow


speech:


---Po c!i~


--Las


e


no--dijo

rto. fer


feridas


Quijote--


mc'saS


, 77)

, 96)


senoras


se reciben


141)


--Fermosa


done ella


454)


--Es


count-i


proverbio,


fermosa


senora


, 467


-468)


--Ldst ina
hayadesp


os tengo,
esto


fE~rm-osa


senora,


de q
(I,


[ue
43,


446)


Only


example


there


another


archaism,


follows


closely


first


one.


other


chivalric


speech


there


a sin-


archaic


word:


--Calla


pues
viene


esta


el boti
4sta es


duen


Sancho
senora
uscarme


car io


tenia


condesa,
s. sera


migo--
duena


dijo


Quijo


tan
ser


lueies
t


en su nimero,


cuando


sirviendo


cond


a remias


te--; q
tierras


-I -


aqueI
cuanto


esas


sirven


a empera-


trices
sirven


, que
de o


en sus


-tras


duen


casas


son


senorfsima


ccl


(II,


810)


There


one


speech


where


-des


verb


ending


only


archaism:


--A
Pues


mamo


--rep


, quiero,


licd


senor


don


Quijote--


caballero,


,t4~ ,-


tr p


voy


encant
A" a- rr ^>


en esta
.n* rTn ,


jaula,


por


tnfln r' *l


en-


In


debe


se


/- ,F.









que, a
cuantos


gin o


sofi.


en el
ejempl


los


despe


magos
stas


tempo de 1
o v dechado


caballero


seguir,
honrose


si qui


y pesar


2?; s,.a,


Etiopia,


inmor
en los
antes


sleren
armas


me sma
acmane s


ban


tal ida
yen id


poner


ara


erOs


vean


a la


envidia,


la India,
su nombre


S rva


siglos,


pc3a-cA b


done


h an


alteza


eleven


remain iii


chivalric


eche


ave


more


than


one


type


archaism.


ion


over


a thousand


word


, and


one


with


most


arch


sins


any


speech


hn


novel,


ten,


Don


Quijote


s summary,


Sancho,


life


a knight-errant


, 196-198).


archaisms


thi


58


peech


are:


fenestras


ermosas,


fabl]ar,


furto,
b---- *ii-iil n hi


tablas,


fermosa,


-papa?


t alant e


liw.e


fabi


ado.


other


cliv-


ailric


speech


group


are:


la vuestra sgan-


talante);


(talante


, desfecho);


,179


(esta


nue stra


ed acl


fecho


ficieron,


cautivo);


, 235


fermosa);
----aT'.--^i-^tN'*mi


(far6


tu merced,


cautivo


, este


cuitado


corazon);


, 43,


( fermosa,


hayades)


, 47,


(fermosas,


sado.


fecho,


habedes,


fecho)


510-511


(talante,


fecho,


desaguisado);


778-


la vuestra grandeza,
*11j i^.*i 1^i.^ i f-".** *Ji j^^ i11 c ~ ij>-iiii^f-cii--


ferido,


fierro,


ferido).
-i---S-*n* h"4-B


following


tables


show


ratio


archaic


forms


those


which


are


archaic:


Thirty chivalric spe


eches (6.7 archaic)


r C-' A
/1%


Paidr3


IJ


crid


II


aEu i








el su
Iest :.a n
este su
este su
*ing *IIIII II ng *t Iii w IIF-1.*ti- '.nw ^

non
no

vos
OS
OS


13%

76%


83%

13%
87%


Thirty-six chivalric speeches (1.0 archaic)
- -1 i.r.r^i r ^*I-^T,-,*.- **rrr 1 i .in 1-1i i 1", -jTr iii ,- 1 ^a-i1 .i--l r-x^J -- ia -ir in 'i n*i~~- -- rii.i -.^ ^


f-
h-

-ades
-alSi


34%
66%

16%
84


el su
este su
su


3
2
150


2%
1%
97%


non
no


0%
100%

0%
100%


vOS
OS


Total: Sixty-six chivalric speeches (2.1% archaic)
*i r 1 1. ,1 M ~i i- -niiiii.^ J ii a ~iH.B i .1.11 ft 1, ifi~i^,i- ,*acn1 *r^1.1 *i- i 1 a1^ i^ .^ ^ ***^ -. .^ ^ .'^ M*.* i> n1 -111- -- iii-g


f-.
h-

-ades
-als


46%
54%

26%
74%


el su
este su
su

non
no


11
9
197

5
107


5%
4%
91%

4%
96%


VO S


8/
94%




86



Number of times used by Don Quiiote
-i r ir* **>r r -i** -i *** is* iw" i-f i -w --- a- -- r-- -,r ^-^ .- _-^ .-^ ^^. ***irtiiif-- -* ^nsi.m~


acorrer
afinca.niento
/-r
al
tender
ca
fcri- -w
cautivo
desasns ado
lu lmi ssa-MJ- i al 04 J -. sasr- *Mi :,- ... uala-e-jh iurww. i ll-f i-^
fenestra
luene
mac-. er
". j n-.,n..." -i"-
maianaen aouel dia


nlegar
T6Ze

rieto (1st sing. rear
Cs-tl= --"< ^n. nf -. ^-A ^ Cl



tab>a
talante
I I :- I- .. -n -.. l ,* met


Total


Cervantes


seems


agree


with


Fjelstad


that


most


obvious


archaism


a writer


could


employ


efforts


imitate


style


novel


s of


chivalry.


Don


Quijote 's


most


chivalric


speech


only


archa-


used


those


more


time s


fre qu


ntly


when


than


speech


modern


shows


onl y


form


tr ac e s


th 2


of archa-


ism,


still


one0


used


more


frequently


than


other


arc


ha iscms


combined,


not,


this


in st


an1C E!


, more


than


modern


counterpart,


66%).


Don


Quijote


speeches,


which


most


consistent


mn.di-


cator


archaic


chivalric


style.


his







his


highly


~Xrt ti 43~.


mom cnt s


(77


I)


Don


LLL V U Ut


outdoes


model1,


~i~aftj


di?


Girie1


ere


intensely


appears


chivalric


almost


moment


ess


archaic


than


modol.


According


Lapp,


ratio


between


forms


varies


from


four


:ao ivre2 s


studied,


i~n d ir Ct


ing


that


use


this


archaism


was


indeed


very


erratic


In, Awa c i~


d~e Gu


archaic


object


pronoun


VOs


used


ab~ou-t,


time,


while


Quijot


uses


only


d lr in


his


most


e'schaac


moments


(13%)


and


only


over-


alit.


Lapp'


study


indicates


that


vos


was


.....0u].arly


ferred


over


four


other


authors


of chivalr


novels.


Though


Fjeletad


does


not


ind ic at e


relative


ft


quency


-ades
- .rI-*** *-J~',


versus


-as


Am ad Is.
-wj i.Trm ac" 11m.*J


Lapp


provide


this


ratio.


four


novel


studied,


archaic


form


never


ears


, while


used


time


one


other.


Don


Quijote


time


when


most


archaic,


when


S SO,


overall.


in terest in


observe


Ce-rvantes


states


well


author s


nove


chivalry


and


ro-


rmnanc e


"D)uena


fla bo dtes


hC onor"l


their


use


archaism


Se ems


know v;


S ir U;i.t Lj c~


tI;- Wi. Xc L


a.~c 1:, ~sn


use


how to


VS $% ;rc.


enjt,


as8 were


authors


c:









his


prede


cessors


artistic


use


an archaic


language


style .


Cervajit cs


KfCW3 v


that


readers


would


easily


recog-


nize


arena ac


style


aso c


v*i-tli


nove


chivalry


chivalr ic


poems


Romancero.


would


help


evo


heroic


world


that


was


associ


with


this


wi~as


role


chivalric


novels,


intention s


went


far


beyond


mere


evo


cati-.,


a glorious


past


placing


archaic


Lan?


guagr;e


mouth.


maci


hero


there


was


a sort


critic


2-slit


association


;vhiciiL


indeed


very


heart


nature


parody;


hn222Q


laugh


at Don


Quijote


without


also


laughncT-


least


little,


Amadis


Palmer in.


reader


soon


learns


look


this


style


used


Don


which


Quijote


mad


help


kni ght


prepare


of La


him


will


ridicule


subjected.


a major


contl


ut, or


sme 311c~ ~


expect


at ion


comic


deflation


Don


Quijote


One


example


should


scuff ic


Don.


Qu.ijote


Sancho


arrive


after


battle


with


giws


ans r


have


d for


night


'Ie


ritorne s


erE"


re oom0


Don


Quijo te


a S unRle s


14ii


~I zn zha


1?. ri 8








-- Qui
senor


slera
a. de


hall.arme


oder


con


terminos,


pagar
vuestra


tI;amana


gran


fermosa


merced


fermo sura


alta


Colmo


habed


fecho.


148)


His


comic


action


sare


reinforce


inappropriate


speech,


making


eas


for


reader


acce


and


an extent


just ify,


s subse


quent


defe


hands


mule


driver.


Cervantes


regularly


uses


this


device


connection


with


Don


Quijote


s defe


ats


Part


, but


only


once


Part


will


noted


chivalric


archai


not


automatic


tag


identification


for


chivalric


content,


there


are


many


chivalric


situations


which


huI~on


Quijote


might


expected


employ


archaism


does


not.


a look


distribution


chivalric


speech


Don


Quijote


sugge


something


fundament al


about


char-


acter


Manche gan


knight.


thirty


relatively


highly


arch


chivalric


speech


, all


one


are


found


Part


Don Qui
m


-ol


eight


total


sixty-


SIX


spee


s in


which


Don


Quijote


employs


arch


an.sms


are


locate


Part


chart


below


indicate


distribution


Don


Quijotc


s archaic


chivalric


ecnes


Part


firs


, each


represent


one


Don


jote


s thirty


most


S im ii asl. y ,




90



In the third, each "X" represents an archaism used by Don

Quijoteo


(1) X
XX X
XX X X
XX X X X X
XXXX X X XX X XX( X XX X X
1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

(2) X
XX X
XXX X X X
XXX XX X X XXX XX X X XX X X
nXXX XmXX X rcxmacOr XX XXX XXx XX XX
1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

(3) X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X X
X X
XX X
XX X X
XX X X
XX X X X X
XXX X X XX X X
XX XX XX XX X X X
XX',X X XX X X X X X X X
XXX XX X XX XXX X X X X X
XXX XX X XX XXX X X X X X








All


three


charts


inax c at e


that


Part


jote


can


divided


into


four


rather


clearly


stinguish


sub-divi

Chapters


sons:


32-41l,


(1>)


Chapters

(4) Chapt


1-10,


;rs


Chapters

Groups


11-31,


each


cover


approximately


one-fifth


Part


I of


novel,


while e


group


covers


about


two-fifths


Part


Group


first


chapters


novel,


can


divided


into


sub-groups:


Don


Quijote


s first


sally,

through


the

his


event


inn,1


adventure


with


where


merchants


dubbed


where


a knight,

Rocinante


falls


beaten,


return


home,


beginning


,sec ond


scayan ,


moe


sally,


tin


through


with


adventure


goatherds


with


Through-


thi


Quijote


So


zeal


for


adventure


battle


role


a knight-


errant


is at


a high


level.


This


reflect


speech,


as he


utters


a chivalric


speech


average


times


average


Sf


ar c ia i sis


per


chapter,


excluding


g Chapter


6 where


Don


Quijote


spends


while


friends


burn


library


o Already


first


part


this


group


has


met


with


adve


rsity


def


eat :


stonin


hand


mule


drivers


more


importantly,


failure


Rocinante


which


lead


s to


receive


s from


muleteer.


this


not


enough


daunt


D0n.


Quijote


s spir


, as he


cons


ider


him-








Thus


when


ventures


forth


on his


second


setl2 lr


there


is no


decrease


e quency


of his


chivalric


eeches


with


still


great


uses


quency,


archaism


Sees


4-.
innu


action


windmills


Ama


as gl


, and


challen


e passes


road.


Howe


ver t',


time


reach


camp


goat-


herd


Chapter


S


?fi2nilfl


group


seems


have

next


chan

two-


or to


fifths


book,


proc

for


ess


chan


nineteen


going


chapt


ers


For

, not


the

in-


cludzLng


Chapters


where


e Card enio


Dorotea


te~ i3t


their


stories


Don Quijote


is not


pre


sent,


chivalric


speeches


corme


from


Don


Quijote


significantly


redu


rate


of 1.


chapter,


number


archai


sms


minishe d


3sl.


seems


have


lost


something.


Pearl a~p


defeat


windmill


cause


ench


eTS,


ore


this


had


only


stolen


his


i ibrar


flob"


Int er~-


Lex-red


nis ear

of scene

time to


battle


and

think


battle e

pace


aga2


a


perhaps


with


when

bout


e Bi

join


was


scayan.


newly


the

cho


oss


part


Maybe


goatherd


n 'ji.


gives


career.


nge

him

this


setting


delivers


his


~mouIIs


Golden


speech,


first


Sevie


Ion


elligent


scoutrses


which


typi


himr


his


more


lucid,


ESS


chivalric,


moment


. Pe


rnaps


is as


a result


this


slowing


do wnn


pace,


ac cori-


had


ch.~








pains,


that


LA I J U U


already


begins


feel


some


d eGre


Eo if


aGesenOano


longer


hcxs


same


high


agree


en! thus iasmi


with


wh ic h


C -'0tartLeci


out.


This


as nat-


rally


ref 1.


his


spee


dee~re


aseci


frequency


with


whi~


ch he


trie


imitat


style


1cni~1vbs


novels


worst


is yet


come.


time


reached


Juan


Palomeque


COlimpan


Sance


pri


, the


barber


"Prin


cesa


Mic omi


C ~cn,,


" and


Cardenio,


Don


Quijote


tired


cone'


t inue


role.


been


through


numerous


ventures


iS


controlling


'1c-t~ion


les


be ing


control. ed


others


more


SExc


oc as


ional


out bur


creeping


enthusiasm,


disillusionment.


s be


For


unable


a space


to check


apt~e I'


32- 41,


ces


utter


a single


chivalric


speech


although


we must

spends


not

his


that

ime a


sleep


while e


three

the o


chapters


others


(35,


S CUSS


37,

the


novels


chiv alry


in general


sten


story


Curio-


ij.pertinerte
.l"M F/**** ^rw.. -' w g. 41..ai I sJdf_, l sim.f:'---*4@ **:u-*.isl imbMHrm.


captive'


tale


of advent ure.


This


rniod


res


t when


oc up i


a po


sit ion


secony


import an


low


est point


first


part


novel


Quijote.


from


somewhere


within


him,


aided


ef rest.


Don


Oui.iote


*~~4*i *1- A .


renrth


aza


in.


chi. t'~i~ry.


w


.. .








counting


dra ),


g Chapter


s able


which


rally


taken


for


story


ces


of Lean-


almost


not


early


chapters


group


inconsi


stent


unsu


ain ced3


effort


once


again


play


role


true


kni


-errant.o


Here


averages


1.0


ch4ivsa r i


speech


arch


tism


ter.


almost


seems


ver


reach


his


original


gr ee


oz enthus


aatsnism


e ver


apter,


oere


has


three


chivalric


speeches


(two


them


with


a high


percentage


archa


i sm),


as he


enters


battle


with


badly


enitent


wounded d


admit


decis


s that


ively


re aact


feat


home


rest


"dej


C)a


influx o


estreli


agora


corre"


, 515).


that

last


after


until


look


his

his


initial

arrival


another


way,


out burst


could


high


atherd


enthu


S camp,


considered


asm

Don


which

Quijote


setti


do wn


a consis


tenti


low


rate


chivalric


speech


for


res


the first


rart


novel.


Not


including


tho


chapter


which


says


nothing


all,


rema


in i.


chapters


of Part


I Don


Quijote


averages


chivalric


speeches


maci


arc


hai


per


chapter.


This


still


cates


that


s enthusiasm


quite


early


novel.


In Part


I T)on C


!uijote is


unable


r'egaz


real








deliver


a chivalric


eech


(II,


-602;


, 701


756-757;


776;


1 778- 779S,;


810


830;


II,


, 1016),


their


are


only


eleven


archa-


isms


ferido,


(fecho,


fierro,


e rmo


ferido,
*-"*- aji 'm..-'riiiiiii


sura


luenes,
l~~i~eif&h~^^^i~hf -s~t i~X


fechos


lueHe s
*e M c'*,i*1 n ,* :


,la vuestra frandeza,


jasar en


speech


that


s (an


five


average

these s


of 1.4


peeches


speech).

delivered


worth


notion


an eleven-ch


ter


segment


between


Don


(Chapters


Quijot


starting


e and


with


meeting


extending


through


ride


on Clavilefio.


Don


Quijote


averages


almost


chivalric


ter


spee


thi


ches


period,


per


chapter


about


one-half


arch


and


aisms


one-third


chap-


respectively


average s


sec


tions


Part


I where


less


than


fully


committed


knight


-errantry.


This


sugge


s that


for


a while


jote


ace


a limited


Duke


extent,


feel


once


Duch


ess


again


Don


spirit


commitment


to knight-errantry,


re informing


omewh


ambiguous


statement


Cervantes


that


on Don


Quijote'


arrival


ace


"aquel


primer


dia


todo


todo


conocid


y creyd


ser


caballero


andante


verd


adero,


no fant


stico"


(II,


762


There


, then,


some


reason


believe


that


Don


jote


a desengano-


much


e ar


lier


Part


than


gem-


erally


belie


ve d,


that


fac t


important


factor








appear


very


first


chapter


first


part


are


repeated


throughout


work.


other


word


Don


Quijote


lacks


certainty


seeks


convict on--in


lucid


moment


other


times,


moments


violent


action


cause


adust


humor,


rides


forth


meet


has


erie


my--wind-


mill


, sh


eep,


an armed


scayan-- w


without


slight


vac ill


at ion


Don


the only


char


acter


novel.


use


s archaism


imitation


novel


s of


chivalry.


Jila Lt ii


Riquer


discusses


female


character


same.


first


Dorot


wno


volunteers


play


role


a doncell


mene


ero


order


induce


Don


Qui-


jote


return


vill


confid


that


is capa-


role,


porque


ella


habia


lefdo


muchos


libro


caballeria


sabia


UbiIn


estilo


tenfan


las


doncellas


cuit


cuando


pedian


SU S


done


s a


andante s


caballeros"


, 292).


when


Quijote


Dorotea,


kneels


now


before


Prin


him


cesa


says


MitkoluA.AJ a


folio


, see


wing:


--De
zado
court


honra
mas d


aqui
cabal


esia


y prez
esconsol


visto.


no me levantare,


ero!


fasta


otorgue


valero


'rUe


un don,


vuestra


ada


y agr


straw


cual


persona


av iada


si es que


done


valor


esfor-


bond ad


redundara


en pro
ella au


vuestro


de la


fuerte


brazo


correspon


a la


voz


vues


tra


inmortal


1








levantar6,


doncell


a--


es otor


Senors-r


, sl primero
iado el don


responded 1
la vuestra


afligida
cortesia


p111. o


294)


--Pue s
vuestra


dond


e yo


0 es-


maCgin nir;aa


-dijo


persona


Ilevare


done


so venga
prometa q


a--


luego


oonmigo
se ha de


entremeter


hasta


darme


otra


ave


ntura


venganza


ni demand a


traidor


alguna
contra


todo
mi r


echo


VinoQ


y human,


tiene


usurp


elno.


295)


Later


says


vues


Don


tra:


Quijote,


sponed


tengo


vos


a today


rnas


vuestra


voluntad


j3isa


talante"


arch


aisms


are


conscious


used


intel-


ligent


late

sion

her


street


Don


on Don


"true


person


Quijote.


Quijote

story:"


in order


abl e


us inl


her


other


father,


deceive


reinforce


device


Tinacrio


man ipu-


s impre

relate


Sabidor


(the


man


of occult


chivalry)


knowledge,


foresaw


how


a stock


Pandafilando


character


Fosc


novel


sta,


scomunal


attempt


gigant

force


senor


e una


orphaned


grande


princess


insula,


marry


was


him,


that


vwo u3 i


fuere.


Her


resi


father


st him

also


"por

advise


grande

d her


saforado


"las


Espanas"


search


that


famous


Irnight


Don


Quijote


, 303).


Quite


different


case


Dona


Rodrigue




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