Alchemical forms of thought in book I of Spenser's Faerie queene

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Title:
Alchemical forms of thought in book I of Spenser's Faerie queene
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x, 329 leaves. : ; 28 cm.
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English
Creator:
Rockwood, Robert John Remington, 1938-
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Magic in literature   ( lcsh )
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 318-327.
Statement of Responsibility:
By Robert John Remington Rockwood.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

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University of Florida
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Full Text












ALCHEMICAL FORMS
SPENSER


THOUGHT IN BOOK
FAERIE QUEENE


I OF


ROBERT


JOHN


REMINGTON


ROCKWOOD


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PART
FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


COUNCIL
IAL


DEGREE


OF

OF


TTMTVTf7TTV f W


TITDTTfl























































Copyright


Robert


John


Remington
1972


Rockwood















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


First


of all


I want


to express


my appreciation


those


professors without whose


influence


this


dissertation


could


never


have been


conceived:


William L.


Halstead,


Pro-


fessor


Emeritus


of English


University


of Miami,


whose


undergraduate


course


was


first


introduced


to The


Faerie Queene;


Jack A.


Reynolds,


Professor


of English


and Medieval


introduction


Languages


University


philogy


pursue


of Miami,


subject


whose


through


eleven


languages and Medieval


dialects,


wi th


the


result


that


learned


discern


patterns,


and


to be


undaunted by


labels ;


Gordon E.


Bigelow,


Pro essor


of English


University


of Florida,


whose


graau:; te


seminarr


introduced


psychological


study


of myth,


particularly


writings


of C.


Jung,


wh ich


turn


sparked


int ere st


the


psycho logical


implications


esoteric


systems,


par-


ticularly


Medieval


William J.


and


Roscelli,


Renaissance


now


alchemy;


Professor


and,


of English


finally,

at Northern








tools


to The


Faerie


Queene,


and


whose


gracious


understand-


ing

idea


and interest

from a short


the


term


topic

paper


encouraged


me to expand


present


the


proportions.


very


special


thanks


must


to the


chairman


doctoral


committee,


Robert


Bryan.


Even


though,


Vice


President


Academic


Affairs,


one


busi-


est


men


University


Florida,


was


always


immedi-


ately


accessible


and


ready


to provide


discerning


advice


and


encouragement.


enthusiastic


sponsorship


this


project


has


made


itself


felt


in many


ways;


but


his


zeal


obtaining


funds


to build


the


University


of Florida


s microfilm


collection


alchemica 1


pursue


this


literature


research.


I also


what


made


want


possible


thank


Gordon


Bigelow


and


. Melvin


Valk


serving


second


and


third


members


committee.


would


like


to commend


staff


University


Florida


Research


Library


their


skill


obtaining


the


obscure


books


and


microfilms


which


were


so essential


this


study.


thanks


also


to Dr. Dewey


Faulkner


at Yale


University,


who


went


to considerable


trouble


to have


some


rare


books


microfilmed


and


typist,


Mrs.


Nancy


McDavii d.


wh nsF


nma i^ nr'p


has


hs~n


pyfrlpnri rll: 1 -


hnrt


n ni-


Tast















PREFACE


was


in pursuance


an interest


which


time


seemed


totally


unrelated


to S


penser


s poem,


The


Faerie


Queene,


that


happened


to be


looking


through


a microfilm


the


"Rosarium


Philo


sophorum,


an important


alchemic


trea-


tise


whi


is contain


d in


Artis


Aurif


erae


, a compilation


first


public


shed


in 1550


-170


Vol.


II of


1610


edition


was


stru


ck by


following:


Fac de
extrahe


masculo


foemina


quadrangulum,


circ


ulum


quadrangulo


rotundum,


& de


triangulum:


circ


ulum


rotundum


habebis


lapidem


Philo


sophorum.


Thi


s statement,


expressed


terms


symbolism


circle


, square,


and


triangle


, is


a description


Philo-


sopher


Stone.


had


feeling


that


had


seen


be-


fore--but


where


Then


it dawned


on me:


was


"arith-


metical


stanza"


Book


Il of


The Faeri


Queene!


The


And


frame


part


Those


thereof


seemed


triangulare
the first


partly
0 work


and


circulare,
diuine:


ast porportions


are,


The


one


Th'other


imperf


ect,


mortall,


immortal,


ect


foeminine;
, masculine


And


twixt


them


both


a quadra


was


base


Proportioned


Nine


was


equally
circle


seen


set


in h


and


eauens


nine


place


All


which


compac


made


a goodly


diapase


* r -









lock


allegory


Faerie


Queene?


This


dissertation


answer


that


question.


Concerning


canto


summaries


and


extended


quotations


from


The


Faeri


Queene,


a word


of explanation


order.


This


a difficult


poem:


have


sought


to provide


reader


with


sufficient


connected


text


to permit


him


ex-


perience


a context


poem


larger


on its


than


own


that


terms,


as well


supplied


to provide


short,


unconnec-


ted


passages


quoted


commentary.


This


intended


strictly


as a convenience


reader.


In itself,


commentary


is complete


and


adequate.


All


citations


are


from


The


Works


Edmund


Spenser


A Variorum


Edition,


Edwin


Greenlaw


et al.


(Baltimore,


1958),


Vol.
















TABLE


OF CONTENTS


Page


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


PREFACE


ABSTRACT


Viii.


PART


CHAPTER


CRITICAL


INTRODUCTION


a a a a a 2


NOTES


S . . . . 18


ESOTERIC


ALCHEMY


SUBJECTIVE


PSYCHOTHERAPY


NOTES


SPENSER


AND


THE


ESOTERIC


TRADITION.


NOTES


PART


AN ALCHEMICAL


INTERPRETATION


OF THE


FAERIE


QUEENE


a a a a . a a 97


NOTES


CONCLUSION.


N(YPFI -


- - -. - jun








Abstract


the


of Dissertation


University


Presented


of Florida


Graduate


in Partial


Council


Fulfillment


the


Requirements


the


Degree


Doctor


of Philosophy


ALCHEMICAL


FORMS


OF THOUGHT


IN BOOK


SPENSER


S FAERIE


QUEENE


Robert


John


Remington


Rockwood


December,


1972


Chairman:


Major


Robert


Department:


.. Bryan
English


Recent


trends


in scholarship


provide


justification


regarding


The


Faerie


Queene


an esoteric


"magical"


poem,


requiring


"specifically


Renaissance


understanding


mysteries.


Hermetic


This


mysteries,


dissertation


especially


demonstrates


Renaissance


that


esoteric


alchemy,


provide


organic


zing


principle


Book


l of


Fae


Queene.


Esoteric


symbolic


alchemy


was


procedure


a spiritual


which


"base


discipline,


metal,


a mystical


" i.e.


natural


man


raw


material


provide


ed by


Nature)


can


transmuted


into


"philosophical


gold,


i.e.


true


gentleman.


those


able


to understand


the


arcane


symbolism


pro-


vided


a psychological


vocabulary


less


precise


than


that


modern


depth


psychology


set


forth


writings


Jung.


After


examining


esoteric


tradition


within








Spenser


and


his


circle


of friends


and


associates,


a sy


tematic


alchemical


interpretation


(with


a corre


spending


psychological


analysis


of Book


I of


The


Faerie


Queene


presented.


Alchemical


theory


is concerned


with


what


we would


describe


separ


action


and


synthesis


psychic


oppo-


sites.


Thus


Book


initial


opp


osites


are


Red


crosse


alchemical


Sol,


symbolizing


the


mas


culine


conscious,


and


Una,


alchemical


Luna,


symbolizing


feminine


uncon-


SC1OUS


mal


psyche.


entire


unconscious


(per-


sonal


and


collective)


symbolized


hermaphroditic


Mercurius,


who


can


separated


into


opposites


and


analy


according


alchemical


axiom


of Maria


Propheti


ssa


(Una)


becomes


two


(Duessa);


two


becomes


three


(Archi-


mago);


and


out


the


third


comes


one


fourth


(Arthur).


Una


and


Duessa


are


respectively


light


and


the


dark


feminine


aspects


of Mercurius,


Arthur


and


Archimago


the


light


dark


masculine


aspects.


Following


"spiritual


est"


or my


sterium


coniunctionis


(Redcro


sse


and


Luna


essa


comes


synth


esis


(appear-


ance


Arthur)


and


final


consolidation


(House


Holiness


and


betrothal


to Una).


The


opus


alchymicum


pro-


esses


from


the


defeat


wing


ess


, chthonic,


feminine,


phy


dragon


(Canto


viL


tory


over


opposite,


.I-1~a V.-. t. -a -~ a n a 1 a -j -~ - I t, a


. ~.'/. .--


vrT%


st,


,1


r.r


rw,


rrl







Thus


this


study


seeks


to demonstrate


that


critical


problems


which


have


beset


The


Faeri


Queene


over


.350


years


are


the


result


of a mi


sunder


standing


organizing


principle


poem.


It shows


that


Book


refl


ects


chemical


forms


thought


and


maintains


that


esoteric


chemy


provides


a key


that


unlocks


allegory.


demonstrating


that


eso


teric


alchemy


served


a psycho-


therapeutic


disci


pline,


this


study


shows


how


a work


like


The


Faeri


eene


could


actually


used


to effect


the


psychological


transformation


"clownishe


young


man"


into


a perfected


Saint


George


England.























PART I















CHAPTER


CRITICAL


INTRODUCTION


It is


not


without


gnificance


that


after


nearly


four


centuries


Spenserian


scholarship,


a recent


critic,


Rosemary


Freeman,


should


following


que


stion:


What


was


substance


impul


which


form,


rec


gave
ognis


The
abl


Faeri


at all


Queene
stages


poem


of inte
during?


but


rpretation
1


Freeman


did


respon


upon


not


sible
which


find


problems


criticism


an answer,


keeps


but


foun-


to her


credit t


that


recognized


that


there


a unifying


impulse.


Kathleen


Williams


points


out


that


Spenser


used


to be


re-


garded


once


much


and


little


an arti


over-elaborate


in descriptive


detail


but


artl


ess


in cre-


ation.


From


War ton,


one


the


ear


commentators,


who


catalogued


what


considered


faults


and


inconsi


sten-


cies


reasons


the

for


poem,

the s


to Josephine


,o-called


Waters


inconsis


Bennett,


tencies


who


showing


finds

that


Spenser


"plans


changed"


while


was


writing


the


poem,


critical


approach


been


at 1


east


implicitly


nega-


tive.


The


mounting


impatience


with


traditional


readings


... -- ,


a- i


n


ri


* I


-m


1^_









meaningless.


approach,


Influenced


Hamilton


Northrop


attempted


Frye


s archetypal


to establish


an en-


tirely


new


basi


interpretation:


own


Queene


approach
involves


a simple


allegory o
e vet radi


The


Faerie


re-


orientation.


image


hidden
[Spens


this


itse


behind


study


rather
image.


labours


conc


reve


revea


than
.. I
al hi


shall
seek t
assume


focus


upon


idea


that


meaning,


not


as clearly


matter


Further,


rather


form


what


than


is to focus
depth.7


egory


labours


moral
upon


eas


lite


will


ress


y approach
level in i


allow.


an image
then,


treating


The


Faeri


Queene


though


were


no more


than


a folk


or myth,


Hamilton


does


not,


course,


pro-


vide


a complete


account


of Spenser


s poem;


but


emphasizing


previously


over


looked


autonomous,


arc


hetypal


aspec


he does


lend


strong


credence


idea


that


"the


fault


not


poem


but


in course


lves


in our


reading,


significant


step


forward


very


least


Hamilton


"radical


re-orientation"


offers


eloquent


testimony


extraordinary


depths


despair


into


which


Spenserian


crit-


icism


had


fallen


beginning


1960


Characters


new


attitude


toward


poem


William


Nel


son


advi


that


reader


hav


"faith


book


itself


and


guiding


signs


within


it":


faith


the book


mean


a disposition


to be


lieve


that
- -.


whatever


the his


tory


composition


-1


may


-~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ -r .2 -.h. --- ---- -- ..


A


L,,, Lt


J


L, h..


- i


L









but,


like


Spenser


s other


poems,


a carefully


considered


than


And


that
both


fable


faith


Spen


ser


text


composition


in which


central


its signs, I
announcements


itself


and


theme,


structural


mean


his
the


rather
element.


belief


intention,
letter ad-'


to Sir


to the fir


Walter


st edition,


Ralegh


are


which


designed


was
to


appended
give


"gre
lead


ese


at light


him.


to the Reader"


It would


affirmations


of interpreters
by denying them.


hardly


were
The


rather


neces


than
sary


not


Faerie


Queene


mis-


to make
number


who


begin


Apparently


the


first


time


critics


have


begun


take


Spenser


at his


word.


Indeed,


he himself


fully


anticipated


problems


interpretation


that


have


beset


poem.


The


proem


to Book


is quite


specific:


Right


well


wote


mighty


Soueraine,


That al
Of some


this


famous


th'aboundance


antique history,
of an idle braine


Will


iudged


painted


forgery,


Rather


than


matter


lust


memory,


Sith


none,


that


breatheth


living


aire,


does


know,


ere


Which


But


vouch


that happy
so much do


antiquities


land
vaunt,


, which


of Faery,
vet no where


no body


can


show,
know.


(II,


Proem,


Spenser


advises


reader


look


certaine


signes":


Faerie


lond


more


inquire,


certain


signes


ere


set


in sundry


place


may


it find ;


let him


then admire,


But


That


yield
note


sence


without


to be


an hound


blunt


fine


and


footing


bace


trace.


(II,


Proem,


But


task


facing


reader


Spenser


a dif-


I; rlii 4


nfl


a r ~rr


3, Sc


hora


esse


r~


nt ~r~lt


or


rrr


O


I r


1n









Spenser

or darke


says


in his


conceit,


letter


" and


to Raleigh, a


"clowdily


enwrappe


"continued Allegory,

ed in Allegorical


deuises,


" is


that


The


Faerie Queene


an elitist


poem not


intended


the


uninitiated.


This


idea


is borne out by


following


lines


from


dedicatory


sonnet


to Lord


Burleigh:


Vnfitly


thes


ydle


rimes


present,


The
Yet
And


Their


Perhaps


labor


their


lost


deeper


dim vele,


fairer


not


parts
vaine


time,


wit


sence


with
are


which


hid


ey may


vns


tayd:


inly wayd,
from comune


aside
appear


vew


layd,
you.


(11.


7-12)


Lately we

in Spenser


have witnessed

ian scholarship


one


since


the most


important


Variorum.


events


refer


publication of


Kent


HiIeatt's


discovery


tricate


numerological


symbolism


Epi thalamion.


The


shock


occasioned by


this


revelation


was


sufficient


sug-


gest


at least


some


scholars


that.


the other


Spenserian


p~o ers


were


probably


also


concea


ling


complex and


unsuspected


symbolism.


Most recently


all,


scholars


have


begun


an extensive


reexamination of


purpose


function of


Renaissance


allegory


stand


generally.


the operation


Murrin


allegorical


pointed


rhetoric


out


such


tha t


as one


under-


finds


The


Faerie Queene,


necessary


to have


knowledge of









are


explored


Don


Cameron


Allen


in Mysteriously


Meant:


The


Rediscovery


of Pagan


Symbolism


Allegorical


Interpretation


Renaissancel4;


and


Angus


Fletcher


The


Prophetic


Moment


An E


ssay


on Spenser.


Frances


Yates


' investiga-


tions


Renaissance


Hermetism


and


conce


"mind


speech"


"artificial


memory"16


have


made


it possible


for


see


that


even


Spenser


s insi


stence


that


poem


not


"painted


forgery,


" but


"matter


lust


memory,


" carri


ecise


spec


ific


meaning


the


context


"Renai


ssance


ers


"mind


standing


speech"


what


mys


series


we would


In other


term


words


hermetic


language


un-


conscious,


expressed


dreams


"active


imagination"17


personal


level,


myth


and


folklore


collective


evel,


and,


an originally


autonomous


product


the


psyche,


does


sometimes


involve


"spontaneous


statements


the


that


unconscious


since


about


prophetic


itself.


poet


s obvious,


is working


however,


context


mystery


tradition


which


provides


him


with


a ready-made


sym-


bolic


vocabulary,


as well


, presumably,


unders


standing


series


" hi


poetry


should


not


be regarded


nai


creation.


In order


to communicate


suprarational,


poet


consciously


makes


use


of natural


or organic


symbols


tuations--i


.e.


those


discovered


unconscious


rather


than


consciously


invented--


and


thus


to make










say,


therefore,


that


aspects


a poem in


pro-


phetic mode


cannot be


attributed


conscious


invention


alone.


Since


unconscious


cannot


lie,


poet,


con-


sciously


using


language


unconscious,


will make


poem serve


a vehicle of


"divine


truth.


The


allegory


a work


like


The


Faerie


Queene,


which


based on


"insight


symbolism"


rather


than


"symbolism of


arbitrary-association


type"


which,


Helen Flanders


Dunbar


pointed


out


some


years


ago,


is what


allegory


today


tradi-


tionally


understood


to be,


a prime


example


of what


Renaissance would


have


regarded


as magic.


This


clear


from


the work


scholars


such


Walker,


Charles


Nauert,


Jr.,


and


especi


ally


Eugenio Garin,


who


have


examined


psychological


aspects


Renaissance magic.


In--


deed,


because of


unconscious,


occult


affects


were


i.e.


"hidden")


considCred


nature


preeminently


"magical.


Spenser


s "ruatter


eternal


lust


drama


that


memory"


takes


therefore


ace


a reenactment


psyche


realm of


non-ego


I C-


part


symbolism associated


with


"process


individual ion.


Spenser


s Fairyland


as Mr.


Fletcher


points


out


in Allegory:


The


Theory


Symbolic Mode,


"spirit


world"


where


are


engaged


"fated


actions"


which


are


characterized by


"real


lack


freedom.


" 26


This


~~th;


1 "a


events


and


nba r ran~ T Sr


LCI ;IC) Y


I _


.









Recent criticism has


that


increasingly


the only way The Faerie Queene makes


accepted


sense


fact


is psycho-


logically.


cular


"Influences"


archetype will


will


determine what form a


take when constellated,


but


parti-

the work


is prophetic,


it is


psyche


itself,


an autonomous


agent,


which will


establish


the


fundamental


relationships.


John ErskineHankins points


out


that


these days of psycho-


logical


study...


are


perhaps better


fitted


understand


The Faerie Queene


than were


the people of


any


other period


since


Spenser wrote


Pauline Parker


has observed


that


"the whole


action of


books


and all


land


of faerie


with its


forests,


castle


and


seashores,


exist in Arthur's


soul,


and


there only.


Fletcher,


in his


brilliant dis-


cussion of


psychological


allegory,


analyzes


process


thus:


A systematically
a large number o


complicated


character will


f other protagonists,


who


generate


react


against or with him in


a syllogistic manner.


"generate"


Spenser
them.


because


and Bunyan


They


are


seem


those


the heros
to create


people


in Dante and
the worlds


in real


about


life who


"project,


those


" ascribing


they meet and


fictitious
live with.


personalities
By analyzing


the


projections,


we determine what


is going


on in


mind
same


the highly


token,


imaginative


the reader wants


projector.
a sketch


character


Redcrosse


in Spenser,


lists


series


adventures


and


tests


undergone by


Redcros


not


so much


for the


pleasure of


seeing


how


Redcrosse


reacts


in each


case,


see


literally


what


aspects


hero


have been displaced by


the poet.
brothers;


Redcrosse
Sir Guyon


imagines


Sans


Foy


and his


imagines Mammon and his


cave;


-I. n w -*


-nl, *l~ ,~ Yflfl flfl.


L'lr


*I


II~ n nrn ~m~n Innn








Psychological


allegory


therefore


an autonomous


product


nature


par


excellence,


language


the


dream

have


world,

remarked


the realm

that The


non-ego.


Faeri


Queene


Many


has


commentators


a dream-like


quality


Graham


Hough


points


out


that


thi


s is


what


accounts


fact


that


a reader


can


enjoy


poem


with-


out


actually


under


standing


...the


organic


ramifications
encountering


zation


hard


poem


[the


poem]


follow.
is one


Yet


is puzz


our


ling,
eling


familiarity.


the


These


stories


that


interrupted


go
and


begin


and


on in an order


space--


they


inexplicably,


resumed,


fade


apparently


only


sturb


into


not
each


emancipated


a reader


end,
other


from


are
and


time


s satisfac-


tion,


iI


outside


Church's


them


actual


undisturbed


we have


exp


and
met


phrase


subject
erience


quite
such


when


them


at horn


begins


to external


reading
e. This


experiences


to stand
criticism.


feels


is b


quite


because


before--in


dreams.


The


of a


organization
31


U'.


teall.


The


Faerie


Queene


like


that


From


this


insight


everything


else


follows.


If it


true


that


The Faerie


Queene


is organized


like


a dream


(and


think


stand


then


structure


this


we have


to under


and


stand


dynamics


no choice


poem


the


but


we must


unconscious


turn


to depth


under-


mind;


psycho-


logy.


Pauline


Parker


right


track


when


she


ob-


serves


Depth


psychology


poe


seems
and b


conce


rute


mind
rned


strength


0 1i fl lhll lr


might be
illustrate


give a
rather


intere


sted


combat.


n impression


than
mI^ n,


skill,
nrnna^ Tj


in examining
Though he


of
his


violence
imagery


''C. frl1 4-


, mnar r el n


Irn~


C:


r










fighting,


bill...
group co
contests


falcon


these
ncerns


are


swooping
frequent


itself


winds


to death


comparisons


with elemental
waters.32


on a heron


second
, the


forces


What


Miss


Parker


describes


as an


"impersonal"


struggle,


, in effect,


process


which


the


personality


achi


eves


individuation,


a pro


cess


that


goes


on in


the


unr-


conscious,


symbolically


represents


spiritual


growth


the


individual.


Hough


is quite


accurate


when


states


that


can


compare


The


Faeri


Queene


a page


medi


eval


illumination,


which


exhibits


a harmonious


texture,


bright


and


delicate


detail


everywhere,


many


individual


mini


atures


which


mus


t be


looked


at separately--but


very


striking


general


sign.


It i


exactly


these


terms


that


individuation


process


has


been


described:


...our
which


dream


life


individual


creates
strands


a meandering
or tendencies


pattern
become


sibl


then


vanish,


then


return


again.


one


watches


time,


this


one


meand


can


ering


serve


design
a sort


over


a long
hidden


period
regulating


or dire


imp
of


erce


acting
ptible


tendency
process


individuation.


at work,


of psychic


creating


growth-


a slow,


-the


process


36*


In order


avoid


committing


what


appears


to be


obvious


critical


error


of applying


twentieth-century


psycho-


logy


to a si


xteenth-century


poem,


some


scholars


have


tried


to account


Spenser


accurate


depiction


subtle


and


sophis


ticated


psychological


relationships


examining


--1- -I-


IIn'I" -1. i.


.1' i' _'II


t ,,


11


1^. -









The


journey


Redcrosse knight,


considered


solely


anything


from


this


that


sixteenth-century


as has


been said,


developmental


point of view,
be discovered
"psychological


has


or dynamic


attained no


aspects


far transcends
in contemporary


writing,
insight


which,


into


the mind.


the
The


eas
of


e


and consistency with which many of


the Faerie Queene can be described


events


terms of


present-day psychologies


indicate a minute aware-


ness


on Spenser's


part of


the


interaction between


thought


feeling,


literature


which no


amount


"faculties


study
soul"


of
could


have imparted


to him.


The


problem seems


to be


that


the concept of


"Elizabethan


psychology"


which


scholars


such


as Ruth L.


Anderson have


tried

Turner


apply


Forest h


to Shakespeare's

as pointed out,


plays,

"rather


as Louise C.


the creation of


our


own minds


than


a resurrection


a sixteenth-century


reality.


Obviously what


is to produce
psychological
that seem to


sustain
the rest
are thus


the modern


a latter-day


lore by putting


fit,


choosing


they


structure


Their


systems


constructions,


expositors


synthesis


have done


of Elizabethan


together passages


only those


erect,


that will


and discarding


of Elizabethan
not discoveries.


pychology


Lawrence Babb,


in his


survey


of Elizabethan


psychological


literature,


observed


that


these works do


have one


simi-


larity:


they


are


"scholarly


treatises written


for


ethical


purpose.


Thus one of


source


studies


that


contributes


a better understanding


allegory


Spenser's


poem


finds


influence not among


the obvious


"psychological"


treatises--such


those of


Rogers,


Wright,


Walkington,


Charron,


Coeffeteau,


Burton,


Reynolds, Bright,









In several


discussions


Elizabethan


psycho-


logy


there


, however,


passing


mention


perhaps


one


source


of consistent


psy


chological


theory:


the


bri


Middle


doctrines


Their


ef handbooks


Ages


one


of Plato


compilers


were


can


and
fin


Ari


philo


epitomes
d the Ds


stotle
sophers


A.


inherited
ychological


neatly
rather


stem


than


from


ized.
sci-


entific


servers


were


content


to di


regard


differ


ences


opinion


in the interests


uniformity.


If a single


Eli


zabethan


psyc


hology


sought a
in these


a consistent


medi


eval


entity,


handbooks


and


can


epitomes


found
42


only


Mrs.


Forest


is even


more


specific:


Hippo


crates


, Plato,


Aris


total


, Ficino,


Plutarch,


eneca,


and


their


Averroes


Parace


sus


writings


, Aquinas
frequently
s though


Hermes
jostle


they


Avi


one


were


cenna,


Galen


another


one


mind.


The


few


more


self


-consistent writ


ers


are


so,usually,


simply
system,
or the


because
as do


Neo


some


-Platoni


y Keep
of at
sts.


more


exc


Hermetical


sively


phys


one


icians,


Since


Hermetic


philosophers


were


Neo


-Platoni


sts,


st i


Hermeticism,


ess


Maurice


diverse


Evans


than


seems.


suggests


Concerning


that


"interesting


and


no means


irrelevant


to speculate


" whether


penser


may


have


been


influenced


is conce


ivabl


that


with


immense


powers


syncretising


thing
cosm


else


of his


drew


upon


a necess


poem.


Some


ary


asp


Hermeticism


part


ects


s upon
total


of Hermeti


cism


every
micro-


cer-


tainly


tran


scend


religious


Renaissance


final


source


the di
sects.


to him,
scords


was


religion,


from


whi


in particular


jarring
the most


since


ch all


religion


syncretic


it claimed
subsequent


claim
s and


form


to be


orig-


religions


sprang,


pagan


or Chri


stian


alike,


and


The


Fae


-- I


---










influences


granted.


...the


Hermetic


style


of prophecy


sums


influence of


prophetic


tendencies within


epic....the


vides


sity
the


Hermetic


a measure of


Only


mode of


style


by wanting


poet achieve


through his
achieves in


truly


absolute


a manner


thought


visionary


go beyond meaning


1.;e


control
we may


vision,


of number,


loosely


pro-


inten-


can


which,


Spenser
Hermetic.


call


Miss


Yates


observed


that


word


"Hermetic "


may


serve


a generic


term


kinds


of occult


practices,


can be


used more


particularly


alchemy,


usually


thought


Hermetic


science


par excellence.


It is


hardly


surprising,


therefore,


that


astute


a critic


as Northrop


Frye,


a brief


discussion


Book


The


Faeri


Queene,


should


see


a parallel


with


alchemy:


The


risen


body,


white
flesh


s~lrrI
syn


olize
blood,


aspects


bread


and


wine,


and


Spenser


union


they


of red a
church.


sexual


indicated


have


historical


white


The


roses


link between


aspects


connection


with


reigning


sac


and white


in alchemy,


wi b


whi ch


head


ramental
symbolism


nser was


clearly ac
production


union


quainted,


of
of


the
the


in sihic


elixir of


a crucial


immor


with


tality


the whit


phase
is k


known


Queen.


particularly


sigxii-'icii1


that


alchemy,


Rudolf


Bernoulli


religions


a consistent


pointed


out,


Hermetic


psychological


"continuation


science,


the mystery


provides


approach


poem.


basis

It also


brings


us back


to Mr.


NMurrin s


contention


that


an under-


n3 1 C an t Vr


rm'i _


t~1-nnA nn ri La nr n C-l Cl VN n'1C f ,n r 'C %,'t~nn


-s^ /


n


.*


r~3n~; nn nF


Il,' A sll Il r~ h n R ir


nr n


T- n r









Spenserian


scholarship


tendency


some


critics


deny


validity


these


relationships


even


when


their


good


judgment


recogni


zes


that


patterns


exist.


A typical


example


. F.


Kermode


s comparison


Book


I of


The


Faerie


Queene


with


Lawrence


s Lady


Chatterl


s Lover,


which


which


say


also


"the


comments


only


upon


modern


the


state


work


fiction


nation


known


terms


Apocalypse.


Since


Lawrence


was


deeply


inte


res


occult


Hermetic


interpretations


Scripture,


comparison


with


Spenser


very


apt.


Though


can


shown


that


Spenser


and


Lawrence


make


similar


use


calyptic


images

"revea


lingly


Kermode contends

different way"


that

from


Lawrence

Spenser.


uses


them


Because


in a

. Kermode


brings


ether


some


valuable


information,


shall


quote


length:


[Lawrence


eve


the early


1920


, a new


inter


est


In 1924


wrote


oCC


ult


some


meaning
articles


of Reve


lation....


about


spec
The
such


inter


Plumed S
matters


est i
rpent


n apoc


alyptic


26).


symbolism


was


the relation


much


colours


taken


the zodiac


with


the


Great


Year,


in the Sky,


and


heav


which


enly


a plan


macrocosm,


etary


version


Man
the


seven


seal


consciousness


or sequence


of ganglia....


early as 192
sympathetic


responding
stands for


st and


was


ganglia


voluntary


saying


and


ganglia


secret


last'


the
' of


and


Revelation


that


vials


which


the
was


Seal


'the


mos


s are


cor-


Sagittarius


t potent..


, when


you


got


down


to the real My


ssional


know


edge


ery ritual,
Eventually


a guide t
Lawrence


'emotional


gav


theme


full


treatment


in Apo


calyp


se.


...[Following]


~


I


__ __


~









he held,


were


consciousness


clima


ctic


seven


The
sev


old


centres
Adam d


enth


or gates


ies


also


in seven
reborn.


'dynamic
stages;
Lawrence


develops
opening


...clothed


point
and,


finally


initiate


ecstatic


ass
are
in


ociation


very


this


the
anew


idea


last
' in


eternal


, this


from
The


with


close.


the novel


London,


terms


seal
Hades


self


moment


the godd
parallels


Mellors


ere


(the


out


significant


from
cess
like
seven


predec


rep
the
nth


resents
postula
stage.


are


eighth
series


sode


essors


initiation


is compared


'Then
a man


final


emerges


related


ess


temple,


between


ELady


Opening


seven...


occurs


this
. .the


the mystic


of
di


the Mys
es into


sexual


during


daz


ritual
stark


: the
flame


flame-


from


hell';


emergence
ed and


Chatterley'
of the Seal


encounters


a bri


seventh


encounter


sev


enth


scent
teries
life,


IS..


reunion
. 'the


is different


stage


into
, mus
is i


the


Hades


t di


initiated.


pro-


Connie,


this
The


Mysteries


, we remember


, repres


ented


this


rebirth


sexual
Dragon
reduces


act.


modern


the human


modern


Logos


Dragon, the
, as Lawrence


consciousness


dirty-white


call


nervous


which


system


a condition


death,


is def


heated.


Connie


, whom


vulgar
clothed


may c
with


all


et Woman,


s really


the


Woman


Sun.


Kermode


warns


that


approach


The


Faeri


Queene


way


would


"destroy


texture


then


cites


Lawrence


statement


beginning


Apocalypse


that


though

Queene,


a young


had


man


to gulp


almost


at hi


loved


s allegory,


Spenser

" and


Faeri


makes


following


observation:


This


sure


very
that


little


to do with


Lawrence


studio


Spen


ser;


but


The Faerie


we may
Queene


in detail


that


which


Christi
valuabi


it would
he used


have been by s
on Revelation,


imperial


stery


beneath


sophisti
h.52


;ome


method


a pee
*


cations


ling


akin
away


to reach


to
of
the


What


ironic


about


this


that


Lawrence


miaht


well


have


*


.


V-


J-


-









allowed


himself


to be blinded


prejudi


ces


conf


esses


that


am here


concerned


with


what


I consider


to be


shabbi


est aspect


Lawrence


s mind,


dark


side,


and


assures


that


penser,


the


other


hand,


"shared


offi


cial


horror


sects


suspect


libertinism.


Point-


out


that


"the


warrior


faithfull


true


' means


more


enser


than


Lawrence


could


conceive,


Kermode


makes


eloquent


but


ironi


plea


"better


under


standing"


The


Faerie


Queene:


nee


confid


a better


ent


under


humanity,


standing of
the methods


sober


whi


ch S


and
pen


ser


provide
present
double


contexts


meaning.
effort--we


in which


Such
must


an unde


study


arch


etypes


standing


causes


find


requires


Spen


ser


exc


sion


from


our


serious


reading


as well


texts
Since


and


contexts


have


attitudes


of The Fa


used Lawr


ence


deplore,


may


erie


eene


typic
well


self.


1 of beli
end with


one


sentence


in Ap


oca


ypse


which


my argument


endorses


'The


Apo


calypse


still


a book


conjure


with.


Perhap
to be


s the spirit
called.35


enser


will


one


day


cons


ent


Kermode


followed


own


advice


, he


would


have


covered


that


enser


did


inde


ed make


use


"beliefs


and


attitudes


similar


those


Lawrence.


They


were


found


species


The


the


Hermetism


purpose


question


this


quoted


known

study


as Renaissance


to provide


beginning


alchemy.

an answer


chapter


concern-


"impulse


" that


gave


penser


s poem


"sub


stance


and


form.


" I


shall


demonstrate


that


the


organizing


principle









Renaissance


esoteric


alchemy.


shall


show


that


esoteric


alchemy


was


a spiritual


discipline,


a kind


subjective


psychotherapy


which,


those


able


to unravel


arcane


symbolism,


provided


a psychological


vocabulary


no less


than


that


modern


depth


psychology.


And


finally,


after


examining


esoteric


tradition


within


Elizabethan


cultural


milieu,


particularly


impinges


on Spenser


circle


associates


shall


sent


a sys


tematic


alchemical


interpre-


station


(with


corresponding


psychological


analysis


of Book


Faerie


Queene.


While


practical


approach


advantages


taken


will,


this


think,


study


unorthodox,


speak


themselves.


Not


only


am I


able


to suggest


plausible


solutions


to critical


problems


which


have


been


regarded


previously


insoluble,


but


showing


that


alchemy


served


as a psychotherapeutic


discipline,


am able


to explain


how


a work


like


The


Faerie


Queene


could


function


as a


"magical"


poem,


capable


effect-


psychological


trans formation


a clown


into


gentleman.


long


Full


overdue:


appr


eciation


think


time


Spenser


s masterpiece


to destroy


dragon,


restore


kingdom


vitality.














NOTES


Rosemary


Freeman,


The Faerie


Queene


A Companion


Readers


(Berkeley,


1970),


2th


Williams,


Spenser


s World


Glass


(Berkeley,


1966),


3The


Work s


of Edmund


penser


A Variorum


Edition,


Edwin


Gree


citations
4


nlaw
from


Josephine


et al.


this


altimore,


1932


, 366-


369.


All


edition.


Waters


Bennett,


Evolution


"The


Faeri


Queene"


(New


York,


1960).


Original


edition, 1942.


Hamilton,


The Structure


of Alleqory


The:


Faeri


eene


(Oxford,


1961),


8-9.


Northrop
1957).


Frye,


The


Anatomy


Criticism


(Princeton,


Hamilton,


An unfortunate


aspec


t of


Hamilton


misconc


ago


s approach


option


1936-


or serious


that


-that


issues


that


. Lewis


"not
coh


one


or even


tacitly
sought
to look


erence


confirms
to dispel


vigorous


sanity


and


the


as long


thought


his


pen


ser"


(_The


Allegory


of Love


(New


York,


1958),


318.


Hamilton,


9
William


Nel


son,


The


Poetry


of Edmund


Spenser


(New


York, 1965),


116.


Michael


Murrin,


The Veil


of Allegory


Some


Notes


Toward


a Th


eory


of Allegorical


Rhetoric


the English


Renaissance


(Chicago,


1969).


a







Yet despite this,


one of


Spenser's most recent


critics,


Maurice Evans


(Spenser's Anatomy


of Heroism


(Cambridge,


1970)),


is content


to describe The


Faerie


Queene


esoteric
using a


"not a


literary


learned


poem demanding


sources but a


limited range of materials


relatively


in a


a knowledge of


popular one


complex but self-


defining way"


58).


In fairness


to Mr.


Evans,


whose


book
poem,


regard
let me


an otherwise useful


point


out


that he has


commentary


said


quite


on the


opposite


few pages


earlier


(pp.


48-49)


times,


indeed,


Spenser
modern


appears


Spenserean


to be encouraging the very thing which


criticism cites as


the chief heresy.


We are warned against treating the


difficult


the


poem is


code to


full


be cracked;
of enigmatic


poem


and yet


seems


images whose main


it were a
to me that


purpose


tease


the


reader


into thought.


Alastair


Fowler


has made a


rather unconvincing


attempt


in Spenser


and


the Numbers


of Time


(New York,


1964)


apply


a numerological


scheme


to The


Faerie Queene


similar


that which Mr.


Hieatt applied


so success


sfully to


the


Epithalamion.


Fowler's


information not available


study


elsewhere,


contains much


but,


in my


valuable
opinion,


conclusions


need


further


study.


Murrin,


Don


Cameron Allen,


Mysteriously


Meant:


The


Rediscovery


Paqan Symbolism and Allegorical' Interpretation


the


Renaissance


(Baltimore,


1970).


Angus


Fletcher,


The


Prophetic Moment:


An Essay on


Spenser


(Chicago,


1971).


Frances A.


Giordano Bruno and


Yates,


The Art of Memory


the Hermetic Tradition


(London,
(London,


1966),
1964);


"The Hermetic Tradition


in Renaissance


Science,


" Art,


Scien


and History in


the Renaissance,


Charles


Singleton


(Baltimore,


1967),


255-274;


Theatre of


the


World


(Chicago,


1969).


17C.
C.


Jung,


Mysterium Coniunctionis,


The


Collected Works


of C.


Jung,


Vol.


XIV


(New York,


1970),








symbolic


the


same


general


way


the


dynamics


the


psyche.


But


in the


dream


the


forms


are


quirked


the


peculiar


troubles


dreamer,


where


eas


in myth


the


problems


and


solutions


shown


are


directly


valid


all


mankind.


19C.


Jung,


Alchemical


Studi


, The


Collected


Works


Jung,


Vol.


XIII


(New


York,


1967),


194.


20This


cone


autonomy


in artistic


creation


(i.e.


eve


meaning


over


which


arti


has


no consc


ious


control)


will,


generally


acc


epted,


force


a drastic


reorientation


literary


criticism.


The


study


sources


and


influences


will


become


less


convincing,


and


structural


similarities


between


given


works


will


become


attributed


increase


ingly


to psychological


factors


internal


the


arti


Jung


describes


the


artist


type


thus


"the


specifi-


call


arti


stic


dispo


sition


involves


an overweight


coll


ective


psychic


life


as again


personal.


Art


a kind


innate


drive


that


seizes


a human


being


and


makes


him


ins


trument.


The


artist


person


endowed


with


free


will


who


seeks


his


own


ends,


but


one


who


allows


art


to realize


purposes


through


him.


As a human


being


may


have


moods


and


a will


and


personal


aims,


but


as an


arti


st he


'man


' in


a higher


senser--he


'colle


ctive


man


--one


who


carries


and


shapes


the


unconscious


, psychic


life


of mankind.


perform


this


difficult


office


sometimes


neces


sary


him


to sacrifice


happen


ess


and


everything


that


makes


life


worth


living


the


ordinary


human


being.


("Psychology


and


Lit


erature,


" Modern


Man


search


a Soul


(New


York,


1933),


169).


Flanders


Dunbar,


Symbolism


Medieval


Thought


and


Consummation


the Divine


Comedy


(New


Haven,


1929),


P. Walker,


Spiritual


and


Demonic


Magic,


Studies


(London,


1958).


Aqrippa


m


22D.







26
Angus


Fletcher,


Allegory:


The Theory


of a Symbolic


Mode


(Ithaca,


1964),


7See


below,


28
John Erskine Hankins,


Source and Meaning


in Spenser's


Allegory


(Oxford,


1971),


29
Pauline


Parker,


The Allegory


of The


Faerie Queene


(Oxford,


1960),


169.


30Fletcher,


Allegory,


35-36.


31
Graham Hough,


A Preface


The Faerie Queene


(New


York,


1963),


32
Parker,

33
Hough,


106.

94.


von Franz,


"The


Proc


ess


Individuation,


Man and His


Symbols,


Carl


Jung


(New York,


1971),


161.


35
Priscilla H.


Barnum,


"Elizabethan


'Psychology'


and


Books


(196


I and
, 66.


II of


Spenser's


Faerie Queene,


" Thoth


Ruth L.


Anderson,


Elizabethan


Psychology and Shake-


.5pQa


re's


Plays,


Iowa


University


Humanistic Studies


(1927),


37
Louise C.


Against
(1946),


Invoking


Turner


Forest,


Elizabethan


"A Caveat


Psychology,


for Critics


" PMLA,


LX'


652.


3Forest,


671.


Lawrence Babb,


logical Literature,


the


Nature of Elizabethan


" Joseph Quincy


Adams


Memorial


Psycho-
Studies,


James G.


McManaway


et al.


(Washington,


1948),


516.


S14..


3411.


40
R~hh n,








2Francis


Johnson,


"Elizabethan Drama


and


the


Elizabethan Science of


Psychology,


" English Studies Today,


Wrenn and G.


Bullough


(Oxford,


1951),


115.


43
Forest,


658.


Cf. Robert Ellrodt
"Zoroaster, Pythagoras,


s definition


of Neoplatonism:


'thrice-great Hermes,


' the Orphic


hymns,


the Cabbala and Arab


philosophy


entered


into


[the


syncretic nature of Renaissance


Plato and
Platonic


Plotinus.
Republic o


Far


Platonism],


from being


philosophers,


exiled


together with
from the new


Aristotle was


reconciled


with Plato by thinkers


known systems


like


Pico and Leone Ebreo.


of philosophy were tortured


the minds of men more alive


likenesses


into
than


All


harmony by
sensitive


to discrepancies;


Christianity.


and


That


the whole was


seething mass


loosely


of confuse


related to
d thinking


will be


referred


to as


Neoplatonism.


(Neoplatonism


the


Poetry of


Spenser


(Geneve,


1960),


45Evans,


82-83.


46
Fletcher,


Prophetic Moment,


129.


47Yates,


"Hermetic Tradition,


255


Frye,


195.


49
Rudolf Bernoulli,


in Alchemy


"Spiritual Development


Related Disciplines


as Reflected


" Spiritual Disciplines,


Papers


from the Eranos


Yearbooks,


Vol


Joseph


Campbell


(New York,


1960),


309.


soja


Kermode,


"Spenser and


the Allegorists,


" Pro-


ceedinqs


the British Academy,


XLVIII


(1963),


262.


Kermode,


262,


263-275.


Kermode,

53
Kermode,

54w.


278

273.

1%. a















CHAPTER


ESOTERIC


ALCHEMY


AS SUBJECTIVE


PSYCHOTHERAPY


very


recent


discovery


that


esoteric


alchemy


actually


what


we would


term


a psychotherapeutic


discipline


startling


enough;


even


more


astonishing,


however,


fact


that


there


essen


tially


no disagreement


between


psychology


the


unconscious


set


forth


writings


of C.


Jung


and


the


relationships


implicit


since


antiquity


symbolic


literature


esoteric


alchemy.


The


purpose


present


chapter


give


some


idea


the


availa-


ability


and


charact


eristics


alchemical


literature;


to show


how


modern


redi


scovery


alchemy


came


about;


to explain


relationship


alchemy


sticism,


myth,


religion,


and,


indeed,


modern


psychotherapy;


and


finally


to sketch


out


some


basic


conce


pts


alchemy.


Alchemy,


which


existed


about


thousand


years,


given


rise


to a vast


and,


until


recently,


puzzling


liter-


nature.


1 As


an occult


science,


alchemy


always


been


mys-


serious


and


enigmatic,


even


the


alchemi


themselves,


only


a few


have


ever


achieved


more


than


an intuitive


under-









insight


into


theoretical


relationships


alchemy


than


ever


before,


erature


itself


though


the


scholarly


availability


investigation


primary


the


material


lit-


remains


troublesome:


alchemical


books


and


manuscripts


are


rare


and


often


inaccessible


and


there


a scarcity


of modern


edi


tions


and


translations.


The


more


recent


secondary


sources,


however,


are


useful,


and


here


reader


will


find


summary


and


exce


rpts


from


alchemical


classic


, and,


indeed,


several


shorter


trea


ses


are


regularly


quoted


their


en-


tirety.


The


twentieth


century


has


fact


seen


a dramatic


re-


vival


scholarly


interest


in alchemy


is now


generally


recogni


that


there


was


esoteri


as well


more


family


exoteric


alchemy


and


that


esoteric,


or occult,


was


what


"philosophers"


referred


"true"


alchemy.


Following


seventeenth


gradual


century,


demi


of alchemy


esoteric


aspect


toward


was


the


nearly


end


lost


sight


older


standard


works


alchemy


regarded


merely


forerunner


of chemi


story.


The beginning


modern


redi


scovery


of esoteric


alchemy


did


not


occur


until


1914,


psy


when


chology


Herbert


Silberer


study


first


applied


chemical


the methods


symbolism.


Thi


depth

led


definitive


work


Carl


Jung,


whose


writings


a1ichmv


snan


a quarter


of a century--from


1929.


when


he nub-









Coniunctionis


,which


represents


summation


his


previous


studi


Gerard


Heym,


his


review


sterium


Coniunc-


tionis


, regards


this


work


as a key


which


may


finally


make


possible


to write


"mnt


elligent


commentaries


what


have


hitherto


been


uninte


eligible


alchemical


absurditi


reading


text


and


--and


studying
et it be


alJmo
said


every


here


availabi


that


alchemi


the


firs


time


person


Profe


and


ssor


scholar,


method


long


his


Jung


his


assoc


tory
iates


alchemy


have


has, certainly


"contacted"


their


read


more


the minds


logic;


that


so many
than any


the alchemi


the alchemi


a single


texts--
modern


and


were


logical


through


centuries


did


their


best


ere
psy


an edifice


chology.".
alchemical


exact
ject


than th
can ever


of what


Prof


can


essor


terminology,


pure
give


Jung
more


erary


called


today


nas given
profound
approach t


and


"para-
a lexicon


more


sub-


that


Using
anyone


"pure


could


erary


establi


approach,


a convincing


" there


was


no way


relationship


between


the methods


alchemy


goal


spiritual


perf


section;


certainly


terminology


"logic"


alchemy


were


much


a mys


tery


as ever.


Perceptive


traditional


commentary


could


little


understood


alchemi


more


primarily


had


than


establi


as a spiritual


been


that


disc


insisting


alchemy

ipline9;


century


was


to be


this


Thus,


anonymous


supplement


English


translation


Ruland'


Alchemical


exicon


(the


Latin


original


famous


work


was


published


in Frankfurt


1612),


we find


under


"Method


Interpretation" t


following


entry:









assumes


Stone
cancer


can dive
trate to
deep (the


a pur


One writer


int
its
pa


O


the


centre,
ssions)


ely


moral


explains
depths of


avoiding


which


or spiritual
t as follows:


S O
the


guard


wn


soul


mons


the


mys


signifi-
He who


pene-
the


ters


ery,


and


water


-nymphs


s attention,


(the


will


esires
find


who endeavour
that centre


to distract


jewel


price


ess


Revealed,


myst
which


serious


"no t


value


, the


before
temple


tongue
lawful


whose


veil


can


Philos


opher


touch
open,


describe


man


, and


to utter.


s Stone,
portals
he will


hear


or Wi


sdom


the


behold


words


He will


which


find


seed out


eaten


for he will
immortal in


which


fruits
be one
Him. 10


grows


tree of


that


with


tree


Chri


life


, he will


and


and
die


will


having


no more,


rendered


This


analogy


not


only


character


stic,


but,


we shall


see


, it


also


an accurate


description


which


compresses


to a few


words


basi


phenomenology


spir


itual


pro-


cess


depicted


symbolically


alchemy.


an ess


originally


published


eam


Symbol


Process


Individuation,


but


later


titled


"Individual


Dream


Symbolism


Relation


Alchemy,


Jung


points


out


that


the


dreams


patients


undergoing


psy


chotherapy


there


the


same


kind


symbolism


that


found


alchemi


writings.


Indeed,


the


similar-


often


more


than


just


symbolic,


as can


seen


from


following


dream,


which


nearly


identical


analogy


quoted


Supplement


to Ruland


Alchemical


Lexicon


sea


ere


treasure


To reach


to dive


through


a narrow


opening.


This


dan-


gerous,
dreamer


but


takes


down


below


the plunge


will


into


find


the


a companion.


dark


The


covers


a beautiful


garden


in the depths


laid


out,


with


a fountain


the cent:


seyre tr ically


the









Marie-Louise

assistant, d


von Franz,


describes


Jung's


the process


colleague and research

s thus:


By observing


a great many people


studying


their
least
all d
life
one g
found
arran
"the
diffe
who a
aware
dream
seque
disap
dream


dreams
80,000
reams a
of the
reat we
that,
gement
process
rent sc
re not
of any
s over


nce,
pear
rep


dr
re
dre
b o
on
or
of
ene
car
pa


ea
re
am
f
th
pa


estimated that he
ms), Jung discover
levant in varying
er, but that they
psychological fac


e
tt


whole,


ern


indivi


s and
eful
ttern


a period


one w
, and
eatedl


ill


t
y


situations; and
series, one will
ceptibly. These
dreamer's consci


hen
of
if o
see
cha
ous


tu


r


the
ne
th
nge
att


they


. This
duation
mages e
servers
But if
f years


see
patt
" S


very
will
one
and


that cer
n up aga
same fi
follows
at they
s can be
itude is


interp
red not
degree
are al
tors.
m to fo
ern Jun
ince dr


n


tai
in.


eight,
probab
atches
studies
conte
Many


gures,


reted
only
s to
1 par
He al
allow
g cal
eams


at
that
the
ts of
so
an
led
produce


people
ly be un-
one's own
the entire
nts emerge,
people even


landscape


these through a whole
change slowly but per-
accelerated if the
influenced by appro-


private interpretation of
contents.
Thus our dream life


the dreams


creates


and


their


symbolic


a meandering pattern


in which individual strands or tendencies
ble, then vanish, then return again. If
this meandering design over a long period
can observe a sort of hidden reculatins o


tendency at
cess of psy
Gradual
emerges, an
visible to
"arrested d
a process o
every indiv


be brought
but happens


dreams


wo
chi
ly
d b
oth


, create
growth--
wider an
degrees


The f


ers.


development" sh
f growth and m


idual.
about b
involu


frequently


powerful, involunt
pattern.
The organizing


eff
our


ect
psy


stems
chic


seems t
system.


ng
the
d m


O


slow,
process
re mat


becomes


act
ows
atur


tha
tha
ati


imperc
r-


r in
per
tive
often


s po
c gr
rt o
lly,
tree
s a

the


1


s
ur


effe
t we
t we
on i


Since this psychi
y a conscious effo
ntarily and natural
symbolized by the


ary


growth fulfill


center


.0
a


be a
ne coi


from which


sort o
uld al


f "nuc
so cal


become visi-
one watches
of time, one
r directing
eptible pro-
dividuation.
sonality
and even
n speak of


ume t
ssibl
owth
f wil
it i
, who


at such
with
annot
power,
in
e slow,


definite

regulatory
ear atom" in


1 it


t


he in-


k


b


I









We will


have


grasped


much


of what


alchemy


about


soon


we reali


that


purpose e


opus


alchymicum


was


to nurture


and


accelerate


this


same


process


psy


chic


growth,


and


where


possible


, to bring


fruition.


Thus


when


author


alchemical


tre


"The


Glory


the


World"


describes


the


Philosopher


s Stone,


actually


describing


the


unconscious:


[The
old,
town,


Stone] i
is found


in all


all.


cas


into
with
human


ecious


familiar


to all


men,


country,


things


ch and


cre


poor


street


Yet


soul,
thing


upon


ated
handle


servant


no one


pri


zes


most


earth,


and


God;


both


young


village
yet it i


.every
maids.


and


espi


day. It
Children


though,


beautiful


has


power


ne%


mos


down


to pull


kings


vil


and


est


princes
means


Neve


t of


rthel


earthly


ess


things


is esteemed


the


is cas


away
which


prepared


price,
the he


and,


?ave


nly


ected


and


never


rthe


ected


builders


all.


Indeed


of Solomon


in the right


indeed,
Corner


this


ess


was


way,


the earthly


Stone.
world


more


Stone


sallowed
is a pe
antitype


As Chri


the


precious


stwas d


people
than


But


without


Chr


espis


heaven


ist,
ed
Jews


and


earth;


is with


spring


our


ere


Stone


found


among


earthly


is calle


things:
e fount


of nature


For


even


through


Nature


growing


things
through


are


Natur


nerated
e is our


Stone


heat
born


after


Sun,
that


so also


been


generated.


should


be cl


ear


from


thi


description


Stone


and


ere


found,


the


eat secret


alchemy


what


Jung


calls


"obj


active


psy


che


Sit


the


unconscious.


The


undervaluation


description


lust


the


quoted.


unconscious,


no means


as we see


an exclus


from


ivelv


ro ur


L~IL










psychologically


equal


easier


and


safer


pretend


that


unconscious


does


not


exis


Indeed,


unwary


can


very


easily


fall


victim


to schizophrenia,


or a


severe


psychosis


. The


hermetic


philosophers


are


therefore


quick


to point


out


that


while


Stone


"Universal


Medicine,


" it


can


also


"deadly


Venom


and


Poison.


"The


Sophic


Hydrolith"


find


following


advice


...the


stud


preparation of
before he knows


should


this
well


according


"With
should
exact
works,


this


not


spirit,
meddle


knowledge


remember


great
the


ential
says a


until
it.


He is not


you
For


not


ins


spirit


to begin


crutable


that


qualities
*


certain


God


lurks


and


* 1.


philo
have a


is marve


arcanum
in it


properties


sophe
full
llous


, "you
and
in His


mocked....


For
perhaps
play.


may
do


this


work


because


Those


indeed


thou


to whom


find


carefully


no li
Sages
God h


ght


have


reve


experiment


beware


exp


thing


as many


called


aled His


simple
losing


and
thys


suppose
hild's


sec


eas
elf


rets


But


great danger


egin


thy


work


unseasonable


with


reverent


care
fear


essness


and


awe


Rather


and


with


earnest


iray


then


thou


wilt


little


dang


er.


undertake


opus


alchymicum


submit


psyche


to a violent


confrontation


of opposites.


Jung


points


out


that


this


amounts


to having


"volunteered


to die


order


to beget


a new


and


fruitful


life


that


region


the


psyche


which


hitherto


lain


fallow


darkest


unconsciousness


under


shadow


death.


Erich


Neumann


points


out


that


attempt


transform


personality


from


within,


compelling


on n r^ I-^ n+4 n nl n n 4- --nnann, h


S~;C


inC ~rsnC


%>


nnnehnCn


niim innirn


nnn ^rr^ T


rrt CHrr









Every
take,


numinous
is mystic


a fascination,


sciousness


experience,
al. The nu
a richness


to apprehend


whatever


ominous
beyond


and


form


content


organize,


may


possesses


power or
a charge


con-


energy


surpassing


consciousness


Hence


the


encounter


total
every


a situation


itself";
conscious
changed


with


leads


personality
confrontation


sness
form.


arises
falls


and


always


and
of


not
the


to
only
ego


in which


is wrenched


can


an upheaval


of
with


ego
out


return


consciousness


goes
of
elf"


e numinous,
"outside


shell


only


The


trans


appearance
system of


formation


the


nuinen


consciousness


the


detaches


and


also


personality


tne ego
from it


through


from


old


its


the
old


relation


world,


unknown
of the
vided b


but


which


numen,


creative


conscious


price
holds


conne


within


is renunciation


orie


nation


action


with


possibility


security


entrance


into


pro-
the


fundamental


paradox


mystical.


Since
experience


lation, th
the dogma


reve
with
ness
oppo


conscious


The


erience


the


the self


ego
and


creative


ected


agencies
-mystical


dominant


contents


by
of


numinous


"voice
comes


it
the


always


" which


into


dominant


experience


religion


the


and


cultural


brings


conflict


conscious-


nature


dominant


canon--that


it is


in principle


revolutionary


and


heretical.


Despite


her


etical


aspect,


"holy


alchemy"


was


regarded


adepts


religion


behind


all


religions.


Indeed,


any


mediation


between


ego


and


unconscious


essen-


tially


a religious


undertaking;


it i


perhaps


no exaggeration


that


only


true


athei


are


those


who


refuse


beli


eve


unconscious.


Because


the


nature


relationship


self-correcting


unconscious

mythology.


process,


alchemy


It represents


wha


functions

t Joseph


as a

Campbell










or will


sights


calling "
the order


pretend


to have


, sentiments,


eative"


is reversed:


and


experienced,
commitments.


mythology,


certain
In what


other


individual


hand,


has had


exp


erience


of his


own--of


order,


horror,


beauty,


or even
municate


mere


exhilaration


through


signs


--which he


and


seek
reali


com-


zation


has b


een


munication


myth


--for


of a certain


will
those


respond


have


that
thems


depth an
the value


say,


ves


with


import,
nd force


who


his
of


receive


com-
living
and


recognition,


uncoe


rced.


It is


erefore


a naive


misconception


to imagine


that


mythological


aspects


so character


stic


alchemical


writings


are


borrowed


invented


rather


than


experienced


st hand.


Alchemical


thinking


this


respect


comparable


that


primitive


man,


whom


myth,


as Ernst


ssirer


observed,


s actually


"form


thought.


Pointing


out


that


psyche


"contains


images


that


have


ever


given


rise


myths,


Jung


states


that the


unconscious


acting


and


suffering


subject


with


an inner


drama


which


primitive


man


rediscovers,


means


analogy,


process


ses


of nature


both


great


small.


This


another


way


saying


that


myth


is an expression


what


Jung


calls


the


archetypes


collective


unconscious.


Since


character


stic


feature


alchemical


symbolism


archetypal


nature,


essen-


tial


that


ere


be a clear


under


standing


exactly


what


the


concepts


the


archetype


the coll


active


unconscious


imply,


and


on what


basi


they


have


been


postulated:










eelinq-


cons
life
on t
our
cause
cons
arch
with
remo
in t
rela
But
logi
[Arc
and
form
inst
and
dire
and
chil
schi
as c
drea
their
heri
acqu
be s
type


I 1


titu
. T
he o
purp
e it
ciou
aic


toned


S CO
or--


v


S
re

P
p
o
o

d
1
h

r
1


t
h
t
i
c
h
P
a
i
t
c
i
d

a
m
e
t
i
e
s


M
iou
ing
con
teg
per
rso
d c
amn
im
per
ex
nta
my
ey
ruc
le


on
sci
ori
son
nal
an
esi
per
ien
pla
sy-
tho
cor
tur
-hh


ersa
time
mina
wit
try
, th
es]
rmed
ndit
Th
ream
1 fa
is w
s dr
enia
so b
nor
, a
ossi
ons
rom


complexes


e pe
nten
hand
this
s us
tent
wou
l1 im


se
my
to
ma
an
pat
ons
ir


the


n
a
s


IIL A I


I]


rson
ts o
, ar
ter
tha
s ar
Id s
ages
. wh


al
f t
e k
m i
t s
e c
ay-
th
at
is
eso
bli
be
how
s,
app
enc
nth
tiv
ce,
wel
shi
th
ons
of
of
the


universe


chology
-activi
e uncon
yche ab
first, fa
racter,
fences,
e comply
cond, f
charact
the in
s somet
undoub


al
nd
eme


a
h
n
s
o
o


as they
nd priv
e colle
own as
appos i
far as
ncerned
primord
t have
he word
lear en
eric te
h what
omes mo
to be
he latt
rceptio
gives
opomorp
ty into


th
as
my
gh
nd
nhe
dea
ain


e f
in
tho
in
neu
rit
s.


OCCUR


treat


ty
sc
ou
nt
w
t
et
an
er


d
h
t


types.
to cer
nts of


as self
ious, or
t itself
asies (


h
h
e
t


ich
ing
ly
asi


ividu
ing i
edly
We I
tain
the
F1Im


go
fo
xpl


i's
div
ave
Lust
oil
uma
n+- c


are


ougn,
achin
an ar
re co:
inher
er be
n tha
the w
hic s
its
antas
the d
logic
lesse
rotic
ed id
Nor
common


called:


etyp
nd h
col
are
type
ted
chet
I


tn


of
con
es.
elp
lec
dea
S,
sin
ype
en,
and
typ
ica
d i


amp
ppo
-im
lus
1 p
de


rrence of

e product


port
as s
Th
nclu
ack
gott
ined
incl
anno
past
dual
their
their
ctiv
-psy
PSI,+


rait
tate


I Ir


1111


int
age
ion
ara
gre
It
but
the
all


they
psychic
cious,
.. For
ul, be-
ive un-
ing wit


s
ts
tale.
sycho-

ts
and
on
child


aths


s n
of
in
as


such
the
t,
n-
ividual
can


arche-


of u
of w
ents
11 in
dream
stion
repr
ndivi
drea
reduc
thus
quire
sest
assu
not
n gen
mrn h


ncon
hat
of t
to t
s) o
ably
esse
dual
4


ms
ed
C1


d.
an
me
pe
er
ndl


) or
to
annot
These
alogues
that
rsonal)
al, and,
v re


)
)










obliged


assume


existence


a collective


psyc
coll


hic


ective


stratum.


unconscious


have
23


called


The


symbolism


alchemy


derived


from


archetypal


language


eams


and


fantasy


it is


erefore


an expression


the


coll


ective


unconscious,


which


, ind


eed,


source


the


religious


instinct


in man.


Small


wonder


that


the


adepts


considered


alchemy


a holy


art.


Except


fact


that


alchemi


usually


must


serve


as both


doctor


and


patient,


he might


well


be compared


patient


modern p

through


sychoanaly


whose


unconscious


function


Though


to guide


alchemi


his

can


look


to hi


secret


books


for


guidance


task


is not


easy,


books


are


a riddl


themselves


, being


"written


from


without


from


within,


" like


scroll


Ezekiel


Vision.


Supplement


to Ruland


Alchemical


Lexicon


language


Philosophers


is described


thus


writings


never


in
ace
The


express
vulgar


ording
sense


which


Hermetic


true


tongue,
he lite


is pr


Science


significance


and
ral
esen


they


sens
ted


must


, the Phil


of
not


e


thei
be


expr


on the surface


r


osophers
thoughts


interpreted
*


sessions.
e is not


true
alle


sense.


gorl


them


his


adapts


explains
from the


stillation,


fires


oth


in use


ers


They
fable
after


phil


rations


course


in enigmas


similitudes


own


osophical


common


sublimation,


among


chemi


invariably


manner.


rations


chemi


etc.
sts,


, metaphors,


each Philo


A chemi


in terms


stry,
furna


as Gebir,


An alchemical


sopher


Adept
borrowed


speaking


ces


, of


Parace
soldier


vases


sus


like


Denis


harie


borrows


imagery


from


battles


. .- t


c


r


I


q









series


understand


their


meaning,


and


one


Philo-


sopher
explain
manner.


equently


another
24


in any


cons


comply


erably


ete


embarrassed


and


intelligible


An alchemi


name


John


Cremer


complains


that


spent


thirty


years


"was


in perusing


writings


authors


whose


whol


ingenuity


seemed


to have


been


concentra-


ted


upon


expre


ssing


thought in


unintelligible


language.


The


celebrated


fifteenth


-century


alchemi


Thomas


Norton,


"The


Ordinal


Alchemy,


" critic


zes


practice:


though


unassuming


contemn


this


matter


I must
style,
For


have


unintelligible


express


no candid


that


rend


ere


an exag


myse


If in


rea


der


before
their
gerated


a plain
should t


me have


books


use


and


therefore


written


secure


and


of poetical


imag


ery,


obstruct


fie
who


parables
the path


know


strives


, and


edge


to put


metaphors


those
This


eir


who


precepts


which


grievou


st enter


reason
into


that


a beginner,


practice,


only


ses


trouble


and


his


mon


is daily


seen.


Hermes


Rha


SLS


, Geb


Avicenna,


Merlin,


Hortulanus


Democ
many
veil


ritus,
others


More
have


of obscurity


nus


conce


, Bacon,


aled


Hence


Raymond,


their


their


Ari


meaning


books


stotle,
under


which


they


and
a


have


hand


ed down


, have


een


a source


endl


ess


error


spite


their


delusion


the


writings,


vulgar


beautiful


no one


conceits


has been


and


which
e to


abl


learned,
abound i


find


and,


a path


through


been


reduced


wilde
to d


rness


their


word s


many


have


espair.


There


were,


other


hand,


those


who


advise


the


adept


to search


rather


similarity


than


differences.


The


that


German


"the


alchemi


treasures


st Michael


of Hermes


Maier


are


(1568


not


-1622)


laid


points


open


out


one









Let your mind
various saying
of their comm
influenced in
find the right


be
gs o
on m
dif
t pa


ke
the
nin
ren
28


a firm Rock, in which all the
Sages are reduced to the unity
g. For a man who is easily
t directions is not likely to


The


author


"The


Sophic


Hydrolith"


observes


that


although the
subject with
many peculiar
parables, and
agree in poin
same Matter a
Art. 29


phil
reat
sing
ange
out
senti


oph
var
ar
d f
e s


ers
iety
expr
anci
ame
the


have
of
essi
ful
goal
rig


treated t
methods, a
ons, curio
words, yet
, and one
ht conduct


his
nd used
us
they all
and the
of the


"The


Only


True


Way"


adept


advised


let
your
prod
frui
deve
and
know
the
be a
prov
from


the Book


libra
auction
ts of
lopmen
autumn
ledge
flower
ble to
ides i
them


ry.
of
the


S
n
(o


in
by
Na
and
et
the


r


Nature


Obse
etal
arth
the
rain
ture
in
your
bow


their


be
her
ut
d t
ter
su
.eth


he
a
ns
od


m
th
th
r
d
in
i


opening t
hand to t
Is of the
substance


OS


t favoured


ods,
e pro
const
summe
e. I
n pro
gree
germ
arth,
that


, in
you
ucin
fru
whi
and
which


g t
it,
ch
to
yo


volume
in the
of the
th and
e spring
d a sou
he bud
you wo
Nature
educe
u so mu


in



g
nd
and
uld


ch


desire.30


Do not


then


suffer


rself


to be


thrown


off


your


guard


you
the
sio
fro
sta
pur
and
inc
sub
lan
per
sub
sol
the


th
me
ns
m t
nce
ifv


w -


n

o


y the
rough
als,
,ean,
eir w
and d
and c
begin
e the
ce tu
e of
enti
ces;
in or
se st


you wl
and wi
writing
issolv
alcine
s to t
fire
rns re
the An
rely i
indeed
der to
udent


cien
gnor
, th
hid
of N


nra
he
now
.ot
,at
.un
til
whi
cal'
Suc
.ts
ant
e A
e t


pie
at
e s
mu
it
he
an


C

n
h


atur


an
of
cie
eir
e.


fu
the
ome
st
tu
bla


e n
s w
eal
o t


nda
ir
mo
tak
rns
ckn
fte
toi
rpr
sug
atu
rot
me
his


an
e


An
*


nta
igm
rns
a c
iac
s d
tha
unt
ati
st
of
as
ing
nd


clients
1 natu
atic e
, cone
certain
k, the
isappe
t, onc
il the
on of
itself
metal
they d
from
thev w


. If
re of
xpres-
lude
sub-
n again
ars
e more


the
to
lic
id
all
ere


but
in


L
I.


If


t,


\


.J








raised
ment,


from the


lowest


and although


intelligible enough


can gather


that


from their


the substance must be


the highest


the meaning


stage of


the Ancients


the initiated,
language no more


taken


from


yet t
than


the metals


develop-
is
ignorant


fact
31


The question which now presents


itself


is whether the


alchemists


really did


grasp what


it was


that


their veiled


language was


concealing;


understanding


that is,


sacred


arcanum?


how conscious was


In nearly


their


every


alchemical


treatise


there are explicit warnings


about


danger of


communicating


science


the


unworthy,


and


the adept


is invariably


sworn


to uphold


secret.


the magnificent Aurora


Consurgens,


a document attributed


Thomas Aquinas,


This glorious


saints


the matter


science of


secret of


is put


and


thus:


doctrine of


philosophers


and medicine of


physicians


not.
far
led,


fools despise,


These will not have


from


them,


nor


for everyone who
that not without


doth such


for what


the blessing


and


science befit


ignorant of


cause.


For


Speculator


they


know


it shall be
the unskil-
its enemy,
saith:


The mockery


science


the cause


ignorance,


and


lettuces
suffice


are not


them,


to be given


nor


to as


the children'


ses, to
s bread


thistles


to be


set


before
before
noble


dogs


swine,
science:


to eat,


and


nor


are


such mockers


pearls


are


not


to be


cast


partakers


this


he would be a breaker


heavenly


seal


science known
of this wisdom
fool perceive


reason.


seeing
that i


For


that he


s asleep.


who


should make
he unworthy;


enter


into


secrets of


nor


a gross


it on account of


the wise


that


have


speaketh with a


For Morienus


saith:


shall


body,


nor


the perversity
spoken to the


fool
If


this


spirit


can


of his


foolish,


speaketh with one


were


unriddle


things


they


are,


there would nowhere


De any
be made


further place


equal


for prudence,


the wise;


for the


fool


nor would any mortal


would
under


the


sphere of


the moon bewail


in stepmotherly poverty









There


can


no doubt


that


many


Philosophers,


pro-


bably


majority


them,


deliberately


said


less


about


their


then


they


might


have.


But


because


the


Philosopher


Stone


was--as


we now


know,


thanks


to Jung--in the


uncon-


scious,


was


not


a concept


that


could


be grasped


directly;


like


the


idea


of God,


transcended


human


understanding,


could


be describe


ed only


terms


effect.


must


constantly


bear


in mind


that


data


from


which


the


philosophical


were


and


subsequently


moral


relationships


incorporated


intact


were

into


drawn


which


alchemical


theory,


were

not


supplied


have


dreams


understand


and

his


fantasies.


dream


The


in order


dreamer


to dream


does

it:


an archetypal


dream


is a spontaneous


production


the


psyc


result


conscious


invention:


same


token,


alchemy


was


regarded


as a revelation,


a gift


Holy


Ghost.


we have


seen


the


beginning


this


chapter,


the


alchemical


parable


cited


the


Supplement


to Ruland


s Alchemical


Lexicon


is nearly


identi-


dream


modern


patient--a


young


man


without


any


knowledge


whatsoever


alchemy


related


areas--


und


ergoing


psychotherapy


This


means


that,


since


dreams


depi


cting


proc


ess


individuation


are


archetypal


and


erive


from


collective


unconscious,


an individual


now,


any


time,


past


or future,


could,


effect,


reconstruct









the


otherwise


puz


zling


fact


that


Chinese


alchemy,


which


developed


on its


own


and


without


western


influence,


basic


agreement


Suffi


say,


with

then,


the

tha


principal

t the in


of western


dividual


alchemy.33


alchemist,


having


had


a particularly


numinous


dream,


would


have


trouble


accounting


imagery,


relationships,


and


even


cast


characters,


turns


to the concepts


and


terminology


to be


found


his


secret


books


Jung


pointed


out


that


alchemical


language,


those


who


can


read


represents


very


accurate


interpretation


the


archetypes


involved,


that


alchemi


st communicated


experience


est


could,


though


without


ever


under


standing


to the degree


that


psychological


explanation


makes


possible


today.


Thus


sight
nology
symbol


tney y:
from tl


very
and


the
diff


way


language


erent


same


field


a meaning


from


thinking.


way a
such


problematic


the
our


alc
psyc


But


hemi


hological
f we treat


we treat mod


modern


we have
materi


ern


alre


al.


at first


termi-
their


fanta


ady
The


sies


deduced
obvious


section


that


meaning


conv


eyed by


the mod


fanta


sy-material


has b


een


uncritic


ally


transf


erre


torical


material,


which


chemi


inter-


pre


quite


differently,


is dispro


ved by


that


even
their
Their


in the Middle


symbol
"philo


psychology.


Ages


in a mora


ophy "


3


was


conf
and


, ind


ess


ed alchemi


philo


eed,


sophical


nothing


interpre


sense.


but


proj


ected


can


now


briefly


examine


basic


postulates


alchemical


theory


terms


eir


modern


psycho log


ical


ern










Emerald


Table


Hermes


Trismegistus,


states


thus


"That


which


above


like


that


which


below,


that


which


below


like


that


which


above,


to accomplish


miracles


one


thing.


The alchemical


elements


form


a quaternity


comprising


(gold)


and


Luna


(silver),


which


symbolize


respect


tively


conscious


unconscious


masculine


psyche;


and


Sulphur


and


Salt,


of which


former


considered


"companion"


of Luna


and


latter


one


her


attributes.


Sometimes


quaternity


the


form


an apparent


trinity


composed


Sol,


Luna,


and


Mercurius


duplex.


times


these


relationships


can


expressed


a double


quaternity


are


images


heaven


and


earth,


summer,


autumn,


winter,


spring,


male


female.


However


depicted,


quaternity


archetype


(e.g.


the


four


qualities,


four


elements,


the four


directions,


four


seasons,


etc


which


may


interpreted


four


orienting


functions


which


the


conscious


mind


takes


bearings.


unperfected


psyche


there


reliance


on a single


dominant


function


which


thus


has


maximum


consciousness


and


which


chara


cterizes


the


individual


s personality


type;


functions


have


varying

general


degrees


completely


unconsciousness


unconscious.


and


The


the f

opus


ourth


alchymicum


1-~; S :1 z r


*


I ~


m m


r


L I


1~


,1









were


conscious


proper


equilibrium,


we would


have


the


e.g.


psychological


Shakespeare


description


or Leonardo--with


"Renaissance


his


Man"--


supranormal


competence.


is surely


context


that


we must


under


stand


statement


Emerald


Table


Hermes


having


"three


parts


the


wisdom


whole


world":


True
That


and


without


which


that


above


which


sehood,
like to


is below


certain


that


like


and


which


that


most


true.


below,


which


above,


things


accompli


thing
arose


adaptation.
the Moon.


miracles


were


from


The


The


one


contemplation


this


one


father


Wind


thing
reof


carried


thing.


one,


a single


the


in its


Sun,


womb,


And


so all


act


the
the


mother
Earth


nurse


thereof.


the father


all


works


Wonder


throughout


whole


cas


perfect.


the elem


from


gently


Earth


gross


from


to Earth,
superior
the glory
obscurity


and
and


With


Earth


world.


t onto


that


from


great


to Heaven.


uniteth
things i


in itse
nferior.


bright


will


ess


from


The


Earth,
of Fire,


sagacity
Again


Thus


power
t will


the


it doth


it doth
force f
thou wi


the whole


thee


This


thereof
separate


subtle
ascend


ro
It


world,
thing i


escend
m things


ssess


and


all


the


strong
every


subs


fortitude


subtle


tance.


there
manner


thing


Thus


all
and


was


marvellous


this.


For


strength,


doth


this


pene


world


adaptations


this


reason


overcometh


trate
create


achieved,


am called


solid


Hence


will


of which


the


Hermes


every


Trismegi


stus-,


whole


cause


world.


hold


That


three


which


parts
had to


the


say


wisdom


about


operation


is comply


eted.


The


precepts


contained


Emerald


Table


are


fundamental


alchemical


thinking.


Since


maximum


consciousness


goal


symbol


zes


the

the


process

conscious


individuation,


mind,


and


slnce


appropriate


that









this


realm


unconscious,


here,


contrast


consciousness,


there


are


no sharp


distinctions.


The


unconscious,


with


capacity


elusive shape-shifting,


is aptly


summed


figure


Mercurius:


Since
exist
jecti
conce
itsel
where
veget
and s
form.
both
and t]
and o
realm
"inte
the ":
spons
into
sonou
This ;
the d
the e
count'
drago.
sulph1
by co:
lapis


, in his
in reali
on, and b
pt in alc
f. He is
nothing
ativus (1


lyve
pa
he
th
gib
en
Ecc
asc
rag
es


alchemical


ty,
ecau
hemy
by
can
ivin
ways
here
d pa
kes


h *
ry p
. Chr
by
. Me
a f
the
that
pis
lew
t.
ive
s id
ght"


form,


ere
t) ,
in
tti
. *
th
is
ir
st
he
cur
min
sam
the
o C
f t
urt
spe
nti
sub


ng
He
e
eq
So
in
wo
iu
in
e
d
hr


Mercurius


iy c
is
masc
uiva
1 an
his
man,
s is
e ha
time
rago
ist,
dev
rmor
of
1 wi
ance


con
lut
th
the
d;
an
ty
all
by
uli
len
d L


my
" i


no
If,
th
n i
in
il
e,
sul
th


does


i
e


natur
ne re
t in
una,
stica

t onl


ut is
heaven
analog
ccorda
an au
t only
ur, na
e devi


not


ro-
ame
cio
iou

pri
ren
ex,
ndr
ulp
ce
in
ndr
nsu
pli
the
ly
ous
nce
ton
th
mel


itus
iple
ated


ogynous
hur
lestial
the
ogyny,
s and
t
DOi-


Salt


similar


Sulphur


subs


tance


closest


to Sol;


also


times


synonymous


with


Mercurius.


Like


Mercurius,


Sulphur


duplex:


the ac
sun.
great
has an
materi


is a red


ive su
he spe
in th
their m
, and


b
c
e
ie
i


a white


ce o
"vi


t var
ng:
his f


. -


he
te"
y.
the
it


sulphur,


moo
of
Bu
on
is


n,
su
t
e
b


..


e red
ur is
dupli
d it i
inq an


whi
that
said
city
s th
d co


t


e being
of the
to be
also
prima
rosive


]
]

1


.


w


i









The negative aspect of


Sulphur


the psychological


equiva-


lent of


and


undesirable


not


contents


theriomorphic,


the personal

personified


unconscious,

as masculine.


It is


the archetype


The s
whole


hadow


termed

a moral


ego-personality,
shadow without


Shadow:


problem that challenges


the


for no one can become conscious


considerable moral


effort.


become conscious


it involves


recognizing the dark


aspects of


This


act


he personality
the essential


as present and


condition


real.


any


kind of


self-knowledge,


and


therefore,


as a rule,


meets


with


considerable resistance....


Closer


that


examination of
inferiorities


the dark


constituting


characteristics--


the shadow--


reveals


that


autonomy,


possessive
adaptation


they
and


have an


accordingly


quality....
is weakest,


emotional


nature,


an obsessive or,


Affects occur


same


a kind


better,


usually where


time


they


reveal


reason


weakness,


namely


a certain degree


of inferiority
of personality.
uncontrolled or


the


this


scarcely


existence of


lower


level


controlled


a lower


level


with


emotions one


behaves


more or


less


like


a primitive,


who


is not


only the p
singularly


massive


victim of his


incapable of


moral


affects
judgement


but also
44


The


psychological


characteristics


of Luna are


summed


archetype of


the collective


unconscious


which Jung


has


termed


the Anima.


The Anima


the personification


unconscious


which


sexually


compensatory


consciousness;


"woman hidden


in man.


moon has


two


sides,


a light and


a dark,


the Anima


both good


evil:


With
realm of


the archetype of


the gods,


anima


or rather,


we enter


realm


that meta-


physics


has


res


erved


itself.


Everything the


anima


---~- --


--w









reasons


tion


that


not


had


prying


better


into


been


left


unconscious
unconscious


an occupa-


and


un-


disturbed.


As usual


, th


ere


something


in what


anima


both


bad.
good


life


Because


and


bad.


itself


anima


These


is not
wants


good
life


categories


only,
, she


do not


wants


exls


in the elfin


categories


realm....


, and


can


The


their


anima


before


lives
spense


beyond


with


blame


as well


man,


with


as with


his


praise.


whole


some


since


anima


the beginning
instinct, has


time


been


engaged


in combat


soul


were


with


his


uniformly


soul
dark


its daemonism.


it would


a simple


matter.


Unfortunate


this


is not


anima


can
who


appear
points


also
the


as
way


an ang


el of
high


light,


a psyc


hopomp
4b


meaning...


Salt,


philosophical


sense,


is an attribute


rather


than


a substance:


represe


"the


feminine


principle


Eros


, which


brings


everything


into


relationship,


almo


perfect


way.


The practical


or visual


aspect


alchemy,


which


took


place


laboratory,


was


a series


of procedures


which


supplied


a phy


sical


analogy


spiritual


changes


which


were


occurring


simultaneous


mind


adept.


"puffer"


who


took


it literally,


art


consisted


in placing


small


amounts


gold,


silver,


sulphur,


and


salt,


plus


enough


quick


silver


to provide


a mercurial


"bath,


a hermetically


sealed


retort,


and


subjecting


seri


heating


and


cooling


procedures.


The


alchemi


not


agree


order


or even


names


the


operations,


Josephus


but


sequence


Quercetanus


twelve


"De ortu et


forth


causes


metallorum"









Sublimatio;


Fermentatio;


Exaltatio;


Augmentatio;


Proiectio.48


The


"essence"


the


alchemi


cal


art


Jung


describes


thus:


indicated


it--the


spagyric"


the
art-


very


-or


name
the


which


chose


oft-repeated


saying


"solve


et coagula"


ssolve


and


coagulate),


the
and


alchemi


analy


saw


sis


essence


one


hand


of
and


his


art


synthe


in separation


S1S


and


con-


solidation


oth


er.


For


him


there


was


first


an initial


state


which


oppo


site


tendencies


ces


estio


were
n of


in confli


a pro


cedure


secondly


which


woul


there
d be


was


the


eat


capable


bringing


were
named
to be
the b


the hostile


separated,
the chaos


back
was


sought
beginning


an even


eater


elements
to unity


not


the


work


degree


given


prima


was
was


and


again
from


mate


not


qualities


The


the


nia


, once


initial


start


but


they
state,
had


And


self-evid


end.


ent,


ere


are


ess


county
state.


commonest
gation of
androgyny,


human


eculations


them


are


life
its


qualities a
s divinity.


the


the nature


reflected


eas


immorta


lity,


spirituality


res


its d
perman


end-


esignations


ence


The


(prolon-


incorruptibility),


and


corpor


emblance


man


reality, its
homunculuss


Since


alchemi


sts


make


clear


their


writings


that


opus


alchymicum


to be understood


as a spiritual


discipline,


may


seem


puz


zling


that


they


should


have


felt


compe


lied


remain


laboratory,


maintaining


sometimes


point


exhaustion


a prayerful


and


studious


vigil


that


could


alchemi


part


often


was


the


ast


experiencing


procedure)


years.


and


describing


his

the


Jung


shown,


writings

emotions


necessary


associated


with


ques


t for


psy


chological


wholeness


, and


expansions of


consciousness


which


achieved


he naturally









The


alchemist


did


not


practice


his


art


because


believed


point


on theoretical


that


had


grounds
a theor


in correspondence;
y of correspondence


cause


eas


experienced


sica


presence


matter.


pre


therefore


-existing
inclined


assume


that


real


root


of alchemy


to be


sought


in philosophical


individual


working
certain


the
Since


on his
psychic


particular


e


unconsc


was


ious


investigators.


chemical


experiences
behaviour of


a question
f the fact


that


the


than
mean


projections


by
the


this
oper


that


ator


while
had


to him


proc
was


ess.
naturally


had


nothing


to do
know


property o
periencing


with


matter


today).


matter;


was


his


(that


He experienced


but
own


what


with


his
was


unconscious.


proj


matter
section


as a
ex-


In a brilliant


ess


entitled


"The


Psychology


the


Transf


ere


nce"


(1946) ,


Jung


demonstrates


, by


annotating


series


symbolic


woodcuts


contained


Rosarium


Philosophorum


50),


fact


that


"alchemy


describes,


not


merely


in general


outline


but


often


most


aston-


fishing


can


detail,


ser


same


psychological


analysis


phenomenology


unconscious


which


processes.


speculates


that


even


as early


the


sixteenth


century


alchemy


was


being


used


at 1


east


some


physicians


as a


psychotherapeutic


method


in exactly


the


modern


sense:


Every
when


thing


that


analysing


most


doctor


discovers


unconscious


way


his


with


patient


content


coincides
these


pictures.


This


is not


likely


to be


mere


chance,


cause


thus
like


logical


had


ample


Paracelsus
well-being


were


opportunity


, they


their


worried


often


such
about


doctors


as well,


eir


dreams


(for


the


purpose


>f diagn


osis, p


rognosis


in phy


less


doctrines


experiments


which


the


appeared


chemical


of projection,


itself


experience


in reality
50


be ob


remarkable


experiences


chemists


patients


experiences
the psycho-


inquired


into


--









Anyone


who


approaches


Jung


theoretical


writings


with


broad


knowledge


alchemical


literature


will


be somewhat


startled


extent


to which


analytic


Jungian)


psychology


a continuation


Medieval


Renaissance


esoteric


alchemy.


Ani


ela


Jaff


points


out


that


was


larg


corres


pondence


between


the


alchemical


texts


and


discoveries


concerning


unconscious


that


made


possible


him


to hammer


psychology


into


objective


science


To credit


Jung


with


"rediscovery


alchemy"


twentieth


century54


mere


to state


a fact.


remains


examine


the


exact


phenomenology


the


individuation


alchemical


process


allegory


as depicted


order


a character


to establish


stic


procedural


basi


for


psychological


interpretation whi


ch will


appli


to Spen


ser


s Faeri


Queene.


The


following


parable


taken


from


Chapter


VI of


Open


Entrance


to the Clo


ace


King,


" by


an anonymous


"lover


truth"


known


as Eirenaeus


Philal


ethes55:


thou


knowe


st how


to moi


sten


this


dry


earth


with


own


water,


thou


wilt


sen


pores


the earth,


this
work


thie


ers


admixture


leprous


fluid,


and


Knight


f from


outs


wickedn


true


and


ilt


filth
thou w


Trevi


,,:~,V


will


ess


and


Sulphur,


from


the


have


, whose


cas


t out


the water,
will be cl


superfluous


power


n;,


waters


are


with


from
sical
t of


means


drop
foun


rightfully


4-1-.4n


A-~A 4


nrrn t


i-q













of the thief,
avoidable. He
knoweth how to


will


temper


whose machinations


re may


are


truth


Diana be propitious


tame wild


beasts,


the malignity


whose


air with


un-


thee,


who


twin doves
their wings,


so that
pores,
earth,


the
and


the waters


the darkness
be scattered
Thus by God's


youth


eas


instantly
rises up
uo even t


that was


entereth


shaketh


a dark


ul~of


in through
foundations


cloud.


brightness o
the face of


spirit moving


command


shall


over


thou wilt
the moon,


the deep


wa


Light appear.


lead
and


shall


iters.
56


Jung,


in Mysterium


Coniunctionis,


presents


a detailed


analysis


this


particular


parable


to show


how


knowledge


symbolism of


alchemy will


enable


one


apply


same


principles


nhnn:4n -niJ7.


allegory


as one


applies


dream


interpretation.


Freud


pointed


out


that


dreams


are


so highly


condensed


that


their


latent


content--what


terms


"dream- thoughts"


--may


occupy


"SIX,


eight,


a dozen

manifest


times


as much


content


space"'


dream


when e n


5,ritoil


;:self


down


certainly


the

this


hold


s true


Philale


1tie


s alchemical


parable,


which


requires


twelve-page


explication.


What we


have


here


a recipe


psychological


wholeness.


adept


able


understand


the directions


follow


them,


he will


succeed


"reuniting"


separated halves


psyche--the


conscious


and


unconscious--and


wholeness.


thus


Alchemical


restore


thinking


himself


implies


prelapsarian


intuitive









animal--


, and


that


what


has


happened


that


one


mind--the


conscious--has


wrongly


asser


ascendency


over


the


other,


greater


mind--the


unconscious--


, thereby


splitting


psyche.


this


way


that


alchemy


regards


man


"house


divided


again


st itself


this


context


possible


psyc


see


hologically


Biblical


accurate


story


account


Fall


as a


primordial


split


whi


ch occurred


human


psyche.


Man


therefore


fallen


creature


who


must


be red


seemed,


must


"born


again


the


spirit,


" i.e.


unconsc


ious.


Redemption


then


psychologically


healing


split


psyche,


the reintegration


parts


into


whole


that


sted before


Self,


and


Fall.

means


Chri


therefore


which


individuated


divine

man


becomes


what


Paul


refers


the


"second


Adam.


Thus


alchemis


took


upon


thems


elves


, by


means


"royal


provided


art,


to divide


nature--into


natural


component


man--the


elements


and


raw


then


material


create


a new


synthesis


which


would


be comparable


psycho-


logically


perfect


hermaphroditic


first


man.


Jung


s explication


Philal


ethes


' parable


is so


crucial


assumptions


underlying


this


study,


that,


though


shortened


considerably,


mus


t nonethel


ess


quoted


at a length


that


may


at first


seem


excess


ive.


The


w










unconscious;


stagnation


earth


"own


which


water" is


occurred,


adept


couple


ed with


s awareness


a desire


the


fulfillment


spiritual


possibilities


implicit


his


personality;


"pores


earth,


" which


have


become


clogged


means


which


underevaluation


unconscious


unconscious


content,


, are


permitted,


filters


into


consciousness


and


fructifies


"true


Sulphur"


is potential


spirituality,


and


opposed


"leprous


filth


and


superfluous


dropsical


fluid"


which


contagion


collective


thinking


that


corrupts


individual


and


reduces


him


level of


mass


man,


or crude


Sulphur.


Here


Jung


s explication:


The


unconscious


demands


interest


own


sake


exis


wants
tence
should


to be


accept


oppo


come


ed for


site


terms


what


acc


with


it is


Once


ego


demand


can


Unless


content


given...


unconscious


is acknowledged,


comp


ens


atory


effect


is not


only


nullified


but


actually
to realize
The


changes
e itself
fountain


into


literally


opposite
y and co


Bernardus


then


tries


ncretely.


Trevi


sanus


bath


renewal....


continual


flow


ever
inter


-flowing


est


fountain


toward


expr


esses


unconscious,


a kind


constant


attention


religion ,


" which


might


also be called


contents
easier,
balance


nymph
the f


into
and t


devotion.


The


consciousness


his


in the


this


igure


long


bound
run.


spring


crossing


thus


to benefit


Diana


an exce


we know


anima


llent
. If


made
the


unconscious
considerably
psychic


numen


formulation
attention i


dir


ected


unconscious


unconscious


will


yield up its
the conscious


The


-: --


-I


contents,


like


thief..
^! ^ f I _


and


a fountain


. perso
^-r- -^ -


nifies
-_ r ..


turn


of living
a kind of


-! -.-~


will


fructify


water....
self-robb


-


11-


ery.
- 2 ._-! 1


m





__









"Ar
strong'
Lexicon
"hermaph
are unit
is there
"Luna, o
Here ars
arcane s
feminine
moon and
its sola
poisonous
always p
*


see

thi
the
the
his
mys
ual
and
sta
the

tha
spr
zat
of
men
mak
his
stu
sou
of
mig


pec
bee
n un
Th
ef i
oth
spi
rel
tery
Mer
fle
ndpo
mor
Th
t is
out
iona
the
t of
eshi
sou
Itif
1 ca
his
ht a


what the
human li
between
alchemic
conflict
We
"central


senic"
and wa


shows
rodit
ed.
fore
ur Ve
enic
ubsta
. Th
the
r aff
s and
points
liar
part
er tw
s is
cent
r asp
it of
tion
of th
urius
s "shh
nt of
over
sky
winge
ings.
thin
inged
colle
ts an
does
catio
and
ivinca


bru
s th
are


re.
the
al
ing
lea
wa


or:
s e,
T1


e,
It
cal
nus
is
nce
is
cru
ini
co
to
nat
ly
o d
wha
ras
ect
in
to


- J


igin
ssen
here


th
ha
le


no
but
brin
de s
ty.
rros
the
ure
acce
iffe
t ha
ted
, or
ner
the
sych
s ob
erin
e in
erin
del
n th


not


n.
mus
so
tal
e a
ca


i t
ty
e-o
led
ur
and
ge
ogi


n that
er." TT


all
tia
ar
lean
omm
un
phu
nge
is
s i
ml,


-I-


e

c


y
11
se
s
un
an
r'
r


he
t
ur


meant
y an
nic i
where
ion w
-Sk


a
s
t:
rd
d


S "SU
e. B
rinci
ows i
ed an
nt th
happe.
th th
person
uth wl
ss bu
Thi
ously
from
r man
that
ate y<
psych
dies
mass


s a
eals
ions
e no
life
elop
set
f co
d dr
whi
ext
the
ust
s.
e wi
s is


'masculi


arcan
s def
by Su
ith b


S.


Moon."
company
he masc
maphrod
angerou
so tha
Iphur's
because
pal unc
n what
d partly


ngs
ed
wi
fie
ich
by
wi
awa
the
is
f t
uth
or
rom
tat
her
ich
r b
ncr


nge
th


C
th
on
re
y


um,
ined
lphu
oth
Or a
n" a
ine
ic a
y cl
arse
ompa
e ar
scio
lati
reje


our


nged
s the
means
his
nged
re of
crud
the m
he ou
stan
that
the
istic
one
are
are e
can s
e soi
has o


I oppose
fought
obvious
spirit,


today w

d youth
e fount


ne, manly,
as Ruland's
as an
r and Mercu


]


tex
uth
tru
es
lat
uth
is
sul
e t
r m


* .
an
1
st
e
in
y
ov
ic
te
ou
ly
ex


n


ures
nic
the
ect
even
to
los
n" i
e su
cont


t:
, wh
e su
man
ion
(th
own
phur
hrea
an i
r ev
d li
n of
The
the
othi


ence
him
whi
the
erwh
tion
s, n
t in
the
pres


e express


ry


and
is
"soul.
of the


the
es
t i
bst
ent


the
o repr
Iphur,
not' by
to the
e spir
weakne
. The
tened
s.
erythi
ke to


nat
rse
nd
asp
nd
ose
nic
nio
can
us
on
cte


esents
,i


it-
ss


from
ch his
mystery
elming


ma
eve
str
ed
it


is espous


tter
ry
uggle
in



the


the


s
ance

ntent


*
I


L









medicine


the
wil
"mo
alw
sea
awa
of
uni
be
wit
apo


hi
1 b
the
ays
led
y.
the
te,
one
h t
cry


second
union


d


T
"u


appea
proje
logic

dark
the n
his m
belon
but a
espec
be ve
in id
thief
chast
lurki
new m
himse
is so
see h


he
ph
c
of
he
na


r.
cti
all
Tho
sid
ew
oon
gs,
Iso
ial
ry
eal
th
e D
ng
oon
if
sh
ims


catholica,


ist, t
)me re
>f mor
.ke ca
n ord
ae con
'niunc
.ght i
.nd th
femal
,1 say
Intury
oppos
"mach
,oidab
Irama
ght.
ent r
the g
what
.not 1
il ca
inevi
thout
thief
*ality
Says
Incre
>n of
, lead
.gh it
:. the


1



e


on.
ride
or t
ttra
if
trac
tic
hin
na,
the
and
the
king
f in


h
a
t
r
e
t
t
s
e
e
i

i
i
1
o


e m
1 o
al
e t
r t
ent
io,
we
ou
ne
ng
is
tes
nat
e. "
f o
Rea
cip
ilt
s g
ad
not
abl
pay
in
it
al
sin
he
to
is


re
Ne
an
he
ct
it
tiv
gar
der
but
id
his
ro
th


una


sal
eci
he
II


Sth
ent
ies
ich
'ith
as
mal
us
a


sha
th
not
s .
ert
he
ppo
ne
s n


S o
hey
sit
r, h
for
wh

br
er
ompt
fo
te:
mer
ths
syc
3 fl!7


e


it and


pro
said
. so
eles
ce t
ites
north
t sc
d mo
sten
you
eali
outh
f fe
the
e no


puts


f
a
es
ow
ia
at


us,


etc.


ous in po
can unit
... The a
e Hermeti
what is
"fixed" t


t
e
f
P


the
day,
he i
nor
romr
'arad


the
re


thi
an i
ust
r, c
itab
evi
ause
ome
ted


the
. B
Lun
ust
el w
from
the
posi
two


hr


extreme
and "
inside,
femal
the be
igm fo


best,


ut h
a, t
their
ell
fly
mys
tes
shal


e
he
before

ing
tery


and the male
e." This
ginning of the
r the alchemical


our


ntegra
as the
annot
ility
1 any
of th
as qui
once a


of life

armed w


m
s
h


th
hu
ogi
nd
lem
tha
eth
th
e d
not


er.
ruti
st o
sibl
th i
ty t
and
ar i
comrn
ble-
the


e


and


ith


ego


man
cal
this
of
t Lu
ing
e wi
arkn
onl
We
nize
f al
y it
n hi
he e
in
s th


text
art
adow
n th
s no
e th
the
y as
for


says,
of the
belongs
is into
t
an the
winged
he would
all;


is not


all
its
beg
hi
n k
on
oni
spi
uth
whi
one
>w t
los
it


r
e
h

C


mon
mind


blame


evil,


shad
in to
nders
nowle
of op
fies
cious
love
ch sh
anot
hat e
ely,
appea
cked
the
eady
ss of
t dis
This
annot


on the wiles


ow


the
dge
posites
the
about


S
e
he
vi
ca
rs


the
cover
role

of


:


.

)


i









propit
bride
in the
appear


asp
the
tat
of
Gho
Fro
to
mal
att
a d
man


ec
ri
io
in
st
m
re
ig
ac
ua


T
t
O
n
n


ious
and
way
qui
he t
of
morp
fro
ocen
and
his
rese
ity
, fi
isti


to him,
it has y
of wild
te insig
ender pa
the same
hic symt
m above
ce and c
Sapienti
context


n
o
r
c


le

In
i

)0
d
If
wa
w


it i
the th
from


to
nim
fic
of
nst
wo
wnw
mar
of
ca
th
ef.
ne


being


she is
be see
als. P
ant by
doves
inctual
uld be
yards "
ital lo
Christ
n see w
e exact
Toget
side an
e more


being
n wha
ossib
compa
is an


considered


she
the
son.


has t
thie


y, t
pabi
. Th
as
nd h


th
unt
th
hen


res


trlctea


cons


*-S


as a
o present
f will

harmless
itself the
nterpre-
e emblems
the Holy
Mother.
intended
the


ent the
other, of
ciousness


It
for
t on
, th
after
-by-
ude
this


outside
between
that the
precondi
Onc
evil con
wings ca
consumma
spirit a
of oppos
word the
fulness
be annul
an allus
resurrec
humdrum
soul mea
is at on
Thi
felt as
and anti


of an


obvious
od and
nd then
inner i
another


hem,
oppo
ions
the
eque
emb
ion
d th
tes
long
f ex
ed i
on t


unspoken,


a moment


s.
n
s.


of
half


evil
oth
nver
n re
ne-a
know
rabi


psyc
ity i
e mit
e ear
nhiero
tuali
oncil
act o
, the
The
t's d
the
tence
last
d and
an in
ealit
a fut


O
Us


r:
ed t
lity
ter-
edge
mor
nd e
cau
ble
iner


iga te
th.
sgamo
zing
iatio
f red
orig
earth
escen
other
of m
penet
upli
tuiti
y. I
ure c
*


-conscious


f s
ual
the
o g


U


preme


ly,
go
ood
hap
the
th
iff
ar
in
far


icable


ered,
too,
or now
, the
f the


sinf
and
we
"ear
heart


the
ion w
diss
*


Ke is
nto h
nd a
into
ed, a
d.
exper
s the
ition


union


e
s


di
he
oc
on
11
ha
wh


uln


p055


oweve
man
.. Th
ning
is a
side-
ult p
spirit
he co
han t


lities
t is
umbs to
eeming
vents
able
ide,
em.
forces
ct
night


indispensable


ess


that w
come t
thing"
h, the
vided,
reby t
nation
the o
and h
king o
ose li


hi
O
o


he

ne
is
f
fe


which


its
has


the
f the
union
n a
sin-
will
hand


the
and
he


ience that is
prefiguration
, a glimmering
f ego and non-


i


I


i









imag
at f


e


tells


irst
of ma
ribab
the n
emons
enia.


uphe
n to
le,
ame
trat


that


the


aval and d
the whole
is an intu
"Anthropos
es the con


wide
arkne
man.
itive
" is
tinui


ning
ss,


then


conscious
a broad


This "Man," b
or "mystical"
therefore very
ty of this idea


sness is
ening
ing in-
xperience,
pt because
over the


...Le
turns towa
complement
The e


dange
where
the g
spirit
forms
consc
but s
of th
is no
this
the "
from
from
into
"ligh
the a
fourth
every
deity


r of
the
loomy
t now
it.
ious
ometh
e unc
long
paves
ilium
now o


ne c
" th
chem
r st


one


adin
rds
of
ye t
evil
ethe
dee
mov
Whe
not
ing
onsc
er s
the
inat
n th
What
onsc
at s
ists
ep i
of t


g
th
th
ha
I


r


the


tur
eal
ca
s i
CO
nly
f i
ous
re:
way
on"
un
hap
ous
,ine
th
th


hese


water


eni
nis
the
to
eal:
be
fro
cio
oes
li
Th
te
or


steps


upwards


unium,


new
saw
ds th
f the
t to
within
ess d
rece
pene
esult
s tra
event
uncon
s is
that
e eas
end
denin
ation


th
mo
on
e
i


tS
ly
s t
of
of


signifies


means


gra
an<
th
rcl
ort
own
nvu
ne
a d
es
tha
and
uni
us
un
con
tha
he
co
the


that
ious
its
dark
of t
1 beg
devic
ses a
r to
vasta
nto t
the
terri


s n
sci
ts
efo
mo
iou
thr


a rebirth


and
per
nes
he
ins
es,
nd
the
tin
he
unc
fyi
atu
ot
ous
cro
re.
der
sne
opo
of


now
seren
ils.
s and
moon,
, and
for t
trans-
un-
g shock
darkne
onscio
naQ, an


na
ss,
s,I
St


e




he


k
ss
us
d


that
ar
ver
e
f
a
nd


Since


Philalethes'


parable


typical


genre,


shall


have


frequent


occasion


to refer


back


to Jung's


explication.


Jung,


discussion


relationship


between


Stone


Christ,


points


out


that


alchemical


opus


was


sometimes


thought


"a parallel


and


imitation--


perhaps


tion.


even


a continuation--of


Alchemy,


says,


divine


work


drama


of redemp-


human


psyche









The fir


formulation


is Christian,


second


alchemical.


case


to himself


and


man


leaves


attributes
the work o


the


need


f redemption,


redemption
the


actual


the


latter


opus
case


to
man


the a
takes


utonomous


upon


divine


himself


figure;
duty c


carrying
state of


out


eeming


suffering


anima


mundi


and c
impri


ons


attributes


opus,
equent


soned


need


redemption


in matter.


The


alchemical


and


Chri


stian


drama


are


contrasted


thus:


The


alchemical


darkness


drama


eads


earth


from


the


below


winged,


upwards,
spiritual


from
filiu


the


macrocosmi


and


the


modern;


Chri


stian


drama,


on the other


hand,


repre


sents


the


descent


Kingdom
a mirror


of Heaven


to earth.


-world,


One


God-man


has


the


coming


impres


down


sion


from


above
dark


--as


Gno


waters


stic


Phy


l e end -wer e


refle


cted


S5S


distinction


between


concepts


of redemption


Jung


says:


Wher


eas


the Chri


stian


belief


that


man


freed


from


sin
was


the


redemptory


evidently


act


the opinion


of Chri


that


st,
the


the alchemist
"restitution


eness


original


and


incorrupt


nature"


had


still


to be
that
comply


accompli


Chris


shed


s work


the art,


and


redemption


this


was


can


regard


only


mean


in-


ete.


But


final


analyst


the


negative


characteristics


Mercurius,


who


cons


titutes


the


substance


lapis


philosophorum,


that


account


the


principal


heresy


alchemy:


In compare


son


with


the purity


and


unity


the Christ


symbol,
doxical,


Mercurius


and


-lapis


thoroughly


ambiguous


pagan.


, dark,
therefore


para-


repre


sents


a part


by
the
it


p


Christianity


symbol
points


syche
and


which


can


"Christ.


devil.


L- &.


was


on no
the
who i


certainly
account be


contrary...


s known


not


moulded


express
in many


times


ed by


way


to dis-


.


L_


A









It should


pointed


out,


however,


that


since


the


alchemists


were


formulating


way


paradox


intuitive


concepts


beyond


grasp


conscious


und


ers


standing,


they


were


often


unaware


the hereti


aspects


what


they


were


doing.


a way


alchemy


can


seen


as an Eccl


esia


Spiritu-


alis


, owing


allegiance


to Chri


alone


, and


in some


respects


at odd


with


doctrine


Chri


stian


church.


The


chemi


were,


however,


experiencing


as a personal


reality


archetypes


basi


Chri


stianity


The


result


that


most


were


fervent


and


enthusi


astic


Chri


stians


eas


their


own


eyes.


Thus


writer


the


"Sophic


Hydrolith"


draws


own


parallel:


... the


not
Him


mere
self,


forth,


Art


prac


marve


in all


in a wonde


unspe


rful


enabi


Nature,


akabl


manner,


to und


but


glory


how


ers


nature


tand,
of God


It shadows


man


image


the
and


mos


t Holy


the Oneness


Trinity,


Substance


essence
es in t


hat


the Holy
Trinity,


Trinity,
as well


diff


erence


of Persons


; the


Incarnation


the


eco


nd P


Death,
Happin


from


person


the Holy


Resurrection;


ess


won


original


Him


Trinity,


Exaltation


us men;


sin,


sence


also


Nativity,


and


our


of which


the Ete


ssion,
rnal


purification
purification


all good
in brief


actions


all


men


would


articles


vain


the


and


void


Christian


--and,


faith,


and


reason


why


man


must


pass


through


much


tribulation


and anguish,


fall


a prey


to death,


before


can


rise


again
were


a new


life


All


this


we see


in our


Art


in a mirror


Esoteri


alchemy


, therefore,


a spiritual


discipline


which


can


transforms


be described


personality


as self-anoli


through


DSV


a process


chotherao


which


v. Alchemical


m


u









psyche,


and


fact


anticipated


centuries


the


empirical


basis


modern


depth


psychology:


* ..
matt
the
inte
they
them
not
ment
appr
only
curi
beyo

hidd
psyc
this


th
er
hu:
ns
f
i.
th
al
eh
t
ou
nd
So
en
he
d


e


alchemists


, wnic
man ps
ive pr
ollowe
nto a
e remo
labou
ension
he mod
s meth
the g
, alth
struck
, even
iscove


reg
tes
rs
of
est
od
ras
oug
tur
if
ry


were


known
e by w
cupati
his ps
ion th
t conn
consis
psych
role
of res
p of a
h the
e of m
they
meant.


to
ay o
on w
ychi
at,
ecti
ted
ic f
of a
earc
ny p
alch
atte
were
66


fascinate


them
f pr
ith !
c tr
to o
on w
in a


it
ec
tt
1,
w


act, th
famulu
h prove
sycholo
emists
r, they


scarcely


d by t
had r
tion.
er as
which
ay of
chemis
domina
intel
The
, howe
y for
ailed
discov


he


ece
Fo
a c
wa
thi
try
ntl
lec
re
ver
sev
to
ere


soul
ived


r a
onc
s t
nki


of
from


11
ret
o 1
ng,
The
ntu
lay
t o
o b
1 c
cov
hat


conscious


their
e fact
ead
had
ir
itive
ing
f this


e


e
e

w


nturies
r the
of the
'hat


The


alchemists


were


searching


a way


kingdom


heaven,


but


first


they


had


to make


themselves


worthy,


and


this


was


what


Philosopher's


Stone


was


about.


Al-


chemy


therefore,


according


one


commentator,


a pathway


to sainthood:


Those


he po
he wh
iousl
become
piou
perfe
ged i
mes 1
bad s
shed
ined
ht an
illus
among
thh


who


rro
d d
tri
th
Phi


ne
G


I


are


oa;
, mi
he m
gre
od.


pth
us
gi


r

Co
or
nh


I


f t
ho
n,
of
Fl
ton
the
Id,
ay
at
and
Hi
mop
es
cral


fortunate
his high
wever evi
experience
good act
amel affi
e, all th


ace
y th
divi
ite
Her
itnn


ncee
and
e c
ne
who
met
Uc


to have


timab
d vic
chang
depor
that


t is ba
sin is
ligious
been, h
mercy w
ntempla
nd admi
e high
c histo
nnhi narr


d
U
a


le
iou
e o
tme
whe
wi


roo
God
is
ch
on
ble
hie
al
1 C=


attained


reassure
they may
disposition,
t.... The
any one
hin him is
ted; he
-fearing;
henceforth
he had
of the
works.
vements
so declares
hllh


* ^


r









they may
equally


be;


it strips him of


of hope and


the violence or


fear;


excess


vain-glory,


it annihilates


desire;


and


ambition and


sweetens


and


softens th
the Adepts
gion.67


e most


our


severe forms of
art next to th


adversity.
saints of


God ranks
SHis reli-


The art


is a pathway


to sainthood:


perhaps


this


is what


Spenser


had


in mind


The Faerie Queene,


when he described


spiritual


transformation of


an uncouth rustic


into a


perfected


Saint George of


England.


This possibility we


will


explore


in Part


Il of


this


study,


when we


approach


Book


I of


Spenser'


poem from


point of


view of esoteric


alchemy,


which,


as we now


know,


was


a psychotherapeutic


discipline.















NOTES


The


collections


of Western alchemy are De Alchemia


(Nuremberg,
Auriferae, 3
(Strasbourg,
Britannicum


1541) ;
vols.


1659


Ars


-61)


(London,


Chemical


1610);


Elias


1652) ;


Strasbourg,


1566)


Theatrum Chemicum,


Ashmole


(ed.)


Museum Hermeticum


Artis


6 vols.


, Theatrum Chemicum


(Frankfurt a.


M., 1678)


: Joannes Jacobus


Mangetus


(ed.,)


Bibliotheca


Chemica


Curiosa


(Geneva,


1702),


vols .


Specifically Greek


texts


are


collected


in Marcellin Berthelot


(ed.),


Collection


anciens


alchimistes


grecs


(Paris,


1887-88),


vols.


For


bibliographical


information,


see


Henry Carrington ,Bolton,


A Sel


ect Bibliography


Chemistry


1492-1897


(New York,


1966-


67),


Denis
1965)


vols.


(the


Duveen,


; John Ferguson,


last


two


volumes


are actually


Bibliotheca Alchrmia et


Bibliotheca


Chemica


Chemica


(London,


"supplements");
(London,


1954),


vols


Dorothea


Waley Singer,


Catalogue of


Latin and Ver-


nacular


Alchemical 1


MSS.


in Great Britain and


Ireland


dating


from before


16th


Century


(Brussels,


1928-31),


vols.


also


the History


bibliographies


of Science


of George


(Washington,


Sarton,


1927-48),


Introduction


vols.


5 parts;


Lynn


Thorndike,


A History


of Magic and Experi-


menta 1


Science


(New


York,


1923-58),


vols.


2The


United
Occult
says t


largest


States
at Yale


ha t


collection
the Mellon


University.
"probably th


of books


and manuscripts


Collection of Alchemy


Ian MacPhail,


finest


collection


the


and the


bibliographer,
)n of alchemical


manuscripts
description,
Manuscripts


existence"


see


(Ambix,


Ian MacPhail,


XIV


(1967),


A Catalogue


from the Collection of Paul


198)


of Books


For a


and


and Mary Mellon...


(New


Haven,


collection


1968),


vols.


s in storage and


For the moment,
(according to


however,
Professor


the


Dewey


Faulkner


at Yale)


will not be


access


ible


for public


per-


usal


until around


1976.


sel,








work


to C.


Jung's


Mysterium Coniunctionis


(see


below.


Other


important


editions


are


those of


Julius


Ruska:


Buch
1905)


Alaune


"Die


Salze


speciebus


Vision des Arisleus,


salium)


" Georq Sticker


(Berlin,


Festschrift:


History
schaft
(Bruge


berg,


ische


Studien


(Berlin,


XXIV


1926);


1930)


(193


Turba


Skizzen
"Studien


5-36),


Phil


310-42


osophorum


zur Natur-
zu Muhammad


Tabula
(Berlin,


und Heilwissen-


ibn


Umail,


Sma raqd ina


1913).


The


" Isis


(Heidel-


follow-


editions


or translations


have appeared


in Ambix:


Jos ten,
treatise


"Truth's


Robert


Golden Harrow:


Fludd,


SIII:


an unpublished


(1948-49),


91-150;


a chemical


trans-


lation of John Dee's


with


Monas


an introduction and


Hieroq lyphica


annotations,


" XII


(Antwerp,


(1964)


1564)


, 84-221;


and F.


Sherwood Taylor,


"Translation of


Visions


Zosimos'


(193


7-38)


88-92;


"Translation of


alchemica i


works


of Stephanos


of Alexandria,


Part


(1937-3 ,


116-


Part
been


11,11I


1938-46),


translated


into


38-49.


English by


The Musaeum Hermeticum


Arthur


Edward Waite:


The


Hermetic Museum,


Restore


d and Enlarged


(London,


1893


and


1953),


vols.


4Besides


the many works


of C.


Jung


see


7 below),


reader


should


consu lt


Burland,


Arts


of the


Alchemists


Power,
1964);


(New York,
155-182;


Holmyard,


1968),


especially


Eugene Canseliet,


Alchemy


"The


Words


Alchimie


(Edinburgh,


1957)


(Montreux,


Jack


Lindsay,


The Origins


of Alchemy


in Graeco-Roman Eqypt


(New


York,


1970).


dispensable:


following


John


Read,


an older work,


Prelude


but


Chemistry:


still


An Outline of


Alch emy,


Literature and


Relationships


(New


York,


1937)


5For


neuerer


Forge and


example,


Zeit


Herman


(Hildesheim,


the Crucible


Kopp,
1962),


(New York,


Die Alchemie


vols.
1962),


in alterer und


Mircea
. 142,


Eliade,


warns


The


that


alchemy
writers
Chimie


regarded


of such


class


au Moyen age


as an embryonic


sic works
(Paris, 1


stage of


Marcellin


1893),


vols.


chemistry"


Berthelot,
Edmund von


La
Lipp-


mann,
1919),


Ents


tehung und Ausbreitung der


(Berlin,


1931),


Alchemie,


(Weinheim,


1954);


(Berlin,


Julius


Rusk


(see


York,


fn. 3


above)


1949);


Die Alchemie


Sherwood Taylor,


John Read
im Mittela


(fn.
Iter


4 above)


The
and


(Paderborn,


Alchemists


(New


Ganzenm'uller,


1938).








Jung,


Mysterium


Coniunctionis,


The


Collected


Works


was


. G.


first


public


Jung,
shed


Vol.


XIV,


German)


2nd


(New


1955-56


York,


; Psychology


1970),


a nd


chemy,


Coll


ected Works,


Vol


aXII,


2nd


. rev.


(New


York,


1968


rence,


Vol.


was


published


" The


XV I


Practice


rev.


(New


1944;


Psychoth


York,


"Psychology


erapy,
1966),


the


Collected


Trans-


Works,


is a preliminary


study


psychothe


coniunctio,


first


rapeutic
published


problems


1946


; Aion,


terms
Coll


the alchemical


ected


Works


, Vol.


2nd


(New


York,


1968),


first


published


1951,


contains


ese


essays


"The


Alchemy,


" "The


Alchemi-


erpr


etation


the


Fish,


" "Background


Psy-


chology


Christian


Alchemical


Symbolism"


Alchemica 1


Stud-


les,


Collect


ed Works,


Vol.


XIII


(New


York,


1967),


contains


the


remainder


Jung


s alchemi


studies


"Commentary


The Secret


Golden


Flower"


(1929),


"The


sons


mos


" (19


38/


1954)


, "Para


sus


as a Spiritual


Phenomenon"


(194


"The Spirit


Mercurius"


(1943/19


54),


and


"The


Philo-


sophical


Tre


e" (1945/1954).


erard


Heym,


"Review


of Mysterium


Coniunctionis,


Ambix,


(1957-58),


9For


example,


Alexander


Wild


er,


New


Platonism


and


Alchemy


(Albany,


1869);


and


M. A.


Atwood,


Herm


etic


Philosophy
Suggestive
anonymously


Alchemy


Inquiry


Into


(New


York,


1960)


the Hermetic


a re


stery,


-issue


The


published


1850.


10Martin
Martin


Ruland,


A Lexicon


Alchemy


(London,


1892),


393.


11Jung,

12Jung,


XII,

XII,


39-224.

117.


13C.


. Jung,


"The


Relations


between


the


Ego


and


Unconsc


ious


" Two


says


on Anal


tical


Psychology,


Coll


ecte


d Works


Jung,


Vol.


'VI I


(New


York,


1953).


and
'C/-'


14M.
His


von


Franz,


"The


Symbols,


Process


Jung


(New


Individuation,


York,


1971),


" Man


159-







16Ruland,

17Waite,


435.


18Jung,


XII,


334.


9Erich Neumann,


"Mystical Man,


" The Mystic


Vision,


Papers


from the Eranos


Yearbooks,


Vol


. VI


(Princeton,


1968),


380-386.


20Joseph


Campbell,


Creative


Mytholoqgy,


The Masks


of God,


Vol.


(New York,


1968),


4-8.


21Ernst


Cassirer


,Mythical


Thought,


The


Philosophy


Symbolic


Forms,


Vol.


(New Haven,


1955).


Jung1


The Archetypes


the Collective Un-


conscious,


The Collected Works


of C.


Jung,


Vol.


(New


York,


1959),


Jung,


IX:1,


4-5,


66-67,


155.


24Ruland,


381.


25Waite,


26Waite,

27Waite,


28Waite.,

29Waite,

30Waite,

31Waite,


316.

72.

139.

162


32Aurora


Consurgens,


47-49.


3cf.


Richard Wilhelm and C.


Jung,


The


Secret of the


Golden Flower,


- -


trans.


1962.


by Cary F.


For Junq' s


Baynes


(London and


commentary,


see


New


also


York,


Vol.


1931),


rev.


22C.








35Jung,

36ung,
Jung,


XIV'

XIV'


37Jung,
(Luna); 183-


XIV,


(Sol);


110-


(Sulphur);


129-


(Salt).


38Jung,


XIV'


cites


Theatrum


Chemicum,


I111*


39Jung,


XIV,


210.


40The


full


Psychological


ypes


expos
(New


ition
York,


to be


23).


Jung,


found
Jung,


theory


psychological


conscious


mind


types


, has defin


takes


ed the


hearings


functions
thinking,


whi


ling,


sens


action,


intuition


The


first


two


defines


rat


iona


and


the


last


two


irrational.


41Engli


translation


Steel


and


Singer,


quoted


Holmyard,


Jung,


XIV,


184-


185.


43Jung,

44Jung,


XIV,

IX:2,


Ill.

8 f.


In alchemy


we are


ling


exc


lus ively


with


masculine


psychology,


mas


culine


but


and


corres


would


pond ing
termed


archetype
the Animus


a woman


See


Jung,


would
IX:2,


46Jung,


IX:1,


47
Jung,


XIV,


241.


48Quercetanus,


Theatrum


Chemi


cum


SII,


cit


Jung


XI ~II


239.


terms


are


defined


Ruland


s Alchemical


exicon


thus:


CALCINATIO


"When


matter


like


snow-white


calx,


full


fire


and


the water


thirst.
therin.


And


this


He di


Dragon,


bur


who


drinks


. Thi


-~~ .


1


.%


r t r 1


q


q








SOLUTION: "The
bodies of
attenuated
among arti
process.
generic na


first pa
coagulat
. There
sts the
Sometime
me. Sol


rt of Practic


sub
re s
rm i
each
ion


Liquation, and Segregati
Calcination and Dissolut
SEPARATIO ELEMENTORUM: "Much


aration of the Elem
There is simply an


from the impure
the pure Essenc


the El
ABSCES
divers
tion,
CONIUNCTIO:
and wi
the fi
the fe
and of
ment,
means
of the


The&
and
Lioa
The
bec
the
ful
tha
the
con
mak
the
of
cal
whe
fem
thi
anrl


ements has
SUM: "Sepa
e nature mu


fe
rs


d de
"Con
. S
t of


rme
th
whe
of
co


ophra
the
n can
Red
ome r


S


woman
then
the w
bath o
emotion


ng
for


th
m,


the un
cines
n the
iinne
rd sub
rnmme


part
jugi
ome
the


as
is
be
ra
tu
in
m
ay
sp


and th


subj


n th
the
ngea
tus
lood
beco
,ion
Sd.


e
wa
le


st
0
me
be
Se


appro
they
oman
f the
. Th


e ma
as
ion
and
matt
seed
stan
nriSe


tt
th
is
ir
er
c
ice
a


ect.
red m
ter.
d spi


ates
f th
the
come
cond
ache
must
may


ents,
alter
when
pres
en ac
tion
ally
oppo
is Co
that
irit


ston
But
lan a
The


stanc
ever
s app
part
is of
on or
ion"
has
yet
action
an A
erved


complish
by Remov


break


a


site di
pulatio
there
and the
e, the
here w
approach


w
r
n
a


al Chemi


s a
di
led
cul
two
Sep
p.
een


no
wh
Iko


re dis
stinct
more
ar spe
kinds
aratio
296).
said


stry, whereby t
solved and
species, but
commonly to one
cies takes the
: Melting or
n. otherwise


ano


such thing
ich separa
1 is const


Then


ed


I'


al is
ay fro
section
, the
re thr
earth,


th
e
es


conjunction


rit with


. When
e White
White E
s white
ly, they
s the ma
be plac
not flee


sea--
e matte
er like
e woman
the ca
iturate
begins
oagulat
. Then
natw. "


t
r


the


the
Eag
agl
in
mu


n; t
ed i
awa
is,
fers


dis
lood
are
and
der


ut


t


tak
tes
ruct


he Sepa
Cf. SEP
when pa
m their
s" (p.
union o
ee kind
the se


r
A
r

2
f
S
C


rd of the me
peak at the
the white wo


s th


solv
of
uni
be
that


t ne mar
he man r
n the se
y, and,
the black
, the fo


r
e
a
1
k
r


ed
the
ted
one
th
ied
nde
led
ast


m


co
bod
Re
, t
wi
e w
al
rs
be
Iv.


ive


h
d


-S -
soluti
works


it; the matter desires aft
after the man. The comment
Icination; then the Mercury
s the bodies; coition takes
to become white; then the


e

n


s;
thi
1


and the
s loses
19 F _


then


er fruit
, in ord
into
on of
itself,


-er
ler


er
cement

place


re arises from both a
its individuality,


he Sep-
es place.
the pure
ed, and
action of
RATIO PER
ts of
conjunc-
91 f.).
the man
of it:
ond of
dicine
commence-
man by
pulation
y, as
d Lion
he Red
th it.
white mav


*


:
-


1


i


I








agency
being
the co
and so
i"


Part
powe
bril
much
elem
we mi
using
of t]
posi
simp
elem
By a
and
putr


cup
and
Put
lim
pla
sha

Sub
hea
the
a n
sec
mil
The
sin.
in
hea
is
bat
COAGULAT
and
the
*


S,
r
li
t


st
t.


exte


aki
mpo
lid
Put
wh
of
ant
4


n


nt
st
0.
e
e


1C
nt
na
ol
fa
"T
S
ut
fa
io

V
"P
an


old
ew n


0
d


nd
th
pur
ing
he
of
ref


of

lu
r


2



I


e el
ary
be (
nly
essei
Subsl
ity,
, anm
tura
idif:
ctioi
here
a mil
refai
ctio:
n of
n the
inegi
utre
ce o
It i
, or
atur<
gene:
ereb
e is
to
vess
the
erab
dew
"Co
tid c
educ
-.9 U


to
nt
ies
fac
h h
noi
Ich
eme
com
on
one
nce
tan
th


a
I
S


ag
on
ti
Ct


rnal
its
part
apa
tion
ave
st h
emic
nts
posi
our
tha
s.
ces,
ere
his
>utre


ie
ion
S
lem
dry
, a
cti
the
the
ina
I
tio
an
epa
.e b
., a
lung
, h
(p
ula
s'is
.on
I


heat.


When


this


moist substance
s, preserves it
rt....


is
open
eat.
al o
as t
tion
guar
t sh
Henc
unu
is s


ome
ent
wa
nd
on
ma
pr
1 n
t h


S,
ter
bel
is
tte
ope
atu
as
Co
11
ed
om.
the
3ing
ver
5).
,n i
cy
.o a


the
ed
I
per
he


solution


01
:t
a
c
A


d ag
all
e it
sual
omet
thin
ion
kind
luti
kin
betw
is c
ot w
Cook
of
onas


ut u
is
tion
eles
ccor
a ins
be e
bec
ly r
hing
g is
it p


t
S


under
the


tia
din'
t a
nou
ome


e



r


d
by
>f
Sc
ed
ou

*p
Lly
ti
.e
ocu


th
ime
ve
rs
the
th
el


move
inte
rega
oduc
isso
med
putr
orro
Dry
t re
and
hilo
to


0
a
t


e
mu


tainted


, for


the


n,
ppl
ref
thi
the
iri
"e c
.mpu
mat
st
fo
ves


.s the Condens
of things of
solid state.
I.. U.. -. -- I .


the


pla
d f
rna
rde
es
lut
ici:
efa
siv
an
aso
Sol
sop
the
dis
ica
act
ng,
sa
ts
han
re-
ter
be
,r a


is done, th
is separated
homogeneous


e heat,
from
nature,


Component


solving
*


e
e


mos
s no
from
exp
isso
t th
t in
emen
des
ncum
subs


on is t
e.
tion wh
calcin
Philos
nam A


A.,
uti
her
Su
sol
tio
ion
an
me
bec
ged
-th
mu
put
fi


sel t

ation
the s
Thu


, or
and
ing
of
to d
to
esul
me s
into
lat
t be
into


o be


t
t


C
ta
th
bu
ta


so
hei
ime
tio
esc
om-
1
e
sti
nce


wofold--


i
a
o
i
I


r
nts
n,"
ape


ble.


oc-
on
ical
Sub-
takes
ry
on.


al

uce


Laced
Ing,
Lod.
into


the
It
a


from a tenuous
ame nature, and
s those sub-


I


i


.


1 JLbII


LL








a homogeneous


by many
limatio
ways:
either
'IO: "C
:MATIO:
by mean
Sub lima
also a
splendid
ascends
virtue,
that wh
heights
or the
1NTATIO:
part by


mass, a
immedia
,0


body a:
Mercur-
have t
body.
ophers
perfect
without'
which
with, 1
bodies
EXALTATIO:
AUGMENTATIO
PROJECTION:
Medici,
transf
the pr
substal
however
digest
tion a
by a v


n
b
C
o


other
, dist
y Segr
old or
rporat
"Subli
of Di
ion do
processs
, and
Subl
as whe


CIBAT
SUBLI












FERME


te


* .
nd
YI
ha
F
t


r
rm


r


on
fe
tru
'nve
he
whe
Lit


i
n
e
h


body.


operate
illati
egatio
hot."
ion" (
nation
stance
es not
by wh
excel 1
imatio
n Sol
elevat
hat wh
for t
Exalta
of a f
ates t
the s


rmen
e ma
rts
ston
n th
, th
t fl
ing
ta in
all


ody
omb
11
ch
(r


"Same as
Not def
"The exal
e--which
rmed, by
cess of f
tially by
, in that
on, where
d mixture
olent int
a -1 -Y -r a


Sub
ine
tat
is
a s
erm
ac
it
by


And


ions-
on, e
n and
(P.
p. 10


is
, th
alw
ich
ent-
n me
is m
ed,
ich
hey
tion
erme
here
piri
the
er,
int
itse
ston
whe
ts a
erew
trac
*


atio
n Ru
of
iect


a-


RIk


e
O
i
t
f
o
t


this coagulation is co-ordinated
-devaporation, exaltation, sub-
tc. It is performed in two
Comprehension. And it is
107).
2).


of
e o
ayd
sub
-ye
ans
tade
tha
is
are
of
'nt
fin
tua
phi
whi
o t


receive


two


w
i
1
1
C
h


kin


impr
out
whi
mpro
one.
a Ma
which
n a
nat
OSOD


h
e


is
is
it
er
h,
of
and


p
u
hi


, un
nat
the
SO s
is p


ds--
mea
an
bec
tru
emen
Lun
is
d ma


one
ns
asc
ome
e t
t o


p. ju
r int
netra
uliar


e

r
t


U
r


he manner
e need som
its former
introduce


is
of S
ensi
mor
hat
f qu
and
ve o
e th


eff


ur
on
e
th
al
is
n
e


f


pre
e v
ity
ca
the
hig


its
es th


manner,


rsta
its
eof.
of
s th
ove
f an
oth
affi


o
er
ni


it into


ut
ciou
apou
and
lied


hest


ential
entire
acting


a
ope
Som
per
phi
an
il,
bo
ty


ot


true
r
e will
fect
los-
im-

dy,
there-
her


n
1
a


" (p. 138)
and.
substance


ed over
gressio
n, which
thin it
effect
ferent
n the c
ion, wh
A A a


n. It
h chang
. It.d
ed by m
parts u
contrary
ich tra
L-


a Proj
ter to
orresp
s a ma
offers
ans of
dergo
perfo
s forms


acting


onds to
tter
from it,
a slow
a itera-
rmed
at the


ich is
; but
lowest
"The
means
nd ope


1AA


rr


L
!

!


L


I


.f









Jung,

50Jung,

51Jung,

52Jung,


XIV,

XII,

XV',

XVI,


xiv.

245.

198.

200


3Aniela
G. Jung


Ja ffi,


" A Cata


"The


loque


Influence


of Books


of Alchemy


on the Work


and Manuscripts


compiled


MacPhail,


Franz,


Aurora,


. Hamilton


Philalethes


, Amb


XIII


-Jones
(1965


, "The


-66),


Identity


of Eirenaeus


and Ronald


Wilkin


son,


"A Further


Note


on Eirenaeu


s Philalethes


" Ambix,


XIII


(1965-


66),


3-54


6Waite,


James


'Sigmund
Strachey


Freud,


(New


The


York,


Interpre


1969),


station


of Dreams,


trans.


. 313


Jung,


XIV,


160-172.


"Christ,


Symbol


Self,


" in


Jung,


IX:2,


36-71.


60Jung,

61Jung,

62Jung,

63Jung,

64Jung,


XII,

XII,

XIV,

XIV,

XIII,


375.

306.

103.

34.

241.


65Waite,


, 88.


I v


59
See


54
iron


d~Ef


-














CHAPTER


SPENSER


AND


THE


ESOTERIC


TRADITION


We have


seen


that


recent


trends


scholarship


pro-


vide


justification


regarding


The


Faerie


Queene


as an


esoteric


or magical


poem


requiring


ecifi


cally


Renai


sance


under


standing


the


series


that


series


involved


an exalted


type


of Renaissance


magi


that


achi


eved


results


means


what


today


would


call


psycho-


therapy;


that


realm


Renaissance


magic


rather


than


what


some


criti


have


mistakenly


termed


"Eli


za-


bethan


psychology"


that


the


probable


basi


Spenser


strikingly


modern


grasp


the


psychology


unconsc


ious


must


be sought;


and


finally


that


the


mystery


tradi tion


best


represented


esoteric


alchemy,


which


contains


what


mod


ern


standards


the most


accurate


and


compreh


ens


for-


mulation


psychology


the


unconscious.


The


task


the


esent


esoteric


milieu,


chapter


tradition


esp


ecially


to explore


the


context


impinges


the


impli


the


on Edmund


cations


Elizabethan


enser


cultural


through


such


friends


and


acquaintan


ces


as Sidney,


Dyer,


eight,


Dee








Out


the


surge


creative


energy


which


characterizes


the


Renaissance


concern


the


there


present


emerges


study


theme


: it


which


idea


will


great


of human


per-


fectibility.


Indeed,


the


esoteric


tradition


inseparable


from


thi


idea,


offered


the


means


whereby


thi


goal


could


attained.


The


statement


best


epitomizing


thi


at-


titude


found


the


Asci


epius,


called


The


Perfect


Sermon,


which


contained


the Corpus


Hermeticum


trans-


lated


into


Latin


Ficino


1463.


Here


Hermes


Trismegis-


tus,


Tat,


Ammon,


and


Asc


lepius


enter


God


sanctuary:


...the


four


place


men,


and


was


was


made


holy


filled


pious


with


God


s pr


awe


essence.


the
And


the hear


ers


stened


in fitting


ence


and


with


heart


and


soul


eac


h of


them


hung


the


words


reverence


through


the lips


of Hermes


the divine


Eros


thus


egan


Hermes


has


constellate


arc


etype


the


teacher


or pro-


phet,


and


words


divine


wis


dom


flow


through


him


from


the


collective


unconscious


thus:


It i


rus
who
the


like


that


strives


hear


ers


torrent
in its


to follow


but


even


plunging
swiftness
it, and
the teac


downward


it out
leaves


him


with


strips
behind
,self.2


headlong


the
not


man
only


This


definition


man


which


was


more


widely


quoted


the


Renaissance


than


any


other:


Man i
reverence
attributes


a marvel


to such


familiar


then


a being!


a god,
with


Asc


Man


though


lepius


takes


were


honour
on him
himse


the daemonkind,


and
the


a god;


comes


know


that


he


is sprung


from


the
SJ


same
-A- ^ -^ JL


source


as
-. I- .-


they;
i- B


-- ------- -


A


-. 1-









own


else


being
with


which
which


makes


him


finds


thing


himself


of earth;
connected


and


all


even


ordering,
fiction.


tends


station,
and is 1


binds
raises
earth


ove


d by


to himself
reverent


below.


so placed
all above


of his


eyes


Blest


that
him.


to h
in hi
loves


He ha


even
s inte


above


rmediate


below


access


him,


to all;


he d


esce


to the depths


sea


the keenness


his


thought;


him,


were
trate


and


measures


within


his


reach


the element


hea


ven


is not


it by


h.
air


With


found


sagacity,


his


cannot


quick wit


blind


high fo
though
e pene-


his mental


sion


with


thick


dark


ness


ense


earth


cannot


impeae n
downward


work;


gaze.


water


Man


all


things


cannot


man


blur


is eve


rywhere.


The


"divinity"


which


man


posse


sses


as we would


say,


the


unconscious.


The


the personality


of esoteric


unconscious


becomes


doctrine


is seen


spiritualized.


does,


as a matter


means


The


greater


fact,


which


portion


concern


self with


phenomenon


intera


action


between


con-


scious


and


unconscious


actions


the psyche.


Thi


"divine


tery"


over


which


the


"veil


secrecy"


must


spread.


Seen


thi


way,


Hermes


' words


make


a great


deal


sense:


...our


thought


attains


mental


effort


kind


knowl


edge


cosmic


whi


mind;


corres


and


ponds


having


come


to the chara


to know


cter


cosmic


things,
eternity


to pass
things


furthermore


and


that
of he


supra


we men


aven,


the conditions


we aspire


narrow


bounds


attains


cosmic


see


, as


so far


the human


sight
; but


to a know


gods.
through


this
mind.


things


great


is man


And


dark


edge


thus


comes


mist,


is compatible


Our


power


so high,


are


s happiness


with
when


limited


when


he has
lowly


seen
is our


that


vision.


You
how


see


Asc


lepius


, how
things
I give


r n n T.fl


clkn~


rn3


I









Another


book


from


the


Corpus


Hermeticum


which,


like


the


Asclepius,


helps


define


the


Renaissance


concept


man


The


Poimandres


Hermes


Trismegistus


It is


significant


that


this


a dream-vi


sion


: Hermes


' "bodily


senses


had


been


put


under


res


traint


sleep"


and


sees


Poimandres,


Being


vast


and


boundless


magnitude,


" who


is a personifi


cation


the


unconscious.


Hermes


tell


Poimandres


that


"would


their


fain


nature,


learn


and


the


get


things


know


that


edge


are


God.


, and


understand


Poimandre s


replies


that


know


what


you


for


indeed


am with


you


every-


where,


" and


offers


teach


the


dreamer


what


he wishes


earn.


What


follows


a dramatic


description


the


logos


sing


out


"archetypal


form"


prior


Creation


the


World.


is presented


as a psychic


event:


When


changed


had


in aspec


thus


spoken,


t before


forthwith


and


were


all


open


things


ed out


a moment.


And


I beheld


a boundless


view;


was


changed
marvel


into


light,


ed when


a mild


saw


and


And


joyous


light;


a little


and


while,


there
darkne


had


come


to be


terrible


and


in one


part


grim....


a downward


And


thereafter


-tending


saw


the
was


darkn


ess


unspea


from
sound


changing


kably
and


tossed
heard


entation;


into


a watery


about,


and


it making


there


gave


an inde


was


sent


stance
forth


, which
smoke a


scribabl


forth


from


it an inart
came forth


watery
voice


And


iculate
a holy


substance;


the Light.
Poimandres


cry.
Word,


and


But


whi


from


took


methought


spoke


for


the
it


thi


Light
stand


Word


me to hear,


there


was


and


upon
the


the


said


me.
seen?'
know.'


you
'Tell
'That


under


stand


meaning


meaning,


Liqht,


' he


of what


said,


said,


'and
even


you


have


shall


Mind,


the










son,


and


separate


word


and


the
one
mind


'Now


'and


earn


mind
from
i


ix your
to know


IS
the
Said


father
other;


For


thought


the


word.


for life
this I


upon


And


the


when


thank


Light,


had


They are
the union


you.
' he


thus


said,


spoken


zed long
s aspect.


mind


and
out


had


that
come


bounds.


reason


upon
And


the


to be


This


the word


, so


when
Light


raise


that


head


consisted


an order


perc
which


ed world,


eive


trembled


again,


innumerab 1


but


thought,


Poimandres


had


a world


see


saw


Powers
with-


ing


spoken


me.


And


You


when I


ave


is prior


was


seen


amaze


in your


he spoke
mind the


to the beginning


ain,


arc


things


and


etyp
and


said


form,
limit


which
less.


Thus


spoke


Poimandres


me.


Poimandres


' admonition


learn


looking


at what


you


your-


self have


in you"


s the


very


formula


which


man


can


reali


full


extent


of hi


divine


nature.


thi


context,


ess


than


divine


to be


ess


than


a man.


The


most


em-


phatic


affirmation


man


s di


vinity


the


entire


Corpus


Hermeticum


found


Libellus


X of


Poimandres:


Nay,
is i


we are


.nde


a man


to speak
is even


the
abov


truth
e the


without


gods


fear,
heaven


he who
, or


any


rate


he equal


them


in power.


None


the


gods


of heaven


and
and


come


will


down


measures


mounts


vast
not


to h


a dis
shrink


ever


quit


to earth;


and


even


tance
then


aven,


but


what


without


can he put
from saying


man


is more
quitting


forth
that


and


asce


than


his p
a man


pass


its


even


all


earth;
ower.


boundary,
to heaven,


beside


, he


We must


on earth


iS a


mortal
man.6


god,


and


that


a god


even


is an immortal


The


"divine


man"


which


Hermetic


writings


celebrate


, of


course,


not


ordinary


man,


but


the


magus


, the


ected


refer


their


filius









point


having


made


himself


a fit


vehicle


"divinity"


he must,


final


analy


, look


to God


and


divine


grace


for


the


ultimate


perfection


powers:


All


this


had
man
and


power, all
assistance


neither


who
his


power


depended


own


glory


from


nor


on his


sciences


God.


glory.


own


was


man


Without
Natural,


pow


ers


power


ess


as magus


such


his
and


res


aid,


profane


own


1 n-r ii


ted...


man


man,


reason,
vi i niiE 7


The


powerl


ess


and


inglorious"


natural


man


is one


who


not


experienced


unconsc


ious.


was


the


purpose


eso


teric


doctrine


to initiate


the


cho


sen


individual


an awareness


reality


part


the


psyche


whi


ch li


beyond


ego


: thi


doctrine


effects


constituted


the


Ren-


aissance


concept


the


series


The


main


reason


our


interest


the


Renaissance


series


, as Edgar


Wind


has


pointed


out,


because


"the


splendour


their


ex-


pres


with


sion


works


Renai


which


ssance


"were


art.


" We


are


designed


concerned,


initiates;


hence


require


an initiation.


s initiation,


which


has


goal


creation


magus


implicit


the


symbolism


some


most


chara


cteristic


art


Renaissance.


we would


truly


understand


the impli


cations


Spenser


s remark


that


The


Faerie


Queene


"a matter


of just


memory,


ves


we must,


Spenser


effect,


"memory"


undergo


Is none


this


other


initiation


than


our-


col


lective


memory


mankind


: it


, as we would


say,


+liy rvL J.VUJ (


,,


rir


--








into


collective


unconscious,


but


also


to organize


Thus


Yates


describes


Bruno'


stem


"introducing


to the


core


the


creative


act,


the


inner


act


whi


ch precedes


outer


express


sion.


It i


a kind


of Hermetism


designed


to generate


sublime


works


art,


which


turn


will


provide


the


magic


necessary


the


creation


the


magus:


man
the


s mens 1
universe


divine


is within


then
it,


the
and


divine
an art


organi
which


zation
repro-


duces


the


divine


organic


zation


in memory


will


tap


the


powers or
When


begin
memory


the


cosmos


the contents


app


ear


artist


within


eves


, which


are


memory
psyche


the


in man


are


hims


unified


this


sion


elf.


there


will


Herme


One beyond


the


multiplicity


appearances


Though


the


stem


very


complic


ated,


we can


gain


some


idea


the


procedure


from


Miss


Yates


' analysis


Bruno


believes


that


can


make


stem


which


gets
the


inside


the


permutations


astrologic


and


stem,


combinations


which
the c


refl


ects


hanging


planets


horo


scopal


nature


the
hou


zodiac


ses


and


will


to organic


the


elr


influences


be tapping
psyche....


the mechanisms


If we drop


word


'magi


cal


' and


think


the


efforts


an occult.


memory
psyche
within


logic
typal


artist


as directed


combinations


range


some


thought....


memory


images


towards


'archetypal'


maj or
Through


sees


trends


the
the


drawing


images


of modern


magic


groupings


out


we come


psycho-
arche-
nature


his
of


as bound


The


together
magic of


with
magic


magic


images


and a
could


ssociative


interpri


links
eted


Renai


ssance


as an arti


stic


magic


; the


imag


became
dowed


endued


with


with


perfect


aes


theti


power


through


Ing


en-


proportions


Bruno'


spirits or
linking...


prac


demons


magic...


through


through


"link


cons


the imagination,


drawing


One
and


way


was








normal
forms


faculty
y making


psychology


which,


imagination,


however,


and


more


trans-


particularly


magically


joined


energy.
sole gate
links."


the


Thi


animated o
cogitative
magically


to all


Bruno


expounds


ditioning
into the


will


of
pers


unlock


r exc


ited


power,
animated


internal
language
to him,


imagination


onality
ts inner


imagination,


source


imagination


sections


is exc


ited


central


in such


spiritual


powers


and
and


stery,
a way


or demonic


This


was


when


of psychic


"the


the


link


secure


the


of
as


con-


as to draw


forces


what


always


trying


to do with


magic


memory-sy


stems,


and


the objec


eluding


pages


was


is quite


of De Magia,


clear


to achieve


from
the


the
pers


con-
onality


and


powers


a great


...Giordano


suit


the


Magus


Bruno


Renaissance


or religious


the


direct


and


glorification


leader.
logical
Man as


re-


the


great
again
him.


Miracle
become


man


who


divine


is divine


with


in short,


the


divine


in his
Powers


res


the


origin


res


and


can


iding


Renaissance


Hermetism.


Hermetic


man


exp


can


eriences


obtain


, why


such


should


powers


not


this


through


have


been


the


way


whi


ch Christ


obtained


powers?12


It becomes


clear,


therefore


, that


poetry


conceived


the


context


series


has


a purpose


beyond


itself:


can


regarded


means


as a spec


attaining


ies


divine


salvation


revelation,


The


point


as actual


Murrin


fine


book


that


"allegory


originates


divine


inspira-


tion,


superhuman


vision,


and


has


end


the


same


ex-


perience


other


people


Paraphrasing


Sallustius,


lamblic


hus,


and


others


Murrin


states


the


ancient


view


all


egorial


or mythic


language


thus:


Since


myth
and


must


gods
repr


what


surpass


esent


cannot


man


both


say.


in power


what


man


It must


and


can


say


include


sdom,
about


both


the


them


the


scure


, the


which


was


, ,


,,









people
not th
gory;


divinity


people


they


these


which


exercise


lives


inspires


real


determine


him.


control


over


gods,
alle-


nature.


This


another


way


of saying


that


the


allegory


associated


with

than


myth


an autonomous


a product


conscious


creation


invention:


the

the


unconscious

poet discov


rather


*ers


poetry


in hi


S unconscious


and


communicates


people.


There


is no reason


imagine


that


he himself


need


have


any


clearer


understanding


meaning


alle-


gory


than


those


to whom


presents


The


inspired


words


come


already


covered


veil


allegory;


nature


"dark


spee


god


The


only


thing


that


can


consc


iously


concea


from


the


uninitiated


source


from


which


inspiration


came


to him


place.


we consider


that


the


chief


criterion


which


Renaissance


as well


antiquity


distingui


shed


be-


tween


"true"


and


poetry


extent


to which


was


discovered


rather


than


invented


then


endl


ess


debates


concerning


"poet"


versus


"pseudopo


will


begin


make


sense


. Mr.


Murrin


expre


sses


stinction


thus:


The


et stirs


memories


of hi


audience


to recall


their


true


nature


and


their


lost home,


and


can


evoke


this
hims


reminiscence


elf;


that


because
memory


he has


still


already


both


experience


an efficient


d it


and


final


crac
the
mind
old


cause


and


celestial


des


ended


vision


of his
assures


music
into


again,


art.


of hi


he had
matter;
tried


The


poet


bodily
known
and,
to fly


pri
long


heard


son


ago,


wishing to
back home


through
images o


efor
see
but


the
found








to escape
audience


had.


Again


from


the
the


matter.


same


What


vision


memorial


The pseudopoet


own


vision.
he stirs


sophia


ration.


mind, fo
He thus


no one


and


hn7~


t4chne


the


he and


act


weaves


has


produces
s memories


W1S


, images


It is not


dom


not


poet


awakes


everyone


else


once


communal.


s allegorical
recalled the


empty
...
and a


without


child


poetry,


True
rt;
*


vision,


web


out


ancient


without


poetry
false p
art wi


Mnemosyne.


depth;


combines


oetry
thout
15


has
ins


True


all


egory


inseparable


from


the


esoteric


tradition,


be-


cause


it i


means


which


that


tradition


expres-


sed


therefore


a fundamental


error


to approach


poem


like


The


Faerie


Queene


other


than


combination


sophfa


and


t~chnZF.


the


reader


who


could


truly


attain


"Renai


ssance


und


ers


standing


the


mystery


" Spenser'


poem


would


seen


as a sublime


creation


to which


the


proper


response


would


be wonder


and


astonishment:


.. .we
thing
could


was


must


try


experience


the excitement


give
not


ancient


a proc


ess


which


within


all


world


mere


ourse


egoric


and


the


interpretation,


lives


some-


rhetoric


Renaissance.


such


as we


racti


Who
thro


can
ugh


In our


say what
story one


schools


it must


own


today;
have
nature


was


been
. the


a revelation.


like


to di


universe


cover


and


the


invas


power


The


so wid


diffu


espread18


sion


Hermetic


that


texts


majority


Renaissance


those


the


was


Court


Queen


Elizabeth


could


be expected


not


only


to have


sufficient


familiarity


with


esoteric


doctrine


to appreciate


a poem


such


as The


eene,


but


actually


to have


been


"initia-


ted"


into


"myst


eries


Thi


is especially


true








operational


power,


the


Renaissance


Magus,


" and


for


whom


alchemy


was


"one


of hi


main


inter


ests,


to Court


instruct


her


hidden


meaning


an alchemical


treati


, Monas


Hieroglyphica,


which


he had


dedicated


Emperor


Max


imillian


Dee


describes


thus:


...her


her
in
aut
the


Wher
same


wise
philo


self
the f


esti


very


scholar.


forefront


taceat,
secrets


aut


euppon her
with me;


did


Maj
and


comfort


sophicall


and


gratiously


.. &
that


scat:
boke
esty
then


said
book:


had


vouchs


where
Qui


I would
would
a little


in most


& encourage
Mathematical


eas
non


disc


Et di


heroi


me i
&c.


afed
I had


to account


pra


efi


xed


intelligit,


unto


scere


rusal


call


.n my
20


her


Face


re.


the


& prince
studyes


Thoma


Charnock,


the


author


a major


alchemical


work


en-


title


ed Breviary


of Natural


Philosophy,


was


also


aware


the

cal


Queen


treatise


interests,


to Eli


1566


zabeth


entitled


he dedicated


A Booke


an alchemi


of Philosophie


whi


a copy


was


handed


to Lord


Burghley,


who


had


ace


d in


the


Queen


library.


Sherwood


Taylor


has


collect


considerable


correspondence


between


Andrew


Paschal


John


Aubry


conce


rning


this


event


and


other


activity


Charnock,


it is clear


that


while


Thomas


Charnock


had


no connection


with


the


Court,


was


a person


of consider-


able


circle


interest.


es:


though


Dee,


however,


position


had


at Court


access


was


the


not


inner


official,


was


under


protection


both


the


Queen


and


Lei


cester,


and


was


considered


the


Queen


astrologer








learn


from


Moffet


that


was


also


the


tutor


Sir


Philip


Sidney:


a young


man


preci


sely


excellent


and


inspired


with


true


the fabi


minish


religion,
of sooth


the Divine


eare


sayers
ajesty


, he


d le


too


might


(always


receptive


ras


held


hness


reverence)


and


tie


dispo


ser


down


Divine


of all


Providence


thing


everywhere


to particular


modes


and always
and means.


Yet,
mon


not
sense


nature


sati


sfied


with


Sidne


with
eye
esse


the
pas


j judgment


sing


d into


and


to and


the


reach


through


innermost


com-
all


penetralia


causes


teac


her,


stry [i
nature.


and


and


.talics
26


with


that
Dyer


mine],


tok


ed by


God,


as companion,


that


starry


science,


with


earned
rival


Dee


chemi


Thi


description


gives


an acute


glimpse


what


was


like


to be


"initiated


into


the


mystery


es" in


Elizabethan


England.


can


imagine


that


Sidney


and


Dyer


were


very


much


concern


d with


moral


and


religious


implications


in-


volved


assumption


the


powers


and


prerogatives


the


Renaissance


magus.


We must


not


forget


that


the


teenth

taken


ently


century


serious


legend


Sidney '


contagious,


even


the


arch-magician


alchemical


sister,


activity


Mary


Faust


were


Herbert,


was

appar-


Countess


Pembroke,


was


involved.


Aubrey


states


the


matter


thus


In her


time


Wilton


house


was


like


a College,


there


were


the


lady i
yearly
kept f


so many
greatest


her
a gr


learned
patrone


time.


eat


her


(vulgarly
Walter Ra


deal


and


sse


eniose


of witt


was


that


laboratory


calle
eight,


d Dr.
who


Gil


was


and


a gre


study


the


h


bert),
a great


per


sons.


She


learning


at chymist


litalic


house
half


Adrian
brother


chymist


and


was


any
spent


mine].
Gilbert
r to Sir


those


She


days


Also


one...


borne,


Boston,


did u


a good
himself


chymi
by s


a Salisbury


tudvincr


the









From


all


accounts,


alchemy


seems


to have


been


a constant


preoccupation


Sir


Walter


eigh,


especially


on his


sea


voyages:


Sir
some
him.


Walter


Mss


carrie


had


Ral


. rece


eigh
ipts,


He studyed
d always a


nothing


was


I h


most


trunke


to divert


a great
ave seen


in his


him.


chymi
some


and


secrets


sea-voyages


books
28


along


, wh
with


among
from


ere


him,


eigh


the


s books


Tower


were


London


with


during


him


the


even


during


reign


confinement


James


Scholar-


ship


confirmed


that


the


coll


section


included


works


alchemy


and


occult.


A laboratory


was


set


him


there,


and,


along


with


a fellow


political


prisoner,


Henry


Percy,


Earl,


ninth


" and


Earl


trio


Northumberland,


equent


known


visitors--Walter


"Wizard


Warner,


Thoma


Hariot,


and


Robert


Hues--who


were


known


"Three


Magi,


" he


was


engaged


in various


experiments


Rattansi


investigated


influence


which


eigh'


interest


in alchemy


and


natural


magic


exe


rted


story


the World,


which he


composed


during


incarceration.


The


finest


collection


of books


and


manuscripts


Elizabethan


England


was


, significantly


enough,


that


owned


John


Dee.


An eminent


storian


science


Francis


Johnson,


who


emphasis


zes


strictly


scientific


rather


than


oCC


ult,


describes


gnificance


Dee


library


thus:









scientist
kept in
discover
to Queen
disperse
recover
al Libra
nothing
about fo
manuscri
thousand


scie
pass
vast
scie
they
mona
the
shou


Dee's
If one
center
might


ere
ic
ste
be
his
fel
be
of
tru


England


Continent,


con
ies
Ma
d w


stan
ori
ry t
ith
in o
is


n


an


t
g
h
t
r
w


going
g hi
whi
umes
ibra
rope
f im
ch h
title
ses)
prin
und
eat
sci
ves
V un


ly
ly be


during


t
t


to
ini
.at
.he
der
'ell
g t
S O
ch,

ry
, f
por
e c
va
, b
ted
on
lib
ent
tha
ive
erm
he


uch
ati
the
des
to
kn
o c
wn
by
It
in
or
tan
oul
lue
ut
wo
his
rar
ist


with
ng ab
anci
truct
foun
own.
ome o
libra
1583
was u
Engla
Dee n
t med
d get
d by
he has
rks o


the E
all th
oad.
nt boo
on of
there
When h
this
y of s
had g
doubt
d, and
t only
eval m


english
e late
Dee's
ks and
4,i


t
w


C
r
d


a


mor
lun
o s


ne
ith
pe
ugg
ien
own
ly
pro
had
nus
e r
der
een


mo
a
rc
es
ti
t
th
ba
c
cr
ea
er
t


group wa


st i
unhe
man
nast
gre
eive
tion
fic
o ov
e gr
bly
olle
ipts
daily
s of
o it


mathematics


sh
y w
s a
he
ty
the


period


from


about


the
ends
ial a
ry, D
unive
1560


deas
eded
uscri
series
at Na
d tha
, he
books
er fo
eates
not s
cted
on
beca
the
that
1 sci

sposa
d pup
the
's ci
ity o


S
and
plea
pts
be
tion-
t
set
and
ur
t
ur-
a


use

all


ences


to 1583.


To which


must


added


Miss


Yates'


comment:


The whole


rather
and Pi
philos
purely
sance
or Cou
and ma
read o
sius (
works
Englan
science
toward
the se
studied
(repre
Englan
and mo


ella
, sc
mmar
out
Ref
1 le
e hi
rep
alvi
ith


tn a
viga
Ren
e Br
ed i
Ren
, Gr


Renaissance


Renais
randol
ce, an
human
trinal
.ation,
ngs, a
rchies
ented
And i
chara
wrong p
n and
sance
sh His
he lib
sance
and L


this


sance
a, w
d ma
ist


s inter
its sl
, rathe
di es


l.A -a-


in
t
ct
ra
th
wh
to
ra
wh
at


, eit
very
nce w
s wit
brary
naiss
deve
bent,
and n
ludes
eoffr
the
ues p
lian


library.


ed by
toward
an tow
s a Re
Reform
ong my
prefe
eudo-D
their t
situa
.ent of
h an o
ands b
its hi
f Monm
nicles
y, anc


It
her
st
hic
h P
) r
anc
lop
wi
ew
in
ey
chr
oet
and


Or
Ficino
s
yards
nais-
ation
stical
rs to
iony-
han the
ted in
popular
outlook
eyond
storical
outh
of
ient


rench.


...one










and


mediaeval


writers


upon


alchemy


and


philosopher


stone


: Hermes


Trismegi


stus,


Geber,


Albertus


Magnus,


John


Sacrobosco,


Raymond


Lully,


Philip


Alstade,


Arnold


Villa


Nova.


Many


authors


ose


influence


can


traced


Hermetism


Faeri


Queene


were


repre-


sented


library.


From


1583


to 1585


magus


Giordano


Bruno


was


England


introduce


a species


"magi


Hermetism"


whi


as Miss


Yates


has


shown,


"off


ere


sub-Catholi


discon-


tented


intelligentsia,


and


others


secretly


ssa


sfied


Eli


zabethan


society,


a new


outlet,


quite


independent


hated


Spani


sh Catholi


cism,


secret


yearning


Dorothea


Waley


Singer


speculated


that


Bruno


s London


circl


must


have


included


least


following


literary


figures:

Raleigh,

Temple,


Sir

Sir

John


Philip

Thomas

Florio,


Sidney,

Sackvill

George


Sir


Fulke


Chapman,


Greville


;dward

Samue


Dyer,

1 Dani


Sir

el,


Walter

William


chard


Carew,


Gabri


el Harvey,


and


Edmund


penser.


Bruno


s most


intimate


relationship


was,


course


with


Sidney,


to whom


dedicated


works


: Spaccio


Trionfante


1584)


and


De gli


Eroici


Furori


(1585).


Yates


shown


that


both


works


have


a similar


purpose:


...the


religious


at...


experien


the Hermetic


ces of
gnosis


Eroi


this


ci furori


mys


tical


a-


1


I


I


I+


c


I I








the


soul,


a world,


" and


that,


a universe


since
" the


"in every
reform of


man...there


the


heavens


the


the
in


reform,


reform


the


or the


begins


intell


the heaven


them


with


good


ectual
their


produ


the


heaven"


mind


action,


minds


within


s" the


bad


qualities.


of
the


a personality....


gods


them, to
qualities


this


them


elves


"drive


and


interior


from


replace


reform


gods


themselves


which


is refl


ected


round


the


vault
vices


of h


even


the


forty


the v
-eight


irtues


rise


to replace


constellations


thus


pers
pers
cess


ona


lity


onality
ful whol


whi


ch is


whose
e.38


being


power


are


formed


being


formed


Spaccio,
.. m, ,,. 11


into


a


a
suc-


Bruno


seems


to have


seen


Elizabethan


society


as divided


into


two


factions:


ose


initiated


into


the


mys


teri


, and


those


not.

with


The

whom


latter

Bruno


were

was e


represented


engaged


in controversy


Oxford

y almost


"pedants

t immedi


ately


upon


arrival


England.39


With


the


former


found


himself


very


much


at home,


this


was


"cult"


Queen


Elizabeth.


Thomas


Dekker,


prologue


to Old


Fortunatus,


describes


thus:


Are


Even


ling. S
Cynthia:


you


then


to her


ome


some


call


trave
temple


lling


are


Pandora:


Belphoebe


: some


feeble


some


Astraea


temple o
e limbs
Gloriana


: all


Eli


za?


travel-
: some


several


names


but


one


express
elestial


seven


body,


ves
all


: Yet
those


ose


love


names


make


mee


create


name


but


one


am of
Eliz


soul.


her
41


own


country,


and


we adore


her


And


Bruno,


who,


would


appear,


was


quickly


accepted


d into


innermost


recesses


temple


of Eliza,


paid


re-


aspects


also:


Where
SC4-h


will


you


a CIinOrt nr


find


one


nr 4-bin


masc


inat11 li


uline


1-h-i


gender


Siiixri n


who


El ~1zi~


|


I l l


r-









her rea
amongst
amongst
sellers


im


is more


the


doctor


none


nobles


worthy
, none


rs, none
have a wi


mor
ser


than


is more
e learn
head.4


s lady
heroic


ed,
2


hers
than


amongst


elf;
she,
coun-


Yates,


her


essay


"Queen


Elizabeth


as Astraea,


" has


investigated


cult


Elizabeth,


and


shown


that


the


minds


certain


poets


Cynthian


cult


appear


s to


take


some


kind


esoteric


philosophy


cal


signifi


cancer


inkling


the


particular


kind


of esoteric


signifi


chance


may


perhaps


be obtained


from


the


following


poem


from


Sir


John


Davies


Hereford


s Hymnes


to Astraea:


E arl


bef


us a
is no


ore


wake my
time to


day
Muse


doth


and


spring
sing;


slumber,


o many
s Time


joyes
will


time


fail


doth


bring,


to number


ut whereto


uen


T he Mayd,


shall


to Heauen,


which


we bend
again


thence


our


layes?


raise


descended;


A nd all


the world


amended.


R ud


enesse


it self


doth


refine,


uen 1
rose


Into
N ot
A nd


ike


an Alchymist


times


the purest


to corrupt,
be refined


yron
forme


till


with


diuine;


turning
of gold;


heauen


waxe


old,


burning.44


This


allusion


"Alchymi


diuine"


possibly


more


significant


than


previous


commentators


have


realized.


Cer-


tainly


the


series


surrounding


the


cult


Astraea


were


Hermetic.


It is


probably


true,


as Miss


Yates


beli


eves


that


Bruno


s Eroic:


i furori


was


"bound


with


the


Eli


za-


* .


t I I


r r


Ir


I


-V


I









celebrated


the


cult.


Connected


with


the


cult


Elizabeth


was


an annual


event


which


seems


to have


influenced


both


Sidney


Arcadia


as well


Spenser


s The


Faeri


Queene


: thi


was


tilt


which


was


held


anniversaries


Eli


zabeth


s access


ion


the


throne.


Chambers


considers


that


was


the


pagean-


try


associated


with


the


Accession


Day


Tilt


that


was


held


Woodstock


1575


ature.


that


Yates


Fairy


has


shown


Queen


that


first


include


entered


ed in


liter-


entertain-


ment


was


rumouredd


to contain


important


secr


mean-


wings


Some


years


later,


the


Ditchley


Entertainment


, the


pictures


banquet


which


was


many


held


curiously


a bower


examined


full


enchanted


and


to construe,


and


the Entertainment


was


written


in a


"curiously


vague


and


riddling


style


" which


makes


"precise


interpretations...


difficult.


The


various


Accession


Day


celebrations


provide


an annual


occasion


identical


that


described


Spenser


the


letter


to Rale


igh


which


was


appended


to The


Faerie


Queene:


It will
genesis
at which


Que


rememb


his


ered


poem


"clowni


en.


that


from


the


young


With


penser


Fairy


man"


himself


Queen


prese


philosophy


nted


deri


ves


the


"annual


a petition


mutability,


clowni


shly


Prote


clad


stant


knight


moral,


going


this


spee


Queen


annual


Wood


stock


feast,


En-


tertainment]


seems


to be


using


the


same


kind


voc


abulary


enser.


Miss


Yates


would


look


to Bruno


s Hermetism


for


a key








knights
study t


an Accession


he abstruse


philo


Day


Tilt.


sophical


one


meanings


wishes
which


to
could


drawn


out


of such


impr


esa


shields


one


cannot


better
ginning
ladies


than
of


read what


this


England


work,


and


Bruno
there


to say....
an address


one


eat


Diana


the
the


be-


who


among
hardly


them


a sun


amidst


an exaggeration


philosophic


the


enthusia


travail


their


are


the
say


stars
that t


to be


soul


that


he shield-b


fanci


before


as di


Queen


hearing
splay-


Eli


and
the
And


ladi


pri
at


of her


court


illumination


end of


the Eroici


--as


were


the highest


furori,


nine


tilting


divine
blind


light.
men


receive


eir


sight


and


become


nine


illuminati


when


they


arrive


under


temperate


the Briti


and


of Father


come


Thame


into


, one


urn


them
veal


e presence o
of whom--the


and


divine


lovely


greatest
splendour


nymphs


among
is re-


The


"pri


of illumination


highest


divine


light"


course,


preci


sely


what


enser


s Faerie


Queene


all


about.


significant


likelihood


that


Sir


Philip


Sidney


had


a central


involvement


these


events


as Phili-


sides,


Shepherd


Knight.


Miss


Yates


has


pointed


out


that


the


plan


Accession


Day


Tilts


was


that


"their


imagery


should


political


build


and


in te


theological


rms of c

position


hivalrous


romance,


of Protestant


Eng-


land


Referring


specifically


1581


tilt,


her


sur-


mise


that


Sidney


"rather


sensational


appearance


at it


...may


have


been


a factor


the


making


the Sidney


gend--a


legend


which


is woven


into


legend


Ac-


cess


ion


Day


Tilts.


relationship


between


the


"Sidney


legend"


and


Spen-


*a -


---opens
ed, 51


-l /*


r t ~


A


.I n


*









noble


person


in vertuous


and


gentle


discipline"


which


Spen


ser


s poem


see


to fa


shion.


We have


seen


that


the


goal


esoteric


tradition


to create


just


such


individual.


The


fact


has


been


establi


shed


that


alchemy


and


Hermetism


friends.


were


passionately


Spenser'


s relation


pursued


ship


Sidney


to Sidney,


and


Dyer,


close


eigh,


Leicester


and


others


well


known.


seems


fairly


cer-


tain


that


was


Sidn


who


penser


the


task


writing


The


Faerie


Que


ene


first


place.


know


from


a letter


Spenser


to Gabri


el Harvey


that


the


poem


was


underway


early


as April


1580,


whi


was


when


Sid-


ney


influence


on Spenser


was


at its


peak.


as Miss


Yates


suggest


ted,


ere


were


those


Sidney


s circle


who


might


ave


regarded


Bruno


s Spaccio


a blinding


re-


velation


an imminent


universal


Hermetic


religious


and


moral


reform,


presented


the


splended


imagery


some


great


Renaissance


work


of art,


painted


and


sculptured


with-


memory


artist


it not


p055


that


Spen-


ser


s Faer


Queene


might


have


een


inte


nded


fillment


this


eve


lation"


Certainly


the


sixteenth


century


it would


have


been


common


enough


sus


pect


such


work


as embodying


alchemical


forms


thought.


with


all


types


Renaissance


magic,


at 1


eas


some


knowledge


alchem


was


niversa


amona


educat


d people


those


V


r


.


-k


--


-4


v








alchemy


would


have


been


regarded


a mystical


as we


would


say,


psychotherapeutic


scipline;


and


suspect


that


such


readers


might


have


considered


that


an epic


poem


philosophical


poet


tradition


Chaucer


might


indeed


require


an alc


hemi


interpretation


Arnold


Villa


Nova,


one


Dee


favorite


authors


, has


stated


that


"only


he who


can


create


the


stone


philosophers


understand


words


about


stone"61


: we


must


remember


that,


like-


The


Faerie


Queene


would


have


been


"magical


poem"


only


those


who


could


find


a way


understand


the


allegory.














NOTES


1Hermetica,


trans.


Walter Scott


(London,


1968),


289.


ZHermetica,

3
Hermetica,


4ermetica,
Hermetica,


5Hermetica,


6Hermetica,


291.


295-297.


357-359.


115-117.


205.


7harles
Charles


Nauert,


Jr.,


Agrippa


and


the Crisis of


Renaissance


Thought


(Urbana,


1965),


391.


8Edgar Wind,


Pagan Mysteries


in the


Renaissance,


2nd


rev.


(New York,


1968),


9
Frances A.


Yates,


The Art


of Memory


(London,


1966),


254.


10Yates,

11Yates,


254.

251


12
Frances A.


Yates,


Giordano Bruno and


the Hermetic


Tradition


(London,


1964),


265


13Michael Murrin,


The


Veil


of Allegory


(Chicago,


1969),


162.


Murrin,







.11


Thought,
"Arcana
289-324.


" JWCI,


Artis


Gombrich,


X-XII


" Zeit


"The


Visual


(1947-49),


schri ft


Image


-192


stg


Neo-Platonic
. Hartlaub,


eschichte,


(1937),


17Murrin,

18
Frances


Scie


nce,


" Art,


Yates
science


, "The


Hermeti


and Histo


Tradition
Lthe Rena


Renai


ssance


ssance,


Charles


. Singleton


(Baltimore


, 196


. 256


19yates,


Giordano


Bruno


150.


20MS
. H.


* Cotton,
Josten,


Vitellius


aVII,


"A translation


art


John


Dee


Quoted


s Mona s


ero-


glyphica


(Antwerp,


1564)


with


an introdu


action


and


annota-


tions


" Ambix,


XII


(1964),


. Sherwood


Taylor,


"Thomas


Charnock,


" Ambix,


(1938


-46).,


172.


22Taylor,


151-159.


Yates,


"John


Dee


Elizabethan


Age,


" Theatre


the


World


(Chicago,


1969),


. 4.


24Yates,

25
Yates,

26T
Thomas


Giordano


"John


Moffet,


Bruno


Dee


a *, P


188.


* .,


Nobilis


, or A


View


the Life


and


Death


a Sidn


and


. .


trans


. Virgil


. Heltzel


and Hoyt


Hudson


(San


Marino,


Cal


., 1940),


27
John


Aub


rey


, Brief


Lives,


Andrew


Clark


(Oxford,


1898),


28Aubrey,


9John


William


Shirl


"The


scientific


eriments


the


Walter
Tower


Raleigh,
1603-1617,


The


Wizard


" Ambix,


Earl,


(1949


the


-51),


Three


Magi


52-66


16
Cf,


21F







Francis


sance


England


Johnson,


(Baltimore,


Astronomi


1937),


cal Thought


Renais-


32Yates,


"John


Dee


33Charlotte


Fell-Smith,


John


Dee


(London,


1909),


244.


34
Yates,


Giordano


Bruno


35
Dorothea


Thought


(New


Wal


York ,


ey Sing
1950),


G io rdano
. 35-44.


Bruno,


His


Life


and


36M
Mrs.


tion


Singer


The Expul


notes


sion


that


of the


ere


is an English


Triumphant


Bea


transla-


stby


Morehead
Williams


(1713),


1887)


and of The


Gio


rdano


Heroic


Bruno


Enthusiasts


116,


r r r 0f


37Yates,


Giordano


Bruno


. p.


281.


38Yates,

39
Yates,


McNulty,


Giordano


flrnnn


SGior dano Bruno .

Giordano Bruno .


"Bruno


at Oxford,


Spp.-


" Renai


ssance


205-11
News,


and


XIII


Robert
(1960),


300-5.


40
Yates,


Giordano


Bruno


. .a p.


290.


41Thomas
Frances A


Dekker
. Yates


Works


, "Queen


(London,


Elizabeth


1873),


as Astraea


Quoted


" JWCI,


X-XII


(1947


-49),


42Giordano
Giordano


Br uno,


la C


ausa,


dial.


(Dial,


ital.,


222-3).


Quoted


Yates


SGiordano


Bruno


a a .j p.


288.


43Yates,


"Queen


Elizabeth


as Astraea,


44Sir
Sir


John


Dav


Complete


Poems,


B. Grosart


(London,
Astraea,


1876),


, 129.


Quoted


Yates,


een


Eliz.


. 63.


45Yates,


Giordano


Bruno


289-290.


S S


-


0 .,


S S