Citation
The influence of diet composition on the availability of various phosphorus sources

Material Information

Title:
The influence of diet composition on the availability of various phosphorus sources
Creator:
Christmas, Robert Bruce, 1933-
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
59 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Ashes ( jstor )
Body weight ( jstor )
Bones ( jstor )
Calcium ( jstor )
Calcium phosphates ( jstor )
Corn ( jstor )
Fish by products ( jstor )
Phosphates ( jstor )
Phosphorus ( jstor )
Poultry ( jstor )
Assaying ( lcsh )
Phosphorus ( lcsh )
Poultry -- Feeding and feeds ( lcsh )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1972.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 54-58).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Robert Bruce Christmas.

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
000407562 ( ALEPH )
ACF3866 ( NOTIS )
37693268 ( OCLC )

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The I


Avai


influence


labil


of Diet
Various


Composition
Phosphorus


on the
Sources


Robert


Bruce


Christmas


A DISSERTAT


PRESENTED


TO THE


GRADUATE


COUNC


FULF


LLMENT


UNIVERSE
OF THE


OF FLOOR


REQU


REMENTS


PARTIAL


FOR THE DEGREE


DOCTOR


OF PHI


LOSOPHY


UNIVERSE


FLOOR













ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


author


grateful


to Dr


Harms,


Chai


rman of


Superv


sory


Commi


ttee


, for h


assi


stance


, gu


dance


, pat


ence


encouragement


the plann


conduct


and evaluation


research


reported


ssertat


Apprec


at ion


also


extended


to Drs


gsby,


Cunha


Ammerman


suggestions


and adv


thanks


to Dr


Damron who a


cted


as fel


student


as well


as adv


isor


construct


anning


conducting


record


eva


uation of


research


presented


ssertation.


Thanks


tura


means


are extended


Affairs


effort


to make


to Dr


prov


ided


poss


. York


Vice


encouragement


through


Pres


and the


part


dent


financial


employment


campus


study


port


ion of


endeavor.


the staff


academic


non-academi


c. of


Poul


ence


Department


and the Fl


National


Test


greatly


apprec


a ted


assi


stance


Smith


-Doug


ass


Company,


Norfolk


prov


means


mate r


to perform


these


exper


ments


grat


acknowl


edged


To h


Add ie


and h


four


sons


expr


esses


I I4- n a- Af


4A, ,-


4-^^Ml


*4-I =aj4-


~wrrC:


anlra













TABLE


OF CONTENTS


Page


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

LIST OF TABLES -


ABSTRACT

CHAPTER


NTRODUCT


LITERATURE


REVI


CHAPTER


MATERIALS


AND METHODS


CHAPTER


EVALUATE


Exper


OF SOFT


mental


PHOSPHATE


Procedure


Experiment
Experiment
Experiment


- --- ------------------------- ----- -----
------ -- ---------------- ------ ---------
------------------------ ------ ---------
I1 II mBBI B l 1 i I m i fl p I i u
l i m I I m I I i m i g i n m i i Mi i m I i D I


Resu


and D


scuss


Experiment


Exper
Exper
Summary


ment
ment


m 19


CHAPTER


EVALUATE


OF TWO


ETARY


LEVELS


OF PLANT


PHOSPHORUS


PHOSPHORUS


ASSAYS


Exper
Resul


mental


Procedure
discussion


--------------------------- -----
---- ------------ --- -------------


Summary







TABLE OF CONTENTS Continued


CHAPTER 5


FURTHER STUDIES


PHOSPHORUS


ON A HOMINY FEED BASAL FOR USE


ASSAYS


Experimental


Procedure


Results and Discussion


summary


CHAPTER 6

UTILIZATION OF PHOSPHORUS SOURCES WITH AND WITHOUT FISH


MEAL


IN PRACTICAL CORN-SOYBEAN TYPE BROILER DIETS


Experimental


Results and Discussion


Si-------------------------------
----- ---------------------- ----


u mma ry


CHAPTER 7


SUMMARY -----------------------------. ------------------.

LIST OF REFERENCES ------------------------ ---------------

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ------...--------------------


























IV


Procedure













LIST


OF TABLES


Tabl


Page


Compos


ition


purified


Morta


various


evel


of phosphorus


cium


supplied


from


soft phosphate,


sodium acid


phosphate


reagent


grade calcium carbonate
treatment ) ------------


exper


iments


Tibia


fed various


eve


phosphorus


calcium


supp


reagent


grade


from
calc


soft phosphate
ium carbonate


sodium acid
experiments


phos


phate


Composition


degerm


nated


corn


meal


and hominy


feed


diets


-- 24


Tibia


phos


phorus


and body wei
and calcium


phosphate


various


supply


from


rminated


corn


soft pho


basa


eve


sphate and
and hominy


feed


basa


Tibia


phosphorus
phosphate


and body we
and calciu


a homi


varl


supplied
eed basa


y soft phos
diet ------


ous


evel


phate


Compos


of basa


Tibia


phosphorus
phosphate i
and without


and body we


and cal


cium


pract


fish


ghts c
supply


corn


vari


soft


-soybean


type


ous


phosphate
broiler


evel


and cal


iets


with


meal






Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the


Graduate Council of


the University of Florida


in Partia


of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Phi


Fulfi
osophy


Iment


THE INFLUENCE OF DIET COMPOSITION ON THE
AVAILABILITY OF VARIOUS PHOSPHORUS SOURCES

By

Robert Bruce Christmas


March,


1972


Chairman:


Robert H


Harms


Major Department


Anima


Science


series of tria


was conducted to evaluate the utilization of


various


types of chick diets


in the assay of phosphorus-containing


material


as wel


as to determine possib


metabol


complementary


effects of combinations of phosphorus sources.


Broi


ler-type chicks


were used


In a


tria


except those which


involved a purified diet.


A total


six different basa


diets was used


n these studies


als were of two or three weeks' duration.


Chicks were housed


in wire


floored


, electrically heated, battery-type brooders with feed


and water


supplied ad


1 ibitum.


Tibia


, body weight and morta


rate were


the eval


uation criteria.


Mortality was extremely high


in a


treatments when purified diets


were


but no statistics


y significant treatment differences were


noted


Bone ash favored treatments which received sodium acid phosphate


over those which received soft phosphate.


Addition


phosphorus from


cium phytate did not


improve performance.


Due to high mortality


groups, purified diets were not


ideal


for the


assay


of phosphorus


sources


in these


experiments.






corn


meal


diet.


simil 1


response


in tibi


was noted when


graded


cium phosphate


were


added


a hominy


feed


diet.


graded


response was


not noted


in bone ash


soft


phosphate


nor body


weight


with


both


sources


ess


um:phosphorus


rati


were


expand


addit


eve ls


phosphate


to both


gave


a marked


response


bone


Good


body weight


poor


bone


ash were


obtained


recent


phosphorus


hominy


feed


A combi


nation


of soft


phosphate and


phosphorus


percent


tota


phorus


gave


mum body weight.


Addition


stud


homi


feed


conf


i rmed


that


um:ph


osphorus


rat i


were


criti


etermin


avai


phorus


and that


compare


sons


should


made wi


cons


ration


of these


rati


Good


bone


evel


were


obtained


soft phosphate


and good


growth


with


plant


phorus.


some


extent,


there


appeared


to be


a comp


ementary


fect


between


two.


zati


phorus


soft


phosphate


appea


red to be


ite h


supp


ementat


but decreased


as the supplement


eve


increased.


A hominy


feed


diet


be usefu


in phosphorus


assays


nce


growth


rate


equa


for al


supp


lementa


phosphorus


groups


thus


remove


factor


from cons


erat


addition


of 3


or 6


percent


meal


number


mprov


bone ash


soft


phosphate


supp


lemented


pract


corn


-soybean


type


broi


Some


improvement


body we


was noted


when


percent


meal


was


added.


Soft


phosphate


and cal


um phos


phate


gave


equa


rformance


percent


meal


Equa


performance


was al


obta


whether


phosphorus


came


from ca


um phosphate


or fish


Tl,-i-


I


- .


AL


1***^^**^ -L-an n a r a n r


eve


eve


,-,_


I.l I tll


-^mk


M L


rrrfC


n~ ACI ALL L C A


IR


* k111







phosphate


and other


nutr


sources.


Even


though


stat


cant


erences


could


not be


noted


many


instances


these tri


soft


phosphate


cons


stent


perform as


as other


sources


eval


uate


soft


phosphate


appeared


to be


ghly


available


eve


not complete


under


tood.


There


appear


to be


specify


roles


different


forms


phosphorus


body


metabol


I sm.













CHAPTER


introduction


and Literature


Review


purpose


tura


research


to feed,


clothe


care


for the


greatest


number


peop


mos t


economy


best


poss


manner


Research


nutri


has attempted


gent


carry


purpose


conseque


niti


ated


and conducted


study


many


nutri


ents


One


these


, phos


phorus


has probably


been


involved


more


nvest


gations


than


others.


tant


This i


than


necessary


other


because


but because


phosphorus


an i


ntegra


more


and cri


mpor-


part


so many


funct


ons


lant


and ani


life.


element


a vi


nera


zati


func


tions


for the


format


bone


teeth


extremely


important


many


metabol


processes


carr


out i


important


funct


ons


carbohydrate


protein


tamin


norgan


metabol


involved


actation


a vi


part


one


most


important


reactions


known


to man


- the


assi


milation,


storage


ease


energy


With


involvement


nucl


acids


an i


ntegra


part


each


body


chromosome.


an i


important


part


many


body


buffer


teams


Body


structure


itse


are dependent


upon


obta


an adequate


and usable


supp


phosphorus.


course,


no 1


ess


coul


said about


count


ess


other


nutri


ents.


Phosphorus






ndirec


an important


need.


Over


year


have


transp


nce


Brandt,


a German


chem


prepared


phosphorus


a free


state.


was not unti


some


years


later


1769


that


Gahn


a Swed


chemi


found


that


t was


an essent


part


anima


bone.


Only


ears


accord


Ewing


963)


phosphorus


supplementation


to be


a part


anima


nutri


Gohren


corrected weak


bones


catt


graz


certa


areas


near


the Rhi


ver


feeding


them


small


amounts


bone


meal


Grass


area were


ater


found


to be 1


phosphorus


There

vestock


are many


sources


needs


phosphorus


most


avai


common


labl


source


supp

from


domest


the forage


and feeds tuffs


consumed


anima


dom adequate


itself


requ


res


addi


ional


supp


ementati


on of


conc


entrated


amendments.


There


been


cons


derable


research


nion


on avai


labil


osphorus.


Phos


phorus


extracted


from plants


was found


to be


poor


available


rat and chi


studio


Lowe


et al


939)


eger


et al
-n


1940


and Matterson


tzer


1946)


1948),


Others


report


949,


ffer


degrees


avai


phosphorus


sources


vary


from


avai


to read


available.


A large


part


phosphorus


contain


mater


form of


phytic


acid


nosi


hexaphosphor


its sal


Peel


1970)


reported


that


phorus


phyt


acid


was quite


avai


able


under


certain


condit


ons


but phosphorus


calcium phytate


(one of


acid


salts)


was


relat


unava


957)







Other


important


sources


phosphorus


include


the more


conce


ntrated


ones


such


as bone


meal


rock


phosphate,


phosphate


and soft


phate.


was beli


eved


many


year


that


phosphorus


from


organ


sources


and anima


was aval


mals


consequent


resu


use of


nera


stores


Fluor


toxi


further


comply


icated


spread


use of


rock
"~-


phos


phate.


However


defluori


nati


processes


made


use of


rock


phos


phate


common


, beg


some


year


ago.


recent


year


treatment


me w


phosphor


acid has


been


perfected


to y


um phosphate


qual


fluori


ne-


ree


product


which


high


phosphorus


and cal


phosphate


(soft


phos


phate)


so become


quite


avai


~C-


recent


years


product


is obtained


from sed


iment


areas


created


mini


and was


ing process


rock


phate.


nexpen s


coul


contr


bute


great


to the anima


ndus


coul


be adapted


commerce


however


cons


iderab


work


cated


that


the phosphorus


mate r


as avai


that


in the


more


common


used


sources


There


are many


other


sources


phosphorus


one reason


or another


have


not found


common


usage.


Seve


assa


methods


and procedures


are util i


determi


phorus


aval


These


assays


be chemical


nature


or may


nvol


measured


responses


processes


exper


mental


These


response


measurements


uded


phosphorus


epos


bone


, growth


rate


bone


break


store


ngth


and others.


There


cons


derable


among


phos


phorus


avai


values


dete


rmined


these


procedures


measurements


examp


Damron


968)


found


that


soft


um.


vari






have


found


milar


results.


Consequently,


much


research


been


conducted


to determine a


good


assay


procedure;


however,


there


no one


conci


procedure


and method


Numerous


stud


have


been


conducted


establ


phosphorus


requ


recent


for start


chickens


These


vary


from


the 0


to 0


percent


suggest


ngsen


et al.


1947)


to a


to 0


percent


evel


reported


Couch


1937)


McGi


et al


1944)


ngsen


. (1948)


1949)


'Rourke


Grau


and Zwei


gart


1953),


sher


et al


. (1953)


and Nel


son


and Wal


1964)


have


suggested


evel


between


these


two extremes


Aga


these


evel


vary wi


mater


used,


response


teri


type


used


Nati


onal


Resea


Council


establ


shed


mini


mum


dietary


phosphorus


requ


recent


at 0


percent


east


percent


of thi


total


from


norgan


sources.


Approximate


cent


the phosphorus


products


non-phyt


osphorus


and can be


cons


ered


as part


norgan


phos


phorus


requ


recent.


However


these


levels


are affected


many


factors


nteracti


cium and


phosphorus


cium


:phosphorus


evel


vitamin


type


chicks.


Extens


eval


uati


been


conducted


to determi


relati


avai


liti


methods

proposed


have

that


of both


been

bone


organ


util


these


ash could


be used


norgan


sphorus


processes.


as a cri


eral


1954)


phosphorus


assa


and th i


become an


accepted


means


eval


uati


on.


Growth


rate


cons


idered


an important


eval


uation


, the


teri


on.






in their studies.


They found that this diet supplemented with soft


phosphate would not support life in chick trials.


The diet was originally


designed to study the potassium requirement of the chick.


cox


et al.


(1953) modified this diet to study the phosphorus and calcium requirement


of turkey poults; however

support maximum growth.


, forage or buttermilk had to be added to

The attempted evaluation of soft phosphate


with this purified diet resulted in the mortality of all poults by the


nineteenth day of the tria


Many researchers feel that the disadvantages


of a purified diet are greater than the advantages.


It is felt that the


results obtained with this type diet cannot be applied to practical


conditions.


With these reasons in mind, a phosphorus assay diet


util


zing degerminated corn mea


was developed by Vandepopuliere et a


(1961) at the Florida Station.


phosphorus which was


The basa


ow enough to allow graded


diet contained 0.30 percent


eve


of the test


material to produce a linear response


n bone ash and growth.


The utilization of phosphorus in soft phosphate has been inves-


tigated by many workers in the past few years.


The genera


consensus


of many of these has been that soft phosphate was not utilized to a


large degree by the chick.


Waldroup et al. (1965a) reported that


approximately 55.0 percent of the phosphorus


n soft phosphate was


available


Summers et al.


(1959) found its availability to be 47.0


percent.


Nelson and Peel


er (1961) reported a biological


value of only


34.0 percent for the phosphorus


in soft phosphate.


However


Damron


and Harms (1968a) found litt


difference in bone ash at 21 days


between chicks receiving comparable


evel


of soft phosphate and







results.


Baruah et al.


(1960a), using bone ash


as a criterion,


indicated that soft phosphate was quite available.


Another report


from Baruah et al.


(1960b


confirmed these results but stated that


adequate growth could not be obtained with soft phosphate alone.

Growth rate obtained was greater when one-fourth of the added phosphorus

from soft phosphate in combination with calcium phosphate or defluori-

nated phosphate was compared with an equal amount of sodium acid


phosphate.


These results indicated that multip


assay procedures


might be needed when determining the availabi


particular source material.


ity of phosphorus in a


These data may also suggest that the


phosphorus in soft phosphate may be availabi


for mineralization


processes but not for growth.


The possibility


sts that the growth


and mineralization processes may require, or at least may be ab


utilize, phosphorus in different forms.


Waldroup (1965), using a


degerminated corn meal chick diet, found that low


evels of soft


phosphate consistently produced a higher percent bone ash than did


comparab


evel


of calcium phosphate.


Later studies by Waldroup


et al.
-


(1969) found no difference in bone ash when soft phosphate


was compared to calcium phosphate.


There were no significant differences


in growth and feed efficiency when rates were comparab


While


attempting


to establish a standard calcium curve, Damron and Harms (1969a) found that


soft phosphate gave bone ash levels, but not body weight, equal to those

obtained with calcium phosphate or defluorinated phosphate. Summers


et al.


(1959) reported that mixing soft phosphate with phosphoric or


hydrochloric acid


increased its availability.


Waldroup et al.
-


(1965c),







They


attri


buted


this 1


large


to the


loss


water


vapor


during


chemi


reacti


on whi


occurred wh


mixi


combinat


improved


both


body we


and bone


over


that


soft


phosphate


however


authors


reported


that


the aci


ated


products


supported


no greater


performance


than was


expected


from


amount


phosphorus


supp


vari


ous


ngred


ents.


There


have


been


several


expert


ments


to d


etermi ne


cause


avai


lity


phosphorus


soft


osphate.


Motzok


et al


(1956)


suggest


that


poor


performance


soft phosphate


is due


to the


extends


levels


metaphospha te


pyrophos


phate


forms


present.


does


however


reason


for the degree


nera


zat ion


obtai


ned with


soft phos


phate.


Damron


and Harms


(197


stud


avai


labi


phosphorus


cium metaphor


phate


and cal


pyrophosphate.


They


obse


rved


that


cium:p


osphorus


ratios


were


important


in dete


rmini


aval


cium metaphosphate


was not


nearly


as avai


labl


as monosod


phate.


um pyrophosphate


general


not support


performance


comparab


to that


monosodi


phate;


however


at certa


levels


supp


mentat


fferences


were


not stati


stical 1


gnif


cant.


Watts


959)


suggested


that


the calcium


in soft


phosphate


was much


aval


to the


than


from other


sources.


Harms


et al.


post


lated


that


was the


reason


poor


performance


hens


Bethke


and Hart


1930)


reported


that


phosphorus


rati


were


very


important in


response


to phosphorus


one


ner


ess






and Waldroup,


1965)


Even


though


ratios


are


important


there


has been


cons


iderab


variati


assay


ratios


reech et


. (1956)


and Nel


and Peel


(196


ntai


a constant


calc ium:phosphorus


ratio


exper


mental


Amme rma n


. (1960)


used


a constant


percent


um and


Gardner


et al


1959)


used


a constant


percent.


Waldroup


et al


. (1965a)


reported


that


vari


ons


in procedures


used


osphorus


assays


could


uence


biology


value of


phorus


source.


From


work,


t was


suggested


that


maximum performance


erent


ratio or


level


cium might


be used


each


phosphorus


Harms


eval


1968b


uate


, 1969)


erefore


conducted


Harms


a seri


et al.


expert


967)


iments


Damron


establi


best


eve


ratio)


each


respect


phosphorus


These


studio


nvol


several


diff


erent


phosphorus


sources


uding


sodium aci


phosphate


cium phosphate


uori


nated


phosphate,


soft


osphate


and Curacao


island


phos


phate.


Standard


curves


were


deve


oped


each phos


phate


materi


performance


contain


soft ph


osphate


were


shown


Damron


et al.


967)


to be


improved


percent


meal


These


workers


attri


buted


improvement


a read


avai


label


source


osphate.


However


subsequent


stud


Damron


and Harms


(1968d)


found


that


an equal


amount


osphorus


from


efluor


nate


phate


not result


in maximum growth


Damron


Harms


1969)


eval


uated


tion


magnes


to diets


supplemented


with


soft


phosphate


monos


ium


phosphate.


level


magnes


depressed


performance at


evel


soft


phos pha te


supplementati


eve


eve


ium






unavailab


e; however,


Waldroup


et al.


(1965b)


reported


that


near


optimum we


could


conta


percent


obta


total 1


from a


phosphorus


hominy


of whi


feed


came


from

obtain


sources.


from


However


maximum mineral


These weight


zati


were


could


super


not be

to those


obta


from


evel


a degerminated


phosphorus


corn


but with


diet wh


percent


a comparable


from


norgan


tota


sources


phosphorus


supp


emented


degerm


nated


corn


droup


(Waldroup


et al.,


1965b)


was


far superior


bone


nera


zati


to the 0


perc


ent all


phosphorus


eve


nera


zati


tended


increase


as the 1


eve


norgan


phosphorus


increased


regard less


of the basal


These


data


indicate


that


phosphorus


available


et al


growth


(1947)


not adequate


, Vandepopul


ere et


mum mineral


izati


and Waldroup


965b)


report


contrast


the 1


i terature


reviewed


cated


that


soft


phosphate might


be avai


mi nera


zati


not for growth.


There


were


several


purposes


conduct


nvest


reported


ssertation.


ere


was a need


to d


determine


the phosphorus


economic


avai


soft


phosphate


would


cause


death


or not support


chick 1


as had been


indicated


previous


with


purif


Second


, phosphorus


appears


major


body


funct


Research


suggests


that


certa


forms


confi


gurations


and that


revers


phosphorus


e might


might


true


perform one


other


sources.


not the


other


were


a a aii aa a aa 4 -a -a a a .. a -- at4- -I.. a L n -.-


. -


ons


-*--I..-*l-!


C, -- --Ca


r t


*


C*r r*r~rLr






as well


as to determine


the i


nverse


tuation


were


true


phos


phorus.


comparative eva


uation


degerm


nated


corn


meal


and hominy


feed


diets


for phosphorus


assay


purposes


appeared


to be


irable.


, the


need


to det


ermine


phorus


or soft phosphate


zati


could be


enhanced


comb


other phosphorus


supp


ement


sources


such


as minera


stores


meal


greater


was apparent.


dimens


such i


phosphorus


information


supplemental


could


determi


could


real














CHAPTER


Material


and Methods


Chicks involved in the experiments reported in this paper were

placed in electrically heated battery brooders with raised wire floors


at one day of age.


Dietary treatments and water were supp


libitum for the duration of each test period.


On the final


ed ad


day of


each experiment all birds from each replicate group were separated


and group weighed according to


sex.


Where available, a representative


sample of birds in each replicate group were sacrificed and the


tibia removed and identified for ash determination.


as described for the A.O.A.C.

used in these studies. The b


Bone ash procedures


(1965) method of vitamin D analysis were


'ones were boiled in water for four minutes,


eaned of adhering tissue, and lightly polished with cheesecloth.


After drying for 24 hours at 1000C., the bones were alcohol


extracted


for 24 hours


cual


, ether extracted for 24 hours, redried, and then


ly ashed at 600C. for six hours


indivi-


The data were subjected to the


analysis of variance procedures outlined by Snedecor and Cochran (1967).


Duncan's multip


range test (1955) was used to determine significant


differences among treatment means.














CHAPTER


Eval


uation


Soft


Phosphate


Puri


field


Diets


An idea


diet


for determining


the avai


a phosphorus


source


, or any


other


nutrient


one


that


atab


which


contains


life and growth


support


level


all known


essent


nutri


ents


exce


one


assayed.


should


suffi


cient


assayed


nutr


shable


response


to graded


addi


tions


mater


assayed


these


attri


butes


wou


nate


nutrient


edstuffs


the researcher


more


complete


control


exper


imenta


Gill


954)


used


a pur


field


et wh


conta


about


to 0


cent


phos


phorus


study


avai


ability


various


phorus


sources


to the


These


workers


reported


that


when


supp


emented


with


various


evel


phosphate


and fed


to S


Comb


Leghorn


cockerel


would


not support


They,


however,


not report


evel


morta


ity w


thin


these or other


treatment


groups.


Ison


and Peeler


(196


fed a si


Comb


Leghorn


cockerel


and reported


that


fed the


unsupp


emente


basa


within


ten days.


They


agreed


that


supp


emented with


soft


phosphate wou


not support


They


found


that


percent


beta


-tri


calcium phosphate


(the


one


vari


I






assay


soft phosphate.


Using this modified diet, an availability


of 34.0 percent was reported for soft phosphate.


reported similar findings with a practice


These workers


diet and suggested that


results obtained with purified diets could be applied to practical

conditions.

These experiments were conducted to evaluate soft phosphate in


a purified diet,


as well as to study the effect of ca


cium:phosphorus


ratios on the performance of this material.


Experimental Procedure


Since Andrews et al.


(1971) determined that there were definite


phosphorus source response differences between Single Comb White

Leghorn cockerels and broiler-type chicks, Single Comb White Leghorn


cockere


were used in these experiments.


Mortality was very high


in all treatments; therefore, all three experiments were terminated

at 14 days and tibia ash and mortality were the only criteria used


eval


uation.


The basa


diet


, formulated as near as possible to that described


by Gillis et al. (1954

percent calcium by ana


), contained 0.07 percent phosphorus and 0.06


The composition of the diet is shown


in Tab


e 1.


This is a


similar to the diet used by Nelson and


Peeler (1961)


Soft phosphate (9.70 percent phosphorus and


8.24


percent


um) and sodium acid phosphate (22.45 percent phosphorus)


were used


as phosphorus sources.


Calcium phytate was an added source


cium and phosphorus in experiment 3.


Reagent grade ca


cium


carbonate was added to each treatment where necessary to obtain the








Table


Composition of purified diet


Ingredien t


Percent of diet


Dried blood fibrin


20.0


Gelatin


Hydrogenated vegetable fat


Ground cellophane


Liver fraction


Ill II


Corn


starch


65.0


Micro-ingredients


ISuppl ie
per gm.)
thiamine
6.60 mg.


per kilogram of feed:


, 131.00 mg.
, 13.20 mg.
pyrodoxine,


vitamin D3
riboflavin,
26.40 mg.


12.00 mg.
(3,000 I.
22.00 mg.
niacin, 4.


vitamin A


C.U.


(250,000


per gm.),


13.20 mg


calcium pantothenate,


40 mg.


folic acid, 0.40


mg. biotin,


acid,


2.20 m


0.022 mg. vi
g. vitamin K


tamin B12,
menadionee,


110.00 mg. para-amino benzoic


)


, 1.10 gm.


inositol,


1.98 gm


choline chloride,


44.00 mg. alpha-tocophero


concentrate, 2.64 gm.


MgS04
FeS04
CoCI2


0.26 gm. MnSOu


4H


* 7H20, 11.00 mg. Cu
* 6H20, and 4.40 gm.


120,


4.99 gm.
5H20,


iodized NaCI


1.00 mg


ZnC 12,


10.00 mg.
11.00 mg.


KC I.







Routine


brooding


eval


uation


procedures


were


resente


Chapter


ssertation.


Due to the


extreme


data


obta


the three


expert


ments


were ana


yzed


and d


scusse


separate


Exper


ment


Comb


Leghorn


cockerels


were


randomly


assi


gned


each


treatments


three


(Tab 1


cate


were


groups


: the


treatment.


unsupplemented


seven


basa


two graded


etary


evel


sodium acid


osphate


and four


groups


contain


two graded


levels


soft


phosphate


with


two ca


cium


level


each


Two or


more


per rep


icate


were


sacrif


ash determination


Both


bone


morta


data were


subj


ected


stati


anal


outl


Chapter


ssertati


Exper


ment


procedure


lowed


experiment was


dent


to that


exper


ment


except


that


a commerce


broi 1


was added


as a


positive


control


treatment.


Bone


morta


data were


subj


ected


to stat


anal


as descr


Chapter


ssertati


Exper


iment


Eight


Comb


Leghorn


cockerels


were


randomly


assi


gned


each


etary


three rep 1 i cate


treatments


groups


(Table


treatment,


eight


with


a tota


treatments


of thi


exper


ment were


identi


to those of


exper


iment


more


treatments


t.torod


* tA1nn


- I 4- tka


nknc nhl n ann


Airl er,? m m ar 1A


n hkncnhna


r ron tmonte


vari


on.


on.


cnrt-H


3




















u-a


u\r0
"N -


U
c0.

'0 f'
CO -c


(Ur n
Lu\r r


O0


00


L E


"-O
C1-'
O:C'
cU
LE
0)0)
C- E


- 3
.a


U-D
U -a
u' ct-







.055


percent


denti


calcium


to the


unsupp


from calc


emented


phytate.


basal


One added


treatment


treatment,


the f


received


0.20


percent


phosphorus


and 0. 1


percent


cium


from calc


um phytate.


Data were


collected


anal


yzed


described


prev


ous


exper


ments


Resu


and Discuss


Exper


iment


Morta


ty was


the fourteenth


extremely


morta


experiment


ty was


least


(Table


percent


seven


treatment


groups


owes t


morta


ty was


percent


group


rece


sodi


phosphate


supp


emented


diet


percent


phorus


and 0.55


percent


cium.


There were


stati


cal ly


gnif


cant


fferences


among


morta


treatment


groups


expe


ment.


addi


tion


soft


phosphate


to the basa


not i


improve


bone mi


nera


zati


at the 1


owe r


phosphorus


leve


(Tab


addi


0.30


percent


soft phosphate


phos


phorus


was not benef


at the


owe r


ci um


eve


did i


increase


bone


ash at the h


gher


evel


addi ti


of both


level


sodi


um ac


phosphate


gnificantly


treatments


improved


bone a


received


soft


over


the basa


phosphate.


three


appeared


four


that


there


inadequate


phosphorus


treatment


evel


to support


life,


or that


there was


some other


miti


factor


basa


diet.


was






















a3
.c-
X -


UJ




a
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OU






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Q.0 G. o


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rll


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(ULC
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4. U



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in Q.


-*4-i
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CI L.
4-I 1
>- Q)
.ca
a


E3 a







Experiment


resu


experiment


(Tab


and 3


were


to those


obta


experiment


Mortality


was al


most


perce


nt for the


tota


exper


iment


fourteenth


There


erence


morta


regard


ess


treatment


when


were


fed the


purif


When


was term


nated,


treatment


rece


commerce


broiler


exper


ienced


no morta


soft


phosphate


gave


no improvement


in bone


over


basa


let when


low cal


levels


were


fed.


ncreas


evel


S In


the soft


phosphate


treatments


resu


increased


bone


ash.


Sodium acid


phos


phate


gave


an i


increase


bone ash over


other


treatments


receive


ng puri f


ets.


Bone


for the


cant


treatment


greater


rece


than


come rc


other


broi


treatments


Experiment


The addi


percent


phosphorus


from ca


cium phytate


to the


not i


improve


bone ash


nor


vabi1i ty


Even


though


morta


ty was


ite h


exper


iment


vabi


tended


favor


those


treatments


rece


ived


supplement


phosphorus


from


sodium acid


phate.


There


appear


to be


no i


improvement


livabi


ty when


treatments


were


supplemented


with


soft phosphate.


treatment wh


rece


commerce


broi


exper


ience


no mortality


prev


ious


soft


phate


to the


basa


not si


ficant


improve


L/.-- L*--


was


was


J _1*?


rlk L)L Lhf M. L^C 4J


j4 1-kJ--hJ


nF rrr~F


II1II*Al







soft


phosphate


supplemented


iets


treatment


supplemented


with


sodium acid


a bone


phosphate


value


to a


ivalent


phosphorus


to the


eve


one


percent


come rc


produced


broi


bone


data


ected


from


fled


etary


treatments


exper


ment were


extremely


vari


wi th


any g


ven


treatment.


Therefore


arge


difference


bone


ash was


requ


to i


indicate


stat


chance.


improve morta


or bone


addi


ion of


ash.


the calcium


would


cate


phytate


that


phytin


osphorus


was not the factor


response


bible


for the


poor


performance


cken.


Summary


Three


exper


ments


Comb


Leghorn


cockerels


were


conducted


to evaluate


avai


soft


phate


data


obta


were


very


variable


both


within


among


treatment


groups


were


Mortal


three


exper


ty was


iments


extremely


regard


when


ess


phosphorus


diets


treatment.


There


appea


to be


no di


offer


ence


mortal


to treatment


however


exper


ment


ivabi


favored


those


treatments


supplemented w


um acid


phosphate.


A pos


control


treatment


each


exper


ments


experien


no mortal


-day


exper


mental


period


addi


soft phos


phate


to the


basa


diet


failed


cons


stentl


increase


bone


The addit


um ac


phosphate


, how


ever


a number


not stati


gnif


cant


increase


ove r


basa


and the


phosphate


supplemented


treatments


on of added


ohosohorus


from calcium ohvtate


not improve


eve


. *I







data


these


experiments


cate


that


osphorus


soft


phosphate


cannot


utili


nor can that


from


acid


phosphate


when


vabi


teri


on.


uest


onabi


whether this


equate


to assay


phosphorus


sources


under


cond


ons


ese


exper


ments


Even


though


sodi


um acid


phate


gave


an i


increase


bone


over


the basa


and the


soft phosphate


supp


emen ted


mortal


ty w


et was


such


that


ctical


interpretation was


difficult


It is felt


that


a pract


be best


assay


phosphorus


sources


that


mortality wou


not be a


major


contributing


ctor.


wou












CHAPTER 4

Evaluation of Two Dietary Levels of Plant Phosphorus
for Use in Phosphorus Assays


Plant phosphorus has been reported to be low in biological


availability for the chick and the rat by Lowe et al.


(1939),


Krieger et al.


(1940


, 1941), Spitzer et al.


(1948)


is et al.


949,


957) and Matterson et al.


(1946)


(1965b) found that optimum weight gains


However, Waldroup et al.

but not maximum minerali-


nation, could be obtained from a hominy feed diet which contained


percent phosphorus, all coming from plant sources.


Fritz et al.


(1947), Vandepopuliere et al.

reported similar findings. W


et al.


(1961) and Sieburth et al.


fork by Heuser et al. (1943) and McGinnis


(1944) noted limited availability of phosphorus from plant


sources.


Gillis et al.


(1949) suggested that natural plant phosphorus


was more effective


than that extracted as


cium phytate.


Results


ted by Peeler


970) reflected similar findings.


Singsen et al.


(1947) and Boutwell et al.


plant phosphorus ut


(1946) found a positive relationship between


ization and the presence of vitamin D.


The phosphorus in soft phosphate has been found to be


ow in


availab


ity by numerous workers as previously cited.


However, an


equally


large number of researchers have reported adequate to good


bone mineralization from diets evaluating soft phosphate.


Damron and


Harms (


1968a, 1969a)


using a degerminated corn mea


diet, observed the


(1952)






Motzok et al.


(1956)


suggested


that the poor performance of soft


phosphate


was due to a


large amount of metaphosphate and pyrophosphate


present,


this sti


does not answer the qu


estion


as to why normal,


or almost norma


bone


ash can be obtained with soft phosphate.


From a review of publ


phosphate might be ut


shed research


, it appeared that soft


sizable for mineralization whi


plant phosphorus


might be ava


labl


for growth.


These experiments were designed to


determine


if there might be specific functions which


these two phosphorus


sources


could


select


y supply


in a complementary fashion


as well


to contrast the degerminated corn mea


Experi mental


and hominy feed assay diets.


Procedure


In each of


two experi ments


five mal


and five female broiler-type


chicks


(Peterson X Peterson) were randomly


assigned to three replicate


groups receiving each of 30 dietary treatments.


Genera


procedures


are described


in the material


and methods


section of


this


paper.


Four


birds


in each rep


i ca te


(two of each


sex) were sacrificed for bone ash


determination.


The two basa


diets


involved


in this study are


shown


in Tabl


Both diets contained 22.0 percent protein,


2200


I.C.U. of vitamin D3,


and 27


12 kilocalories of metabo


izabl


energy per kilogram of diet.


The degerminated corn mea


basa


was


identical


to the one used by


Damron and Harms


(1969a)


and was found by analysis


to contain 0.30


percent phosphorus and 0.26 percent calcium


The hominy feed basa


was similar to one used by Waldroup et al.


(1965b)


and contained 0.50


percent phosphorus and 0.21


percent calcium.


Supplemental


phosphorus











Table


Compos


tion


degerminated


corn meal


and homi


feed


ngred


Diet 1
(Degerminated
('C


corn)


(Hominy


feed)


Degerm


nated


corn


Hominy


Cere


feed


ose


Corn


oybean


meal


protein)


Alfa


meal


(20%


protein)


Micro-


ngred


ents


Vari


phos


phorus


uppli
tamin


per kilogram of d
, 550 mg. choline


tamin


40 mg.


niacin,


, 2,200


ribof


avi n,


pantothenic


mg. iron,
and 83.6


aci


mg. copper,
manganese.


d, 22 mcg
200 mcg.


vitamin


ethoxyquin, 20
100 mcg. zinc,


coba


2Composed


calcium and


phosphorus


sources


buil


ders' sand.







phosphorus


18.24


percent


and cal


cium phosphate


percent


phos


phorus


and 20.9


percent


both


experiments.


Reagent


grade


carbonate


was used


to obtain


level


each


treatment.


Table


outl i


nes


dietary


treatments


eval


uated.


treatments


egerm


nated


corn


meal


basa


which


was supp


emented


soft


phosphate


and cal


cium


phosphate.


three


level


phosphorus


and cal


ed with


each


two supplement


phosphorus


groups


were


ecte


from a


test


performance


standard


curve


proposed


Damron


and Harms


969)


rema


trea tments


each


experiment


nvol


supp


ementat


a homir


basal


et wi


both


soft phos


phate


and cal


um phos


phate


to total


phosphorus


evel


and 0.7


percent.


Three


evel


um were


fed w


each


the three soft phosphate


sphorus


exper


iments


were


identica


stat


evaluati


data


revea


no si


ficant


treatment


exper


ment


or treatment


sex i


interaction


, the


exper


ments


were


comb


cati


Resu


and D


scuss


When


egerminated


corn


meal


basa


percent


phos


phorus


was f


, a graded


response


was obta


and body we


ghts


from


supp


ementa


levels


and 0


percent


phosphorus


from


their


source


. Also,


there


was no si


cant


erence


bone


supp


events


either


two 1


evel


and 0


perce


their


source


(Table


phosphate


nnl? rFr ntl


'p t


mn ra


1ahln


minrn 1


7wt inn


than


nce


eve


u/nc c il


EI\/a






Tabl


Tibia ash and body weight of chicks fed various


levels


phosphorus and calcium supplied from soft phosphate and


um phosphate


n degerminated corn basa


and hominy


feed basa


diets


upplemental 1


Phos


Supp


Total


Tota


phorus


Source


Tibia
ash'
(%)


Body
weights
(gms)


Degerminated corn basal diet


Calcium phosphate


Soft phosphate


0.07
0.14
0.21


0.07
0.14
0.21


0.37
0.44
0.51


0.37
0.44
0.51


0.47
0.58
0.69


0.56
0.62
0.68


39.6ijkl
42.1 no


37.1defgh
37.7efghi
39.9jklm


327ghijkl
330hijklm
3600


283ab
298bcd
310defg


Hominy feed basa


diet


None


0.50


0.57
0.67
0.77


321efghij
306cdef


35.5cd
33.5b
31.1a


273a


Calcium phosphate


0.07


0.57


0.67
0.77
0.87


37.9efgh
35.8cd
36.7defg


3441mno
315defgh
318efghi


0.64


0.77
0.87
0.97


40.71mn
40. ojklm
38.3ghij


354no
340klmn
322no


0.21


Soft phosphate


0.07


0.87
0.97
1.07


0.57


0.57
0.67
0.77
0.87


42.1"n
41.6mno
43.00


39.1 ijk
38.2fgh
35.7cd
34.0b


347mno
342klmn
353no0


335jklm
328ghij
311defg
283ab


0.14


0.21


0.64


0.71


0.67
0.77
0.87
0.97


0.77
0.87


a a -


39.6ijk1
38.6hijk
37.7efgh
36.4def


40.3klm
40 3klm


332ijklm
320efghi.
305cde
292bc


3441mno
330ijklm
^ft 1. fifth ;






was a comparable


of 0


evel of soft phosphate when supplemented at the


percent phosphorus (total 0.51 percent).


evel


Body weight data


significantly (P


< 0.05) favored calcium phosphate over soft phosphate


at a


basal


three


diet.


eve


of supplementation in the degerminated corn mea


These results generally agree with those published by


Damron and Harms (1968a)


However, these data reflect considerably


more mineralization with the


than these workers reported.


evel


of soft phosphate supplementation


Body weight was depressed at al


evel


of soft phosphate supplementaiton of the degerminated corn mea


but the trend


basal,


as reported by Damron and Harms (1968a) for a decrease


in weight


eve]


of soft phosphate increased was not noted with


this particular diet.

Chicks fed the unsupplemented hominy feed grew well but had


inadequate bone mineralization.


These results agree with those reported


by Waldroup et al.


(1965b).


When this diet was supplemented with 0.07


percent phosphorus from either source, good growth was obtained.

the unsupplemented hominy feed diet containing 0.50 percent total


With


phosphorus, hi

with a calcium


ghest mineralization and body weight


evel of 0.57 percent.


eve


were obtained


As calcium increased up through


0.67 percent to 0.77 percent, a progressive depression


in both body


weight and mineralization was apparent.


This trend was a


observed


when either calcium phosphate or soft phosphate was supplemented with


cium at increased


evels (Tabl


As the calcium:phosphorus ratio


widened


a depression of body weight and mineralization occurred.


exception to this trend occurred when the diet was supplemented with






homi


feed


When


soft phosphate


supplemented


umr: phosphorus


was approximate


, regard


ess


of 1


eve


eval


uated,


mineralization


and body


weight


approach


eve


equa


to those


phosphate.


expans


ion of


ratio


gave


a marked


line


bone ash


and body


cond


ition


became


ess


tica


when


equate


phosphorus


were


present


, regardless


source.


These


data


stan-


fact


that


eve


are extremely


important


when


phorus


evel


are sub-


optimum.


These


appear


to be


more


soft


phosphate


supplemented


diets.


Optimum mineral


zati


and body weights


were


obtai


when the


dege


rminated


corn


mea


et was


supp


emented


calci


um phosphate


and cal


carbonate


to 1


evel


percent


osphorus


and 0


perce


nt cal


A hominy


diet


supp


emented


to 0


percent


osphorus


percent


but sub-opt


mum


calcium


bone


from cal


appeared


phosphate


that


gave opt


lant


imum body


phosphorus


aval


for growth


not for


bone


mineral


zation.


avai


abil


eve


soft


phosphate


narrow


umrn: phosphorus


rati


demons


treated


follow


servat


unsupp


gave


emented


an average


eed basa


bone


(tota


cent


osphorus


and body


perce


gms.


addi


of 0


cent


phos


phorus


from


soft phos


phate


a bone


percent


cantl


higher)


an average


body


gms. (not


cant


iffere


This i


increase


bone


ash and


increased


growth


might


have


been


expected


since bone ash


eve


was







degerminated corn mea


basal gave numerically higher bone ash values


than did 0.50 percent of all plant phosphorus from an unsupplemented


hominy feed basa


diet.


Body weight in this comparison significantly


favored the unsupplemented hominy feed basal.

These data appear to substantiate the claim that soft phosphate


is available for mineralization but not


as readily utilized for body


weight gain.


Also


, the statement that plant phosphorus is more


available for growth than for mineralization is supported by these


result ts.


The complementary effect observed when soft phosphate was


used with hominy feed diets appeared to be extremely sensitive to


evel


of phosphorus supplementation and Ca:P ratios.


It appears that


phosphorus in soft phosphate was quite available


supplementation in the hominy feed diet and that this ava

decreased with increased phosphorus supplementation. The


ability


fact that


the lower


cium


evel in each of the


owe r


evels of phosphorus


supplementation consistently gave the best performance


as evaluated


by bone ash suggested that the calcium might have been utilized from

the phytin phosphorus molecule, thus making phosphorus more available.


Why soft phosphate appears to be relatively availabi


for minera-


lization and not for growth is not understood, nor is the reverse of


this

spec


, involving plant phosphorus.


ific chemical


It seems that there might be a


configuration that soft phosphate cannot supply for


growth and a similar situation where organic phosphorus cannot be


utilized for optimum mineralization.


Addi tiona


study and research


may give more information on the specific causes for these anomalies.


eve







Summary


experiments


were


conducted


to eva


uate


diets with


two dietary


phos


phorus


for use in phosphorus


assays


attempted


to determine


a homir


feed


diet


supply


organ


phos-


phorus


wou


ld be


comp


ementary


to soft


phosphate


supp


lementat


growth


and mi


nera


nation


A degerm


nated


corn


meal


was used


eval


uate mi


nera


zati


, avai


and growth


nab i


ty w


supp


ementat


soft


phosphate.


These


data


cate


that


wi th


certain


cations


soft


phos


phate


avai


for mi


nera


zati


not growth


A linear


response


was obta


tibia


ash and body we


ghts


from


feed


supplement


evel


cent


phosphorus


from


either


source when


degerminated


corn mea


was used


near


response


tibia


ash was


obta


from add


each


evel


um pho


was obtai


sphate


from


to the


hominy


supplementing


eed d


diet


increase


wi th


soft phosphate


bone ash


however


t was


near


as found


for cal


phate.


wou


appear


that


a hominy


feed


be usefu


phosphorus


assays


nce


growth


rate


equa


groups


contain


ng supp


mental


osphorus


thus


remove


this


actor


from


consider


ration


phosphorus


avail


so appear


s that


under


certa


cond


ons


soft


phosphate


organ


phosphate might


used


comp


mental


to obtain optimum body weight


bone


eve


was












CHAPTER 5

Further Studies on a Hominy Feed Basal


for Use in Phosphorus


Assays


The availability of phosphorus in soft phosphate to the chick


has undergone extensive


eval


uation in recent years.


Generally, the


consensus has been that soft phosphate was not utilized to a


degree by the chick.


large


The findings by many have indicated that this


lack of availability was reflected


in growth response, but not


neces-


ari ly in bone mineralization.


Many workers have reported that


adequate mineralization could be obtained with soft phosphate.


Damron


and Harms


1968a) found little


difference


n bone mineral ization of 21-


day old chicks which had received comparable


eve


of soft phosphate


and cal


cium phosphate in a degerminated corn mea


diet.


Another


study by Damron and Harms (1969a) yielded similar results.


Waldroup et al.


more critical


(1963) found that calcium:phosphorus ratios were


n soft phosphate supplemented diets than in diets


supplemented with phosphorus sources considered more readily available.


Motzok et al.


(1967) a


found ratios to be extremely critical


when


soft phosphate was employed


as a dietary supplement.


Research findings


discussed in the previous chapter of this paper indicated that


cium:


phosphorus ratios were critical in hominy feed diets supplemented with


both soft phosphate and calcium phosphate.


more important than phosphorus


Ratios appeared to be even


levels beyond the 0.5 percent plant






was noted


bone ash


might


poss


that


a hominy


feed


could be


phosphorus


aval


Body we


coul


nate


nce


wou


not be


an exper


imenta


variabi


under


these


condit


ons.


lowing


exper


ments


were


conducted


to compare


sources


phosphorus


at various


evel


supp


ementation


nves


tigate


poss


ible


comp


ementary


effects


these


sources


Further


eval


uati


effects


reduced


um:phosphorus


ratios


also made.


Exper


mental


Procedure


each


exper


iments


ve ma


and f


fema


broi


ler-


type


were


randomly


assi


gned


to three


reply


cate


groups


receive


each


dietary


treatments


for a 21-day


Shaver


Hubbard


chick


were


were


used


used


in the


the f


seco


exper


Routine


iment;


brooding


Peterson


and evaluate


Peterson


procedures


were


descr


materi


and methods


chapter


paper


fi na


each


experiment


four


birds


each


cate


group


(two


each


sex)


were


sacr


ced for


eterm


nati


compos


one


hominy


used


exper


droup


iments


basa


965a)


descri bed


(Tab


dent


Chapter


was si


to the


to the


one used


contained


22.0


percent


protein


and 271


metabo


zabl


energy


ogram of


feed


The basa


also conta


percent


osphorus


and 0


percent


um by


anal


tota


2200


.C.U.


tamin D


per kilogram of


diet


as wel


as other


recommended


evels


was


ons










Tab1


Tibia ash and body weight of chicks fed various


phosphorus and calcium supplied by soft phosphate and


phosphate in a hominy feed basa


cium


diet


Supplemental
Phosphorus
Source


Supply.


None


Calcium phosphate


0.07


0.14


0.21


Soft phosphate


0.07


Tota


0.50


0.57


0.64


0.71


Tota


0.37
0.47
0.57
0.67


0.57
0.67


0.67
0.77


0.87
0.97


0.57


0.47
0.57
0.67
0.87
0.872
0.97
0.972


Tibia
ash'
(%)

37.8de
39.8f
39.7 9
36.7cd


41 .5ghijk
42.0ijk


42.9jk'
43. kl'


45.0m
44.4 m


37.8de
41.1fghij
41.4ghijk
37.6de
34.4ab
35.5bc


Body
weights
(gms)


366d
366d
378def
345c

388ef
388ef

393f

379def
383def

320b
372def
377def
375def
340c
302b
304b
272a


0.14


0.21


0.64


0.71


0.57
0.67
0.77


0.67
0.77
0.87


39.3ef
41.8ijk
40.9fgh


39.9fgh
41.7hijk
42.3ijk


375def
387def
t 37def


372def
373def
373def
376def


Means with different superscripts are significantly different according


to Duncan's multiple range test (P


Supplementa


0.05).


cium supplied by reagent grade calcium sulfate.


Supplemental calcium in all other treatments supplied by reagent grade
calcium carbonate.


eve






treatments


eval


uated.


Supplementa


phosphorus


was


supp


from commerce


grade


soft phosphate


percent


phosphorus


and 18


percent


and cal


um phos


phate


percent


phosphorus


and 20.9


percent


both


exper


iments.


eve


were obtai


supp


ement


wi th


reagent


grade


cium carbonate


or reagent


grade


sulfate.


Four


eve


um were


fed to chi


rece


basa


thout


phosphorus


supplementation


Three


graduated


increments


of 0


percent


phorus


were


obta


supplement


ng w


um phos


phate.


leve


um were


each


these


increments


. Soft


phate


was al


supplemented


to atta


tota


phosphorus


evel


and 0.71


percent.


eve


um were


fed w


thin


first


osphorus


evel


addi


ona


calci


evels


were


util


calc


fate


as the


supp


elemental


clum


source


post


ated


that


fate might


assi


izat


soft


phosphate


nce


owe r


than


that


carbonate.


Three


evel


um were


ed wi


each


the other


two 1


evel


sphorus


supp


soft


phosphate.


lowest


wi th


more


each


narrow


phosphorus


calci


supp


um:phosphorus


emented


ratio


group wer


that


was


formu


invest


ated


i ga ted


to y


Chapter


paper


both


exper


ments


were


conducted


under


dent


cond


and there


was no treatment


sex interact


data were


comb


anal


and di


Resu


and Di


scuss


scussion


The hominy


feed


basa


contain


0.50


percent


phosphorus,


was


eve


nce


ons






from the best obtained


in the tria


(Tabl


The bone ash value of


the best phosphorus unsupplemented treatment was significantly


power


than


the maximum bone ash


evel


obtained.


The growth obtained with


this basa


diet


indicated that the chick could utilize plant phosphorus


from a hominy feed diet for growth.


cium supported good growth


The basa


however, bone as


diet with 0.37 percent

h was significantly


power than for higher calcium.


This would


indicate that


plant


cium


as well


as plant phosphorus


is preferentia


ly used for growth


rather than bone mineralization.


When ca


cium:phosphorus


ratios were comparab


, the addition of


0.07 percent phosphorus from either source produced an


Increase


bone


ash.


This was


significant with calcium phosphate and approached


significance with soft phosphate.


The findings reported


in Chapter 4


showed a significant


increase


in bone ash with the addition of 0.07


percent phosphorus


from either source.


Calcium phosphate


supplementation


of 0.07 percent phosphorus gave a ten-gram increase


the unsupplemented basal.


in body weight over


The addition of 0.07 percent phosphorus from


soft phosphate did not give an


addition of phosphorus


increase in body weight


in graduated


However,


increments of 0.07 percent from


either source gave


a numerica


Increase


n bone


in a


near fashion


when calcium

A bone


evel


were optimum.


ash value of 45.0 percent was obtained when


cium


phosphate was supplemented


to a


evel


of 0.2


percent phosphorus with


a level


of 0.87 percent calcium.


This value was


gnificantly greater


than al


other values observed except that from a treatment


supplemented


^I,) i-h n


91 narrant nhnci rhrric frnm i-hn cnmo cr ilrrc t.th f Q7- norr'nt







yielded 42.3 percent bone


ash.


As noted


in previous work, soft


phosphate appeared


to be utilized


to a greater extent for minerali-


nation at


lower supplement


levels.


Deviation from optimum calcium:


phosphorus


ratios


resulted


in a marked depression of bone ash and


body weight when soft phosphate was supp


ied at the three graduated


increments of 0.07 percent phosphorus.


There were no significant differences


n body weights among


treatments


rece


giving the various


levels of phosphorus supplementation


from either source


and/or comparab


ong as calcium:phosphorus ratios were optimum


The hominy feed diet supplemented with soft


phosphate gave body weights which were not significantly different from


those obtained with calcium phosphate.


Where


levels of calcium adequate


to permit observations were evaluated


cium:phosphorus


deviation from the optimum


ratio depressed body weight and bone ash.


fact that there was


ttle difference


in body weight among phosphorus


evels


indicated that bone ash could be considered the major evaluation


criterion when a hominy feed basa


was used.


There appeared


to be some complementary


effect from combining


phosphorus


from soft phosphate and


that from hominy feed


since


gram treatment weight averages were obtained using this combination.


It was postulated that


of soft phosphate more avai


cium sulfate might make the high


eve


The result was exactly the opposite.


Those treatments which received


the calcium sulfate


as a supplement


calcium source had significantly poorer bone ash and body weights


than


did those


treatments with


identical


levels of phosphorus and ca


cium






Even


though


differ


ences


body weight


comparab 1


treatments


were


not stat


istical1ly


cant,


groups


receiving


soft


phosphate


not perform qu


as wel


as did


those whi


received


calci


phos


phate.


um:phos


phorus


appeared


to be


much


more


criti


when


soft


phosphate was


util


as the


supp


ementa


hos-


phorus


source


these


were


to those


reported


Chapter


these


a further


reduction of


phorus


to i


increase


bone


or body we


regard-


phos


phorus


source


evel


Maximum bone


and body we


wi th


each


phosphorus


eve


was obta


when


calc


um: phosphorus


ratio was


approximate


summary


most


narrow


um:phosphorus


rati


(approximate


were


eval


uated


prev


ous


chapter


paper


gave


maximum


performance


thin


each


phosphorus


treatment


group


regard


ess


teri


used


or source


eval


uated


A further


reduct


of thi


rati


resu


decreased


or equa


performance


phos


phorus


treatment


groups


regardless


phosphorus


source.


These


data


indicated


that


compare


sons


phosphorus


assays


must


be made within


or wi


cons


deration


of rati


evel


phos


phorus


cons


mum was


approached


fect


adverse


um:phosphorus


became


ess


apparent.


A -hominy


feed


basa


conta


cent


phosphorus


from


sources


I


, gave


body we


rights


, even


though


number


cally lower,


ess







cons


idered


optimum


in chi


diets.


Bone


ues


from


these


phosphorus


unsupplemented


homi


feed


treatments


were


cons


der-


lower


than


those


from d


considered


mum


phosphorus


content.


This i


cated


that


phosphorus


the hominy


feed


basa


availab


growth


so avai


m nera


nation.


diff


erence


was noted


body weights


among


graduated


phosphorus


treatments


as cal


um:phosphorus


were


comparab


With


same


treatments


, the graduated


increase


phorus


resulted


a number


cal ly


near


increase


bone


regard


ess


source.


suggested


that when


hominy


eed d


are employed


osphorus


assay


purposes,


body we


data


coul


iminated


as an exper


mental


vari


able.


Percent


util


nation


of soft


phosphate


mineral


nation


appeared


to be


greater when


supp


emented


owe r


levels


phosphorus


rati


increased


supp


ementa


eve


soft phos


phate


appeared


result


decrease


ng efficiency


lization of


phosphorus


soft phosphate


when


compa red


phosphate


under si


cond


ons.


Although


phosphate was


not stat


nfer


phosphate


cons


stent


better


performance.


Rat i


appeared


to be


more


with


soft


phosphate


1ization


than with


calci


um phosphate


zati


eve


mum


um:


on.


eve













CHAPTER 6


Utilization of Phosphorus


Sources


With and Without


Fish Meal in Practical Corn-Soybean Type Broiler Diets


Many attempts have been made to improve or enhance the utilization


of soft phosphate in chick diets.


Combination with other phosphorus


sources


has been one of the most common procedures.


Johnson et al.


(1953) combined 2.0 percent soft phosphate with 0.5 percent bone


meal and obtained good growth and calcification.


This diet was


superior to one with 1.0 percent soft phosphate and 0.5 percent bone


meal, indicating that soft phosphate was being utilized.


et al.
-


Waldroup


(1965c) obtained improvement in the performance of soft phos-


phate supplemented diets when either calcium phosphate


acid or sodium acid phosphate was added.


phosphoric


Soft phosphate plus either


of these three performed better than comparable diets with 0.


percent


less phosphorus and no soft phosphate.


Summers


(1959) obtained


an increased availability of the phosphorus in soft phosphate when it


was combined with phosphoric or hydrochloric acid.


However, Waldroup


et al.


(1965c) reported no additive effect of two ingredients.


These


workers noted an increase in the phosphorus content of the treated

soft phosphate, and concluded that this increase was due to loss of


water vapor in the mixing process.


Motzok


(1965),


Fritz and


Roberts (1966), and McKnight and Watts (1966) found that, under certain


conditions, vitamin D, in


excess


of that normally supplemented could







found


that


when


osphorus


eve ls


were


sub-optima


the cal


cium:


phorus


io was


more


critical


diets


contain


soft


phosphate.


The f


scuss


ed i


Chapters


and 5


marked


support


Damron


1967)


eva


uated


soft


phosphate


supp


emente


corn-


soybean


meal


type


wi th


and wi


thout


meal


Graduated


evel


um were


uded


the study


These


researchers


noted


that


maximum


body


ghts


coul


not be


produ


ced by


conta


soft


phosphate

favored t


as the sole


hose


supp


treatments


mental


receive


phosphorus


source.


meal


Body we


one


ghts


ns tance


when


soft


phate


was the


supp


ementa


phorus


source.


There


were


no d


fferences


bone


to f


mea


supplemental


between


treatments


comparab 1


eve


phosphorus


The differences


body we


ight


between


control


diet


or wi


thout


meal


were


not stati


fish


stica


meal


dietary


cant


when


treatments


phosphorus


conta


eve


were


cent


comparable.


phosphorus


from soft


phos


phate


were


stat


cal ly


equa


to the


control


group


ght w


eeks


age.


authors


attri


buted


improved


response


rece


meal


to the h


avai


phos-


phorus


supp


the fi


sh mea


expert


ments


reported


chapter were


signed


eval


uate


uti lizati


and adequacy


soft


phate


phos


phate


with


and without


sh mea


chick


Efforts


were


made


to determ


whether


soft


phosphate wou


suffice


as a phosphorus


source


when


sh mea


was present


in the






Experimental Procedure


In each of two experiments five ma


and five fema


broiler-


type chicks (Peterson


Peterson) were randomly assigned to each of


replicate groups per treatment.


A total of


dietary treatments


were


fed for


a 21-day period.


Routine brooding and


eval


nation


procedures were


as described in Chapter


On the final day of each


experiment four birds in each replicate group (two of each sex) were

sacrificed for tibia ash determinations.


Three basa


diets were evaluated


in each experiment.


The compo-


sition of these diets is presented in Tab


contained 0,


Diets 1,


.0 and 6.0 percent fish meal, respectively.


contained 0.41 percent phosphorus and 0.12 percent ca


and 3


Diet


cium.


Diet


contained 0.48 percent phosphorus and 0.28 percent calcium.

contained 0.57 percent phosphorus and 0.44 percent calcium.


Diet 3

All


three diets were formulated to be iso-caloric and iso-nitrogeneous.

Each contained 22.07 percent protein and 2920 kilocalories of metabo-


lizab


energy per kilogram of feed.


A total of 2200 I.C.U. of vitamin


per kilogram of diet


as wel


as other recommended


eve


of micro-


ingredients were supplemented.


Tabl


outlines the dietary treatments evaluated.


Supplement


phosphorus was supplied from commercial grade soft phosphate (9.70


percent phosphorus and


8.24 percent


cium) and calcium phosphate


(21.69 percent phosphorus and 20.92 percent calcium).


evel


Desired calcium


were obtained by adding reagent grade calcium carbonate.


One level of soft phosphate and two


levels of calcium phosphate


I I 1 1 ..... .. .. .


ree


., .._


_ 1


s~


1












Table


Composition of basa


diets.


I ngred ients


Diet


Diet


Diet 3


low corn mea


53.71


56.48


Soybean mea

Alfalfa mea


(50% protein)

(20% protein)


34.50

3.00


30.57

3.00


26.63

3.00


Vegetab


1.25


0.90


Fish mea


3.00


6.00


Iodized salt


0.40


Micro-i ngred i ents


0.50


0.40

0.50


0.40

0.50


Methionine


Variabi


phosphorus


0.18


6.00


0.41


0.11

6.00


0.48


0.09

6.00


0.57


clum


0.28


0.44


Supplied per kilogram of diet: vitamin A


2,200 I
39.6 mg
125 mg.


.C.U.;


.


riboflavin,


choline chloride,


; manganese, 60 mg.;


4.4 mg.


6,600


pantothenic acid,


499.4 mg.;
iron, 50 mg


vitamin D3,
3.2 mg.; niacin,


vitamin B12, 22 mcg.; ethoxyquin,


copper


6 mg


cobalt


, 0.198


mg.;


iodine,


1.1 mg.; zinc, 35 mcg.


2
Included phosphate source,
sand.


reagent grade calcium carbonate and builders'


[.






Table 8.


Tibia ash and body weights of chicks fed various


evel


phosphorus and calcium supplied by soft phosphate and


clum


phosphate


in practice


corn-soybean type broiler diets


with


and without fish meal


upplemental 1
Phosphorus


Supply.


Tota


Tota


Tibia
ash"


source


Diet


Body
weights
(gmins)


, corn-soybean


Soft phosphate


0.50


44.2abc


358ab


0% calcium phos-


phate


0.40%


soft phosphate


0.50


0.91


0.98


45.2bcdefg
45.6cdefgh


-7abcdefg


371abcdef
367abcde


0.20% ca


phate


um phos-
0.30%


soft phosphate


Calcium phosphate


0.50


0.36


0.91


0.77


0.98


0.90


44.5bcd
46.91 'J
47.4J

44.8bcde


384efgh
381defg
385efgh


0.50


Diet


fghij


, corn-soybean + 3% fish mea


Soft phosphate


Calcium phosphate


0.40


0.26


0.40


0.88


0.74


0.71


0.88


45.2bcdefg
45.4bcdefg
44.3abc
43.1a

44.2abc

46.5ghij
45.9defghi


360abc
359a
359a
354a

410'


380cdefg
380cdefg


Diet 3


, corn-soybean + 6% f


sh meal


Soft phosphate


0.30


Calcium phosphate


0.86


0.72


0.71


46.1efghi
47.0ij
45.
45.0bcdef

45. 0bcdef


376bcdefg
388fgh
381defg
361abcd

376bcdefg


392gh


403h







phosphate was supplemented to bring the phosphorus


level


to 0.91, 0.88


and 0.86 percent


in diets


and 3,


respectively.


Calcium phosphate


treatments were supplemented to the same


leve


as soft phosphate


each basa


exce


pt for the 0.82 percent


level


in the 6.0 percent fish


meal


diet.


Addition


um phosphate treatments were supplemented


to 0.77


0.74 and 0


percent phosphorus


in the three basa


diets,


respective


Single calcium assignments were


selected from standard


curves proposed by Damron


(1968).


When a phosphorus


treatment had


more


than one calcium leave


these


evels were


ected to encompass


the standard curve


evels suggested by Damron


(1968)


Two corn-soybean


dietary treatments contained phosphorus supplementation from combinations


of soft and ca


cium phosphate sources.


One received 0.


0 percent phos-


phorus


from ca


cium phosphate and 0.40 percent from soft phosphate for


a supplement


tota 1


of 0.50 percent and a grand tota


of 0.9


percent


phosphorus.


The other combined phosphorus


percent phosphorus from ca


treatment received 0.20


cium phosphate and 0.30 percent from


soft


phosphate for a supplement


tota


of 0.50 percent phosphorus.


These


treatments were designed


to substitute calcium phosphate at those


phosphorus


evels supplied by the two fish mea


diets.


Since both experiments were


identical


and statistics


evaluation


of the data revealed no significant treatment X experiment nor treatment X


sex interaction,


the experiments and


sexes


were combined for discussion.


Results and Discussion


The addition of 3.0 percent fish mea


-L.- .- ,.. 1 A. A-a.


to the diet containing soft


fl*it aC r n,4-L


* IIY I L m


L,, e ^J







Damron


et al.


(1967)


however


ues


observed


their


studio


number


favored


treatments


without


fish


meal


When


cium


phosphorus


were


mum


addi


tion


percent


meal


to the


diet


contain ni


soft phosphate


resulted


a stati


cant


increase


bone ash


over


the two other


basa


lets


imum bone


ash was


obta


with


the comb


nation


percent


fish


meal


and soft ph


osphate.


same


leve


bone ash


was also


obta


a combi


nati


um phosphate


- soft


phosphate


thout


fish


meal


addi


of 3


perce


nt fish


meal


not i


improve


body


ghts


chicks


rece


soft


phate


supp


emente


diets


These


are not


agreement


with


Damron


967)


found


cant


advantage


body we


those


four-week


soft phosphate


supp


lemente


et wi


meal.


ever


addi


percent


meal


to the


conta


soft


hos-


phate


elded


a si


cant


increase


body


over


whi ch


received


percent


fish


meal


when


the cal


cium:phos


phorus


o was


mum.


A devi


action


from


mum


ratio


resu


no d


erences


among


three soft


phosphate


supplemented


addi


on of


or 6


percent


meal


phate


supp


lemented


improve


bone


nor body we


ght.


Body


ghts


with


one except


number


favored


diet wh


contain


no fish


meal.


phosphorus


from calcium


phosphate were


observed


each


basa


There


appeared


to be


a sl


trend


toward


eve







there


was no difference


in body


weights


under


these


same


conditions


except


that


owe r


level


supplemental


phorus


ficant


outperformed


percent


level


percent


meal


group


had a lowered


bone


ash wh


have


lowed


gher


body we


ght.


phosphate


cons


stentl


y outperformed


soft


phosphate


measured


bone ash


and body


basal


contain


and 3


percent


sh mea


There were


no d


fferences


however


performance


soft


phosphate


and cal


phosphate


as evaluated


their


criterion when


the 6


perc


ent fi


mea


diet


was fed


These


data


cate


that


maximum


performance


can be obta


soft


phosphate


when


with


high


evel


sh mea


leve


meal


tended


to i


improve


performance


soft


phos


phate


diets


but did


not i


improve


the performance


cium phosphate


. Substi


tution


and 0


percent


phos


phorus


from ca


um phosphate


two l


evel


of f


meal


resu


a linear


improvement


performance


comparab


to that


obta


the f


meal


sugg


ests


that


phosphorus


sh mea


equa


to the


phos


phorus


phosphate


under


these


cond


ons


There


appeared


to be


dent


diets


factor


contain


benefit t


cium


from


phosphate


meal


performed


nce


icks


equally


receive


as well


super


those


conta


meal


as a source


a comparab


amount


phosphorus.


um:phosphorus


these


exper


iments


were


crit


evel


fish meal


tended


to mi


effects


these







ngs agree with


prev


ous


findings


rev i ewed


ssertat


ion.


was noted


that


mum performance was


obtained


when


phosphate


supp


no more


than 0


percent


the phosphorus


was demon


state


that


maximum performance


cannot


obta


when 0


or 0


cent


eve


phosphorus


from


soft phosphate


supp


ementa


source.


Prev


ous


work


reported


ssertation


agrees


and also agrees


Johnson


et al


953)


recommended


that


no more


than


cent


phosphorus


supp


from


phosphate.


of the


treatments


in these


experiments


contain


approxi-


mate


percent


phosphorus


eve


cons


derably more


than


National


Research


Council


recommend t


ons


Treatments


approximate


percent


phosphorus


most


part


performed


equa


as wel


as those


gher


levels


ummary


exper


ler-


ments


type


nvol


eval


uate


treatments


were


the utilization


conducted


soft phosphate


and cal


thout


um phosphate


sh meal


pract


levels


corn


of f


-soybean


meal


type


perce


were


eval


uated.


Comparable


phosphorus


and cal


leve


were


formu


lated


each


the three


basa


lets


Phosphorus


supp


emen-


ion was


reduced


to compensate


for the phosphorus


content


meal


addition


or 6


percent


fish


meal


number


moroved


bone ash i


soft


nhosnhate


sunnlemented


diets.


There


are


I


I I






percent


added


sh mea


gave


an i


increase


body we


over


lets


contain


and 3


cent


meal.


Whether


improvement


soft


phosphate


util


zation wi


added


sh mea


a more


available


phosphorus


source


not known.


Calcium


phos


phate


supplemented


outperformed


soft


phosphate


when


fed w


or the 3


cent


meal


There


was no


difference


performance


the ch


cks fed


two i


norgan


phos-


phorus


sources


percent


meal


diet.


mum


performance


was obta


soft phosphate


comb


nati


on w


pierce


nt f


meal


Maximum


rforma nce


was also obta


soft


phosphate


when


phosphorus


sh mea


was subst


tuted


wi th


an equa


amount


from


phate.


evel


sh mea


not affect


bone


phosphate


supp


emented


diets


when


ratios


were


comparab


mum bone


ash was


not obta


clum phosphate


alone


comb


nation with


meal


Why max


mum


bone


could


obtai


soft


phate


combi na t


on with


high


meal


or cal


phosphate


not cl


earl


understood.


Phosphorus


from


meal


performed


equally


as wel


as d


that


from


phosphate


when subst


tuted


at comparab


evel


addi


of fish


meal


to the d


gave


no i


increased


advantages


that


coul


not be


obta


ned when


cium phosphate


supplied


a comparable


amount


of phosphorus.


or i


eve














CHAPTER 7

Summary


Years of extens


in various material

the subject. Howe


vari


investigation on the availability of phosphorus


have produced a vast amount of knowledge about


ver, much of the research reported has been quite


e, and has uncovered many addition


example,


unanswered questions.


there is a need to determine the type of assay diet best


suited for the


study of phosphorus availabi


Diets


tried have


varied from purified to practical


with most researchers


selecting


one of many


n between.


Considerab


research has been conducted to


determine the cal


eve


or calcium ratio which would give maximum


response for each phosphorus source.

No uniformly acceptable response measurement has been developed


to determine relative phosphorus aval


ability


However


in recent


years, percent bone


ash and growth rate have become the accepted


primary criteria used by most


investigators


Even these criteria


have yielded different results with several


phosphorus materials.


The phosphorus


when body weight was


in plant sources has been found to be quite ava


the evaluation criterion, but not


lable


so avai


when bone ash served


as the response measurement.


In contrast


soft


phosphate has been found to be quite available


for mineralization but


not very avai


lable for growth.


These findings


indicate that different







combinations of sources, both organic and inorganic, might be

beneficial.

The main thrust of the studies reported in this dissertation


was:


assa


) to determine the influence of various types of diets in the

of phosphorus materials, primarily soft phosphate, and 2) to


determine possib1


metabolic complementary effects of combinations


of phosphorus sources


A series


of tria


s involving broiler-type chicks or


Comb


White Leghorn cockerels was conducted to determine


f purified diets


could be utilized to


assay


soft phosphate, if there were specific


metabolic functions for the phosphorus found in soft phosphate and

plant phosphate and if combinations of soft phosphate with other


phosphorus material


could complement or enhance the value of soft


phosphate.


Except for phosphorus and calcium


evel


six different


basa


diets were formulated to meet accepted nutrient requirements for


the chick.


All tria


were of two or three weeks duration.


Chicks


were


housed in wire floored, electrically heated, battery-type brooders.


Tibia ash


, body weight and mortality rate were the evaluation criteria.


All data were tabulated and subjected to analysis of variance.


One series


of experiments involving Singi


Comb White Leghorn


cockere


was conducted to determine the usefulness of a purified diet


in soft phosphate analysis.


Mortality was extremely high, but not


statistically different regard


ess


of treatment.


The addition of soft


phosphate, generally, did not improve bone ash.


The addition of sodium


acid phosphate gave a numerical but not statistically significant








1 ivabi


Due to the high mortality,


diet did not prove to


be idea


for the assay of phosphorus sources under the conditions of


these experiments.


Two experiments were conducted


to determine whether plant phos-


phorus and soft phosphate were selectively availabi


to the chicks


for specific functions and would complement each other when fed


combination.


A hominy feed basa


diet with 0.50 percent phosphorus


and a degerminated corn mea


diet with 0.30 percent phosphorus were


employed


in these studies.


The results of these tria


confi rmed


that soft phosphate might be quite avai


able for bone mineral


ization


but not for growth.


A li


near response was obtained


n tibia ash and


body weight from feeding supplement


levels of 0.07, 0


4 and 0.21


percent phosphorus


from either soft phosphate or calcium phosphate


when degerminated corn meal was uti


ized.


Chicks


fed the diet with


the low leve


of soft phosphate had bone ash


eve


numerica


superior to those obtained with calcium phosphate.


near response


in tibia ash was a


obtained from adding each


level of cal


cium


phosphate to the hominy feed diet.


An i


increase


n bone ash was


obtained from supplementing this diet with soft phosphate


was not


I near


exce


pt when calcium:phosphorus


ratios were


i increased.


It would appear that a hominy feed diet may be usefu


n phosphorus


assays


since growth rate


equal


for a


groups containing supplement


phosphorus,


thus removing this factor from consideration


in phosphorus


aval


It appears


that under certain


conditions soft phosphate


phosphorus and plant phosphorus might be complementary


in obtaining


but i







third


series


, calcium:phosphorus


ratios


were


conf i rmed


as bei


very


important


phosphorus


avai


labi


was also


determ


that


ess


avai


able


the phosphorus


was


supp


ement


more


crit


was the


cium:phos


phorus


ratio.


hominy


feed


became


ess


as opt


mum


phosphorus


were


approached


Hominy


iets


contal


cent


phosphorus


from


lant


sources


good


growth


poor


bone


ash.


Little


fference


was noted


body


weight


from


ncreas


ng phosphorus


level


as cal


increase


um:phosphorus


phorus


ratios


resu


were


comparab


a number


near


graduated


increase


bone ash


regard


source.


suggest


that


more


emphas


can be


aced


on bone


ess


on body we


ight


when homi


oyed


phosphorus


assay


purposes


Lower


level


phorus


from


soft


phos


phate


appeared


to be


more


avallabl


bone


than were


comparab


eve


s from


um phosphate.


soft


phosphate


level


increased


the avai


abi l


reased


. Although


soft


phosphate


was not stati


nfer


um phosphate


cons


stently


gave


better


performance.


um:phosphorus


ratios


and cal


ciumr


levels


appeared


to be


more


soft


phosphate


zati


than


clum


osphate


util


nation.


pract


corn


-soybean mea


type


was used


the fourth


studies


was to d


report


etermi


sser


the feas


station.


comb i


purpose


soft


these


osphate


meal


as well


as to determine


phosphorus


meal


could


aced


an ava


ilable


phosphorus


source without


ese


eve


are


sen


oss







improved


bone ash


corn


-soybean


type


ets.


There


was no improve-


ment


body we


ght w


the addi


cent


sh mea


however


the addi


on of


percent


fish meal


improved


body we


eight


over


that


obta


and 3


percent


fish


mea


When


phosphoru


fish


meal


was replaced w


an equal


amount


from ca


um phosphate,


performance


was not changed


These


resu


cate


that


there


no unknown


factor


fish


meal


addition


to the


phosphorus


supp


Maximum


body weights


bone


ash were


obta


soft


phate


and 6


percent t


sh mea


Maximum performance


could


obta


ned w.i


soft


phosphate when


some


phosphorus


was supply


from calc


phosphate.













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M. Scott, 1960.


Rapid assay


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White Leghorn cockerels versus broiler chicks for use
phosphorus assays. Poultry Sci. 50:1485-1488.


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Baruah, J


Poultry Sci. 39:840-842.


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Couch, J


R. G.


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Vitamin D


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16:106-108.


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Evaluation of


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Damron, B


1968.


Development of a chick assay for determining


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Ph.D


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Damron, B. L., and R. H. Harms, 1968a.


A comparison of phosphorus


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J6


DeveloDment of a calcium







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A calcium standard curve


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Poultry Sci.


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Unpublished data.


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Damron, B. L., and R. H. Harms, 1


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969b.


10:327-330.


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Damron, B. L., and R. H


Harms, 1971.


Influence of varying calcium


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W. Waldroup and R. H. Harms, 1967.


Influence of


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46:1544-1549.


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Fisher, H., E


Singsen and L. D. Matterson, 1953.


The influence of


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nutritional requirements of poults


Studies on the


Poultry Sci. 26:78-82.


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Influence of levels of vitamin D


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Poultry Sci. 45:1085-1086


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T. Roberts, J


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Factors


affecting the chick's requirement for phosphorus.
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L. C.


Norr


and G.


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effect


phyt


on the


phos


phorus


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recent


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biol


and G


norgan


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sphates. J.


Studi


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Grau


and P


source


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feed i


vari


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A. Zwei
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Bu I


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osphati


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to 1


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phorus


clum


W. Waldroup


assa


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curve


and B.


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with
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. 2


Devel


phosphate


compa r
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Poul


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calcium-phos
Poultry Sci.


phorus
9:296


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ratio


nutri


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grow


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Further
rations


evid
with


ence


osphorus


Scott


need for
Poultry


supp


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; 1943.


soybean


meal


22:269-


Johnson


Phil 1


and G


. Donovan


, 1953.


zation


soft


osphate


oida


Poul


:907


Krieger


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avai


Stenbock,
of phytic


1940


phos


erea


phorus


Nutr


20:7


eger


. Bunkfe


Thompson


and H


Stenbock


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soybean
phorus


and ri


phos


ckets


phat


ides


for bone cal


and i


Phyt


acid,


norgan


cation


nucl


as sources


Nutr


acid
phos


-220


Lowe


. T.,
ckets
i. 18


Stenbock


and C


. Kri


evai


eger,
f phyt


1939


Cereal


to the


Poul


-44.


Matterson


sources


D3 a
Nutr


nd cod


:599


Scott


of phosphorus


ver


and E.
on the
promote


ngsen


946.


ency


calci


cation


uence


vitamin


pou 1 ts


-608.


McGinn


of phos


ment


L. C


phorus
Pnr 1 it ru


Norr


Heuser


cereal


legumes


, 1944.
v chicks


Poor uti
for bone


zati


devel


. J






McKni


on the


utili


and A.
nation


. Watts


, 1966.


phosphorus


The ef


from var


fect
ous


source


tamin
s. P


D
ou try


Motzok


. Arthur


and H


. Bran ion


, 1956.


zati


phos


phorus


from var


ous


phos


phate


supp


ements


Poul


-649


Motzok


Arthur
nation
Poul


Bran


um and


, 1965.
sphorus
270.


actors


from


soft


ecti


phos


Motzok,
and
985


Arthur


phos
-991.


phorus


and S


from


soft phos


singer
phate


, 1967


zation of


Poul


. 46


National


Resea


ounc


, 197


Nutri


requ


rements


domestic


Nutr


requ


rements


pou I try,


Wash


ngton


. Peel


n, T
from


combined phosphates


avail


to ch i


sphorus


Poul


son,


phorus


compounds


summary


The biolog
Poultry Sc


eval


uati


:94-98


'Rou rke


. Phi


Cravens


, 1952


phos-


phorus
Poultry


requ


rements


or growl
-966.


ckens


as rel


ated


to age


Peel


, 1970.


echn


ease


um and


nternati


phosphorus


onal


nera


studio


and Chemi


poultry.
als Corpor-


action


Skoki


llino


eburth


. McGi


. Wah


McLa ren


, 1952


avail
Poult


lity


phosphorus
-818.


our


for the


ngsen


Matterson


and H


cott


, 1947.


Phosphorus


poultry
vitamin


nutr


tion


and the


relation


zati


cerea


between
phorus


source


Nutr


-26.


ngsen


requ


rement


of the


cott
chi


Matterson


Storrs


Bull


e phos
260.


phorus


Snedecor


and W. G


. Cockran,


1967


. Stat


Methods


Edit


owa


State


Col


ress


Ames


owa


1-


i A






Summers, J. D.,


J. Slinger, W


. F. Pepper, 1. Motzok and G. C.


Ashton, 1959.


Availability of phosphorus in soft phosphate


and phosphoric acid and the effect of acidulation of soft


phosphate.


Poultry Sci


. 38


:1 168-1179.


Vandepopulliere, J


M., C


. B. Ammerman and R. H. Harms


, 1961.


relationship of calcium:phosphorus ratios to the utilization


of plant and inorgan
40:951-957.


phosphorus by the chick.


Poultry Sci.


Waldroup, P. W.,
by poultry.
Florida.


1965.


Factors affecting utilization of phosphorus


Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville,


Waldroup, P. W., W. W. Abbott, T. E. Bowen and V. E.


Tollett, 1969..


The influence of dietary alterations on the utilization of
soft phosphate in broiler diets. Poultry Sci. 48:578-585.


Waldroup, P. W., C. B. Ammerman and R.


H. Harms, 1963.


Calcium and


phosphorus requirements of finishing broilers using phosphorus


sou rces


of low and high availabi


Poultry Sci.


42:752-757.


Waldroup, P. W., C. B. Ammerman and R. H


Harms, 1965a.


A compare ison


of phosphorus
1086-1089.


assay


techniques with chicks.


Poultry Sci.


Waldroup, P. W., C. B. Ammerman and R. H. Harms,
ability of phytic acid phosphorus for chicks
880-886.


965b.


The availa-


Poultry Sci.


Waldroup


P. W., C. B. Ammerman and R. H. Harms, 1965c.


the acidulation of soft phosphate.


Poultry Sci.


Studies on


44:1519-1523.


Watts, A


. B., and J. J. Miner, 1959.


Soft phosphate in poultry


rations.


Poultry Sci. 38:1257-1258.


Wilcox, R. A., C. W. Carlson, Wm. Kohlmeyer and G. F. Gastler, 1953.
Calcium and phosphorus requirements of poults fed purified diets.
Poultry Sci. 32:1030-1035.












BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Robert Bruce Christmas was born October 31, 1933, near Cottondale,


Florida.


He graduated from Cottonda


High Schoo


, serving


president of the student body during his senior year.


He attended


Chipola Junior Col


ege for two years and was


ected to the honor


society and office of the vice president of the student body.


received the Bachelor of Science in Agriculture degree with honors


from the University of Florida in


As an undergraduate, he was


ected to Alpha Zeta, Gamma Sigma Delta and Phi Kappa Phi.


After serving two years


United States Army


as a communications specialist in the


was admitted to the graduate school of the


University of Florida and received the Master of


degree in 1959.


Science in Agriculture


While pursuing his master's degree he was the author


or co-author of eight publications.


For the next seven years he served


as an assistant and


associate county agriculture


agent in Orlando, Fla.,


with work emphasis in the area of


livestock and field crop programs.


He returned to the University of Florida in 1967 to pursue the Ph.D.


degree in Poultry Nutrition.


He served


as part-time


assistant to the


Provost of Agriculture during his two-year campus study period.


He became supervisor of the Florida Nationa


He is an active member of the Baptist Church and is acti


He is married to the former Addie Ann Cartledge of Cottonda


Egg Laying Test in 1969.


n civic affairs.

e, Florida,


and they have four sons. Stuart. Bruce Jr.. Jon and Scott.













cert


conforms
adequate
Doctor o


fy that I
acceptab
scope ar
ilosophy.


have
e sta


read


ndards


quality,


study a
scholar


as a di


ind that


pres


ssertat


in my


opinion


entation


fully


the degree


Robert


Prof


Harms


essor


Chai


Poul


rman


Science


cert


conforms
adequate
Doctor o


to acci


that
eptab


have


read


standards


study
scholar


as a d


scope an
losophy.


and that


pres


ssertati


union


entation
for the d


egree of


Clarence B. Ammerman


Profe


ssor


ence


cert


conforms
adequate
Doctor o


to acc


that
eptab


have


read


standards


study an
scholarly


as a d


in scope an
Philosophy.


that
prese


ssertat


in my
nation


and i


degree


Tony J.
Profess


r o


Science


cert


conforms
adequate
Doctor o


fy that
acceptab


scope


have


read


standards


and quality,


as a


study
scholar
disser


and that


tat


present
ion for


n my opinion
action and is
the degree


losophy.


I!) f I A S i


.^/2


p / ^-







cert


conforms
adequate
Doctor o


that


acceptab
scope a


have


read


standards


nd quality


study
scholar


as a d


that


y pres


ssertati


my opinion


entation


degree


Philosophy.


enry
ssoc


Prof


essor


Poul


ence


ssertation was


and to the


requ


Graduate


rements


submi


Counc


tted


to the


and was


degree of


Dean


accepted


Doctor


the Col
as partial
philosophy


ture


Iment


March


, 1972


Coll


Dean,


ege o


Graduate


riculture


School


Wi 1son



























UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1IIII IINi
I 262 08394 212 7




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