Effects of monocular viewing on visual half-field presentation of letter stimuli

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Effects of monocular viewing on visual half-field presentation of letter stimuli
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Thesis -- University of Florida.
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EFFECTS OF MONOCULAR


HALF-FIELD


PRESENTATION


VIEWING


ON VISUAL


LETTER STIMULI


Raymond Alexander


Parker,


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED


GRADUATE


COUNCIL


UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


PARTIAL


FULFILLMENT


DEGREE


DOCTOR


REQUI REMENTS
PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA


1973


~"~'"""














ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


I would like to expre


s my sincere appreciation and


gratitude to Dr.


Edward P. Horne,


chairman of my committee,


and to Dr.


Paul Satz,


cochairman.


Richard J. Anderson, Dr.


Hugh C


I am also grateful to

. Davis, Dr. Madeline M.


Ramey and Dr.


Donald G.


Childers for their assistance.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES


. . . . .

. . . . .


ABSTRACT . . . .

INTRODUCTION . . . . .


STATEMENT OF PROBLEM


METHOD . . . . . .

RESULTS . . . . .

DTSCUSSION . . . . .


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

APPENDIX


AN EXAMPLE OF


ARS DETERMINATION


FOR ONE


ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE


BIBLIOGRAPHY .

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . .















LIST OF TABLES


Table

1


Page


Adjusted Recall Score Means for the
Eye by Visual Half-field Viewing
Conditions . . .


Adjusted Recall Score Means for Each


Serial Position


S . . 28


T-tests Between Visual Half-field


Adjusted Recall Score Means
Serial Position . .


for Each















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure

1


Page


Adjusted recall score means for each
of the optic tract pathways plotted
against visual half-field . .


Adjusted recall score means for each


serial position


S . 29


Adjusted recall score means for each
visual half-field plotted for each


serial position


. . . 31









Abstract


of Dissertation


the University
Requirements f


Presented


Florida i
the Degree


Graduate


Partial
f Doctor


Council


Fulfillment of
of Philosophy


the


EFFECTS
HALF-FIELD


OF MONOCULAR VIEWING
PRESENTATION OF LET


ON VISUAL
TER STIMULI


Raymond Alexander


August,


Parker,


1973


Chairman:
Cochairman:


Maj or


Edward
Paul


Department:


.Home


Satz
Psychology


Functional


individual


hemispheric


been


asymmetry


frequently


in non


brain-injured


investigated with


visual


half-fie


controlled


(VHF)


studies


research


have


techniques.


employed


more


one


recent well-


designs,


Hines-Satz


threshold


short-term memory


recognition


(STM)


paradigm.


paradigm


With


or the


respect


McKeever


right-


handed


individual s


viewing verbal


stimuli,


a consistent


right


VHF


superiority


been


obtained


with


both


paradigms.


phenomenon
4.


presumably


reflects


the more


direct


route


traversed by


language


right


analyze


ers


VHF


stimulus


dominant


signals


left


speech


hemisphere.


purpose


present


study was


to determine


relationships


several


important


variables


this


VHF


A S S I C. p.


n *-1 -


1 t *


1J


II____









magnitude


of VHF


recall


each


four


optic


tract


pathways


contribute


right


effect ?


What


relationship


acuity


dominance


VHF


asymmetry?


pre-


viously


reported serial


position


effects


re-evaluated


under monocular viewing


conditions?


Analys is


data


indicated


a strong


right


VHF


recall


superiority,


interaction


a highly


between


significant


VHF


serial


serial


position


position.


effect


Neither


nor


acuity


dominance


effect s


achieved


significance.


results


indicated


that


stimulus


signals


transmitted


over


about


left


temporal


equally well


also


right


stimulus


nasal


pathways were


signals


transmitted


recalled


over


nasal


right


temporal


pathways


exhibited equiva-


lent


magnitudes


recall,


though


scores


for these


latter


pathways


former


were


were


pathways.


hypothesized


significantly


These


reflect


lower


than


patterns


primary


scores


recall


superiority


influence


of hemi-


spheric


asymmetry


function


VHF


recall


task.


Inter-


differences


recall


were


not


obtained,


presumably


a result


minimal


role


of perceptual


recognition


fac-


tors


STM designs.


absence


acuity


dominance


effects was


cited


to support


this


hypothesis.


findings


on serial


position


were


predicted


direction.


11 positions


except t


last


showed


a signifi-








position.


These findings were interpreted as being sugges-


tive of the operation of some type of general backward mask-


ing effect during central


transmission of the stimulus


signals.


Further,


this masking was hypothesized to occur


before the stimulus information reaches the speech and

language processing and STM mechanisms in the left hemisphere.

An alternate explanation based on a neural noise of interfer-

ence hypothesis was reasoned to be inadequate to account for


the observed data.


Neural noise, however, was hypothesized


to operate in single-stimulus threshold-recognition paradigms

to produce the VHF asymmetry observed under these conditions.

Irrespective of the identity of the critical variable


underlying VHF asymmetry,


this variable was hypothesized to


operate before the stimulus signals reach the left hemisphere

speech and language processors and STM storage mechanisms.

Some difference in right as opposed to left VHF stimulus


signals must occur during central


transmission.


Otherwise,


the left hemisphere verbal processors and STM mechanisms

would not be expected to operate on these signals with dif-

fering degrees of efficiency based simply on their routes


of transmission.


Thus,


the observed VHF asymmetry was


hypothesized to be a result of a difference in central trans-

mission of the stimulus signals.














INTRODUCTION



The functional organization of the human cerebral cor-

tex has been studied extensively (Gazzaniga, 1970; Hec-aen

and Ajuriaguerra, 1964; Mountcastle, 1962; Penfield and


Roberts, 1959; Waada and Rasmussen, 1960).


Based on data


from brain-injured individuals, investigators have proposed

a hypothesis of hemispheric asymmetry of function in normal

nonbrain-injured persons (Branch, Milner and Rasmussen,


1964; Kimura, 1963; Milner, 1958).


According to this


hypothesis, most right-handed individuals have speech and

language functions lateralized in the left hemisphere,

while left-handed individuals exhibit considerable vari-

ability with respect to hemispheric lateralization of these


functions.


Also, certain nonverbal visual-spatial functions


(recognizing faces, drawing, etc.) are thought to be later-

alized mainly in the right hemisphere for most right-handed

individuals, but in the case of left-handed persons these

functions may vary considerably with respect to hemispheric

lateralization.

In order to provide empirical support for this hemi-









visual


system


(Kimura,


1966;


Hines,


Satz,


Schell


and Schmid-


lin,


1969;


McKeever


and Huling,


1970).


This


perceptual


system provide


an excellent


way


to study


functional


cere-


bral


hemispheric


asymmetry


(Brindley,


1970


Cornsweet,


1970;


Gazzaniga,


1970).


vision,


information


presented


either


distal


visual


half-field


(VHF)


projected


directly


contralateral


hemisphere.


Such


stimuli,


presented


to "the


right


left


a fixation


point,


elicit


neural


signals


which


optic

For i


are


tract


instance


transmitted


pathways

. under


directly via


crossed and


contralateral


conditions


where


striate


fixation


uncrossed


cortex.

maintained


subject


(S),


stimuli


presented


right


central


fixation


point


generate


neural


information


which


transmitted


directly to


left


hemisphere


via


optic


tract


pathways


from


right


nasal


left


temporal


hemiretinae.


Also,


under


same


conditions,


stimuli


presented


left


fixation


generate


information which


transmitted


directly


right


hemisphere


via optic


tract


pathways


from


left


nasal


right


temporal


hemiretinae.


Thus,


apparent.


usefulness


According


VHF


hemispheric


research


procedure


asymmetry


func


tion


hypothesis


superior


outlined above,


recognition


or recall


right


-handers


verbal


should


material


whe


exhibit

n such


material


presented


right
rS


VHF


opposed


__


v





3


right VHF information and the speech and language processing


centers in the left hemisphere.


In the case of left-handers,


the direction of VHF superiority would depend upon the par-


ticular pattern of lateralization


(right,


left or bilateral)


possessed by an


and more variability would be expected in


research using such


(Kimura,


1966


Zurif and Bryden,


1969).


In research utilizing nonverbal stimuli,


this hemi-


spheric asymmetry of function hypothesis would predict that

right-handed individuals would show superior recall or


recognition when such stimuli are presented in the


left VHF.


Again, such an effect would be expected due to the more

direct connections between the hemiretinae receiving left


VHF input and the right hemisphere.


handed individuals,


With respect to left-


considerable variability should again


be noted because of the less consistent patterns of lateral-


ization of function found within these individuals


1966;


(Kimura,


Zurif and Bryden, 1969)


In order to investigate the predictions generated by


this hemispheric asymmetry of function hypothesis,


cedures have been used in VHF research.


random (Type


tion of stimuli


two pro-


The successive-


I) procedure involves tachistoscopic presenta-


to one or the other VHF in succession.


simultaneous technique


(Type


involves tachistoscopic









fraction


a s


second


(usually


msec.


less)


to either


(Type


or both


(Type


sides


fixation


point


dur-


each


trial.


experimenter


then measures


recogni-


tion


recall


stimuli


present


to each


VHF


order


to make


inferences


about


functional


hemispheric


asymmetry.


Initial


research


results


obtained by means


these


procedures


were


completely


consistent


(Bryden,


1965


Bryden


Wyke


Rainey,


and Ettlinger,


1963;


1961;


Harcum,


1964


Zurif


Kimura,


Bryden,


1959,1966


1969).


Attempts


account


discrepant


findings


basis


hemispheric


asymmetry


function hypothesis


were


success-


and,


consequently,


some


investigators


resorted


another


explanation


these


results


(Ayres,


1966


Heron,


1957).


Ay res


and Heron


based


their


explanation


on a certain


procedural


method


inadequacy


by which


common


an S's


to both


fixation


VHF


was


paradigms,


controlled.


namely,


VHF


research,


fixation must


maintained


order


stim-


ulus


signals


to be


transmitted


desired hemisphere.


VHF


studies


cited above,


procedure


was


used


to in-


sure


maintenance


an S's


visual


fixation


during


before


presentation


stimulus


material.


Thus,


scan-


ning


display


or off-center


fixation


during presenta-


tion


trials was


sible


presented


a significant


source


confounding


above


studies


(Hines,


Satz,


Schell





5


reliable method of controlling fixation,and the need for

more sophisticated VHF research procedures became apparent.

One well-designed VHF research procedure was developed

by McKeever and his associates at Bowling Green State Uni-


versity.


These researchers devised a controlled-fixation


procedure using the tachistoscope


(McKeever and Gill,


1972;


McKeever and Huling, 19

presentation of word or


70,1971).


letter stimuli


Their method involved


in the VHFs together


with a number (2 to 9)


at fixation.


For a trial


to be valid,


had to report the number at


fixation correctly before


reporting stimuli in one or both


VHFs.


This procedure was


designed to insure center-field fixation by the


Using threshold exposure durations, McKeever and his

associates have reported results consistent with a hemi-


spheric asymmetry of function hypothesis.


have demonstrated a significant


Right-handed


right VHF superiority for


recognition of verbal stimuli with both successive-random


and simultaneous paradigms


(McKeever and Gill,


McKeever and Huling, 1970,1971).


Also, left-handed


have


exhibited a weaker but nevertheless significant left VHF


superiority for verbal


both VHFs


stimuli presented simultaneously to


(McKeever and Gill, 1972).


While the controlled-fixation procedure of the McKeever

group emphasizes threshold recognition of stimuli,









short-term memory


(STM) factors


(Hines,


Satz and Clementino,


1973).


Certain differences between the Hines-Satz and


McKeever paradigms make this point evident.


using McKeever's procedure,


For instance,


a trial usually consists of one


stimulus at fixation and one in either or both VHFs.


Using


the Hines-Satz procedure, a trial generally involves presen-

tation of several stimuli at fixation and several in either


or both VHFs


in a temporal sequence.


Also,


with McKeever's


procedure, stimulus exposure durations are generally at


threshold level


(100 msec.


less).


In the Hines-Satz


paradigm,


these durations are usually well above threshold


(100 to 350 msec.).

The specific nature of the Hines-Satz paradigm can be


determined from the studies that utilize it


(Hines and Satz,


1971; Hines, Satz and Clementino, 1973; Hines, Satz,


Schell


and Schmidlin,


1969).


Instead of using a tachistoscope, a


rear-mounted moving picture projector is used to expose


stimuli


(recorded on 16 mm moving picture film) on a screen


in front of the S.
S


Each trial is composed of several


(3 to


5) stimulus sets.

letterr or number)


A stimulus set consists of a stimulus

at center fixation together with a differ-


ent stimulus


(letter, number, design, etc.)


in one or both


VHFs;


if stimuli are in both


VHFs,


then these stimuli are


different from both the fixation stimulus and each other.









inter-set


exactly


interval.


same


spatial


stimuli


always


locations


appear


stimuli


preceding


set.


such


trial,


must


first


report


all


stimuli


presented


center


fixation


before


reporting


stimuli


presented


VHFs.


Here


again,


only


trials


considered


valid


are


those


on which


stimuli


fixation


are


correctly


reported


before


stimuli


from


VHFs


are


identified;


thus,


maintenance


fixation


assured


on all


trials


scored


valid.


with


McKeever procedure,


results


obtained


using


Hines-Satz


paradigm have


been


quite


consistent


both with


each


other


with


a hemispheric


asymmetry


function


hypothesis.


This


paradigm


relatively new


and,


case with


the McKeever paradigm,


data


comparing


both handed-


ness


groups


viewing verbal


and nonverbal


stimuli


with


both


Type


Type


designs


are


not


available.


Data


right-handed


viewing


stimuli


with


Type


design,


how-


ever,


have


been


published


a discussion


these


findings


appropriate


this


point.


Right-handed


evaluated by


Hines-Satz


procedure,


are


found


to exhibit


a highly


consistent


right


VHF


superi-


ority


Hines


for recall


Satz


Schmidlin,


1969).


of verbal


Clementino,


Also,


stimuli


1973;


(Hines


Hines,


right-handers


are


and Satz,


Satz,


1971


Schell


found


demon-









left


VHF


(Schell 1


Satz,


1970).


Thus,


these


results


exhibit


McKeever


consistency with


and his


each


associates,


other,


and with


with


findings


a hemispheric


asym-


metry


function hypothesis.














STATEMENT OF PROBLEM



The McKeever and Hines-Satz paradigms are making sig-

nificant contributions to the growing body of empirical


knowledge of hemispheric asymmetry of function.


Both of


these paradigms are new, however, and much research still

needs to be done in order to investigate relationships

between many diverse variables and VHF asymmetry under the

conditions of each paradigm.


The purpose of this present project,


therefore, is to


investigate the effects on VHF asymmetry produced by three

variables inextricably connected to laterality research


using the visual modality.

successive-random paradigm,


In the context of the Hines-Satz

this research is designed to


investigate the relationships of these variables to the

well-documented VHF asymmetry exhibited by right-handed


subjects viewing verbal stimuli.


Restriction of the para-


digm to these experimental conditions is appropriate in


order to provide optimal control


for evaluation of the


variables of interest.









four neuroanatomical


pathways


visual


system.


Signal


transmission


along


one


or more


these


pathways


must


superior


otherwise,


Thus,


efficiency


significant


information


transmission


VHF


concerning


along


asymmetry would be


transmiss ion


others;


expected.


efficiency


each


pathway would


provide


data


on their


contribution


to VHF


asymmetry


possibly


in suggesting


an explanation


this


asymmetry.


Information


from


research


employing monocu-


lar viewing


conditions,


however,


nece


ssary


in order


discriminate


responses


basis


pathways


involved.


Thus,


a discussion


such


research


appropriate


this


point.


Monocular


studies


with


various


paradigms


provide


some


information


this


"pathway"


variable.


Using uncontrolled-


fixation


designs


with


threshold-exposure


duration


Barton


Goodglass


Overton


Shai


Weiner


(1965),

(1966)


Hirata

reported


and

tha


Osaka (1

t verbal


967),


stimuli


trans-


mitted


over pathways


originating


left


temporal


hemi-


retina


yielded


high


VHF


recognition


scores.


en-


hanced recall


these


stimuli


evidence


right


VHF


effect


obtained.


Barton


Hirata


Osaka,


however,


did not


report


comparison


tests


among


their


mean


scores;


thus ,


only


absolute


magnitude


recognition


can


noted


for these


studies.


Barton


found


that,






11


in order of decreasing magnitude, by the right nasal, left


nasal and right temporal pathways.


the other hand,


Hirata and Osaka, on


reported no great difference in recognition


for the left temporal and right nasal pathways,


left temporal was slightly higher;


although the


the right temporal path-


way was third in order of recognition magnitude followed by

the left nasal pathway.


Overton and Weiner


(1966) did made comparisons among


their pathway means and found that the left temporal path-

way yielded a mean recognition score significantly higher


than scores yielded by the other pathways.


No significant


difference was found between the right nasal and right


temporal pathways.


Finally,


the left nasal pathway yielded


lowest of all mean recognition scores.


The superiority of the left temporal pathway, so con-

sistently documented above, has not been a universal finding


with respect to VHF research.


In fact,


Crovitz and Daves


(1962)


found a significant superiority of the right nasal


pathway over the other three and concluded that this path-

way makes the most significant contribution to the right


VHF effect.


No significant difference was found between the


left temporal and left nasal pathways, although both were

found to be superior to the right temporal pathway.

In these studies employing uncontrolled-fixation





12


VHFs with supra-threshold durations, found a left VHF effect


for digits.


The left nasal and right temporal pathways


showed no significant differences


in recognition but were


found to be significantly superior to the


right nasal pathways.


left temporal and


Recognition scores utilizing the


left temporal and right nasal pathways also showed no sig-

nificant difference.

The complicated results reported with respect to the


visual pathways are clear.


In the studies described above,


inconsistency appears to be the only valid generalization.


Variations in procedure,


may be responsible


One problem, however,


apparatus, stimulus material,


for the observed differences.


is the failure to use a controlled-


fixation procedure;


thus,


the inconsistencies are not sur-


uprising.

Using a controlled-fixation procedure and threshold-


exposure durations, McKeever and Huling


(1970)


found that


verbal stimuli


transmitted over the left temporal and right


nasal pathways exhibited no significant differences in

stimulus recognition but were recognized significantly


better than stimuli transmitted over the left nasal and

right temporal pathways. In addition, no significant dif-


ference was found between these latter two pathways.


right


VHF effect was greater, however,


for the left eye






13


employing controlled-fixation methodology, McKeever and


Huling


(1971) presented bilateral arrays of words at thresh-


old durations and found that the left temporal and right

nasal pathways were significantly superior to the left nasal


and right temporal pathways.


The use of different


for the left and right eye viewing conditions and the lack


of appropriate comparisons


among pathway means, however,


makes further determinations of pathway recognition differ-


ences


impossible.


The present research is designed specifically to inves-


tigate differences in stimulus report


for the four visual


pathways.


Since McKeever and Huling


(1970) demonstrate the


most well-designed effort to research the pathway variables

and this study is more directly analogous to the Hines-Satz

successive-random paradigm to be used in the present research,


the following hypothese


concerning recall scores for the


pathways are based on the McKeever and Huling


(1970)


study:


(1) Mean recall scores for the left temporal and
right nasal pathways will be significantly
superior to mean recall scores for the left
nasal and right temporal pathways.

(2) Mean recall scores for the left temporal and
right nasal pathways will show no significant
difference.

(3) Mean recall scores for the left nasal and
right temporal pathways will show no signifi-
cant difference.









Acuity


Dominance


Another variable


that


could


logically be


pertinent


VHF


asymmetry


that


acuity


dominance.


task


apprehension


stimuli


visual


fields


clearly


re-


quires

visual


adequate


acuity


visual

the a


acuity.


ability


Kahneman

resolve


(1968)

details


defines


form.


Acuity may


operationally


defined as


minimal


size


detail


that


can still


resolved.


one


capable


of resolving


smaller


more


detailed


stimuli


than


other,


then


one


could


logically reason


that


more


acute


might


yield


a superior performance


on a


VHF


task.


Thus ~


multiple


asymmetry,


relationships


eyes,


between


even


acuity


dominance


pathways


might


and VHF


inferred


from


VHF


recall


scores


obtained


under monocular


conditions.


Research

order to


involving


provide


acuity do

information


minance


these


discussed

proposed r


next


relationships.


Many


studies


relating


acuity


dominance


to VHF


asymmetry


have


done


absence


objective


assessment


acuity


dominance


this


variable


imply


been


used


explain


obtained


results.


Barton


(1965),


Hirata


Osaka


(1967),


Overton


and Weiner


(1966),


Wyke


Ettlin-


(1961)


factor


respect


suggest


for various


stimulus


acuity


and sometimes


recognition


dominance


inconsistent


superiority


an explanatory


findings with


in both








Hayashi


gation


Bryden


and assessed


(1967)


acuity


attempt


dominance


such


by means


investi-


a standard


Sloan


chart.


Using


threshold-exposure


durations


uncontrolled-fixation


design,


these


researchers


found


that


right-handed


right


acuity-dominant


subjects


exhibited


right


VHF


superiority


for recognition


verbal


stimuli.


other


hand,


right-handed


left


acuity-dominant


sub-


jects


This


exhibited no


finding was


several


speech


factors:


language


differences


explained


acuity


recognition


basis


dominance,


superiority,


VHFs.


interaction


left-hemisphere


a hypothesized


super-


iority


nasal


optic


tract


pathways


over


temporal


pathways


(Crovit


z and


Lipscombe,


1963;


Doty,


1958


Hubel


Wiesel,


Although


assessing


acuity


dominance


a controlled


manner,


Hayashi


and Bryden nevertheless


failed


use


design


that would


assure


maintenance


fixation.


Also,


they


included


no monocular viewing


conditions


their pro-


cedure.


present


study


therefore


proposes


vary


acuity


dominance


under monocular viewing


conditions


order


provide


more


information


role


this


variable


VHF


paradigm.


lack


adequate


data on


rela-


tionship


acuity


dominance


to VHF


asymmetry,


no directional


hypotheses


are


possible.


Specific


questions


are


appropriate,









(2) Will mean recall scores for the right and
left eyes differ significantly for each
acuity dominance group (right and left)?


Will mean recall scores for the right and
left VHFs differ significantly for each
acuity dominance group (right and left)?


Will mean recall scores for the pathways
(eye by VHF groups) differ significantly
for each acuity dominance group (right and
left)?


Serial Position


The final variable of interest in this study is that


of stimulus serial position.


Since the Hines-Satz paradigm


employs multiple stimuli per trial, stimuli in each trial

are presented to the observer in a serial order, one stim-


ulus after the other.


With respect to the stimuli presented


over a trial in a VHF,


therefore,


is exposed to


the first stimulus which corresponds to serial position one,

the second stimulus which corresponds to serial position two,


and so forth until


the last stimulus,


which corresponds to


the last serial position, is viewed.


Thus,


the possibility


of stimulus recall differences as a function of serial

position is apparent.

Since the Hines-Satz paradigm regularly employs multiple


stimuli per trial,


the review of research on serial position


effects is confined to work with this paradigm.


Hines,


Satz, Schell and Schmidlin (1969), using digits in a






17


significant recall superiority for right VHF stimuli over


left VHF stimuli.


No significant VHF asymmetry was noted


for the last position.


Also,


these researchers reported


that the absolute number of digits recalled from the VHFs


increased substantially for the last serial position.


Hines


and Satz


(1971)


generally confirmed these results, although


position one alone showed a significant right VHF superiority.


Hines, Satz and Clementino


(1973),


using letters in a


successive-random design,


reported a significant right VHF


superiority for positions more remote


in time and increased


magnitude of recall for the last serial position.


trast to the above studies, however,


In con-


these researchers


reported a significant right VHF superiority for the last

serial position.

The present study attempts to reinvestigate these serial


position effects under monocular viewing conditions.


purpose is to determine the presence or absence of a signifi-


cant right VHF superiority in the last position.


Another


purpose is to note any relationships that might become mani-

fest between serial position and the pathways and acuity

dominance variables discussed previously.


Thus,


the following hypotheses of interest with respect


to serial position are as follows:

(5) Mean recall scores from the last serial posi-
A .4 1 1 A




r


18


(6) Differences between mean recall scores for the
right and left VHFs should be significant for
at least one of the serial positions more
remote in time.

(7) The difference between mean recall scores for
the right and left VHFs will not be significant
for the last serial position.

The eleven questions and hypotheses stated in the above

discussions are evaluated by means of the Hines-Satz

successive-random paradigm. The results should be consid-

ered applicable to right-handed individuals viewing verbal

stimuli presented at durations well above threshold.














METHOD


Equipment


The Armed Forces


Vision Tester


(Manual of


instructions,


1957)


consists of a sheet metal housing containing a viewing


box and lens system.


The test plates are held by two re-


evolving drums.


Each drum


illuminated by a tubular


light


bulb inside the drum (Horne and Hines,


1969).


Test plate 9 for near visual acuity consists of letter


stimuli of various sizes.


Twenty different letters of equal


size


corresponding to a given acuity


level


(20/50,


0/40,


20/30, 20/25, 20/20,


20/17,


20/15 and 20/12)


compose each


row on the plate.


Each acuity


level is represented by two


such rows.

The VHF equipment consists of a long table with a com-

mercial chin rest mounted at one end and a large rear-view


projection screen

at the other end.


(4'10" away from the chin rest) mounted

Also included is a Kodak Analyst 16 mm


projector with modified governor and a stimulus film which

is described as follows:


Sixty-six trials compose the film. Each of









in succession by the five letter-pairs,


consist-


ing of one letter at fixation and one in a VHF.
Each letter pair appears for 330 msec. with no
inter-pair interval. Within each trial, all
letters are exposed in the same VHF. Over trials,
letters are presented at fixation and alternately


to each VHF.


any given trial.


letter appears more than once on
The interval between trials is


fifteen seconds. Each letter subtends approxi-
mately one degree of visual arc in height and


forty-five minutes in width. Approximately three
degrees of visual arc exist between the center of
fixation and the inner edge of the VHF letters.


Procedure


was


the equipment.


placed in a windowless room containing


The room was then darkened except for one


small light used by the E to record the


Handedness was verified by the


responses.


self-report.


was seated in front of the Armed Forces Vision


Tester.


Illumination at the plate surface was


18.23 foot


lambert as measured with the MacBeth Illuminometer.


Using


plate 9, E collected acuity data for each of the S's eyes.


With the right eye occluded,


the S was


instructed to view


the stimulus display


(with the


left eye)


and identify as


many


letters as possible at each of the eight acuity


levels.


For a given acuity


level


viewed by any one eye,


twenty


letters were present for identification since the


the first ten letters


viewed


(left half of the plate) of a row


with the


left eye and the last ten


(right half of the plate)


__









After an evaluation of the left eye,


the same procedure was


repeated for the right eye.


were instructed not to remove them.


who wore corrective


Also,


lenses


were questioned


regarding the presence of any visual abnormalities that might


have precluded participation in this study


(cataracts,


visual


field defects,


etc.)


After acuity data were obtained,


was seated at


long table with his head positioned in the chin rest.


One eye was then occluded by means of an adhesive eye patch.

In order to control for practice effects between eyes, half


of the


viewed the stimulus


then with the right


(Order


film first with the left eye,


The other half viewed the


film first with the right eye,


then with the left


(Order


II).


Hence, possible VHF recall


differences between the eyes as


a function of increased experience with the task might be

controlled by a balanced order effect.


At the beginning of a session,


S was instructed to


fixate on the central cross and then on the five successive


letters presented at fixation.


He was further instructed to


report all five letters presented at fixation before report-


ing any


letters presented to the left or right VHFs.


was permitted, however,

tion or VHF groups in an

sponses on the data shee


to report the letters from the fixa-

y order. The E recorded all re-

t. Six practice trials and sixty









tasks


(finger tapping,


manual


dexterity


tasks),


given


under


normal


illumination


minutes,


temporally


conditions


lasting


separated


approximately


viewing


sessions.


Scoring


With


the monocular


acuity


data


, acuity


dominance


each


was


determined


following method.


acuity


threshold was


determined


each


eyes.


This


measure was


obtained by


recording


number of letters


correctly


identified


levels


acuity


from


less


superior


(20/50)


more


superior


(20/1


Then,


level


acuity was


determined


at which


an S


identified


or more


letters


or more)


that


level


failed


reach


correct


identifications


the more


superior


levels.


Thus,


who


obtained


acuity


thresholds


different


levels,


with


threshold at


a better


level


was


labeled


dominant


(this


does


refer


ocular


reached


dominance).


acuity threshold


greatest


number


other


on the


correct


hand,


same


level,


identifications


whose


eyes


having


that


level


was


label


dominant


eye.


Thus,


two


acuity


dominance


groups


(right dominant


left


dominant)


were


obtained.


With


respect


to VHF


recall


scores,


scoring pro-


cedure


was


as follows.


A trial


was


scored


unless


- m


C)1 *


I m~


. q


I-


II









such scores were based.


Since such differences would have


been confounded with any differences presumably mediated by

hemispheric asymmetry factors, operation of the former vari-

able was controlled by the use of adjusted recall scores


(ARSs).


These scores were derived on the basis of the S's


VHF recall scores for each of five serial positions associ-

ated with a particular VHF viewed by a particular eye.


Thus, each of the five serial position


scores for a certain


VHF by eye viewing condition was divided by the number of


trials scored for that viewing condition


(see Appendix I


for an example).


each


As a result,


20 ARSs were obtained for


one ARS for each serial position by VHF by


con-


edition.


Subjects


All

Florida.


were male undergraduates at the University of


All were right-handed as determined by self-report


and their ages ranged from 18 to 25.


The original pool of 58


was reduced to the 36 used


in this study by the following method:


All Ss re
handedness w
was divided
viewing (Ord


po


rating any family


history of left-


ere separated; the remaining sample
into groups on the basis of order-of-
er I and Order II) and acuity domi-


4


nance (right or left). Nine Ss were randomly
selected from each of the four order-acuity domi-
nance groups to compose the sample of 36 used in
this study.














RESULTS



The data were analyzed using a split-plot factorial


analysis of variance design


(Kirk,


1969).


Computation was


carried out by the University of Florida Computer Center


(program BMDO8V


- Analysis of Variance).


The complete


results of this analysis are listed in Appendix II.


Analysis of Pathway.


Transmission


(Hypotheses


1-4)


Pathway differences in stimulus signal


transmission


measured by


ARS means


(see


Table 1)


are presented in Figure


The VHF effect is significant


50.35, p


< .01),


indicating that mean recall scores for the left temporal


and right nasal pathways


(right VHF)


are significantly


superior to mean recall scores for the


left nasal and right


temporal pathways


(left VHF).


With respect to eye


.03)


and eye by VHF


.01) ,


the analysis reveals that mean


recall


scores for the left temporal and right nasal pathways


do not differ significantly.


Also, mean recall scores for


the left nasal and right temporal pathways show no


cant difference.


signifi-


The difference between mean recall scores


P .... ... .... .. i -. .. .. rI T





25










Table 1

Adjusted Recall Score Means for the Eye
by Visual Half-field Viewing Conditions


Left Eye


Right Eye


Right VHF


Left VHF


.320


.322


.270


.272


















- n
O0
0


Right eye
Right nasal
Right temporal
Left eye
Left temporal
Left nasal


Means


Left Right
VHF VHF








Thus,


the data afford support for Hypothesis


consistent with Hypotheses


and 3.


1 and are


Hypothesis 4, however,


is not confirmed.


Analysis of Acuity Dominance


(Questions


1-4)


Acuity dominance does not reach significance as a main

effect nor does it interact significantly with any of the


other variables


(see Appendix II).


Analysis of Serial Position


(Hypotheses 5-7)


Recall scores differ


significantly as a function of


serial position (F


= 128.57,


< .01).


Inspection of Table


and Figure 2 reveals that the magnitude of recall is


greatest for the last serial position


(s).


Also,


Table 3


and Figure 3 indicate that differences between mean recall


scores


for the right and left


VHFs are found for serial


positions


1, 2,


3 and 4


= 3.71,


< .01).


In addition,


Table 3 indicates that mean recall scores


for the right VHF


are significantly higher than mean recall scores for the

left VHF in every serial position except the last.


Thus,


the observed results support Hypotheses 5,


and 7.
















Table


Adjusted Recall Score Means
for Each Serial Position


Serial Position


ARS means


.199


.196


.201


.264


.621

































Me an s


I II III IV V


Serial Position

















Table


T-tests Between Visual Half-field Adjusted
Recall Score Means for Each Serial Position


Serial Position


Right VHF


Left VHF


.232


.164


.235


.156


.229


.172


.287


.240


.619


.622


4.297**


4.911**


3.069**


455*


.613


< .02.


< .01.

= 160.


**p

df














0-0-a


.70

.65

.60

.55

.50

.45

.40

S35
ARS
Means .30

.25

.20

.15

.10


Right VHF


Left VHF


I II III IV V


Serial Position















DISCUSSION


results


stimuli)


indicate


transmitted


that


over


stimulus


left


signals


temporal


(from verbal


right nasal


pathways


are


recalled


about


equally well


and make


essentially


equivalent


contributions


observed


right


VHF


superi-


ority.


Also,


nasal


right


stimulus


temporal


signals


pathways


transmitted


exhibit


over


left


essentially


equal


magnitudes


recall,


although


scores


these


latter two


pathways


are


significantly


lower


than


scores


former


pathways.


addition,


left


does


exhibit


greater


right


superiority


than


right


eye.


Thus,


pathway variable,


data


support


Hypothesis


are


consistent


with Hypotheses


Furthermore,


these


findings


are


inconsistent


with


physi-


logical


anatomical


data


on the


human


visual


system


(Brindl ey


, 1970).


With


respect


inter-eye


variability


magnitude


right


VHF


superiority


(Hypothesis


tainted


results


not


agree


with


those


predicted


(McKeever


and Huling,


1970,1971).


Such


variation


results


obtained


with


Hines-Satz


and McKeever paradigms


certainly not









stimuli presented at threshold durations.


The Hines-Satz


paradigm, on the other hand, employs exposure durations

well above threshold and includes several stimuli on each


trial.


For this reason, successful report of stimuli with


this design is primarily dependent on the


processing and


short-term storage abilities.


In this context, Hines and Satz


(1971)


Hines


Satz


and Clementino


(1973)


and McKeever and Gill


(1972)


suggest


that perceptual recognition factors, such as


forming an


(Haber,


role in multiple-stimulus

the Hines-Satz paradigm.


1970), actually play a very minimal


long-duration procedures such as

Considering this hypothesis


together with the nonsignificant effects of acuity dominance,

an explanation for both the acuity dominance results and the


absence of inter-eye differences


in VHF asymmetry can be


suggested.


Perhaps perceptual


factors


involving inter-eye


differences in perceptual ability are most important at

threshold exposure durations and do not operate with any

significance in paradigms using more lengthy presentation


times.


Acuity dominance could certainly affect VHF asym-


metry in this manner and,


on this basis, one would not ex-


pect it to influence such asymmetry to any significant


extent in the Hines-Satz paradigm.


However,


VHF asymmetry


in threshold recognition designs such as McKeever's might


iconic image









dominance

produce v


could

various


theoretically


inter-eye


recall


interact


in such a


differences.


design


Only research


investigating


effect s


acuity


dominance


threshold


durations


would


provide


further


information.


serial


predicted


position

direction


effects

n (Hines


noted

and


results


Satz,


1971;


are


Hines,


Clementino,


1969).


last


1973;


serial


Hines,


position


Satz,

shows


Schell


greatest


chmidlin

absolute


recall

remote


magnitude


time


(Hypothesis


exhibit


a significant


serial

right


positions


VHF


more


superiority


(Hypothesis


Thus,


right


effect


seen


to be


result


with


asymmetry


bulk


in the


recall


earlier


occurring


serial


both


positions


VHFs


(1-4)


last


position.


most


curious


aspect


these


results


however


, con-


cerns


nonsignificant


right


VHF


superiority


ition


five


(Hypothesi


report


right


s 7).


VHF


Hines,


Satz


superiority


Clementino


five


serial


(1973)


positions


while


present


study


shows


VHF


scores


for position


five


to be


virtually


equal.


must


note,


however,


that


these


investigators


exposure


based


durations


serial


did not


position


use


scores


ARS method


on several


scoring.


Also,


Hines


and Satz


(1971)


and Hines,


Satz,


Schell


Schmidlin


(1969)


report


ess


entially


equal


recall


scores





35


evidence now seems to suggest that the last serial position


shows no significant VHF recall


differences.


On the basis of these serial position findings, Hines


and Satz


(1971), Hines,


Satz and Clementino


(1973), and


McKeever and Gill


(1972) hypothesize that short-term memory


(STM)


and backward masking


(Kahneman, 1968)


are the impor-


tant factors involved in the asymmetry seen in the Hines-


Satz paradigm.


According to these researchers, STM for


right VHF stimuli is enhanced due to the more direct and

less complex route this neural information follows to the


speech and language processors


in the


left hemisphere.


less direct pathways followed by the left VHF stimulus sig-


nals


increase the noise or interference in the stimulus


message and render it less available for recall.


though supposedly operative,


Masking,


is not thought to be a critical


factor in this process, especially at the longer exposure

durations.

Although the hypothesis proposed above is adequate in


a general sense,


two points should be considered.


First, it


proposes that the critical factor involved in producing VHF


asymmetry is neural noise or interference


(Hines, Satz and


Clementino,


1973).


If such is the case and masking is


minimal in the Hines-Satz paradigm,


then why do Hines and


Satz


(1971), Hines,


Satz, Schell and Schmidlin


(1969), and





36


equivalent interference in each serial position for all
right VHF stimuli and equivalent but greater interference


in each serial position for all left VHF stimuli.


cant differences in recall


Signifi-


for all serial positions should


occur.


Thus,


the equivalencies noted above seem to contra-


indicate the significance of neural noise or interference

as the critical factor producing the observed VHF asymmetry.

Some type of interference other than neural noise may


be critic

effect.


al


to the enhanced STM reflected in the right VHF


The second point concerning the above hypothesis


involves delineation of this variable.


Hines, Satz and


Clementino


(1973)


acknowledge the possibility that backward


masking is operative to a certain extent in their design.


The superior recall exhibited in position five,


irrespective


of VHF


is taken as evidence.


The present investigator


believes, however,


that backward masking may be involved in


the Hines-Satz paradigm to a greater extent than suspected.


In fact,


uch masking interference may be the critical


factor which produces the right VHF effect in these STM


designs.


In the next few paragraphs, a backward-masking


hypothesis of VHF asymmetry is presented and the data sup-

porting it are noted.

A hypothesis suggesting the critical role of backward


masking is as follows:


Processing of the VHF stimulus









hemisphere


consequent


STM storage


until


verbally


reports


these


stimuli.


phenomenon


resulting


,right


VHF


superiority,


however,


must


operate


prior


verbal


proc


ess


and STM


storage.


Otherwise,


logical


reason


could b


postulated


speech


language


analyzers


STM mechanisms


differentiate


between


equally


resolute


stimulus


signals


simply


on the


basis


their


route


trans-


mission.


With neural


noise


presumably producing


a minimal


effect


stimulus


signals


from


VHFs,


some


other


factor


such


backward masking,


might


operate


during


neural


transmission


reduce


availability


stimulus


signals


verbal


processing


STM mechanisms.


This


masking


effect


hypothesized


to occur when


stim-


presented later


a trial


interfere with


processing


stimuli


presented


earlier


same


trial.


Thus,


more


complex and


less


direct


route


(via


corpus


callosum)


followed by


left


VHF


stimulus


signals might


serve


inten-


sify


this


masking


effect


result


less


resolute neural


information


STM storage


reaching


speech


mechanisms


left


language


hemisphere


analyzers


(Gazzaniga,


1970;


Sperry,


1968)


Right


VHF


stimulus


signals,


though


affected by masking,


would


reach


verbal


processors


memory


storage


mechanisms


better


condition


because


more


direct


pathways


traversed


by these


signals.


Thus,









Based


on this


masking


hypothesis,


then,


one would


expect


find


enhanced


STM


right


VHF


stimuli


serial


positions


more


subject


to masking


(all


but


last).


Also,


stimulus


recall,


irrespective


of VHF,


should


greatest


last


serial


position


VHF


recall


scores


last


position


should


not


differ


significantly.


These


last


position


effects


should


occur


because


absence


subsequent


masking


stimulus


hypothe-


sized minimal


role


of neural


interference


or noise


this


paradigm.


These


predictions


are


ess


entially


confirmed by


three


four


studies


using the


Hines-Satz


paradigm


(Hines


1969;


Satz,


present


1971;


study)


Hines,


can


Satz,


Schell


inferred


Schmidlin,


one


study using


McKeever paradigm


(McKeever


Gill,


1972).


view


one might


this


question


hypothesized


VHF


role


asymmetry


masking,


obtained


however,


paradigms


presumably not


involving


this


phenomenon


(McKeever


and Huling,


1970,


1971).


Why


right


VHF


effect


noted with


single


stimulus


displays


if VHF


asymmetry


supposedly


a result


masking?


Perhaps


threshold-recognition


paradigms,


stim-


presented


such


short


durations


produce


a weaker,


more


fragile


neural


signal


than


stimuli


presented


at durations


well


above


threshold.


Thus,


a weaker


stimulus


signal


might


much more


susceptible


effects


of neural


noise


and









(1973),


and McKeever


Gill


(1972)


point


out,


left


VHF


stimuli


presented


threshold


durations


produce neural


information


which


traverses


a more


complex


route


left


hemisphere


and probably


suffers


more


degradation


(due


noise)


than


right


VHF


stimulus


information.


Thus,


left


stimuli


are


less


available


speech


and language


processing,


storage


conse


quent


verbalization.


Thus,


right


VHF


effect


obtained


threshold


recognition


studies.


Research


could


gned


further


investigate


this


VHF


asymmetry


obtained with


single


stimulus


displays.


special


interest


would


relationship


between


this


asym-


metry


and


exposure


duration.


Using


trained


procedures


to control


fixation,


one


should


obtain


a right


VHF


effect


durations well


above


a particular


recognition


thresh-


old;


this


cussed


result would


above.


predicted


however,


right


from the


effect


hypotheses


did


dis-


occur


lengthy


noise


upra-threshold


both


durations,


threshold-recognition


then


and


role


of neural


STM paradigms


would


need


re-evaluation.


This


would


necessary


since


such


finding would be


evidence


significant


operation


noise


exposure


durations


which,


according


masking


hypothesis,


should not


appreciably


affected


this


varl-


able.


in any


event,


some


differential


aspect


signal


trans-






40


as opposed to left VHF stimulus signals prior to speech and


language processing and STM storage,


then why would these


verbal and STM mechanisms differentiate between such signals


on the basis of their route of transmission?


In terms of


an information-processing model proposed by Sperling


(1967),


some differences in VHF information processing must occur

prior to the arrival of VHF stimulus signals in the recog-

nition-buffer stage, presumably analogous to the verbal


processing and memory storage mechanisms.


At this point, however,


the significant question con-


cerns the factor or factors responsible for such a differ-


ence in sign

operation.


al


transmission efficiency and the mechanism of


Both masking and neural noise are hypothesized


to be the critical catalysts for VHF asymmetry, each oper-


eating under specific procedural conditions.


Further research


is necessary


, however,


to investigate the actual role these


factors play in producing VHF asymmetry and to determine the

specific mechanisms of action involved.














SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


Visual half-field asymmetry for right-handed


viewing verbal stimuli was investigated in the context of


the Hines-Satz STM paradigm.


Monocular viewing was employed


in order to answer the following questions:


(1) How does the magnitude of VHF recall


for each


of the four visual neuroanatomical pathways
contribute to the well-documented right VHF
effect?


What is the relationship of acuity dominance
to VHF asymmetry?

Can previously reported serial position effects
be confirmed and re-evaluated under monocular
viewing conditions?


The data were analyzed with a split-plot factorial

analysis of variance design and yielded the following results:

(1) The left temporal and right nasal pathways
produced a nonsignificant difference in VHF


recall.


Overall


recall


for these two pathways,


however, was significantly greater than it was
for the left nasal and right temporal pathways.
No significant difference in VHF recall was
found between these latter two pathways. The
difference between mean recall scores for the
left temporal and left nasal pathways was not
significantly greater than the difference
between mean recall scores for the right nasal
and right temporal pathways.
r^ rnL r --c -. ac- 2--- A.- -- .. .r t rTr 1 1





42


(3) All serial positions except the last exhibited
a significant right VHF recall superiority.
The greatest absolute recall scores, irrespec-
tive of VHF, occurred in the last position.

The following conclusions have been reached on the

basis of the above results:

(1) The patterns of recall superiority demonstrated
by the pathways reflect the primary influence
of hemispheric asymmetry of function on the VHF
recall task. Inter-eye differences in recall
are not observed as a result of the minimal
role of perceptual recognition factors (such
as acuity dominance) in producing recall vari-
ability in STM designs.

(2) Serial position findings suggest that some type
of sequential masking during transmission may
be the critical factor producing the right VHF
superiority in STM designs. An explanation of
these results based on neural noise or inter-
ference is reasoned to be inadequate.

(3) Neural noise, however, is hypothesized to
operate in single-stimulus threshold-recogni-
tion paradigms to produce the VHF asymmetry
observed under these conditions.

(4) Irrespective of the identity of the critical
factor producing VHF asymmetry, it must operate
before the stimulus signals reach the left
hemisphere speech and language analyzers and
STM storage mechanisms. Some difference in
right as opposed to left VHF stimulus signals
must occur during transmission. Otherwise,
the left hemisphere verbal processing and STM
mechanisms would not be expected to operate
on these signals differentially simply on the
basis of the route of transmission.































APPENDIX I


AN EXAMPLE OF


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44


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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH



Raymond Alexander Parker, Jr., was born on November


1947


, in Greenville, South Carolina.


He was graduated from


Greenville Senior High School in June,


1965,


and received


Bachelor of Arts in Psychology from Furman University


in June,


1969.


At this time he also received his Regular


Army Commission in the Medical Service Corps.


In August of


1971 he married the former Kathryn Leigh Mathis of Sumter,


South Carolina.


From September,


1969


until


the present


time, he has attended graduate school at the University of


Florida,


working toward the degree of Doctor of Philosophy


in clinical psychology.









I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of 2"ctor of Philosophy.


Edwar


P. Horne, Chairmi


Associate Professor of
Psychology


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.


airman


Professor of Clinical
Psychology and Psychology


I certify that I have read thi
opinion it conforms to acceptable s


s study and that in my
standards of scholarly


presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.


Madeline M. Rame
Assistant Profes
Psychology


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.


Zrut -cnr-


A V -


T-\' r 1








I


certify that I have read this study and that in my


opinion it conforms


to acceptable standards of scholarly


presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of doctor of Philosophy.


Htgh Da
Profe sor o
Psychology


certify that


Clinical


I have read this study and that in my


opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.


onal


ers


Professor of Electrical
Engineering


This dissertation was submitted to the Department of
Psychology in the College of Arts and Sciences and to the
Graduate Council,and was accepted as partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.


August,


1973


Dean,


Graduate School




















































UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1262 08394 247 3