A task analysis of medical laboratory workers in hospitals in Duval county, Florida

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Title:
A task analysis of medical laboratory workers in hospitals in Duval county, Florida
Physical Description:
xiii, 225 leaves. : illus. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Bailey, Clare Crabtree, 1945-
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Medical technologists   ( lcsh )
Job analysis   ( lcsh )
Educational Administration and Supervision thesis Ph. D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Educational Administration and Supervision -- UF   ( lcsh )
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 222-224.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000585237
oclc - 14202060
notis - ADB3870
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Full Text











A TASK
IN


ANALYSIS
HOSPITALS


OF MEDICAL
IN DUVAL


1 LABORATORY WORKERS
COUNTY, FLORIDA


CLARE


CRABTREE


BAILEY


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE
COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL
FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

































This


whose


dissertation
my husband,
encouragement


dedicated


Donald,


and


understanding


made this work


possible















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The

laboratory

cooperation


author wishes

directors of t


and


express

hospitals


assistance


her


gratitude


surveyed


study.


Special


their

thanks


are


also


given


to all


those


medical


laboratory


workers


who


participated


study


filling


out


questionnaires


that


formed


basi


survey.


The


author


also


shes


express


deep


appreciation


Lindberg


and


to Professor


their


criticisms


Ruth


encouragement,


conduct


Williams


guidance,


survey


David


suggestions,


and


preparation


manuscript.


wishes


thank


Chairman,


Dr. Ralph


Kimbrough,


Michael


and


other


Nunnery


and


members of


Dayton


advi


Roberts


sory


, for


committee,


their


guidance,


assis


tance,


and


counsel


her


graduate


program


the preparation


manuscript.


Special


thanks


must


also


given


author


mother


and


father


their


continuous


encouragement


and


understanding,


and


faith


ability.

















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

LIST OF TABLES


..........****....*..*...S. t*** **

.. ...... ...................... (


iii

vii


ABSTRACT


Chapter


INTRODUCTION


a.. a. C ** a a. a.) a a a a


Manpower Needs for the Laboratory


Purpose of the Study ........
Statement of Problem .......
Delimitations and Limitations


.........
.........


This


sign


Ins trumentation
Data Collection
Data Treatment .
Defini tions
The Organization


Study


a B O O O a a aa a .* a a a.aI.*.a.t


*.......a.a .. .a.aa.a... .. .a..a.

*....a..a..a ..a.*a.a*.a a ..


of


.


This


Studio


y .. .


II.

III.


REVIEW OF LITERATURE


Summary


. a a a a a a a a


GENERAL BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS
OF CLINICAL LABORATORY WORKERS


*.....a ...*.ta


BY
...........


a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a cc


THE LABORATORY TASKS PERFORMED
CLINICAL LABORATORY WORKERS


Need for
Study De
Sample .


Demographic Characteristics
Training Qualifications ...
Employment Characteristics .


............................. I 0 I I












TABLE OF CONTENTS--Continued


Chapter


Page


Managerial,
Miscellan


Manageria
Teaching


Teaching,
eous Tasks


Functions


Miscellaneous


Functions


and


* a a a
* at a
** a. *
.....
.....
.....


.......
.......


Clinical Area


Tasks


.... 70


Biochemistry
Hematology F
Urinalysis F


Functions


unctions
unctions


......0...
..........


.....

.....


Serology and
Parasitology
Mycology Fun


I Virology Functions


Functions


actions


........
........
* a a a a a


Nuclear Laboratory Medicine


Functions
Bacteriolog


Blood


Bank


y Functions
Functions ..


.............
.............


Summary


SUMMARY, FINDINGS, AND CONCLUSIONS


Summary
Findings
Demog:
Train
Emp lo
Tasks


raphic Characteristics
ing Characteristics ..
yment Characteristics .


Performed


........
........
* ... ...


. ........ 128


Managerial
Teaching T


asks


Miscellaneous
Biochemis try
Hematology Ta
Urinalysis Ta
Serology and
Parasito logy


Mycology
Nuclear
Tasks


Tasks
Tasks


:f......
* a a..a.
Sa a a.
* a a a a a a


sks . .. .
Virology Task'
Tasks . .


Tasks


Laboratory Medicine
a ..aa .. ..... a...


Bacteriology


Tasks


Blood


Bank


Tasks


Conclusions...


a ....aa.


Functions


Tasks


sk a


:s


.......












TABLE


OF CONTENTS-Continued


APPENDIX


Page


- MANAGEMENT

- TEACHING F


FUNCTIONS


UNCTIONS


- MISCELLANEOUS

- BIOCHEMISTRY

- HEMATOLOGY FU

- UROLOGY FUNCT


FUNCTIONS

FUNCTIONS


. I ...... ... ..


NATIONS


IONS


... ... .. ... .0....


SEROLOGY


AND


VIROLOGY


FUNCTIONS


- PARASITOLOGY


FUNCTIONS


. ... .............. 17


- MYCOLOGY


FUNCTIONS


- NUCLEAR LABORATORY
FUNCTIONS .....

- BACTERIOLOGY FUNCT


MEDICINE


....

IONS


*..... .....e.e.....
.. C ** **CC*.. .**. ..
)0 II I 0 0Q0 I I


BLOOD


BANK


FUNCTIONS


. c ..... .... C O


- SURVEY


QUESTIONNAIRE


Cc ...... ..*. .....


BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIOGRAPHICAL


SKETCH


0 I 00000 I I I )I I 0D0 0 0Q0 0Q0 0 0 0


....... 0. O. .00. OO















LIST OF TABLES


Table


Page


Age Ranges


and


Sex


the Three Types


Laboratory Workers


Marital


Status


and Yearly Salary


Distribution


Laboratory Workers


Highest Level


of Formal Education


of the Three Types of
Laboratory Workers ..


Academic Majors


for Those


Laboratory Workers
Completing Their


Bachelor'


Type of


Degree


Medical Laboratory Training


Completed by


Laboratory Workers


....... 39


Professional


Certification or


Registration Held by


Laboratory Workers


Length of


Employment of


the Three


Categories
Workers ..


Full


of Laboratory


......... 42


Time and Part-time Employment


Laboratory Workers


State License Held by


Levels


Areas of Major


... ...... 42


the Three


of Laboratory Workers


Responsibility


Indicated by the Three Levels


Laboratory Workers


................. 46


.................... 40











LIST


Table

12.


OF TABLES--Continued


Page


Availability
Laboratory


of Pathologi


Work


ers


S.............. 47


Response
Under


to Question:
the Supervis


You


Work


Another


Laboratory


Worker


or S


ervisor?"


Position


Held


Laboratory


Workers


Under Whom
Worked ...


the Respondents
. i. . ......


Response


to Que


stion


of Ability


Exercise


Independent


Judgment


......... 50


Ten


Task


Performed


Most


Technologies
Performance


with


Ass


Rank


stants


Techni


cans


Managerial


Tasks


Differing


More


Than


10 Percent


Percentages


Level


Among th
he Three


Laboratory


Workers


...... .. .... 56


Teaching
Than


Tasks


Differing


10 Percent


Percentages


Level


More


Among th
he Three


of Laboratory


Workers


..... ..... 60


scellaneous


Tasks


Performed


cent


or More


of Any


One


Three


Level


Laboratory


Workers


......... 63


sce


llaneous


More


Than


Tasks
10 Per


Differing


cent


Among


the Percentages


Thrci0


T.

*^ I











LIST OF TABLES--Continued


Table

21.


Page


Biochemistry Tasks Performed by


Percent or More of
the Three Levels of
Laboratory Workers


Biochemistry Tasks


Than 10


Any One of


Differing by More


Percent Among


Percentages of


Levels
Workers


the Three


Laboratory


Hematology Tasks


Performed by


Percent or More of
the Three Levels of


Workers


Any One of
Laboratory


Hematology Tasks Di
10 Percent Among


the Three


Levels


Workers


offering


by More Than


the Percentages
of Laboratory


Urinalysis


Tasks


Performed by


or More of Any One of


Levels


Percent


the Three


Laboratory Workers


.. ... 90


Urinalys
Than


Tasks


Differing


10 Percent Among


by More


Percentages of
of Laboratory


the Three Levels


Workers


. a .. .


and Virology Tasks Differing


by More Than 1
the Percentage


Levels


Parasitology Tasks


Than


Percentages


Levels
Workers


Percent Among
f the Three


Laboratory Workers


Differing by More


Percent Among


the Three


of Laboratory


a -


Serology


.... 92


.. I ....... I ........


) II I I I 0 0 I I


. . o . . 85










LIST OF TABLES--Continued


Table


Page


Nuclear


Laboratory Medicine Tasks


Differing


by More Than 10


Percent Among the Percentages
of the Three Levels of


Laboratory Workers


Bacteriology Tasks


Percent or More of
the Three Levels o
Laboratory Workers


Bacteriology Tasks


10 Percent Among
the Three Levels


Performed by


Any One of


Differing by More Than


the Percentages of
of Laboratory


Workers


Blood Bank Tasks


Differing


by More Than


10 Percent Among
the Three Levels


the Percentages of
of Laboratory


Workers










stract
the U


ssertation


university


Presented


Florida


to the


Partial


Graduate


Council


Fulfillment


Requirements


Degree


Doctor


Philosophy


A TASK


ANALYSIS
HOSPITALS


OF MEDICAL


IN DUVAL


LABORATORY


COUNTY,


WORKERS


FLORIDA


Clare


Crabtree


Bailey


March,


1973


Chairman:


Major


Ralph


Department


. Kimbrough
Educational


Admini


station


The


purpose


study


was


survey


and


analyze


types


laboratory


tasks


technical


performed


personnel


various


with


eve


intent


medical


determining


what


educational


background


required


performance


various


laboratory


tasks


that


recommendations


could


made


future


curriculum


and


course


development.


The


study


was


concerned


with


answering


following


questions:


What


are


employment
of medical
hospitals


e demographic,
characteristic


laboratory


in Duval


educational,


and


various


technical


County,


pers


level


onnel


Florida?


What
leve


laboratory


of medical


hospitals


tasks


are


laboratory


in Duval


County,


performed


technical
Florida?


the
pers


various
onnel










What


implications


questions fo
the training


can


future


and


drawn


curriculum


retraining


from


above


development for
laboratory workers?


Basic


a need


medical


the
for


last question,
three distinct


laboratory


does


there


educational


appear


levels


worker


A questionnaire


was


devised


and


delivered


clinical


laboratory


personnel


hospitals


Duval


County,


Florida.


Que


stionnaire


responses


from


labora-


tory


workers


were


analyzed,


and


information


formed


bases


study.


The


major


findings


were


divided


into


demographic,


training,


and


employment


characteristics


and


task


perform-


ance


areas


management,


teaching,


miscellaneous,


biochemistry,


hematology,


urinaly


sis,


serology


and


virology,


parasitology,


mycology,


nuclear


laboratory


medicine,


bacteriology,


and


blood


bank.


There


were


major


findings


study.


The


major


conclusions


were


There


not


clinic


a hierarchial
al laboratory


County.


arrangement
in hospitals


functions
Duval


For


majority


laboratory,
each of the


tory


workers


esse


three


tasks


ntially


performed


same


educational


performed


percentage


level


labora-


tasks.


The


assistants


categories


achievement.


and


of workers


nPrfnrmn10


technology


furthest


sts,


apart


mnra nt -h


in educational


Ca armc


+" =iolc c


4-l~ay


W










performing
consistency


more


a high


tasks


appeared


difficult


degree


tasks


clinical
to which
or the


independent


areas,


group


performed
requiring


judgment.


From


perform
while th
special


data,


more


appears


that


as generalists


assistants


technology


technicians
laboratory


are


more


sts.


Recommendations


were


made


for


curriculum


development,


laboratory


licensing,


laboratory


restructuring,


further


research.















CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


field


medicine


offers


tremendous


possibilities


future


of mankind.


seases


that


once


devastated


whole


empires


have


virtually


been


eliminated.


life


span


man


been


lengthened


immediate


medicine,


comfort


future


improved


holds


due


even


new


more


scoveries


promise


Since


World


War


progress


automation,


new


techniques,


new


equipment


have


provided


phy


sician


with


information


about


patient


that


increased


accuracy,


speed,


reliability


of diagnosing


treating


seases.


With


variety


diagnostic


tests


available


now,

the


it i


res


Impos


sible


ponsibility


for

the


the physician

care of the


alone

patient


to accept


general


practitioner


once


beginning


century.


New


areas


employment


have


opened


up to help


physician


meet


needs


patients


Today


laboratory


worker


become


an increasingly


responsible


critically


important


Part


medical


in










Practically


laboratory


work


done


prior


World


War


was


performed


phys


icians.


new


pro-


cedures


tests


were


developed,


area


laboratory


diagnostics


physicians


special


(pathology)


to specialize


in pathology


became


large


Enough


1922


enough


physicians


to form


were


American


Society


Clinical


Pathologi


As work


loads


increased


became


function


pathologi


laboratories.


teaching,


train


Having


assistants


assumed


pathologi


to work


responsibility


, through


American


Society


Clinical


Pathologi


accepted


response


ability


controlling


standards


of laboratory


personnel


establi


Technicians


1928.


shing


Regi


Later,


stry


name


Medical


was


changed


Registry o

categories


f Medical


Technologists


of laboratory


workers


.) There were

registered: the


medical


technology


held


a university


degree


with


one


year


laboratory


experience


laboratory


technician


who


a high


school


diploma


and


SIX


months


laboratory


experience.


In 1933


was


required


applicants


pass


an examination


to qualify


registration.










initially


responsible


compiling


a list


schools


approved


this


function


the

was


training


laboratory


transferred


workers.


Council


In 1936


on Medical


Education


American


Medical


Association.


In 1949


duty


was


Pathologi


returned


which


American


establi


shed


Society


Board


Clinical


of Schools


The

requirements


Board


of School


academic


establishes


as well


the

the


course

hospital


portion


approved


schools


These


requirements


must


be submitted


American


Society


of Clinical


Pathologists


final


then


adoption.


American


Any


Medical


recommendations


Association


approval


or di


approval


of a school


must


also


through


these


channel


final


approval


American


Medical


Association.


In 1935


category


laboratory


technician


was


dropped


ologists


American


However,


was


Soci


not


ety


feas


of Clinical


ible


Path-


attempt


staff


laboratory


with


only


medical


technologists.


Workers


with


ess


formal


education


had


to be


employed.


In order


to regulate


quality


ese


workers


1963


American


Society


of Clinical


Pathologi


again


established


ess


than


college


grade










Probably


growth


junior


college


development


associate


degree,


there


soon


appeared


laboratory


a new


type


of worker-one


with


more


educational


qualifications


than


CLA


yet


lacking


requirements


a Medical


Technology


certification.


It became


obvious


that


qualifications


these


workers


to be


recogni z


so in


1969,


American


Society


certification


Clinical


third


Pathologi


category


approved


laboratory


worker--


Medical


Laboratory


Technician


(MLT).


The


Medical


Technician,


main


category


Technology


Certified


Medical


Laboratory


certified


Laboratory


Assistant


American


are


Society


Clinical


Pathologi


There


are


seven


other


certifi


cations


offered


Board


Regi


stry


of Medical


Technology


(ASCP)


(18) ,


but


they


are


in specific


laboratory


areas


such


Cytotechnologi


st--CT(ASCP)


Nuclear


Medi


Technology


st--NMT(ASCP) .


There


are


other


regi


stories


laboratory


workers,


but


Regi


stry


of Medical


Technology


American


Society


of Clinical


Pathologi


only


qualifying


board


recogni


zed by


American


Medical


Association


(18).


The


clinical


laboratory


hospitals










trained


job.


Although


this


study


will


directed


at all


fiction,


clinical


it i


laboratory


intended


workers


that


regardless


information


certi
rier+-^


collected


be directed


improvement


curriculum


ASCP


approved


schools


training


rtified


Laboratory


Assistants


Medical


Laboratory


Techni


cians,


Medical


Technology


sts.


Manpower


Needs


for


Laboratory


A critical


many


need


communities


registered
technology
nationwide


nurse


sts,
and


health


some


, li


and


censed


a few


manpower


occupations,


practical


others


is generally


believed


exis
such


nurse


medical


shortage is
to be worsening.


New


advance s


in automation


have


made


a vast


number


as prepaid


demand


tests


possible


insurance


laboratory


plans


servi


Medicare,


have


ces


Medicaid,


resulted


as well


in a greater


As a result,


there


now


a manpower


shortage


laboratory


this


shortage


is predicted


increase


Workload


predictions


were


best


pointed


out


a statement


made


Manp


power


Medi


Labo


ratory.


Predictions


laboratory


workloads


usually


start


with


diagnostic


this
been


will
calle


a base of


tests
double


d


least


performed
by 1975 t


conservative


a half-billion


in 1966.
at least


The


work load


Proj


clinical


sections


a billion


that


have


in clinical


C.










next


to triple
in general


bring
most


10-15


or quadruple
hospitals.


about increase
observers agree


years,
the c


automation


capacityy


However,


efficiency


that


these


while


per
gains


is expected
laboratories


automation
technician


usually


will
hour,


are


reque


resulting


in increases


a larger quantity
in manpower needs.


work,
23:110)


The


. Department


Labor


(21)


predic


increase


from


40,000


medical


technology


in 1966


to 75,000


1975.


In addition


to a growth


need


35,000,


15,000


more


medical


technologists


will


needed


to replace


those


who


leave


eld


to death,


retirement,


medical


or for


laboratory


other


reasons.


assistants


Estimated


were placed


needs


at about


100,000


1975.


expected


In 1966


needs


about

total


50,000


70,00


were

0 new


employed.

laboratory


To meet

assis-


tants


would


have


to be


trained


1975


(growth


needs


50,000,


replacement


needs


20,000).


The Manpower


Admini


station


Department


Labor


in a report,


echno


Manpower


Health


Servi


Indu


story,


1965


-1975


estimates


number


laboratory


workers


1965


at 100,000


with


an additional


27,000


who


were


working


outs


health


service


indu


stry.


The


report


predicts


number


of workers


needed


1975


at 160,000


within


health


service


industry


another


side


industry











referred


as a


"number


games"


which


can


confuse


well


as mislead:


Regard


ess


amounts


, what


obvious


that


more


manpower


is needed


now


will


needed


future,


more


hands


with


better


education


better


vital


training,


tasks


fundamental


capable


in a variety


goal


fulfilling


settings


of helping


a vari


, all
diagno


ety


aimed


stic


team


find


hidden


causes


cures


of di


seases


:117)


To fulfill


these


needs


more


manpower,


steps


must


taken


to make


better


utili


zation


of existing


manpower


as well


increase


output


newly


trained


workers.


Before


steps


can


taken


these


directions

of medical


made


thorough


technology


educational


analyst


is needed.


planning


occupational


No de


without


cisions


first ,an


field


should


in-depth


study


of what


actually


done


in a laboratory


what


educational


level


needed


to perform


each


task.


Cur-


ricula


guidelines


then


can


constructed


initial


training


of laboratory


workers


their


continuing


education


as well.


Purp


ose


e Study


purpose


study


was


survey


analyze


of medical


types


laboratory


tasks


performed


technical


various


personnel


a-L LA


levels


intent


.


I











laboratory


tasks


that


recommendations


could


made


future


curriculum


and


course


development.


Statement


Problem


Thi


study


was


concerned


with


answering


following


questions:


What


are


employment
of medical


spitals


demographic,


chara


cteristics


laboratory


in Duval


County,


educational,


and


various
rsonnel


levels


Florida?


What la
various


personnel


boratory


eve


in hos


tasks


medi


pitals


are
cal
in


performed
laboratory


Duval


Count


technical
y, Florida?


How


frequently


they


perform


these


tasks


Where


did


they


learn


to perform


ese


task


What


que
the


implications


stions


training


can


future


drawn


curriculum


or retraining


workers?


from


above


development


laboratory


Basic


to be a need


level


last
for


of medi


question,


three


does


distinct


laboratory


there


appear


educational


workers


mitations


Limitat


ons


The


population


this


study


was


considered


be all


state


clinical


of Florida


laboratory


(with


workers


exception


in hospitals


cytologi


stologi


sample


studi


ed in


this


survey


were










cytology


histology


were


not


investigated


since


both


usually


employ


workers


with


specific


training.


Selection


one


county


whole


state


was


a definite


limitation


study,


but


was


felt


that


Duval


County


was


fairly


representative


state


Florida


number


zes


hospitals


employment


and


hiring


practices


concerning


labora-


tory


personnel.


author


Selection


to be in


personal


one


county


contact


with


also


each


allowed


person


receiving


answering


a questionnaire,


of questions


thereby,


concerning


allowing


questionnaire


assuring


a higher


percentage


returns.


A mailed


questionnaire


would


undoubtedly


have


yielded


a low


return


unavoidable


necessity


long


questionnaire


used


this


study.


Need


for


Study


The


primary


stification


study


arose


from


need


clinical


to clarify


laboratory


occupational


workers


The


tasks


vagueness


duties


exists


not


only


among


employers


but


educators


laboratory


workers


themselves.


Acqui


sition


of information


regarding


specific











need


a complete


study


this


type


reflected


first


recommendations


made


Man-


power


Medical


Laboratory.


Recommendation


study


to determine


requirements


tory


changes


laboratory


delivery


practice,


with


1: T
and d
esent
cons


in laboratory


services


laboratory


here
efine
and


urgent


skill
future


ideration


methodology,


organi
y serv


need


manpower


if anticipated
demands for


labora-


nation,


admini


ces.


station,


Recommendation


necessa
realign


educational
categories.


skills


laboratory


and
(23


Findings


should


career


technical


study


employed
categories


levels


reassess


required


for


an artic


Journal


erzoan


Medi


sOc


atio


(9) ,


Israel


Light,


M.D.,


made


statement


a new


"When


competency


developing

level, i


t


a new

is e


alli


ed health


essential


that


field

the


entire


occupation


or specialty


description


scrutinized.


" As a part


S IS


required


"thorough-


going"


task


analysis


Job


occupational)


analyst


long


had


an honored


strategic


place


administrative,


of things


managerial,


manufacturing


and

and


supervi


indu


sory


strial


scheme


sectors


our


economy.


It i


but


unheard


health


field,


comprehensive


introduction


our


midst


s long


overdue.


medical











national


survey


required.


A start


must


made,


however,


and


besides


adding


to information


that


can


use


on a national


basi


, it


hoped


that


this


study


will


immediately


useful


to educators


health


planners


Florida.


Study


Design


study


classified


was


Kerlinger


an exploratory


It had


eld


certain


study


strengths


and


weaknesses


Its strengths


include


ed realism,


nificance,


strength


variable


heuri


stic


qualities.


weaknesses


included


ex post


fact


nature,


large


number


variable


, and


difficult


measurement


Sample


The


sample


used


this


study


was


composed


technical


laboratory


workers


employed


clinical


laboratory


(with


exc


option


cytologists


stologi


sts)


hospitals


of Duval


County,


Florida.


was


ass


umed


that


Duval


County


a fairly


adequate


representation


State


a whole


tIruman


*ttn fh n


1 a 2,


J l










in similar


studi


after


consultation


with


various


experts


clinical


laboratory


field.


copy


questionnaire


s found


App


endi


The


labora-


tory


tasks


sted


used


were


compiled


California


task


primarily


analy


from


those


survey


(20)


from


recommended


task


devi


Navy


(11)


The


questionnaire


included


those


clinical


tasks


which


might


performed


a medical


laboratory


stology


worker


excluding


cytology


those


survey


relating


form


provided


responses


frequency


performance


task


worker


(routinely,


first


occasionally,


learned


rarely)


to perform


and


task


where


school,


on-the-job, co

to educational


ntinuing


education


background,


working


program)


Data


experience,


other


pers


onal


data


were


included


questionnaire


Data


lect


The


data


were


coll


ected


questionnaires


personally


deliver


to sample


subj


ects


at the


place


of employment.


An explanation


purpose


of the


questionnaire


was


given


as well


as an opportunity











reminded


questionnaire


Repeated


trips


were


made


hospitals


to collect


ques


tionnaires


The


pathologist


one


hospital


refused


allow


s staff


to respond


questionnaire.


first


refused


tionnaire.


because


The


various


estionnaire


was


wordin

then


ques-


redone


to meet


s specifications


After


this,


several


telephone


calls


were


made


author,


several


sits


Chairman


Department


of Medical


Technology


Florida


Junior


College


at Jacksonville,


letters


were


written--one


author


one


Chairman


Medical


Tec


hnology


Department


University


Florida.


response


was


made


pathologi


of these


attempts


to have


questionnaires


completed.


Exempting


one


hospital,


there


were


total


clini


laboratory


workers


employed


in 10


hospitals


Duval


County.


A questionnaire


was


given


to each


worker.


total


comply


eted


questionnaires


perce


were


returned


The


final


sample


population


consisted


60 laboratory


assistants











The


laboratory


workers


who


did


not


respond


to the


questionnaires


were


either


on vacation,


sick,


or for


various


unstated


reasons


refused


to return


questionnaire.


Data


Treatment


All


data


were


coded


punched


on Indecksq


cards


information


retrieved


a manual


keysort


system.


educational


Respondents


were


background,


grouped


i.e


ess


according


than


their


years


college


or CLA


certification,


to four


years


college


or MLT


certification,


four


years


or more


of college


or MT certification.


Written


responses


questions


were


noted


on appropriate


keysort


cards


Defin


itions


- American


organization


Medical


of medical


Association


The


professional


practitioners.


ASCP
prof


- American
essional or


Society


ganization


of Clinical


patholo


Pathologists.
gists.


The


ASMT
prof


- American


ess


ional


Requirements
by the Regis


Society


organization


full


of Medical


medical


membership


of Medical


Technology


laboratory


include


Technologists.


pers


onnel.


certification


Board
consi


nhlr~nne


School


sting


standing


pathology
ri r *I Vfri-^+ n* E,1- r.in r t


committee o
technology


ASCP


UAAI~M~~ 3rS


r( nk hrr I) rr


nr rna


M











for approved
submitted to


schools.


ASCP


These


and


requirements


then


AMA


adoption.


must


final


Certificati
individual
educational


usually,


- Prof


ess


ional


an organization


and/or


ssing


experience


a sp


recognition


upon


given


completion


requirements


ecific


certain


as well


examination


area


in which


individual


to be certified.


Certi


field


Laborato


Assistant


(ASCP)


- A


person


who


has complete
practical an
by the Board


ASCP


CLA


times


given
under


technology


high
techn


school
ical t


of Certifie


the ASMT


Board


direct


plus


a 12 months


raining


d Laboratory


passed
CLA; mus


supervision


a school


course


approved


Assistants


examination


t work


at all


of a medical


or a pathologi


nical


formed


Laboratory
on human


- A place


tissues


where


, fluids


various


, excreta,


tests


are


or exudates


purpose


diagno


S1S


maintenance


assis


, treatment,


ting


and


phy


management


sician
of di


sease


of health.


Laboratory
for admini


Director
station


"Any


qualified


technical


person


.res


scientific


ponsibl


operations


a laboratory,


result


including


reporting.


supervise
:10D--41.


ion


test


proc


edures


02.6)


orator


echn


tovan


"Any


qualified


per


son


who


func


tions


under
or tec


close


hnologi


supervision
and performs


a dir


only


ector,


those


supervisor,


clinical


labora-


tory
and


n)


procea
minimal


ures


which


exercise


require
of indeP


limited
ndent i


skill,


res


pon


udgement.


sibility,
:10D-


41.02


Laboratory
performing
tests.


Work


- One who


or supervl


sing


works


in a clini


the performance


al laboratory
laboratory


censure


a spe


cifi


- A legal
ed status


action
is given


public


protect


an individual


tion
who


which


meets


certain


qualifications.


compulsory


Laboratory


Law,


in Florida


Chapter


Licensure


under


-


- as -


laboratory


Florida
Florida


workers


Clinical
Statutes


V


___


g


.










including
approved


supervised
laboratory


clini


experience


pass


in an AMA-


examination


Medi


Laboratory


Regi


story


of Medi


Technicians


Tec


given


hnologists


Board
ASCP.


Medi
test
and


echno


S


which


"Any


require


responsibility


the
with


qualifi


exercise


person


who


of independent


ervision


dir


reforms


judgment


ector


supervisor.


:10D


- 41.0


Medi


echn


ologist


SCP)


- A medi


technology


has comply


eted


four


years


college


which


ludes


not


only


certain


Board


minimum


Regi


stry


requirement
of Medical


as establish


Technology


ASCP


hospital
also have


but


also


a year


educational


sse


program


clinical
approved


an examination


in medical


erience in a
the AMA; must


technology


given


Board


of Registry.


- A physi


training


res


ency


had


four


"Adapting


cian


who


to five


beside
years


knowledge


medical


of pathology
and techniques


biology,


chemi


pathologist


identi f


stry,


works


a patient


s di


d phy
with


SiCS


to laboratory


attending


sease


phy


to evaluate


examinations,


sician to
effective


treatment,


solving


clinical


problems


assess


significance


laboratory


findings


" (19


Propri


etary


primarily


(Comm
the


ercial)
tuition


School A
of students


school


that


reli


financial


support;


not


struction


eligible f
laboratory


AMA


work


approval


in-


ers.


Regis


Med


ical


echno


standing


committee


ASCP


purpose


examining


and


regi


steering


laboratory


work


ers.


ervtsor


"Any


qualified


rson


who,


under


general


supervi s


of a direc


tor,


ervises


technical


ers


onnel,


performs


tests


requiring


ecial


scie


ntific


skill


, and,


sence


direc


tor,


is held


response


proce


ible


dures


proper


performance


reporting


res


ults


laboratory
(4:10D -


.02.7)


aniz


action


s Study


Patho


I










discussion


need


study,


a statement


study


s purpose


objectives.


Chapter


II reviews


selected


related


literature


various


similar


research


studies.


The


third


chapter


pre


sents


general


background


information


Duval


on the


County


surveyed


Chapter


clinical


IV presents


laboratory


data


workers


these


workers


concerning


various


tasks


performed


laboratory.


fifth


chapter


is a summary


findings


survey,


a di


scusslon


of conclusions


based


data


various


laboratory


collected


in the study,


recommendations


licensing


curriculum


a presentation


development,


restructuring,


further


research.














CHAPTER


REVIEW


OF LITERATURE


In 1956


an ad


joint


committee


ASCP


and


ASMT,


discuss


Medical


various


Technology


aspects


Study


medical


Committee,


technology


met


(14).


recommendation


was


made


that


National


Committee


Careers


Medical


Technology


a national


study


education


and


utili


zation


medical


laboratory


personnel.


was


not


until


1959


that


NCCMT


obtained


funds


a pilot


study


on medical


technology


education


Alabama.


This


was


known


"Alabama


Pilot


Study"


and


later


phases


Alabama


which


Project


assembled


(3) .


information


It consisted


on current


three


educational


programs


schools


medical


technology,


made


recom-


mendations


improvements,


established


a newsletter


facilitate


communication


between


schools,


provided


an evaluation


project


activity


In 1962


representatives


agencies


concerned


with


medical


technology


education


met


to study


findings


the


Alabama


Project.


A result


meeting


was


recommendation


that


a pilot


studv b


made


whathar


tPfct










that


would


operate


approved


schools


medical


technology


Alabama


Project


Alabama


schools


Medical


a result,


Technology


1964


Education


National


was


Council


established.


One


firs


t recommendations


made


NCMTE


was


future


study


present


seline


needs


medical


technology


extensive


education.


study


One


medical


projects


technology


was


(14).


Done


1967,


study


entitled, National


Corre


one


Medi


purpose


"examine


relation


ship


between


educational


preparation


performance


laboratory


personnel"


:90).


sample


surveyed


consisted


1,861


medical


echnologists


who


filed


July,


1962


Medical


Technology


(ASCP)


examination.


The


primary


objective


was


to determine


relation


ship


among


performance,


certification,


examination


score,


and


preclinical


and


clinical


study


grades.


The


survey


que


stionnaire


sent


the


medical


technology


consisted


16 questions


calling


about


responses.


ervisors


technology


surveyed


were


sent


questionnaires


one


evaluation


performance


knowledge


technologist


other


a personal


inventory


experience,


training,


and


education.










medical


technology


provided


a more


adequate


preparation


work


profes


sion


than


did


any


other


curriculum.


Stati


stically


more


technology


who


possessed


a degree


medical


technology


passed


(ASCP)


examination


than


did


those


with


or without


other


degre


es.


Part


Project


initiated


National


Council

National


on Medi

Study


Technology


of Cyto


techno


Education


ogqe


was


Report


Education


and


formance


ionsh


s (15)


The


sample


surveyed


consi


sted


cytotec


hnologists


who


taken


1965


certification


examination


exfoliative


cytology


ministered


Board


Registry


Medical


Technologists


(ASCP).


questionnaires


sent


out,


percent)


were


returned.


Besides


information


questionnaires


, the


cytotechnologist


s school


grades


were


obtained


present


questionnaires


supervisor


were


evaluation


sent


technology


work


performance


cytotechnologist.


There


was


statistically


significant


evidence


support


conclu


sion


that


preparation


in an AMA-approved


school


cytotechnology


is more


success


in preparing


cytotechnologi


pass


certification


examination


than


other


preparation


There


was


no statistically










pertinent


present


study,


been


included


one


few


related


studies


available.


Dean


Ammer,


working


under


a U.S.


Public


Health


Service


grant,


working


surveyed


patterns


seven ho

hospital


spitals


laboratory


Boston

worker


studying

s (1).


The


basic


objective


study


was


to "create


statistically


valid


computer


simulation


a lab


and


then


vary


critical


imputs


as well


as demand"


:v) .


was


not


able


to accomplish


s task


since,


author


states


: "The


simple


fact


that


laboratory


technicians


spend


cannot


about


percent


directly


their


related


time


any


on activities


useful


output"


that


(l.v).


Ammer


attempted


investigation


compare


hospital


laboratory


an industrial


engineering


plant,


trying


to relate


both


same


standard


efficiency,


production,


and


output.


He found


this


difficult


to do,


but


placed


blame


laboratory


instead


techniques.


Much


criticism


could


made


latter,


as no one


on hi


staff


used


to conduct


study


was


any


way


familiar


with


hospital


laboratory


procedures


methods


The


author


s own


ignorance


subject


evident


throughout


report


in hi


attempted


explanations


functions


within


laboratory,


as well


as hi











Ammer


s study


was


essentially


time-


and


motion


-analysis


hospital


laboratories.


A total


300,000


servations


were


made


about


laboratory


workers


The


equivalent


procedure


certain


room


was

and


for

every


about


an observer


hour


to be


working

located


at a predecided


time


hours.

within

which


varied,


observer


would


record


activity


laboratory

activities

recording


personnel


were

data,


listed


whom


in gross


serving,


was


responsible.


categories


etc.


such


laboratory


The

talking,

worker


was


not


room


was


recorded


simply


"out"


with


no further


explanation


as to whether


or not


worker


was


actually


working,


.e.,


perhaps


drawing


blood,


or out


lunch.


Throughout


report,


Ammer


hinted


lack


a need


technologists


as opposed


technicians,


although


categories


were


so gross


that


hard


distingui


one


from


other.


The


following


example


Ammer


s approach:


Educators-----especially


medical t
standards


restricting


like


technology


even


supply


others


those


programs
this has


raising


pre


overlooks


are


usually


sented


fact


ass


promote
he side


costs
. has


above


that


ma3 or


the product


ociated


more
effe


with


ASCP


rigorous
cts of


Their
merit.


quality


such


argument,
But it


failures


common


human


fi 11 1rQ3


Sc rlcri 1


nV rrnr a0


nr n a


e 4 inrni a


S inaee










course
rote w
are am


that


without


ong


teaches
under


those


who


them


how


standing


hold


to perform


their


B.S.


tests


substance


or M.S.


than


degrees.


they
(1.24)


There


little


wonder


Ammer


saw


no evidence


frequency


quality


failures


among


laboratory


workers


since


did


not


study


such


errors.


Another


fallacy


conclusions


attempt


to equate


quantity


with


quality,


an area


did


not


study.


suggest


tion


Ammer


makes


save


money


to solve


manpower


shortage


to cut


down


number


technologists


employed


a hospital.


This
the
to t
more
this
ence


assumes


work
hat


course


performed


t


than ha
study p
between


he
If
roy
th


technology


that
the o


technology


true.
e that


quality


ordinary


sts.


Thi


Quantitative


there


working
1:13)


and


techni


quantity


cian


appears


data


is equal


to be


gathered


no significant


patterns


differ-


technicians


This


"assumes"


a great


deal


more


than


Ammer


out


prove,


or indeed,


even


investigate.


Horowitz


Gold


stein


1968


did


a study


selected


paramedical


occupations


financed


from


a grant


from


Manpower


Administration,


. Department


Labor,


under


authority


Manpower


Development


Training


hypothesis


Act


study


that


hiring


was


standards


primarily


hospitals


testing


were


higher


than


were


actually


needed


duties


performed











The


study


was


conducted


hospitals


Greater


Boston


Area


covering


paramedical


occupations


workers


Included


occupations


studied


were


laboratory


personnel.


total


technologists


technicians


were


included


sample.


The


question-


naire


included


major


functions


performed


laboratory


worker


and


time


spent


these


functions.


The


functions


were


ranked


according


to complexity


terms


specific


training


or education.


Horowitz


Goldstein


concluded


from


their


study


that


there


little


difference


between


technology


technicians


in what


they


do and


how


they


spend


their


time.


However,


divi


sion


between


technology


and


technicians


was


somewhat


vague.


Over


percent


technologists


at least


an Associate


Arts


degree


while


only


percent

higher.


techni


Only


18.3


cians


percent


achieved


of all


workers


level

were


(ASCP)


The


authors


state


The vast
tasks as
far more


prof


majority


the
time


ess


Technician,


profe


ssional


(7:30)


Technicians


Technologis
and effort


ional
with


are


training of
a good deal


training,


perform


their
devoted


field


very


same


However,
education


he Technology
ess education


is performing


The


adequately











performance


was


survey


made


was


during


found


study.


throughout


This

study.


overextension


their


general


conclusions


covering


paramedical


occupations,


authors


make


following


statement:


findings


many


indicate


and
the
from


profe
same
this


persons
average


indicate


paramedical


that


that


wid


occupation


personnel


ssional ba
or similar


that


with


of wid


ckgrounds


are


paramedical


in a number


cons


iderably


of education


perform


work


spread
s. The


shortages
findings


different
employed


tasks


of paramedical


ess


profess


than


ional


satisfactorily


exi
also


educational


to perform


We conclude


occupations,


current


training
(7:xi)


can


study


Harkness


, Cadmus,


and


Tillman,


Manpower


Study


erso


nnel


in Hospital


Clinical


orator


zes


was


done


1968


under


a grant


from


. Department


of Labor


under


authority


Manpower


Development


Training


Act.


The


authors


sent


survey


forms


hundred


to 160

and fif


short


ty-six


-term


hospitals


hospitals


responded


North

d from


Carolina.

which


199 laboratory

these workers.


nation


work

148


on which


ers

rece


various


were

ived


selected

specimens


tests


were


and intervi

of unknown


to be


e


wed. Of

determi-


performed.


Returns


were


received


from


114,


percent


return.


The


accuracy


these


results


were


then


noted


after


grouping


laboratory


worker


according


hospital


which


was


employed.


Included


survey


Our
in










Fro

laboratory


review


procedures,


number


authors


list


and q

four


quality


general


conclusions:


Regardless
operation,
training,


same


of hospital
supervision,


each


ratio


spital


tests


per


, laboratory


equipment,
laboratory
bed.


ana pers
performs


onnel
the


Regardl


ess


mentioned


above,


spital
each


size


other


hospital


same


factors


ratio


workers


per


bed.


Most


measures


quality


laboratory


performance
experience,
hospital si


work


regardl
supervise


ess
ion,


Increases


worker


etc.) i
so does


s skill,


indicate


that,


quality


performed.


There


is an indication


laboratory
prevalent,
worker/bed


methods


then
will


that,


became


output/bed
decrease b


automated


efficient


will


increase


because


more
and


areas


of lab


most


eas


output.


automated


make


total


:10)


The


authors


on an accurate,


rated


minimal,


results


inaccurate


unknowns


scale.


In all


cases


small


hospital


beds


under)


rated


less


than


medium


ess


than


large


hospitals


(over


beds)


terms


of quality


total


performance.


In chemi


stry


alone


percent


determinations


unknowns


small


hospitals


were


found


to be inaccurate.


Although


almost


85 percent


workers


smaller


hospitals


were


trained


in commercial


school


or on


:











advanced


trained

on-the-


trained


worker


job


Ithe


(the


trained


(ASCP))


commercial

worker). A


and


school


though


more


graduate

again, a


quickly


and


s in


case


small


hospitals


data


indicated


that


those


medium


sized


hospitals


that


rated


lower


laboratory


quality


a lower


percent


workers


with


advanced


training,


investigator


still


concluded


that


this


difference


quality


was


more


dependent


on supervision


than


training


per


se:


Under


different


certain


degr


effectively


other


was
any


weak


mixture


ability

The


(under cc
training)


could


ees


supervisory
of training


produce


situation


situations


work


accurate


in which


or pathological


of workers


always


produced


indication


,rrect


that


supervi


is effective


gradually


by employing
and bringing
performance

In 1968,


qui
the


fill
ckly
m up


through


coverage


with v
lower

the '


sion


workers


with


together


and


reliable


supervisory


arying
quality

mixture


with


suggests


severe
trained


was


results;


direction


ineffe


degrees


active,
of


output.


' of


continuing


that


manpower


to a higher


on-the


National


-job


workers


on-the-job
hospitals


larger


deficiencies


untrained)
standard c


training.


Committee


workers


:48)


Careers


Medical


Technology


did


a study


Laboratory


Ass


stant.


Thi


study,


Report


Laboratory


88s


stant


Field


Proj


(12) ,


was


funded


Manpower


Administration,


. Department


Labor,


was


larger


portion


a study


entitled


Work


ErnaDianna


nf r ni ff-i


or? T'Id rrhnwnnw










CLA


who


been


certified


from


1965


(the


beginning


CLA


certification)


until


time


survey,


May,


1968.


total


CLA


school


were


included


study


that


initially


was


started


to study


sadvantaged.


The


questionnaires


used


initial


project


drew


only


responses,


question


about


questionnaire


percent.


was


The


to relate


purpose


CLA


five-


training


actual


work


experience.


The


larger


study


comprised


several


parts


including


a study


curriculum


offered


schools,


training

as well


guide,


the

study


development


of demon


disadvantage(


station

d trainee


projects


investigation


of methods


predicting


success


CLA


trainees.


The


survey


of laboratory


ass


instant


indicated


that


many


CLAs


work


independently


time


many


most


time.


Night


call


weekend


work


often


done


without


any


assistance,


although


in emergencies


a medical


technologist


or pathologist


available


call.


A few,


however,


are


charge


departments


or are


private
of these


worked


following


f or only
laboratory


course


o zn years
on-the-job


-J


technician


with


no dir


the
the


in a small


ect


older
same 1


training.


hospital


supervision.


people


who


Some


have


laboratory,


Others


are


recent











positions
shortage


in large


citi


laboratory


because


manpower


acute


:31)


Regard 1


ess


reason,


these


CLAs


who


are


working


their


without


supervision


preparation


procedures


to be


which


done


are


was


only


going


intended


under


beyond


cover


direct


scope


areas


super-


sion


represent


a medical

an imprope


technology


utilization


or pathologist


CLA


and, hence,


workers.


The


most


recent


task


analysis


performed


clinical


laboratory


personnel


was


done


June,


1971,


Howard


Taub


Universe


California,


financed


a grant


from


. Offi


Education


(20)..


The


project


entitled,


Occupations,


independent


A Study


surveyed


clinical


laboratory


medical Laboratory

workers in 29 hospitals


large


metropolitan


citi


es.


Forty


-two


percent


respondents


were


from


California,


a state


which


licensure


law,


oes


not


utili


CLA


or MLT


(18).


Respondents


were


divided


into


main


category


certified


(Medical


Technologist


(ASCP)


.or Clinical


Laboratory


certified


Technologist


(held


California


no certification)


regi


stry)


These


or non-


groups


were


further


subdivided


into


ass


ifications


iali


- aI -? ^ --


n,,,,, 11


I 1


rL-










The


various


purpose


task


study


performed


was


to provide


these


four


information


classifications


workers


future


use


curricula


development


especially


with


reference


Associate


degree


level.


Data


were


reported


on each


cla


ssification


worker


performing


a particular


task.


A total


laboratory


management


tasks


were


listed


the


questionnaire,


percent


percent


or more


which


respondents.


were


performed


Recommendations


were


made


that


a nucleus


high


performance


tasks


used


formulating


tructional


units


There


was


no suggestion


as to divi


sion


tasks


to be


taught


at each


three


main


educational


level


medical


laboratory


worker.


The


. Navy


presently


completed


years


a five


-year


study


critical


task


clinical


laboratory


Committee


personnel


Careers


Servi


the


ces


Medical


(16,


The


Laboratory


also


presently


working


on a


task analyst


laboratory


workers


to be


completed


1973


(6) .


These


studi


will


much


to adequately


define


tasks


medical


laboratory.


However,


little


information


available


now


to guide


educational


planning


area.


It is


hoped


that


this


study


will


fill


a gap


until


such


time


as a more
















CHAPTER


GENERAL


BACKGROUND


CLINICAL


CHARACTERISTICS


LABORATORY


WORKERS


The


purpose


chapter


to present


certain


data


colle


cted


from


clinical


laboratory


workers


hospitals


Duval


County,


Florida.


These


data


and


data


in the


next


chapter


should


examined


light


their


analy


potential


zing


use


sting


developing


educational


an instrument


offerings


laboratory


future


workers


licensing


state


revis


Florida


laboratory


well


restructuring.


The


survey


instrument


this


study


was


divid


into


three


parts


to facilitate


data


presentation


and


inter-


pretation.


laboratory

laboratory


data


worker

worker


have


been


providing


into


assistant


categorized


information.

, technician,


the


type


Division of

and technolo-


gist


was


decided


their


educational


background


or ASCP


professional


certification.


The


worker


ssifi


assis


tant


had


ess


than


years


college


work


or is


a Certified


Laboratory


Assi


stant


(ASCP)


The


laboratory


t'rahni r'-S an


hnAl


4- Fa a r .aal*


__ *a


'I


1~ ~ Y)~










certified


a Medical


Laboratory


Technician


(ASCP).


The


technologist


has


had


at least


four


years


college


or is


certified


as a Medical


Technology


(ASCP).


Part


questionnaire


consisted


general


background


information.


For


ease


presentation,


questions


can


divided


into


demographic,


training,


and


employment


characteristics.


Demograph


Characteristics


Table


presents


demographic


characteristic


stribution


sex


among


three


types


laboratory


workers


all


three


level


of workers


, over


percent


workers


are


under


years


with


over


percent


workers


range


20 to


The


ages


respondents


ranged


from


years


with


a mean


29.6


years


There


a larger


number


femal


laboratory


workers


than


there


are


males.


This


true


three


level


laboratory


worker


Traditionally,


there


been


a predominance


women


in all


allied


health


profe


ssions.


This


has mainly


been


accounted


for


relatively


salary


in th


ese


occupations


There


been


trend


recently,


however,


increase


income







33






TABLE


Age


Ranges


Three


Types


Laboratory


Workers


Assistant


Percent*


Technician


Percent*


Technologist


Total


Percent*


Percent


Age Range


Under


- 29


72.4


30 39

40 49

50 59

Over 60


17.2

10.4


No Response


Total


Female


No Response


Total


*Percentages


represent distribution within


each division of


laboratory


workers,
division


Total


and are based


Assistants


on the


= 60


total


number or


, Technicians


= 29,


respondents


Technologists


within


each


= 101


= 190.


--.-Y.-.LZY ---- ~r~y ---~CE---II i*~C. -*L~.1- -~ii-. iZY I1I~


__ _










This


can


probably


explained


military


training


program


laboratory


technicians.


After


having


been


trained


one


armed


services


, many


men


are


entering


into


laboratory


work


either


full


time,


or even


more


often,


into


night


and


weekend


part-time


jobs.


Tabi


shows


marital


status


yearly


salary


stribution


three


among


levels


three


types


of workers,


laboratory


well


over


workers.


half


respondents


are


married.


Salary


distribution


is as would


be expected


with


lower


educational


level


earning


ess


and


higher


level


earning


most.


A high


percentage


assistants


percent)


earn


less


than


5,400


a year.


Over


50 percent


technicians


earn


from


$5,400


7,200


a year


and


over


percent


technology


earn


over


$7,200


a year.


Training


Qual


cati


ons


Tabl


, and


present


data


concerning


training


qualifications


the laboratory


workers


surveyed


Tabl


represents


highest


eve


1 of


formal


education


achieved


each


division


laboratory


worker


This


was


primary


means


which


division


laboratory


workers


into


categories


was


made.










TABLE


Marital


Status


Yearly


Salary


stribution


Laboratory


Worker


Assistant


Percent*


Technician


Percent*


Technologist


Percent*


Total


Percent*


Marital Status


Married


Single

Divorced


Widowed


No Response


Total


Yearly


Salary


Less


than


$4,000


000-$4,799


,800-$5,399

,400-$5,999


000-$6


,599


$6,600-$7,199


$7,200-$7,999

$7,800-$11,999


$12,000 or More

No Response


Total


IIIIl i Ill I II mmImI


_ ______






36











TABLE


Highest


Level


Formal


Education


Laboratory


Three


Types


Workers


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Total


Education


Percent*


Percent*


Percent*


Percent*


Less


than High


School


Gradu-


ate

High School
Graduate


Less


than


Years of
College


Two to 4


Yrs.


of College


Bachelor


Master


s Degree


s Degree


Doctorate Degree


No Response


Total


*Percentages
workers, and


represent distribution within


are based


on the total


number


each division of
or respondents w


laboratory
within each


division:


Assistants


= 60,


Technicians


= 29


, Technologists


= 190


= 101,


Total


_= ij/ii _i ~I_~___I __ E I~ I __ __~_ __ _~ _~~_ _Lin __ _Y_ ~_ _____










technology


sts.


1968


a degree


became


a prerequisite


certification.)


The


workers


ass


stant


group


who


did


not


specify


their


high


level


education


were


ASCP


Certified


Laboratory


Assistants,


and,


therefore,


were


grouped


with


assistants.


Table


workers


number


major.


shows


completing


their


respondents


Three


subjects

bachelor'


sted


technology


medical


completed


' majors


s degree.


r those

The largest


technology


their


their


master


degree


Their


majors


were


biochemistry,


zoology,


and


bacteriology.


All


majors


both


bachelor's


master


degree


with


exception


one


education


major


were


science


-related


subjects


TABLE


Academic


Comple


Majors


ting


Those


Their


Laboratory


Bachelor


Workers


s Degree


Subject


Number


Bacteriology
Biology


Chemi


stry


Education


Medic


Technology


Pharmacy


Phy


siology










The


type


medical


laboratory


training


completed


respondents


is shown


Table


On-the-job


training


Both


on-the-job


primary

training


source

and t


training


raining


junior


assistants.

colleges


or vocational


-technical


centers


are


equally


common


among


technicians.


Technology


primarily


received


their


training

tioned


ASCP


earlier


approved


school


regarding


s (89


laboratory


percent .

training


men-

men


military


services,


percent


assistants


and


percent


technicians


sted


a source


their


laboratory


training.


This


compared


to only


percent


technologists.


The


type


three


laboratory


technology


training


who


specified


sted


"Other"


a public


health


laboratory,


a California


approved


laboratory,


and


a school


Medical


Technology


Philippines.


Table


shows


stribution


professional


certification


or regi


station


held


laboratory


workers


surveyed


assi


stands,


percent


held


certification


or registration.


technicians


per-


cent


held


no certification


and


percent


were


certified


as Medical


Laboratory


technology


Technicians


are


ASCP


(ASCP).


certified


Eighty


Medi


percent


Technolo-


Medi














TABLE


Type


Medical


Laboratory
Laboratory


Training
Workers


Completed


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Total


Type


of Training


Percent*


Percent*


Percent*


Percent*


None

On-the-job

Proprietary
Laboratory
School


Laboratory


School


in Military
Service


Junior


College or


Vocational-
Technical
Center


ASCP Approved
School

American Asso-


ciation


Blood Bank
Approved
Training


Other


Total


*Percentage
workers, an


represent distribution within


Id are based


on the total number


each division
or respondents


laboratory
within each


"" 'I '__ ~ ,, i__ ,_ ,I,~ ,,, ,, ,, Ei-I~- ~l?-ii-I-i~iiii--ly.--_


w







40






TABLE


Professional


Certification


Laboratory


Assistant


or Regi
Workers


Technician


tration


Technologist


Held


Total


Certified


Registered As


Percent*


Percent*


Percent*


Percent*


Medical


gist


Medical


Technolo-
ASCP)

Laboratory


Technician
(ASCP)

Certified Labora-
tory Assistant
(ASCP)

Medical Technolo-


gist


(AMT)


Certificate in
Blook Bank


ASCP)


Certificate in
Microbiology


(Amer


Society


of Microbiolo-
gy)

Other

No Certification
or Registra-
tion Held


Total


Sflar0 t. an 4- rnflr' nran ann i- A 4 e 4.-B^* 4.* l- 4n an nUn1-


r,: ct:,


Ulr ^ t t


1 I &^ .,










Three


assistants


checked


"Others"


under


question


certification.


They


specified


Florida


Society


Medical


Technology,


Nuclear


Medicine


Society,


and


Certification


Laboratory


Technicians


from


West Virginia.


(However,


Florida


Society


Medical


Technology


not


a certifying


agency


technician


specified


X-ray


technician


(ARRT) ,


and


three


technology


checking


specified


ogy,


Research


Florida


Biochemi


Societ


Society

y, and


Medical


registered


Technol-

Physical


Therapi


Employment


Character


sties


Tabl


through


concern


employment


character


workers


surveyed.


Table


7 shows


length


time


employment


laboratory


workers


hospital


in which


they


were


presently


working


and


length


time


employed


medical


laboratory


profes-


sion.


The


assi


stands


technology


showed


approximately


been


similar


employed


work


a shorter


records


period


technicians


time.


had


whole


length


time


employed


relatively


short,


but


this


to be


expected


considering


mean


group


under


years.


"Others"






42






TABLE


Length


Employment of t
of Laboratory


Three


Categories


Workers


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Total


Mean


in Yrs.


Mean


Yrs.


Mean


in Yrs.


Mean


in Yrs.


Length of Time
Employed in
Present


Institution


3.77


3.35


Length of
Employed
Medical


Time
in


Laboratory
Profession


TABLE


Full


Time


and


Part-time


Employment


Laboratory


Workers


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Total


Employment


Percent*


Percent*


Percent*


Percent*


Full


time


Part-time


Total


*Percentages


represent distribution within each


division of


laboratory


wnrksr.S


Ant! Rrfl


nfl 0-ha tntnl ni i r roC-nhnn 4a1. .. n


_j ,. ._ .__ .i~ _i_./i i~i ? _IY~li/ ~~L ___C_ Y_


" "_ "Y ~i ,i T~ lh ii i ~--X- E?1.- .~ .IT-. -L~-I. ~l~ ~.


_ __


rw \h nt-^o -r


nnyn o


n










Laboratory


workers


are


predominately


employed


full


time.


Although


laboratories


surveyed


are


open


hours


day,


seven


days


a week,


coverage


laboratory


usually


accomplished


three


eight-hour


shift


Part


-time


workers


are


often


used,


however,


on weekends.


Sixty-one


percent


higher


part


percentage


-time


part


workers


-time


are


workers


males.


There


among


assistants


technicians

percentages


than


among


males


technology


who


are


part-time


Considering


workers,


this


could


explained


again


laboratory


training


programs


in the military


servi


ces.


In 1967


a law


was


sed in


Florida


that


clinical


laboratory


workers


who


performed


diagnostic


tests


on human


beings


or reported


results


such


test


had


to b

the


licen


level


at which


the

the


State

three


Florida


category


Table


respondent


shows

s are


licensed.


minimum


According


educational


Florida


requirement


licensing


licensure


law,


as a super-


visor


or a


technology


success


completion


years


academic


study


According


method


which


laboratory


workers


were


categorized


study,


none


assistants


should


qualify


licensure


technologist


or supervisor


Twenty- two


percent


them







- 44



TABLE


State


cense


Held


Three


Level


of Laboratory


Workers


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Total


License


Percent*


Percent*


Percent* No.


Percent*


Laboratory
Technician

Medical
Technologist

Supervisor

Laboratory
Director

Not Licensed
in Florida

No Response


Total


*Percentages represent distribution within


each divi


sion of


laboratory


workers,
division:


are based on


istants


= 60,


total number of


Technicians


= 29


respondents within


, Technologists


each


= 101,


Total


= 190


their


as phlebotomi


sts)


licensed.


Sixteen


percent,


however,


reported


that


they


held


ense.


Although,


essence,


these


people


are


practi


cing


egally,


there


were


no funds


allotted


State


Legis


lature


for


enforcing


s law.


Until


such


time


as provi


sons


are


made






- 45


Table


shows


areas


major


responsibility


indicated


laboratory


departments


responsibility.


surveyed


workers


most


Thi


workers.


biochemi


frequently


not


For


stry


three


hematology


listed


unexpected


area


since


levels


were


major


largest


number


tests


any


general


hospital


ordered


these


areas.


areas


responsibility


specified


under


"Others"


assistants


patient


clinic,


were

and


phlebotomy-2,

toxicology. T


admini


'hose


station,


out-


specified


technology


were


cytotechnology,


research,


teaching---2,


administration--2.


laboratory


workers


were


asked


to check


title


that


most


nearly


described


their


present


position.


results


are


shown


Tabl


technicians


largely


held


jobs


as laboratory


technicians


percent)


although


percent


were


in supervisory


positions.


The


ass


istants,


other


hand,


reported


their


positions


primarily


technicians,


but


with


percent


reporting


their


positions


technologists


or higher


Thirty-three


percent


technology


percent


held


reported


positions


holding


technology


supervisory


while


positions.


workers


were


asked


they


had


a pathologist







46








TABLE ]


Areas


Major


Respon


sibility


Indicated


Three


Level


of Laboratory


Workers


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Total


Area


Percent*


Percent *


Percent*


Percent*


Bacteriology

Biochemistry

Serology

Hematology

Mycology

Parasitology

Virology

Urology

Blood Bank

Nuclear Medicine


General

Other


(Rotate)


Total


*Percentages repr


workers,
division:


esent distribution


.d are based
Assistants


within


on the total number


= 60,


Technicians


= 29


each division of


laboratory


or respondents within


, Technologists


each


= 101


Total


= 190






47


TABLE ]


Position


Held


Three


Levels


Laboratory


Workers


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Total


Title


Percent*


Percent*


Percent*


Percent*


Laboratory Asst.
Trainee or
Student


Lab.
Med.


Technician
Technologist


Section Supervisor


Asst.


Section


Supervisor
Teaching Super-
visor


Chief


Technologist
Director


No Response


Total


*Percentages repre


sent di


stribution within


each division


of laboratory


workers


, and are based


on the total


number or


respondents within each


division:


Assistants


= 60


, Technicians


= 29


, Technologists


= 101


Total


= 190.


TABLE


Availability


of Pathologis


Assistant


to Laboratory


Technician


Workers


Technologist


Total


Availability


Percent*


Percent*


Percent*


Percent*


In Lab at All


Time


48.5


Available


When


Needed


Available by
Not Always A


abhl


45.5


Phone
vail-


When N ppedi











pathologists


' availability


laboratory


Eighty-nine


percent


respondents


repli


that


pathologist


was


laboratory


at all


times


or was


available


when


needed.


No laboratory


worker


reported


that


pathologist


was


not


always


available


when


needed.


The


laboratory


workers


were


also


asked


they


worked


Table


under


shows


supervi


their


sion


another


response


laboratory


question.


worker


Both


State


TABLE


Response


to Ques


Supervis


tion:


of Another


You


Work


Laboratory


Under t
Worker


or S


ervi


sor


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Total


Response


Percent*


Percent*


Percent*


Percent*


Yes
No
No Response


Total


*Percentages


repres


ent di


stribution within


each division of


laboratory


worker


and are


based


on the total


number


of respondents


within


each


division:


Assistants


= 60


Techni


cians


= 29


, Technologists


= 101


Total


= 190.


licensure


and


ASCP


certification


specify


that


ass


stands


and






- 49


do not


work


under


supervise


ion


another


laboratory


worker


respondents


were


then


asked,


they


answered


"ye s "


question


working


under


supervision


another


worker,


to check


which


title


best


represented


other


are


worker


shown


s position.


Tabi


The results


majority


from


of all


question


workers


percent)


stated


that


they


worked


under


supervi


sion


a section


supervisor


or the


chief


hnologist


Four


per-


cent


the workers


, however,


stated


that


they


worked


under


supervision


techni


cian.


TABLE


Position


Held


Laboratory


Work


ers


Under


Whom


the Respond


ents


Work


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Total


Position


No. Percent*


No. Percent*


Percent*


No. Percent*


Medi


Technician


Medical


Tech-


nologist


Asst.


14.7


Section


Supervisor


Section


pervisor


Chief


Tech-


32.6


nologist


Director


Pathologist


No Resnonse


. -2 J I


14.7


j j j/- r


II


J,











The


ability


exercise


independent


judgment


performance


duties


according


Florida


Licensing


Law


ASCP


certification,


res


tricted


both


assistants


and


technicians.


When


asked


they


felt


they


had


responsibility


performance


their


use


duty,


independent


percent


judgment


workers


responded


affirmative.


This


shown


on Table


TABLE


Response


to Que


stion


of Ability


to Exercise


Independent


Judgment


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Total


Response


Percent*


Percent*


Percent*


Percent*


No Response


Total


*Percentages


worker


represent di


and are based


stribution within


on the total number


each division of


laboratory


of respondents within


each


division


Total


Assistants


= 60


Technic


ians


= 29


, Technologists


- 190.


= 101,


Only


three


percent


assistants


and


technicians


felt


that


they


were


restricted


their


freedom


to exercise


$i~_ __ i_ I__ I I l I IIi I I II


~~___


_ __ __






- 51 -



ummary


The


general


purpose


background


chapter


information


was


to present


demographic,


training,


and


employment


character


stics


that


was


obtained


from


responses


surveyed


laboratory


workers


to Part


Duval


County


Task


Analy


SIS


Survey


Questionnaire.


characteristic


were


examined


with


reference


three


educational


level


respondents


in order


to show


differences


or similariti


among


assis


tants


, technicians


and


technologists


Many


character


stics


were


examined


also


reference


Florida


Licensing


Law


and


to requirements


ASCP


certification.















CHAPTER


THE


LABORATORY


TASKS


PERFORMED


BY CLINICAL


LABORATORY


WORKERS


The


purpose


chapter


to present


task


analyst


data


collected


from


clinical


laboratory


workers


hospitals


Duval


County,


Florida.


The


data


chapter


are


compiled


from


Part


Part


survey


questionnaire


Part


is conce


rned


with


managerial,


teaching,


miscellaneous


task


performed


laboratory


workers


Part


divided


into


nine


clinical

serology


areas

and v


biochemi


irology,


stry,


hematology,


parasitology,


urology,


mycology,


nuclear


laboratory


medicine,


bacteriology


blood


bank


The


laboratory


workers


were


asked


to check


tasks


that


they


performed


regard


ess


to how


rarely


they


performed


that


task


each


task


checked


they


were


then


asked


to check


how


frequently


that


task


was


performed


(routinely,


occas


ionally,


rare


where


they


earned


to perform


task


school,


on-the


-job,


continuing


education


program).


FL A J 1


fnnrm


oA h1


9. -I Vi


VI -rT


fJ


r 1 nK L i


TY n r / 'r


f I f i


SJ






- 53


largest


percentage


technology


were


selected


ranked


through


The


performance


rank


these


tasks


were


then


determined


assistants


and


technicians


The


results


are


shown


Table


Six


tasks


performed


most


technologists


were


task


performed


both


assistants


technicians.


Eight


tasks


were


found


top


tasks


None


performed


tasks


assistants


performed


technicians.


technologists


diagnostic


training


test.


All


education


tasks


and


very


require


little


a minimum


use


degree


independent


judgment


Managerial,


Teaching,


and


Miscellaneous


Tasks


Managerial


Functions


There


were


tasks


sted


under


managerial


duties.


None


these


tasks


was


performed


percent


or more


three


level


laboratory


workers.


Consultation


with


several


professionals


medical


technology


field


resulted


acceptance


percent


variance


difference


between


as a significant


percentages


level


laboratory


acceptance


workers


performing


a particular


task.


Any


difference


more


than






54





TABLE


Ten


Tasks


Rank


Performed


Performance


Most


Assi


Technologists


stants


with


Technicians


Rank


Order


Rank


Order


Rank


Order


Task


Technologists


Assi


stands


Technicians


Prepare

Collect
from

Prepare


Reagents

Specimens
Patients

and


Process


Specimens


9.5*


2.5*


Communicate


Laboratory
Findings t
Physicians


Prepare
and


Log


Solutions
Standards


Incoming


Outgoing
Specimens


Calibrate


Instruments


34.5*


6.5*


Draw


Capillary


or Venous


Bloods


Nematology


Draw


8.5*


Blood


Specimens


Chemi


stry


34.5*


____I_ ___~____ /~ __ _~i_ ~YLY--^ -. 1_~_1~--_ _rl..----~~ ~I~


_










tasks


listed


under


managerial


functions,


tasks


percent)


differed


significantly


more


than


percent


between


percentages


or more


levels


laboratory


workers


performing


task


(see


Table


For


eight


tasks


performed


percent),


there


was


a significant


difference


between


percentages


assistants


percentages


technicians


performing


tasks,


cases


were


higher


being


performed


rate


technicians.


significantly


performance


Twelve


more


but


tasks


technology


two


percent)


than


ass


istants.


There


were


tasks


percent)


that


differed


significantly


more


than


percent


between


technology


technicians.


In all


but


one


these


there


was


a larger


percentage


technologists


performing


task.


In frequency


of performance


tasks,


tasks


percent)


performing


tasks


were


checked


tasks


percent)


percent


as being


were


or more


performed


checked


workers


routinely


percent


Five


or more


workers


performing


tasks


as being


done


occasionally.


nine


tasks


percent)


greatest


percentage


workers


performing


tasks


was


divided


between


routinely


occasionally,


but


with


percent


or more


these







- 56 -



TABLE


Managerial


Tasks


Differing


More


Than


Percent


Among


Percentages of t
Laboratory


Three


Levels


Workers


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Tasks


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Assign Personnel


to Duty

Assign


Positions


Space


Equipment and
Supplies

Develop and/or


Improve
Methods


Work


Develop and/or


Improve


Laboratory


Procedures


Develop or


Revise


the Organization
of the Section

Establish
Performance
Standards


Establish
Procedures


Special


Tests


Establish Quality


Control


Establi


Functions

sh Work


Priorities

Plan and Schedule


_ ~ __ _~ ___ __ __= il_ __I~ /~i=_~LI_ _~ __ __U =_ji_










TABLE


17-Continued


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Tasks


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Direct


Subordinates


the Observance of
Safety Practices


Resolve


Staff


Complaints

Resolve Technical
Problems


Evaluate the


Accuracy
Reports

Recommend


of Routine


Special


Corrective Action
for Recurring
Problems


Resolve


Personal


Problems of
Subordinates

Interpret Policies
and Directives


Direct


Subordinates


in Maintaining
Performance
Standards


*Percentages
and are based


represent dis
on the total


tribution within


number


each


division of


of respondents within


laboratory worker,


each division:


Assistants


= 60,


Technicians


= 29,


Technologists


= 101,


Total


= 190.










being


performed


routinely


or rarely,


each


of the


two


frequencies


being


checked


40 percent


workers


performing


task.


The


task,


"resolve


personal


problems


subordinates


was


checked


as being


performed


occasionally


or rarely


percent


workers


performing


task.


All


one


task


was


checked


over


percent


workers


performing


task


as being


learned


on-


the-job.


action


The


one


recurring


workers


"recommend


problems,


performing


that


was


task


special c

checked

as being


orrective


percent


learned


school


Appendix


workers


A shows


performing


total


managerial


number


percentages


tasks,


percentage


these


workers


who


perform


tasks


routinely,


occasionally,


rare


the percentage


these


workers


who


learned


to perform


tasks


school,


on-the-


job,


in continuing


educational


programs


summary,


there


were


tasks


sted


under


managerial


pierce


functions.

nt or more


None


any


these

the


tasks

three


was

level


performed


workers.


There


were


tasks


percent)


which


there


was


significant


differ


ence


over


10 percent


between


task,










were


no significant


differences


between


percentages


assistants


technicians


performing


tasks.


percent


differences


technology


tasks


between


there


was


percentages


performing


tasks.


no significant


ass


For


istants


percent


tasks


there


was


no significant


difference


between


percentages


technicians


technology


performing


tasks.


At least


percent


workers


performing


tasks


indicated


they


performed


tasks


either


routinely


or occasionally


percent


tasks.


Over


percent


workers


checked


on-the-job


place


task


were


learned


percent


tasks.


Teac


thing


Functions


There


were


tasks


sted


under


teaching


duties


Only


one


was


checked


more


than


percent


any


three


divisions


laboratory


workers


The


task,


"give


on-the-job


instruction


in medical


laboratory


activities,


was


checked


53 percent


technologists


as a duty


they


perform.


There


were


five


tasks


percent)


that


varied


significantly


over


percent


difference


percentages


three


level


workers


performing


the


tasks


The


tasks


are


shown


Tabl


There


were


.


Y .


. ,


.







- 60



TABLE


Teaching


Tasks


Differing


Percentages


More
the


Than
Three


Percent


Among


Levels


Laboratory


Workers


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Tasks


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Administer
Written or
Performance
Tests

Develop
On-the-job
Training
Materials

Give
Instruction
in Accredited


Education


Program


Give
On-the-job
Instruction


Medical


Labo-


ratory
Activities

Orient Newly
Assigned
Personnel


*Percentages


represent di


stribution


within


each division of


laboratory


worker,


and are based


on the total number of


respondents


within


each


division:


Assistants


= 60,


Technicians


= 29,


Technologists


= 101,


Total


= 190









performed


significantly


more


technologists


than


assistants,


and


three


tasks


percent)


that


were


performed


significantly


more


technologists


than


technicians.


frequency


performance


tasks


workers


who


checked


that


they


did


tasks,


four


tasks


percent)


were


checked


percent


or more


workers


tasks


as being


were


done


routinely


checked


percent


nine


percent)


or more


as being


done


occasionally.


There


were


five


tasks


percent)


which


greatest


percentage


workers


performing


tasks


was


divided


between


routinely


occasionally,


but


with


over


percent


these


workers


checking


one


other


these


frequenci


All


tasks


were


checked


at least


percent


the


workers


performing


tasks


as being


learned


on-


the-


job.


Appendix


shows


total


number


percentage


workers


performing


teaching


tasks


, the


percentages


these


workers


who


perform


tasks


routinely,


occasionally,


rare


the


percentages


these


workers


who


learned


to perform


tasks


school,


on-the-


job,


continuing


educational


programs










were


no significant


difference


between


percentages


assistants


technicians


performing


tasks.


For


percent


tasks


there


was


no significant


difference


between


percentages


assistants


and


technologists


performing


tasks.


For


percent


tasks,


there


was


no significant


difference


between


technologists


technicians


performing


tasks


For


tasks


(100


percent),


over


75 percent


workers


performing


tasks


checked


that


they


did


tasks


either


routinely


or occas


ionally.


All


tasks


(100


percent)


were


checked


at least


50 percent


workers


performing


tasks


as being


learned


on-the-job.


Miscellaneous


Functions


There


were


tasks


sted


under


miscellaneous


functions.


Twenty-four


these


tasks


percent)


were


performed


percent


or more


at least


one


three


educational


levels


laboratory


workers.


Table


lists


tasks


number


and


percentages


workers


each


category


performing


tasks


There


were


nine


tasks


percent)


performed


percent


or more


assi


stants,


tasks


percent)


performed


percent


or more


technicians,


tasks


percent)


performed


percent


or more


tech-







63 -

TABLE


Miscellaneous


Any


Tasks


One


Performed


Three


Percent


Levels
Workers


or More


Laboratory


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Tasks


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Collect Specimens
from Patients

Prepare and


Process

Inventor


Order


Specimens

v and


Supplies


Perform
Preventative
Maintenance on
Lab Equipment

Perform Sperm
Counts

Prepare Reagents


Prepare


Specimens


for Shipment


Prepare


Standards


Operate
Analytical
Balance

Requisition
Supplies

Communicate Lab


Findings t
Physicians


- I I







- 64


TABLE


--Continued


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Tasks


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Explain Lab Tasks
to Physician

Explain Lab Tasks
to Hospital
Staff

Explain Lab Tasks
to Patients

Determine Equipment
Repairs or
Replacements
Needed


Incoming or


Outgoing

Receive
Supplies


Prepare


Specimens


Incoming


Solutions


and Standards


Perform Spinal


Fluid Cell


Counts


Perform
Cerebrospinal


Fluid


Counts


Perform Occult
Blood Test

Perform
Preventative
Maintenance of
Lab Equipment

Calibrate


- r~nL~el











tasks


over


perce


These


are


shown


Table


There


were


task


percent)


which


percentages


assis


tants


performing


tasks


varied


significantly


over


percent


from


percentages


technicians


performing


tasks


For


tasks


there


was


a greater


percentage


technicians


performing


tasks


than


there


was


assistants.


For


tasks


percent)


there


was


a significant


difference


percentages


ass


stants


technologists


performing


tasks, with


a greater


percentage


technology


performing


tasks


but


cases.


There


were


nine


tasks


percent)


for


which


percentages


technicians


technology


performing


tasks


varied


more


than


10 percent.


For


five


these


tasks


there


was


a greater


percentage


technicians


performing


tasks


than


technologists.


Fifty


-two


percent


tasks


tasks)


were


checked


50 percent


or more


workers


performing


tasks


as being


performed


routinely


Fourteen


percent


(seven


tasks


were


checked


as being


performed


occasionally.


Ten


percent


(five


tasks)


were


checked


as being


performed


rare


percent


or more


workers


performing


tasks


There


were


tasks


percent)


for which


the







- 66 -


TABLE


Miscellaneous


Tasks


Differing


More


Than


Percent


Among


Percentages of
Laboratory


Three


Levels


Workers


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Tasks


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Collect Specimens
from Patients

Prepare and


Process

Inventor


Order


Specimens

v and


Supplies


Perform
Electrocardiogram


(EKG)


Test


Perform
Preventative
Maintenance on
Lab Equipment

Perform Sperm
Counts

Prepare Electro-


phoresis


Prepare


Patterns

Reagents


Prepare Specimens
for Training or


Reference


Prepare


Standards


Read
Electrophoresis
Patterns










TABLE


20--Continued


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Tasks


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Communicate
Laboratory
Findings to
Physicians


Explain


Laboratory


Findings t
Physicians


Explain Laboratory


Task


to Physician


Explain Laboratory


Tasks
Staff


to Hospital


Determine Equipment
Repairs or
Replacement Needed


Initiate


Reports on


Unsatisfactory
Equipment


Incoming


Outgoing


Specimens


Maintain Files of
Laboratory Records
or Reports

Purchase Supplies


Receive


Incoming


Supplies

Requisition
Supplies









TABLE


68 -

20-Continued


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Tasks


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Perform Occult


Blood


Test


Perform Preventative
Maintenance on Lab
Equipment


Calibrate


Instruments


Assist with Autopsy


Establish Procedures


for Special


Procure


and


Biological

Use Crystal


Tests


Store
Items


and Liquid


Scintillation
Detectors


Calculate,


Evaluate


Quality Control


Percentages


and are based on


Assistants


= 60,


represent distribution within


the total


Technicians


number


= 29,


each division of


of respondents
Technologists


within
= 101,


each


Total


laboratory worker,
division:


= 190.


ann I-- -IIII lll-- ii IIlm i, i LILL m










percent


or more


workers


For


eight


these


tasks,


least


stribution


percent


frequency


workers


was


performing


such


that


tasks


checked


either


routinely


or occasionally


One


task,


"perform


sperm


counts,


was


checked


80 percent


the


workers


performing


task


as being


performed


either


occas


ionally


or rarely


There


were


three


tasks


which


majority


percentage


workers


performing


tasks


were


split


between


routinely


and


rarely


tasks


percent),


school


was


checked


percent


or more


workers


performing


tasks


place


tasks


were


learned


On-the


-job


was


indicated


tasks


percent)


percent


or more


workers


performing


tasks


There


were


three


tasks,


"prepare


electrophoresis


patterns,


calibrate


struments,


assi


in research


assignments,


" for


which


larg


est


percentage


workers


performing


tasks


was


split


between


school


on-the


-job


place


where


performance


tasks


was


learned.


Appendi


C shows


total


number


percentage


workers


performing


miscellaneous


tasks,


percentages

routinely,


those


workers


occasionally,


who


perform


rarely


tasks

percentage










summary,


there


were


tasks


listed


under


sce


llaneous


functions


Twenty-four


tasks


percent)


were

the


performed

categories


percent


laboratory


or more


workers


at least


For


one


percent


of

of


tasks


there


was


no significant


difference


between


percentages


of assi


stants


and


technicians


performing


percentages


assis


tants


technology


performing


tasks,


there


was


significant


differences


percent


tasks


There


was


no significant


difference


the


percentages


technician


technology


performing


tasks


percent


tasks


For


percent


tasks,


percent


or more


workers


performing


tasks


checked


either


routinely


or occasionally


frequency


tasks


were


performed.


The


largest


percentage


workers


performing


tasks


percent)


checked


on-the-job


place


which


tasks


were


taught.


Clinical


Area


Tasks


chemistry


Functions


There


were


tasks


sted


under


biochemistry


duties


There


were


tasks


percent)


that


were


checked


percent


or more


at least


one


three










TABLE


Biochemi


Any


stry


One


Tasks


Performed


Three


Level


Percent


Laboratory


or More
Workers


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Tasks


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Draw Blood


Specimens


Operate Automatic
Analyzer

Operate
Colorimeter


Operate


Flame


Photometer


Operate


pH Meter


Operate
Spectrophotometer

Perform Acid


Phosphatase


Test


Perform Serum Albumin
Test

Perform A/G Ratio

Perform Alkaline
Phosphatase Test

Perform Amylase
Test


Perform Bilirubin


Direct)


Test


Perform Bilirubin


(Indirect)


Test










TABLE


21-Continued


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Tasks


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Perform Carbon
Dioxide
Determinations

Perform Chlorides
Test

Perform Total


Cholesteral


Test


Perform Serum


Creatinine


Test


Perform Glucose
Test

Perform Glucose
Tolerance Test

Perform Serum
Glutamic Okalacetic
Transaminase

Perform Lactic
Dehydrogenase


(LDH)


Test


Perform Phosphorus
Test

Perform Potassium
Determinations


Perform
Tube Tes
Pregnancy


Slide or
t for


Perform Total


Protein


Test












TABLE


21---Continued


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Tasks


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Perform Blood
Urea Nitrogen


(BUN


Test


Perform Urine
Electrolytes Test


Separate
from Sera


Blood


*Percentages


represent dis


tribution within


each division of


laboratory worker,


and are based on


Assistants


= 60,


the total


Technicians


number


= 29


of respondents
, Technologists


within
= 101,


each division:


Total


= 190


r___ I=YIII---ll.-l-~-- ~--~.. I -~I -- C1 I r -l-ilYY1 ii -~CL-T_ ~._1___-i~- ---- -I--._- .. -- -


_ ___ __ __











percent


or more


technicians


than


were


performed


percent


or more


either


assistants


tasks)


or technologists


tasks


Thi


to be


expected


from


percentages


each


categories


workers


who


specified


biochemistry


as one


areas


their


major


responsibility


assistants,


percent


percent


technicians,


technology


percent


sts.


tasks,


there


were


percent)


that


differed


percentages


three


levels


workers


performing


task


more


than


percent.


These


are


shown


Table


The


largest


difference


was


between


assistants


technicians


The


percentages


between


these


levels


workers


differed


more


than


percent


tasks


percent).


In all


tasks


but


than


three


assi


cases


stants


more


The


technicians


percentage


performed


assistants


performing


tasks


differed


more


than


percent


with


that


technologists


only


four


task


percent)


Thi


surprising


since


assi


stants


and


tech-


nologi


are


furthest


separated


educational


achievement.


larger


For


percentage


four


workers


tasks


technologists


performing


tasks.


had


There


were z


tasks (29


percent)


r which


percentages c







* 75 -


TABLE


Biochemi
the


stry


Tasks


Differing


Percentages


More


Three


Than


Levels


Percent


Among


Laboratory


Workers


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Tasks


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Draw Blood Specimens

Operate Automatic
Analyzer


Operate
Blood G


Volumetric
as Apparatus


Operate Colorimeter

Operate Distillation
Apparatus

Operate
Electrophoresis
Equipment

Operate Flame
Photometer

Operate
Spectrophotometer

Perform Acid
Phosphatase Test

Perform Serum
Albumin Test


Perform A/G


Ratio


Perform Blood


Alcohol


Test


Perform Alkaline


~r~ -~i- ---~----~- ~n_~~,~,;~~, ~; ~_~_~_ ~_ ~~_~; ~r,


_ __










TABLE


22--Continued


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Tasks


Number


Percent


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Perform Barbiturate


Level


Test


Perform Bilirubin


(Direct)


Test


Perform Bilirubin


(Indirect)


Test


Perform Calcium
Test

Perform Carbon
Dioxide
Determinations

Perform Chlorides
Test

Perform Total


Cholesteral


Test


Perform Total
Cholesteral Esters
Test

Perform Colloidal
Gold Curve Test

Perform Creatine
Test

Perform Serum
Creatinine Test

Perform Glucose
Test

Perform Glucose-6-


_n ..... ,_ __ "If _i__ f-~-..;- ~ -,iiu-----r-.










TABLE


22--Continued


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Tasks


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Perform Leucine
Aminopeptidase


(LAP


Test


Perform Lipids
Profile Test

Perform
Phenusulfonphthalein


(PSP)
Test


Excretion


Perform Phosphorus
Test

Perform Urine


Prophyrin


+/or


Porphobilinogen
Test


Perform
Tube Tes
Pregnancy


Slide or
t for


Perform Protein


Bound


Iodine


(PBI)


Test

Perform Total


Protein


Perform


Test

Urinary


Calcium Test

Perform Urine
Electrolytes Test

Separate Blood
from srna


_J_ LI lI U'


UJ J


-1











In all


but


one


these


technicians


had


greater


percentage


workers


performing


tasks.


frequency


performance


tasks,


tasks


percent)


were


checked


percent


or more


workers


performing


tasks


as being


done


routinely.


There


were


only


tasks


percent)


that


were


checked


percent


or more


workers


performing


tasks


as being


done


occas


ionally.


Fifteen


tasks


percent)


were


checked


50 percent


or more


workers


performing


tasks


as being


done


only


rarely


The


remaining


tasks


percent)


had


percentages


workers


performing


tasks


stributed


such


that


no one


frequency


was


checked


percent


or more


worker


seven


tasks,


greatest


percentage


percent


more

For


was


four


stributed


tasks


between


percent


routinely


and


or more


occasionally.


workers


performing


tasks


checked


either


occasionally


or rarely.


The


percentages


other


tasks


were


fairly


evenly


distributed.


In school


was


checked


percent


or more


workers


performing


tasks


tasks


percent)


place


tasks


were


learned.


On-the


-job


was


checked


50 percent


or more


workers


performing











percent),


distribution


percentages


workers


performing


tasks


was


fairly


even


between


school


on-the-job.


Appendix


D shows


total


number


percentage


of workers

percentages

routinely,


performing


these


biochem


workers


occasionally,


who


.istry

perform


rarely,


tasks,

m the

d the


the

tasks

percentages


these


workers


who


learned


to perform


tasks


school,


on-the-job,


continuing


education


programs.


summary,


there


were


tasks


listed


under


biochemi


stry


functions.


Thirty


these


percent)


were


checked


at least


one


three


categories


as being


performed


50 percent


or more


workers


that


category


There


were


more


tasks


performed


percent


or more


technicians


than


there


were


that


were


performed


percent


either


ass


istants


or technologists.


For


tasks


percent)


there


was


no significant


difference


categories


percentage


performing


of workers


tasks


three


percent


tasks


there


was


no significant


difference


between


per-


centages


assi


tasks


stants


there


was


technicians.


no significant


For


difference


percent


between


percentages


assistants


and


technologists


performing







- 80


technicians


technology


Thirty


tasks


percent)


were


performing


checked


tasks


percent


as being


done


or more


routinely.


workers


For


next


largest


number


tasks,


percent),


distributions


percentages


workers


performing


tasks


were


fairly


evenly


distributed


among


three


frequencies.


number


In school


tasks,


was


indicated


percent),


largest


place


where


largest


percentage


workers


were


taught


to perform


tasks.


Hematology


Functi


ons


There


were


total


tasks


sted


under


hematology


duties.


these


percent)


were


checked


percent


or more


at least


one


three


categories


workers.


These


are


shown


on Table


All


these


tasks


were


performed


percent


or more


technicians


Twelve


tasks


percent)


were


performed


percent


or more


assistants


tasks


percent)


percent


or more


technologists


This


was


area


indicated


greatest


number


assi


stants


area


second


their m

greatest


a3 or


responsibility,


number


and


technicians


indicated


and


tech-


noloaists.







81


TABLE


Hematology


Tasks


Performed


Three


Levels


Percent o
Laboratory


r More o
Workers


Any


One


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Tasks


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


ube Perent


Perform Bleeding


Time


Procedure-Duke


method

Prepare and Stain
Blood Smears

Perform Clot
Retraction Test


Perform
Whole B


Venous


Coagulation Time
Test

Perform Differential


Cell


Count


lood


Perform Eosinophile
Count

Calculate
Erythrocyte
Indices

Perform Hematocrit
Test

Perform Hemoglobin
Test

Identify
Morphological
Variations of Red
or White Blood
Cs ics


5~ __ ____~~


Percent


Number











TABLE


23---Continued


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Tasks


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Perform Platelet
Count

Perform Prothrombin
Time Test

Perform Red Blood
Count

Perform Reticulocyte


Cell


Count


Perform Erythrocyte
Sedimentation Rate

Perform Sickle Cell
Preparation

Perform Spinal Fluid


Cell


Count


Perform White Blood
Counts

Draw Capillary or


Venous


Bloods


Collect Blood


Specimens
Laboratory

Identify


Blood Cell


Determine Coagulation


for
y

Immature


Time by


Lee-White


Method

Perform Thrombocyte


_ I ~I~_T Y_~__ ~_ ~ _Y__ __ ~I_~ __j~i___ F~ _~_ __1_1__ ~_ ~_l~p~_ Y~ _~ ~ ~1_1_ _I _r_


__











TABLE


23---Continued


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Tasks


Number


Percent


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Operate
Hemoglobinometer

Operate
Microhematocrit
Reader


Percentages
and are based


represent distribution within


on the total


number


each division of


of respondents within


laboratory worker,


each division:


Assistants


= 60,


Technicians


= 29, Technologists


= 101,


Total


= 190


_I __ _1_1 iI __i __ ___= YII _/* ~ 1_ __~_ _~E ~-i .-










more


than


percent


between


or more


three


levels


workers


difference


was


(see


Table


between


24) .


the


ass


tasks


stants


percent)


and


technicians


with


technicians


having


greater


percentage


workers


performing


tasks.


For


nine


tasks


percent)


difference


was


between


assistants


technologists


with


technologists


having


greatest


percentage


percent)


seven


difference


the

was


tasks.

between


For

the


tasks


technicians


technologists


with


technicians


having


greater


percentage


but


one


tasks


which


was


"teaching.


Twenty-three


percent)


tasks


were


checked


percent


or more


workers


as being


performed


routinely


Only


one


was


checked


percent


or more


as being


done


occas


ionally


Eight


percent)


were


checked


percent


or more


workers


performing


tasks


as being


done


rarely


There


were


tasks


percent)


which


percentages


workers


performing


tasks


were


stributed


with


no frequency


having


been


checked


more


than


percent


workers.


Six


these


were


checked


as being


done


either


routinely


or occasionally


percent


or more


workers


performing t


tasks


three


were


checked


either






85



TABLE


Hematology


Tasks


Percentages


Differing
the Three


More


Level


Tha
of


n


Percent


Laboratory


Among


Workers


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Tasks


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent


Number


Percentt


Perform Bleeding


Time


Procedures--


Duke Method

Prepare and Stain
Blood Smears

Perform Capillary
Resistance Test

Perform Clot


Retraction


Test


Perform Venous


Whole


Blood


Coagulation
Test


Time


Perform Differential


Cell


Counts


Perform Eosinophile
Count

Calculate


Erythrocyte


Indices


Perform Hematocrit
Test

Perform Hemoglobin
Test

Microscopically
Identify Lupus


_ _~_I~CC~rr


Percent











TABLE


24--Continued


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Tasks


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Perform Partial
Thromboplastin


Time


(PTT)


Test


Stain


and Read


Peroxidase Stain

Perform Platelet
Count

Perform
Prothrombin Time
Test

Perform Red Blood
Count


Perform
Reticulocyte


Cell


Count


Perform
Erythrocyte
Sedimentation
Rate


Perform


Sickle Cell


Preparations


Perform Spinal


Fluid Cell


Count


Perform White


Blood


Counts


Draw Capillary or


Venous


Bloods


Collect Blood


- ---- ------~---.-.~. ~ 1.-..~..-. -~.I.--- ""- -r;---- i~r 1,.- I_~ ~~_~~_~_;;~ __ ~IIILee~







- 87


TABLE


24--Continued


Assistant


Technician


Technologist


Tasks


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Number


Percent*


Identify


Blood


Immature


Cells


Determine
Coagulation Time
by Lee-White


Method


Determine


Coagulation Time
by Capillary
Method

Perform Thrombocyte
Count


Operate Automatic


Analyzer


Hematology

Operate Automatic


Cell


Counter


Operate
Hemoglobinometer

Operate
Microhematocrit
Reader

Teach


*Percentages represent dis
and are based on the total


istants


= 60,


Technicians


tribution within


number


= 29,


each divi


of respondents
Technologists


sion of


within
= 101,


laboratory worker,


each division


Total


= 190