The relationship of life-crisis events to social-psychiatric symptomatology

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Title:
The relationship of life-crisis events to social-psychiatric symptomatology an epidemiologic approach
Physical Description:
vi, 81 leaves. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Mellan, William Allen, 1946-
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Stress (Psychology)   ( lcsh )
Social psychology   ( lcsh )
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 77-80.
Statement of Responsibility:
by William A. Mellan.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

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University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000582626
notis - ADB1003
oclc - 14147714
System ID:
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Full Text







RELATIONSHIP OF


LIFE-CRISIS


EVENTS


SOCIAL


-PSYCHIATRIC


SYMPTOMATOLOGY


EPIDEMIOLOGIC APPROACH








By


WILLIAM A.


MELLAN


A DISSERTATION


PRESENTED TO


THE UNIVERSITY


GRADUATE
FLORIDA


COUNCIL


PARTIAL


FULFILLMENT


OF THE REQUIREMENTS


FOR THE


DEGREE


DOCTOR OF


PHILOSOPHY


TO











ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


following


acknowledgements


essentially


chronological


order


from


time


first aquaintanc


not meant


rank


ordering


scale.


Brian


- For


encouraging me


believe


in my


ability


Bruce
school


Thoma


son,


opportunity,


- For


providing me
his continued


with my


first graduate


onal


career


support.


John


Muthard, Ph.D.
e enjoyment of


- For


having


researching


been
social


instrumental
questions.


introducing me


Margaret Morgan,


Kellogg


Foundation which


received,


broad


expo


- For


provided


been


having
field


sure


finan


spons


an education
influential


allied


orship of
would no


the W.K.
t otherwi


in providing m


with


health.


George


Warh


on academic


ment


exce


hlence


- For


continued


deve


leadership,


lopment of


primary


emphasis
instru-


project.


Charl
puter


S HOizer,
know edge.


M.A.


- For


haring


omniscient


statistical


com-


Roger Bell,
project, th
opportunity


- For


proj


being


director


during


provided me.


impetus
ts condu


behind


research


tion,


Barbara
believes


Monro


- For


chang


ecretarial


the only


cons


and support


someone who


tant


Barbara


Hagen,
nature


M.S.


- For


providing


r tolerance
editorial


e of my
support.


compul


ively non


-corn-


This
NIMH


research
grant 04


was s


-H


-000-


ored


NIMH


contract HSM 42-73-9


(oc)


146-0










TABLE


CONTENTS


Page


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


ABSTRACT


CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


CHAPTER


REVIEW OF THE


LITERATURE


CHAPTER

CHAPTER

CHAPTER


METHODOLOGY


FINDINGS


OVERVIEW


APPENDIX

BIBLIOGRAPHY


BIOGRAPHICAL


SKETCH











of Dis


Partial


ertation


Fulfillment


esented


the University


Requirements
Philosophy


of F
Degre


lorida


RELATION


SOCIAL


HIP OF


-PSYCHIATRIC


LIFE


-CRI


EVENTS


YMPTOMATOLOGY


EPIDEMIOLOGIC APPROACH

By


William A.


Mellan

1975


Chairman:


Major


apartment


George J


Warheit


Sociology


dissertation


presents


report of


research


project which


ought


chiatri


their


whether there


determine


symptomatology


differences


among


can be


are differential


various


rates


sociodemographi


explained


by variant


social


groups


rates


-psy-


and,


experiencing


e-cri


events


(LCE)


Prior


literature


found


consistently


an inverse


relation


between


socioeconomic


status


SES)


measures


of mental


health.


been


conceptual i


that


this


relation


hip may


t because


person


lower


SES.


experience a


addition


greater


number


experiencing more


than


LCE,


lower


persons


group


higher


have


fewer


when


social


predi


tructural


tabi


coping


social


alternatives


pattern


available


everyday


them.


life


Certainly,


rupted


an exigency,


as the death


child


or becoming


unemployed


. -. .. -.- ~ ---- n a .. a .8


I.- .L2-


8. a .a Jo


L*ll*~


.-- 111--A


,L





This


tudy approached


problem by


administering


comprehensive


medical-social


epidemiologic


interview


schedule,


including


t of


thirty


life


risi


events


three


social


-psychiatric


ympto-


matology,


over


thousand


adults


chosen


random


systematicc


ample


three


central


Florida


county


overall


instrument,


including


scal


iety


symptom,


anxiety


function,


and depr


session,


developed


prior work


hwab


Warh


It was


found


that


ES was


inversely


related at a


significant


level


to having


LCE.


Also,


eith


r younger or male wa


directly related


LCE at a


ignifi


level


Race


residential


location


(rural-


urban)


accounted


essentially no


variance


the LCE measure.


Inter


estingly,


black


femal


as a


group


reported


the mo


t LCE,


despite b


female,


fact


that may


explained


their


generally


younger


this


geographic


area.


Differential


rates


social


-psychiatric


ymptomatology were


found


inverse


relation


hip between


person


ES and


their


having


highly


ymptomati


scores


on all


three


indi


ces.


Neither race


nor residential


location


produced


significance on


three


scal


status


female,


however,


directly related


highly


.ymptomatic


scores


at a


significant


level


on all


three


scal


variable of


emerged as


having an


important,


unanticipated,


effect on


results


tudy


. Developing


as a


conceptual


conundrum,


trong


direct


relation


to general


anxiety


symptoms,


strong


inverse


relationship


anxiety function


symptoms,


totally


unrelated


depressive


symptoms.


nAu var"I


hn+kh


* I* arunn


+4ho r nmnnc 4 40


cnrinA nmnnr vnh r


voi a4-itnnch4in


Tn rl


k






appear


highly


influential


but discrete concepts


their


effect


on one


mental


health.


temming


from


this


study


are certain


heuri


estions


which are


left


future


research.


They


concern


the concepts


the appropriate-


ness


timing


an event


life cycle


development of


"LCE


immunity"


after


several


experiences


differential


effects


event on


as demotion,


particular


groups;


from externally


separation


caused


events,


self-caused


uch a


events,


the death of


parent;


and measuring


the effect


of LCE


on people


physical


health.












CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION


person


life-


prevailing mental


events


health


are member


affected


some


experience


sociodemographic


groups


affected


differently


than


others


research


an effort


assess


results


the ways


in which various


sociodemographic


groups


deal


with


ituational


their


lives


Individual


live


olation but


rather within


system


as such


they


have


statues


fulfill


which


fine


certain


rights


obligations.


everyday


life,


meeting


these


obligation


entail


specific


investment of


our personal


our s


social


resources.


Previous


experiences


present option


will


dictate


ctiveness


with which we meet


current and


obligations.


When


the predictable social


pattern


daily


routine


disrupted


an exigency,


uch a


demotion


or the death


pouse,


an event


occurred which


may precipitate


individual


events


create not only


tressful


conflictive


situation,


they may


result


loss


financial


or kin


coping


could


teams


leave


on which


individual


usually


without


can rely


some


kind


adaptation


deprivation


resources








exclude


occurrence


serial


or concomitant cri


events.


Effective


adaptation may


depend


on the


person


access


usage


social-struc-


tural


avenues


available


for meeting


impinging


personal


social


demands.


particular


sociodemographic


group


tructural


coping


systems may


severely


limited


or totally


unavailable.


Furthermore,


disjuncture may


separate


available coping means


from


socially


defined


goal


effe


tive


adaptation.


the ca


e of


person


whose


response


repertoires


provide


coping


power


than


needed


adequately meet press


mand


state or


condition


been


defined


as stress may


develop


(Dohrenwend


Dohrenwend


, 1969)


lower


overall


level


social


-psy-


hiatric w


lead


a manifes


station


f the


kinds


deviant behavior which


have


become


associated


with


psychiatric


yymptoma-


tology,


which


have


been


defined


a medical-di


sease


pectiv


mental


illness.


Much


research


assess


reach


tion


life


-cri


events


ersons


estimate


the degree of


tress


they would


anticipate


experiencing


as a


result


each


specific


event.


order


actually


assess


differential


reactions


among


members


various


ociodemographic


group


general


population


survey


approach


highly


irabl e.


There-


fore,


schedule


life-


events


included


social-psy-


chiatric


epidemiologic


tudy











CHAPTER


REVIEW OF


LITERATURE


This


ground


literature


present


revi ew


tudy


designed


With


provide a


intent,


conceptual


pertin


back-


literature


examined


chiatric


tress,


following


areas


psychiatric


-cri


events,


ymptoma tol ogy,


social


ocial-psy-


-psychiatric


epidemiology


establi


integration


on which


these


operational


subject areas


concepts


sought


may be


order


founded,


provide,


as well,


context


in which


research


results


ynthesi


within


theoretical


perspective.


e-Cri


Event


event,


losing


job,


become a


life


when


there


radical


resultant change


social


status


, accompanied


emotional


tress.


The degree


to which


event becomes


life


will


depend


on a


number of


intervening


variabi


which


include


ociodemographic


group member


, psychological


well


-being,


concomitance


other


potentially


tres


events,


extent


to which


adjustment


event


normatively


appropriate.


great


amount of


prior


research


attempted


to answer qu


estion


concerned with


ntifying


life-


events,


quantitative


means


urement of both


actual


events


ir effect on


sons







perspective of


attributing


goodnes


-badness


life-cri


events


varies


from one


researcher


another.


Interpreting


resultant effects


con-


cepts


ruption,


" "tran


ition,


or "change"


impli


similar


yet di


tinct


ectives


theme


research


has moved


from a


rather


neutral


evaluation


events


one which


expresses


events


negative happening


latter


orientation was


developed


primarily


from r


research


in which


persons


estimated


probable amount of


distress


they would


experience


from


possible events.


Essentially,


incidents


tudied


research


have


been


those whi


brought about acute


change or dis-


ruption


social


pattern


cons


tituting


family,


marriage,


employ-


ment,


health,


jural


areas.


life


events


become cri


events


acutely


unpredi


table


nature


their


potential


being


turning


point


social


area


life which may have overtones


other


areas.


example,


demotion


employment may


affect


ability


person


family


. Th


death


spou


e might well


pre-


clud


bereaved


being


functioning


forced


through


success


fully


bankruptcy might


vocational


prove


be so


turbing


that


person


ical


health


adver


affected.


Early


pioneering work


establi


hing


relationship between


life-


events


persons


' responses


thereto was


done by


Selye


(1956).


Working


primarily


physiological


level


human


functioning,


formal


General


Adaptation


Syndrome.


Within


model,


an event


becomes


when


arouses


ubjective di


tress.


Other


early r


research


the attempt


late and


identify


cidents


which


aI


should


J %-


assified


. .


e-cri


- .


events


was conducted by


C.








welfare


individuals.


These


researcher


looked


life-change


itua-


tions


Chinese


people who


been


reared


China,


then


fled


United


themselves


e-change


states


into a


following


new society


i tuations


with


social


They


odes


upheaval,


compared


illness


and were now


effect of


, as reported


integrating


tres


their


Chinese


subjects,


an attempt


establi


direct


tional


relationship.


investigation


they


found


that among


subjects who were


fre-


quently


ill,


those who


perceived


their


life


ituati on


as challenging


threatening


experienced


more


biological


psychological


turbances.


These


person


commonly viewed


their


lives


as difficult,


demanding


unsati


factory


They


had,


however,


same


intellectual


social


accomplishments


as their rarely


counterparts,


ome of


whom were


conspicuousu


failures


Those subjects


experiencing


greater


number


tress


episodes


were


found


have more disease syndromes


have


general


susc


eptibility to


illness.


The mean


olving


problems


or for


coping with


them was


different


groups


who were


frequently


than


those who were


not.


ome of


subjects


who were


frequently


sued


goal


which


have


been


unreal i


but which


they


regarded


as prai


worthy


socially


irabi


Those


Chines


e who were


rarely


viewed


their


lives


as more


inter


testing


varied


because


they


not attempted


follow


pre-planned


courses


life


they were more


free


ue whatever goal


problem-solving means were most bene-


ficial


moment.


Hinkle


Wolff


(1958),


reporting


on their


tudy


-year








leep


patterns,


appetite,


various


bodily


processes.


Illnesses most


frequently


occurred when


ects


perceived


their


lives


as unsatisfying,


threatening,


overdemanding,


or full


conflict,


when


they


lived


they


could


not adapt.


conceptual


tran


ition


from


stress


life


situations


part


ular


life-cri


events


primarily


the work


Holmes


Rahe


(1967).


result wa


rating


scale of


life-cri


events


called


the Social


Read-


tment Rating


RRS)


cale


particular


events


which


subjects


ranked


escending


order


according


their


perception of


amount


adju


tment


they


thought might


necess


ary following


each


event,


relative


amount of


change


brought about by marriage.


events


were


class


ified


as requiring


either more or


coping


than


tting


married


events


used,


only


6 were


ranked


as more


stress


than marriage


Death


se was


ranked


as requiring


as much


change as


adju


tment


to marriage;


having


wife begin


to work


outside


home wa


rated


as about one


half


as stress


as a


marriage.


was given


cross-c


cultural


test when


it wa


administered


a middle


-class


urban


Japanese


population,


primarily


lower-class


American


ubcultur


Mexican-American


urban Negro


results were


compared


with


tudy


done


previous


on a


white middle


e-class


group.


four


these


population


ranked


life


-change


i teams


an essentially


concordant manner


It was


found


that


-group


judged


certain


events


require


different amounts


coping


than did


the white American


group.


Items


to which


Negro


ubculture gave


higher


ratings


than


other


S I I a I S ~ 9


|


* I


I*


I


I!. *


r _


I *


1








Caucasian


group.


overall


assess


ment seemed


indicate


that one


relative


social


class


position was


more


influ


ntial


than


parti


ular


culture.


A pertinent con


usion


from the work


of Holmes


stated


that


ee-changes


whether


resulting


from a


happy or


event,


whether


socially


esirable or


accumulated


not,


certain


produced


number


similar


life-


results


units


when a

(SRRS)


n individual


he had


direct


linear


probability


becoming


Although


this


research


con-


tribute


useful


cross-


cultural


compare


sons,


it would


have


been


strengthened


inclu


lower-


class


white group for


analy


Several


investigators


have


conducted


research


projects


on a


relatively


small


scale


same


subject area.


Spil ken


Jacob


(1971)


examined


group


college


students,


an attempt


predi


t who


would


medical


treatment


illness


based


on a


record


unres


olved


tres


somewhat different dimension was


introduced


tudy


Thurlow


(1971),


cone


luded


that a


subjective apprai


social


change


be more close


ly related


illn


esses


than


the actual


events


as seen


from a


more


objective


viewpoint.


Coddington


(197


studied


group


f children,


in order


assess


relative


value


rank


order


different


traumatic


incidents


child


life.


Mend


Wein


tein


(197


undertook an


independent ranking


chedul


events


used


Holmes


Rahe


(1967)


. A correlation


0.93


comparing


f events


indicates


strong


reliability


original


work,


although


authors


suggest


that


instrument would


be more


valuable


studying


groups


than


individual


modification








type.


relative


position


items


list


remained


constant


across


responses


from


three


disparate group


subjects.


1973,


Hal pern


instigated


project which


propo


clarify


meaning


concept


through


admini


traction of


an instrument designed


to mea


ure behavior


persons


situations.


Where


Holmes


Rahe dealt


primarily with


susceptibility to


somatic


illness


the work


Paykel


et al


. (1971)


provides


tran


ition


an asses


sment of


the effect


stressors


on social-psychiatric


impair-


ment.


Modifying


events,


Paykel


rephra


some ques


tion


in an


attempt


symptoms


to decrea


eliminated


their definition.


research did


items which might


not use an


reflect


event a


compare


as marriage


Holmes


Rahe)


subjects


were as


rate


events


according


the degree of


upset each would


produce


subject


life.


ranking


events


showed


that


following were perceived


those


sampled


as being most


essful


death


f child,


death


pouse,


jail


sentence,


major financial


difficult


business


failure,


divorce.


Those


ranking


included move


same


ity,


promotion,


begin


education,


wanted


pregnancy,


child


married with


parental


approval


lower


ranking


item


involved moderate


e-chang


readju


tment


, and,


as can


be ob


erved,


were


itive or


desirabi


events.


, Paykel,


contrast


Holmes


Rahe


found


that


non-d


esirable


event


were greater


"stressors


Paykel


use of


sel ected


sample of


convenience--


ychiatric


patients


members


their


family


--may


have


invalidated








showing


significance


sociodemographic


variabi


Thus,


press


individuals


whether


young


or old,


black or white,


perc


their


reactions


particular


stressor


as being


similar.


exten


prior


research


into


stress,


going


beyond


tage


where


et al.


(1971).


rated


impact


longitudinal,


stressors


two-year


was condu


research al


Myers


o provided


transition


into


psychiatric


epidemiology


tudi


Investigating


per-


sons


urban


catchment area


New Haven,


Connecticut,


Communi ty


Mental


Health


Center,


Myers


associates


delineated


life-cri


events


into


social


categories:


education


related


relocation,


moved;


marriage;


family


interpersonal


health


work


finance


legal


community


under


entrance-related


crisis


events


Further gr

(marriage)


ouping

and e


included


xit-related


assifi-

events


(divorce)


esirable


. A third


(promotion)


category wa


formed


or undesirable


deciding whether


as defined


event was


the general


society


value


structures


. The


seven


independent variables


included


race,


, age,


marital


tatu


, religion,


social


class


number


persons


living


the household.


research


the mea


urement of


"strain"


carried


beyond


elf-


rating


scale


incorporate


t of


twenty


psychiatric


symptoms


developed


MacMillan


(1957)


Gurin


et al.


(1960)


to as


sess


ychological


symptoms


national


population


1965.


cale,


the Myers


research


planned


appraise


number


life


events


which occurred


person


life


during


year


prior


administration


scoring


cale.


- -


cation


(demotion),


iI --t


I 1


=


Im


Im


*


1








year


later,


follow


tage,


persons


from


the original


sample were


reinterviewed.


Subjects


were again


asked


life-


crisis


events


which


occurred


during


previous


year


finding


indicated


events


logical


that


life


during


symptoms


the more


symptoms


people who


recent period


improved


reported


there wa


person


an increased


worsening


reported


number


psycho-


fewer events.


Individual


with


higher


ymptom


scores


on the


t measure did


seem


have


experienced more


events


interim


period,


but probably had


more events


prior


st measurement.


Finding


illu


trate


the vital


connection


between


individual,


quality


quantity


events


which affect


him,


surrounding


culture whi


varying


degrees


sustains


reinforces


fluence


element


person


over


relation


experiences


mental


status


seems


There


be an


strong


important


association


between


amount of


control


an individual


can exert over


catastrophe


event


life


the degree


impairment.


event may be


said


entail


the d


parture of


person


from


an individual


immediate


social


field,


as would


result


following


marital


separation


or the death of


child.


Either


these would


potential


for greater


influence on


impairment


than


would marriage


or t


birth


child,


which


could


be d


designated


as entran


e events


viewpoint


emphasis


importance of


obje


loss


explaining


psychopathology


our culture


suggests


that


there


hierarchy


role


tran


formation


with


respect


psychiatric


symptoms.


ritual


I S a


i


Q


*


*










interpersonal


support


as dealing with


social


gain


rather


than


with


social


oss.


tutional ized


example


ritual


, marriage ceremony


in contrast


tark


are quite comply


implicity


nsti


divorce


proceeding.


concept of


whether


social


or p


ychological,


literal


symbolic,


been


dominant


theme


ychiatric


literature


since


times


Freud


(Paykel


et al.


1969)


. It may be


conceived


as man


mourning


for what he has


lost


himse


or of what he


lost


from


emotional


inves


tment


others.


relationship


between depression


e-cri


events


tudied


Paykel


et al


. (1969)


. Their


experimental


ample consi


185 mental


health


care


patients


identified


as "depressed,


" and


their


control


sample was


comprised


randomly


selected members


community


It was


found


that


contrast


general


population,


the depress


patients


expert


nced


significantly


greater


number


exit


events


than


entrance


events.


tudy had


two major weakn


esses


The depressed


sample wa


compri


ed mostly


person


from


lower


socioeconomic


status


ES),


tratum of


society


in which depres


sion


rates


have


been


typically


higher


(Dohrenwend


Dohrenwend,


1969)


. Thus,


the depression which


temmed


from


life-


events


difficult


separate


from


influence.


Secondly,


the control


group,


which was


not assessed


depression,


have


included


some depressed


persons.


Social


-Structural


-a


I C,


iderations
*r. Jl


d~,, r, s







under


some circumstances


stations.


deviations


person


are not


depart


to defined


from


institutionalized


as good


or bad,


expec-


an eval


uativ


sense


--they


are merely


the occurrence of


non-normative


behavior


present


research,


whether


the behavior


functional


non-functional


soci


primary


issue


. Although


persons may


have


been


appropriately


adequately


social


they may


be confronted


times


f cri


with


conflicting


expectation


which


exceed


their


capa-


city


handle


success


fully.


One way


person


may relieve


train


generated


confli


ting


demands


to deviate


from


institutionalized


expectation


(Bredemeier


tephenson,


1962)


A conflict


expectation


or even


the d


esire


to deviate,


does


neces


sarily result


deviant be-


havior


Within


social


context,


individual


onality


differences


the degree


to which


persons


can tolerate conflict.


sociological


importance


efficient


those


to result


tructural


deviance


conditions


among


which


various


tend


group


produce


peopi


train


-condition


that


tend


produce


differential


rates


deviation


When


they


disjunctur


experience


their


life-


social


events,


tructur


as they


people are


attempt


exposed


to meet


changing


framework,


expectation


sons


will


their


status


ubje


-sets


varying


role-


degrees


sets.


train,


determined


largely


effectiveness


their


individual


efforts


reconcile and


sets,


coordinate


sons


the various


occupy mor


demand


than


impo


status


their


located


social


within


different


systems


With


role


defined


as the dynamic


part of


a-- L- .-


aa.atl .nL.nan


t


,, L,~ ..?LL


-L .. -


-L _











such


as being


parent or


an employer,


confront


individual


with


greater


demand


than


can success


fully


cope with.


Some


individuals


have


physical


or personality


character


required


tatus


they


are s


uppo


fulfill.


tatus-expectation


ed on


attributes


which all


status


holders


are presumed


have,


which


are possessed


only


certain members,


the remaining members will


achieve normative


standard


only


the cost of


severe


train


Exces


demand


will


mean


that


some members


will


experience


failure.


Such


strain


result


deviant adaptation


tatus,


train


from


attempting


to meet expectations


may be


expressed


deviant


behavior


another


status


(Bredemei er


Stephenson,


1962)


particular


sociodemographic


groups


titutional i


ed mean


fulfill


normative


tatu


expectations may b


unavailable,


ineffective,


or differentially


tribute


Persons


may find


they


are unabi


conform


status


because


counting


status


does


provide


necessary


resources.


crimination


allocation


resources


for meeting


expectations


may result


differential


patterns


deviant


behavior.


Consequently,


following


life-cri


event,


person may find


him-


self with


changed


status


role-expectations.


event which


affects


person


employment may,


turn,


alter


family


tatu


, po


ssibly


precluding


clarity


cons


tency


tatu


example,


a migrant


farm worker whose


status


American with minimal


include


education,


being


have


band and


undergo


father,

radical


Mexican-


rearrange-


a a .


I





i~


-


m*








obligations,


both


personal


social


The en


suing


scuss


social


-psychiatric


stress


provide


background


understanding


social


personal


demands


imposed


life-


event


resources


needed


to meet


these


demand


Social


-Psychiatric


Stress Model


social


tress


come


be defined


essentially


three ways


as demand


upon


son;


as the di


crepancy


between


total


demand


upon


ability


meet these


demand


as demands


being


defined


as str


reaction


stress


train.


neral,


following


model


rely


on a mechanic


stress


defined


as internal


response


to an


external


load


placed


upon


some


pathog


nic agent,


stressor,


or life


with


resultant d


velopment of


pathological


changes


disorder


manif


ested


specific manner.


research


assess


relation


tress


illness


dealt with


psychosomatic


reaction


spec


ific


physiological


changes


produ


ress


timuli


Grinker


piegel


(1945),


Dunbar


(1947),


and Alexander


(1950)


attempted


to measure a


change


cardiac


functioning


occurrence of


tres


timuli


o dealing with


reaction


stress

action


Wolff


Pattern


concept


associate

in which


(1950


adaptive


1953) d

feeling


developed


, bodily


the P

adju


rotecti ve


tments,


altered


behavior


occurring


simultaneously


varying


degrees.


-- ,


A


.1








psychosomatic mod


which


sequential


stages.


Research


developed


from


an examination


effect of


particular


tressful


timuli


on one


person,


consideration


the physiological


response of


groups


person


ingular


traumatic


events,


such


as a


sastrou


storm or


confinement


in a


concentration


camp.


Jani


(1954)


developed


tress


approach dealing


with


individual


responses


sasters.


He outlined


three


tages


through which


individual


progr


ess:


threat-perception


phase;


danger-


impact


phase;

respon


and

se a


danger-of


person will


-victimization


make depend


phase.


upon


Essentially,


perception


type of

event


previous


formed


expectation


concerning behavior


threatening


situations.


perception


integrated


along


with


self


-cone


tion of


social


rol e


emergency


association with


group


being


threatened


danger,


social


status


, personality


variabi


prior training.


Bruce Dohrenwend


(1961)


modified


elye


(1956)


physiological


tress


model


emphasizing


the mediating


action


external


constraints


asso-


cited with


stress,


those


factor


which determine


the amount of


inner


constraint.


He considered


that stress


was a


behavioral


product


resulting


from


essure,


whether


ssure


arose


from adaptive or


maladaptive behavior


conc


eptualization,


Dohrenwend


proposed


list


five


factors


which determine


tress


reaction


external


essors


which


throw


the organism


into


an imbalanced


tate


factor


that alleviate or mediate


effects


stressor;


experience


. U








organism


attempt


to cope with


stressor;


the organism's


response.


tress


period


tate


intervening


between


antece-


dent con


traints


cons


equent attempts


reduce constraint.


an effort


explain


graduate


student adaptation


qualifying


examination


"coping


, Mechanic,


explained


1962,


coping


sought


as the


operational


instrumental


the concept


behavior


problem


solving


capacities


persons


in meeting


life demand


goal


coping


process


said,


an active one,


involving


application


particular


skill


, techniques,


knowledge.


When


coping


defined


as a


oci ol ogi cal


process


interrelated


with


one's


social


situation,


contra


psychological


to defense mechanism


process.


which


Although Mechanic


deal


(196


with


an internalized


initially


defined


within


situations,


between


terms


1968


the demands


the di


301)


impinging


comforting


definition


on a


responses


person


stress


person--whether


particular

crepancy


ese demand


external


or internal,


whether


challenges


or goal


--and


individual


potential


responses


e demand


Langner


Michael


(1963)


added


dimen


ting


model


integrating


separate


"non


-coping"


concept of


train.


their work


environmental


demand


on a


person


are defined


stores s


" and


the degree of


non-adaptive coping


these demand


"strain


Langner


and Michael


word


train


corres


pond


Wolff


Sely


word


tress


Langner


and Micha


propo


that as


number


environmental


esses


incr


eases


the amount of


train







result.


The conceptual


difference


between


tress


strain


helpful


explaining


acute,


time works


as would


as a


variable


the death


coping.


child,


tressor may


trai n


produced


long


Langner


after


Michael


tress


work


ended


whether


. The que


or not


tion


the behavior


involved


used


coping


adaptive,


that


behavior which


helps maintain


person


homes ta ti c


balance.


These


researchers


claim that


reaction


stores


never wholly adaptive


nor totally maladaptive,


that


results


compromi


involving


some


sacrifice


terms


personality func-


tioning.


Each


compromi


each


index


train


usual ly


called


symptom,


an accumulation


symptoms,


occurring with


frequency


particular


pattern,


defined


as a


type of


psychiatric


ympto-


matology


. Social


;ychiatric


symptoms,


initially


conceptual


the di


sease


model,


included


social


stress


model


indica-


tions


train.


f itself,


train


create new


tress


potentially


cyclical


problem.


theory,


emphasized


that


stress


model


an aggre-


gate


explaining


average


reaction


large group of


persons.


Consequently,


Langner


Michael


(1963)


found


that


average


amount of


train was


higher


those


persons


reported multiple


tresses


than


those


reporting


only


one,


although


individual


reacted


differently


within


groups.


relationship


between


tress


train


not a


direct


linear


one,


mediated


intervening


variabi


as hereditary


pre-








Strain


primarily mediated


through


accumulation


person


social,


ical,


emotional


experiences.


ress


situation


originate


social


environment,


location within


social


ten may


determine


number,


kind,


inten


stre


ssors


to which


will


be subject.


Predi


posing


precipitating


factors


are conceptualized


as an etiological


portion


result of


social


stress


events


which


as precipitators,


person may manife


coping


behavior


sense,


precipitator


produces


train


generally


defined as


stressor


. Symptoms


tress,


such


as intense


anxiety,


exemplify


train within


this


model


Langner


part of both


plays


Michael


environmental


an important


socioeconomic


tress


kind


tatu


support


severity


comprl


systems.


reaction


ess.


supports.


separate


Therefor


filter,


filter


attached


influences


both


tresses


interaction


tween


personality


tressful


or supportive


environment.


The Societal


Reaction ADDroach to


important a


pect of


ocietal


reaction


pective


addresses


question


"Who,


for what b


havior,


'lab


by whom


as deviant?"


ectiv


, th


residual


deviancy


concept


heff


(1966)


suggests


that


mental


illness


-breaking


behavior which


can-


category


onveniently


under


such


headings


as "crim


or "sin.








behavior not already


explained


some other conceptual


system


classi-


field


here.


Overall


label


labeling


the deviant as


pectiv


being mentally


those who define


peer group


informally


, parents


friend


while


social


control


agents


such a


police,


psychiatric


psychologists


ignate


formal


more


jargonized


labels.


which


contrast a


tically


as "sick"


"criminal" may be


applied


identical


behavior


depending


upon


various


social


contingenci


facing


both


labeler


labelee.


More


specifically,


the contingencies


leading


labeling were


propo


Scheff


(1966)


believed


that


strength


ocietal


reaction


determined


by the


amount and


ability


rul e-breaking


econdly,


power


rule-breaker can


exert


community,


as wel


as the


social


tance


tween


him and


e who ar


charge of


social


control


,by


level


tolerance


the community,


number


non-deviant role


available.


After


formal


labeling,


soci


ety may


prohibit


the deviant


from shedding


label


prevent


him from reentering


non-deviant rol


privilege


those


with


power


to determine what behavior


their


best


interest


Behavior,


so defined,


comes


constitute appropriate


behavior


social


system.


Kitsuse


(196


conception


form of


the behavior,


societal


reaction which


important;


as i


the word


Erickson


(196


social


audience who defines


deviance.


deviancy


pective ha


not developed without criticism.







Gibbs


sugg


ested


that


there had


been


no sys


temati c


examination of


deterrent quality of


ocietal


reaction


approach.


Deviancy r


research,


reviewed


Gibbs,


emphasis


reaction


as a


means


identifying


deviant behavior


the qu


estion


f why the


incidence


"deviant"


act vari


among


population


states


that


the deviancy


pective does


explain why


some


person


commit


the act while


others


not.


Moreover,


suggests


that


estion


cross-


cultural


variance


the definition


deviance


not been


fully


answered


deviancy


theori


Gibb


feel


there


are inconsistency


deviancy


theory


example


secret


behavior,


an act not


observed


social


audience,


be considered


deviancy?


Gove


(1970b)


argues


that


cheff


societal


reaction


explanation


particular


incorrect because


comply


screening


process


insures


that only


extremely


turbed


person


actually


hospital i


mental


illness,


only


after


situation


becomes


untenable


society


1974,


:heff


responded


with


review


pertinent


research


than wa


which


suggest


purported


that


by Gove.


screening


part


process


process


delineating


potential


labelerss"


feel


threatened


respon


ibility


involved


in d


noting


cases


mental


illness.


Gove


(1970a)


suggest


that


label


accompanying


secondary


deviance


not a


difficult


formerly


"mentally


ill"


as i


claimed


labeling


theory


Converse


Turner


(197


proposed


that


some


instances


person


will


the deviant


avoid


personal


social


commi tments


S-- --A.


.,,,..u


"t'k."


I -


a


_








suggest


possib


esirability


continuing


"mentally


ill"


role.


Fletcher


Reynold


(1967)


have


tated


that res


idual


deviance


not been


hown


to refer


"significant class


empirical


behavior,


" and


been


linked


causal


manner


to the


labeling


proc


ess.


important


intervening


variable


perception of


labeler


the degree


responsibility


potential


labelee has


over


own behavior.


These


cause of


researchers,


the mentally


general,


behavior


have


their


fully


discu


explained


ssion


initial


societal


reaction


approach


Importantly,


pective deal


with


a role as


defined


other


versus


degree


tress


as defined


person


involved.


Medical


Model


ychiatri c


Symptoms


The medical


model


been developed


nurtured


psychiatrists


as they


have


sought


explain


mental


illness


remained


primary framework


their


treatment of


"mentally


ill"


patients.


Lewi


(1953)


explain


the di


seas


e model


as a


theory


in which


illness


does


not have


social


content,


only


social


context


According


Taber


(1969)


the disease mod


cons


four


conceptual


stages


nosology-


-qual itativ


different


states


disorder


t and


recogni


pathology--


there


an illness


cess


within


organism


ting


over


time


etiology-


-there


causal


agent


causa


sequence


involved


therapy--variou


therapeutic


tran tmontt


ran hea


effPortiu


. . ....


tatdlf


thprP


Il l


-- s


nl gr


Ill I --








organism normal


Explicitly


assumed within


disease


model


homes


energy

overall


tati


areas


integrate


fundamental


flaw


in which


presently

ed balance


cause


bodily


requiring


energy


these


system.


system function


resources


depres


existence of


* channeling


to maintain


person


physiological


imbalance


which


impairs


havioral


functioning


impa


ct of


the di


sease


model


been


so perva


that


"mental


illness


term coined


cri b


pattern


ease"


symptoms


model,


lingered


as the dominant


theme


our public


police


explanations.


sease


model


been


strongly


critic


establi


thing


criteria


logi


physiological


malfunctioning,


normalcy


the di


Because


ease mod


based


counts


on physio-


influence of


social


envi ronment.


dealing with


"predi


spos


iti on"


illness


rather


than


"precipitation"


illn


ess.


polemical


reaction


seas


e model


, psychiatric


t Thoma


zasz


(1960)


proposed


another


active.


biological


view,


disorders.


other


mental


types


illness


t originate


behavior which


have been


ified


under


the disease


model


as "mental


illness"


are mere


deviation


from


psychosocial,


ethical,


or legal


norms.


Social


-Psychiatric


Epidemiology


epidemiologic


approach


was developed within


the medical


assess


the causes


, types


frequencies


physical


seas


e whi


occur


in a


population


since


early work


social


ychiatry was


ased


on the medical


-disease model


, an epidemiologic approach








Most


symptoms


past


literature concerning


population


been


etiology


an epidemiologic


social-psychiatric

nature. Researchers


have


sought


to explain


differential


tribution


ymptomatology


through


demographic


analysis


combined


with


prevalence


rates


symptoms.


tori


e-cr


events


have


been


used


as a


tool


in medical


epidemiological


research.


Antonov


Kats


(1967)


studied


relation-


e-cri


events


to multiple


clero


They found


that per-


sons


with multiple


sclerosis


experienced a


concentration


life-


events


experimental


group


this


tudy were multiple


clerosis


patients,


the control


group


cons


ample


from


general


population.


Again,


problem with


research


that


sons


selectiv


ly remember mor


event


provide a


response


other


research


pilken


Jacob


(1971)


ests


that


person


not report mor


events.


Spilken


Jacob


conclude


that


somati


ally


emotionally


person


were


not more


likely


increase


reports


life


-cri


events.


fre-


quency


even


non-ill,


their


experienced


personal


which differ


reaction


ntiates


events.


from


suggest


that


experience of


life


stress


lead


higher


rates


king


treatment


symptoms,


rather


than


leading


differential


rate


illn


ess.


They


conclude


that an


individual


may b


timulated


life-


events


and,


so doing,


he comes


be defined


as more


symptomatic


than


another


person


as symptomatic


but who








experienced


an event.


means


urement of


frequency


ychiatric


symptoms


within


population


forty-four


Dohrenwend


(1969)


epidemiologic


reported


tudie


which


on a


review of


indicates


that


research

usually


it was


iety


symptoms


which were being mea


ured.


no i


instance,


prior


Myer


' work,


were


e-cri


events


included


as possible


etiologic


agents


Epidemiologic


tudie


measuring


the distribution


of mental


ill-


ness


populations


have


been


types


rates


-under


-treatment


tudy


in which


those


persons


on record


as rece


giving


treatment were


evaluated


sociodemiographic


variable


survey


instrument


luding


often


questions


validated


nerally


on known


defined a


psychiatrically


measuring mental


impaired


impairment


populations.


advantages


rates


-under-


treatment


tudie


are 1


that


person


community will


referred


treatment fa


iliti


electively


reported


ilities,


then


labeled


elective


y by mental


health


profess


ional


that sociodemographic


variable


not a


ssess


until


after


challenged


labeling


on th


content


process


been


validity


their


completed.


questions,


Surveys


on the


been


possible


responses


interviewee


toward


socially


acceptable


ses,


on t


ir measurement,


in most


instances


prevalence without


incidence


(the


number


cases


within


given


period).


some degree


there


conc


eptual


conundrum


the question


their


the measurement of


constructs


preferable


to the m


easurement








hiatric


impairment:


the high


prevalence


rate of mental


illness


found


nurture


ssue


lower


social


pawned


asses.


competing


This


cone


hypoth


nature-


eses


explanation:


biologically


inferior


persons


drift


down


social


ladder;


tress


instance


living


refer


lower


tructural


causes


stress


impairment


rather than


"Stress


life-cri


" in


stress


coping


process


which


result


will


depend


some


degree on


the avail


ability


structural


opportunity


Blocked


tructural


opportunity


lead


higher


upheld


that

esse


personal


prevalence


cross


train


rates


-culturally.


relative


ntially


unknown.


or social


lower


Dohrenwend


importance of


-psychiatric


oci economic


Dohrenwend

and social

that sympto


genetic


They


symptoms.


sses


(1969)


finding


been


concluded


environments

ms are more


remain


likely


supported


secondary


gain


lower social


sses.


Another


concl usion


from


their


review


that


symptoms


persi


ting


only


long


as t


ituational


essures


continue


or i


presence of


secondary


gain


probably


primarily


social


origin,


where


ymptom


per-


ting


absence of


secondary


gain


regard


social


situation are


probably


genetic


origin


important conceptual


theme,


empha


ized


the Dohrenwends


from


their work


other


the work


demographic c


variables


other


as external


designated

mediators


social


class

social


itua-


tion.


ince


then,


refinements


field


tend


both


support and


contradict


these


conclu


recent and


larg


epidemio-


- -l- -


..-.- .. j


I I ---I-


- .


- I


L -T-_ ~ln1


-~2w 4-- 2


4


A -


m


* h


L


r *_-


. -*L "^ _- .. _







inversely


proportional


social


-psy


hiatric


prevalence


rates.


tudy report


that


many


cases


differences


between


people


cannot be


attributed


race.


whites


blacks


social


class


compared,


their


are no major


tinctions


their


psychiatric


impairment


rates


n controlled


social


ass.


previous


ly mentioned work by


Myer


et al


. (197


life-


crisis


events


were


found


be more


predi


tive of


impairment


than were


sociodemographic


variabi


suggest


that where earlier


epidemiologic


research


reported


an inverse


relationship between


SOC0o-


demographic


measuring


variabi


reaction


chiatric


e-cri


ymptom


events


it was


actually


may have been


influenced


terms


occurrence


reaction


sociodemographic


variabi


rese


arch


which


reported


presently


, therefore,


exten


work


covered


review of


literature.


tudy


an effort


clarify


relation


hips


between


life-


events


social


- psychic atric


sym ptomatol ogy











CHAPTER


METHODOLOGY


research


literature


ested


that sociodemographic group


membership may provide social


content for


psychiatric


symptoms


life-


events


as well


as the


social


context


their occurrence


means


operational i


potential


psychiatric


reaction of


different


ociodemographic


groups


life


-cri


events,


foll owi ng


procedures


formulating


testing


hypoth


eses


were conducted


Formulation


Hypoth


eses


Since


it ha


been


establ i


prior


tudi


that an


inverse


relation


hip exi


between


psychiatric


impairment,


important


substantiate


finding,


determine


degree


to which


life-cri


events,


eparately and


through


interaction,


explain

a person


psychiatric


membership


impairment.


important


particular


group will


determine whether

predicate a


greater


number


different


types


eL.cri


events.


experiencing


greater


number of


events


particular


soci odemographi c


group,


combined with


their


having


limited


access


tructural


coping


alter-


natives


may be directly related


to psychiatric


impairment.


There may


an interaction


event and


between


number


recency


different


person


types


experiencing


events


life-


experienced


S- *- .


* f


I I 1 I0





II *


i







Hypoth


re will


types
year
a) pe


no difference


e-cri


sons
sons
sons
sons


events


various


age


of different r
of different s
from different


number of


experienced


different


within


S
aces
exes


residential


locations


Hypothesi


The number of
experienced b


inver


different


sons


related


types


during


e-crisi


the past


events


year will


their


Hypothes


For various


inverse
degree o
exhibit.


ociodemographic


relation


social


tween


-psychiatric


groups,


sons


there will


ymptomatology


be an


they


Hypothesi


Within


direct


types


various


relation


e-cr


ociodemographic


hip between
is events D


groups,
e number


sons


there will


different


experienced


degree of


S


ymptomatology


they


exhibit.


Hypothesi


Within


direct


persons
degree c
exhibit.


various


sociodemographic


relationship between


have


experienced


social


life-


ychiatri c


groups,


recent


there will


y with


crisis events and
ymptomatology they


which


Operational


Life-Cri


Procedures


Events


this


esen


research wa


tudy


large


urvey,


it was


important


to maintain


brevity


each


section


instrument


prevent


entire


questionnaire


from being


unwieldy


Therefore,


as a


means


imoniou


assess


number


different


types


events which member


various


sociodemographic


groups


have


experienced,


thirty mo


"upsetting"


events


as determined


Paykel


et al


. (1969)


were


included


survey.


These


events


included


those which


been


generally


fined


empirically verified






developed


an ordinal


relationship


form rather


than


ratio


scale


format a


assumed


Holmes


Rahe


(1967)


believed


that


pecifi


events


chosen


this


research


necessitated


involved


intrapersonal


tructural 1


coping


process


enabled


means


urement of


differential


group


reaction


to cri


Sociodemographic


Variabi


Sociodemographic


variable


included


tudy were;


age;


race


,c)


sex,


education,


occupation,


income,


rural-


urban


idence,


(compri


education,


occupational


prestige,


income).


SES measures


used


tudy were based


on the


hwab-Warheit


procedure.


This


procedure


entailed


combined


percentile


score for


each


ranking


on the


three compon


ents.


Social


-Psychiatric


Symptomatol ogy


tudy made


use o


lightly modified


versions


three


hwab-Warhei t


anxiety


symptom


cale,


anxiety


function


scale,


the depression


scale


These


indices were developed


provide a


normative description


the di


tribution


psychiatric


symptomatol ogy


population


rather


than


to diagnose


individual


Specifically,


these


scales


are d


designed


to measure clu


sters


f sympto-


matology


considered


components


psychiatric


order,


to measure


psychiatric


disorder at


the construct


level,


as d


described


DSM-


Diagnostic


and


Statistical


Manual


of Mental


Disorder


(1968)







Supporting


evidence


their


content


validity was


provided


following:


items

items
judged


included were drawn


were examined


appropriate


from

panel


psychiatric


experts


literature

their content


Factor


into


The sca
as means


analytic
cales


les


ured


procedures


an acceptable


by Cronbach


empirically


level


Alpha


confirmed


internal


their


cons


grouping


tency


(1951).


an assessment of


cons


truct


validity,


indices


have


been


administered


to a


sample of


several


hundred


person


had manife


degree of


ymptomatology which


required


their


being


hospitalized.


Survey


Sampling


In a


-county


area


central


Florida,


101,219


hold


were


found


compri


population


potential


respondents


tudy


yielded


Taking


,400


stematic


potential


random


respondent


ample


lightly


location


under


total


t of


households.


respondent


Through


years


use of


age or


older was


(1965)

el ected


procedure,


to be


interviewed


from


each


ehold


refusa


rate was


.56%,


rate of


unlocatable


respon-


dents


4.4%,


even


though


interviewers


were


instructed


to call


upon


selected


ehold


three


times,


necessary


. As


many


as twelve


attempts were made,


however,


con tact


some


respondents


interview


because a


hold


could


reass


signed


to different


inter-


viewer


Unoccupied


residences


were


replaced


random


selection








systematic


person


multi-stage


interviewed,


ster probability

about 1% of the


sample r


adult


esulted


population.


A sample


size resulted


sampling


error


approximately


observed


percentages


around


or 95


(Kish,


1965)


Survey


Implementati on


After


gaining


support of


leader


organizations


legitimi


tudy


community,


next


tage was


selection of


inter-


viewers.


female


twenty


-person


Caucasians


interviewing


Negroes


ranging


taff was


in age


composed


from


of males


college


students


retirees


, although


the: majority were middle


e-aged white


women.


emphasis


employment of


person


category wa


based


on prior


experience with


chwab-Warh


tudy,


which


ested


that


group would


optimal


inter-


viewers.


were


involved


in a


training


workshop


increase


their


effectiveness


reduce


response


urvey


Processing


some errors


coding,


keypunching,


format were


expected,


rigorous


verification


process


undertaken which


took


several


months


complete.


Data


Analysis


es ti ng


hypoth


eses


fundamental


aspect of


research


tudy


analy


variance


procedure was


used


assess


degree


variance within


tween


various


ociodemographic


group


number


different


types


life


-cri


events


experienced,








test


imul taneou


effect of


different sociodemographic


groups


on th


amount of


variance


scores


on the


three


indi


psychiatric


symptomatology











CHAPTER I

FINDINGS


This


chapter


presents


result


from


hypothesis


-testing


stage of this

transition for


research,

a broade


while attempt

overview and


provide


integration of


the

the


conceptual

findings


subsequent,


concluding,


chapter.


Testing


of Hypoth


eses


Hypothes


hypothesis


tated


null


form,


examined


relation


between


the number


different


e-cri


events


(LCE)


experienced within


past


year


respondent


age,


race,


sex,


place of


residence.


- Thi


hypothesis


rejected.


seen


table concerning


information,


the age groupings


-29,


30-44,


-59,


over


yielded a


variance


which wa


tati


tically


significant at


.001


level


relation


an inverse one,


with


persons


youngest age


categories


tepwise multiple


linear


experiencing


regression


the mo


analy


t events.


, ag


inversely


related


the number of


events


experienced,


was s


significant at the


level


latter process


analyzed


the concomitant


unit change


LCE,


accounted


'r







variabi


constant.


Race


- Thi


hypothes


was accepted.


Using


a multiple


linear


regre


ssion model,


race was


"dummy"


variable,


value


.061


at 1


infinite


degrees


freedom wa


significant.


further


analy


race


-sex was


compared


an analysis


variance

the most


procedure.


events,


Results


that


showed


the degr


that black

e of varian


femal


ce wa


experienced

significant at


level


Adding


interactive


term black


-female


tepwi


e multiple


linear


regr


session


equation,


which


cons


ted of


SES,


age,


, female,


rural


residence


not account


for a


significant amount of


variance


beyond


that which was


already


accounted


the other


variabi


- Thi


found


regr


hypothesis


inverse


was rejected


related


session mod


tatu


number of


standardized


partial


being


events


beta


female wa


experienced


for female


-0.0517


with


an F


infinite


. whi


significant at


It appear


hypotheti


that mal


experienced more


types


of LCE


when


age,


, race,


residence are


held


their mean


values.


Rural


-urban


residence


- Thi


hypothesis


was accepted


tand-


ardi


beta


595 and


the F


.418 at


infinite


degrees


freedom wa


infinite degrees


significant.


freedom wa


ignifi


0.2538


ant for


at 3 and


an analy


variance


residence.


HvnnfthPc ?


Thic


hvnnth pi

nrpdirtpd in


rpcaMrrh


form


an invprsP








their


among


SES.


five


This


category


hypothesis


found


accepted.


significant


analysis


inverse


variance


relationship.


7448 at


4 and


infinit


degrees


freedom.


This


value


significant at


level


tepwi


multiple


linear


regr


session


analy


standardized


beta


13938 with


an F


788 at


infinite degrees


freedom.


F value was


significant at


.001


level


equation was


composed


age,


race,


sex,


place of


residence.


analysis


following


variance


results.


comparing


education


the components


component analysis


yielded


variance


resul ted


an F


value of


1686


4 and


infinite degrees


freedom


value wa


significant at


analysis


income component


resulted


in a


finding


that


there was


not a


significant degree


variance among


the five


educa


tional


level


0326


infinite


degrees


freedom.


The occupational


prestige


variable


(Pres


yielded


an F


leve


5.8244


at 4


infinite degrees


freedom.


result was


igni-


ficant at


level


regres


analysis


in which


age,


race were


held


constant,


an interesting


relationship


emerged


It wa


negative


tandardi


beta


value of


-0.517


for female


with


ulting


.021,


significant


at the


level


These finding


that be


male


is more closely related


experiencing


than


being


female.


However,


it may


-I a a


a


a -


* *


I








factors


experiencing


than


are one


sex or


race.


Although maleness


associated more


strongly with


having


events,


although


being


black


significant,


female


experience


the most


events.


Hypothe


hypoth


predicted


an inverse


relationship


between


person


' scores


on the


three


scal


social


-psychiatric


symp tomato logy


their


ores


on each


indices


were


analyzed


relative


proposed


inverse


relationship was


supported


Anxiety


symptomss


- The


relationship


between anxiety


symptoms


(ANX)


ES was


significant


inver


e direction.


can be


seen


appendix,


analysis


variance


procedure res


ulted


an F


core of


.5803 at


infinite d


This


finding


significant


became education,


= 33.


level


5526


cores


for the


infinite d


component


significant


.001


level )


occupational


prestige,


.1817


significant


level )


income,


= 40.


5838


significant at


.001


level)


The multiple


linear


regres


analysis,


which controlled


other


sociodemographic


variables


life-cri


events,


yielded


sup-


portive


results


Education,


with


tandardized


beta,


score


.815


infinite


significant at


level)


income


tandardi


beta


-.10641,


yielding


an F


score


.323


at 1


infinite


significant


level)


Occupational


1 .


r' ..L r sfl a


con


- I


r Mi fr\ .. .^ .L


- -I _


L- ,


-I I


JAVA~U






Anxiety


Function


- Thi


section


examined


relationship


between


personS


'SES


their


inability


function


social


analysis


variance


procedure


yielded an


significant


.001


level


infinite d


.f.)


supporting


concept


difference


among


quintiles


components


following


= 2.


values


7905


were obtained


significant at


4 and


level)


infinite d


income,


education,


= 5.0153


significant at


.001


1evel )


occupational


restige,


= 4.7783


significant at


.001


level)


regres


analysis


, controlling


the other


sociodemographic


variabi


life


-cri


events,


as may


be seen


appendix,


standardized


beta


SES wa


-.09887


yielding


an F score of


16.859,


significant


infinite


level


component analy


scores


resulted


each


rather


component were


interesting


significant.


findings


standardized


betas


were


inverse,


scores


the component


were


education,


2.066;


income,


.515


occupational


estige,


.407


Depression


- A depression


scale was


third measure


social


symptomatology


relationship b


analy


to be


tween


f variance


analyzed,


person


procedure


supporting


' depres


hypothe


scores


relating


five


inverse


their


quintiles


yielded


significant F


value of


35.8979


at 4 and


infinite


value was


significant at


level


components


measured were analy


eparately


yielded


following


results.


education


score


(Educ5)


yielded


an F


value of


.5087







income measure also


yielded


significant


results


level.


income


value was


.3329


infinite d.


Occupational


tige wa


significant at


level


valu


at 4


infinite d


A multiple


linear


regres


assessment of


relation


hip of SES


depression


scores


yielded


similar


results


The overall


F score of


SES,


when


the other


ociodemographic variabi


were


hel d


con-


stant,


regr


result ted


value


session analysis


significant at


components,


1 evel


with


the other


separate


sociodemo-


graphic


variabi


held


constant


their mean


val ues


resulted


following


findings:


value of


education


(35.


646)


significant at


.001


level


value of


income


.017)


igni-


ficant at


.001


level


value


occupational


prestige


seemed


predictive,


Hypothes


hypothes i


but wa


till


predi


significant at


i tive


relation


level


hip between


number


different


types


which


ersons


experience and


degree of


social


-psychiatric


ymptomatology they manifest.


Essentially,


person


experience


life-cri


events


they will


exhibit more


symptomatology


iety


. Thi


hypothesis


Symptom


was s


a multiple


supported


by the


linear regr


finding


session


analysis


effect of LCE on


sociodemographic


anxiety


relation


hips


ymptom

were


scores,


held


during which


constant,


other


significant


relation


hip was


found.


analysis


based


on the LCE


reported


as experienced


during


past


year,


as well


as those


period


to 2


years


ago.


Both measures


yielded


values


. A


t .







Life-crisis


events,


themsel v


accounted for


less


variance


iety


ymptom


scores


than


SES.


However,


when


components


LCE

over


SES were


separated


accounted for more variance


female, middle aged


*


included


than


did any


or older,


in another


equation,


the components


of lower


More-


would


crease


the probability


that a


person


would


exhibit


;ymptomatology


tatuses


race and


residence were


significant.


Anxiety


indices


Function


found


similar


significant


analy


the anxiety function


relationship between


the experiencing


of LCE and


having


anxiety


symptoms


degree


that


person


find


it difficult


fulfill


their work and


family


roles.


experiencing


during


preceding year or


period


years


ago wa


ectly r


lated


high anxiety function


scores


relation


hip wa


significant at


.001


level


both


time period


contrast


anxiety


symptom measure,


analysis


found


significantly


.001


level )


inversely


related


to anxiety function.


tatu


of being


female wa


directly


related


.001


level


experiencing


anxiety function


symptoms when


controlling


life


-cri


events.


LCE are


themselves


accounting


significant degree of


variance


symptom


scores,


the combination


of having


one or more


different


types


LCE,


being younger,


ing female would


probably re-


the manif


station


number of


symptoms.


analysis


iety


symptoms


variabi


race and


residence


* ra -. n -u r


___~__


1I | 1 J


. .. .. JL _]


-








Depr


session


- The


experiencing


LCE accounted


significant


degree of


varianc


depression


scale


scores


level


con-


t to


previous


symptom measure


significant.


Being


depr


essed wa


related


being


female


1 evel


ignl-


ficant


.001


level )


inverse


relation


hip was


present again


index


fact,


accounted


for more variance


depress


scores


than


LCE.


However,


again when


the component


part


were corn-


pared


experiencing


LCE,


then


accounted


the mo


variance


depr


session


scores


finding


appears


to give


support


the concept


-dimen


ional


meas


ure of


social


ratification.


Hypothes


hypoth


predicted


that


recency with


which


experienced


would


be an


important determinant of


social


-psy-


chiatri


symptomatology.


means


iety


during


symptoms


relative


having


amount of


experienced


variance


most


accounted


recent LCE


year


(LCE1)


or having


recent


event


years


(LCE2),


it wa


found


that


events


both


the di


hotomi zed


time


frames


were


significant at


.001


The con


cept of


recency was


supported,


that


standardized


betas


more


recent


events


accounted


greater


degree of


variance


iety


symptoms.


There


litti


doubt


that


the more


recent


events


have


been


remembered


with more accuracy


through


ective


perception


than


were


events


from


the more


tant past.


However,


inherent


remembering


events


that


they may


have


some eff


ect on


tence.







the anxiety


scale,


more


variance was


accounted


by LCE1


than


by LCE


similar finding


emerged


the a


sses


sment of


the depres


scale


scores.


Both LCE1


LCE2 were


significant at


.001


level


Thus,


three


scales,


LCE1


LCE2 were directly related


ymptom


scores


l evel,


LCE1


accounted


for more variance


than did


Commentary


and Summary


Findings


Life-Cri


Events


Age was


significantly


inversely


related


having


LCE.


Race wa


significant


itself f


number of


experienced.


group,


though
level


black


being a
o having


femal


female wa


LCE.


experien


inver


the mo


ely related


t LCE,


at a


even


significant


significantly


different LCE


persons


inver


related


number


experienced.


types


of LCE most


year were tlrst
hospitalization
for one month -
member 10.1%.


death


frequently e
of a close


family member
; and fourth,


experienced
friend 1
- 15.9%;
death of


during


third,
a close


last


second,
unemployment
family


Black
year


femal


despite


may
their


and younger-than
of more events.


have e
being


experienced
black and


-average age may


the most LCE


female


predispose


because


them


during
their


the pa


the experiencing


Whether
if any,


Differential


a person
bearing


Rates


Symptoma tology


resides
on the e


Social


in a


rural


or urban


area


little,


experiencing


-Psychiatric









tatu


of being


female appear


to be strongly related


increa


probability


anx


iety


session


ymptom


symptoms.


having
connect


generalized anxiety
ted with work and f


symptoms,
family role


strongly


-dimen


as being more


inver


ional
than


related


measure of


three


to manif


social


separate mea


station


ratification


sures


symptom


supported


niche


social


Age,


as a


variable


ymptom manifes


person becomes
symptoms, and


symptoms


an important


station,


older,
vastly


Moreover,


which


there
lower


but unanticipated
somewhat unexplained


s a greater
probability


seems


likelihood
of anxiety


be unrelated


i influence


of anxiety
function


depression.


The
area


three


hwab


social


-Warheit


cales


ychiatric well


apparently
-being.


are measuring different


Life-Cri


Ev en ts


Social


-Psychiatric


Symptomatology


accounted


significant degree of


variance on


three


indices


symptoms


Although LCE a
be essentially


hare


separate


some common


predictor


variance,


they


appear


.ymptomatol ogy.


Although yo
variable of
direct on a


unger


persons


another,


experienced


direct


the most


relationship


no relation


type


on one
the th


s of
cale,


LCE,
an i


ird.


total


three s
variabi
10%, an


amount of


depr


session


variance


accounted


complete mode


s anxiety
- 17%.


compri


;ymptom


- 14%,


scores


on the


ociodemographic


anxiety


function


Methodological


Considerations


Further


analy


of LCE


should


cons


ider


question


not addressed


this


tudy


ese qu


estion


might


include differentiating


between


those


events


which


may be


resultants


social


-psychiatric


impairment,


S. ., 6


- E -


.. t


r


rF.


- *


__~_


1







addition,


others might


pursue


concepts


which may


have


influenced


result


this


tudy,


for whi


no methodological


control


taken.


meeting


Social


events


-struc


which


tural


coping


require


alternatives may b


financial


instance,


more


whereas


important


personality


structure may


be a more


important


resource when


confronted with


event


involving


death


. It may


also


found


that a


person


continues


on through


prolonged


seri


events,


he may


develop a


type of


"event


immunity"


which


will


cause


impairment


reach a


plateau


level


(Thomason,


1974)


And,


differential


rates


with which


various


groups


psychotropic


drugs may artificially


decrease


symptomatology


scores


users.


Further


research may


prove more explanatory by placing


greater


empha


on the


social


-psychological


approach,


involving


inte-


gration,


the frequency


labeling


by peer


the con


ideration of


person


' perception


event


they


have experienced.


Future


tudi


should


perhaps


include an analysis


the u


e of


community


helping


agency


person


are coping with


LCE.


The change


relative


standing


within


everyday


social


circle


following


LCE may


be of


greater


importance


than


relative


standing within


city or


country.


Research


be done


should


refine


these


theories,


consider the


absolute

weighting


number of

procedure


events


which


assess


occur


impact


person
the e


life,


as well


vents.


as a


tudy


means


ured


only


the one mo


recent experience of


any type of


event,


rather


than


recording


absolute


number


that


type of


event experienced.








addition,


it did


take


into account


degree of


trauma


involved


death


child,


as compared with


that


resulting


from a


broken


engagement.


future


research


based on


similar


survey


instrument,


choice


vocabulary


constructing


question


important.


this


tudy,


example,


persons


lower


often mi


understood


word


spouse


and,


with


surprising


frequency,


interpreted


the concept of


pouse


unfaithfulness


as a


reference


regularity


church


attendance.


Traditionally,


type


social


research


almo


exclu


ively


made


use of


linear mod


analysis


future


research,


basic


equations


should


set up


fit curves


to data


based


on multiplicative


exponential












CHAPTER 5

OVERVIEW


Previously,


researchers


cons


tently


found


lower SES


groups


more


psychiatrically


ymptomatic


than


higher


groups.


this


tudy,


one primary


goal


cover whether


relationship


existed within


area


under


tudy


it did,


could


it b


explained


showing


effect of


the combination


persons


' having more


LCE and


having


access


fewer


social


tructural


coping


alternatives


In analyzing


those groups


experienced


most


types


relative


degree of


their


symptomatol ogy,


seen


that


broad


social


theme of


research


supported.


Although


both


LCE and


sociodemographic


variable


i gnificant


predictors


ymptomatology,


they


remain


tinct


influences


despite


being


somewhat


intertwined.


separateness


ese concepts


illu-


treated


looking


at an


analysis


the groups


which


experienced


greatest


number


relative


their degree of


ymptomatology


an example,


age was


strongly


inversely


related


number


different


types


persons


experience.


However,


age was


directly related


only


index


ymptomatology


. Moreover,


although


black


females


an aggregate grouping


experienced


the mo


types


LCE,


they were


more


symptomatic


than


other female


similar


SES.


addition,


even


. As








Several


avenues


explanation may


serve


to integrate


these


findings.


Although


they may


female


not b


more


exhibit a


greater


psychiatrically


number


impaired.


psychiatric


cultural


symptoms,


role of


women


allows


more open


expr


session


emotions


feeling


which


have come


defined


as symptomatology


Conversely,


the ba


the more


highly


;ymptomatic


scores


femal


lower


persons


may be


their


that


life


ese groups


pace


lack


social


power within


ecology


the social


Within


structure


conceptual


control


frame-


work,


Negroes


control


over


their


social


ecol ogical


milieu would


have


interpreted


as being


depend


nt on


their


rather


than


upon


their


racial


identity.


The variant


scores


suggest


several


interpretations.


increasing


general


iety with


age may


result from a


estige


with-


youth-oriented


culture.


However


person may also


become


ocked


into


become more socially


integrated.


This


second


framework


increased


social


esion would


have


predicted


decreased


anxiety with


age.


relation


requires


further


tudy.


increased


concern


among youth


about work and


family roles may be


to their


potentially


till


ambiguou


undergoing


anti ci pa tory


definitions


their


socialization and


position


experiencing


society.


The depres


lower


group


, regard


age,


must


analyzed


within


generic


framework


articular

of mental


nature of

illness.


depr


session


Anger


rather


turned


than within


inward


com-


ponent of


depr


session


expr


session


anger


privilege


power







persons


that depr


feelings


are normative


standards


of behavior


reinforced


those


power


. Depress


ion,


clinically


socially


defined


as an individual


pathology,


preclude


the development of


collective con


ciousness


common


plight and


resultant


social


disruption.


social


scientists


continue


focus


on the qu


estion


of why


people


feel


the way


they


the broad


pective


finds


dogma


confounded


science,


science


confu


ingly


intertwined


with metaphysi


and mental


health


as much


ques


tion


political


morality


as one of


quantification.































APPENDIX

























APPENDIX


Section


- Life-


Crisis


Events










LIFE-CRISIS EVENTS

Respondents were instructed to indicate the time
during which they most recently experienced any
event, in the following format:

0. Never
1. Less than 1 year ago
2. 1-2 years ago
3. 3-4 years ago
4. 5 or more years ago
7. Don't know
8. Not answered
9. Not applicable

Life-Crisis Events Listing

1. Death of child
2. Death of spouse
3. Jail sentence
4. Death of close family member (parent, sibling)
5. Spouse unfaithful
6. Major financial difficulties (very heavy
debts, bankruptcy)
7. Business failure
8. Fired
9. Miscarriage or stillbirth
10. Divorce
11. Marital separation due to argument
12. Court appearance for serious legal violation
13. Unwanted pregnancy
14. Hospitalization of family member (serious
ill ness)
15. Unemployed for one month
16. Death of close friend
17. Demotion
18. Major personal physical illness (hospital-
ization or one month off work)
19. Beganr extramarital affair
20. Loss of personally valuable object
21. Law suit
22. Academic failure (important exam or course)
23. Child married against respondent's wishes
24. Break engagement
25. Increased arguments with spouse








e-Cri


Events


Cont'd


Take a


large


Son drafted


loan


Arguments with


(more


than


one-half


yea r


earnings)


or co-worker


SCHWAB-WARHEIT


SCALES


SOCIAL


-PSYCHIATRIC


SYMPTOMS


Except


item


were gathered


the Depre
following


ssion


Scale,


responses


these question


format:


time


Often
Sometimes
Seldom
Never
Not answered
Not applicable


The Anxiety


Symptom Scale


cale


consi


following


items


. Do


your


Are you e
they feel


hands


.ver


ever


trembi


troubled


damp and


enough


your


clammy


hands


bother


you?


or feet sweating


so that


Have

Have


ever

ever


been

been


bothered

troubled


your heart beating


"cold


hard?


sweats"?


you feel
ailments


that


bothered


in different parts


your


orts


body?


(different kind


ever


have


appetite?


health affected


the amount of work


(housework)


you do


ever feel


weak


over?


ever


have


spell


zzines


Have


ever


been bothered


not exerting your


hortness


of breath


when


elf?


the most


part,


- -


feel


healthy


enough


carry




52

The Anxiety Symptom Scale (Cont'd)


During the last year, have you ever had
periods of days or weeks when you couldn't
take care of things because you couldn't get
goi ng?


The Anxiety Function Scale


This scale contains the following items:


During the last year, did worry or nervousness
get you down physically?


During the last year, did worry or nervousness


caus


problems with your family life?


During the last year, did worry or nervousness
interfere with your social activities?

During the last year, did worry or nervousness


cause you to


tay at home or in bed?


During the last year, were you unable to do your
usual work because of worry or nervousness?


In the last year


, how often did you feel that


you might have a nervous breakdown or that you
might lose your mind?


In th


last year, did this feeling get you down


physically


In the last year, has this feeling caused
problems with your family/personal life?


In the last year


, did this feeling interfere


with your social activities


In the last year, have you ever had to stay at
home or in bed because of this feeling?


In the last year, were you unable to do your
usual work at any time because of feeling that
you might have a nervous breakdown?


Depression Scal







Depres


Scale


(Cont'd)


During


year,


the way you want


how often would


them


things


t turn


year,


often


have


cryi ng


like


spells


or felt


doing


thing


year, now
; anymore?


often


have


you felt you don


enjoy


often


have


fel t


lonely?


does


the future


look


Possible


responses


were-


Excellent
Good
Fair
Poor
Bad


year,


often


have


felt


that


life


hopel


ess?


How often


feel


that


people don


't care what happens


you?


tend


feel


tired


morning


have any trouble getting


leep


staying


asleep?


feel


ailments


that


are bothered


in different


parts


your


sorts


(different


body


kind


ever


have


loss


appetite


During
when v


could


year,


have


't get going?


ever


periods


days


or weeks


last


say you


year when


blamed


your


things


didn


elf?


t turn


out,


how often would


last


year,


often did


think about


suicide


last


year,


often


have


trouble with


sleeping


Life


o difficult


get ahead.


these days


feel


that


there


no use


trying


way?


. Do















O


C'atn
I ..
r- tU
, 1 :<



10-

In ,

















01
C

1 V)

f0


O
0r
-o c
.1->s-
0f

-Er)
QI >


'-


-a


r-
+J0

3 U)
0 -I
C0


C
05-
O L
*r- a

tO E
NW

I-

4- *


0I to


r- &-
MO0
C= <
O0 t
cw Q


r- 5


ct4
*r-0-
OlsC


0
3


to
*r
.-o -
1- <
sien
C
"O *r
r-
*-O
.c- <


















O
en

I in
r- 5.
Q1
G)
p-s.


0
*r-
LL- O








NUMBER OF


VARIOUS


LIFE-CRI


EVENTS


EXPERIENCED


SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC GROUP


EDUCATION


MEAN NUMBER


EVENTS


S.D.


Grade School


Some High
H.S. Grad


school


uate


Some College or Trade
College Graduate


,3.1686,
Signi


at 4 and
ficant at


.104
.156
.973
.132
.829
005


.318
.201
.315
.004
.241


infinite degrees
the .05 level


1997


freedom


INCOME


DOLLARS


MEAN


NUMBER


EVENTS


S.D.


3,000
6,000
10,000


- 2,999
- 4,999
- 9,999
-14,999


.452


.012
.048
.968


T.043


.176
.067


T.235


1635


.0326 at 4
The result


infinite


degree


significant


freedom


OCCUPATIONAL


PRESTIGE


MEAN


NUMBER OF


EVENTS


S.D.


.349


- 19
- 39
- 59
- 79
- 99


.415


1.046
1.009
.998


.365
.156
.085
"24


.915
"053


2029


5.82
Thi


at 4


result


infinite degrees
s significant at


freedom


level


MEAN NUMBER


EVENTS


S.D.


.206


Lowest Q
Second Q
Third Q
Fourth 0


High


1.129
.997
1.015


.916
.053


est Q


.386
.295
.163
.268
.003
.240


2029


SES








MEAN


NUMBER


EVENTS


S.D.


.559
.318


- 22
- 29
- 44
- 59


.046
.753
"tO5


.476
.456
.356
.192
.908
7^5s


6241


result


infinite degrees
significant at t


freedom


.001


level


RACE-


MEAN


NUMBER


EVENTS


White Male


White


.083


Female


Black Male


Black


.250
.425


Female


T.U050


.460


1.238-


rOTT


,8.4279


4 and


result


infinite degrees


ignifi


cant at


freedom
01 level


RESIDENCE


MEAN


NUMBER OF


EVENTS


Farm
Rural


.972


Non-Farm


1.050
1.060
T^b5"


town


1.095
1.291
1.234


72
337
1606
2O15


.3603 at


This


result


infinite degrees
not significant


freedom


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APPENDIX


Section


- Anxiety Symptoms






















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APPENDIX


Section


Three


- Anxiety Function
























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APPENDIX


Section


Four


- Depr


session























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74





DEPRESSION SCALE SCORES BY
SES COMPONENTS


OCCUPATIONAL
PRESTIGE


Mean Depressi on
Score


STD DEV


.069
.971
.900
.178
.160


10.426
10.0 28
8.741
8.385
7.318


12.837


9.317


2029


F= 16.32, at 4 and infinite d.f.,significant at the .001
level

EDUCATI ON


Grade School
Some H.S.
H.S. Grad
Some Coll,Trad
College Grad


.996
.209
.843
.583
.165


.992
.544
.994
.040
.891


12.846


9.287


1997


F= 23.5087, at 4 and infinite d.i., significant at the
.001 level

INCOME


0-2999
3000-4999
6000-9999
10000-14999
15000 +


.869
.006
.587
.818
.708


.964
.987
.151
.912
.777


12.695


9.158

























APPENDIX


Section


- Race


- Sex


Symptomatol ogy











ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE
SOCIAL-PSYCHIATRIC SYMPTOMATOLOGY
BY RACE-SEX


ANXIETY SYMPTOM SCALE


Mean Score


STD DEV


White Male
White Female
Black Male
Black Female


4.851
6.413
6.020
6.900


6.483
7.093
8.085
7.456


1012


5.855


6.997


2017


F= 8.5627, at 3 and infinite d.f., significant at the
.001 level


ANXIETY FUNCTION SCALE


White Male
Whi te Female
Black Male
Black Female


1.067
1.874
1.240


.294


3.289
4.395
3.914
4.672


1012


1.578


4.042


2017


F= 7.7514, at 3 and infinite d.f


significant at the
.001 level


DEPRESSION SCALE


White Male
White Female
Black Male
Black Female


10.681
13.963
12.590


15.831


8.153
9.631
9.629


1012


.352


12.831


9.334


2017


F=24.5084, at 3 and infinite df


si gnificant at the
-f ^











BIBLIOGRAPHY


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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


William A.


Mellan


born


November


1946,


Cheverly,


Maryland.


After


graduating


from Woodrow


Wil son


High


School


hington,


. in


1964,


continued


education


Rollin


College,


where


earned


degree


Bachelor


Arts


1968.


received


the Master


Rehabi citation


Counseling


Degree


December,


1969,


after which


worked


until


september,


1971,


Florida


Vocational


Rehabilitation


Program.


that


time


began


tudie


Sociol ogy,


medical


Un i ve rs i ty


ociology


Florida.


Department


beginning


doctoral


program,


he was


research


stant


Regional


Rehabilitation


earch


titute.


oon


there-


after


became


september,


1973,


Kellogg


began


Foundation


work


Doctoral


Associate


Fellow


Director


each


Winter Haven


pi tal


Community


Mental


Health


Center,


where


presently


Director


Research,


Di rector


of South


Health


Family


Life


tudi


es.


Center


Additionally,


Allied


Health


rese


arch


structional


associate


Personnel,


University


Florida.


. In










ertify


conforms


fully adequate
of Doctor of


that


acceptable


have


read


standard


e, in scope and
Philosophy.


study an
cholarly


quality,


as a


that


in my


entation


ssertation


opinion


the degree


Associate Professor of Sociology


I
conform
fully a


certify


that


acceptable


adequate,


Doctor


have
sta


cope


Philosophy.


read


ndard


quality,


study an
cholarly


as a


that


in my


opinion


presentation


ssertation


for the degree


Charl


Fra


zier


tant Prof


ft_^


essor


ut-


Sociology


I ce
conforms
fully ade
of Doctor


rtify


that


acceptable


quate, in
of Philo


have


read


standard


scope and
ophy.


quality


study an
cholarly
as a di


that


in my


presentation
ssertation fo


opinion


the degree


Professor


of Sociology


lA^^P~





I c
conforms
fully ad


of Doctor


ertify that


to acceptable


equate,


have


read


standard


cope and


of Philosophy.


this


tudy


that


in my


cholarly presentation


quality,


as a


ssertation


opinion


for the


n it
s
degree


fessor of


Rehabilitation


Counseling


I c
conforms
fully ad


Doctor


ertify that


acceptable


equate,


Philo


have


read


standard


scope and
ophy.


this


quality,


study an
cholarly


as a


that


in my


presentation
ssertation fo


opinion


the degree


Bruce


Prof


-


Ihomason


essor


Rehabilitation


Counseling


I
conform


fully


certify


that


acceptable


adequate,


Doctor


of Philo


have


read


standard


scope and
ophy.


quality,


study an
cholarly


as a


that


in my


presentation


ssertation


opinion


the degree


benjar
Profe


orman


or of


biology


This dis
ment of
Graduate


ments


sertation wa


Sociology
Council,


in th
and w


ubmi tted
e College


a


the degree of


s accepted
Doctor of


the Graduate Fa


as partial
Philosophy.


ulty


sciences and
fulfillment


to th


Depart-
e


require-


March,


1975


V I S


/^f~h^A4j^-





































UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

3II 1262 I073 2IIII I055II 7
3 1262 07332 055 7