The expressed counseling needs and perceptions of counseling of older adult students

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
The expressed counseling needs and perceptions of counseling of older adult students in selected Florida community colleges
Physical Description:
xii, 194 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Ganikos, Mary Lee, 1949-
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Adult education -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Aged -- Education   ( lcsh )
Counseling -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 183-193.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Mary L. Ganikos.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000206774
oclc - 04042178
notis - AAX3568
System ID:
AA00002210:00001

Full Text
















This is an authorized facsimile
printed by microfilm/xerography on acid-free paper
in 1983 by


UNIVERSITY MICROFILM


Ann Arbor, Michigal


INTERNATIONAL
n. U.S.A.













INFORMATION TO USERS


This materials was produced from a microfilm copy of the original document. While
thei most advanced technological means to photograph and reproduce this document
have been used, the quality is heavily dependent upon the quality of the original
submitted.

The following explanation of techniques is provided to help you understand
markings or patterns which may appear on this reproduction.

1. The sipgn or "target" for pages apparently lacking from the document
photographed is "Missing Page(s)". If it was possible to obtain the missing
page(s) or section, they re spliced into the film along with adjacent pages.
This may have necessitated cutting thru an image and duplicating adjacent
pages to insure you complete continuity.

2. When an image on the film is obliterated with a large round black mark. it
is an Indication that the photographer suspected that the copy may have
moved during exposure and thus cause a blurred image. You wil find a
good.image of the page in the adjacent frame.

3. When a map, drawing or chart, etc., was part of the material boing
photographed the photographer followed a definite method in
"ectioning" the material. It is customary to begin photoing at the upper
lefit hand corner of a large sheet and to continue photoing from left to
right in equal sections with a small overlap. If necessary, sectioning is
continued again beginning below the first row and continuing on until
complete.

4. The majority of users indicate that the textual content is of greatest value,
however, a somewhat higher quality reproduction could be made from
"photographs" if essential to the understanding of the dissertation. Silver
prints of "photographs" may be ordered at additional charge by writing
the Order Department, giving the catalog number, title, author and
specific pages you wish reproduced.

5. PLEASE NOTE: Some pages may have indistinct print. Filmed a
received.

University Microfilms International
300 North Zeeb Road
Ann Artor. Michigan 48106 USA
St John's Road. Tyler's Green
High Wycombe. Bucks. England HP10 8HR













78-6697


GANIKOS, Mary Lee, 1949-
THE EXPRESSED COUNSELING


NEEDS


PERCEPTIONS OF COUNSELING OF OLDER


ADULT STUDENTS


COMMUNITY COLLEGES.


The Univer
Ph.D., 197
Education,


sity of Florida,
7
guidance and counseling


University Microfilms International, ,wArbo. ,ch.gon 4o6

0 e


1977


MARY LEE GANIKOS



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


IN SELECTED FLORIDA















THE EXPRESSED COUNSELING NEEDS AND PERCEPTIONS
OF COUNSELING OF OLDER ADULT STUDENTS
IN SELECTED FLORIDA COMMUNITY COLLEGES







By


MARY L.


GANIKOS


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1977
































To my parents















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


I wish to acknowledge the cooperation and assistance

of many persons in the development and completion of this


study.


Particular appreciation is


expressed


Dr. E. L. Tolbert, Chairman


of my supervisory committee,


not only for his technical


assistance


and emotional support,


but also for his encouragement of my pursuit of my


interests


in gerontological counseling;


Dr. Sandra B.


tinued


encouragement,


Damnico,


committee member


guidance,


friendship,


r for her con-

and ability to


"brainstorm';


Dr. Larry C.


Loesch,


cornittee


member,


for his


statis-


tical consultation,


support,


and ability to turn my


"mountains'


into


"mole-hills';


Dr. Robert C.


Ziller,


committee member,


for his


suggestions and general


counsel;


Dr. Ellen


Amatea,


committee member,


for her help


throughout the


tast two


years;


Dr. Harold Riker,


who served


as an interim committee


member and as a colleague interested in aging;


Drs.


R. S. Mackenzie,


Travis Carter,


and J.


B. Hodges,


my former employers who not only encouraged me to pursue a


doctoral program,


schedules


but also allowed me flexible work


so that I could;









Dr. James L.


Wattenbarger,


for his invaluable assistance


in making the initial contacts with the community colleges


involved in


this study;


All the persons


who helped


me identify


subjects and all


of the

study.


students who were willing to


serve


as subjects


in this


My dear friends,


Ceci


Colbert,


Oliva Espin,


Pam Monast,


Martha


Inman,


and Barbara Kaiser


who continued to believe in


me particularly when


I had my doubts;


Dick,


who was an eternal


source


of strength,


assist-


ance,


and a


"Little


Prince"


throughout my journey;


Dr. Stephen Sledjeski,


not only for his statistical


help,


but moreso for his


much needed and appreciated


friendship,


and caring


over


the past year;


Jim Whitney,


for his


love,


pati


ence


, continued support,


and his admired ability to place


in their


proper


perspective;


My mother


for her


support and enduring belief


in my


abilities for the last 28


years;


My father for his continuing


In a very


special


I wi


University of Florida Center for


love and encouragement.

Sto acknowledge the

Gerontological Studies


and Programs for the


financial


assistance which made the


completion of


HEW,


this dissertation pos


Office of Human Development,


C


sible.

areer


(Department of

Training Grant


in Gerontology,


Grant


#90-A-834.


Particular gratitude


expressed to Drs.

Angela O'Rand.


Carter Osterbind,


Harold Stahmer,

















TABLE OF CONTENTS


PAGE


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

LIST OF TABLES


a S a a a a a a a a a a

. a a a a a a a a a


ABSTRACT

CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


a a S a . 1


Purpose of the


Study


Sa a a C 1


Introduction and Background
Information . ..


Need


for the Study


. S 4 0 S C 5


Research Questions

Definition of Terms


* S C C C S C a

* C C a a a a
. .

. .


REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE .

Counseling Needs of Older Adult


Students .

Developmental


Tasks of Older Adulthood


Multiple Concerns and Challenges to
Adaptation . . .

Educational Needs of Older Adults .

Perceptions of Counseling and Couns


Types of Problems Perceived by


as Appropriate


elors


Students


for Counseling


Comparisons of Counseling and


Counselors with Other


Sources


of Help


Perceived Counselor Characteristics










CHAPTER
II


PAGE


(Continued)


Attitudes
Counseling


toward Counselors and


Perceptions
Function of


f counseling
student Age


as a
. a a C


METHODOLOGY . .

The Subjects . .

The Schools .

Instruments .

Instrument Development


Procedures


Treatment of the Data

RESULTS . .


SUMMARY


, DISCUSSION


AND IMPLICATIONS


APPENDICES


INSTRUMENTS


VALIDITY STUDY


ICNPS


VALIDITY STUDY FOR REWORDED ITEMS ICNPS


VALIDITY STUDY PCS


SAMPLE LETTER MAILED TO SUBJECTS


INFORMED CONSENT NOTICE


COVER LETTER AND INFORMATION FORM


ITEM STATISTICS FOR ALL SUBSCALES
INVENTORY OF EXPRESSED NEEDS AND PERCEIVED
SERVICES "EXPRESSED NEEDS" SECTION .

ITEM STATISTICS FOR ALL SUBSCALES
INVENTORY OF EXPRESSED NEEDS AND PERCEIVES
SERVICES "PERCEIVED SERVICES" SECTION .


ITEM STATISTICS FOR ALL SUBSCALES
PERCEPTIONS OF COUNSELING SURVEY









PAGE


REFERENCES


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


viii


. 183















LIST OF TABLES


TABLE


PAGE


INVENTORY OF COUNSELING NEEDS AND PERCEIVED
SERVICES: "EXPRESSED NEEDS" SECTION
RELIABILITY COEFFICIENTS. . . 66

INVENTORY OF COUNSELING NEEDS AND PERCEIVED
SERVICES: "PERCEIVED SERVICES" SECTION
RELIABILITY COEFFICIENTS . . 67

PERCEPTIONS OF COUNSELING SURVEY
RELIABILITY COEFFICIENTS . . 71


INVENTORY OF COUNSELING NEEDS AND PERCEIVED
SERVICES: "EXPRESSED NEEDS" SECTION SUB-


SCALE MEDIANS, MEANS
AND NUMBER OF CASES

SIGNIFICANT ANOVA RE


SCALES OF THE
SECTION .


ICNP


, STANDARD DEVIATIONS,
, . t S S .

SULTS FOR THE SIX SUB-
"EXPRESSED NEEDS"


INVENTORY OF COUNSELING NEEDS AND PERCEIVED
SERVICES: "PERCEIVED SERVICES" SECTION SUB-
SCALE MEDIANS, MEANS, STANDARD DEVIATIONS,


AND NUMBER OF


CASES


SIGNIFICANT ANOVA RESULTS FOR THE SIX SUB-
SCALES OF THE ICNPS: "PERCEIVED SERVICES"
SECTION . . . .

PEARSON PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS
BETWEEN THE SAME SUBSCALES OF THE TWO SECTIONS
OF THE ICNPS . . . . .

PERCEPTIONS OF COUNSELING SURVEY SUBSCALES,
MEANS, STANDARD DEVIATIONS, AND NUMBER OF
CASES' ... . . .

SIGNIFICANT AVOVA RESULTS FOR THE FIVE SUB-
SCALES OF THE PERCEPTIONS OF COUNSELING


SURVEY


(PCS)


SS S S S 104









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the


Requirements for


the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


THE EXPRESSED COUNSELING NEEDS AND PERCEPTIONS


OF COUNSELING AND OLDER ADULT STUDENTS
FLORIDA COMMUNITY COLLEGES

by


Mary L.


IN SELECTED


Gan ikos


August 1977


Chairman:


E. L.


Major Department:


Tolbert
Counselor Education


This study


was an attempt to provide


an increased understanding of older


better the


services


available to


student


the older


counselors with

ts in order to

student in the


community college


setting.


More specifically


this study examined the


expressed


counseling needs


of community


college students


were


at least 59


years


age.


Also


examined


were


per-


ceptions that these


older students


held of


counsel


lors


and coun


selling.


Six categories


of needs


were measured.


These


categories were 1) Vc

3) Personal Adjustment;


icational Needs;


2) Educational Needs


4) Family Relationships;


Social-


Interpersonal Adjustment;


and 6) Adjustment of Life Situa-


tions.


Perceptions


counselors


counsel


were


measured


in terms of the following


six dimensions:


1) Stigma


Associated.with Counseling;


Perceived Counselor









Characteristics;


3) Perceptions of Testing;


4) Severity


of Problems Perceived


as Appropriate for Counseling;


5) Perceived Appropriate Client Age;


and 6) Perceived


Services


which counselors


can render.


The results indicated that approximately half of


the subjects expressed needs


of need.


in the above-stated areas


Educational needs were most prominent,


needs in the area of


family relationships


were


least


pressed.


When needs


were


examined by the variables of


age,


sex


, marital status, and educational attainment prior


to attending the community college,


significant main and


interaction effects were found.

59 65) expressed greater needs


Younger students


(ages


than older subjects


(ages


66 and above).


Women


expressed


greater needs


than men


Widowed


persons


persons in


expressed


area


a greater


of adjustment


need


to life


than married

situations.


Expressed needs in


areas


of personal adj


ustment and


adjustment to life situations were gr

who had not completed a secondary sch


eater


persons


ool education


than


for persons of higher educational attainments.


Younger


subjects


express


ed a greater need


than


the older subjects


in the


areas


of educational and vocational needs.


Also found was

tive perceptions of


that the subjects


counsel


gene


lors and counsel


rally held posi-

ing. Little


stigma was


associated


with counseling


involvement.


While


the subjects generally felt

for persons of their age, t


that counseling


was appropriate


also felt that counselors


ex-









are better prepared to work with younger students.


Coun-


selors were viewed


as best being able


to provide


assist-


ance for educational


needs.


Significant main effects were


found for the independent variables


of age and previous


educational


levels.


Younger subj


ects held a more positive


outlook toward counseling than did older subjects.


tionally,


Addi-


persons with a college education had a more


positive outlook toward counseling than did those subjects

who had not completed a secondary education.


The study concluded with a discussion of


the implica-


tions of


the findings


for the


field of


counseling.


These


implications addressed

and future research.


themselves


to training,


practice,















CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION


Purpose of the Study


The purpose of


this research


is twofold:


investigate


the expressed counseling needs of older adult


community college students


and 2)


to inve


stigate the


perceptions


they hold of


counseling.


Introduction and Background


Information


Today's higher education in


stitutions


are witness


an unprecedented shift in the age


distribution of the stu-


dent population, a tr

With the exception of

recent high school gr

the major portion of


end which is expected


to continue.


the influx of World War II


aduates


veterans,


have traditionally comprised


the student body of higher education


institutions.


Students past


of 25


were


few and


those past 60 were quite rare.


student body


Recently,


is becoming considerably more


however,


heterogeneous


with respect to age in that a smaller proportion of the


traditionally


aged student population has been enrolling


while at the same time an increasing proportion of non-


traditionally


aged students has been pursuing higher


education activities


(Berendzen 1974;


Gleazer


1974).










Although presently underrepresented in institutions


of higher education nationally


(Academy


for Educational


Development,


"AED"


, 1974;


Harris


& Associates 1975)


well as


in the state of Florida


(Myrick


1974),


older


adults are demonstrating trends toward greater partici-

pation in higher education activities (Mason 1974).


Furthermore,


for several


reasons,


it is


predicted


that


future generations of older adults will be more evident


in higher education


(Birren & Woodruff


1973;


McClusky


1974).


First,


whereas in


the past few educational


experiences


were devised to meet the

are now becoming aware of


age group and a growing number of


needs of the elderly, educators

the educational needs of this


institutions are offering


and planning to offer


educational opportunities


directed at


the elderly


influencing this

elderly are the


1974)


interest


increase


Among others,


in providing


two major

services


ed direction and funding


forces

for the


from various


federal and state

of the concept of


agency


lifelong


1974)


learning.


and the


acceptance


A recent study demon-


strated that even with


today's grave financial


problems in


higher education,


there was


increased


funding


in educational


gerontology


1974).


Whereas the


time


for learning has


traditionally been


conceptualized


as a distinct phase


of development coterminous


with the young adult's


entry into the


job world


(Hesburgh,


Miller,


Wharton 1973)


American


socie


ty is now recognizing


the necessity


and logic of,


continuous and lifelong










learning for


persons


of all ages


(Long


1974;


McClusky


1974)


. McClusky


states


that


"it is becoming


increasingly


evident


that adult,


continuing and lifelong education


already well on its way to becoming one of


and significant aspects


the most dynamic


of the larger educational domain"


(McClusky


1974,


In addition,


recent


research


validating the belief


that


the ability to learn


necessarily


wanes with age

and Buech 1973;


(Baltes and Labouvie


Walsh


1975)


1973;


has also had


Schaie,

a strong


Labouvie,


impact


on the acceptance of


lifelong


learning


for older adults


in particular.


Secondly,


in today's


society with an increased life-


expectancy and

jobs and work


early retirement


life


trends


(McClusky


1974)


are of shorter duration than in the


past.


As a result,


more people


are experiencing an in-


creasing number of retirement


years


during which education


becomes a viable

rate of both tec


dated knowledge by


activity.


hnological a


all members


Furthermore,

nd social ch


of society


the accelerating


Lange demands


irrespective of


their age or employment status


(Hiemstra 1972,


Long


1974).


Third,


research


indicates


a direct


rela


tionship be-


tween a person's


educational


level and his involvement


continued education


(Birren & Woodruff


1973;


Riley


& Foner


1968)


SIndications


are that future generations


of older


persons will be better educated.


In the


1970


census,


only


29.3% of those above age 65 had a high school dipolma.










However,


the Census Bureau projects


that in


1985,


will have been graduated from high school


(United States


Bureau of the Census 1972).


Fourth,


because the proportion of older adults becoming


involved in education


is expected


to increase


at the


same


time the actual population base


of this


age group will


crease,


an even


greater participation


in terms of absolute


numbers can be anticipated.


number of


the elderly


steadily


Since 1900,


incre


asked


not only has the

, but their pro-


portion of the total population has


increased


as well.


In 1900,


the elderly


were


stituted 4.1% of the total


3.1 million in number


population.


In 1970,


and con-

however,


the 20.2 million older


adults accounted for 9.9% of


total


population


(Cutler & Harootyan 1975).


Census


Bureau projections,


as summarized


and reported by Cutler


and Harootyan


(1975)


include


a continuing


increase


both


size


and proportion of the elderly population.


Pro-


jected absolute numbers


of older persons


are 23,051,000 and 40,261,000


respective


for 1980 and 2020


Assuming a


continuation in


the present


t replacement-level birth rate


trend,


the corresponding proportions would then equal


10.6% and 13.1% of the tot

The rapid growth rate


al population.

of the elderly population


particularly


significant for


the state of Florida which


is attracting an unusually


large number


of in-migrating


older adults


(Giordano & Seaman


1968)


Florida now has the


largest proportion of


elderly population


to total population










of any state


(Kincaid 1975a).


In 1975,


persons


65 and


above equalled 16.1% of Florida's population


(United


States Department of Health,


Education,


and Welfare 1976),


while persons age 60 and above made up 19.9% of the


state'


total population for that


sane


year


(Kincaid 1975a).


the ten states with the largest absolute number of older


persons,


Florida


experienced


the largest


and most dramatic


increase in the 65 and over population during the


1960


1970 decade,


an increase


had an increase of


33.1%


of 78.9%.


for the


Texas,


sare


ten


ranking


year


second


period


(Cutler


& Harootyan 1975)


During this decade,


Florida's


60 and over population


increased


twice


as rapidly


as its


total population


(Kincaid 1975a)


. From 1970 to 1975


alone,

growth,


Florida,


again


increased its


demonstrating the


elderly


largest


population by


36.7%


proportional


(United


States Department


of Health,


Education


and Welfare


1976)


Need for the


Study


In light of the above


considerations


, it is


obvious


that educational institutions

needs of the growing number of


must be prepared


older


adults who


to meet


are becoming


their students.


Moreover,


Florida's educational institutions


need to be particularly


responsive


and more immediately


attentive to


the older


adult student.


In attempts to enrich


the total life


experience


of each


enrollee,


educational institutions typically make available










to their students a variety of non-academic


services.


Among


these is counseling for personal,


social,


vocational and


academic growth.


According to Carkhuff


and Berenson


(1967),


the goal of counseling


is that


of helping


individuals


live


as whole persons,


fully


integrated in their emotional


intellectual and physical


resources.


In order to insure adequate counseling


services


practicing counselors


as well


as counselor


educators require in


formationn regarding the counseling


related needs of


the populations they


are to


serve.


Wrenn


(1962)


asserts


that the task of


a counselor can be


seen


only as the needs


of the students


are understood


, for


apart from these needs and the needs


of the


society


which they

existing.


are a part,


the counselor


no basis


Although counselors


have


traditionally docume


nted


needs and


concerns


student populations,


older


adults


represented


a relatively recent and new


about whom counselors


know


very


little


age group of students

and with whom coun-


selors have been minimally invol


ved.


Whereas


some


other


professional disciplines


have


addre


ssed


the older population


from their particular


perspectives,


a review


of the coun-


selling


literature


age group.

population


Blake

as the


suggests

(1975a,


an almost


total neglect of


described


this


the older adult


"forgotten and the ignored of APGA"


that the profession of counseling has shown


"virtually no


concern for the


experience


of the elderly.


students,









If counselors are

the same high quality


to begin to provide for older adults


of services


which have typically been


available to the traditionally aged student,


it is


necessary


to determine the


types of counseling needs and


concerns


which may possibly confront an older adult student.


In addition,

most accurate inf


the best counseling programs,


formation,


based on the


can be effective only if the


potential


counselees


perceive


such


services


favorably and


consequently would be receptive to becoming involved


(Form


1953a;


Forsythe 1971)


A student's perceptions of


coun-


selors and counseling may be the deciding


factor in a choice


of whether or not to seek help from a


couns


elor.


Negative


perceptions


and attitudes


toward counseling


may very well


inhibit a student's utilization of


counsel


services


(Form 1953a)


Therefore,


it is


important


that counseling


agencies and the counseling profession

perceptions that students have toward


know

them


the prevailing

so that effec-


tive educational and public


necessary.


relations


Although numerous


to determine student


s' perceptions


measures


studies


can be taken


have been conducted


of counseling,


none have


included or specifically

older adult student.


focused on


such perceptions of the


Thus,


the twofold pu


rpose


this


research


is to deter-


mine the counseling


needs


and perceptions of counseling of


older


adult students enrolled in selected community colleges


in the state of Florida.

addressed by this study


The specific questions to be


are as follows.









Research Questions


What


are the expressed counseling needs of


and the relative importance of such needs

to older adult community college students?

Is there any difference among the classi-

fications of selected demographic variables


(age,


sex,


marital status


, and previous


educational level)


on the types


of needs


expressed?

What types


of services


community college


do older adult


students perceive


coun-


selors


as providing?


Is there any difference


fications of


among the classi-


selected demographic variables


(age,


sex,


marital status,


and previous


educational

counselors


level)


on types of


are perceived


as being


services


able


provide?

Is there any relationship between older


adult community


coll


counseling needs and the


perceive counselors


students'

services


as being able


expressed

they

to provide?


How do older adult community


college students


perceive counselors and counseling?

Do older adult community college students

associate stigma with counseling involvement?









How do older


adult community college students


perceive counselors?


What are older adult community college


perceptions

counseling?


students


of testing which might be used


What severity of problems do older


adult com-


unity college


students perceive


as appropriate


for couns


eling?


Do older adult community college


ceive counseling


involvement as


students per-

appropriate


for persons of their


Is there any difference among the


classifica-


tion of selected demographic variables


(age,


sex,


marital


status,


vious


educational


level)


on older


adult students


' perceptions


counseling?


Definiti


on of Terms


Older Adults:


Persons


who are at least 60 years of


age of in


their sixieth

For purposes


r of


life.


of most governmental


as well as for gerontological studies


legislation

old age has


generally been chronologically d


efined


as 65


years


and above


(Cutler


& Harootyan 1975)


For


this


study,


however,


an older adult will be chronologi-


cally defined


earlier.


Two


as one who was born in 1917 or

main reasons for this deviatio


n are that










1) many educational institutions which offer special


programs and special financial arrangements


for older


adults


set their criterion age at 60;


and 2) because


of recent trends toward earlier retirement an in-


creasing number of people

ment life style at age 60.


are involved in a retire-


In fact,


it has


been pre-


dicted that by the year


2000


"the age of retirement


or---,


perhaps more


accu


rately


, the age of


'first


retirement'---will


In short,


come about age

60 rather than


55" (Neugarten 1975


65 has


been selected


as the minimum subject age for this study because an


increasing number of pe


rsons


are experiencing a


retirement life


style


at that age,


and more specifi-


cally,


are entitled to


spec


lal services


for senior


citizens


at a growing number


educational


institu-


tions.


Perceptions of


Counse


ling:


An individual's


concept-


ualization or subjective


definition of


counsel


ling or coun-


selors.


Counseling Needs:


The types of concerns,


problems,


developmental


issues


which may confront an


individual and


for which counseling may be a possible


source


of assistance.
















CPAHTER II


REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE


The review of


the related literature will be divided into


two major sections:


Counseling Needs of Older Adult


Stu-


dents and 2)

contain more


Perceptions


spec


ific


of counseling,


subdivi


each of which will


sions.


Counseling Needs of Older Adult Students


An obvious


characteristic of


that it can be effective only


inso


a service

far as the


rend


ering agency


services


rendered


are congruent with


Counseling

exception.


agencies


That


the needs


of its potential


institutions


the counseling profes


of higher


clientele.

education


are no


sion has recognized its


obligation to


cater


serve


ices


to the ne


eds of college


stu-


dents


is evidenced by the


large


number of


studies


of this


nature reported


in the literature.


While many studies,


such


as those by Koile and Bird


(1956)

Wright


Sharp and Marra


(1967)


and Yarrow


(1971)


(1964)


Suinn


focus


(1967) ,


Tolle


(1957)


on the needs of


traditionally-aged college students,


counselors


additionally


have been very attentive and


sensitive


to demographic


changes


in the composition of


the student body.


As higher education


institutions have begun


to attract and enroll


more


diverse










populations,

needs of suc


so too have counselors been concerned with


:h populations.


More specifically


the special n


eeds


of foreign students


have been the focus of


investigators such


as Arjona


(1956),


Hagey and Hagey


(1972)


and Zain


(1965).


The needs of black


students have been studi


ed by several authors


including


Vittenso

(1974),


(1967).


and Voelz


Along others,


(1974)


Barbier


(1971)


have addressed the


spec


Brandenberg

ial needs of


women students.


Married


students'


needs have


been


the focus


of such


researchers


as Flores


(1975)


Graff and Horn


(1973),


Haun


(1967),


the special

inclusive of


Jones

needs


(1958)


and Murray


of non-traditionally


students between


ages


(1961)


More recently,


aged students


(generally


25 and 50) have been


focus of

and Wall


researchers


(1973),


such


and Erikson


as Williams,


(1970).


Lindsay,


Thus,


Burns,


Wyckoff


the inclusion of


more diverse

by counselors


groups within


the student body had been parall


investigations regarding the


needs


eled


of these


students.


Since


the older adult


student is


a recent newcomer to


the college campus,


it is not surprising that a review of the


counseling


literature reveals


no investigative studies


garding the counseling needs and


concerns


of this subgroup


of the student population.


Counselors


are,


however,


develop-


ing an awareness

student which is


of their responsibility to the older adult


evidenced by-the


few but growing number of


articles addre


ssing the


issue


of the necessity


of counselor


commitment


to gerontological


counseling


(Blake


1975a;


Blake


1975b;


Pressey


and Pressey


1972;


Salisbury


1975;


Stevens


1973)


re-










as well as the recent dedication on an entire


issue


of the


Personal and Guidence Journal


(November


1976)


to concerns


in the later


years.


Further evidence of


the counseling


profession's cognizance of


its responsibility to this group


is the recent creation of the APGA Committee on Aging.


short,


while recognition of the need


older adults


to provide


is exhibited by the counseling pro


services

fession,


types of counseling concerns prevalent among this


population


have yet to be specifically examined and documented in


counseling


literature.


If, however,


developmental


tasks


are related to certain


basic psychological and social needs and ways of satisfying


them


(Cronbach 1954)


then an understanding of


the normative


developmental


tasks


of a


specific


age group should lead to an


appreciation of the types of


concerns


necessary


adjust-


ments which

"foreground


are likely to


status"


during


assume


primary importance or


that particular developmental


stage of


the life


cycle.


Moreover,


the meaning of


specific concerns of any aged person can be more fully under-


stood within the broader context of


the totality of experi-


ences,


changes,


crises,


and responsibilities characteristic


of the major age grouping of which he


is a member.


Several


authorities


(Blocher


1966;


Dinkmeyer


1970;


Zaccaria


1965)


have promulgated the utility of an adequate understanding of


human development and consequent life


tasks


for the effective implementation of guidance

facilitation of growth through counseling.


as a prerequisite

programs and the

This developmental










philosophy of counseling


as a basis for understanding and


assisting young persons to live effective lives,


by defini-


tion,


is equally


as viable for such an under


standing of the


period of


senescence.


Based on the assumption,


that


"The psychological purpose .


of counseling


is to facilitate development"


(Tyler


1961,


p. 17),


the following sections of


the literature review will


provide an overview of the developmental


tasks


associated


with the last stage of


the human life cycle and a discussion


of the multiple


types of


crises


which may


face


and challenge


the psychological adjustment of the older adult.


Studies of


the educational needs of older adults will subsequently be

discussed.


Development tal


Tasks


of Older Adulthood


Following the paradigm


set forth by


Zaccaria


(1965)


concepts


of development


to be presented will include the


developmental


tasks of Havighurst


(1972)


the vocational


development


crises


stages


of Super


postulated by Erikson


(1957),

(1959)


and the psychosocial

Although common bas


assumptions


exist


among these three theories


(Zaccaria


1965)


their complementary orientations yield a well-rounded inter-


disciplinary perspective


of old


of the developmental requirements


age.


According to Havighurst


(1972)


living in a modern


society demands the learning of


a long


series


of develop-


mental tasks.


While learning these tasks well brings









satisfaction and reward,

and social disapproval.


learning poorly begets unhappiness


"A developmental


task is a


task


which arises

individual,


at or about a certain period in


Success


ful achievement of which leads


the life of an


to his


happiness and to


success


with later tasks,


while failure


leads to unhappiness


in the individual,


society and difficulty with


later tasks"


disapproval by

(Havighurst 1972


Havighurst outlines such developmental


seven broad


tasks specific


age groups ranging from infancy and childhood to


later maturity


(65 and


over)


Although the older


adult still


has new things to learn and new experiences


to master the


developmental


tasks of older adulthood differ


in one major


way from those of


engagement from


the proceeding


some


of the more


stages.

active


"They involve dis-

roles of middle age,


and they


leave open to the individual


decision


to engage


or to re-engage


in other role


The six developmental

Havighurst include:


Adjusting to dec


s" (Havighurst 1972,


tasks of later maturity


areas


postulated by


ing physical strength and health


. Adjusting to retirement and reduced income

* Adjusting to death of spouse

. Establishing an explicit affiliation with one's

age group


Adopting and adapting social


roles in a flexible


way

Establishing satisfactory physical living arrange-


ments









Thus,


the older adult must adjust to a decreasing


physical strength and gradually deteriorating health,


both


of which frequently imply a change in his accustomed roles


at home and in the community.


Retirement


is accompanied by


the necessity for further readjustment in roles,


and gener-


ally a reduced income which may itself effect the roles and


activities an individual


is able to


assume.


In addition,


decreasing health,


reduced income or both may mean


revision in the individual's

the older individual, partic


living arrangements.


ularly the woman,


a marked

Eventually


must adjust to


the death of the


including


spouse.


Many of the above-mentioned factors


loss of the worker role,


decreased physical stamina,


decreased income level,


and new housing arrangements may


require the older


individual


to affiliate more with his age


group than was typically true for


most of his adult


life when


work and expanded


soci


al roles afforded him more opportunity


for multi-aged


company.


In short,


each of the tasks postu-


lated by Havighurst,


with which an older


individual must


successfully


cope


are both


effected by and in


effect upon other developmental issues related


turn have an

to this period


of the life cycle.


In his


theory of


career


development,


Super


(1957),


integrating self-concept


theory and principles of develop-


mental psychology,

individual's life


postulated five


ong and continuous


stages


which describe


process


career


development within the context of the larger


and tasks.


Decline,


the last of these


stages


life situations

and generally









inclusive of persons aged


substages,


65 and over,


is divided into two


one of decline leading to retirement,


other of retirement itself.


processes


and the


of the first sub-


stage involve the tapering off of activities,

and termination of many accustomed endeavors.


slowing down,

In retire-


ment itself,


major cutbacks


are made and the


individual


faced with adjusting to his curtailed activity which may


include discovering new and substitute activities.


the decline stage,


During


the individual must adjust not only to


changing roles and statuses,


way of life,


personal change


but also to a change in his

and decline within himself,


and the consequent effects of


these changes on his


self-


concept.


In addition,


such needs


as those of


recognition,


independence,


status,


self-exp


ression,


and security,


which


for many


years


may have been


satisfied


through work must


now be met in other ways,


if they


are to be met.


Erikson's


(1959)


eight stages of


identity


crises


development provides


a viable framework for understanding


the emotional and


identity development of


the individual.


Each stage is related


to the increasing complexity of


functions in the .maturing individual and,


like Havighurst's


tasks,


involves


a personal crisis,


resolution of which


determines


the future development of


the personality


the degree of


success


in adjustment and adaptation.


Accord-


ing to Erikson "

ends with adoles


. identity formation neither begins nor

cence: it is a lifelong development largely


unconscious


to the individual and to his society"


(Erikson


1959,









The qualities which emerge during the eighth stage of

man and with which the still developing ego must contend


are those o

integrity,


integrity versus dispair.


the belief


Achievement of


in the value or goodness of one's


contribution to mankind,

of this critical stage,


life,


and aids in


represents successful resolution


gives new significance


the preparation for death.


to one's

Despair,


loss of integrity,


is incumbent with fear of death and con-


tempt for one's self and others.


Multiple Concerns and Challenges to Adaptation


A noticeable


theme which permeates the theories of both


Havighurst and Super and which may be influential


in the


achievement of


integrity,


is that during the


last stage


the life cycle the developmental concerns of


the individual


regarding his personal,


social,


and vocational


worlds


involve


the concept of loss.


Although persons of all


ages may experi-


ence


losses


of various types,


in old age loss becomes com-


pounded in that the older


simultaneously


(Beatty


adult may suffer several


1965;


Butler


& Lewis


1973).


losses

"Losses


in every aspect of late life compel


the elderly to expend


enormous amounts of physical and emotional energy


in grieving


and resolving grief,


adapting to ihe changes that result


from


loss,


and recovering from the stresses


inherent in


these


processes"


(Butler


& Lewis


1973.


More specifically,


losses to which an older individual


may be subjected and to which he must attempt to adjust have










been identified


to include:


loss of work,


income,


status,


respect,


participation in society,


designated and valued


roles,


home,


number of


physical health,


beauty, mental acuity,


social contacts,


energy and vitality,


loved


ones


purpose


mobility,


and friends


in life,

youthful

(Beatty


1965;


Burnside 1973;


Butler


& Lewis


1973;


Davis


1961;


Donahue 1951;


Elmore


1970;


Havighurst


& Albrecht


1953).


While this summary in no


exhausts the


limitless


possi-


ble losses


any one individual may


face


during the normal


process


of aging,


these


represent the types


concerns


most


typically cited in


the literature


by reknown authori-


ties in the field of


aging.


Barring the


losses of a physiological nature and


those


resulting from death of


loved ones


or friends,


many


above mentioned


losses


are likely to be


expert


ienced


by the


older


adult at or


about


same


time


as a di


rect


or in-


direct consequence of


a direct


function of


retirement.

retirement,


Furthermore,

physiological


while not

problems


may be accentuated by other factors


more di


rectly related


to retirement.


A most obvious consequence


of the


loss


of the worker


role for many persons is


Typically,


people experience


a considerable reduction in


an inc


reas


level of


income.

income


throughout their


lives


with


a peak shortly before age 65


(Riley & Foner


1968)


followed by


a 50% cut in


income


of their first day


as a retiree


(Morgan & Barfield 1969),


and a gradual deterioration after that


(Atchley


1972)










In 1975,


15.7% of persons 65 and over were below the poverty


level


(DHEW 1976)


and the median annual income for persons


65 and over was only $4,800


While


(Harris


the older population constitute


population,


Low income and its


& Associates

es 10% of th


are 13% of the total poor


associated difficulties


1975).


e total


(Brotman


seems


1977)


to be more


characteristic of elderly persons


living alone or with non-


relatives than of


DHEW


1976)


those


Moreover,


living


in households


the negative


effects


(Brotman 1977;

of the reduced


income are further intensified by


rising


inflation of recent


years.


Unfortunately,


however


, the sharp


reduction in


income


that


faces most individuals


upon retirement is


not


accom-


panied by


a lessened economic


need or by


a decrease


in motiva-


tion


to consume


(Bengston


& Haber


1975)


Also


, poor health


is frequently


aggravated by poor nutrition and a


crisis-


oriented approach

(Bengston & Haber


to health


1975)


care


due to diminished funds


In addition,


decreased


finances


force the retiree to relinquish his home


in favor of less


expensive housing.


Residential relocation,


turn,


involves


its own


set of


crises


(Brand & Smith 1974;


Carp 1974)


individual mu

and friends,


st leave his home,


a familiar neighborhood,


and usually accommodate himself to


standard of living.


Even


a lesser


if the older adult remains


his home,


reduced income may nevertheless effect his range


and number of social


contacts


(Havighurst 1972)


Furthermore,











while the older


adult has more time for


recreation may be curtailed


because


leisure activities,


of reduced income.


According to Bengston and Haber


(1975)


expenditure


trends


of the elderly reveal


that when income cannot be sufficiently


stretched to meet all of an individual


s needs,


psychological


needs are sacrificed


first.


Also associated with the onset of retirement


are other


losses which may


economics

adjustment


necessitate


not a major problem,


concerns


adjustment by those for whom


and may compound


of those who suffer from income inade-


quacies


in retirement and its


extensive


consequences.


Historically,


work has


been


a central


life task and interest


for the American male


and in


creasingly for the American


female


(Atchley


1972


; Maddox 1970)


While


income mainten-


ance

many


is an obvious

individuals i


satisfaction

s an avenue of


of employment, work, fo

fulfillment for a host


other


needs


which


are also germain


to the total


well being


and functioning of an individual.


Such needs


include being


of service,

independent,


finding outlets


maintaining


for self-express


self-respect


feeling


and self-esteem,


securing status,


feeling useful and needed,


and being


creative


(Super


1957)


Termination of work is


accompanied


a termination of an accustomed manner of


satisfying


these needs.


If work has


been both an


expression of,


contributor to one


's self concept


(Super


1957)


then


cessation of the work


role


involves changes


and read-


justment of the self


concept.










Furthermore,


because society does not provide for the


last stage of the life cycle


(Havighurst & Albrecht 1953;


Roscow 1967)


the older


individual must somehow


learn to


cope with the ambiguity of retirement


(Back 1969)


or what


Burgess has


described


as the "roleless role"


(Burgess 1960).


In the absence of


societal guidelines


for worthwhile and


valuable behavior in old age,


the individual must discover


for himself new goals,


priorities,


and roles to meet the


needs which had traditionally been met in


In addition to


loss of the work role


the work situation.

, research indicates


a contraction of social roles and activities


outside the


family


(Havighurst & Albrecht 1953;


Maddox


1963;


Palmore


1968;


Riley


& Foner


affairs also necess


1968).

itates


An increased emphasis on familial

adjustments for the older couple


who have for many


years


been


accustomed


to less time together


(Butler


& Lewis


1973).


In short,


while re


sear


ch indicates


that most people do


make satisfactory adjustments to retirement


(Strieb &


Schneider


1971)


the number of pervasive changes required


of an individual within a short period of time marks retire-


ment


as a "somewhat


for many


individuals"


troublesome social and


(Maddox 1970,


personal problem


p. 14-15).


While not a


consequence of


retirement,


but because


his advancing age,


the older individual may be simultaneously


faced with adjustments to physiological losses


resulting from


the normal degenerative


older people


process


as a group generally


of the aging body.


experience


Although


better health










conditions than popular stereotypes would lead one to


believe,


they nevertheless do not enjoy the same


of physical well being


as those under 65


degree


(Bengston &


Haber


1975).


While older adults


are typically


less


afflicted than the young with acute conditions


1972),


(Atchley


old people suffer from a greater prevalence


chronic conditions which tend to place more


restrictions


on the activity

Bengston & Haber

sence of illness


level of

1975, D


there is


the individual


HEW 1976)


(Atchley


Even without


1972;

the pre-


a tendency for older persons


to feel less well


than usual.


muscular capability and


Declining physical


strength,


sensory


appearance,


loss require


adjustments not only


in activity but in self


concept


as well


(Hurlock 1968)


.Moreover,


sexual


relations may


experience


strain resulting from anxieties


relative to decline in


physical


stren


Death of


or appearance


spouse


represents


(Hurlock 1975;


a major


pers


Simon


onal and


1971).

social


crisis

(1975)


in the lives of older


persons.


Although Atchley


warns about drawing generalizations regarding


psycho-social ramifications of


losing


a spouse,


bereavement


is generally a trying time and may be characterized


numerous disruptive physiological,


psychological,


social conditions


such as difficulty in


sleeping or


con-


centrating,


numbness,


low morale,


unhappiness,


crying,


sorrow and preoccupation with grief,


appetite,


loss of weight,


loneline


worry and irritability


lack of

(Clayton,


Halikes & Maurice 1971;


& Associates


1975;


Parks


Gurin,


1965;


Veroff

Riley


& Feld 1960;

& Foner 1968)


Harris


While









such reactions may dissipate with


time,


other more lasting


effects


are not uncommon in that


some


widows


never


resolve


their grief


(Lopata


1973)


or loneliness


(Fried & Stern 1948).


Additionally,


widows represent


a high


risk


population with


regard to mental illness


(Gove 1972)


and mortality


(Gove


1973),


and suicide


(Boch 1972;


Boch


& Webber


1972)


Because


wives


typically outlive their husbands


, sur-


vivorship is


largely a problem of older women.


In 1975


more than half


(52.2%)


of the women


over


65 were widows


whereas 13.6% of men


over


Not only must the widow

hood brings additional


were


widowers


contend with grief,


role lo


sses


such


(DHEW 1976)

but widow-


as those of


confident,


sex partner,


and wife.


Furthermore,


the widowed


woman may be avoided by her


friends


who are ill at


ease


with her grief,


and may not be included in couple-oriented


interactions


(Lopata


1971)


She may need


assume un-


familiar roles

decision-maker,


and responsibilities


worker,


and handyman,


such as


which


those


were


formerly


the husband's


1971;


contribution


Lopata 1973)


to the relationship


Additionally,


(Lopata


the problems of widows


are frequently


compounded by


insufficient income.


"Widows


represent a disproportionately


large


segment of


the American


poor.


" (Lopata


1971


p.


In 1975,


half of the older


persons living alone or with nonrel


atives,


who are


largely


women,


had annual


only one in


incomes under


six had incomes


over


$3,000


$6,000


(DHEW 1976),

(DHEW 1976)


Accord-


ing to Atchley


(1975)


income level and economic circumstances









greatly influence the social conditions of widowed persons


in that such persons


of lower


incomes


seem


to suffer more


from the social ramifications of widowhood than

are more financially able.


those who


While more women than men lose a


spouse


through death


(DHEW 1976;

considered b

devastating


Riley & Foner


some


1968)


authorities


(Berrardo 1967;


not expect to outlive


their


the experience


to be


Treas

wives


for men is


considerably more


1975)


few men


SBecause


they do


are even minimal-


ly psychologically prepared for such an event


(Butler


Lewis 1973;


Treas


1975)


whereas


women more frequently engage


in mental


rehearsal and preparation for the


death of


spouse


(Treas 1975).


According to Berrardo


comparison with widows,


experience


less kin interaction upon loss of


(1967)


greater

spouse.


widowers,


isolation and


Atchley


(1975)


on the other hand, fo

as many disadvantages


und that widowers did not


seem to have


as widows which he attributes


in part


to the better finan


cial status


because of the unbalanced ratio


of widowers.


of older men


Additionally,

to older women,


widowers have a greater probability of remarriage than do


widows


(Treas 1975).


Older individuals may


suffer the


and relatives more frequently than


deaths


did a


of friends

t a younger


age.


"One death


(or other


loss)


some


times


follows another


before the elder can pull


(Kastenbaum 1973,


through his morning


Furthermore,


proce


the older adult


is faced with the most difficult challenge of


recognizing









and accepting the inevitability of his own death


(Butler


& Lewis 1973).


Added


to these crises,


are the generally negative


attitudes and stereotypes

commonly held by society


toward the aged which are


(McTavish 1971)


and although


a lesser but evident degree,


the disparaging regard in


which the elderly,


as products of


social


zation,


hold of


themselves


(Kogan & Wallach 1961).


Thus


, in addition


multiple objective


losses,


the aged experience a loss of


positive regard from others and self.

While the many conditions of old agu making


frustration and anxieties


tend


to threaten the positive


mental health of a large proportion of the elderly


(Vedder


& Lefkowitz 1965)


research indicates


that


these people


vary widely


in their receptivity to the


negative effects


of such problems.


alone


seem to be


Other variables


more critical


associated with the likelihood


than age

that an


older person's well


being will be seriously


impaired by


any of the above-mentioned concerns.


One such variable


having particularly


significant implications


for the field


of counseling is that


the presence of a confident or


intimate relationship in


the life of an older adult


seems


to serve


as a buffer


against depression and is positively


associated with the individual's adjustment to


critical


life events including those of widowhood and retirement


(Lowenthal


& Haven


1968)


Other variables related


to the


prevalence or severity of problems


in older


adulthood










include work status,


status,


health,


race and educational


financial


level


resources,


(Atchley


1975;


marital

Harris


& Associates


1975;


Neugarten 1965)


In other words,


con-


trary to popular portrayal,

stitute a group equally as,

the rest of society. There


the elderly themselves con-


if not more heterogeneous


fore,


than


in order to plan and


develop counseling programs


for the portion of older adults


who are presently attending community


important to ascertain which,


if any,


colleges,

of these


it appears

potential


problems are actual concerns of this


select


student sub-


group of the nation's


elderly population.


Educational Needs of Older Adults


The recognition


that older


adults,


like younger adults,


may have educational needs


is a comparatively recent phenomena


(Jacobs


1970).


Consequently


at present little


is known about


such needs and interests of the older population


(Hiemstra


1972).


Following will be a review of


empirical studies

adults as well as


the few available


regarding the educational needs

the description of educational


of older

evels of


older adults


as postulated by McClusky for the 1971 White


House Conference on Aging.

According to McClusky


(1971),


the educational needs of


older adults can be


class


ified into four


categories:


coping,


expressive,


contributive,


and influencing.


Coping needs are


broadly defined


and economic


as basic education,


self-sufficiency.


education for health,


Examples of such coping needs










include a minimal ability to read,


write,


and do computation;


the knowledge and effective utilization of health,


physical fitness programs;


diet,


the knowledge necessary for money


mainten


ance


and management;


having adequate


information for


making decisions relative to legal and housing concerns;


able to adjust and make the most rewarding


being


use of leisure time.


McClusky indicated


that coping needs are central


to the


individual's ability to deal autonomously with his


situation and


life


that at least partial fulfillment of these


needs must be achieved before other categories


of educational


needs can be considered.


Expressive needs


the assumption


as defined by McClusky


that within each individual


to engage in activity


solely for the purpose


are based on


is the motivation


self-expression


rather than

postulates


as goal-directed

that because of m


instrumental behavior.


,any desires which are


McClusky


frequently


postponed during the work years of one's life,


within each


individual


a large


reservoir


of unexpressed talent and


interest which


if properly cultivated,


could be


activated


to enrich one's


living"


(McClusky


1971,


The category of


contributive needs,


acco


rding


to McClusky,


is based on the premise

and contribute something


that older adults


acceptable


have a need


to other people an


to give

d to the


community at large.


He explains


the contributive needs as a


blending of

pressed as


the needs to be useful and wanted which is


a desire to be of


service.


ex-










The fourth category,


the assumption


that older


or influence needs,

adults have the need


is based on


to exert


some power and control and in general be


influential


with


regard


to conditions


affecting their own lives


as well


the larger society.


According to McClusky,


the power


decline which presently characterizes old age


is neither


inevitable nor


necessary


and can be at least arrested and


probably reversed with


the proper kind of


education.


Hiemstra (1

of older adults,


972) ,


in studying the educational needs


compared the preferences of


86 retirees


for instrumental


versus expressive types of course contents.


Hiemstra's definition of


instrumental activities,


parallel-


ing McClusky's category of basic coping needs,


includes


education in health and physical


fitness


, income concerns,


legal affairs management,


and adjusting to changing relation-


ships with others.


Expressive


activities


were


those which


served


to expand the hori


zons,


and provide for the self-expre


increase


ssion


enjoyment of


of older adults.


life,

While


responses of the ret


cated a


irees


significant prefer


were quite varied, re

ence for instrumental


suits indi-


types


activities.


In another study,


responses


of a random sample of


2307 older adults


indicated a high int


rest


in educational


topics dealing with religion,


problems of growing old,


gardening,


travel,


physical fitness,


and good grooming


(Hendrickson & Barnes 1967)


Other topics of


interest










included psychology,

and foreign affairs.


financial management,


history,


public


Peterson


(1976)


condenses


several


viewpoints regarding


the educational


categories.


needs of older adults into four general

asserts that some authors focus primarily


on the intrinsic merit of education


as an opportunity for


self-discovery;


others perceive education


as useful and


fundamental in adapting to and coping with changes in later


life;


others have advocated


the vocational advantages


assoc-


iated with

education


education;


and still others have postulated that


is a vehicle which permits older persons to con-


tinue to contribute


to society.


Additionally,


he comments


that education for older persons has remained basically


unchanged


since


1965 when


the topic


was first


addre


ssed in


the literature.


Perceptions of Counseling


and Counselors


Evaluation of the effectiveness


of counselors


, counseling,


and counseling centers can be classified according to two


broad orientations:

already occurred or


1) evaluation of counseling which has


is in


process;


and 2)


evaluation of the


perceptions of counselors or counseling held by persons who


are potential


clients or potential


sources


of referral.


Although

research


the former orientation has


coverage,


rece


ived more


extensive


the significant relationship between


perceptions and behavior renders the latter approach equally

as important in the comprehensive evaluation of counseling


effectiveness.









Since an individual's perceptions and expectations of

an experience have considerable influence on whether or not


he will


voluntarily involve himself in that experience,


also largely determine,


at least


initially,


how he will


and respond within


service rendering profe


the experience,


ssions


such


it is most important that

as counseling be per-


ceived

(1953a)


as both positive and useful by the public.


asserts


that


"a counseling organization


Form


is effective


to the degree that it


is positively valued by the student


body"


To maximize its effectiveness,


then,


helping profession


order to 1)


cross


needs to ascertain its public image in


insure that helpee and helper are not operating


purposes but within a similar and congruent


set


of expectancies;


and 2)


to determine any need


for public


education relative to the goals and operations


of the


profession.


Although not extensive,


counseling


literature does


include


research


which


ascertains


the effectiveness of


counseling and counselors from a


"perceptions" point of view.


The focuses, methods, an

purposes of measurement,


d populations are varied.


researchers


For the


have operationally


defined


"perceptions of counseling"


in such terms


as types


of problems perceived


as appropriate for counseling,


atti-


tudes toward and opinions about counselors and counseling,


perceived counselor characteristics,


selors with other help-givers,


comparison of


and knowledge and


coun-


awareness


of counseling.


In addition,


the effects


of different bio-


graphical data on student perceptions of counseling have


act









been examined by several authors.


These perspectives


will be reviewed and limited to those which center on or

at least include student populations in higher education

institutions.


Types of Problems Perceived by Students


as Appropriate


for Counseling


Several researchers have investigated


students


per-


ceptions of the roles and functions of counselors by

identifying the types of problems which student popula-


tions deem appropriate


for counseling,


or by determining


the relative willingness of students to take varying types


of problems to a counselor or counseling center.


Two early


investigations employing this


focus were


those of King


Matteson


(1959)


and Warman


(1960)


The results of


the King and Matteson study indicate


that students


felt more


free


to take educational problems


to the counseling center.

were vocational problems,


Following this in descending order


social problems,


and lastly,


personal problems.


Several


factors


were found to be


assoc-


iated with


students'


perceptions of counseling and their


willingness to take educational


concerns


to the counseling


center.


Freshman,


sophomores,


and females felt


the coun-


selling center was a more appropriate place to


take educa-


tional problems than

students who had been


juniors,


seniors,


or males.


Similarly,


to the counseling center between one


and five times,


dential counseling


and those who had attended a summer


clinic felt freer than their


resi-


respective









counterparts to take educational problems to the counseling

center.


Warman


(1960)


proposed that since the field of


coun-


selling had undergone such rapid change,

field might be unaware of the changes a


people outside the

ind current practices.


To investigate this hypothesis,


Warman compared


the types


of problems


considered appropriate for counseling by various


campus groups at Ohio State University including the coun-


selling center staff,


other student personnel


workers,


teach-


ing faculty,


and students before and after counseling.


three main types of problems studied were those of Vocational


Choice,


Campus Routine,


and Adjustment


to Self and Others.


The instrument was


the Counseling Appropriateness Check List


(CALC)


developed by Warman for this


study


and employed sub-


sequently in several other


similar studies.


Results indi-


cated that all groups excepting the counselors,


typically


perceived problems concerned with Vocational


Choice


as most


appropriate followed by College Routine problems,


with


Adjustment to Self and Others problems being considered


least appropriate.


In contrast,


counselors


placed Adjust-


ment to Self and Others problems above


problems and a


College Routine


significant difference existed between coun-


selors and other groups'

considerable difference


rating of


this scale.


was detected between


Since


counselors'


and other groups'


perceptions of counselor functions,


Warman recommended that counselors educate and orient other


people regarding the kinds of problems with which


they are


prepared to deal.









Resnick and Gelso


(1971)


conducted a replication of


Warman's study to determine if any perceptual changes had

occurred during the intervening decade between theirs and


Warman's study.

minor exception.


Similar


Although


results were obtained with one


counselors still


viewed Adjust-


ment to Self and Others type of problems


as more appropriate


for counseling than any other group,

cularly student personnel staff, per


all groups,

ceived this


and parti-

type of


problem

study.


as more appropriate than did


the subjects


in Warman'


The authors concluded that counselors had not expert


enced much


success


"in reducing the communication gap between


themselves and other relevant campus


groups"


(Resnick


Gelso 1971,


p. 553).


Other


recent studies


similar to Warman's


and employing


the CALC have also produced


pers

role

Karl


results


which indicate


instance of differential perceptions of the


held by students


, & O'Connell


1972;


and counselors


Wilcove


(Cohen 1975;


& Sharp 1971;


counselors


Gelso,


Winderman 1974).


While supporting the


results of Warman,


cove


and Sharp


additionally found

rated each problem


that parents of


area


than their offspring.


students


as more appropriate

Intra-student group


cons


istently


for counseling


compare


isons


revealed that males

used the counseling

and Others problems


married

services


students,


and students


perceived Adjustment


as more appropriate than


who had


to Self


their respective


counterparts.


Furthermore,


sophomores


perceived Adjustment


to Self and Others problems


as less


appropriate for discussion


at the counseling center than did students of other class

standings.









In addition to validating Warman's findings,


Gelso,


Karl,


and O'Connell's


data


(1972)


revealed


that clients


ratings of the counseling


appropriateness of the three


types of problems were clearly related to the type of


problem for which they sought as


distance


from a counselor.


These authors also found a positive relationship to exist


between perceived knowledge of the


counseling center and


rankings of appropriateness of Adjustment problems.


Winderman 's


(1974)


findings also support the differ-


ential perceptions of students and counselors for combined

urban and suburban community college populations. No

differences were found in student perceptions as a function


sex.


Cohen


(1975)


obtained results paralleling those of


Warman in that counselors'


perceptions


as to the


appropri-


ateness

differed

studied:


of Adjustment problems


for counseling discussion


significantly from the other coll


students,


personnel staff.


faculty,


Students,


administrators


however,


cons is


ege groups


, and student

tently rated


Adjustment problems

all other groups.


as significantly


less


appropriate than


Similarly,


(1971)


although not employing the CALC,


found community-college


Forsythe


students to place more value


on educational-occupational counseling while counselors


attributed more importance to personal-emotional


In summary,


counseling.


the aforementioned studies consistently


demonstrate that students,


as well as other higher education









sub-populations,


generally perceive problems relative to


personal adjustment


as less


appropriate than other types


of problems for counseling discussion.


Moreover,


although


expressing


agreement with the relative


appropriateness


vocational problems


for counseling dis


cusslon,


counsel


lors


typically disagree with other subgroups regarding the


relative appropriateness


of personal


adjustment


types of


problems.


In contrast with


the above


findings,


however,


those of Frankel and Perlman


(1969)


and Minge and


Cass


(1966).


Although not employing the CALC,


the results of


these


studies indicate

as high priority


students'


affirmation of


for counseling center di


personal problems


scussion.


Of the students


surveyed


in the Minge


and Cass


(1966)


study,

type of


35% estimated


problems


that personal problems were


addressed


by the counseling


the main


center.


Corresponding estimates


for vocational and


educational


problems


were


19% and 15%


respective


Frankel and Perlman


(1969)


studied students


perceptions


of counseling


service


functions


including both individual


counseling and a freshman guidance


program.


Results


indi-


cated that students generally


perceive


d individual counseling


as pertaining to personal problems and

primarily of a vocational and academic


freshman guidance


orientation.


differences

studies, ho


in findings between


wever,


this and the above mentioned


may possibly be a function of Frankel and


Perlman's distinction between


the two


types of


counseling.


are









Comparisons of Counseling and Counselors


with Other


Sources


of Help


The above mentioned studies


examined students'


percep-


tions of counselors and counseling from the perspective of

the types of problems students consider appropriate for


discussion with counselors or at counseling centers.


Other


studies have focused upon


students'


perceptions of problems


appropriate for discussion at counseling centers or with


counselors relative to other help-giving agencies


or help-


givers.


Rust and Davie


all kinds of problems,


and parents


as sources


(1961)


found that when confronted with


college

of help.


students preferred friends

Faculty members and psycho-


logical


services


were


least preferred


sources


of help.


Armstrong


(1969)


asked college students


to rank


order


the first


three persons to whom they would


go for help with


any of their problems.


Included


in a list of


thirteen


possible


sources


help was the title of counselor which


received very few first,


second,


or third rankings for


either question.

Davie, Armstrong'


Consistent with the results of Rust and


data revealed


that students preferred


intimate


friends and parents


as sources


of help and also


considered these persons


to be the most helpful.


Neither Rust and Davie nor Armstrong,


however,


asked


students to differentiate preferred help-givers


for differ-


ing types of problems but


studied


sources


of help for pro-


blems in general.


Other studies have examined students'


perceptions of appropriate help-givers for various and


differing types of


problems.










An early study by Koile and Bird


(1956)


revealed


that


non-client freshmen preferred not to discuss 40 percent of


their problems with anyone.


however,


When they did desire help,


a professionally trained counselor or psychologist


was preferred over other help-givers for a variety of pro-


blems including social,


personal,


financial,


courtship,


sex, marriage,


home and family,


and vocational and educa-


tional,

faculty


The next preferred help-givers in rank order were


advisor,


instructor,


and student friend.


Faculty


advisors were more preferred than counselors for problems


concerning adjustment to college


work and curriculum and


teaching procedures.

males preferred help


adult friend,


doctor


When


sex differences were found,


from a counselor,


or father,


whereas


faculty advisor,

women were more


likely to prefer


help from no one,


a student friend,


their mother.


Subjects in a study conducted by Snyder


, Hill,


Derksen


(1972)


indicated results


similar to those of Rust


and Davie


(1961)


and Armstrong


(1969)


for preferred help-


givers concerning personal and social problems.


For


voca-


tional problems,


however,


the subjects


first and second


choices for help-givers were the advisor and counseling


center respectively.


Similarly,


Christensen and Magoon


(1974)


found


that students


consider


friends and parents


first for help with emotional problems.


aid with educational-vocational


concerns


Preferences for

were faculty


advisors,


faculty members,


and student friends.


Counselors










were not chosen

type of problem.


as highly preferred help-givers


Although problem type,


sex,


for either


and coun-


selling experience did not significantly discriminate


between the students'


rankings of the help-givers,


high


school counseling experience did make a significant differ-

ence.


A study in which students


were


asked to


list their


preferred help-givers for different types of problems


rather than


select a helper from a given list


(as in the


above studies),


revealed similar findings


(Kramer,


Berger


& Miller


1974).


For most personal problems,


a friend was


the most frequently mentioned source of help by males


garding sexual


concerns


and roommate conflicts;


and by


females for suicidal feelings.


A small


total percentage


of subjects listing the mental health clinic for each of


these problems


implies


a wide range of differing preferred


helpers among the majority of the subjects.


and academic


concerns,


the Career


, Planning,


For vocational

and Placement


Center and faculty advisory


were


the most frequently


mentioned help


sources.


Results of Kinnane's study


(1967)


indicate that when


considered together both freshman and senior females would


refer more problems to


the academic dean,


dean of women,


chaplain and faculty member than to a counselor in a


counseling center.


These students would refer the


same


and fewest number of problems to a residence hall counselor


or an activity advisor


as to a counseling center counselor.


re-









Furthermore,


when considered separately,


seniors


were


less


likely than freshmen to refer problems to the counseling


center counselor.


Subjects in this study were provided


with a list of college employees from which to choose

helpers which also included an other category for write-


ins.


People most often designated in the


"other"


category


were primarily friends and secondarily,


family members.


Through casual informal interviews Fullerton and


Potkay


(1973)


questioned students regarding to whom they


would turn for help with their personal


college


pressures.


Their data indicated students'


preferences for solving


their own problems and pursuing help from friends.


Strong,


Hendel,


and Bratton


(1971)


studied the types


of problems which female college students would be likely


to discuss


with


counselors,


advisors,


and psychiatric


sts.


The results


studies in that


are congruent


appropriate


with


most


problems


of the aforementioned

for discussion with


counselors included vocational and educational


topics.


the other hand,


ate resources


psychiatrists


were


rated


for most personal problems.


as more appropro-

Counselors were


however,


seen


as potential helpers for increasing self-


knowledge and self-development.


Thus,


the authors concluded


that


"students


some


degree


perceive


counselors


as coun-


selors would like"


(Strong,


Hendel & Bratton 1971,


237).


Because they felt the term "c

for adequate study, Gelso and Karl


counselor"

(1974) d


was too generic

designed a study


to extend the investigation of Strong et al.


In doing









they compared students'


perceptions of three specialists who


might be grouped under the


title of counselor


(high school


counselors,


college counselors,


and counseling psychologists)


with each other and also with advise


rs, psychiatrists,


clinical psychologists.


In addition,


the sample


was broaden-


ed to include both male and female students.

cated greater differences in students' perce


the counselor group itself


Results indi-

ptions within


than between counselors and the


other professional


groups.


The subjects were


significantly


more apt to discuss all personal


concerns


with


a psychiatrist


than with a college counselor,


high school


counselor,


advisor.


Although


the differences did not always attain


significance,


a similar pattern emerged when comparing the


latter three specialists

selling psychologists.


with both the clini


cal and coun-


Since


the subjects


for both


the Strong et al.


study


and the Gelso and Karl


study


were


counseling center non-


users,


Gelso,


Brooks,


and Karl


(1975)


if similar results would be found for


sought to determine

students who used the


counseling center.


Differences


were


detected in


terms


the particular types of problems perceived


as within


expertise of the different professional


groups.


Users,


unlike non-users


, perceived counseling psychologists and


psychiatrists


as equally


likely


sources


of help for


personal problems. F

existed between their


users,


a significant difference


likelihood of discussing all personal


concerns with a counseling psychologist or a psychiatrist









and a high school counselor.


Although not always attaining


statistical significance,


users


were also more apt


to con-


suit a psychiatrist or a counseling psychologist than a


college counselor or


advisor.


In short,


although


counseling center


users


were


more inclined than non-u


sers


to discuss personal problems with a counseling psychologist,


both groups indicated reluctance to di


scuss


most pers


onal


problems with a college counselor.

Using a different procedure from the above mentioned


King,


Newton,


Osterlund,


and Baber


(1973)


found


students to prefer clinical

personal/emotional problems.


students


or counseling psychologists for


For educational


indicated a strong preference for


problems,


counselors and


a le


sser


preference for "guid


ance


workers.


Seiveking and Chappell


(1970)


found


that


students


three


universities)


consist


ently demonstrated different


reactions to the names


Counseling Center and Psychological


Center.


Counseling Centers


were


ment for relatively minor problems,


perceived


whereas


to render treat-

Psychological


Centers were perceived to be appropriate pi


aces


for help


with more


Centers were

competent, e


serious


seen


xpens


problems.


In addition


as being more medical,


, Psychological

professional,


, and embarrassing to patronize


than


Counseling


Centers.


In summary,


when


cons


idering problems


in gen


eral


(Arm-


strong


1969;


Rust & Davie 1961),


or specific


types of problems


studies,









(Christensen & Magoon 1974;


Fullerton & Potkay


1973;


Gelso,

Newton,

Miller


Brooks


& Karl


Osterlund,


1974


; Snyder,


1975


& Baber


Hill


Gelso

1973;


& Karl 1974;


Kramer,


& Derksen 1972


King,


Berger &

; Strong,


Hendel,


& Bratton 1971)


students generally


perceive


other


care-givers


as more viable


sources


of help than counselors.


(A major exception


is found in the early study by Koile


and Bird 1956.


help are

fessional


Prominent among preferred


friends and parents. Co

s, counselors in general


sources


mpared with other pro-

are perceived by


non-client students

personal problems,


to have


less


but to assist


helping potential


mainly with vocational


and academic problems.


Counseling psychology


ists,


however,


are considered by client-students


to be more likely


sources of help with


personal problems.


similar


distinction


is exhibited in the differing perceptions


students

logical


hold of


Center in


the names Counseling


that


the former is


Center and Psycho-


viewed


as attending


to less

Chappell


serious problems


1970)


than


In general,


the latter


most of


(Seiveking


these comparative


type studies


seem


to confirm the vocational-academic


orientation attributed


to counselors by the


students


serving


as subjects


in the previously reviewed studies


dealing with appropriate problems,


roles and functions


of the counselor without regard to other help-givers.









Perceived Counselor Characteristics


Several research

teristics attributed


ers have examined the personal

to counselors by students. Ac


charac-

cording


to Form


(1953a)


students perceive


counselors to be knowl-


edgeable of the world of work;


to be optimistic and real-


istic;


to understand and treat students as unique


individuals


with different social, cultural and economic backgrounds;

to be interested in people; to be well-adjusted and tolerant;

to have the ability to help students with their problems;


but to have only moderate professional


out their jobs.

with the counsel


training to


Form felt that students were


lors'


services


than with


carry


"more impressed


their personal


characteristics"


(Form 1953a,


86).


In terms of professional


training,


Minge and


Cass


' data


(1966)


reveal


that whereas most


students


felt counselors


had degrees


in psychology,


aware that counselors


more, 1

majors.


.6% of


relatively few students


possessed


graduate degrees.


the students thought counselors


King et al.


(1973)


were


found more non-counsel


were

Further-

sociology

ed than


counseled students perceived the counselor as a trained

professional.


Other researchers have examined


student perceptions of


counselor characteristics relative to other professionals.


The female students


in the Strong,


Hendel


, and Bratton study


(1971)


described both counselors and advi


sors


as warm and


friendly "nice guys"


in contrast with psychiatrists who


were described


as more intellectual,


decisive,


cold,


analy-


tical,


and critical


than counselors and advisors.









When asked-to select descriptive adjectives which


characterize high school counselors,


college counselors,


counseling psychologists,


advisors,


psychiatrists,


clinical psychologists,

users differed somewhat


counseling center users and non-


in their descriptions


(Gelso,


Brooks,


& Karl 1975;


Gelso & Karl 1974)


SNon-users indi-


cated greater differences


in their pe


receptions of


three specialists within the counseling group itself


(high school


counselors,


college counselors,


and coun-


selling psychologists)

professionals. These


school and college

other but were very


than between

students' de


counselors and other

scriptions of high


counselors differed little


from each


different from the description of


the counseling psychol

of the psychiatrist.


ogist


which was much more


In contrast with


like


that


the findings of


Strong et al.


were viewed


(1971)


as "nice


none


guys


of the counsel


* in relation


ng specialties


to psychiatrists


or psychologists


(Gelso


& Karl


1974).


Counseling cent


er users,


on the other hand


(Gelso,


k*Brooks,


& Karl 1975), did not distingui


sh between members


of five of


the six professional groups studied in terms


of personal characteristics.


With


the exception of


high school


counselor group,


all other


groups


were


quite


similarly perceived.


Research indicates a


sex difference in expectancies


of counselor characteristics


(Apflebaum 1958,


Tinsley


Harris 1974)

(critical, a


Males


typically anticipate a directive


analytical and non-indulgent)


counselor,









females expect counselors who are permissive,


non-judgemental


listeners.


In addition,


freshmen typically anticipate


counseling relationship to be one which involves advice-


giving on the part of the counselor.


Seniors


more


often


expect the counseling relationship to be an opportunity for


self-exploration and increased understanding of one'


self


(King,


Newton,


Osterlund & Baber


1973).


Attitudes


toward Counselors and Counseling


More global attitudes and opinions about counseling


and counselors have been examined.


Form


(1953a)


Snyder,


Hill


, and Derksen


(1972)


surveyed general feelings


of the overall effectiveness


s, helpfulness


trustworthiness,


and usefulness


of counselors and


counseling


centers.


both of


these studies positive


attitudes were exhibited


by the majority of


students.


Whereas


Form found


more


favorable attitudes to be typical of younger students,


under-classmen,


non-veterans,


and single students,


results of Snyder et al. were not


significantly


affected by


such biographical data.


In both studies


, users


as well


as non-users of the counseling


attitudes


center held favorable


toward counseling.


A noteworthy contrast between these and the afore-


mentioned studies


is that although such positive general


attitudes


toward counseling are exhibited,


when


students


are presented with hypothetical problems and alternative


help-givers,


helpers.


they seldom choose counselors


Particularly significant are


as preferred


the results of the










Snyder et al.


study


(1972)


in which the


same


population of


students


indicated such overall positive attitudes toward


counseling while


simultaneously ranking other help-givers


as more preferred.


Furthermore,


while a large percentage of students


(91%)


endorsed


neces


sity of the provision of


college


counseling


services,


a significantly smaller percentage


(63%)


indicated


(Fullerton


they would even consider using such


& Potkay


1973).


Similarly,


the results


services

of other


studies reflect


a double


more students would


refer


standard in that proportionately

a friend for counseling than go


for counseling themselves or acknowledge a personal need


for counseling


(Frankel


& Perlman


1969;


Minge


& Cass


1966


Tinsley & Harris


1974).


On the other hand,


Form


(1953b)


found


center

had any


that when asked whether they would


if confronted with problems


only


use the counseling

7% of the sample


reservations.


King and Matteson


able attitudes toward


(1959)


counsel


reported


were


that the most favor-


characteristic


students who had visited the


counseling


center between one


and five times.


Hoover


(1966)


found


students who did not


seek counseling for educational


concerns


felt it


was better


to solve their own problems.


In addition,


these students


experienced


less


demand for


academic achievement and had


more outlets for their


anxieties


than counseling center


users.









Research relative to


students'


perceptions of stigma


associated with counseling indicated that stigma


little concern


is of


to students in general and that students


feel


their friends and parents


would approve of their


counseling involvement


(Snyder,


Hill,


& Derksen 1972).


Males and married students indicated less embarrassment


about seeking personal


counterparts.


counseling than


For similar problems,


their respective


apartment dwellers


indicated


less


embarrassment


than freternity or sorority


house


residents


(King,


Newton


, Osterlund,


& Baber


1973)


In addition,


students seeking help for educational-voca-


tional problems reported


less


embarrassment and more


inclination


to infomr their parents about their counseling


than those seeking help for


personal-social


problems.


Although


the value


of testing in counseling has been


included in

Osterlund,


several

& Baber


studies


1973;


(Form 1953a;


Snyder,


Hill


King,


Newton,


& Derksen 1972),


only King et al.


have


reported


isolated


results for this


dimension.


Whereas students generally


cons


ider


testing


to be of value,


more value


is placed on


testing for


educational-vocational


counseling than for personal-


social


counseling.


Freshmen


cons


istently attribute more


value than


tional


seniors


to testing for both educational-voca-


counseling and personal-social


counseling.


Perceptions of Counseling


Function


of Student


as a


Although


several


studies


have examined


the association


between student


age and perceptions of


counseling









(PForm 1953a;


Form 1953b;


Frankel


& Perlman 1969;


King &


Matteson 1959;


King,


Newton,


Osterlund


, & Baber


1973;


Kinnane 1967


; Minge


& Cass


1966;


Sharp & Marra 1971;


Snyder,


Hill,


& Derksen 1972;


Wilcove & Sharp


1971)


none have


specifically focused upon


or included such


perceptions of older adults.


Typically,


age has been defined chronologically in


terms of


specific


groups within the young adulthood years,


or more indirectly defined in terms of class standing.


Although the possibility


exists


that


some


older adults


may have been included within


the different


class


standings,


no study made reference


to such a


situation.


Although


some


studies


indicate no differences


assoc-


iated with


age,


those which found


associations


reflect


following differences.

more favorable attitudes


Younger students generally held


than older


students


toward coun-


selling and were more willing to take problems


to a coun-


selling


center


(King & Matteson


1959;


Kinnane 1967).


exception


is the finding


of Wilcove


and Sharp


(1971)


that


in contrast with members of other


class standings,


sopho-


mores


perceived


adjustment problems


as less


appropriate to


take to the counseling


center.


In terms of knowledge of the counseling


center,


however,


seems


that upper


classmen


generally


are better informed


than


freshmen


or graduate students


(King,


Newton,


Osterlund,


& Baber 1973;


Minge &


Cass


1966).


In addition,


it has been









found that older students generally make less

selling center facilities than younger students


use of coun-

(Form 1953a;


Form 1953b;


Sharp & Marra 1971).


In fact,


only eight out


of the 170 students in


the Sharp and Marra study who were


40 and


over


ever


used


the counseling center.


In short,


although


somewhat inconclusive,


most


studies


which reflect differences related to


demonstrate a


negative relationship between perceptions of,


or contact


with,


counseling


services


and student


age.


However,


since


the oldest age group identified


Marra 1971)


was 40 and


the results of these studies


over (Sharp &

seem minimally


generalizable to the


student who


is 60


years


age or


older.


Because of


the growing number of older adults


participating in higher education and


the predicted


trend


of their


increased involvement,


is necessary


to ascertain


the perceptions of counseling held by this aged student

population.















CHAPTER III


METHODOLOGY


In general, th

by a survey method,


ie purpose of this study was


older adult students'


to determine,


perceptions of


counseling and their


expressed


counseling needs.


Chapter


III is composed of a description of the following: 1) the

subjects and the schools from which the subjects were ob-


tainted


ments;


instruments;


4) the procedures;


3) the development of the instru-


and 5) treatment of the data.


The Subjects


Subjects


in this


study


are adults who are


at least in


their sixieth year of life and


are enrolled in programs


courses


in one of


five diff


erent community


colleges


the state of Florida


(Miami-Dade


Petersburg Junior College,

Santa Fe Community College,


Community College,


Seminole Community Coll


ege,


and Florida Junior College)


A minimum of 300 persons,


to participate in the study,


participate.


60 from each school,


and a


The number of persons


total of


was requested

Actually did


willing to parti


cipate


varied among the schools.


The subjects


ranged in


age from 59 to 86,


with


a mean


of 67.3,


and a mode of 62.


As might be expected of this









age group,


there was a larger proportion of women


(69.5%)


than men


(30.5%).


The marital status of the subjects was fairly evenly


divided between married

Of those who reported t


(47.4%)


themselves


most were widows or widowers


(33


and non-married

as non-married,

.8%), while 11.C


(52.6%).

however,


1% were


single,


and 7.8% were divorced.


When marital status was

differences were apparent.


examined by


sex several large


Of all persons reporting them-


selves


as widowed 3.8% were males while 96.2% were


Correspondingly, widow

total male population,


red males comprised only


while 47.2% of


females.


4,3% of the


the total female


population were widows.


Conversely,


while


76.6% of


total male population reported themselves as married,


34.9% of the total

status of married.


only


female population indicated a marital


Such differences


in marital


status by


sex however,


is not atypical for this


age group.


Most subjects were retired


(71.4%)


while


11.6% had


never been employed and 17.0%


were


still


working


either


full- or part-time.


Previous


occupations of


those


were retired were grouped into nine categories:


education


armed forces,


medical


services


(i.e.


nurse,


pharmaci


clerical,


laborers,


service,


business


other than clerical


miscellaneous professions


physicians)


(i.e.


and miscellaneous


, attorney

technical


engineers,


(i.e.


railroad


engineer,


construction superintendent).


Of these groupings,


the highest percentage of the subjects who had previously









worked had held


clerical positions


(28.7%)


followed by


educational posit


ions


(23.3%)


business other than


clerical


(17.1%)


and the armed forces


(10.9%).


other occupational categories


were


each characteristic


of considerably fewer sub


5.4% of the sample of


jects,


persons


ranging from 3.1%


who had previously been


employed.


Since


the majority of the sample


was women,


is not surprising to find that


such a large proportion of


the sample who had previously been employed was


clerical


and educational positions.


The educational attainment of


the subjects


prior to


their enrollment in


their


respect


tive community colleges


ranged from no formal educational experience

having had completed graduate school (11.0%).


(1.9%)


Most persons


indicated they had had


some


college


(24.5%)


.Second to


this group

In summary,


were


those who had complete


18.7% of


the subjects


d high


had between


school


- 11


(20.0%).

years


of formal education;


54.2% had completed high school


vocational or technical


training,


or had


expe


rienced some


college,

school,


and 27.1% had completed college,


or completed graduate


had some graduate


school.


Given the age range


(59 to 86)


and the mean age


(67.3)


of the sample,


this


seems


to be a highly educated group


when compared to the general population of persons 65


years of age and older.


was cited


earlier,


the 1970


census indicated


that only 29.3% of


those above age 65


earned a high school


diploma


(United


States


Bureau of the


Census 1972).


These


findings,


therefore,


seem consistent









with other research findings which suggest a direct rela-


tionship between an individual


s educational


level and


his involvement in continued education


(Birren & Woodruff


1973


; Riley


& Foner


1968).


Subjects were requested


to indicate


the year of


their


last formal educational experience prior to their enroll-


ment at the community college.


had any formal education


Excluding those


subjects,


who never


or 1.9% of the


sample),


these dates ranged from 1911


to 1976


with a mean


year of 1943,


and a modal year of


1934.


The mean number of months during which


ects


been participating


in community college classes


was 20.6,


and the mode was 24.0 months.


The average number of


courses taken by the subjects during that present


term


was 1


, and the mode


was 1.0.


Most of


the subj


ects


(56.7%)


were


enrolled in


non-credit


courses,


as opposed


to credit


courses

the subj


self.


(33.3%),


ects


were


or both


taking th


Of those who were not,


(10.0%)


Fourty-seven percent


eir classes


24.2%


took


at the


their


campus i

classes


a church,


11.6%


took


classes


which


were


conducted at a


retirement home,


and 10.6%


took


their


courses


at a senior


or community center,


or someplace else.


Approximately


many subjects

campus itself


indi


cated they had taken a class


(50.3%)


never taken a class


While a large


as those who


at the campus

proportion of


responded

(49.7%).


the subjects


at the


that


they had


(76.6%)


indi-


cated


that they were aware of the


existence


of counselors










at their community college, only 33.8%


indicated that they


had ever sought the


assistance of


a counselor.


Furthermore,


comments from subjects,


both written and oral,


suggested


that if a counselor had been seen,


it frequently was


cause registration requirements


necess


itated


the counselor's


signature and approval.


When asked whether or not they would


ance of a counselor,


seek


the assist-


76.8 percent of the subjects who


res-


ponded indicated


that


they would.


Of those who responded


negatively,


the most common explanation for this choice


(50.0% of the


responses


or 52.0% of the


cases


or- persons)


was that


these subjects


felt no need for counseling or that


they had no problems.


of the total

counseling be


responses)


cause


Another 20.0% of


indicated


of counselors'


cases


that they would not


lack of


experience


19.9%

seek


with


or interest in older students or


counsel


lor's


general


lack of competence.


The remaining


30.6% of the


responses


(32.0% of the

of which was


cases)


were


miscellaneous


reported more than


once.


reasons


only


Two persons


one


(8.0%


of the


cases)


indicated


that


they


were


old and mature


enough to handle their own problems and could


use their


own judgement.


Since


some


subjects provided multiple


answers,


the above data were examined in


percentage of the total


responses


terms of both


which fell into each


category


as well


as the percentage of the


total number of


persons or

category.


cases


who provided a


response


within each










Subjects were requested to indicate how they had heard


of the

Again,


classes


since


or programs offered by the community college.


some


persons


provided multiple


responses,


this


information


was examined both in terms of percentage


per-


sons or


cases


providing a certain


response


and the total per-


centage of

category.


responses


which


Of those who responded


is represented by a particular


to this question,


21.4% of


the persons indicated that they had heard about


through friends or by word of mouth.


Additionally,


courses

17.3% of


all of the


responses


fell into this category.


Second


to this


was the newspaper,


newspaper

course.


in that 19.4% of the subjects


as a medium through which they lea

Fifteen and seven-tenths percent of


included


rned about


all the given


responses


are repres


ented by this


category.


Another


17.5%


of the subjects


indicated that


awareness


of prog


rams


courses

ledge.


offered at


answer,


co:nmuni


cc imon


ty colleges

knowledge,


is merely

comprises


contmon


know-


14.2% of the


total responses


given.


Literature from


or personnel of


senior


or community


centers


11.7% of the subjects


jects


(10.7%)


indicated


or other such organizations


as an information


that


they


source.


learned about


was cited by

Several sub-

the classes


and programs by inquiring on their own and 7.8% of


the subjects


were informed by their family.


stituted 28.5% of the


responses


Miscellaneous


were


sources


reported by


con-

34.9%


of the persons.


Examples


of such


sources


include special


newspapers or bulletins for senior


citizens,


community


college brochures,


the church,


retirement,


or GI









counselors,


outreach speakers at special


programs,


the yellow pages of the telephone directory.

Subjects were requested to briefly explain


their


reasons for taking


classes


sponsored by the


ccrmunity


college.


Again,


of those who responded,


several


pro-


vided multiple


answers.


All the


responses


were


closely


examined and similar


responses


were clustered into


cate-


gories.


The category which


was referred


to rost


fre-


quently was that of


the desire to further


one's


education.


Other


similar


reasons


which were classified within this


general heading


included such


reasons


as the desire


learn new things or


increase


one's


knowledge,


the desire


for intellectual


growth,


and the desire to


improve


one's


skills or


learn new


ones,


etc.


This


category,


which


mentioned by 42.0% of the subjects,


represented


30.5%


all the


responses


provided and


grea


exceeded


the total


response percentage of any other


category.


Second


to this


reason was

similar to


"interest.


3 While interest might be considered


the category outlined above,


was thought to


be distinct enough from the need


to further


one's


education


that a


separate


delineation


seemed


warranted.


Interest was


cited by


10.1% of the subjects


as a reason


for attending


the community college.

Four other types of


reasons


were


provided


by the subjects


with similar frequency and each incorporated between 5.8% to


6.8% of all


responses


given to this


particular


question.


These answers included such


reasons as the needs


for mental


was









stimulation and challenge;


the need to keep alert;


desire for self-satisfaction;


the need


to find ways to


make life more worthwhile;


and fellowship;


the need for social activities


and the desire for fun and enjoyment.


All of the above-mentioned reasons


together


representative of 63.3% of the


reasons


given and together


were mentioned by


87.6% of


the subjects who responded


this question.


Other


less frequently mentioned


reasons


for attending the community college included


the need to


keep busy and active;


to keep up with the times;


to renew


a teaching c

certificate;

an associate


certificate or to add a new


to exercise

of arts deg


area


and maintain health


ree;


to one's

; to obtain


to be around young people;


to prepare for a new


career


and find employment;


accomp-


lish


a life-time goal


that time finally permits;


and the


proximity


and affordability of the community college


were


cited.


person


n indicated that her goal


for attending


the community college


herself to


was to better equip and prepare


live alone.


In short,


community


quite a variety of


college


classes


were


areas


express


ons for attending

ed by the 138 persons


who completed this


question.


Such


reasons


ranged from


intellectual and educational


and recreational needs;


needs;


financial


social needs;


reasons;


health


to general


self-development


needs.


When asked whether or not


they were aware


that many


senior citizens might be qualified for financial


assistance


are









to attend community college classes,


58.4% of all


subjects


who answered this question responded affirmatively. The

possibility of obtaining financial aid was unknown to 41.6%

of the subjects.


In terms of


race


, the sample


is largely Caucas


ian.


all persons who indicated their


race


were


Caucasian


while 9% were black.


nationality,

nationalities


Of all persons who indicated


88.6% put American.


their


A variety of other


was represented by the other


11.4%.


The Schools


This study was


limited to institutions


of higher educa-


tion in the state of Florida because of


the increasing number


of older adults


compri


sing the state's


population and


consequent ability


serve


as a laboratory and model for


other states.


Community and


junior colleges


were


chosen


the particular types


of institutions


to be surveyed.


Their


leading interest in program development for


the aged


1974;


Korim 1974;


Mason 1974)


and their philosophical


commit-


ment to the community


at large


(Medsker


& Tillery


1971)


make


these institutions particularly


appropriate for such a study.


The particular


schools


included in this


study


were


selected


on the basis of three general


criteria:


Extent of programs for the elderly:


Schools deemed


appropriate to be included


in the study


were


those


which have relatively extensive special programs

or services for the elderly.









Location of


institution:


It was desired to


include institutions in diverse geographic areas


differing in

and cultural


size


elderly population,


economic


bases.


Size of institution:


It was desired


to include


institutions which would be approximately rep-

resentative of those in the state in terms of


size.


Of the five schools included in


the study,


two are


located


in the two counties having the largest number of older persons


in the state of Flor

tionally recognized

older persons. The


(Kincaid 1975b)


as desired locations


communities


and have been tradi-

for in-migrating


in which both schools


are


located are typically tour


ist oriented large metropolitan


areas,


one being on


the southeast


coast of Florida,


the other


on Florida's west or "Gold Coast.


" One school


is the state's


largest community


college with


a total


enrollment of


over


30,000.


The west


coast


institution has an enrollment of


over 10,000


(American


Association of Community


and Junior


Colleges


1974).


A third


school


is also


located in a large community


which differs from the above


two in


that


the area has not


traditionally attracted large numbers


of in-migrating


retirees.


The size


of the older population falls in


middle third in comparison with other Florida


(Kincaid 1975b).


The city in which the school


counties

is located


is on the northeast


coast


of Florida and


is more indus-


trial as compared with other Florida communities.









institution


serves


approximately


10,500 students


(AACJC


1974)


The other


two schools


selected for the


both located in smaller inland communities,


study are

neither of


which has traditionally attracted large numbers of in-


migrating


5,400


retirees.


students


One school,


(AACJC 1974)


enrolling approximately


is located in the same north


central Florida community as one of the


public universities.


state's


Although diversified,


leading


the economic


base of the


town


is largely related


to education.


Other school,

(AACJC 1974),


enrolling approximately


2,500


students


is located in a small central Florida com-


munity


largely dependent economically on


the citrus and


farming industries.


Each school included in the study


characterized


by reasonably


extensive


services


relative to most other community


or programs


colleges


for the


in Florida


elderly

(State


of Florida Department of Education


Instruments


1976)


The instruments employed in


this study were


the Inven-


tory of Counseling


Needs


and Perceived


Services


(ICNPS)


the Perceptions of

were developed by t


Counseling Survey


researcher.


(PCS)


While


both of which


there are some


excellent instruments available in


none seem to fit


these general areas,


this study specifically.









The Inventory of Counseling Needs and Perceived


Ser-


vices


(Appendix A)


is designed to provide two basic types


of information:


the expressed counseling needs of the


surveyed population,


and the


types


services


they per-


ceive counselors


as being able to provide.


The instrument


consists of a list of possible needs to which the subjects


are instructed


to respond


to two different times


in order


to provide the above stated information.


specific items measure


Clusters of


six different subscales of needs


or services:


vocational needs,


educational needs,


personal


adjustment

justment,

format is


family relationships,


I


social-interpersonal ad-


and adjustment to life situations.


The response


a modified Likert-type scale with four response


choices:


strongly


agree,


mildly


agree,


mildly disagree


and strongly disagree.


The undecided response


not an


option on


the instrument.


The instrument has an inter-


rater agreement of at least


70% which was


the criterion


used to establish the selection of


items for the instru-


ment.

for the


Separate


reliability


six subscales


of eac


coefficients were

h section of the


established

instrument,


and range from


.52 to


as determined by the Pearson-


product moment correlation.


The Perceptions of Counseling Survey


(Appendix A)


designed


measure


a persons


perceptions of


counsel


in terms of five different dimensions:


stigma associated


with counseling,


received


counselor characteristics,


perceptions of testing,


severity of problems perceived










appropriate for counseling,


client age.


and perceived appropriate


Subjects are instructed to indicate their


level of agreement or disagreement with each of


a series


of statements.


Response


format


is a modified Likert-


type scale,


with four response choices


ranging from


strongly agree


to strongly disagree with no undecided


option.


This


instrument also used an inter-rater


agree-


ment of 70%


for selection of


the items.


The test-retest


method of ascertaining reliability produced separate


efficient for the


five subscales which range from .31


.70 as determined by the Pearson product moment


corre


lation.


Instrument Development


Inventory


of Counseling Needs and


Services


Generation of


Items:


The id


entifi


cation of


types


concerns


to be included


in this inventory were a result of


two proce


sses.


First,


the researcher


reviewed the literature regarding needs


problems of older


adults,


and instruments pertaining to


student needs and problems.


Secondly,


the researcher


gathered information regarding needs of older adult stu-


dents through personal


interviews with three community


college students who


were


at least


60 years


age.


Each


interviewee was asked


to identify


types of needs and con-


cerns which might confront a student of his age.


obtained information,

individually typed on


From the


a pool of 54 items was generated and

index cards. For the purposes of


co-










instrument development


items on the


final


as well


instrument,


as position assignment of

each item was randomly


assigned a number from 1


- 54 which was


recorded on


back of


each


card.


Validity:


Content validity of the instrument


in the following manner.


was ascertained


Items were sorted by four pro-


fessional


educators into any categories


which they deemed


appropriate.


Categories which were identified with


agreement among the


sorters


subscales of the instrument.


were used to constitute the

Although wording varied among


the sorters,


six common categories


were


identified.


researcher discussed


the final subscale


titles with each


sorter


to determine


if these


titles represented a genuine


reflection or translation of


their original


ideas


titles.


Confirmation


was obtained


from


each


sorter.


six derived subscales


needs,


are vocational


personal adjustment,


needs,


educational


family relationships,


social-


interpersonal adjustment,


and adjustment to


life


situations.


Ten doctoral level counselor education students


then


classified


the items


into


the six categories


or an "other"


category.


Thirty-five


items


which


were


classified into the


same category with


70% agreement by the student


sorters


were immediately


selected for


use in the final


instrument


(Appendix B)


receiving


- Twenty of the original items,


70% sorter


agreement


nevertheless


while not

received a


high agreement percentage.


These items


were


slightly


worded and again


categorized


by the


same


ten counselor


re-










education students.


Those items which were classified into


the same category with at least


70% agreement


were


com-


bined with


(Appendix C).

subscales, 43


the others and


In short,


l items,


cons


titute the final instrument


the instrument consists


and a content validity of 70%


six

as


established by an inter-rater agreement method.

Reliability:


The test-retest method of


ascertaining reliability


was employed.


The instrument was administered to


adult community college students on two different


30 older

occasions


at least one week apart.


Inventories of persons


who did


not complete the entire instrument on either or both admin-


istrations


were deleted from the


reliability study.


cases


where individuals completed


just one


section


(i.e.


either the


Expressed


Needs"


section,


or the


"Perceived


Servi


ces"section)


on both administrations,


only the com-


pleted section


was used for the reliability study.


A separate reliability coefficient


was ascertained


for each subscale by determining


the test-retest


correla-


tion by means of


the Pearson-product moment statistic.


Consequently


, twelve coefficients


were


established,


for each of the


six subscales


on both


sections


of the


instrument.

for the six


Table 1 presents


: subscales,


the reliability


the total number of


coefficients


items in each


subscale,


and the total number of subjects constituting


the reliability sample for the section of


instrument


dealing with


"expressed


needs.


" Table


2 presents similar


one







66













S0
z




MW
UE'
HZ
>HW
MU 4
WM
fa U
HM 0OC
>0 =
MU -i
ina an C w
0;^ SZ M
MH o
H E


.4 4Z
Q(Q
a< 0

0 ZO E4
4 MS

ZU |Z
MM M
1t3 Vt E0' In a'
2M. &.- _* *
0 &0 0 0 0 0 0
OW 00




On a a ) M ,
2C 0 0 0 '

*s v 2 o o O .
a ^i
o c o C-u c- o
c 0 U p a -i 0
o ^ a in My E3
(22 C 0 0 -4 --40 v+
la a se ci -cM V-
.0 V G 0 0 0.
-O O a O a


10 -4 4 in Ir inW






67








8
0
uS a,


Z
riE'


*4W
>1K
iMM
4U U
MM 4

00
NO O
>U |
H M I
In in I t


UN ZN

ZN E
0 0 O

4 5 M

M i(1 i .
4 8


Z5W W^


(140 00 00
ON
0 Ut)

9 o H 3



0> 02i C
Ca C0 0 )
WU C0 |C- U .-




C MI, O fC C

U I 0 00 0
0 C V CC1 C 0
C 0 4 .d0 0) 0
o '4 O 0
*r4 Q4 C >-* H- .4.43





0 U 0 E i U in
LM tO e +J C O 4 4



) C a *d 0 Id *
cl r i (' n IL) tom









information for the portion of the instrument measuring


"perceived


services.


Perceptions of Counseling


Survey


Generation of Items:

Ideas for items were obtained through a review of the


literature,


a review of


similar instruments,


and from in-


formal discussions with counselors and non-counselors.


pool of


40 items designed to


measure


an individual's per-


ceptions of counseling and counselors was generated by the


researcher.


Additionally,


ten items


were


taken verbatim


or were modified from items included in the SIU Counseling


and Testing Center


Survey developed


by Snyder,


Hill,


Derksen


(1972)


with permission


of the senior author.


Items


were worded in both positive


and negative fashion to avoid


biasing the respondents.


Each item was


typed on an index


card and randomly


assigned a


number


from 1


- 50 which


recorded on the back of the


card.


Positioning of


items


on the final


instrument


was based


on these


numbers.


Validity:


The establishment of content validity


involved two


phases


designed


to answer the following questions:


what general categorical


dimensions


are being


measured?


and 2)


which category


does


each


item measure?


The first phase


involved the determination


of the


categories or subscales within


the instrument.


researcher and three professional educators sorted the


items into any perceived


categories.


The researcher


discussed the meaning of each title with each person in


was









in order to determine whether any differences


titled reflected actual


perceived dif


ferences


in category

or merely


differences


in word choice.


Categories


which were identi-


fied with


75% agreement


were


employed


as the subscales


the instrument.


stigma


The six identified subscales


associated with counseling


included:


(personal point of view),


stigma associated with counseling


(perceived others


point of view),


ceptions of


perce


testing,


ived counselor characteristics,


severity of problems


per-


perceived


appropriate for counsel


ling,


perce


ived appropriate


client age.


The second phase


in the establishment of


content


validity


involved


determination of


item suitability within


each category or subscale


Ten doc


toral level


counsel


education students


class


ified


the items


into the


specified categories


or an "other"


category


necessary.


Items which


were


assigned


to the


same


subscale


with


least


70% agreement


constitute


the final


instrument


(Appendix D)


SFollowing


this item


sorting process,


first


two subscales,


stigma


associated


with


counseling


(personal point of view)


and stigma


asso


ciated with coun-


selling


(perceived


others'


point of view)


were combined


into one subscale:


stigma


associated with counseling.


Because each category individually accumulated few items


with


70% agreement among the raters,


when examined in


a combined fashion,


and both ca

accumulated


tegories,

consider-


ably more


items,


it appeared that


there


was considerable


six









overlap between the two factors under investigation and

consideration, and that the content distinction between

these two variables was not great enough to warrant

separate subscale delineations within the instrument.


Therefore,


these two categories


were


combined


to produce


one subscale:


stigma associated with counseling.


summary

items,


the instrument consists of


*


and a content validity of 70%


five subscales, 41

as established by


an inter-rater agreement method.

Reliability:


The test-retest method of


asce


retaining


reliability


was employed.


The final instrument was administered to


30 older adult community college students on


two differ-


ent occasions at least one


week


apart.


Surveys


of persons


who did not


complete


the entire instrument on


either or


both administrations


were


excluded from the reliability


study.


A separate reliability coeffici

for each subscale by determining the


ent was ascertained

test-retest correla-


tion using the Pearson-product moment statistic.


presents the reliability coefficients


Table


for the five sub-


scales,


the total number of


items in each subscale and


the total number of


subjects


constituting


the r


liability


sample


Procedures


rese


archer contacted persons at each institution


who were in a position to identify possible subjects for







71
















0 0
1n
01W 0% a w a
NM 0 M Cl M








2m <
0 ZW




HU U
ratI




0& M
(0 O N ID '0



M U2
W E-' ZN


MU |
.*-iM


Wig4
~00O
(4 0*-I
MOH OZ

MM n0 0 (N i- 0 o
m *
So o 0 0 C
0 1 I 0
^ (i 001 I



pa 2.

O O0
V 0 .041 ger
4J WV) 004C 00
CC l.4 I40 14
U0 04 0 O 0 0 A)
OU OM MUA



OQ 00 0
Me *U COM
&OU rtC 94



0W 0 00 Q 0
o >* 0 4) > *
CU '40 .C *40O' II 0
00Q 0.4 kW4C 4)4
4 CP V) 01 0 Q* 0 VI
lOC CO QQ hffl OM ^




U 040 044) Wi O 0404
(0 r 0 *H En 0 mfl**










the study.


Such persons included the director of


continuing education,


the dean of student affairs,


adult and

director


of research and


testing


services,


and the registrar.


each institution a computer


search


was conducted in order


to identify those students who were born in 1917 or earlier


and would therefore be eligible


to participate in


the study.


A random sample of approximately 60


- 100 persons


selected from the population of


institution to be included


eligible


as potential


persons at each

subjects.


Since the Buckley Amendment of


1974 prohibits an


institution from releasing student information including


names,


ages


and addresses


to an outsider, the researcher


was neither able to personally obtain this


nor make


information


the initial contact with each potential subject.


Therefore,

persons at


a letter


each school


was mailed from one of


to all potential


the contact


subjects


explain-


ing the purpose


cipation.


of the study


(A sample


letter


and requesting their parti-

is provided in Appendix E.)


Included with each letter were


two copies


of the Informed


Consent Notice


which


is required by the graduate


school'


Committee for the Protection to Human Subjects


and the researcher's


(Appendix


self-addressed stamped return


envelope.

Notice, a


If, after having read


potential subject


the letter and Consent


was inclined to participate,


he/she was requested to return one Consent Notice,


sonally signed and witnessed,

include an address or phone nu


per-


to the researcher and

mber so that contact could


then be made.


was










Because of the unique situation of each institution,

the method of data collection was somewhat varied. At


two of the institutions,

istered the instruments


basis either at

the site where


research


to each


the campus,

the subject


her personally admin-


subject


the subject's

took his class


n an individual

home, or at

if different


from the campus.


This


same


method was


planned


to be


con-


ducted at a third institution.


Since


only


six out of 70


persons responded and were willing to participate, the

contact person at that institution volunteered to admin-


ister the instruments to these


persons.


Additionally,


since the response rate at

was so low and also consider


that particular institution


lower than that at


other schools,


a decision


was made to recontact


original and also


select


an additional


group of


30 persons.


The contact person at this


institution again mailed letters


requesting participation,

instruments themselves.


Consent Notices,

This resulted in


and also


the acquisition


of another


seven subjects,


making a


total of 13 from that


institution.


At a fourth institution,


tered the instruments


the contact person adminis-


to persons willing to participate


in the study.


at the fifth institution,


persons willing to participate


were


all of the


mailed instruments


upon receipt of their returned Consent Notice.


students at all institutions,


For all


the instruments were attached


to a proceeding


cover letter


(Appendix G)


which briefly






S74


explained the purpose of the study,


cooperation,


asked


and elicited certain demograp


them for their

hic variables


and information.


In summary,


because of


individual differences


needs among the participating institutions,


of data collection were varied.

mailing was either the only or


At two other schools,


the methods


At two institutions,


primary method of


the researcher personally


tered the instruments to each subject.


At one


collection.

adminis-


school,


contact person administered the instruments


to the subjects.


It is recognized that this provides for a


considerable


lack


of standardization in

limitations have been


ability,


practicability,


the data collection.


necessary


and in


However,


in the interest of

the consideration


certain


manage-

of the


differing circumstances which present


ted themselves


at the


different institutions.


Treatment


of the Data


The data from the


ICNPS


and the PCS


were


analyzed


separately.


In addition,


the "expressed needs"


data and


the "perceived


services"


data from the


ICNS


were


analyzed


separately and also compared together.


Inventory of Counseling


Needs


and Perceived


Services


Analysis of


"needs"


data


The "needs"


data from the


ICNPS


were


analyzed by sub-


scales.


Medians,


means,


and standard deviations


were


calcuated for each subscale to determine


the expressed










relative importance of each subscale.


Means of subscales


were compared to a hypothetical neutral point on the

scale to determine if they differed significantly from


the neutral point.


z test of significance was


used for


this analysis.


Individual items on each


subscale


were


analyzed and ranked by the means.


Means,


medians, modes


and frequency distributions


were


determined for each item.


The "needs"


data


were


further analyzed by means of


analysis of variance

ficant differences in


(A2IOVA)


expressed


to determine if any signi-


needs


existed among the


independent variables of


sex,


maria ta


status,


age,


amount of previous formal education.


The dependent vari-


ables for each ANOVA


were


each of the


"needs"


subscales.


Both main effects and interaction


effects


were


examined.


The main effects were further analyzed by the Scheff4


multiple range


test


and interaction


effects


were


further


examined by means of the test of Simple Main Effects.


To facilitate the analysis

interactions were examined the


of the data,


when any


variables of age,


previous


education and marital


status


were


classified into two or


three groups.


Because


and the traditional


the median age of


of retirement


the sample was

is 65, two age


groups


were


delineated,


one consisting of pe


rsons


- 65,


and the other incorporating


persons


age 66


and older.


Prior education


was condensed into three groups.


Group


one, or the lowest group,


consists


of those


persons


range in education from having had no formal education to










11 years of high school


The second or middle group


inclusive of


those persons who had at


least


attained a


high school degree and at most had experienced some


college.


The subjects in


the third or highest educational


group ranged from having completed college


pleted graduate school.

and divorced persons irn


Because there were


the study,


to having com-

so few single


these two classifica-


tions of marital status were combined thereby producing


three groups for marital status


: married,


widowed


, and


single-divorced.


Analysis of perceived


services


The "perceived


services"


data were analyzed in


terms


of subscales using the


responses


from the


section


section


of the instrument which indicate

pondents agreed or disagreed tha


the degree to which

t counselors provide


vices r

service


elative to each need.


s" section was


the analysis for the


The analysis


carried out in t

"expressed needs"


for the


same manne


"perceived

r as was


section.


Comparison


of expressedd


needs"


and"perceived


services"


Analysis of data incorporating both


"expressed needs"


and "perceived

for the total


services"


sample.


was performed using subscale


scores


A Pearson-product moment correlation


was performed to determine if any significant rel


existed between


"expressed


needs"


received


ationship

services"


for each subscale.


Perceptions of Counseling


Survey


Means and standard deviations were computed for the

five subscales of this instrument. The means of each










subscale were compared


to a hypothetical neutral point by


means of a


z test of


significance.


Measures of central


tendency and frequency distributions were


calculated for


each item within each subscale.


In addition,


a2 X 2


X 3 X 3 factorial design was


analyzed using analysis


of variance


(ANOVA)


The four


dependent variables were


sex,


age,


marital


status,


amount of previous formal


education.


The aforementioned


groupings


for age,


marital status,


and amount of previous


formal education were similarly employed in this analysis.


The dependent variables were the


responses


to the five sub-


scales of the PCS.


Both main


effects and interactions were


examined.


Since the ques


tions within


the instrument


were


worded


both positively and negatively to avoid biasing the


res-


pondents,


it was necessary to


reverse


score


ing for those


items which were negatively worded in order to obtain con-

sistency in meaning and interpretation of the subscale


scores.


For example,


item f#


of the instrument reads:


Counselors are really not inter


ested in helping people my


age.


If an individual


were


to indicated a


"Strongly Agree"


response to this item,


a "4" would have been marked.


Since


an agreement


response


to this


item,


however


would not be


reflective of a positive perception,

this and other such items, a scoring


in the s

reversal


coring of

using the


following scale was applied.










Therefore,


if an individual strongly agreed with item


#1, his score would be analyzed

a less than positive response.


as a "one"


Thus,


and would reflect


for each subscale of


this instrument, more positive perceptions of counseling

are reflected by higher mean scores.
















CHAPTER IV


RESULTS


Chapter IV


consists


of the results of the data analysis


as was described in Chapter


III.


Results of each research


question are presented separately.


Research Question IA:


What are


the express


needs of and the re
ance of such needs


sed counseling


lative


import-


to older adult


community college students?


Analysis of

tory of Counselin

information which


the "expressed

g Needs and Pe

addressed thi


and standard deviations


were


ca


needs"

received


section o

Services


s question.

lculated for


the Inven-


provided


Medians,

each of


means,

the six


subscales.


z test


of significance was performed to deter-


mine if any of the subscale means


differed significantly


from a hypothetical neutral point of


2.5.


After


an analysis


of variance indicated


that significant differences


existed


among the subscale means,


a Scheff4 multiple range test was


performed


to identify these differences.


Means,


median


modes,


and frequency distributions were calculated for each


individual


item within each subscale


(Appendix H)


The means derived from the


responses of


did not indicate very strong needs in any of


the subj

the six


ects


areas.










The means ranged from


2.564


to 1.962


(Table 4).


The only


two subscale means which were significantly different from


the hypothetical neutral point on the scale were

for Family Relationships and Vocational Needs, b


which were significantly


lower than


the neutral


the means


oth of

point


.05).


Of the needs measured by this


instrument,


the mean for


Educational Needs


= 2.564)


was the highest.


The mean


for Family Relationships was


the lowest


The medians of the subscales


2,175 to 2.865,


(Table 4)


indicate that approximately h


= 1.962)


ranging from

alf the sub-


jects expressed agreement with the items on


showing some need for counseling in that area.

the six subscales had slightly more than half


each subscale


Three of

(subscales


, and 6),


and three had slightly


less


(subscales


1, 2,


and 4).


In summary,


a little less


indicated a need for counseling


than half of

in the six


the subj


areas


ects


cove


by the subscales.


The needs which were expressed


least were in

Relationships.


of the subscales,

felt by the group.


areas


of Vocational Needs and Family


According to the analyses


Educational Needs


were


On the other hand,


using the means

the most strongly


the medians indi-


cated that needs


in the


areas


of Personal Adjustment,


Social-


Interpersonal Adjustment,


and Adjustment


to Life Situations


were most strongly felt by the group.







81





Em
Iarth 0 0 0 0 0 0

M 04

M
(a
t
IDC) QOIn0^ 1''' 01 '
WOn P10 ZP

20 < E-0 0 00
Q< e *
am ri 0 0 0 0


M u
10; C3
U)



E4 |
o I 0 N n in
-4 C r- if tf 0% P1 i
m | *
N (A Idr 10
M o 2 i
HZ
>o
M ^
(04
m> Z W 0 SA
*-<~ I in -
>a { H N r N
Q. i *


2 O |
14 N CdClN

0.2
'C

Inca C
0 2 I)0 5
M4)
nO

HZ 4 I '*



DE a a & O
O m | *p a Sa*
0 UU
InC 4 1 0 1-

oU a o to .4
D I CV 0 1

-n V OP 0 0
00 eO 1 4 0
U) I.-i 0a 0 u
>40 ri m C *a < 4'
g o 1c c Q
001 C 0 ri i- 0
2: I4 .4) C >i rI 4*
4' 0 0 e-4 0 U)

H 4 O V c 0 0
U > M ca U) '

O * *
n ( < f 1 W










Research Question 1i:


Is there any difference among


the classifications of
demographic variables
marital status, and pr


educational
of needs ex


level)
pressed?


In addition to examining the types of


needs


selected


(age,
evious


sex


on the types


expressed


by the total sample,


mine if


the data were further examined to deter-


selected demographic variables had any influence on


the types of needs


expressed.


Main effects,


two way and


three way interactions were examined by means of analysis


variance.


Further analyses of interaction effects


were per-


formed using the test of Simple Main Effects.


The dependent


variables were the

'expressed needs"


responses


to the


section of the ICNPS.


six subscales of


The independent


variables were


age,


sex,


marital status


, and amount of pre-


vious formal education prior to enrollment at the community


or junior

results.)


college.


Table


5 for significant ANOVA


The only variable


found


to have any influence by itself


on the "

however,


expressed


needs" was subject age.


only had an effect on two


and Educational


Needs.


subscale


The younger group o


This variable

s, Vocational

Lf subjects


(those age 59


- 65) had significantly higher means,


expressed greater educational and vocational


needs


than did


the older subjects


ences were


(those


significant at the


65 and above).

.05 level. Noc


These differ-

other signifi-


cant main effects


were


found.


For all but one subscale


"expressed needs"


(Family Relationships)


section of the ICNPS,


on the


significant two or















*tt
WrIP
rl p.I
'nt-o


rMrI


0% C0 C0 0'
0%O00


0s V T *mF ^0 W "
. ru -

mww COr-


u- mm


-^ > -1 > *,1 > 4-*
$4 Ci $4 C) 000


XXXXXXX










three way interactions existed.


One significant two way


interaction


was found


for Subscale


Younger widowed


persons had significantly higher


scores


or expressed


greater educational needs than the younger single-divorced


persons,


and the younger widowed persons had greater


expressed educational


needs


than older widowed persons.


For subscales 3,


5, and 6,


three way interactions


were


found among the independent variables of


sex,


marital status,


and educational


level.


More specifically,


for subscales 3


(Personal Adjustment


and 6


(Adjustment to Life Situations),


individuals who


were


married and in the lowest educational


group had significantly higher


scores


or "expressed needs"


than married individuals in the highest educational


group.


For subscale 3


group had


married


women


significantly higher


of the lowest educational


scores


or greater personal


adjustment needs


than did married women in the highest


educational bracket.


Additionally


, the least educated


married men had


signi


ficantly higher


scores


or indicated


greater personal adjustment needs


than single-divorc


ed men


of the


same


educational


status.


Regarding


subscale


6, Adjustment


to Life


Situations,


females of the middle educational grouping had


signifi-


cantly higher means than males of the


same


educational


status.


Also,


widowed


persons


of the middle


educational


grouping had significantly higher


scores,


or expressed


needs in


area


of Adjustment


to Life Situations than


married persons


of the


sane


educational


grouping.









Additionally,


another three way


interaction was found


for subscale 6 which


involved the independent variables


age,


sex,


and previous education.


The middle educated


females scored significantly higher


than


the middle edu-


cated men on


this subscale.


Also,


females under 66


scored


significantly higher,


or indicated more need in the


of Adjustment to Life Situations,


older.


And,


than females


the most highly educated younger males


area

66 and

scored


significantly higher than


the older males of the


same


educational status.


One significant three way interaction


was found for


subscale 1.

or expressed


Younger

greater


females


scores


significantly higher


vocational needs than


the women of


age 66 and above.


In summary,


one statistically significant main


effect


was found


as related


"expressed


needs"


for counseling.


The younger subjects


(ages


- 65) expressed


greater


educational and vocational needs


age 66 and above).


In addition,


than older subjects


significant


two and


(those

three


interactions


were


obtained for five of the


six sub-


scales used for


measuring


subscale not containing


expressed


interactions


needs.

was the


The only

subscale


measuring


expressed


counseling needs in the


area


family


relationships.


Research Question


2A: What types


services


do older


adult community college students


perceive counselors


The data which provided the information t


question came from the analysis of the


"perceived


as providing?


o answer this


services"










section of the ICNPS.


Medians,


means,


and standard devia-


tions were calculated for the


six subscales


(Table 6)


z test of


significance


was performed to determine if any


of the subscale means differed significantly from


a hypo-


thetical neutral point of


2.5.


After


an analysis of


variance was performed,

Scheff4 multiple range


Effects.


Measures


interactions were examined by the


test,


of central


and the test for Simple Main

tendency and frequency dis-


tributions were


scale


determined for each item within each sub-


(Appendix I).


Services

those most ty

related to Fa


related to Educational Needs


pically provided by the


mily Relationships


were


counselor.


was the type of


seen


Counseling

service


perceived


as being


least capably provided by the counselor.


When compared with a hypothetical neutral


point,


but one of the


subscale means


were


significantly greater


indicating that the sub


jects agreed


that counselors


could


provide


services


in these


areas.


While


the mean of


Family Relationships

was not significantly


subscale


was lower than neutral,


lower.


In short,


although five


categories


of services


were


perceived by the subjects


as being within


the domain of


the counselor's


educational needs


abilities


, provision of


was reported to be the


services

type of


service


most capably provided by the counselor.


Provision of


services for concerns related to family relationships


ranked lowest of


the measured counselor functions.


. A


was