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Effects of a group career counseling model on vocational maturity and personal growth of female undergraduates over age 25

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Title:
Effects of a group career counseling model on vocational maturity and personal growth of female undergraduates over age 25
Creator:
DiNuzzo, Theresa Maria, 1951-
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
x, 151 leaves : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Academic advising ( jstor )
Career counseling ( jstor )
College students ( jstor )
Gender roles ( jstor )
Group development ( jstor )
Psychological counseling ( jstor )
School counseling ( jstor )
Self esteem ( jstor )
Women ( jstor )
Womens studies ( jstor )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Vocational guidance for women ( lcsh )
Women college students ( lcsh )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 140-150.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Theresa Maria DiNuzzo.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
000210010 ( ALEPH )
04165272 ( OCLC )
AAX6829 ( NOTIS )

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EFFECTS OF A GROUP CAREER
ON VOCATIONAL MATURITY AND
OF FEMALE UNDERGRADUATE


COUNSELING MODEL
PERSONAL GROWTH
S OVER AGE 25


THERESA MARIA DINUZZO


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
n v inf / i~ ri rt .- n- Ta n^ v-n nn a r- ~. fi r^ rt / -4 a n .... V







































can lift ourselves


out of ignorance,


we can


find


ourselves


as creatures


of excellence


and. intelligence

and skill.


can be free!


can learn


to fly


(Jonathan


Living


ston


Seagull


Richard


Bach)






















Mother


for her


encouragement


that


helped me


and gentleness,


grow.


Father


for his
that


warm
helped


support


and inspiration,


me to reach my


goals.


Brother


Anthony


The

for hi
that


light

s song
helped


life


and his spirit,
me to dream.


















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


am deeply


grateful


to the many


people who


have


given


of them-


selves


so many ways


to make


this


research


possible.


offer my


deepest


appreciation


my family,


to whom


this


dis-


sertation


is dedicated,


for their


love


support


as they


shared


the fulfillment


of my


dreams.


Dr. E. L. Tolbert,


served


as Chairman


doctoral


committee,


provided


patient


understanding


and a tranquil


belief


my ability,


which


am very


grateful.


He truly


guided


my way


through


numerous


steps


involved


in the doctoral


process.


extend


sincere


thanks


to the other members


doctoral


committee:


Dr. Paul


Fitzgerald,


whose


friendship,


warmth,


trust


gave me


strength and


inspired


me to "fly"


toward


new


horizons;


Dr. Mary


McCaulley,


whose


enthusiastic


support


and quiet


assurance


accompanied


me and


gave me


confidence


endeavors


as a student,


woman,


and a counselor.


Sincere appreciation


is extended


to Dr. Milan


Kolarik,


Director


the University


Florida


Psychological


and Vocational


Counseling


Center,


for his assistance


in making


this


study


possible


and for providing me


with


invaluable


experience and


the opportunity


to counsel


students


nI n th fl 1 a r nfl 4'* 1- nn/ A n


^T a -n-n^ f


/-\ nhv Tn r\/* 1*^^-


l" -* r^ Tt-


~n r: n trm Fin C











offer my


sincerest


gratitude


to the entire


faculty


of the Coun-


selor


Education


Department


at the University


of Florida


for instilling


me the ideals


human


growth


and for enriching my


repertoire


counseling


skills.


Also


a word


of thanks


is extended


to the wonderful


secretaries


of the Counselor


Education


Department


for their


patience


and faithful


assistance.


express


deep


gratitude


to Ms. Barbara


Rucker,


fellow


doctoral


student


and friend


for her valued


assistance


in the statistical


analysis.


Her patience


and confidence


were


a tremendous


help


in completing


the study.


Ms. Maggie


throughout


Beistle,


my graduate


cherished


career,


friend


has enhanced


source


my growth


of inspiration


as a person


as a facilitator


of other women's


growth.


am deeply


grateful


to her


for the


many moments


of shared


dreams


and vibrant


insights.


Ms. Donna


DeNovellis,


beloved


"sister


in spirit


has shared


most


poignantly


in the daily


struggles


despairs,


hopes,


and triumphs


of the


past


two


years.


am grateful


to her


for being


there


and for


bringing


sunshine


to my


life.


Ms. Jeanne


Combs,


my inspiring


cohort


and beloved


friend


given me


needed


support


and shared


many memorable,


refreshing


exper-


iences,


which


have


helped


me to


grow


toward


freedom and


renewed


peace


of mind.


am truly


grateful


for her companionship


and spirit.


Many


other


friends


have


contributed


efforts


their


couragement


genuine


support.


Special


thanks


are extended


en-


















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS............................................. iv
ABSTRACT... . . ... .... .. viii


CHAPTER

I INTRODUCTION. ........................... ....... ... 1

Need for the Study. .. .. .. .. ...... .... 1

Rationale for the Study.......................... 3

Purpose of the Study...... .............. ....... 5

Research Questions............................... 5

Definition of Terms........................ ..... 5

II A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE........................... 7

Current Status of Women.......................... 7

Career Development...... ...................... 12

The Mature Woman........ .........27


Summary... . . ...... 54

III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY................................. 55

The Hypotheses................ .... .............. 56

Population and Sampling Procedures............... 57

('n"l nl/^-4nnr nC^ flnenA Cfl











Page


Analysis of Data.


Introduction....................................

Description of the Method......................

Description of the Sample.......................

Statistical Findings Related to Hypotheses......


DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS................. ....... 101


Introduction. .............................. ... 101

Summary of the Findings......................... 101

Discussion ...................................... 104

Conclusions...... ........ ... ..... .......... 106

Implications... .... 107

Suggestions for Further Research................ 109


APPENDIX


DESCRIPTION OF EXPERIMENTAL TREATMENT............. 110

EXERCISES USED IN EXPERIMENTAL TREATMENT........... 121

INFORMED CONSENT FORM.............................. 127

ADULT VOCATIONAL MATURITY INVENTORY................ 128

CAREER DEVELOPMENT NEEDS SURVEY.................... 131

DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLE: TABLES..................... 134


REFERENCES........ ............... ... ............... 140

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH........................................ 151


THE FINDINGS......................................




















Abstract
Of the Universit


of Dissertation
y of Florida in
for the Degree


Presented


Partial


of Doctor


to the Graduate


Fulfillment


Council


of the Requirements


of Philosophy


EFFECTS


OF A GROUP


ON VOCATIONAL


CAREER


MATURITY


COUNSELING


AND PERSONAL


MODEL
GROWTH


OF FEMALE


UNDERGRADUATES


OVER AGE


Theresa Maria

August, 1


DiNuzzo


977


Chairman:


E. L.


Tolbert


Major


Department:


Counselor


Education


Societal


and technological


influences


have


created


a renewed


interest


in the


concept


of education


over


the total


life


span.


This,


turn,


has led to the influx


of older


students


to the college cam-


pus.


Among


this


new


population


can be found


a large


increase


in the


numbers


of female


undergraduates


over


age of 25 (defined


mature women


students


for the


purpose


of this


study).


Research


evidence


supports


the fact


that


these women


exhibit


certain


personal


career


development


needs


which


differ


from


those


of their


younger


counterparts.


What


is the counselor'


role


in facilitating


the mature


woman


student's


transition


from


home


school


and work


after


a period


of absence?


What


counseling


inter-


1 4r r *4 p --


__ 1 1


* t .


_i I J *













consideration of the career development needs of the mature woman

student, a four-week Career/Life-Planning Workshop was developed


for use in this study.


The dimensions of the model include self-


assessment, occupational information,


decision making, and


skills development.


The effects of this model on a) vocational maturity


self-


esteem and self-confidence


, c) degree of conformity,


d) degree of


personal effectiveness, e) degree of personal integration, and f)

perception of career development needs were evaluated by means of


a randomized control group pretest-posttest research design.


total of 65 mature women students drawn from the population of fe-


male undergraduates over


the sample

groups.

Inventory


25 at the University of Florida comprised


which was assigned randomly to experimental and control


Pre/post analysis was made using the Adult Vocational Maturity

, the Vocational Preference Inventory, and a questionnaire


developed by the experimenter,


the Career Development Needs Survey.


Results of the study confirmed that upon completion of the


Career/Life-Planning Workshop,


the experimental group manifested a


significant increase in vocational maturity, self-esteem and self-


confidence, and personal


integration;


a significant decrease in de-


gree of conformity;


and a significant decrease in perception of need


for academic advisement,


vocational counseling,


personal counseling,


-- -.. .. ....- _-- ------ ---------------- 1-.... ---.. .. ...


e,















communication


with


other


returning


women


students,


placement


strategies,


and information


about


expanding


roles


women.


The control


group,


which


not participate


in the workshop,


not exhibit


similar


positive


outcomes.


This


group


manifested


a significant


tiveness,


need


decrease


as well


for academic


in vocational


as a significant


advisement


maturity


increase


and improved


and personal


in perception


study


effec-

of the


skills.


The findings


of this


study


suggest


that


the personal


career


development


needs


of the mature


woman


student


cited


in the


research


do exist


are concerns


to which


counseling


applied;


short-term


group


career


counseling,


based


on the di-


tensions


self-assessment


, occupational


information,


decision


making,


and job


skills


development,


is the intervention


model


shown


to be effective


in meeting


these


needs;


the combined


effects


of counselor


facilitation


and mutual


group


support


proved


to be beneficial


in promoting


positive


personal


change.


Implications


for counselor preparation,


university


program-


ming,


and accountability


for continuing


education


follow


from


findings


of this


study.


















CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


overwhelming


increase


in the numbers


women


returning


to the


university


to further


their


education


after


an interruption,


and plan-


ning


a reentry


into


the labor


force,


offers


evidence


a new


college


population


with


unique


needs


regarding


the direction


of their


personal


and vocational


development.


This


study


attempted


to provide a


method


group


career


counseling,


specifically


designed


ease


the transi-


tion


into


the academic


setting


of the female


undergraduate


over


years


age,


has been


out of school


for at least


five


years


(identified


as "mature woman"


for the


purpose


of this


study).


Need


for the Study


women


kitchen
only for
demands
the chan


back


move


in their


to workplace,


the changes


their


parental c
rhythm and


ycle,


presence


long
they


dictated


in the lab


to a lengthened
and a changing


patterning


of women's


1


from


lives
should


a growing
or market,
ife span,


biological


lives


school


prepared


economy which
but also for
a shortened


pattern.


follow


certain


inherent


which


developmental


these


changes


changes.


are incongruent


It is the point


with


social


at
expec-


stations


tha t


will


require


the special


assi


stance


counselors


women.


(Neugarten,


1961,


170)


Women whose


career


development


has been


interrupted


are


pioneering


new oaths


toward


the fi lfillmpnt


nf t-h-ir


1 n t h frim-


n tcrn t f a


I


rfn ~











a result


of this


conflicting


situation,


a crucial


need


experi-


enced


these women


is for


intervention


that


eases


the transition


from


home


to school


to work


(Eyde,


1962).


Since many variables


enter


into


the decision


age of


work,


of the


children,


self-concept,


mature woman


financial


mobility,


status,


etc.)


to return


spouse's


to school


attitude,


it is crucial


(i.e.,


value


that


number


placed


she receive


special


and sensitive


counseling


qualified


and informed


persons


every


aspect


of her transition.


education


and employment


of the mature woman


of necessity must


be understood


in conjunction


with


her family


situation..


She must


helped


to reorganize


her time


to maintain


a balance


between


academic


duties a

of guilt


nd family

in regard


responsibilities.

to her diminished


She is often


role


faced


in the family


with f

sphere


feelings

in pur-


suit


of her


personal


own interests.


fears


of failure


In addition,


in this


lack


new venture


of self-confidence and

must be resolved


(Cook


Stone,


1973).


Matthews


(1969)


terms


the transition


a "resynthesis


of identity


mid-life,


a reawakening


of former


dreams which


the mature woman may


have


aside


in favor


of family


priorities.


She is ready


utilize


abilities,


look


both


inward


to her


own


resources,


which


education


can help


discover,


and outward


to the fuller


social


uses


her individual


gifts"


(Harbeson,


1967,


76).


She will


require


assistance


in this


endeavor.


Letchworth


(1970)


now












Often,


this


self-examination


is performed


in isolation.


The mature


woman

touch


women


views


with


herself i

homebound


undergoing


n competition


peers


similar


with


(Watkins,


chan


younger


1974).


has been


students


and "out


Interaction with


shown


to be


other


an effective means


support


and mutual


growth


in self-esteem


(Brandenburg,


1974


Cook,


1970


Dennis,


1963


Furniss


Graham,


1974;


Hiltunen,


1965;


Schlossberg,


1976)


Reality-testing


of vocational


options


is another


advantage


group


experiences


for the mature woman.


With


peer


support,


she may


explore


realistic

1965). S


aspirations


ince


based


an extended


on her


period


own


interests


of absence


from


and abilities (Tinker,

the labor market may


have a


detrimental


effect


on the


mature


woman's


chance


to obtain a


in line with


ability,


specific


training


a career


and knowledge


of the labor market,


in addition


to effective


vocational


guidance,


will


be of


utmost


importance


(Seear,


1971).


In conclusion,


the above


factors


involved


in the transition


of the


mature woman


into


the academic/work


world


were


considered


in an


effort


to implement


an effective


group


career


counseling


intervention.


Rationale


for the Study


In order


to meet


the needs


of the


mature


woman


returning


to school,


as described


in the previous


section,


it is believed


that


a counseling


intervention


in the form


a vocational/personal


model


group


coun-


.c r_ --


T* -


, .


1 t- -


?~ LY C CC~~LAJ


*












woman who


has followed


a discontinuous


career


pattern


will


become


equipped


with


abilities


essential


to realistic


vocational


decision-


making.


attempt


to evaluate


the effectiveness


of such


an intervention,


therefore,


mus t


consider


possible


changes


in both


personal


and vocation-


al characteristics


of the participants.


Specifically,


group members


should manifest


an increase


in vocational


maturity


with


accompanying


improvement


in such


relevant


personality


traits


as self-esteem and


self-confidence,


personal


independence


effectiveness


(i.e.,


and integration,


lesser


degree


as well


as


of conformity),

fewer perceived


career


development


needs


areas


covered


in the


group


experience).


It is evident


from


the research


that


the above


factors


are of


special


concern


for women


are returning


to the academic


setting after


an interruption.


Thus,


if it


can be assessed


that


positive


outcomes


realized


in these


areas,


as a result


of women's


participation


in a


structured


group


career


counseling model,


counsel


lors


will


be better


equipped


to meet


Implications


career


will


follow


development


needs


for counselor


the mature woman.


preparation,


programming


efforts


and other

continuing


Student

campus a


education.


personnel


agencies,


Thus,


services,


as well


career


as measures


a replicable,


planning


and placement,


of accountability


structured


model


for

group


career


counseling will


be available


use in


a variety


of settings


in which


the mature


woman


has ventured


toward


realizing


her goals


are











Purpose


of the Study


The

a grou


purpose


of this


treatment


investigation was


experience


in meeting


to examine


the effectiveness


the personal/career


develop-


ment


needs


of the female


undergraduate


over


years


of age who


been


out of school


for a period


at least


five


years.


primary


goal


group


treatment was


to increase


the level


of vocational


maturity


the members.


Variables


relating


to self-esteem and


self-confidence,


degree


of conformity,


degree


of personal


effectiveness,


degree


per-


sonal


integration,


and perceived


career


development


needs


were


also


measured.


Research


Questions


following


research


questions were


examined


What
a) 1


effect will


evel


confidence;
effectivene


group


treatment


vocational maturity;


egree


have
self-


of conformity;


degree


of personal


on participants'


esteem
egree


integration;


and self-


pers


onal


and f)


perceived


career


development


needs?


What


differences


will


be found


between


experimental


control


groups


level


of vocational


maturity;


self


-este
egree


integration


em and


pers


self-confidence;


onal


and f)


egree


effectiveness


perceived


career


of conformity


egree


development


pers
needs


onal


Definition


of Terms


For the


purpose


Mature


woman


of this

refers


study,


the following


a female


definitions


undergraduate


in a


apply:


four-year


university who


over


years


and has been


out of school












Life-style


refers


to "an


overall


of looking


at the world,


at the physical


environment,


at concepts


and ideas,


at people


social


interaction,


and at oneself"


(Eason,


1972,


128.).


Vicarious


achievers


are


those


persons


who define


their


identity


through


the accomplishments


and personal


activities


of the


dominant


people


around


them,


rather


than


through


their


own


(Schlossberg,


1976).


















CHAPTER


A REVIEW


OF THE


LITERATURE


In order


to acquire


an accurate


understanding


of the position


the mature woman


returning


to the academic


world,


and thus,


provide


counseling


interventions which are most


beneficial


in meeting


her needs,


an examination


of relevant


research


will


be presented


in the following


areas:


Current


Status


of Women


(including


relevant


statistics,


fed-


eral


support,


and the role


of women's


education


over


the life


span);


Career


Development


(including


general


theoretical


considerations,


vocational


maturity,


group


career


counseling)


and c)


The Mature


Woman


(including


general


considerations,


the characteristics


career


development


of the mature woman,


counseling


the mature woman,


group


career


counseling


programs


for the mature


woman).


Current


Status


of Women


Relevant


Statistics


Between


1950


and 1969


school


enrollment


rose


from


26,000


to 311,000


among women


25-29


years


age,


and from


21,000


to 215,000


among women


30-34


years


(Women' s


Bureau,


1971).


As of October,


1972,


there


were


748,000 women


over


years


of age working


for a diploma,


degree,












It has been


force


verified


increases with


that


the chance


and level


a woman


of education


(Eyde,


being


1962;


in the labor


Hoffman &


Nye,


1974).


A 1967


study


of female


participation


rates


in the total


labor


force


showed


that


following


a decline


in the


age group


25-34,


there was


a sharp


upward


swing


a second


peak


in the 45-54


group.


Thus,


reentry woman was


becoming more


visible


over


a twenty-year


period


(Seear,


1971).


Seventy-one


percent


women


with


five


years


or more


of college


participated


in the labor


force


in 1968.


According


group,


following


statistics


are noteworthy:


Percentage


in Labor


Force


20-24
25-34
35-44
45-54
55-64


S. .... ... .. .. 74%
S. ...... .. 69%
S. ... .. .. ...72%
. ..... .86%
.... ............... ... 76%


(Cook


Stone,


1973)


In addition,


between


1940


and 1966


the number


women


in the


labor


force more


than


doubled


in the 35-44


age group,


more


than


tripled


in the 45-54


age group,


more


than


quadrupled


in the 55-64


age group


(Furniss


Graham,


1974).


There


is increasing


evidence


that marital


position


not a deter-


rent


a woman's


labor


force


participation.


1971,


over


40% of


married


women


with


children


under


of 18 were


working,


an in-


crease


of 50% from 1960


(United


States


department


of Labor,


1972).


rnr9 ~ r


r~~~. -'f S* C *


I----


__ ~


n- r ^/


m


*


1












training;


and c)


continuation


of work


after


marriage.


Similarly,


in a


study


Farmer


and Bohn


(1970)


of 50 working women


(i.e.,


25 married


and 25 single)


findings


verified


that


the level


of vocational


interest


would


be raised


if home/career


conflict


were


reduced.


Thus,


increased


flexibility


and democratization


in marriage


family


patterns


often


offer


a woman


the option


of combining


a dual


role


of career wife


and mother.


Studies


indicate


that


women


themselves


often


desire


this


combined


role.


Gavron


(1966)


found


that


92% of


a sample


of 48 middle-class


London mothers


intended


to combine


the role


wife


and mother with


career


activities.


Harbeson


(1967)


cites


a New


York


Times


survey


200 college-trained


housewives


in Westchester


County,


York,


which


revealed


that


more


than


50% in the 25-35


bracket


wanted


paid


employ-


ment


at the time of


survey


or within


next


5-15


years;


thought


their


education was


inadequate,


and 80% planned


to return


school.


Doty


(1966)


compared


mature women


students


and nonstudents


and affirmed


finding


that


95% of the nonstudents


felt


they


had interests


and needs


that


could


be satisfied


through


a college


education;


70% of the


nonstudents


had considered


returning


to college.


The author


suggests


need


to facilitate


the transition


of these


academically


capable


women


desire


to return


to college,


but have


not done


Federal


Support


so.












1960'


ushered


a new


era of attention


to the needs


women.


The United

tablished

through le


States

in 1961


gislation


Government


to work


Commission


toward


and other


on the Status


improvement


efforts.


of Women


of the position


In 1962,


the Manpower


was


es-


women


Develop-


ment


and Training Act made


funds


available


for training


unemployed


underemployed


men and


women.


Titles


VII and IX aimed


toward


combating


discrimination


ployment.


on the basis


In 1968,


discrimination


sex in many


the Discrimination


on the basis


of 40 and 65 in hiring,


of age again


firing,


promoti


areas


of education


in Employment

nst any person

on, and other


em-


prohibited


between

aspects


ages


of employ-


ment


(Seear,


1971).


Role


of Women


s Education


over


the Life


Span


What


we must


reach


for is


a conce


option


perpetual


shaping


s best


self-di


realize


self,


(Gardner,

Programs


scovery,


one's


to be


1959


, pp.


perpe


oals,


e person
1-2)


imitating women's


tual


re-


to real


one


could


efficient


use of higher
the indefinite


cation


will


future


needed into


S. helping women


stages


of their


educational


and life-


planning,
equality


advo


cates


opportunity.


wider options


(Campbell,


1974,


199)


The crucial


impact


of education


as a continuou


s, lifelong


process


is implicit


in the rapid


societal


advances


of today


s world.


There


exists


a prevalent


belief


in the right


of education


for all people


over


the total


life


span.


one













make


the educational


experience more accessible


a greater


number


people.


higher

broader


In addition,


education t

curriculum


a quality


oday,


of heterogeneity


as indicated


offerings,


and openn


is becoming


flexibility, ex

ess to the idea


evident


perimentation,


accepting


students wherever


they


are,


as well


as whoever


they


are"


(Journal


the National Association


Women


Deans,


Administrators,


and Counselors,


1975,


12).


does


this


state


of affairs


in society


today


relate


to the mature


woman


student?


Neugarten


(1972,


210)


offers


a striking


contrast


the changes


in the life


cycle


for women


between


1890


and 1966:


Average Age


1890


1966


leaving
marriage
birth of


school


. .14.
. .. .22.


first child


....... ... 25-26


....20


birth
death
marria


last


child.


husband....


first


death...


. .32
.. .. .. .* .53


child
***.*


. .. .55
. ... .68


S. .. .26
S.. 64
. ...48
. ..78


This


illustrates


a trend


toward


more


rapid


rhythm


events


through


most


of the family


cycle,


an extended


period


of time


when


husband


wife are


the sole members


of the household,


and a lengthened


life


span


for both men and


is crucial


women.


to enable


author


women


to realize


concludes

e their f


that


ull


educational


potential


planning


in life.


Research


for the United


States


Department


of Labor


s Manpower


ministration


(1971)


has shown


that


a married


woman


whose


youngest


child


is in school


the time


;he is 35,


faces


approximately


30 years


pro-


.


_


- J


1


w


V












workers


beginning


in society


to meet


beyond


this


their


need


childbearing


women


years.


on over


Higher


campuses.


education


In addition,


an estimated


500 institutions


nationwide


offer


special


programs


ser-


vices


for adult


women


(Watkins,


1974).


Career


Development


General


Theoretical


Considerations


Career


development


describes


"the


interaction


of psychological,


social,


economic,


physical,


and chance


factors


that


shape


career


or sequence


of occupations,


jobs


and positions


an individual


holds


during


course


of her life"


(Gysbers,


1974,


16).


It is viewed


as a continuous


process


of one's


unique


pattern


of vocational


growth.


Ginzberg,


Ginsburg,


Axelrad,


and Herma


(1951)


assert


that


this


pattern


involves


a synthesis


or compro-


mise


between


the self


and reality-based


opportunities


in the environment.


As individuals


increase


self-understanding,


i.e.,


awareness


their


own capabilities


and interests,


as well


as in knowledge


about


career


options,


sity


they may


of such an


development


begin


integrative


theorists


to correlate


process

, Gustad,


(Blau


these


has been

Jessor,


two sets


affirmed

Parnes,


of data.


various


Wilcock,


neces-


career

1965;


Crites,


1974;


Holland,


1966


Tiedeman


O'Hara,


1963;


Tuckman,


1973).


Super,

expressing


al terminology


Starishevsky,

a vocational p


his idea


Matlin,


)reference


of the kind


and Jordaan


(1963)


. a person


person


put


he is


propose

s into


that


occupation-


. the occupation












distinctive


attributes,


abilities,


resources,


assets


, lacks,


limitations


(Kroll,


Putnam and


Dinklage,


Hansen


(197


Lee, M

affirm


orley,

that


Wilson,


self-concep


1970).

t is significantly


related


to one's


level


of vocational


maturity.


Their


findings


support


Super's


theory


career


development


and verify


its applicability


women.


In addition,


research


evidence


supports


the view


that


high


self-


esteem


is conducive


to constructive


occupational


exploration


(Barbier,


1971;


House


Katzell,


1975).


authors


suggest


that


such


persons


are more


open


to their


experiences


, possess


a high


gree


of self-


confidence,


are more


successful


in personal


functioning


variety


of situations.


Thus,


related


can be concluded


to self-concept,


that


counseling


career


interventi


development

ons which


is positively


strengthen


capacity


and motivation


for improved


self-understanding will


serve


enhance


one's


career


development.


In support


of this


view,


Wrenn


(1962)


suggests


attention


to the


unique


factors


needs which


affecting


these


individuals


perceptions


reflect.


perceptions

Tuckman (


of themselves


1973)


and the


has delineated


four


stages


comprising


this


essential


"affective


component"


career


development,


which


help


to clarify


individuals


motives,


attitudes,


feelings


toward


themselves


and their


environment:


Experiencing:


awareness


of inner


self


necessary


prior


to optimum


career


choice


(including


fantasy,


role


playing);















Valuing: T
reinforcing


and feelings


his


involves


values,
toward


establi


motives
a varie


shing


attitudes


ects,


other


people,


and themselves


SIntegrating:
dividual valu


This
es, a


phase


incul


attitude


cates


motives


feelings


into


a well-defined


value


system.


The complementary


role


of occupational


information


in the


process


career


Possession

portunitie


development has

of adequate inf

s and conditions


also


received


formation

has been


about


attention


occupations


correlated


with


career


theorists.


and related op-

vocational maturity


(House


Katzell,


1975).


Similarly,


Hoppock


(1963)


asserts


that


cupational


choice


is determined


an individual's


knowledge


occupa-


tions


and ability


to think


clearly.


This


objective


information


crucial


to achieve


an understanding


ways


in which


one's


needs may


be satisfied


a career.


Several


authors


caution


that


one must


not ignore


the individual


perceptions,


attitudes,


and feelings


toward


these


facts


about


occupa-


tions


(Rusalem,


1954;


Walz,


Smith,


Benjamin,


1974).


following


psychological,


as well


as logical


aspects


of occupational


information


must


be highlighted:


value


identify


cation


, psychosocial


aspects


of work,


and the meaning


of work


in the individual


s life.


Thus,


life


career


development"t


involves


whole


persons


with


their


unique


life


style.


It is manifested


individuals


' self-development


oc-












In recognition


of this


belief,


components


a comprehensive


career


guidance


program


have


been


delineated


Harris-Bowlsbey


(1975)


as follows:


self-concept


clarification


(interests


abilities,


values)


translation


of self-con


cept


into


occupational


terms;


broad


exploration


of occupations;


teaching


of decision-making


skills;


reality


testing


of tentative


choi


ces;


making


a choice;


imple-


mentation.


One comprehensive


systems


approach


to developmental


career


guidance


utilizing


these


elements,


is the Tri-Phase


Integrative


Program


for Oc-


cupational


Development


(TRIPOD)


proposed


Kirts


and Fisher


(1973)


use in the college


setting.


Three


assumptions


of this


approach


Vocational d
individual's


working
crisis


development


total


through


points


one aspect


maturation


personal


which


and forward-moving


tend


when


process


and developmental


to be


self


conditions


-enhancing
are con-


ducive


to growth.


Incr


easing


self-knowledge


increases


accuracy


and adequacy with


which


a person


makes


vocational


choices.


Work


a way


life,


and ad


equate


voca-


tional
likely


the work
are in ac
interests
dividual.


and personal a
to result when


and its


cord


with


adjustment
both the


consequent


the needs


values


most


nature


life


, aptitudes,


oals of


vocational


theory


underlying


this


system


is Holland's


Theory


Occupational


Choice.


The following


stages


comprise


the TRIPOD


system:


are











correspond


to Holland's


occupational


types.


Simulation


involves


a group


experience


occupational


acteristics,


designed


to explore


categories.


interests,


behaviors


Feedback


values,


includes


and needs,


relating


to each


discussion


with


of Holland


of personal


suggestions


char-


for ways


improve


self-concept.


Exposure:


The individual


becomes


familiar with


a broad


range


of occupational


information,


including


resources


field


experience,


trend


speakers


on job-related


topics.


Placement:


This


provides


experience


in job-hunting


techniques,


evaluation


of job


opportunities


interviewing


skills


and resume writing.


The developmental


focus


of this


system


corresponds


to the belief


that


vocational


maturity


an ongoing


process.


It also


supports


concept


of increased


self-awareness


in relation


awareness


of the


world


of work


as a necessary


combination


for effective


career


choice.


Kroll


et al


. (1970)


support


the belief


that


there


a need


to for-


mulate


an extension


throughout


adulthood.


career


They


development


advocate


theory


the teaching


as an adaptive

of rational d


process


decision


making


purposing of


behavior,


comprised


of the following


phases:


define


the problem


or goal;


collect


pertinent


data;


analyze


data


for relevance


and adequacy;


explore


alternatives


discuss


consequences;


select


an option--implement


and evaluate


In conclusion,


it is


apparent


that


significant


behaviors


which


contribute


an individual


s career


development must


include











Vocational


Maturity


concept


of vocational


maturity


provides


guidelines


a gen-


eral


assessment


of the


rate


and level


an individual's


career


develop-


ment.


be viewed


any age


as "planfulness


or time


perspective,


exploratory


attitudes


and behaviors,


the acquisition


of information,


knowledge of


decision


making,


and reality


orientation


" (Super,


1974


, p. 5).


The history


vocational


maturity may


be traced


to the work


Carter


(1940)


studied


the development


of interests


in adolescence,


and to Strong,


found


that vocational


behavior


changes


with


(Westbrook


Cunningham,


1970).


An actual


model


of vocational


maturity


formulated


in the Career


Pattern


Study


at Teacher's


College,


Columbia


University


, New


York


(Super,


1955)


examined


the vocational


development


of ninth


grade


boys.


Based


on the


concept


of vocational


life


stages,


Super


model


defines


vocational maturity


on the continuum


as "the


degree


vocational


of development,


development


from


the place


exploration


reached

to decline"


Super,


1955,


p.153)


It is comprised


of five


dimensions


as follows:


orientation to vocational

information and planning;


choice;


consiste


crystallization

ncy of vocationa


of traits;

1 preferences;


wisdom of


vocational


choice.


Crites


(1961)


offered


an elaboration


of Super's


concept


voca-


tional maturity


in the form


a pictorial model


consisting


of 18


variables


grouped


under


the following


four


dimensions:


consistency











Another major


research


project


in vocational


maturity,


the Career


Development


Study


(Gribbons


Lohnes,


1968)


investigated


career


development


of 111 subjects


over


eight


years


(eighth


grade


to two


years


after


high school)


and defined


vocational


maturity


as "readiness


vocational


planning.


" Vocational


maturity


behaviors


were


organized


around


eight


dimensions


as follows:


factors


in curriculum


choice;


factors


in occupational


choice;


verbalized


strengths


and weak-


nesses;


accuracy


self-rating;


adequacy


interests;


of self-appraisal


values;


independence


evidence


of choice.


Instruments which measure


vocational


maturity


are used


assess


one's


readiness


it has been


to make


verified


that


vocational/educational


these measures


decisions.


can be used


In addition,


for evaluative


purposes,


i.e.,


evaluate


objectives


dealing


with


career


occupa-


tional


development"t


(Westbrook


Cunningham,


1970,


p. 173).


As such,


they


are valid


evaluative measures


career


counseling


interventions.


Vocational


maturity


and personality


development.


Research


evidence


supports

important


the hypothesis


aspect


that


of personality


vocational


maturity


development.


can be viewed


As Bohn


(1966)


as an


affirms,


vocationallyy mature


individuals


are more mature,


not only


occupa-


tional


attitudes


and orientations,


but also


in personal


characteristics;


vocational maturity


seems


to be


a reflection


of general


personal


develop-


ment


must


be taken


into


account


in effective


vocational


counseling"


125).


Tn


Qtnduv


Snf 7 nlo 1


n F t n .


ol~rT^^o


Tro1 a i--?n


/- 1' n if f" r


P












as well


as less


self-critical.


The author


concludes


tha t


vocation-


ally mature


person


one


is goal-directed,


realistic


and independent"'%-


125).


Similarly,


(1965)


model


of the maturing


person may


be translated


into


vocational


terms


as one who


is becoming


more


organized


terms


involvement


the vocational


choice


process


and less


dis-


turbed


threatening


expe


riences;


more


open


new


information


about


self


and occupations;


more


aware


nation,


of realistic


rather


than


forms


personal,


of infor-
need-


dominated


forms;


aware


of internal


(self-concept)


external
symbolic


(world


of work)


worlds


through


representation;


more


independent


in the choice


process,


not immediately


controlled


environment,


motivational


state


earlier


childhood


history.


225)


In conclusion,


the vocationally mature


individual


is "less


disturbed


threatening


experiences,


more


self-actualizing


through


achievement,


more


attracted


to other


people"


(Bartlett,


1971,


pp. 225-226).


Consistent


findings were


revealed


in another


study


Bartlett


(1968)


using


the Vocational Maturity


Scale


of the Vocational


Development


Inventory


and the Adjective


Checklist.


Results


showed


that


those with


higher

oriented


vocational m

d, forceful,


maturity


scores were


independent,


less


more


self-confident,


self-critical,


and les


achievement

s deferent


in their


relationships


with


others.


Heath's












An approach


to the relationship


between


vocational


maturity


personality


development


seen


in the vocational


theory


of Holland


(1966).


system,


author


posits


differentiating


a hexagonal


individuals


into


occupational


six personality


classification


types


follows:


Realistic


Intellectual


Artistic


Social


Enterprising


and Conventional


Since


Holland


viewed


interest


inventories


as personality


inventories,


he developed


the Vocational


Preference


Inventory


(VPI)


as a measure


of both


interest


person-


ality


(Holland,


1966).


Thus,


in a


comparison


of results


from


the VPI


with


those


a vocational


maturity


measure,


it is possible


to relate


consistent


personality


patterns,


as well


as accuracy


of self-estimates,


to vocational


maturity


(Bartlett


, 1971).


Vocational


maturity


of adults.


assessment


of vocational


turity


in adults


has received


very


little


attention


contrast


to the


vocational


maturity


of adolescents


(Crites,


1965;


Walls


Gulkus,


1974).


However,


research


evidence


supports


the belief


that


vocational


maturity


continues


beyond


stages


of preadolescence and


adolescence


(Sheppard,


1971).


an effort


to compensate


for the lack


an adequate measuring


vice


of vocational


maturity


in adults,


Sheppard


(1971)


devised


the Adult


Vocational


Maturity


Inventory


(AVMI).


The author


administered


the AVMI


three


sample


groups:


200 unemployed men,


100 male


vocational


trainees,


and 100 male


graduate


students.


The total


group


of 400


subjects was


equally


divided


into


item analysis


cross


validation


groups.


ma-











The AVMI

reinforcers a


was used


nd occupation


a study

al value


relating

s (Walls


vocational


Gulkus,


maturity

1974).


to job


Subjects


consisted


of 207


vocational


rehabilitation


clients


(142 males


and 65


females)

Virginia


and 59 graduate


University;


students


were


tested


(28 males


and 31 females)


on the Minnesota


at West


Job Description


Questionnaire


and the Occupational


Values


Survey,


as well


as the AVMI.


Results


showed


no differences


in vocational


maturity


between


males


females.


High


vocational


maturity


corresponded


with


belief


in the im-


portance


getting


a feeling


accomplishment;


doing work with-


out feeling


it is morally wrong;


having


steady


employment


feeling


independent


and self-satisfied;


having


an opportunity


use


special


talents;


and f)


feeling


a sense


of challenge.


Results


also


contributed


to the


construct


validity


of the AVMI,


as well


as to the


concept


adult

Group


vocational


Career


maturity.


Counseling


Counseling


strategies


which


serve


to inculcate


essential


career


development


behaviors


and insights,


as well


as increase


the level


vocational


maturity,


have


taken many


forms.


Among


these


have


been


various ty

positive e

Smith


pes


group


effects


and Evans


counseling.


group c

(1973)


Career co

studied


Research


unseling


the effects


evidence


a variety

of three


supports


of settings.

treatment


procedures


on the vocational


development


of college


students


as fol-


lows:


experimental


group


guidance


(five-week


program)


indi-












experimental


treatment


was based


on a method


devised


Smith


(1971)


and consisted


of the following:


independent


assignment


audiotape i

activities,


introductionn

including


to the weekly

observation of


topics;


a model


large


tape,


group meeting


occupational


formation,


and interpretation


test


results;


small


group


counsel-


sessions.


Major


emphasis was


upon


decision making,


values,


interests,


behavioral


traits,


and social


influences.


Another


comparative


study


group


and individual


counseling


60 male


freshman


found


no differences


between


the effectiveness


dividual


vs. group methods


however,


group


participants


became more


certain,


satisfied,


and realistic


in their vocational


choices


than


control


group.


The time-saving


quality was


the major


advantage


of the


group method


(Hoyt,


1955).


Other


studies


showed


improvement


of personal


attitudes


and in-


strumental


behaviors


as a result


group


career


counseling.


study


of eleventh


and twelfth


grade


boys


with


unrealistic


vocational


aspirations,


findings


showed


that


effective


feedback and


peer


reinforce-


ment


provided


systematic


group


counseling


resulted


in more


realistic


vocational


choices


(Hanson


Sander,


1973).


Effects


on self-perception


were


shown


to move


in the direction


better


adjustment


a study


of 13 small


groups


of normal


high


school


students who


met for 14


sessions


of educational/vocational


group


coun-


selling.


Comparison


was made


of 0-sort


adjustment


a 11t


coneruence


srnres












A counseling


measures


outreach


achieved


workshop


the following


utilizing

positive


behavioral


outcomes:


and attitudi-


increased


responsibility


in information-seeking


and decision-making.behaviors


group


participants;


greater


congruence


between


choice


career


area


and measured


interests


(Mencke


Cochran,


1974).


In addition


to the above


evidence


support


of overall


positive


outcomes


group


career


counseling,


specific


advantages


have


been


identified


in the research.


accessibility


peer


support


sharing


common


concerns


and problems


is of


utmost


importance.


This


serves


to increase


self-confidence,


provide


an atmosphere


of mutual


trust and


acceptance,


and lead


to greater understanding


accep-


tance


of self


and others


(Ohlsen,


1963).


Yeager


and McMahon


(1974)


suggest


that


group


career


counseling


offers


a means


of comparison


in regard


peer


achievement,


inter-


personal


this


effectiveness,


baseline


life


information,


style,


individual


personal

ls may e


goals,


evaluate


and values.


their


With


personal


career


development


and formulate


relevant


career


plans.


It allows


individuals


to proceed


at their own


pace


within


context


mutual


exchange


of information.


The authors


believe


that


there


a necessity


for balance among


self-discovery,


information,


and plan-


ning


career


experiences


in the


group


format.


They


conclude


that


group


counseling


increases


the focus


attention


and provides


relatively


effi


cient method


of counseling.












feelings

feelings


of discouragement


of personal


and attitudinal


inadequacy


problems.


and allow participants


to view


educe

their


own situation

attitudinal d


in clearer


ata


perspective.


on the problems


Also,


and personal


it offers


the counselor


characteristics


of the


client.


An examination


of the specific


elements


included


in effective


group


counseling


programs


will


illustrate


ways


in which


these


advantages


are realized.


The Baltimore Demonstration


Project


practical


group


experience


to facilitate


reentry


of adults


into


the labor

1967). I


force


t focus


(Organization

es on personal


for Economic

difficulties


Cooperation and


experienced


Development,

the parti-


cipants


and provides


assistance


in job


application,


resumes,


inter-


views,

verify


and job


openings


improvement


and requirements.


in the attitudes


many


Follow-up


procedures


of the participants


their


acquisition


of retraining


and employment.


similar


experience


is offered


the Oregon


Bureau


of Labor


entitled


"Creative Job


Search


Technique"


(Organization


for Economic


Cooperation


and Development,


1967).


It is designed


to reach a


larger


population


than


is feasible


through


individual


counseling methods.


Factual

ment.


most


labor market

In addition,


enjoyable work


information

a personal i


experience,


is combined


inventory


and other


with

work


relevant


skills


history,


pas


information


develop-

t successes,


com-


piled.


authors


conclude


that


group


experience


should


help












contrast


to the above


experiences,


several


group


career


counsel-


programs


personal

(1971) de

Community


age)


in the college


assessment


scribe a

College.


met for an hour


aptitudes


in relation


setting


focus


and perceptions


one-credit

A total


a week


to their


greater


group


group vocational


26 students


for 11 weeks


career


attention


members.

guidance


(between


to explore


plans.


on the


Anderson

course a


19 and 39


their


Kuder


Binnie


t Spokane


years


interests


DD Interest


Inventory


and the General


Aptitude


Test


Battery


(GATB)


were


administered


and interpreted


in the light


of information


regarding


occupational


pos-


sibilities.


Emphasis


was upon


their


own perceptions


and feelings.


suits


confirmed


an increase


in occupational


aspirations,


greater


degree


occupational


commitment,


greater


congruence


occupational


choice


with


tested


aptitudes.


These


criteria


are


closely


related


to those


vocational


maturity,


i.e.,


realism,


consistency,


congruence


of choice


(Crites,


1965).


A similar


course


group


for community


counseling


college


format


freshman


is followed


described


a career


Adams


planning


(1974).


goal


of the


course


to help


participants


integrate


their


apparent


value


structure,


abilities


and motivations


into


an educational


vocational


pattern


that


is both


constructive


and realizable"


26).


A nonthreatening


climate


is maintained


and participants


are supportive


and asset-oriented.


Specific


elements


include


the following:


Kuder


Interest


Inventory


GATB,


Dictionary


of Occupational


Titles


(DOT),











control

academic


sample

level,


concluded


more


that th

positive


e experimental


attitudes


group


toward


showed


college,


higher

greater


satisfaction


with


major


field,


greater


certainty


of acquiring


degree,


and e)


more


appropriate


educational/vocational


choices.


author


believes


that


counseling


services


should


be offered


more


entering


students.


The importance of


knowing


oneself


is the focus


a model


career


decision-making


course at


Essex


Community


College


in Maryland


(Dwight,


1975).


Phases


of this


group


experience


include


the following:


career


autobiography;


personal


information


questionnaire;


values


clarification;


achievement


and aptitude


analysis;


occupational


information;


goal


setting


to establish


career


plans.


author


terms


this


process


"group-strengthened


individual


assessment"


and empha-


sizes


the positive


effect


group


dynamics


in reality


testing


of personal


values


as these


relate


career


options.


A replicable


vocational


group


development


counseling model


is presented


based


Healy


on Super's


(1973).


theory


format


comprised


a step-by-step


identification


career


goals


means


leading


to selection


a career


option.


Group


cohesiveness


is empha-


sized


to provide


optimum assistance


to each


participant.


Occupations


are examined


in relation


to "work-relevant


qualities"


required


to per-


form


them.


Self-ratings


on qualities


posse


ssed


group


participants


are compiled


in order


to determine


their


similarity


to each


occupation.












Results


a field


test


involving


seven


groups


of male


and female


junior


for four

direction


college


students


sessions,

: five cl


showed


ients


(total


that


regress


sample


of 35),


27 students

ed or made


met two hours


clarified

no progress


their c

: three


a week


areer

dropped


out.


Thirty


participants


reported


satisfaction


with


the experience


after


the second


session.


Twenty-two


out of 25 who


returned


follow-up


surveys


felt


that


they


had benefited


in the following


areas:


identi-


fiction


career


goals


greater


use of information


about


self


occupations


identification


of possible majors


and occupations


actual application

college. Pre-post


a major,


analysis


an entry


showed


exam,


significant


or a desire

increase i


to remain


n certainty


choice


regarding work


goals,


choice


of major,


occupational


preference.


The Mature


Woman


General


Considerations:


The Adult


Student


both


The adult
internal


continually


and external,


faced


and the


with
need


changes,
to modi-


expand,


or remake


commitments.


response


changes


in work,


situations,


bodily


personal


emotional


needs


relationships,


balances


stresses,


ideas


the adult


finds


family


even
him-


self


in the midst


evaluation.


As life


a continual
is dynamic


process


re-


and constantly


in flux,


must


of change and


sens


remain


itive


open


to the


poss


to his changing


ibilities
relation-


ship


to himself


and to the


outs


ide.


(Kroll


et al.,


1970,


p. 91)


The demand


for flexibility


in meeting


the changes


of adult


years


often


requires


a new


level


of self-awareness


an openness


to unravel


*












How then


do adults


returning


to school/work


view


their


position


the world?


What


unique


qualities


of adulthood


require


specialized


counseling


assistance


at this


significant


change


point


in their


lives?


Vontress


and Thomas


(1968)


view


adult


students


as seeking


a means


of increasing

themselves to


self-understanding,


the demands


while


of the world.


at the

The a


same

authors


time, adapting

believe that


general


these


older


students


underestimate


their


abilities,


experience


an exaggerated


loss


capacity,


are


concerned


about


their


social


status,


fear making mistakes,


or fear


having


a detrimental


effect


on others.


This


description


is amplified


Ferguson


(1966)


a study


of 134


adult


students


born


prior


to 1940


and enrolled


at the University


Illinois


in the spring of


1964.


The majority


of the respondents,


when


compared


younger


students,


expressed


a lower


energy


level,


less


ability


study,


difficulties


in relationships with


younger


students


and faculty,


greater


pressure,


and anxiety


in family


and financial


affairs.


An extensive


investigation


of the special


counseling


needs


of adult


students

manifest


was


conducted


a more


realistic


Porter


(1970).


orientation


Findings


a wide


showed

range


that


adults


of life


experi-


ences


and family


and employment


responsibilities.


They


often


lacked


self-confidence


in the educational


setting,


experienced


time-budgeting


conflicts,


felt


confused


and frustrated


the mechanics


involved


university


procedures,


held


negative


views


past


educational


experi-


ences,


- -


were


resistant


to extensive


direction


or contact


with


fa rnlty.











a questionnaire


entitled


the Career


Development


Survey


(CDNS)


was


con-


structed,


based


on research


and personal


encounters


with


representatives


of the population


assess


the specific


needs


experienced


these


women.


From a


population


of 527 female


undergraduates


over


the age


25 enrolled


at the University


of Florida,


a random


sample


of 100 was


sent


the questionnaire


with


an explanatory


cover


letter.


return


was received.


Conclusions


of the study


verified


that


a large


number


mature


women


students


experience


special


difficulties


of adjustment


and need


assistance


in particular


areas


ease


their


transition


to school


life.


Specialized


vocational


counseling


and exploration


for the mature woman


student


was


the primary


need


cited


in the findings,


with


special


focus


on job


opportunity


information,


assistance


in job


placement


strategies,


skills


development,


and a desire


for mutual


communication


with


peers.


Results


of the study were


utilized


in the development


and imple-


mentation of


a two-part


program


for the mature woman


student


aimed


toward


increasing


her educational/vocational


information,


creasing


familiarity with


university


services


vocational


counseling


methods,


and c)


providing


an informal


group


encounter


experience


based


on consideration


ways


to cope with


the adjustment


of returning


school.


A positive


response


was


received


a follow-up


evaluation.


A study


the Organization


for Economic


Cooperation


and Develop-


ment


(1967)


affirms


that


older


persons


seek


retraining


often


lack












The authors


state


that


"exclusion


from work may


bring much


distress


personality


deterioration"


15).


Specifically,


the authors


affirm


that


lack


of satisfying work may


result


a loss


of identity,


a reason


existence,


satisfaction,


a means

as well


of social

as cause d


interaction


amage


a source


to self-esteem.


of intrinsic


terms


developmental


considerations,


adult


students may


be hesitant


to relin-


quish


a gratifying


phase


of life


for the unknown aspects


a new


life


stage which may


involve


unexpected


demands


(Bocknek,


1976).


The above


delineation


of unique


needs


of adult


students


joins


pre-


vious


research


findings


to emphasize


the need


for more


extensive,


spe-


cialized


counseling


services


for this


population


(Hiltunen,


1965;


Schlossberg,


1976;


Smith,


1966).


Westervelt


(1966a)


views


counseling


as central to t

assistance with


he education


problem


of adults,


solving


especially


and decision making.


in the realm


Roe and Baruch


(1964)


found


a lack


of decision-making


processes


in the


career


cisions


of adults


a pilot


study


at Harvard


University.


portance


of decision-making


skills


in helping


adults


regain a


sense


control


over


their


lives


is stressed


Schlossberg


(1976).


author


suggests


that


counselors


should


assist


adults


to "stimulate


and expand


their


dreams,


widen


their


horizons,


explore


their


leading


a more


satisfying


choice made


from a


variety


alternatives


and options.


examining


self-characteristics


in conjunction


with


social


con-


potentialities"


with


,


-- T


_ _












recognition


of one's


value


orientation.


A second


goal


involves


facilitation


of "choices


that


reflect


the value


orientation


of the


individual


and become


expressions


a unique


life


style"


. 129).


Hiltunen


(1965)


surveyed


students,


years


over,


at Louisiana


State


University.


Evidence


showed


a need


for better


self-understanding


and increased


knowled


about


curriculum


planning.


Educational


career


information


comprised


the foremost


counseling


services


needed,


Williams,


according


Lindsay,


Burns,


a study


Wyckoff,


of continuing


and Wall


education


(1973).


students


authors


assert


the need


for counseling


services


at all levels


of the education-


al enterprise


and criticize


the inadequacy


of traditional


services


meet


the specialized


needs


of adult


students.


Vontress


and Thomas


(1968)


suggest


an assessment


process


for adults


with


analysis


of the following:


habits,


skills


interests

emotional


, skills,


life


knowledge,


and attitudes;


and potential


social


to learn


contacts;


new

occupa-


tional


skills--culminating


in a


practical


program


based


on the indivi-


dual's


capacities


and goals.


Studies


the United


States


Employment


Service


verify


that


least


25% of older


unemployed workers


would


benefit


from


counseling


make


better


career


choices


overcome


lack


of self-confidence


(Organization


for Economic


Cooperation


and Development,


1967).


primary


objectives


in counseling


adults,


according


to this


report,


to remotivat


the client


toward


a desire


for self-improvement


are












The Characteristics


and Career


Development


of the Mature


Woman


Women who


return


to school/work


after


an extended


absence


exhibit


various


attributes


and needs


derived


from


their


unique


situation


society.


These


qualities


must


be clarified


in order


to develop


effec-


tive


intervention methods


to assist


them


in their


period


of transition


from


home


to school


to work.


need


to provide many women


with


an integrated


purpose


through-


out the total


life


span


has been


advocated


by many


authors


(Bailyn,


1965;


Barbier


, 1971;


Farber


Wilson,


1966;


Foote,


1954


Gavron ,


1966;


Hiestand,


1971;


Roe,


1962;


Steinmann,


1961;


Westervelt,


1966b)


It is


deemed


necessary


to help


a woman


integrate


her multifaceted


roles


wife,


mother,


nurturer


with


a recognized


personal


identity


as a


unique,

factor


contributing

in bringing a


individual


state


of coherency


own right.

and unity


This


a crucial


to the lives


of many


women.


During


the childbearing


stage,


a woman


often


sets


aside


prior-


cities


for self-growth


She becomes


a "vicarious


in favor


achiever,


serving


living


the needs

through


of home


success


and family.


experi-


ences


spouse


and family


(Brooks,


1976).


Musgrave


and Wheeler-Bennett


(1972)


view


this


period


as one in which


the woman's


capacity


to learn


grow


can be recreated


through


identification


with


her children.


The authors


her adult


caution


role,


that


equipped


at the end of


with


new


this


capacities


time


woman must


for growth.


This


resume


will












For many


however,


such


a transition


and loss


of major


functioning


role


results


a form


of identity


crisis,


similar


to that


experienced


in adolescence


(Astin,


1976;


Clarke,


1975


Useem,


1960)


There


questioning


of abilities


and limitations,


cultural


values


and attitudes,


and a search


occupy


a meaningful


societal


role


(Erikson,


1963).


A study


comparing mothers


with


one or more


single


children


under


years


age living at


home


and mothers


with


children


no longer


living


at home


(total


sample


of 265)


found


a significant


increase


in loneliness


in the latter


group,


as well


as overconcern


about


their


health


greater


need


for outside


contacts


(Vedder,


1965).


The mature


woman


this


time


experiences


a feeling


of incompleteness


and difficulty


in find-


direction


toward


a goal


which


is both


personally


and socially valued


(Westervelt,


1966b).


Neugarten


(1961)


describes


this


"empty nest"


syndrome


as a turning


point


requiring


a major


reorganization


role


patterns


a re-


examination


self.


This


often


entails


tension


and anxiety


as the


woman


searches


for satisfying


experiences


to replace


family


concerns


(Schofield


Caple,


1971


Voelz,


1975).


Clarke


(1975)


describes


the mature woman


feeling


of restlessness


in seeking


new


directions.


Often


the choice


made


to have another


child


rather


than


face difficult


or unacceptable


means


of achieving


self-fulfillment.


As Hoffman


and Nye


(1974)


affirm,


the former


choice


"removes


the wife


from


the achievement/


career


arena,


confirms


her femininity


and re-establishes


affiliative


es" (


95).


AL












There


a notable


increase


in women's


intellectual


and social


par-


ticipation


interests


at this


time,


which


favors


educational


outlets


(Havighurst,


1956;


Westervelt,


1966b).


In addition,


the mature woman


often


exhibits


is valued


strong motivation


for its intrinsic


The mature


woman's


worth


desire


to implement


(Gorney


for further


her skills


Cox,


in work which


1973).


education


is supported


research.


Vedder


(1965)


conducted


a study


of the


parents


of college


students

education


(total

with


sample

general


of 208 couples)


sense


compare


of life satisfaction.


desire

Among


for further


women,


of the "relatively


dissatisfied"


and 61% of the


very


satisfied"


desired


further


education.


The factors


contributing


to dissatisfaction


in the lives


of the sample women


included


lack


of remunerative


employ-


ment


and low job


status.


The author


concludes


that


life


satisfaction


of middle-aged


women


requires


adequate


preparation


assuming


a new


role


to replace


exclusive


home/family


concerns.


Another


study


Gass


(1959)


of 85 married


women


between


25 and 50


years


of age with


children


found


less


satisfaction


from


exclusive


child-


rearing


than


popular


opinion


has suggested,


and that


the satisfaction


they


receive was


not closely


related


a general


state


con-


tentment.


Fift


-nine


percent


had difficulty with


constructive


use of


leisure


time;


70% of those with


lack


specific


training


expressed


great


sense


regret


regarding


their


lack


of it;


and 59% would


have


liked


part-time work.


The author


concludes


that


greatest


desire


desire












Astin


(1976)


verifies


that


a woman's


achievement


needs


decline


during


the childbearing


years,


but regain


former


significance when


chil-


dren


are grown.


The author


suggests


that


these


changes


in women's


life-


cycle


needs must


be met


efforts


to assist


their


desire


for redirection,


accomplishment,


and a new work


orientation.


Letchworth


(1970)


concurs


that


a satisfying


educational


experience


will


facilitate


the mature


woman's


active


resolution


of her "identity-


integrity


crisis"


during


this


time.


According


to the author


the ma-


ture woman's


successful


transition


will


require


recognition


of her


motivations


and potential


first


mature woman'


these


return


resources


considerations


to school/work,


overcome


, i.e.,


initial


difficulties.


the motivations


has received


widespread


for the


and varied


speculation.


Eyde


(1962)


lists


possible motives


as follows:


wish


realize


potential


self-fulfillment;


need


for adult


companionship;


need


for personal


independence;


dissatisfaction


with


homemaking


and community


activities;


interruption


career


by marriage


family;


changes


marital

in social


or family


problems;


and household


boredom and


technology;


loneliness;


dedication


a voca-


tion


or a cause.


Other


reasons


related


specifically


to the acquisition


knowledge


and skills


include


refurbishing


of obsolete


skills;


competition


on new


with


developments


those


having more


in their field


education;


(Women


s Bureau,


desire

1971).


to brush


a more


personal


level,


Fitzgerald


(1970)


notes


the feeling


of responsibility












In a


comparative


study


of 40 mature women


undergraduates


at North


Central


College


in Illinois


between


1963


and 1965,


an additional


group


of 40 mature women who


not returned


to college,


Doty


(1966)


records


the following


reasons


for the


return


of the former


group


unfulfilled


munity


lack


desire


activities (

of interest


for knowledge


50%)


in jobs


dissatisfaction


financial preparation f

not requiring a college


with


or retirement


education


com-


(40%)


(30%);


financial


help with


Lichtenstein


children


and Block


s college


(1963)


relate


education


(30%).


the three-fold


purpose


mature women


undergraduates


are preparing


a career


in the


eve-


ning


program at


Hofstra


University


(comprising


25% of the total


school


evening


population)


as follows:


defense


against


loneliness


and empti-


ness


after


child-rearing


years;


need


to prove worth


beyond


the wife


and mother


role;


desire


to earn additional


family


income.


A study


Sobol


(1963)


found


that


among


2,713


white,


married


women


of childbearing


living


in the United


States,


most


impor-


tant


reason


given


for long-term occupational


commitment


was


the need


for achievement,


followed


a need


occupy


time


meet


people,


help


in the family


assets.


Similarly,


business,


one author


to increase


concludes


family


that


income,


the needs


and to acquire


to be


women


in satisfying work are


"money,


identity


achievement,


status,


personal


pride,


inner


joy,


and a lasting


peace,


rather


than


a cease-


fire within marriage"


(Rostow,


1965


, p. 223).













In regard


to potential


resources


of the


mature woman


to combat


obstacles


involved


in the transition


from


home


to school,


a study


LeFevre


(1972)


of 35 married


women


between


32 and 52


years


the University


of Chicago


affirmed


that


they


have


developed


stronger


intellectual


achievement


career


interests,


exhibit


more


autonomous


and individualistic


traits,


possess


less


conventional


sex-role


attitudes


than


women


of similar


age who


not return


to school.


Astin


(1976)


asserts


that


women


in their


later


years


become more


out-


ward


and assertive,


more


independent


and less


involved


in the


nurturant


role.


a comparative


study


mature


women


undergraduates


women


similar


ages


and backgrounds


not


return


to college,


Doty


(1966)


found


that


mature women


students


exhibited


greater


career


orienta-


tion,


participation


in activities


outside


the home,


personal


char-


acteristics


indicating


greater


"masculinity"


of interests,


greater


ability


to make


social


contacts,


and a higher


level


of mental


physical


activity.


Similarly,


a study


Mears


(1972)


found


greater


educational


motivation


in mature women


students.


When


compared with


younger


college women,


mature women


students


were


more


focused


on their work


and education,


less


concerned


with


peers


parents,


more


productive,


manifested


superior


academic


performance,


were


a study


less


anxious,


conducted


hostile,


at DePaul


and depressed


University


found


(Davis,


that women


1973).


40 year


similarly,


. --


__~_~_












Another


study


surveyed


4,000 mature


women


students


utilizing


assistance


of the University


of Michigan


Counseling


Center


(Campbell,


1974).


The author


found


that


91% reported


grades


at least


as good


those


they


had earned


previously;


85% stated


they


enjoyed


school


very


much;


12% enjoyed


it somewhat.


After


counseling


61% felt


new


confidence


and self-respect,


while


65% increased


their


knowledge


and understanding.


Thes

academic


need


studies


work after


to plan


provide


evidence


an absence


for women's


from


"life-time


that m

formal


schedule


nature


women


study.


The


of formal


can succeed

y reiterate


learning


training"


(Halfter,


1962,


67).


Winter


(1967)


presents


extensive


evidence


that


older workers


as effective


and in many


cases


more


capable


than


average


the other workers.


Research


for the 1971


White


House


Conference


Aging


found


that


not a barrier


to learning


and that


middle-aged


persons


can learn well


in comparison with


young


adults


(Women'


Bureau,


1973).


Several


longitudinal


studies


show


that


on tests measuring


conceptual


thinking,


people


tend


to do better


as they


grow older.


A 1960


report


the Industrial


Relations


Division


of the National


Association


of Manufac-


turers


asserts


that


mature


workers


learn


differently,


they


learn


as well


as the


young;


through


experience,


the older


person


cultivated


an ability


to select,


evaluate,


grasp


basic


principles


(United


States


Department


of Labor,


1971).


Factors which


have


been


found


to affect


employers


attitudes


are


are












Despite


findings


related


to the mature woman'


abilities


strengths


in meeting


the demands


of academic


life,


research


evidence


supports

present.


the fac

Among


that


the mos


inhibiting

t prevalent


psychological


these


characteristics


are the following:


are

lack


of self-confidence;


The mature woman


self-esteem;


returns


guilt


to school


and feelings

following an


of isolation.


interruption


often


lacks


confidence


in her ability


to fulfill


the unfamiliar


mands


of the student


role


(Hembrough,


1966


Hiltunen,


1968;


Shishkoff,


1973).


She may


fear


competition


with


younger


students,


whose


study


skills


and ability


to speak


groups


appear


so far advanced


than


own (Astin,


1976;


Furniss


Graham,


1974;


Schofield


Caple,


1971)


The mature woman


tends


to underestimate


own


abilities


(Musgrave


and family


Wheeler-Bennett


to confirm


, 1972).


her identity


resulting


have

in a


depended

fear of


upon


takin


spouse

g risks.


lack


tunities


of self-confidence


success


is reinforced


and institutional


further


barriers


the limited


encountered


outside


the family


realm


(Brandenbur


1974;


Vetter,


1974).


Thus,


she experiences


a "double


confidence


as knowledge


ways


barrier"


of lacking


to establish


herself


skills


as a "mature


contacts,


starter


as well


or re-


starter"


in the


system


(Fogarty


Rapoport,


Rapoport,


1971).


As the mature woman


loses


sense


of being


needed


in the home,


detrimental


effects


on self-esteem are


evident.


Additional


factors


which


contribute


o the loss


of self-esteem at


this


time


include


oppor-


L- IL


.












Campbell


(1974)


presents


findings


a 1970


University


of Michigan


thesi


in clinical


psychology


comparing


single


women


have


always


worked


married


women


who have


always


worked,


and married


women


have


never worked.


Results


showed


that


married


women


now


in their mid-


die years who


have


never


worked


have


significantly


lower


level


of self-


esteem


than


either marri


professional


women


with


children


or single


professional


women.


former


group


rated


their


general


mental


emotional


health


as poor


average,


expressed


feelings


of loneliness,


and lacked


a sense


challenge


or creative


involvement


in their


lives.


Campbell


(1974)


also


describes


a 1972


unpublished


national


survey


from


the University


of Michigan


Institute


for Social


Research


on sat-


sfaction


with


life


experiences


of housewives


and employed


wives.


Data


revealed


an incr


ease


in positive


attitudes


with


increase


in education.


In addition


satisfied


, employed


than


wives


housewives


had graduated


had graduated


from


from


college


college.


were more


former


more


often


viewed


their


lives


as interesting


and challenging


than


latter.


Similar


results


were


obtained


in a


study


Birnbaum


(1971)


found


the professional,


employed


woman


higher


in morale.


non-


working mothers


experienced


lower


self-esteem and


sense


of personal


compe


tence


, greater


identification


conflicts


and f


feelings


loneliness,


and felt


less


attractive.


The above


studi


coincide with


other writings


(Roe,


1962


Spiegel


1962


Warren,


1959)


in their


belief


in the


sense


of satis


faction and











Guilt


feelings


of the


mature woman


are derived


from


internalized


conflict with


her primary


position


as wife


and mother.


She may


feel


that


a "selfish"


pursuit


own fulfillment


will


result


in neglect


of the family


or increased


financial


burden.


This


is compounded when


her ultimate


occupational


goals


are undefined


(Astin,


1976;


Letchworth,


1970;


Lichtenstein


Block,


1963).


Another


feeling


source


of failure


of guilt

to attain


and shame

a sense o


for the mature woman


f selfhood


is her


and satisfaction


the roles


society


has prescribed


for her,


in contrast


to most


of her


male and female

effort be made


peers (Westervelt,

to assist the mature


1974).

woman


It is imperative


in viewing


that


as natural


acceptable


her desire


to develop


her potential


for growth


and individ-


ual expression.


The feeling


of isolation


often


experienced


mature woman


manifested


her minority


position


in the classroom,


lack


of social


support


for her efforts,


and the threatening


reaction


spouse


peers


to her renewed


autonomy


(Ramsey,


1973;


Watkins,


1974).


A study


42 women


over


age of 30 (mature


women)


and 30 women


under


30 (younger women)


were


undergraduates


in the College


of Education,


University


of Missouri,


showed


that


the mature


women


found


greater


relevance


than


younger


sample


in the academic


and social


life


at the


university.


was


difficult


for them


to identify with


activities de-


signed


for younger


students'


experiences


and needs


(Schofield


Caple,


1971).












Counseling


the Mature


Woman


Developmental


theories


of vocational


choice


posit well-defined


stages


and tasks


through


which


individuals


pass


at stipulated


periods


of their


lives.


In regard


to the


mature


woman,


Matthews


(1969)


presents


the view


that


the tasks


of Erikson's


(1963)


life


stages


are recreated


as part


her delayed


vocational


development


during


this


transition


period.


Barbier


(1971)


asserts,


the transition


of the


mature


woman


from


the role


of mother


to student


and worker


requires


a change


in expectations,


tasks,


and in


ways


of interacting with


others.


The discontinuous


pattern


of women's


career


development


is evident


(Borow,


1973


Gass,


1959;


Gross,


1956;


Lee,


1961;


Thom,


Ironside,


Hendry,


1975)


(196


and thus,


affirms,


requires


a woman's


a more


life


flexible


planning


is comprised


scheme.


stages


each


As Lifton


containing


(often


factors


considered


transition


contradictory


in life


into


planning.


to those

Greater


the academic/work


world


of previous


effort


after


stages)


is needed


a period


which

ease


in which


must


a woman's


voca-


tional


goals


have


been


interrupted.


With


a clear understanding


of the attributes


and needs


of the mature


woman,


as well


as her unique


pattern


of vocational


development,


the speci-


fic counseling


strategies


to be implemented


to facilitate


her transition


can be delineated.


The crucial


role of counseling


during


this


period


assessment


and decision making


for the


mature


woman


has been


confirmed


many writers


(Brooks,


1976;


Dennis


, 1963;


Farley,


1970;


Furniss


Graham,


new











A study


of 50 mature women


students


received


counseling


at the


University

altered a


of Texas


previous


Office

concept


of Continuing

of themselves


Education

as student


affirmed

s toward


that 8

a more


8% had

posi-


tive


view


(Plotsky


1974).


Denmark


and Guttentag


(1966)


studied


self-concept


and educational


concepts


of 36 adult women


received


counseling


at Queens


College Office


of Continuing


Education


and 18 who


not receive


counseling)


and found


less


discrepancy


between


ideal


actual


self-concept,


as well


as more


positive


concepts


of academic


acti-


vities


for the former


group.


Similarly,


83% of the mature


an evaluative


women


study


sought


cited


counseling


Campbell


(1974)


at the New


York


found


State


that


Guid-


ance


Center


for Women


felt


that


counseling


an impact


on their


decisions.


The author


reports


tha t


in a


study


of 400 women


in Grand


Rapids,


Michigan,


in 1971,


an overwhelming


majority were


unaware


of the options


open


to them


or of the means


of attaining


them.


Thus,

interests.


it is evident


abilities,


that


and taler


the mature woman

nts. as well as


needs


clarification


assistance


of her


in uncovering


ternative ways


of realizing


them


(National


Manpower


Council


, 1957).


Cook


(1970)


adds


that


the mature


woman may


feel


personally


inadequate


when


con-


fronted


the complexities


of evolving


a new


life


pattern.


She requires


aid in facing


her ambiguous


situation.


As mentioned


previously,


assistance


in gaining


self-confidence,


reducing


role


conflict,


and developing


ability


to assert


herself


and make


realistic


decisions


comprise


the major












In addition,


help


is required


to evaluate


past


educational


and life


experiences


mature woman


in relation


(Lewis,


to the


1969).


current


need


interests


for objective,


and capacities


informative


of the


voca-


tional


guidance


is viewed


as a complementary


factor


to the self-


assessment


described


previously


(Thoroman,


1968).


The author


affirms


that


such


intervention


involves


a refocusing


and retraining


for the


mature woman,


with


goals


that


are immediate


in time,


clearly


defined,


financially


expedient,


and intellectually


feasible.


Thus,


essential


formational

a) realistic

especially i


elements

informant

n the loc


in counseling f

ion concerning

al labor market


or the

present


mature woman

and future


(Brandenburg,


1974;


student


include


labor market


Eyde,


trends,


1970;


Lewis,


1969)


and b)


exploration


new


options


in educational


career


opportunities


for the mature woman


(Schlossberg,


1976).


Matthews


(1969


1972)


and Brooks


(1976)


have


offered


an assessment


and intervention


entry process.


framework


awareness


for counseling

s of the phases


the mature woman

comprising this


during


framework


re-

is


crucial


in the development


of effective


counseling


strategies.


Brooks


(1976)


divides


this


paradigm


into


phases


of preparation


decision making.


The first


of these


consists


stages


which


explore


resolution


of the personal


adjustment


difficulties


involved


in the transi-


tion.


These must


be dealt with


prior


to the decision-making


phase of


selection and


implementation


of vocational


choices


based


on self-assessment.


The author


suggests


a group


counseling


treatment


model


comprised


of well-












The following


a description


of the


stages


involved


in this


counseling model


for the mature


woman:


Preparation


Phase


Stage


Vague


Discontent.


This


intangible


feeling


of depression


and boredom occurs


as the mature woman


loses


her major


function


in the


home


and faces


a crisis


of identity.


sense


of self-esteem may


have


been


dependent


on achievements


of her family


and must


be redirected


ward


an internal,


direct


achievement


and self-esteem


based


on her


abilities.


The counseling


strategies


required


are clarification


of the


mature woman'


feelings


discontent


and assistance


in the search


alternatives.


Stage


Inner


Preparation.


As the


mature


woman


gains


understanding


of her feelings


and desire


to enter


the academic/work world,


she may


dergo


a period


Both Matthews


questioning


(1969)


of h


and Brooks


er motives,


(1976)


advocate


fears


and expectations.


the utilization


a sup-


port


group


to facilitate


this


process


of sharing mutual


concerns


and doubts


with


other women


in similar


situations.


Stage


Intensive


Family


Involvement.


The active


participation and


support


of the family


in the mature


woman's


transition


a crucial


aspect


of her


success


and mental


well-being.


Mutual


understanding


of her plans,


as well


as the changes


involved


in the family


pattern,


will


ease


decision-making


process.


Group


counseling


efforts


can


serve


to ease


feel-


ing s


tension


stress


in the family


situation,


as well


as teach


own


un-











student/worker


role,


as well


as actual


experiences


in volunteer work, and


auditing


a course


or other


trial


attempt.


Stage


Vocational


Planning.


Assessment:


mature


woman must


be assisted


identification


of her personal


attributes.


Both


past


present


periences,

terests, n

(1969) str


choices,


Leeds,


esses


and motivations


abilities, lim

the importance


are


stations,


significant,

and special


openness,


belief


i


in addition


skills.

n the rig


to in-


Matthews

ht to make


one's


own decisions,


and appreciation


of one's


capacities


as a mature


adult


success


in this


phase


of self-assessment


and testing


procedures.


Such


reality


testing


will


facilitate


the mature


woman


matching


of abil-


aspirations.


Narrowing


alternatives


and value


clarification:


Upon


completion


of exploration


of self


and alternative


options,


mature


woman


is ready


for assistance


in decision-making


skills.


Personal


life


and work


values must


be evaluated


with


respect


to the variety


of choices.


Stage


Vocational


Implementation


and Goal


Setting.


As the mature


woman


implements


her tentative


vocational


plan


resulting


from


the decision-


making


process,


she will


require


continued


counseling


support


to deal


with


fears


and doubts


involved


in her


new


role.


group


setting


con-


ducive


to the mutual


sharing


of these


concerns;


further


encouragement


provided


through


skills


development


training


in the


areas


of job


applica-


tion,


interviewing,


resume


writing,


communication,


and assertiveness.


ex-


new











1976,


36).


Its emphasis


on effective decision making


and life-


style


planning,


which


are crucial


in view


of the transitional


position


of the mature woman


seeking


reentry


into


the academic/work world.


Group


Career


Counseling


grams


the Mature


Woman


Groups


quences


culture


are h
women


to di


helping


women


personally


cover


their


examine


conse-


the conditioning
own individuality,


rather
man and


than


depending


children


on their relationships


for their


identity,


with


to experience


son,


nurture
rather


their
than


own


purpose


denying


potency


suppres


sing


as a per-


those


parts


of themselves


forts
they
1974,


they wish


have


to support


to make


their


women


in redefinin


relationships


with


in whatever ef-
e the sex roles


others.


(Whiteley,


pp. 28-29)


an effort


mature woman


to devise


returning


an effective


to :school


group


, a review


treatment


current


model


programs


for the


pre-


sented.


This


investigation


will


focus


on specific


benefits,


essential


elements,


and sample


formats


group


career


counseling


for the


mature


woman.


Value of


group


experiences


for the mature


woman.


Whiteley


(1974)


suggests


port


that women desiring

encouragement from


to return


family


to school

peers, re


lack


ceiving


necessary


instead


sup-

op-


posin


message


the value


to be found


in "living


for others


Thus,


a substitute


support


system


is provided


in the


group


setting,


based


a commonality


purpose


and problems


related


to vocational


choice.


Clarke


(197


affirms


that


a group


approach


career


counseling


affords mature women


the insight


that


despite


individual


differences











Cook


and Stone


(1973)


echo


this


belief


in the value of


group


input


toward


a realistic


assessment


of the mature


woman'


skills


and abilities,


in addition


to removal


of psychological


barriers


to exploration


life-style.


Factors


to consider


group


programs


for the


mature


woman.


Ample


evidence

ficient

Clarke


supports


to meet

(1975) a


the view


the unique


advocates


that

needs


the informal


traditional


career


of the mature


group


woman


model,


counseling

n returning


combining


not suf-


to school.


vocational


and educational


information


with


sharing


of feelings


about


the transition.


The author


further


cautions


that


adequate


planning


of these


programs


quires


deep


awareness


of the personal


and societal


implications


women


growing


toward


a new


sense


of freedom"


123).


Thus,


these


pro-


grams


should


manifest


the value


of equal


opportunity,


individual


achieve-


ment


and accessibility


career


and life-style


choice


in harmony with


the mature woman'


unique


abilities.


Clarke


(1975)


offers


a comprehensive


treatise


of the


necessary


gredients


for these


group


experiences


for the


mature


woman


as follows:


The focus


of the mature


woman


s concern must


move


from spouse


family


to "careful,


accurate,


and compassionate"1


self-examination.


author


views


this


as a major


step


in the


mature


woman' s


rightful


separa-


tion


of herself


as a unique


individual.


The mature woman's


freedom


to dream and


fantasize


over


a wide


range


of attractive


career


options


must


be encouraged.


This


is crucial


I 4-- -11 -


new


re-


^_I


- -I---


1.


L A-__ f _


__ _~___












important


distinction


must


be made


between


actual


barriers


and those


originating


from


lack


of self-confidence,


doubts,


and fears.


aspects


and changes


involved


in the transition


of the mature


woman must


be considered


in balanced


perspective


and in


a climate


optimistic


realism,


with


a sharing


of plans


of group members


toward


fulfilling


their


goals.


Clarke


(1975)


concludes


that


there


has been


little


effort


evaluate


such


programs


for their


effectiveness


and their


effect


on both


mature


women and


their


families


in undergoing


this


period


of transition.


Beneficial


programs


include


skills


training workshops


courses


introducing new


life-styles.


Fogarty


Rapoport


and Rapoport


(1971)


sug-


gest


the need


to provide


the mature


woman


with


a program


of skills


develop-


ment,


including


letter writing


interview


techniques,


and assertive


haviors.


This


is deemed


necessary


to encourage


in the mature woman


sense of


ness


"force


and initiative


and objectivity


. of s


. of well-being,

ability in emotion


a degree o

and action"


f aggressive-


452).


Tinker


(1965)


adds


focus


on the educational


aspects


of the


return,


including


as well


interests,


study


as testing


skills,


methods


services


and abilities.


of participation


assess


Gavron


academic


(1966)


also


and listening


strengths,


advocates


skills,


weaknesses,


training


refresher


courses,


with


an effort


to relate


retraining


options


tual


work opportunities.


Formats


group


programs


for the mature


woman.


following


ac-


I












Adult


Counseling


Service


(ACS)


Begun

group and

activities


sonal


in 1949 i

individual


include


values,


n San Francisco,


vocational

personal


personal


California


counseling


data


appraisal


this


for the


questionnaire,


report,


service


mature.woma


inventory


vocational


combines

n. Group


per-


testing


interests


occupational


and aptitudes,


choices,


occupational


investigation


checklist


of selected


narrowing


occupations,


velopment


a vocational


plan.


A follow-up


of the first


165 partici-


pants


in ACS


showed


that


40% changed


to more


satisfying


career


choices;


there


was


a general


rowth


awareness


of mutual


concerns


and personal


insight


(Zapoleon,


Developing


1961)


Personal


Potential


This


is the


core


program


of the University


of British


Columbia


Centre


for Continuing


Education.


It includes


simulation


exercises,


role


playing,


fantasy


problem solving


decision making


and communication


skills;


havior modification


techniques


are used


in confidence


building


asser-


tiveness


training.


The following


elements


contribute


to the impact


of the


model:


the education-oriented


program


results


in personal


change;


rate


means


of change


are individually paced;


a time


limit


on the duration


of the


group;


supplementary


ass


instance


is avail-


able


upon


termination


of the


group;


there


exists


a purposeful


action-oriented


emphasis


a learning


environment


both


cognitive


and experiential


aspects


are integrated


in the


context


of sharing


infor-











Career


Exploration


for Women


Workshop


This


program


at the University


of Kansas


Continuing


Education Divi-


sion


includes


self-assessment


, family


problem analysis,


assertiveness


training,


career


information,


and job-seeking


advice.


Focus


upon


facilitation


career


choice


and removal


of internal,


cultural,


familial


obstacles


to the


success


of the mature


woman.


Realistic


evalu-


ation


of self,


job,


family


and opportunities


is encouraged


(Harrison


Entine,


1976).


Modular


Life-Planning/Career


Development


Program


Everywoman's


Center


at the University


of Massachusetts


offers


this


step-by-step


counseling


process


, beginning with


definition


concerns,


fears,

format


and problems; t

on on the world


his


is followed


of work,


y investigation


nontraditional


opportunities,


current


and chang-


roles


women.


An individualized


program


based


on specific


needs


is then


implemented


group


member s


(Harrison


Entine,


1976).


Job Horizons


for Women


This

Middlesex


ongoing

County


individual


College


group


in Edison,


counseling

Jersey, t


service


o help


is offered


mature woman


rebuild


her self-confidence


and understand


the adjustment


problems


of her


transition.


Emphasis


upon


study


skills


and firsthand


information


employment


trends


and opportunities


from


local


speakers.


Results


of the


program verify

self-esteem (R


an increase


eynolds,


in realistic


Purtrell,


expectations,


Voorhees,


self-assurance,


1969).











community


(educational


and vocational


opportunities)


know


the facts


(separate


truth


from myth).


Activities


include


oral


reports


of personal


interviews with


people


involved


areas


of occupational


interest;


gen-


eral


topics


of job


application,


resume writing,


interview


techniques;


panel


mature women


currently


enrolled


in degree


programs;


presenta-


tions


from


state


county


employment


offices,


college


instructors,


women


in the community;


presentation


a psychologist


on changing


views


women


s roles,


psychological


needs


of the adult,


the general


aging


process;


optional


individual


counseling


sessions.


Findings


outcomes


show


that


participants


enrolled


in the


course


search


of some direction,


insight


into


individual


traits,


and the self-


confidence


to make


the transition.


Many,


prior


to this


group


experience,


exhibited


ability which


exceeded


their


aspirations;


unfamiliarity with


community


and employment t


options was


evident.


Results


an informal


sur-


vey verified


that


the majority


returned


to school


on a part-time


basis;


several


obtained


full-


or part-time


jobs


while


still


enrolled


in the


course or upon


its completion


(Hiltunen,


1968).


Assessment-Counseling-Support


Network


This


service


at Wayne


County


Community


College


provides


a three-fold


process


of a)


assessment


of strengths


and needs


the mature


woman;


counseling and


clarification


of goals


support


in achieving


goals


evaluating


them


(House


Katzell,


1975).


Career


Exploration


Group


for Women











exercises,


role


playing,


mock


interviews,


and exploration


of different


work


environments.


The author


stresses


the importance


of leader


par-


ticipation


in the activities


which


encourages


the sharing


of feelings


group members.


desired


behavioral


outcome


of the


group


is in-


creased


self-esteem and


self-awareness,


resulting


in increased


decision-


making


ability.


Discovery


Program


Cook


(1970)


describes


this


experimental


program


as conducive


to the


vocational


exploration


of the mature


woman.


Techniques


include


spontaneous


drawing,


role


playing,


exploration,


volunteer work,


group


and individ-


ual work


an educational


setting


with


evaluative


measures.


Search


for Fulfillment


Western Michigan


University Counseling


Center


offers


a program


adult


program


women


desiring


include


to return


removal


school.


of psycholo


two major


ical


obstacles


phases


to change


of the


in life-


style


and 2)


assessment


of skills


and abilities


in relation


to employment


opportunities.


homework


Activities


assignments.


involve


A follow-up


small

survey


group interaction,

showed increased


testing,

support,


and

de-


creased


isolation,


shared


concerns


, improved


interpersonal


relations,


improved


goal


setting,


and readiness


to take


the first


step


(Manis


Mochizuki,


1972).


In conclusion,


the mature woman


is motivated


this


period


of her


life


to make


use of


her educational


experience


serve


as a contributing












Summary


is evident


from


the research


that


societal


and familial


changes,


as well


as personal


need,


are creating


an upsurge


of renewed


interest


return


to school


and work


mature


woman.


Counseling


efforts


to facilitate


this


transition must


respond


career


faceted


development t


life-style.


needs


Research


involved


in the integration


evidence which


correlates


of her multi-

vocational


maturity with pe

of these aspects


rsonality

of her c


development


career


suggests


development will


that


improvement


result


in more


of both

adequate


and satisfying


career


choice.


The unique


needs


of adult women


and the corresponding


function


counseling


in meeting


these


needs


has received


ample


support


in the


search.


Of particular


concern


is their


need


for direction and


clarifi-


cation


career


goals.


This


has been


shown


to involve


self-assessment,


occupational


information,


decision-making


and problem-solving


techniques,


and job


skills


development.


value


group


counseling


experience


as a viable model


within


which


these


aspects


career


development may


be offered


has been


verified.


mature woman


is especially


in need


of the


support


interaction


group


counseling


to explore


doubts


and fears,


well


as rebuild


confidence


in her


own potential.


re-


















CHAPTER


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


The primary


purpose


of this


study was


assess


the effectiveness


a group


treatment model


for use with


mature


women


returning


to school.


The effect


of the


group


experience


on vocational


maturity,


self-esteem


and self-confidence,


degree


of conformity


, degree


of personal


effective-


ness,


degree


of personal


integration,


and perception


career


develop-


ment


needs


was investigated.


The general


method


for this


study


involved


comparison


groups


of female


undergraduates


over


of 25,


are currently


enrolled


at the University


of Florida,


following


an absence


from


school


at least


five


years.


These were


the experimental


group,


received


group


treatment


and b)


the control


group,


not receive


group


treat-


ment


during


the study,


was


offered


treatment


upon


its completion.


Data


were


collected


on both


groups


and statistically


compared


assess


differences


in the measures


described


above.


The research design


for this


study was


a randomized


control


group


pretest-posttest


design


(Isaac


Michael,


1971).


Both


experimental


control


groups


were


pretested


on the Adult


Vocational


Maturity


Inventory,


the Vocational


Preference


Inventory,


and the Career


Development


Needs











Hypotheses


The following


hypotheses


were


tested


in this


study:


There will


a significant


increase


in the vocational


maturity
decrease


Vocational


ficant


expe


from


pretest


Maturity


increase will


The experimental


vocational
treatment


There


groin


maturity


(i.e.,


will


rimental


Inventor
be foun

up will


than


lower


group


osttest


i.e.


scores


(AVMI))
in the


exhibit
control


posttest


a significant


incr


scores


ease


, a significant
on the Adult


, while
control


no signi-
group.


significantly


group


greater


at the end of


on the AVMI)


in the self-esteem


and self-confidence


significant
the Status


(VPI)),


increase


of the experimental


from


Scale


while


pretest


Vocational


no significant


group


to posttest
Preference


increase


will


(i.e.,
scores


Inventory
found in


the control


group.


The experimental


group


will


exhibit


a significantly


higher


level
group


self-esteem and


at the end of


on the Status


Scale


self-confid


treatment


ence


than


e., higher


the control


posttest


scores


the VPI).


There will


formity
crease


from


be a


significant
experimental


pretest


ecrease


group


to posttest


in .the


.e.


scores


degree


con-


, a significant


on the


Conventional


Scale


the Vocational


no significant


decrease


Pref
will


erence


Inventory


found


(VPI)),


the control


while
group


experimental


degree


group will


of conformity


than


exhibit


the control


a significantly
1 group at the


lower
end of


treatment


(i.e.,


lower


posttest


scores


on the


Conventional


Scale


of the VPI).


There.will


a significant


incr


ease


in the degree


per-


sonal ef
nificant


fectiveness


ecrease


of the experimental


from


pretest


group


to posttest


scores


., a sig-
on the


Infrequency


Scale


of the Vocational


Preference


Inventory


(VPI)),
control


while
group.


no significant


increase


will


be found


in the


ne expe
degree o


rimental


group will


personal e


exhibit


effectiveness


/. -


tha


1


a significantly
n the control g


higher


roup


- A-A- A- I


^ ks/^ rt h ^ f


- 1


-- m L- L- _











There will


be a


significant


increase


in the degree


per-


sonal


nificant


integration


decrease


the experimental


from


pretest


group


to posttest


.e.,


scores


a sig-
on the


Acquiescence


Scale


of the Vocational


Preference


Inventory


(VPI))


while


no significant


increase


will


be found


the control


group.


The experimental


group will


exhibit


a significantly


higher


degree


of personal


integration


than


the control


group


the end of


treatment


(i.e.,


lower


posttest


scores


on the


Acquiescence


Scale


of the VPI).


There
career


will


a significant


development


needs


decrease


in perception


of the experimental


group


a significant
on question 6


decrease


from


of the Career


pretest


Development


to posttest


Needs


scores


Surv


(CDNS)),


while


no significant


decrease


will


found


the control


group.


experimental


perception


group


career


will


exhibit


development


a significantly


needs


than


lower


the control


group


at the end of


treatment


.e.


, lower


posttest


scores


on question


of the CDNS).


Population


and Sampling


Procedures


The population


for this


study was


composed


of undergraduate


women


over


age of 25,


currently


enrolled


at the University


Florida.


The sample


was selected


by means


of the following


pro-


cedures:


Procedure


The experimenter


publicized


group


by means


public


announcements


in the


news


media


(Independent


Alligator


Gainesville


newspapers;


WRUF


radio


station),


in addition


to the


distribution


group


was


posters


described


to various


as follows:


campus


a free,


and community


four-week


locations.


Career/Life-Planning


Workshop


for female


undergraduates


over


years


age,


have


,e.,


re-












learn


to make


career


decisions,


and learn


about


techniques


and informa-


tion


resources


in the


areas


of assertiveness,


application,


resume


writing


and interviewing


skills,


and job


correspondence.


Procedure


The experimenter made


personal


telephone


calls,


inviting


women who met


the given


criteria


to participate


in the


group


workshop.


These


women


were


selected


from a


computer


printout


of all


mature

sity o


students


f Florida.


(over


age of 25)


The telephone


calls


currently

followed


enrolled at

the precise


the Univer-


format


description


as cited


in Procedure


names


were


taken


of all


women


contacted


through


Procedures


and II who


agreed


to participate


in the Career/Life-Planning


Workshop.


Random assignment


of these women


to the experimental


and control


groups


was performed


by means


a table


of random


numbers.


A total


of 65


women


were


assigned


to four


experimental


groups


subjects)


the control


group


subjects).


As an additional


descriptive


examination


of the


mature


woman


popu-


lation,


respondents were


categorized


into


response


groups


based


on their


willingness


to participate


as follows:


Those who
publicity


sought


out the experimenter


as a result


of the


procedures


Those who
telephone


Those who


agreed


agreed
call.


to participate as


not wish


to take pre/post


to participate
instruments.


a result


in the


a personal


group,


r.4.n A4A


4% n *. 4 4 fl 4% -t 4 a


S
nfl


I.


L nlL


,#,.


p UI I 4lk


L












Collection


Experimental


of Data


Group


At the first


session


of the Career/Life-Planning


Workshop,


par-


ticipants


were


informed


that


information


would


be collected


on a volun-


tary


basis


to evaluate


group


treatment


for research


purposes.


They


were


asked


to take


three


instruments


(described


a later


section)


dur-


the first


and last


sessions


of the workshop.


Participants were


assured


that


this


information,


as well


as their


identity


would


be kept


in absolute


confidentiality


and that


the results


would


be used


only


for research


analysis.


They were


offered


oppor-


tunity


a feedback


session


upon


completion


the workshop.


Participants


were


assured


that


their


eligibility


to take


part


the workshop


would


not be affected


their


decision


to participate


the study.


importance of


attendance


was


emphasized.


In order


provide


continuity


of the


group


experience,


make-up


sessions were offered


during


the same week


a session missed


any participant.


Partici-


pants


were


informed


that


failure


to attend


either


the regular


session


the make-up


session


would


result


in their


elimination


from


the study,


not from


the workshop.


In order


to assure


consistency


of instrue-


tions


in testing


conditions,


a written


explanation


test


instructions


included


in the test


packet


for both


experimental


and control


groups.


Control


Group


The control


subjects were


offered


the Career/Life-Plannin


Workshop


was










VPI,


and CDNS)


during


two time


intervals


coinciding with


the first


last


weeks


of the experimental


treatment.


These


control


subjects


were


given


same


instructions


as the


experimental


groups


regarding


the voluntary


nature


of their


participa-


tion,


the confidentiality


use


of data,


and the option


a feed-


back


session


upon


completion


of the study.


Group


Leaders


group


leaders


(the


experimenter


and one other


person)


each


facilitated


groups


of the Career/Life-Planning


Workshop.


following


requirements


were


met by


the leaders:


Both


wer e


graduate


students


in Counselor


Education.


Both


had practicum


experience,


including


experience


in leading


at least


one


group.


Both


had at least


one course


group


dynamics.


Both


expe


rience


in counseling mature


women


and exhibited


interest


the development


in this
programs


group,


as evidenced


and independent


study


this


area.


In order


assure


uniformity


of leader


behaviors


written


instruc-


tions


were


provided


for each


sess


ion of the Career/Life-Planning


Work-


shop


(see Appendix A).


In addition,


the leaders met


to review


format


activities


prior


to each


session.


Instruments


The instruments


used


in this


study


included


the Adult


Vocational


Maturity


Inventory,


the Vocational


Preference


Inventory,


and the Career


nvupl nnmnpn Nad f


Sur1v rv


(drlvp1loned


the exnerimenter).


follow-


IV


JL& 1












This


instrument


provides


an assessment


of adult


vocational


maturity


the assumption


"that


having


handled


tasks


in the


past


can equip


one for


future

with p


choices"


ast


(Sheppard,


occupational


1971,


decisions.


p. 405).

The di


Thus,


tensionss


the items


are concerned


of the inventory


are


involvement


in the occupational


choice


process,


orientation


toward


work,


independence


in decision making,


preference


for vocational


choice


factors,


and conception


of the choice


process.


Validity


studies


of the instru-


ment


support


the theory


that


vocational


maturity


continues


into


later


life


stages


after


adolescence.


The author


conducted


an item analysis


of the vocational


statements


using


two methods


item


correlations


with


the total


test


score,


pro-


viding a


measure of


internal


consistency


and 2)


test


of the ability


the items


to discriminate


between


three


sample


groups,


as a measure


criterion


group


validity.


A total


sample


of 400 subjects was


used


analysis


reliability.


A split-half


reliability


correlation


was


com-


puted


response


format


of the AVMI


a likert


five-point


scale with


weighted


responses


as follows:


strongly


agree


agree


neutral


disagree


and strongly


disagree


Possible


vocational


maturity


scores


range


from


40 to 200.


A lower


total


score


indicates


greater voca-


tional


maturity.


Norms


for the AVMI


were


computed


obtaining


percentile


equivalents


raw


the distribution


scores


scores


of the sample


indicated


that


group.


A chi-square


arrangement


analysis


responses












hypothesizi

sonality.

personal re


that


preferences


The inventory


lations,


yields


interests,


for occupations


information


values,


are


about


self-concept,


expressions

the subject's


coping


per-


inter-


behavior,


and identifications.


It is composed


of 11 scales


as follows:


Realistic,


Intellectual,


Masculinity


Social,

Status,


Conventional,

Infrequency, a


Enterprising,


nd Acquiescence


Artistic,

. While


Self-Control,

its primary


purpose


is the assessment


of personality,


the VPI


also


serve


as an


interest

theory o


inventory,


f occupational


an inventory


choice,


assess

a means


the personality


stimulation


types


occupational


exploration.


VPI is self-administering


and requires


15-30 minutes


to complete.


Preferences


occupations


are recorded


on the


answer


sheet.


All scales


except


the Acquiescence


Scale are


scored


counting


the "correct"


sponse,


using


a single


scoring


stencil.


The Acquiescence


Scale


is scored


counting


the number


of "Yes"


responses


among


items


1-30.


Reliability.


VPI has been


shown


to have moderate


to high


reli-


ability


(Holland,


1975).


Data


show retest


reliability


coefficients


samples


of adult


women


(mean


age 40.7)


for a two-month


interval


ranging


from


.84 (Harvey,


1971).


Validity.


Correlational


evidence which


supports


the validity


of the


VPI for adult women


was found


a study


Harvey


(1971).


In addition,


evidence


is given


to support


both


construct


and predictive


validity


the VPI (Holland,


1965,


11-13)


Construct


Validity:


VPI has


re-












Psychological

16 Personality


Inventory,

Factors C


Minnesota


questionnaire


Multiphasic

e. Omnibus


Personality

Personality


Inventory,

Inventory,


Edwards


Personal


Preference


Schedule).


Studies


the author


(Holland,


1960,


1962,


1963)


present


observed


relationships


which


support


con-


struct


validity


and meaning


given 'to


the VPI scales.


Intercorrelation


of the VPI scales with


a student's


self-ratings


personality


traits


and abilities,


life


goals


and values,


coping


behaviors


and competencies,


and self-characterizations


have


been


found.


Forsyth


and Fairweather


(1961)


conducted


a factor


analysis


which


lent


further


support


to the


constructs


of the VPI.


Predictive


Validity:


Holland


(1962)


found


the VPI to be moderately


predictive of


choice


of major


field


and vocation


over


one-


two-year


periods


for high-ability


students.


In addition,


several


of the VPI scales


have


been


found


to be predictive


of academic


and extracurricular


achievements


one-


to three-year


periods.


Interpretation


of scales


used


in analysis


of data


(Holland,


1965):


Status


Scale:


This


scale,


composed


14 items,


provides


an estimate


an individual's


self-esteem


and self-confidence


high


scores


reflect


self-


confidence,


Conventional


while


Scale:


scores


This


reflect


scale


self-deprecation.


, compose


items,
extent
values


of others,


higher


measures
to which


degree


of conformity,


the individual


and attitudes


with


scores


and lives


emphasis


reflect


accepts
through


on excessive


greater


degree


i.e.


cultural


tne eyes
self-control;
f conformity.


Infrequency


cale:


This


scale,


compos


ed of 20 items,


serves


as a personal


effectiveness


scale,


with


high


scores r


reflecting
.4


incompetency a
f^ ~ 6".


Lnd low


scores


-U -


re-











Acquies


cence


Scale:


This


scale,


composed


of the


first


personal


30 items


of the VPI,


integration,


with


measures
extremely


degree


high


scores


assoc


iated


with


poor


judgment


and 1


pers


onal


egration.


ects


erence


self-confidence,


many


as well


occupations


as sociable,


cheerful,


active,


vocational


self-depr


sive,


ecation,


passive,


frank
world


as well
ensive.


, and conventional
; few preferences


as unsociabi


views


reflect
depres-


unconventional


views.


Career


Development t


Needs


Survey


(CDNS)


a data-collecting


device which was


used


as a self-report


questionnaire


in this


study.


This


instrument


an adaptation


a needs


assessment


questionnaire


developed


development


the experimenter


needs


the female


use in


a stu


undergraduate


dy to

over


assess


career


years


the University


of Florida.


purpose was


to inform


counselors


the areas


in which


the mature woman


student


required


assistance


her transition


from


home


to school


to work and


what


policies


prac-


tices


should


be established


or modified


to fulfill


this


goal.


Construction


of the instrument.


In order


to increase


construct


validity


of the instrument


a session


was


held


with a


group


mature


women


students


enrolled


at the University


of Florida.


During


this


ses-


sion,


the objectives


of the study were


presented


and ideas


exchanged


regarding


type


of questions,


content,


and specific


needs


for in-


elusion


in the


survey.


Then,


from an


analysis


of the research


and the


response


of this


personal


encounter with


members


of the population


under


consideration,


a needs


assessment


questionnaire was


constructed.


forced-choice


format


was used


with


several


open-ende


questions


added


re-


added












Use in the


present


study.


CDNS


was


utilized


as a self-report


measure


of the


career


development


needs


of the sample in


this


study.


Differences


responses


perception


of the experimental


were measured


group,


between


as well


pretest


as between


posttest


the experimental


control


groups


in both


number


and kind


of needs


expressed.


Questions


tion about


#/1I-5


the sample,


of the CDNS


including


serve


age,


to provide


marital


descriptive


informa-


number


dependents,


type


of residence,


major,


educational


level,


years


out of


school


before


return,


past


work


experience,


special


skills


, expected


degree at


termination


of education,


career


goals,


reasons


return


to school,


and initial


difficulties


upon


return


to school.


Question


#6 was


used


assess


particular


effects


of the


group


treatment


between


on perceived


experimental


needs


and control


of the participants.


groups were analyzed.


Posttest differences


response


format


for Question


scale [ranging


#6 was


from


changed


no need


from a


to (5)


check


great


response


need]


in order


a likert-type


to provide


more accurate,


quantitative assessment


of differences


in perceived


needs.


Question


offers


of the mature woman


additional


student


which


information in regar

are not focused upon


to specific


directly


needs


in the


treatment model.


ences


Questions


in perception


#8,9,


present


and 10


obstacles


are


open-ended


and needs,


to note


as well


differ-


as provide


an opportunity


for additional


comments.


These were


summarized.


status,










The following


points


are cited


as an underlying


rationale


group


treatment


model:


There


a definite


need


for counseling


interventions


to meet


career


development


needs


mature women


returning


to school


after


interruption.


Upon making


the decision


to enroll


at the university,


they will


their


require


vocational


counseling


efforts


assistance


and in developing


in finding


vocational


a direction


skills.


The group


approach


career


counseling


an appropriate model


this


population,


due to the need


peer


support,


bolstering


of self-


confidence,


and a reality-based


setting


in which


their


goals


be viewed.


The delineation


stages


through


which


the mature woman


passes


reentry process


paradigm which


(Brooks,


advocates


1976;


a sequenti


Matthews

al focus


1969)


provides


on internal


a counseling


preparation,


vo-


national


experimentation


assessment


vocational


decision making


goal


setting,


as well


as skills


development,


in reaching


a viable


vocational


plan.


career


counseling


model


for the mature


woman was


formulated,


based


on the following


dimensions:


Self-Understanding.


The mature


woman's


ability


to perform


an accu-


rate


self-assessment


of need


interests,


strengths


and weaknesses,


values,


motivations,


and goals must


be developed


as a foundation


upon


which


realistic


vocational


decision may


be built.


Occupational


Information.


As supported


the research


, accurate


- -4 -. -- 2 ,- -1 C- -. a*.U- % l at 'nr., ~ ~ i;


4* fi ^^^


nHlln~rrl


:~C~urn~Ltnr


nA .A* v r ^ *


n












Decision Making.


A realistic


integration


of self-assessment


occupational


information


requires


implementation


of the decision-making


process.


Familiarity with


steps


to be followed


in making


viable


decisions,


as well


as in solving


problems which


hinder


such


decisions,


an essential


aspect


of the


career


development


process


for the mature


woman.


Skills


Development.


Knowledge


of job-related


skills,


including job


application,


serves


interviewing,


to enhance


resume writing,


the self-confidence


and assertiveness


of the mature woman


techniques,


in her efforts


to implement


a vocational


plan.


This


final


dimension


provides


an intro-


duction


to available


resources


in the above


techniques


to be consulted


as needed.


Description


of the Treatment


Model


four


dimensions


cited


above


comprise


the framework


of the


group


treatment model


for this


study.


experimenter


reviewed


current


coun-


selling programs


related


to the


purposes


of this


investigation


and selected


the most


relevant


and feasible


activities


corresponding


to the dimensions


of the model.


sequence


in which


the model


was


structured


also


follows


from


theoretical


evidence


in the research.


experimental


treatment


consisted


of four weekly


sessions.


groups


receiving


the experimental


treatment


met


once


a week


two hours


session.


Participants


in the experimental


groups


were


asked


com-


pile


a "Career


Development Autobiography"


(described


in Appendix A)












The specific


objectives


and format


of the experimental


group


sessions


are outlined


as follows:


Session


Introduction


and Self-Understanding


Objectives


to introduce members


to the goals


of the


group


experience


and explain


test


cedures;


establish


a climate


group


trust


rapport;


to build


self-confidence


and understanding


self and abilities.


Format


General


Introduction


Administration


of AVMI,


VPI,


and CDNS


Warm-up


Introductory


Exercise


Break


Written Exercises


and Discus


sion:


explore


strengths


and differen-


tiate


positive


and negative


elements


in choice


of future


career


"Explore
Options,


your


strength


Catalyst:


Career


s" (exer


OptiJ


cise from Planning for Career
ons Series for Undergraduate


Women,


1975)


"Listing


from


Bolles


things
, 1972,


to use


/avoid


in future


career"


(exercise


Fantasy:
p. 34):


means


"The


road


to explore


a wide


overcoming


your
range


them


life"


(exercise


options,


to reach


from


Webb,


in addition


the goal


ideal


1973,


to obstacles
self-image


Share


reactions


to fantasy


exercise


Assignment:


Complete


the Self-Directed


Search


(Holland,


1970)


Session


Occupational


Choice


Factors


and Career


Values












Format


Warm-up:


Discussion


of Self-Directed


Search


and Holland


six occupational


types


Discussion


relation


between


values/motivations


and ade-


quate


occupational


information


Written


(from


exercise


Second


Time


and discussion: "


Around


Workshop


Career


Sangamon


values


State


ranking
Univer


sheet,
sity)


Break


Group


admini


station


of the Non-Sexist


Vocational


Card


Sort


(NSVCS)


(Dewey,
to each


Assignmen
personal


1974)
other


Group members


study


interview


a deci


or visit


form dyads


sion made


to Career


and administer


recently


Resource


the NSVCS


choice


Center


Session


Occupational


Information


and Decision Making


Objectives


to increase


means


to lea
occupa
career


familiarity with


of acquiring occ

rn to integrate
tional informati


choi


to learn
skills.


upational


resources


information;


self-assessment and
on in making realistic


ces;


decision-making


and problem-solving


Format


Warm-up:
someone


Discussion


or visiting


group


Career


members'


source


experience


of interviewing


Center


Occupational
resources of


based


Information
occupational


on results


Session and


Discussion:


information and


of self-assessment


individual


and NSVCS


introduction


exploration


findings


Discussion


of importance


of decision-making


and problem-solving


skills


career


choice;


presentation


of elements


of decision making


Decision-making


exercise:


"Work values


in job


choice"


(from


fnl nt-t


t 1


in7m


II I 1


frniin


di nrnssi on


fnllows


s f


I|












Session


Job Skills


Development


Objectives


to gain


familiarity


with


skills


related


to Vocational


choice;


to evaluate


and offer


feedback about


group


experience.


Format


Assertiveness
nonassertive,


Your


Perfect


Training


and Discussion


and aggressive
Right, 1970, pp.


behavior
31-32)


components
(from R.E. A
role playing


asse


iberti &
follows


rtive,


M.L.


Emmons,


Discussion


of the importance


in the acquisition


Resume writing


a job


(from


of developing
as follows:


Resume


specific


Preparation,


skills


a pamphlet


involved


distributed


the Career


Resource


Center,


University


Florida)


Interviewing


1974,


(from E.


135-138


for the College


Student


Gray,


Everywoman'


.W. Dunphy
, 1968, pp


Guide
Career


to College,
Development


104-108)


Break


Administration


of the AVMI,


VPI,


and CDNS.


Evaluation and


Feedback.


Detailed


description


of the experimental


group


treatment


pro-


vided


in Appendix


exercises


are


presented


in Appendix


Limitations


of the Study


The following


limitations


apply


for the


purposes


of this


study:


effect


of protesting


on the subjects,


terms


of their


prior k

trolled


nowled


this


areas


research


covered

design


in the


(Isaac


group


treatment,


Michael,


1971).


was


not con-


While


such










results


of this


study


are generalizable


to other


female


undergraduates


who meet


the criteria


for classification


as "mature


women


students


as defined


in this


study.


Since


subjects were


elected


from a


cosmopolitan


university,


comprised


women


from a


wide


range


of backgrounds


and characteristics,


it is assumed


that


they


typical

cation.


of women

It is al


attending

so assumed


other

that


four-year


there


institutions


is similarity


of higher


between


edu-


the char-


acteristics


of these women and


those


women


in future


years.


This


is based


on the belief


that


societal


changes


will


continue


increase


the numbers


and options


for further


education


women


in this


group.


Analysis


of Data


A chi-square


differences


test


between


was


used


groups


to determine


on the various


the existence


demographic


of significant


characteristics.


The Student-Newman-Keuls


procedure


was


used


to determine


which


any,


groups


differed


significantly.


Gain


scores


were


examined,


using


a correlated


t-test


to determine


there was


a significant


increase


between


pretest


posttest


scores


of the experimental


and control


groups


on the Adult


Vocational


Maturity


Inventory;


the Status


Scale,


Conventional


Scale,


Infrequency


Scale,


Acquiescence


Scale


of the Vocational


Preference


Inventory;


and question


of the Career


Development


Needs


Survey.


Analysis


of covariance


, using


pretest


scores


as a covariate,


used t


o test


for possible di


fferences


between


the experimental


and control


se-


are


was


















CHAPTER


THE FINDINGS



Introduction


This


study


examined


the effectiveness


a group


career


counseling


experience


in meeting


the personal


career


development


needs


of the


female


a period


undergraduate


at least


over


five


years


years.


of age who


had been


Statistical


Package


out of school


for the Social


Sciences


(SPSS)


was


used


for the


t-test


comparisons,


analysis


of covariance,


Student-Newman-Keuls,


and chi-square


tests.


following


areas


are pre-


sented


in this chapter:


description


of the method


description


the sample;


statistical


findings


related


to each


hypothesis.


Description


of the Method


This


study


examined


the effectiveness


a four-week


Career/


Life-Planning Workshop


based


on the following


dimensions:


degree


vocational


maturity;


self-esteem and


self-confidence;


degree


conformity;


degree


of personal


effectiveness;


degree


of personal


integration


perception


career


development


needs.


A sample of


subjects.


pretest


women


was


The experimental


nrfrT tep


divided


group


initrt'm.nt1


into


received


tn Avn1in t


32 experimental


treatment


thn nhniic


and 33 control


and responded


far tn-rc


~L~1~


I


| l[1 u- rn--


S


^1 1 11











Description


Demographic


of the Sample


Data


Data


comparing various


demographic


characteristics


of the sample are


presented


in Appendix


This


information was


acquired


through


responses


to questions


1-3 of the Career


Development


Needs


Survey


(CDNS)


and analyzed


by means


of analysis


of variance


and chi-square


procedures.


women


comprised


the sample


ranged


from


to 56


with


a mean


of 31.01.


The breakdown


of the sample


according


to mar-


ital


status was


as follows:


33.8%


single;


41.5%


married


13.8%


divorced;


.1% widowed;


and 7


.7% separated.


significant


difference


was


found


age among


the five


marital


status


groups,


with


the widowed


group


signifi-


cantly


older


than


the other


groups.


No significant


difference


was


found


between


age and


residence,


educational


level,


or expected


degree.


majority


of the sample


resided


in private


homes


(60%),


were


enrolled


their


senior


year


of college


and aspired


to a master's


degree


(47.7%).


mean


number


years


out of


school


of the sample


prior


to their


return was


9.58.


following


breakdown


mean


number


years


out of


school


was


found


for each marital


status


group:


single,


5.87


years;


mar-


ried,


10.52


years;


divorced,


12.56


years


widowed,


32.50


years;


separated,


6.40 years.


A significant


difference was


found


in number


years


out of


school


between widowed


women


and the other


groups.


No significant


differ-


ence was


found


between


number


years


out of school


and residence,


edu-


national


level,


or expe


cted


degree.











difference


was


found


between


number


of dependents


and residence;


however,


unequal


disproportional


cell


size


precluded


examination


of these


data.


There was


no significant


diffence


between


number


of dependents


and edu-


national


level


or expected


degree.


Chi-square


analyses


revealed


no significant


difference


between


marital


educational


status


level


educational


and expected


(Table


level


degree


and expected


(Table


residence


degree


marital


expected


(Table


degree


and e)


status


(Table


expected


gree


group


(Table


F6).


In a


comparison


between


means


experimental


and control


groups


on the various


demographic


characteristics,


is notable


that


both


perimental


and control


groups


are almost


equivalent


in mean age,


number


years out


of school,


and number


of dependents.


A similar


correlation


between


experimental


and control


groups


was


found


in the factors


res-


idence


educational


level,


and expected


degree.


A 2-by-4


chi-square


test


was used


to examine


possible


differences


among


the sample


in regard


to their willingness


to participate


in the


study.


four


categories


of response mode


were


as follows:


Those who


sought


of the publicity


out the


proc


expe


edures


rimenter


as a result


.3%);


Those who
personal


agreed
elephon


to participate
e call (20%);


after


receiving


Those who
but agreed


not wish


to take


to participate


pre/post


struments


group


(15%)


Those who


not wi


to narticinate


in the


ornun


ex-


ii


.I^L ,L.


.


Q' lef'l i I I'I


111











between


experimental


and control


groups


on these


factors,


no significant


difference was

experimental g


found


roup


in a)


(chi


response mode


square


educational


= 3)


level


response


for the


mode


educational


level


for the control


group


(chi


square


= 1.99


= 6);


response


mode


by major


for the experimental


group


(chi


square


= 28.70


= 19)


response mode


by major


for the control


group


(chi


square


35.48


= 34).


Several


questions


on the Career


Development


Needs


Survey


(CDNS)


pro-


vide additional


information


about


the mature


women


in this


sample.


responses


to these


questions


are summarized


as follows:


Past


work


experience.


On question


2a of the CDNS


the respondents


reported


a wide


range


of practical


work


experience,


with


a heavy


concen-


tration


in the clerical/secretarial


and medical


areas.


Other


positions


cited


were waitress,


bank


teller,


salesperson,


volunteer,


factory worker,


maid,


teacher's


aide,


and telephone


operator.


A poignant


description


past work


experience


was


offered


one woman


as follows:


"boring,


repeti-


tious


and dull


jobs,


mentally


and physically


debilitating.


It is notable


that most


of the respondents


reported


past


experience


in subordinate or


assistant


roles,


requiring


little


specialized


preparation.


Many


also


a variety


particular


of unrelated


role.


jobs,


which may


Few respondents


suggest


mentioned


dissatisfaction


roles


of housewife


with


one


or mother.


Special


skills.


Most


special


skills


cited


on question


2b of the CSNS


were


in the


areas


of typing


and general


office


skill


as well


as the abil-












work


hard,


as well


as a good


sense


of humor,


and problem-solving


skills.


A total


of 16 respondents


not report


any special


skills.


Specific


mention


of skill


related


to home


and family


was made


only


one


respondent.


Career


goals.


On question


of the CDNS


specific


career


goals


of the


respondents


encompassed


a wide


range


of options.


Most


were


concentrated


the fields


of teaching


(all


levels)


business,


counseling,


writing,


public

to work


service

around


occupations.


family


Consideration was


responsibilities,


given


to provide


some


a means


to the need


of financial


support


to engage


in work


that was


mentally


stimulating,


challenging,


enjoyable,


profitable,


and creative.


Reasons


return


to school.


Question


of the CDNS


inquired


about


specific


factors


involved


in the decision


to return


to school,


i.e.,


nancial


need,


personal


growth,


or desire


career.


The majority


of the


respondents


checked


at least


two of these


reasons;


approximately


one-third


checked


all three.


Financial


need


seemed


to be


less


concern


than


both


personal


growth


and desire


a career.


Other


reasons


cited


were


related


to enjoyment

Ways to


of learning,


facilitate


feelings


adjustment.


of boredom,

On question


and a desire


of the CDNS


r direction.

respondents


reported


recommend t ions


to facilitate


the adjustment


mature women


the role


of student


as follows:


orientation


program,


responses;


buddy


on-the-job


system,


training,


responses;


smaller


other


classes,


suggestions,


peer


including


contacts.


counseling,


A deeper under-


standing


of the mature woman


student'


situation


is revealed


through











Biggest


obstacle


to career


development.


On question


of the CDNS


the main


areas


of difficulty


cited


respondents


were


time,


sponses;


own indecision,


responses;


money


responses;


family/marital


responsibilities,


responses


lack


career


infor-


nation


and direction,


responses.


Many


respondents


gave multiple


sponses.


A notable


pattern


was found


in the fact


that


many


of the ob-


stacles


cited


were within


the control


of the individual,


i.e.,


problems


that


could


be resolved,


rather


than


external


forces.


Some


obstacles,


such


as family


responsibilities


and time


factors,


require


cooperation


of others


in order


to be resolved.


Greatest


need


at this


time.


On question


10 of the CDNS


the needs


expressed


the respondents


correspond


closely with


the obstacles


career


development


already


cited.


Main needs


reported were


increased


self-confidence,


motivation,


sense


of direction;


increased


time


available


for study


and other


responsibilities;


more


opportunity


social


contacts


group


experiences;


assistance with


career


goals;


mor e


university


services


aimed


toward


the mature


student;


financial


assistance;


fear


of competition


with


younger


students;


increase


career


opportunities.


re-


re-










Statistical


Findings


Related


to Hypotheses


There will


a significant


of the experimental


pretest
ventory


osttest


(AVMI))
control


group
scores


while


increase


in the vocational


., a significant


on the Adult


no signifi


cant


decrease


Vocational


incr


ease


will


maturity
from


Maturity
be found


group.


The experimental


group


will


exhibit


significantly


greater voca-


tional


maturity


than


the control


group


at the end of


treatment


lower


posttest


scores


on the AVMI).


TABLE


ANALYSIS


OF ADULT VOCATIONAL


MATURITY


INVENTORY


SCORES


Description of Groups


Group N Mean Standard Deviation


Experimental


100.91
93.28


Post


10.53


Control


96.73
98.36


Post


T-Test Comparison of Pretest-Posttest Scores


Comparison T-Value Difference Significance

Experimental 7.79 7.63 p<.001
Control -2.65 -1.63 p<.01


Analysis of Covariance of Posttest Scores


Source df Sum of Squares Mean Squares F

Covariates 1 3774.79 3774.79 60.56*
Between Groups 1 1138.91 1138.91
Within Groups 62 1165.99 18.81
Total 64 6079.70











There will


a significant


increase


in the self-esteem and


self-confidence


of the


experimental


group


(i.e.,


a signifi


cant


increase


from


pretest


to posttest


scores


on the Status


Scale


the Vocational


cant


Preference


increase will


be found


Inventory


(VPI)),


in the control


while
group.


no signifi-


experimental


self-esteem


group


will


and self-confid


exhibit


ence


a significantly


than


control


higher
group


level
at the


end of


treatment


.e., higher


posttest


scores


on the Status


Scale).


TABLE


ANALYSIS


OF VOCATIONAL


PREFERENCE


INVENTORY


STATUS


SCALE


SCORES


Description of Groups


Group N Mean Standard Deviation

Experimental
Pre 32 8.16 2.34
Post 32 9.75 1.85
Control
Pre 33 8.54 2.25
Post 33 8.27 1.94


T-Test Comparison of Pretest-Posttest Scores


Comparison T-Value Difference Significance

Experimental -6.50 1.59 p<.001
Control 0.89 0.27


Analysis of Covariance of Posttest Scores


Source df Sum of Squares Mean Squares F

Covariates 1 108.94 108.94 27.69*
Between Groups 1 47.26 47.26
Within Groups 62 105.80 1.71
Total 64 262.00


1 ___










There will


a significant


decr


ease


in the degree


of conformity


of the experimental


pretest


to posttest


group
scores


(i.e.,


a significant


on the Conventional


ecrease


cale


from


of the


Vocational
decrease wi


Preference
11 be found


Inventory


(VPI)),


in the control


while


no significant


group.


experimental


conformity


lower


group


than
postte


will


ex


the control
st scores o


hibit
group


a significantly
at the end of


n the Conventional


lower


degree


treatment


Scale).


TABLE


ANALYSIS


OF VOCATIONAL


PREFERENCE


INVENTORY


CONVENTIONAL


SCALE


SCORES


Description of Groups


Group N Mean Standard Deviation

Experimental
Pre 32 2.25 2.06
Post 32 0.87 1.13
Control
Pre 33 2.00 2.38
Post 33 1.79 2.37


T-Test Comparison of Pretest-Posttest Scores


Comparison T-Value Difference Significance

Experimental 4.06 1.38 p<.001
Control 0.79 0.21


Analysis of Covariance of Posttest Scores


Source df Sum of Squares Mean Squares F

Covariates 1 89.91 89.91 8.87*
Between Groups 1 17.85 17.85
Within Groups 62 124.80 2.01
Total 64 232.55


.e.


*n< 0nA











There will


effectiveness


crease


from


a significant


increase


of the experimental


pretest


of the Vocational


ficant


increase


to posttest


Preference


will


be found


in the degree


group


scores


Inventory


(i.e.,
on the
(VPI)),


in the control


personal


a significant


Infrequency


while


Scale


no signi-


group.


The
gree


exp
of


end of
Scale)


erimental
personal
treatment


group


effect


.e.


will


exhibit


veness
lower


than


posttest


a significantly


control
scores


i group
on the


higher


at the
Infrequency


TABLE


ANALYSIS


OF VOCATIONAL


PREFERENCE


INVENTORY


INFREQUENCY


SCALE


SCORES


Description of Groups


Group N Mean Standard Deviation

Experimental
Pre 32 5.87 2.52
Post 32 6.00 2.20
Control
Pre 33 6.58 2.36
Post 33 7.21 2.06


T-Test Comparison of Pretest-Posttest Scores


Comparison T-Value Difference Significance

Experimental -0.27 0.13
Control -2.51 0.63 p<.017


Analysis of Covariance of Posttest Scores


Source df Sum of Squares Mean Squares F

Covariates 1 112.55 112.55 3.85*
Between Groups 1 11.50 11.50
Within Groups 62 185.33 2.99
Total 64 309.38











There will
integration


crease


from


a significant


of the
pretes


of the Vocational


cant


increase


will


increase


experimental
t to posttest
Preference In


found


group
scores
ventory


in the degree


(i.e.


personal


a significant


on the Acquie


(VPI)),


in the control


while


science


de-
Scale


no signifi-


group.


The
gree
of t
Scal


experimental


personal


treatment


group


will


integration
.. lower DO


exhibit


than


sttest


a significantly


control


scores


group


higher de-
at the end


on the Acquiescence


TABLE


ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL


PREFERENCE


INVENTORY


ACQUIESCENCE


SCALE


SCORES


Description of Groups


Group N Mean Standard Deviation

Experimental
Pre 32 9.34 4.53
Post 32 7.44 3.87
Control
Pre 33 8.88 4.64
Post 33 8.03 3.88
3.88r

T-Test Comparison of Pretest-Posttest Scores


Comparison T-Value Difference Significance

Experimental 2.66 1.90 p<.01
Control 1.55 0.85


Analysis of Covariance of Posttest Scores


Source df Sum of Squares Mean Squares F

Covariates 1 386.86 386.86 1.30
Between Groups 1 11.60 11.60
Within Groups 62 552.09 8.90
Total 64 950.54


&


r


.e










H061


There


will


advisement


a significant


de


of the experimental


crease
group


in the need


(i.e.,


for academic


a significant


crease
Career


from


pretest


Development


to posttest


Needs


urvey


scores


(CDNS)),


on ques


while


tion


6a of the


no significant


decrease will


be found


in the control


group.


H061


experimental


for academic


group


advisement


will
than


exhibit


a significantly


the control


group


at th


lower need
e end of


treatment


lower


posttest


scores


on question


6a of the


CDNS).


TABLE


ANALYSIS


OF CAREER


DEVELOPMENT


NEEDS


SURVEY


QUESTION


Description of Groups


Group N Mean Standard Deviation

Experimental
Pre 32 3.44 1.32
Post 32 2.53 1.19
Control
Pre 33 2.45 1.35
Post 33 2.97 1.42


T-Test Comparison of Pretest-Posttest Scores


Comparison T-Value Difference Significance

Experimental 3.72 0.91 p<.001
Control -2.64 0.52 p<.013


Analysis of Covariance of Posttest Scores


Source df Sum of Squares Mean Squares F

Covariates 1 22.84 22.84 11.06*
Between Groups 1 13.51 13.51
Within Groups 62 75.71 1.22
Total 64 112.06











H062


There will
counseling


a significant 'decrease


of the experimental


in the need


group


for vocational


, a significant


crease
Career


from


pretest


Development


decrease will


to posttest


Needs


be found


urvey


scores


(CDN


in the control


on question


S)),


while


6b of the


no significant


group.


H062


The experimental


group


will


exhibit


a significantly


lower


need


for vocational


treatment


counseling


lower


than


posttest


control


scores


group


on question


at the end of


6b of the CDNS).


TABLE


ANALYSIS


OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT


NEEDS


SURVEY


QUESTION


Description of Groups


Group N Mean Standard Deviation


Experimental
Pre
Post
Control
Pre
Post


T-Test Comparison of Pretest-Posttest Scores


Comparison T-Value Difference Significance

Experimental 11.93 2.12 p<.001
Control 1.60 0.27


Analysis of Covariance of Posttest Scores


Source df Sum of Squares Mean Squares F

Covariates 1 2.29 2.29 28.01*
Between Groups 1 19.84 19.84
Within Groups 62 43.93 0.71
Total 64 66.06


*n( nni











H063


There will
counseling


be a


significant .decrease


of the experimental


group


in the need


(i.e.,


pers


a significant


onal
de-


crease
Career


from


pretest


Development


to posttest


Needs


Survey


scores


(CDNS)),


on question


while


no significant


decrease


will


found


in the control


group.


H063


experimental


group


will exhibit


a significantly


lower


need


for personal


treatment


counseling


.e.


lower


than


posttest


the control


scores


group


on question


at the end of


6c of the


CDNS).


TABLE


ANALYSIS


OF CAREER


DEVELOPMENT


NEEDS


SURVEY


QUESTION


Description of Groups


Group N Mean Standard Deviation

Experimental
Pre 32 2.94 1.27
Post 32 2.50 1.02
Control
Pre 33 2.48 1.42
Post 33 2.45 1.32


T-Test Comparison of Pretest-Posttest Scores


Comparison T-Value Difference Significance

Experimental 2.24 0.44 p<.03
Control 0.16 0.03


Analysis of Covariance of Posttest Scores


Source df Sum of Squares Mean Squares F

Covariates 1 34.94 34.94 0.80
Between Groups 1 0.68 0.68
Within Groups 62 52.59 0.85
Total 64 88.21










H064


There will


aid of
pretest


Needs
found


a significant -decrease


the experimental


to posttest


Survey


(CDNS))


in the control


group


scores
, while
group.


(i.e.,


in the need
a significant


on question


no significant


for financial


decrease


6d of the Career


from


Develop-


decrease will


H064


experimental


for financial


group will


aid than


exhibit
control


a significantly


group


at the


lower need


end of


treat-


men t


lower


posttest


scores


on question


6d of the CDNS)


TABLE


ANALYSIS


OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT


NEEDS


SURVEY


QUESTION


Description of Groups


Group N Mean Standard Deviation

Experimental
Pre 32 3.03 1.49
Post 32 3.03 1.38
Control
Pre 33 3.09 1.53
Post 33 3.18 1.40


T-Test Comparison of Pretest-Posttest Scores


Comparison T-Value Difference Significance

Experimental 0.00 0.00
Control -0.65 0.09


Analysis of Covariance of Posttest Scores


Source df Sum of Squares Mean Squares F

Covariates 1 88.15 88.15 0.32
Between Groups 1 0.18 0.18
Within Groups 62 33.92 0.55
Total 64 122.25










H065


There will


understanding


a significant 'decrease


of vocational


interests


in the need
and values


for better


ex-


perimental
to posttest


group


scores


(i.e.


, a significant


on ques


tion


decrease


of the Career


from


pretest


Development


Needs
found


Survey


(CDNS)),


in the control


while
group.


no significant


decrease


will


H065


expe


for bett


than


posttest


rimental
er under


control
scores


group will


standing


group


exhibit a
vocational


at the end of


on question


signifi
intere


cantly


sts


treatment


lower


need


and values


.e.


lower


the CDNS).


TABLE


ANALYSIS


OF CAREER


DEVELOPMENT


NEEDS


SURVEY


QUESTION


Description of Groups


Group N Mean Standard Deviation

Experimental
Pre 32 4.06 1.10
Post 32 2.12 0.94
Control
Pre 33 3.15 1.23
Post 33 3.00 1.17


T-Test Comparison of Pretest-Posttest Scores


Comparison T-Value Difference S significance

Experimental 7.76 1.94 p<.001
Control 0.82 0.15


Analysis of Covariance of Posttest Scores


Source df Sum of Squares Mean Squares F

Covariates 1 2.83 2.83 20.13*
Between Groups 1 19.88 19.88
Within Groups 62 61.22 0.99
CL^-t 0/.n r fl











H066


There will


a significant-d


ecrease


in the need


for social


con-


tacts
from


of the experimental


pretest


to posttest


group
scores


(i.e.,


a significant


on question


decrease


6f of the Career


velopment


Needs


Survey


(CDNS))


while


no significant


decrease


will


be found


control


group.


H066


experimental


for social


group


contacts


will


than


exhibit
control


a significantly


group


lower


at the end of


need
treat-


ment


lower


posttest


scores


on question


6f of the CDNS)


Table


ANALYSIS


OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT


NEEDS


SURVEY


QUESTION


Description of Groups


Group N Mean Standard Deviation

Experimental
Pre 32 3.16 1.25
Post 32 2.78 0.97
Control
Pre 33 3.00 1.27
Post 33 2.70 1.01


T-Test Comparison of Pretest-Posttest Scores


Comparison T-Value Difference Significance

Experimental 1.98 0.38
Control 1.67 0.30


Analysis of Covariance of Posttest Scores


Source df Sum of Squares Mean Squares F

Covariates 1 21.31 21.31 0.004
Between Groups 1 0.00 0.00
Within Groups 62 41.24 0.66
Total 64 62.55











H067


There will


tunity


a significant decrease


information


the experiment


in the need
1 group (i.


for job


oppor-


a signifi-


cant


decrease


from


pretest


to posttest


scores


on ques


tion


of the Career


Development


Needs


urvey


(CDNS)),


while


no signi-


ficant


decrease


will


be found


the control


group.


H067


experimental


group


will


exhibit


a signific


antly


lower


need


for job
end of


opportunity


treatment


information


.e.


lower


than


posttest


the control


scores


group


at the


on question


of the CDNS)


TABLE


ANALYSIS OF


CAREER


DEVELOPMENT


NEEDS


SURVEY


QUESTION


Description of Groups


Group N Mean Standard Deviation

Experimental
Pre 32 4.50 0.72
Post 32 2.31 0.74
Control
Pre 33 3.55 1.44
Post 33 3.79 1.14


T-Test Comparison of Pretest-Posttest Scores


Comparison T-Value Difference Significance

Experimental 11. 05 2.19 p<.001
Control -1.28 0.24


Analysis of Covariance of Posttest Scores


Source df Sum of Squares Mean Squares F

Covariates 1 0.82 0.82 63.06*
Between Groups 1 46.86 46.86
Within Groups 62 46.07 0.74
Total 64 93.75


e. ,











H068


There
about
menta
test


will


use of
1 group
scores


(CDNS)),


trol


a si


skills
(i.e.,


nificant .decrease


acquired
a signifi


on question


while


no significant


from
cant


lif


in the need
e experience


decrease


the Career
decrease w


from


for information
of the experi-


pretest


Development


ill


found


to post-


Needs
in the


Survey
con-


group.


H68


The experimental
for information


than
test


control


scores


group
about
group


will


use


at the


on question


exhibit
skills
end of


a significantly
acquired from 1
treatment (i.e


lower


need


experience


lower


post-


the CDNS)


TABLE


ANALYSIS OF


CAREER DEVELOPMENT


NEEDS


SURVEY


QUESTION


Description of Groups


Group N Mean Standard Deviation

Experimental
Pre 32 4.12 0.94
Post 32 2.87 0.98
Control
Pre 33 3.48 1.42
Post 33 3.30 1.40


T-Test Comparison of Pretest-Posttest Scores


Comparison_ .T-Value Difference Significance __

Experimental 5.36 1.25 p<.001
Control 0.95 0.18


Analysis of Covariance of Posttest Scores


Source df Sum of Squares Mean Squares F

Covariates 1 17.25 17.25 7.50*
Between Groups 1 8.44 8.44
Within Groups 62 69.75 1.12
T rC,- <, L/. flt: i.A




Full Text

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