Correlation between professors'inferences about students' self-concepts

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Correlation between professors'inferences about students' self-concepts and professors' knowledge of students' participation in a community college compensatory education program
Physical Description:
vii, 105 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Jones, Charles William, 1948-
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Teacher-student relationships   ( lcsh )
Interaction analysis in education   ( lcsh )
Self-perception   ( lcsh )
Compensatory education   ( lcsh )
Foundations of Education thesis Ph. D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Foundations of Education -- UF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 91-103.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Charles William Jones.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000078339
oclc - 04893143
notis - AAJ3638
System ID:
AA00002204:00001

Full Text









CORRELATION


ABOUT


STUDENTS


KNOWLEDGE


COMMUNITY


BETWEEN


PROFESSORS'


' SELF-CONCEPTS


STUDENTS'


COLLEGE


INFERENCES.
PROFESSORS


PARTICIPATION


COMPENSATORY


EDUCATION


IN A


PROGRAM


CHARLES


WILLIAM JONES


A DISSERTATION


PRESENTED


UNIVERSITY


PARTIAL


FULFILLMENT


DEGREE


DOCTOR


GRADUATE
FLORIDA


COUNCIL


REQUIREMENTS
PHILOSOPHY













ACKNOWLEDGMENT


would d


first


like


to thank


chairman,


Robert


Curran,


and my


committee members,


. Donald


Avila


William R


Mapl


Their patience


guidance over


several


years


work


have


been


deeply


appreciated.


gratitude


extend


college


profe


ssors


at Manatee


Junior


College,


Florida


tate


Univer-


Univer


Florida


Many


names


elude me


they


have


touched my


life


for nearly


twelve


years


would


hope


they


feel


that


their work


not been


vain


woul d


like


acknowledge


help


have


received at


Central


Florida


Community


College.


. Carolyn


West,


Director of


Special


ervi


, gave me a


job,


goal


and mo


importantly,


freedom and opportunity


grow.


rest


taff,


particu-


larly


John


son,


have


helped


me develop


ideas


which


research.


special


thank


goes


Becton


for hi


assi


tance with


tati


tical


analysis.


admini


trator


college


have


been most


helpful


well


From the


use o


taff


Program


Development


fund


to finance


tudi


to direct


assi


stance


with


research,


they


have


been


involved.


special


thank


is extended


to Robert


. Ritterhoff,


Dean


instructional


services


Admini


trative


stant,








very


special


secretary


ecial


thank


goes


Services


, my


out to Ms


typi


Bonni


rtma n


friend


been


dedicated


tolerance


diffi


ress


encouragement


magnitude


my work.


appreciation


that


to my


parents


and Mr


. Robert


Jones.


so many


ways


their


support


encouragement


alwa


been


there


. They


have


never


expected any more


than


that


did my


best at what


wanted


thank


them


freedom and


opportunity.


Finally


would d


like


expr


appreciation


person


really made


worthwhile


my wife


, Una.


loyalty


dedication


, patience


encouragement


love


understanding


have


been


so important.


Without


would


not have made















TABLE OF CONTENTS



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. .........................................ii

ABSTRACT............ ..... .........................................vi

CHAPTER I, STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM................................ 1

Introduction. ... .. . ... .. ... .... .... 1
Purpose....................................................... 6

CHAPTER II, REVIEW OF LITERATURE................................... 8

Introduction .8........................ ........ .. ...... 8
Teacher Expectancies: Where Do They Come From?...............1
Program Label, Ability Grouping, or Perceived


Ability........
Teacher Expectancies
Teacher Expectancies
Teacher Expectancies
Status (SES)...
Teacher Bias.............
Tutoring...........
In-Class Situations.


Conclusion... ................


and Sex...........
and Race..........
and Socioeconomic


* S S S S Si a *


*5* *


Academic Blooming..... ........ ... ..
Falsification of Test Scores, IQ, or Track
Assignment .. ....... ...... ...... .


* ..
... .
* ...
* .
* .
* .*


. .. . .
. . .. ..16
. . . . .17


* .
* .
* .


. . .18
..... .20
*S ** .20
. .21
S. .21


. . . . 24


CHAPTER III, HYPOTHESES..... .............. .. ..... ....... .... ...25

CHAPTER IV, THE DESIGN..... .... ....... ......... ........... ....28


Introduction......
Sampling.........
Variable Controls
Validity..........
Internal Val i
External Va i


S. .28
......... ... ... ........ ... .. ..29
di. . .. 31

dity... .. ... ... . .32


.23


i










CHAPTER VI, DATA COLLECTION........ .... ........... .... ... .....37

Procedure .... . . . . . . . . 37

CHAPTER VII, DATA ANALYSIS................. ........................39


Response Rate....
Group Composition.
Scores.. .. ...


"...


. af .
*t *t C
* ...0


*:


*


0. 0.* *.*
0.**.. e **..


* .. C.. C
* a SC eat.
as......


Three-Way Analysis of Variance.


CHAPTER VIII, INTERPRETATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS.....51


Interpretation of Data Analysis........
Hypothesis One.............. ...
Hypothesis Two... ... .
Hypothesis Three. .................
Hypothesis Four...........
Concl usion.... ... .. ........... ....


.. a .



* *. a *
* C *


* CC C C C
* S C C C
* C C *C*
* S CCC C
* C CC.


* *.t C
* CCS *
* S C C C
* C** C
S*t Ct


. . 51
S. . .51
.. ... 52
..... .53
S... 53
S.......54


APPENDIX A, FORMS AND LETTERS..........


. . . . 57


APPENDIX B, THE SPECIAL SERVICES PROGRAM AT CENTRAL FLORIDA


COMMUNITY COLLEGE, OCALA, FLORIDA...


BIBLIOGRAPHY. ....... ................ ............... 91

References Cited.. ... .... . .. . .. .. ... .91
Additional Sources in the Areas of Teachers'
Perceptions and Expectations.............................95
Sources in the Areas of Remedial, Compensatory,
Developmental and Nontraditional Education.............. 100

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...... 1........ ....... ...... ......... ......04


63














Abstract


Dissertation


Univeristy of


Requi rements


for the


Presented


Florida


Degree


to the


Partial


Doctor


Graduate


Council


Fulfillment of
of Philosophy


CORRELATION


ABOUT


STUDENT


KNOWLEDGE


COMMUNITY


COLLEGE


BETWEEN


ELF-


STUDENT


PROFE


CONCEPT


' INFERENCE


AND PROFE


PARTICIPATION


COMPENSATORY


EDUCATION


SORS


IN A


PROGRAM


Charle


William Jones


August


1978


Chairman


Major


Robert


Department:


Curran


Foundation


Education


question wa


raised whether


knowledge


students


partici-


pation


In a


compensatory


education


program could


significantly


related


to professor


' inferences


about


student


-concepts.


A post


-test


only


control


group


design


was used


to investigate


possible


relationship.


relation


hips


between


among


student


race


sex and


program


label


professors


' inferences


about


students'


-concept


were


examined.


Thirty-two


professors


Central


Florida


Community


College


Ocala


Florida


were


randomly


selected


from


faculty


at that


college who


from all


their


section


at least


one white mal


one white


female


black male and


one bla


femal


who were


par-








Professors


' inferences


about


students


self-concepts


were


measured


on the


Florida


A Scale


Infer


Lea rner


Self


-Concept.


experimental


group


professor


were


tol d


explicitly


on the


rating


forms


that


students


were


participant


program


. Profe


ssors


control


group


received


no information on


students


participa-


tion


They were


asked


whether


they


knew


student


involved


program.


profe


ssor


knowledge


then


that


student


score was


deleted


from


data


forms


were


returned.


Half


instructors,


however,


failed


to complete


one or more


forms.


A three-way


analy


variance


(race


sex by


experimental


group)


was used


to t


hypoth


eses.


Only main


effect


were


detected.


significant


difference was


established


sex.


Race


was s


significant at


level


with


blacks


being


rated


lower than


whites.


Knowl edge


.057


level


program


higher


participation


scores


approached


reported when


significance


participation


was known.


significant


difference


race was


cons


istent


with


previous


tudie


examined


However,the numerical


trend


higher


scores


when


compensatory


label


known


was unexpected


Follow-


tudi


further


inquiry


into


dynamic


particular


program are


definitely needed.














CHAPTER


STATEMENT


OF THE


PROBLEM


Introdu


tion


Equality


opportunity


education


in recent


times,


become


priority


federal


government.


Many


tate


legi


latures


educational


well


systems


From


notion


education,


have


beginning,


equal

been


taken


initiative


the mythology


opportunity.

recognized as


Education,


direct


di reaction


America


incorporated


particularly


route


that


higher


opportunity


It wa


not until


decades


following


second World War,


however,


that


higher


education


began


identified as


a right


rather than


as a


privilege.


With


ssage of


Bill


Right


" and


inclusion


exten


ive educational


benefit


scores


American


would d


have


previous


cons


idered


college


education


unreal


headed


academia.


What many


these aspirant


encountered was


system


embelli


hed with


traditionalism,


elitism,


tumbling


block


tide of


attention


on education.


Civil


Right


first major


Movement


used great


breakthrough wa


1954


when


United


State


supreme


Court


ruled


Brown


. The


Board


of Fducati nn


(nockhart


. Kami


SF


Chnnpr.


1967~


that


~pna ril t.P


.


,


n. U








1957,


State of


Florida


implem


ented a


system of


junior


college


which e


poused an


opportunity


education


rivaled


by few


states


perhaps


world.


development


"Open


Door"


policy


seemed


certain


nsure


equality


opportunity


Many


these


colleges,


however,


were


nearly


open


until


more


than


decade


later.


federal


legislation


began


producing


programs


procedures


and guidelines


feel ng


eemed


to be


that


more money,


more


people,


and more


ilitie


would d


right


the wrong


and make


American


education


system


to i


promi


equal


opportunity.


1966


, the


so-call


Coleman


Report


hocked many


observer


gratified others


y proclaiming


that money


facilities


probably


have


little effec


on positive


change.


What


does


significantly


affect


itive


change


Unfortunately


definitive


researchers


answer


such as


that


(1970)


stion


Comb


been


(1959)


found.


or Purkey


Some


(1970)


contend


that


an important


kind


i nfl uence


consists


percep-


tions


attitude


belief


those


charged w


carrying


educational


process.


perceptions


attitudes


belief


significantly


determine


eventual


outcome


that


process


only


relates


individual


to entire


groups


or cla


sses


people


That


theoretical


approach


presuppposes


that


perception


expectations


that


individual


have


towards


other


are based on








There


are literally


thousand


characteristics


that


could


enumerated


concerning any


given


individual


Social


sure


resulting


legi


nation


have


used


primarily


on race and


sex and


esser degree


age.


Coleman


(1966),


(1970),


and Jencks


(197


have a


asserted


that


family


background


socioeconomic


tatus


are s


significant


chara


teri


affecting


educational


oppor


tuniti


explicit


belief


that


family


background


socioeconomic


status


affect


perceptions


hers.


would


probably


to a


ssume


that


Coleman


and Jencks


would d


concur.


character


which


research


on s


perception


some-


what


ignored at


post-


secondary


level


been


student


volvement


variety


programs developed


to enhance


educational


opportunity


resultant


label


associated with


those


programs.


rare


post


secondary


school


or college which


does


not have a


remedial,


compensatory


developmental


or nontraditional


program.


They


carry varlou


titles


descriptions,


implica-


tion


placing


student


into


one o


these


program


would appear


clear


that


student


incapable of


achieving


through


"normal"


route or


process


one reason or


another.


ssible


that


participation


one of


hese


programs


become


significant


chara


cter


istic


used


teachers


determining


their attitudes


values


belief


concerning


that


student


does


contribute


positive


or negative


set of


percep-


tion


val ues








financially


deficient


student


those


who are


culturally,


socially


or academically


sadvantaged


those


are handicapped


as well


change


very


important


because


previous


, inclusion


those


programs


almost


certainly meant


that


student


was from a


lower


socioeconomic


background.


new guidelines


have made


that


impli


ation much


a certainty


Central


orida


Community


College


Ocala


, Florida,


there


have


been


various


attempts


provide


educational


opportuni tie


academically


deficient


student


through


remediation


ince


the middle


ixties.


new department


was establi


to offer courses


various


It was


scipline


ignated as


student


Education


were academically


was not


defi


remedial


lent.


program.


It offered


five


three


semester


hour college


level


academic


courses


for fully


transferable credit.


program


used


variety


approa


including mastery


learning,


criterion


reference


, non-punitive grading


small


nstructor-


student


ratio,


emphasis


interpersonal


contact and


communi


ation


tutoring.


1974


special


ervi


grant


was awarded


to the


college and


specifically


to the


Education


Department.


ince


then


that


department


expanded


serves


nearly


thou


student


year


A complete


scription


of the


program


included


Appendi


With


support


admini


station


program has


expanded


clientele


include


anyone


can be


expected


to have


or has








returning adult


included with


those who


finan


ially,


cul-


turally


socially


or academically


disadvantaged


or handicapped.


services


utili


these


group


may vary


they


are all


same Ba


Education/


special


services


asses.


effect,


they


have


been


labeled


as Ba


Education/


special


service


student


evident


that


format


not the


usual


remedial


"bone- head"


program and


moving


further from that


tereotype with


continued


expans


. What


unclear


, however


is whether


other


faculty


on the


Central


Florida


campus


recogni


those


tinction


as they


relate


student


ince


inception,


Education/


special


Servi


program


drawn


great


criticism


come


from other


department


chairmen


and may well


politically motivated.


Some


the most


vocal


ritic


have


been


other


acuity members.


Most


criticism


seems


aimed at


educational


philosophy


theory


program and


method


while


some


seem


question


social


-political


theory


and application


equal


opportunity programs.


Stati


tically


program appear


success


The graduation


rate


for the


"high


students


through at


courses


program


equal


to or greater


than


rate


regular


students,


according


long


term


retention


tudy


carried on


program


impson,


1976)


Other


findings,


an unpubli


tudy


Coun


eling


Department of


Central


Florida


Community


College


(Weaver


, 1976),








also


unclear whether


faculty


campus


understand


what


Basi


Education/


special


Servi


program


about


whether any


criticism of


program may


affec


ting


students


are involved


Purpose


purpo


e of


tudy


to determine whether


knowledge of


students


being


Education/


special


ervi


students


related


instructors


' inf


erences


about


students


self-concept


Additionally


variables


race


sex will


examined


whether


they


contribute


variance


perception


instructors.


ignifi


chance


present


tudy will


ermine


whether


knowledge


student


being


labeled as


Education/


special


related


instructor'


perception of


student


s sel


-concept


and,


perception


whether


related


a po


itive


or negative


inferred


elf-concept,


whether


race


significant


factor


in the


perception


reported


instruc-


, (3)


whether


sex i


significant


factor


in perception


whether a


ombi nation


these


factor


significant


perception


held


by the


faculty


whether


further


tudy of


labeling of


student


as Basi


Education/


service


indicated.


particularly


important


to know whether


label,


Basic


Education/


special


services


contributing


negative


perceptions


their


since


required


students


hours


with


must


complete


instructor


othe


more t

r than


han


percent


Basi


w


:


v --








Additionally,


will


significant


because


emphasis


on higher


education.


the next


chapter


Review of


Literature,


will


indicate,


most


tudi


teacher


perceptions


have


been


done


elementary


secondary


level


. As


pressures


continue


to mount on


higher


education


equal


opportunity


education,


tudy


should


contribute


to a


better


under


standing


how to


make


those


programs


more


effective and whether what


goes


on i


elementary


secondary


level


similar


to what


goes


on at


college


level














CHAPTER


REVIEW


LITERATURE


Introduction


concept


that


one person


belief


affect


or be


related


to the


behavior of


another


person


certainly


new or


startling.


Folk


popular


literature


such as


Pygmalion


later drama-


tized as


Fair


Lady


or the ageless


Wizard of


exhal ted


power of


expectation


-fulfilling


prophecy


Although


human


behavior


an extremely


complex


subject


, there


seem


be a


great


deal


agreement


that


human


behavior


product


individual


interaction


with


environment.


particularly


significant


part


that


environment


other


people


their


behavior.


Numerou


constructs


label


have


been


developed


cate-


gori


ystemati


that


behavior


constructs


as c


culture,


social


structure,


social


organization,


social


system,


social


sti tuti on


etc.


are used


convey meaning


about


that


behavior


"Values


" is


or arranging


construct


behavior


into


which


used


category


express


under


tood a


priority


good or


bad or


even


irable


or undes


irable


individual


or group.


Exactly


how thpse


va~s 11


* r


dpvpl npd


nnt tntallv


anRt\Psd


"rn~n


.m,








social


scienti


or psychologist


tudi


human


behavior


nearly


imposs


ible


noti


vast


range of


interpre-


station


environment and


behavior


among


and within


cul tures


or even


individual


these


Lives.


particular


importance


compounding


variable


known as


perception.


seemingly


apparent


factor


been


seen


as s


nificant


ceptual


contend


enough


to give


ychol ogy,


that


whole


i included


world


label


explored


branch of


human


understood


ychology


psychology


terms


perceived


each


individual


Relating


perception


behavior,


Comb


states,


"All


behavior,


without


exception,


function of


behaver


perceptual


field at


instant


behaving.


He goes


on to


assert


Vt:


behavior


function


perception,


follows


that


to understand


behavior


will


be nece


sary


tudy


factor


influencing


perception in the


individual


(Avila


Comb


Purkey,


1971


118).


education,


-theori


Purkey


contends


significant


student'


others


conception


eval uate


academy


student


dire


ability


tly affect


turn


establi


limits


on h


success


school


. Teachers,


their


capacity


significant


others,


need


view


student


essentially


itive


ways


hol d


favorable


expectations"


(Purkey


1970


47).


senthal


Jacobson


(1968)


brought


intere


teacher


effects


on students


new height


when


they


publ i


Pygmalion


"The








numerous


tudi


to be


reviewed


following


pages,


have examined


stion.


important


hotomy


developed


field


need


to be elaborated


on because


application


research


at hand.


Jerome


tinction


. Dusek


between


(1975),


researcher


"teacher bias"


"teacher


field,


expectancy


make


usek


tate


"'teacher


' will


refer


significant


effects


teacher


' differential


expectations


student


' performance


case where expectan


have


been


induced


a principal


inves-


tigator


That


teacher


refers


manipulation


teacher


expectan


cies


principal


investigator


continues


with,


"The


term


'teacher expectancy


will


refer to


significant


effect


to the


teachers


' own


-generated


expectation


guarding


students


performance.


case


teachers'


own expectancy,


formed


however


teachers


form


related


students


' performance"


, 1975,


679)


Duse


(1973


, 1975)


Connell


usek


and Wheel


(1974),


Finn


(197


Brandt


and Hayden


(1974)


Cody


(1971),


(1973)


various


others


contend


that mixed


finding


tudie


particularly


those


intending


repl i


cate


enthal


Jacobson,


have


resulted


from a


confu


hese


tinction


The main


purpose


sertation


tudy


relation-


between


knowledge


program


label


teac


hers


' percep-


tion


student


so labeled.


basically,


an attempt


to deter-








literature


dealing


with


"tea


expectancy"


will


be covered


first.

Some "


literature on


teacher bia


" studied


related


will


"teacher


useful


" will


discussing


follow.

"teacher


expectancy"


and may


covered


there.


Teacher


Expectancies


Where


They


Come


From


Program


Label,


Ability Grouping,


or Perceived Ability


Although


no article


dealing with


expectancies


concerning


com-


pensatory


programs


higher


education were


found,


related areas


are presented


here


Hankinson


expectancie


(1970)


found


significant


students in Title


difference

non-Title


teacher


school


suggest


that


type


label


have


affected expectancie


because of


economic


composition


school


implici t


label


Finn


(197


could not


any main


effect


based on


in a


"teacher bia


" experiment.


appear


that


urban


teachers


tended


rate

low


equivalent


students.


writing

After


sample


higher for


reviewing


high


related


student


studied


than


Finn


made a


tinction


similar


Dusek


(1975)


concerning


natural


versus


induced


tudie


concluded


that


teachers


hol d


differ-


ential


expectation


for achievement,


that


these


expectations


evaluation


that


the most


influential


factor


affecting


those


perception


was the


perceived


ability


level


student


felt


that


was questionable whether manipulation,


particularly


based


on a


inale


test


score.


rru. '-LaL


a


ible.


v --- --








their expectation


development


their


students


ignifi-


cant


relationship


was establi


between


expec


station


achieve-


ment and


variab


accounting for variance


expectancy


scores


could not a


curately


establi


hed.


oshida


and Meyer


(1975)


found


no s


significant


difference


expectancy when


regular and


assroom teacher


were asked


rate


cofic


student


luded,


randomly


"The


labeled


result


as either


study


or regular


support


They


argument


labeling


perspective


call


into


tion


theoretical


framework


expectancy within


label


not differentially


the context


tudy"


affect


hida


teacher


Meyer


1975


. 535)


Foster,


learning


chmidt


abilitie


abatino


found


(1976)


exactly


related


oppo


area


hida


Meyers


(1975)


Two


group


elementary


teacher


were


hown


video-


tape of


control


boy wa


normal


group


normal


fourth


grade


was told,


engaged


prior


experimental


various


wing


group


tape


was told


activity


, that


that


learning


abled.


experimental


group


rated


boy more


negatively


<.001)


than


control


group


on referral


forms


filled out


after viewing.


They


concluded


that


, "The


data


obtained


study


strongly


suggest


that


label


learning


abl ed


generates


negative


on the


part


classroom


teacher


bias


efficient


to alter


tea c


ervation


actual


child


behavior"







Brandt


Hayden


(1974)


wanted


to attempt


pure


experimental


tudy


teacher


computer


They


responded


atti tude

imulated

d to the


expectancie


student


imaginary


on the


student


so they


computer


turned


to t


volunteer


volunteers


not know that


student


were


imaginary


were


fact,


given


vari ous


academic


data


on the


student.


results


suggested


that


hers


' attitudes and


expe


station


were more


influenced


actual


performance


Williams


(1975)


than


ascribed academic


tudied


sixteen


character


thousand male


istic


female


student


began


school


Toronto


1959.


found


that


ingle most


important


source of


teacher expectation was


school'


certification


students


' aptitude


ability


grouping


, even


when


students


' past


performance,


current


ambition


academic


aptitude were


held


constant.


Persell


(1976)


found


that most


tudie


tracking


that


have


been


done


United


states


have


tudied


effect


teacher expectations.


Flowers


(1966)


chrank


(1968,


1970)


sent


some


interest-


data


on per


ability


using


essentially


"teacher


hniques.


Flowers


(1966)


hifted


two experimental


group


seventh


grade


student


higher


ability


sections


than


their


test


scores


warranted


without


student


or teacher


know edge


control


group


matched on


achievement,


were


shifted.


ased on


teacher


answered que


tionnaires,


Flower


inferred


from


result


that


-- -







motivate


reputedly


higher


ability


students more


than


comparable


control


group


Schrank


(1968)


experiment


particularly


significant


because


dealt


with


college


level


instructors.


randomly


assigned one


hundred enli


ted airmen


at the


Uni ted


states


Force


Preparatory


school


to five


instructional


sections.


Instru


actors


were


told


that


sections


were


homogeneously


grouped


ability.


significant


differences


were


found when


section


grades


were


compared


"higher


group


" received


higher


grade


chrank


instructors


(1970)


knew


to ability.


replicated


that


that


study


student


tudy


no s


except


been


significant


that


time


grouped


difference


according


could


found


grade


section


Schrank


1970)


point


that


expectancy i


were


measured


were


only


inferred


feel


that


the most


that


can b


claimed


that


tracking


might


critical


influence on


teacher expectancie


that


further


tudy


needed


Persell


(1976)


noted


that


tudie


tracking


ability


grouping


that


have


addressed


tion


expectancy


eemed


concur with


F1 owers


(1966)


chrank


(1968


, 1970)


that


ability


grouping


appear


affect


teacher


perception and


pectation.


Cornbl eth


effect


Davi


teacher


Button


expectancy


(1974)


based


addressed


the question


on perceived ability.


he a








so that


they


were


unaware


tudy.


results


were


that


students


rated a


low were


given


significantly


fewer opportunities


respond and


interact.


students


rated


as high


received


significantly


more


di rect


question


even


lower


level


Bloom


Taxonomy


Also


students


rated


"low"


there was


decreasing amount


feedback


pupil


created


interactions.


Cornbleth


, Davi


and Button


concluded


that


teacher


expectation


resultant


havior may


be mitigated


actual


ssroom


experience.


Brandt


and Hayden


(1974)


found


ssroom


experience


more


influential


houl d


noted


that


their


tudy


dealt


with


inve


tigator generated


character


similar


"teacher


paradigm)


where


Cornbleth


(1974)


was dealing with


teacher


rated


haracteri


"teacher


expectancy


usek


(1973)


conducted


one and


half


year


experimental


longitudinal


study


"teacher


" and


"teacher


expectancy"


ects


on the


Stanford Achievement


Test


performance


children


second


grade


fourth


grade


ssrooms


found


no "bia


effects


. input


information


no effect


on teacher


expectation or


hers


student


were good


rformance.


predictor


However


academic


included


potential


that


teacher


expectation


were


based


on relevant


academic


criteria.


O'Connell


usek


and Wheel


(1974)


continued


original


study


their


finding


were


similar.


Guskin


(1970)


summari


their work


feelings








directly observabi


relevant


cues


are present


" (Guskin


uskin,


Teacher


1970,


Expectancie


Rowell


(1971)


attempted


tingui


attitudinal


expec-


tancy


difference


instructors


based


on s


students


' sex but


could


not reach


ignifi


cant


level


Finn


(197


tudy


find


differential


expectation


white


female


and male


no sex d


tinction


black


However,


those


distinction


seemed


to be


interrelated with


teacher


character


either


urban


or s


suburban.


Veldman


Brophy


(1974)


found


that


pupil


sex was not


factor


teacher predictions


test


scores,


.e.


was not


factor


teacher expectations


test


tudy


achievement


gains


on a


tandardi


zed achievement


second


third


graders.


Chang


between


(1975)


-concept,


correlational


academic


tudy


f the


achievement,


relationship


teachers


' ratings


children


-concept of one


hundred


ninety


seven


pupil


from


fourth,


fifth and


ixth


grades.


relationships


could


tingui


on the


student


' sex.


However


manipulated


Aron

student


(1975)


"teacher bia


' ethnicity,


sex,


tudy


and ability


in which


found


nificant


interaction


between


sex o


student and


teacher


expectations.


Van Al


(1973)


had attempted a


"teacher


s" study


but was


unable


establi


significant


relation


hips


between


student








study


Williams


(1975)


reported


earlier


find


student


sex to


related


to teacher expectations.


Teacher Expectancies


Race


Deit


Purkey


(1969)


studied


one hundred


forty


seven


white


graduate


student


College of


Education


the University


Florida.


graduate


students


been


employed


as cla


ssroom


teachers


within the previous


year


A hypothetical


dole


scent


boy wa


desc


ribed


n a


paragraph


including economic


family


back-


ground,


likes


like


previous


yea r'


cipline


records.


experimental


paragraph was


identi


except


incl uded


descriptor


"Negro


Either


an experimental


or a


control


paragraph


was d


tribute


randomly


each of


subjects


were


asked


read


paragraph


estimate


future


academic


performance


using


seven


point


scale


difference


between means


was not


significant


at the


level


They


concl uded


that


race was


factor


expectancy


Roeber


(1970)


completed a


similar


tudy


on thirty


female


ele-


mentary


school


personnel


from


Detroit area.


That


tudy


found


that


race was


significant


when


other


information


available,


e.g.,


test


scores


record


achievement


or comments


former


teachers.


contra


those


tudie


was one b


Buford


(1973)


. Fifteen


third


fourth


grade


teachers


in Title


school


a central


Texas


city were


asked


indicate expe


cted


student achievement.


was a








showed


significant


difference


expectation


based


on race.


teachers


expected


greater


achievement


from whites


than


was warranted


iy obj


ective


predictors


significantly


under-expected


for Mexicans


Pugh


(1974)


found


race


significantly


related


to evaluations


tape-


recording


junior


high


school


student


reading


same


brief


passage


tudy


conducted


Dade


County


Florida


results


indicated


that whites


were


favored


over


cks.


Blacks


were perceived as


white were


more


favored


than


whites


who were


per-


ceived


as bl a


tudy


Chang


(1975)


mentioned


previously,


seemed


indicate


that


teachers


were


coming


into


classroom with


differing


receptions


the child


-concept


those


differences


were


significant


on the


race.


Persell


s (1976)


review of


related


research


found


that


preponderance


tudie


indicated


that


race


influence


teacher


expectations.


While


there


nb c


lear-cut


deci


on whether


race


influence


the expectation


teachers,


there


enough


evidence


to make


such


relation


plau


Teacher


Expectancie


Socioeconomic


tatus


(1970)


presented


longitudinal


tudy


, following


ingle


group


of bla


students


began


kind


ergarten


1967


They


were


followed


served


through


second


grade.


. The








parent


name


, address,


phone


number,


ting


pre-school


experience


second


source was


upplied


school


social


worker of


students


lived


in homes


rece


giving


welfare


funds.


third


source was


interview


with


the mother and child.


fourth


ource of


information


was personal


experience


experience


other


teachers


with


older


ibling


None of


sources


was directly


related


academic


potential.


With


that


information


eight


days


observation


interaction


teacher


assigned


students


to three


groups


high,


medium and


found


four


dimen


ions


upon


which


kindergarten


teacher


based


her grouping


them


physical


appearance


interaction


behavior with


teacher


among


students


, (3)


use of


language


, (4)


social


background


that


the overwhelming


value was


middle e


lass


ease of


interaction with


adults,


high


degree


verbal


ation


standard


Engli


, ability


become


leader,


neat and


lean,


well


educated family,


employed and


living


together


interested


hild,


and ability


part


ipate


as a group member


Rist


concl uded


that


placement


children


then


appeared


to result


from


their


sess


or lacking


certain


ired


cultural


harac-


teristic


ceived


as important


uch grouping


an extent


carried on


that


through


commented,


firs t


"The


second


hild


journey


grade


through


early


grade


school


read


level


one social








non-Title


school


suggesting


that


knowledge of


economic


compo-


ition


school


could


affect


expectation


Jose


Jacobson


difference


Cody


(1968)


among


(1971)


tudy


attempted


were


variable


replication


unable


explanation


enthal


significant


offered


several


subject


was that


they


knew


children


their


background


therefore


knew what


child


could


expe


to do.


Persell


(1976)


reported


that


seven


tudie


dealing with


expectancy


socioeconomic


status


examined,


four


showed a


itive


relationship,


three


could


demon


state


no relationship


at all


Teacher


Al though


sent


research


not actually


"teacher


tudy,


those


tudie


have


been


influential


development


research.


literature


that


area


serve


to illuninate


what


currently


being


undertaken


"teacher expectancy"


area


tinct


group


"teacher bia


tudi


appear in


literature.


group


uses


tutoring


situation


for their


context


tudy while


othergroup


uses


situations.


Within


n-cl


tudie


two d


tinct


group


appear.


uses


"academic


blooming"


as pioneered


Rosenthal


bson


(1968),


while


other group


uses


sification


test


scores


or track


assign-


men ts.

Tutoring








both


teach


differently


to teach


different


amounts


children


depend


on their


regarding


child'


ability.


Rubovits


and Maehr


(1971)


tudied whether


tutors


differed


amount


attention


given


student


with


differing


ascribed


haracteri


tics.


label


"gifted"


non-gifted"


produced


no s


significant


produce


each


differences


different


the group


amount


pattern


More ques


attention


attention and


tion


prai


prai


given,


given


were


did

children


directed


toward


"gifted"


children.


replication


, Rubovits


Maehr


(1973)


found


similar


However,


white


students


receive more


attention


than


black


that


study.


Rothbart


, Dalfen,


Barrett


(1971)


done


similar


tudy


with


similar


results.


Al though


these


tudi


seem


to indicate


differential


treatment


based on


Beez


ascribed


(1968)


characteristic c


no difference


must


learning


noted


could


that,


tingui


except


hed when-


ever


learning was


assess


(1975)


suggest


that


finding


might


repre


merely


an attempt


tutor


to provide


optimal


learning


atmo


pheres


children with


differing


teaching


need


Class


situation


"Academic


blooming


enthal


and Jacobson


(1968)


randomly


chose


approximately


percent


children


eighteen


elementary








bloomers.


approximate


Acros


four


classrooms


point


year-end


advantage


retest


experimental


showed


group.


first


second


grade


the experimental


group


gained


as much


fi fteen


point


over


control


group


senthal


Jacobson


concluded


that


experimental group


showed


higher


gain


because


higher expectancies


teachers.


However


evere methodological


criticism


, particularly


Thorn-


dike


(1968,


1969)


and Jen


(1969)


question


regre


ssion


Claiborn


(1969)


have


haunted


tudy


Claiborn


(1969)


attempted


repli


cate


Rosenthal


and Jacobson


tudy


could


not produce


signifi


difference


gains.


Anderson


senthal


(1968)


investigated


"teacher bia


" with


retarded


boys


daycamp


. The


only


significant


change was


decrease


experimental


group.


Conn,

Rosenthal


Edwards


and Jacobson


, Rosenthal,


(1968)


and

and


Crown

found


(1968)


no s


attempted to


significant


replicate


changes.


senthal


Baratz


Hall


(1974)


attempted


replication


original


tudy


Only


using


fifth


grades


grade


one through


did the


experimental


an all

group s


black


;core


school.


significantly


higher than


claimed


control


group.


, no explanation was


Although


offered


"teacher


as to why


" effect


only


fifth


were


grade


showed


effect.


e and


Cody


(1971)


attempted


a replication of


Rosenthal


and Jacobson


1968)


would


produce


no s


significant


results.








and actual


student


achievement.


manipulation


section


tudy


could


produce


no s


ignifi


cant


change


, however,


teacher


ranking


strongly


related


actual


performance


They


concluded


that


teachers


not bias


student


performance


were


good predictors


student


academic


potential


"Teacher


tudi


, using


idea


academic


blooming


have


generally


failed


reply i


cate


and/or


tantiate


the original


finding


enthal


Jacobson


(1968).


ation


scores


~I0. or track assignment.
-a


Flower


(1966)


study,


prese


nted


earlier,


eemed


indicate


that


shifting


experimental


groups


higher


than


warranted


track


did affect


teachers


' expectation


. I


test


performance wa


ignifi


antly


different


, and achievement


test


scores


were


significantly


higher


experimental


group


in only


one of


school


Schrank


difference


tudie


when


(1968


tracking


, 1970),


assignment


significant


were


grade


manipulated.


tudy


used adult


students


instructors


one possible


explanation


might


that


teachers


' perception


expectancy


are more


affected


biased when


track


assignments


appear to


based


tantial


torical


data.


Fleming


Anttonen


(1971)


attempted


various


manipulations


scores


second


grader


including


not providing


them.


results


indicated


no "tea


her bia


" effects


on S


tanford


Achievement


Test


performance


-concept,


or school


grades.


IO,


or track


assia nment.


w










fact


that


teachers


hold


differential


expectation


ed on


various


factors


seems


well


establi


hed.


Whether


teacher


turn,


bias


learning of


student


known.


states


well,


the extent


are b


ased


abiliti
cation.


the s
style
if th


on so
, then
Rather


student


hat t
und,
the
. the


differences


ese


irrelevant


some


expectancies


t (1970
students


interest
to their


upon


to academic


), then
to be
school a


poorly


doing


present,
which t


performance
achievement


1975


. 680)


further


hers
the
the


teacher


objective


teachers


self-generated
data regarding
s not biasing s
' differential


assroom may


student


are based


success


treated


teachers


related


terms


research


form


their


relation
academic


with


reflect


expec


tanci


student
students'
behavior


effective


differing


on impressions


as is


sugge


Expectancies


manner


activities


aimed


academic


expectancie
p of these


situation


that


and may


needs.


edu-
toward


teaching
However


or information


by the work
may cause
bias their


contribute


achievement


determining


bases


are needed.


student


ases


student


The present


tudy


an attempt


to examine


p055


ible


bases


expectation


involved with


or perception


compensatory


held


y professors


education


program at


college

Central


student


Florida


Community


College


Ocala


Florida.


chapter


contained


repre


tentative


samples


kinds


work


that


have


been


attempted


field


tudy.


A more


exhaustive


bibliography


ting of


entitled


sources


"Additional


included

Sources


in th


second

Areas


part


of Teachers


receptions


Expectations














CHAPTER

HYPOTHE


doubtful


that


educator would


knowingly


establish


program,


procedure


or practice


that


would d


lead


instructor


lower


their


perception


student


-concept.


Unless


we po


tulate


some malicious


or s


ster


purpose


on the


part


those who


have


created and


implemented


equal


opportunity


programs,


we must


believe


that


they were


then


and are


well


-intended


persons.


literature,


as reported


previous


chapter,


indi


ates


that


there


is some


question


as to whether the


"labeling"


students


related


to the


teachers


subsequent


those


perception


students.


tudie


or expectation


addressing


held


labeling


"high


college


student


coul d


found.


There were


no s


specific


data


from other


researcher


studi


found make


plau


ible


that


labeling


assoc


iated with


ability g

suspicion


rouping may


that


have


knowledge


an effect


student


on teacher


expectancy


involvement


. The

program


at Central


their


Florida

equent p


Community


professors


College


become


may

even


affect


expectancy


stronger when


coupled with


turmoil


controversy whi


have


surrounded


Basic


Education/


special


services


Program.








equal


or greater


than


rate


regular


students.


That


information


been widely


disseminated


on the


Central


Florida


campu


could


have


effect


making


program part


ipants


appear more


Therefore,


likely


succeed


their program


label


because


could


being


generate


program.


positive expectation


on the


part


their


sequent


professors.


null


form of


hypothe


was used


to reduce


possi-


ability


error because


previous


data


clearer


indications


what


could


reasonably


expe


ted.


primary


empha-


tudy


was the


program


label,


Education/Special


ervi


variables


race


sex were


examined


Race


sex are


overlooked


both di


as poss


puted


ible


factors


sources


concerning


variance


expectancy


cannot


expectations.


This


true


only


as individual


factors


particularly


various


combination


order


to better


under


tand


problem


following


hypoth-


eses


will


tested


There will


scores


no s


on modified


significant


difference


Florida


cale


between


to Infer


the mean


Learner


-Concept


form


completed


nstru


actors


have


those who


have


expli


knowledge


student


being

There


labeled


will


as a


Education/Spe


no significant


difference


Services


between mean


student.

scores


on modified


Florida


black


and white


students.








There will


no significant


difference


between


mean


scores


on modified


Florida


Keys


group


combination


Basic


Education/Special


Services


label,


race,


and/or


sex.














CHAPTER


Introduction


that


was used


cribed


Campbel 1


Stanley


Experimental


Quasi-Experimental


Research


(1963)


"Postte


- Only


Control


Group


Design"


(Campbell


tanley,


1963


They


consider


true


experimental


design


symbol i


as follows:


According


Campbel 1


tanley,


"While


pretest


concept


deeply


embedded


thinking


research worker


education


chology,


actually


esse


ntial


to true


experimental


design


"Furthermor

frequently


" they


experiment


educational


with methods


for the


research

initial


. we must

introduction


entirely


new s


subject


matter


for which


protests


in t


ordinary


sense


are imposs


ible


" (Campbell


tanley,


1963


current


tudy


group


each


consi


sted


sixteen


faculty member


Central


Florida


Community


College


Ocala,


Florida.


or treat-


ment


was the


informing


an i


nstru


ctor


that


particular


student


* *


fact


, --v I *


Education/


,J


Decial


Service


-3 -


student.


Ilkr IA -


.








Sampling


instructor was


placed


into


an available


pool


computerized


student


distribution


anal


revealed


that


instructor


had at


least


one white male


student


one white


female


student,


one black male


student and one


black


female


student


who wa


currently


or previously


Education/Special


rvices


student


or her


sections.


Students


were


defined


as Basic


Education/Special


ervi


they were


currently


ation/Special


or previous


service


courses


enrolled


or more


faculty


Education/


special


rvices


department


were


eligible


included


pool.


groups


ixteen


instructors


were


randomly


selected


from


pool


One was


randomly


selected as


experimental


group


students


for whom the


instructor completed


Florida


Key were


hosen


following manner


computerized


student


tri bution


analy


four


groups


students


black male


back


female,


white male,


white


femal


were


identified


each


instructor


previously


stated,


only


those


instru


with


at least


one Ba


Education/


special


rvice


student


each


those


groups


was i


cluded


pool


available


subjects.


a part


ular


instructor


was selected


then


one s


student


from each


category was


randomly


selected


to have


Florida


completed


on him or


There


were


always equal


numbers


student


subjects


selected


each


categories


instructors


selected were


asked


to complete


equal


numbers


Florida


forms.








Variable


Control


variables


race


sex were


naturalistically


defined


and any


interactions


were


examined


controlled


stati


tically


Knowledge


whether


student


was a Ba


Education/


special


Servi


student


was more


difficult


control


experimental


group


(tho


e who


explicit


know edge)


was not


problem.


They were


explicitly


informed


student


label


on the


Florida


form.


control


group,


on the


other


hand,


was assumed


not to


have


know-


ledge


student


label


as Bas


Education/


special


ervi ces


control


that assumption


following


question


appeared


on the


control


group


form of


Florida


: "To


your


immediate


knowledge,


student


ever


taken


a Ba


Education/


services


course


know ."


Those


student


subjects


whose


structors


in t


control


group


indicated


" they


knew that


student


taken


a Basic


Education/


special


Service


course,


were


dropped


from


that


sample.


could


a source


error


an i


instructor


did not


accurate


report


know edge


concerning


that


student


attendance


Education/


special


services


class


was assumed


that


instructors


were


truthful


possible


that


responses


might


have


been


contaminated


fact


that


Basic


Education/


special


services


faculty member


was conducting


study


since


Basi


Education/


Servi


frequently


involved


on-campu


political


struggle


That


type


0








being


done


as a


doctoral


dissertation


from what


area


campu


and who


author was


pecifi


remained,


purpose


least


tudy


temporarily,


was not


stated


unknown.


A general


statement


that


inferred


self-concept


students


being


studied


included.


Anyone who


cons


idered


deliberately


sing


their


response


one way


or the


other


should not


have


known


which


recognized


that


having


Academi c


Dean


office


tribute


collect


data


could


have,


itself,


contaminated


respond


ses.


was seen


as the


lesser


poss


ible


evils.


Validity


Internal


Validity


According


to Campbell


tanley,


sign


very


good


internal


validity.


Internal


validity


utmost


importance


because of


need


to verify


that


what


seems


to be


happening


most


likely


actually


happening


since


tudy


focu


ing on


particular


problem


that


in a


particular


because


titution.

original


It may

nstruc


argued


tor pool


however,


was obtained


effect


that might


have


been


covered are only


generalizable


instructors


That


hare


probab


Education/


cha racteri


significant


ecial


services


with


because


students


those


instructors


in their


pool


not have


sses


unlikely


that


perceptions


or behaviors


those


instructors


will


have


SUI


direct


effect


on Bas


Education/


Soecial Se


rvice


-2


-


students


t


I








External


Validity


According


to Campbell


tanley,


threats


to external


validity


are at best


controlled


at worst


are only


possible


sources


mainly


concern.


lack


Interaction


a pretest.


testing


Interaction


treatment


selection


controlled


treat-


ment


poss


ible


source


concern


should


controlled


through


sampling and


ible


to external


tati


sources


tical


analy


concern


validity for


Reactive arrangement


are probably


tudy


hand.


great


Whether


are consid


threat


instructors


will


react


being


part


study


difficult


to predict


or determine.


The entire


stion


external


validity


probably


uperfluou


innumerable


variable


which


have


come


together


to produce


situation


at Central


Florida


Communi ty


College are


unlikely


found


anywhere


situation


intents


pur-


poses


unique.


general i


ation


other


situations


would be


very


rough appro


imation


finding


from


tudy


houl d


viewed


merely


as guide


to research at


other


ti tuti ons


perhaps as


a "yardsti


by which


compare


results


from


that


research.














CHAPTER


TRUMENTATION


Florida


cal e


Infer


Learner


-Concept


instrument


used


tudy


to measure


teacher


perceptions


was a


modified


version


Florida


to Infer


Learner


-Concept.


herein


referred


to as


Florida


Key.


Florida


began


originally


as the


Combs


Soper


cale


Inferring


-Concept


(Comb


, Soper


Courson,


1963)


That


instrument


was developed


out of


Combs


' recognition


that


-reports


-concept


were


only what


subject


willing


able


someone


necess


arily


what


individual


truly


believed


about


himse


Combs


believed


that


inferences


tra i ned


profess


ional


based


on o


servati on


would


be more


accurate


repre


entations


-concept


Purkey public


a modification


Comb


Soper


Scale


Inferring


-Concept


n 1968


(Purkey,


1968)


Purkey,


Cage


Graves


public


shed The Florida


cale


Infer


Learner


-Concept


1973


(Purkey


, Cage


and Graves,


1973)


Validity


Reliability


Construct


validity


was establ i


stati


tically


Concurrent








Reliability was


established


both


through


an analysis


variance


procedure


several


respondents


tudy


determining


efficient


reliability


employing


plit


-halve


procedure


respondent


that


same


tudy


. An


index


reliability


was obtained


through


the analy


f variance


procedure


Coefficient


reliability


using


plit-


halves


procedure


ranged


from


plit-


halve


estimate


reliability


total


score


across


teacher


sons


Florida


used


infer


learner


-concept


What


actually mea


sures


, according


personal


correspondence with


Purkey,


teacher


perception.


That


, it


no more


than


reflec-


tion


structor


behaviors.


evaluation


research


being


particular


undertaken


student


here


haracteri


preci


tics


that,


teacher


perceptions.


One of


particularly


valuable


aspects


using


this


cale,


as 1


tudy,


that


focu


instructor completing


form


on the


student


rather


than


on him or


should


tend


to minimize


danger


inherent


in what


essentially


report


perceptions.


There


various


reasons


for u


scale


other


than


"blind"


effect and establi


validity


reliability


readily


available,


inexpensive,


easy


to under


tand,


quickly


completed


copyri hted.


e.








Modification


original


orida


Key was


signed


el ementary


secondary


school


some


the word


phrases


were


inappropriate


college


level


assroom


use of


scale


with


comments


from


tructors


completing


forms


indicated a


need


space


to mark


"not applicabi


or unknown.


" Without


such


response


available


some


instructor


ft a


blank


pace while


others


indi


cate


score


zero.


use of


zero


score


indicates


teacher


knowledge


that


particular


behavior never oc


curs.


responses


alwa


accurately


reflect


what wa


intended


in those


cases.


original


form


information


on race and


sex i


not i


prominent


position


there


no place


indicate


special


infor


nation


such


as the


program


label


being


tudied


here


It was


determined


that


separate


forms


for each


group would


more


ective


than


attempting


use the


same


form with


different


cover


sheet


or s


supplement


because


differ


information


needed


from


control


experimental


groups.


The modifi

substantially a


action


i1ter


made


are not believed


i information


gathered


significantly


are expected


to increase


accuracy


under


standing


both


person


completing


form and


researcher.


Scoring


Florida


scored


simply


adding


responses


entered


for ea


I


oiuetinn


Rnth


a raw crnr


rill fl


mo;In


C mm~


.
.


V-


L.


.








perception


itive


instructor


self-concept


therefore


student


higher


learner)


or more


inferred


to be.


lower


raw or mean


scores


are,


then


lower or


positive


are the


instructor


perceptions


inferred


self


-concept.


A mean


means


Florida


Keys


completed


an instructor


will


calculated


used


assign


numerical


value


ceptions


tructors.


Mean


scores


will


used when


students


are the


unit of


analysis


original


form,


control


form,


experimental


form


are presented


in Appendix













CHAPTER


DATA


COLLECTION


Procedure


The Academic


Dean


office


was requested


subsequently


agreed


to admini


ster


the collection fthe


data


in an attempt


to increase


response


rate


reduce


poss


ible


reaction


to the


author'


position


at Central


Florida


Communi ty


College.


Each


instructor


included


tudy


received


package


material


through


campus mail


.The


package


contained


following


items


A letter


from the


Dean


explaining


tudy


providing


direction


completing


forms,


detailing


expected


time


return.


modified


Florida


form


each


student


subject


be evaluated


instru


copy


letter from


Dean


Appendi


package


were


distributed


through


campu


mail


and were


timed


to arrive


instructors


Mailboxes


on a


Monday morning


instruc-


tors


were


reque


return


them


Dean


office


Friday


cause


the minimal


time


needed


to complete


forms.


Those


nstruc-


tors


not respond


ly Thursday


received


a reminder


letter








overlap


student


among


instructors


because


a relatively


large


population


students


from which


sample.


was a


simple matter


matching


student


name


on the


completed


form with


master


instructors


student


participating


tudy.


the event


that


same


student


was s


elected


evaluated


instructor


small


blue


appeared on


back


Florida


form


lower


left


hand


corner


. A corresponding


appeared


next


to the


instructor


name on


the ma


ster


That


coding was


necessa


one instructor was


in the


experimental


group


and one


was in the


control


group.


difference


the modified


Florida


form


used


determine with


which


instructor that


student


belonged.


lack


name or code


should


have


helped


create


a feeling


anonymity which


should


have


increased


;y and willingness


participate.


houl d


have


further


served


to direct


structor


focu


towa rd


student


rather


than


on him or


herself


as he


or s


completed


form.


form


were


received


by Monday morning


following


Friday


tacted,


deadline,


ly telephone,


pecilaist


instructor


Academi


with


Dean


outstanding


office


forms


con-


requested


that


they


return


them as


quickly


as pos


form


were


returned


to the


Academic


Dean


offi


middle


second week


study.


They


were


then


turned


over


to the


author


analysis.














CHAPTER V

DATA ANALY


Response


Rate


A 100


percent


return


Florida


Key forms


was achieved.


However,


not all


form


returned were


usable.


depi


Table


instructors


control


group


indicated


they


knew


that


one or more


students


were


Education/


special


Services


students.


instructor


knew of


student


while


other


instructor


knew for


three


students.


Instructor


Were


Table


Control


Education/


instructors
II


Group
special


Who K
Serv i


:new the


tude


knowledge of


3 of


total
total


instructors


student


know edge


known..


student
nts


4..... ......1

4. ......... .0

. ............2
. ............4


scores


student


known


Education/


special


student


were


deleted


from


data


addition


ixteen


thirty-two


instructors


failed


complete


one or more of


orida


form


breakdown


y group


status


number completed


found


Table








Completion
Control a


Rate


Table 2
of Florida


Experimental


Group


Forms


Instructors


Control


epxE r i men ta l


The mo


commonly


reported


reason


for not


completing


forms


was that


student


either


dropped


earlier or


not attended


enough


for the


instructor


have


efficient


information


upon


which


to base


responses.


occurred


pite


student


ampling


popu-


lation


being


drawn


from the


Central


Florida


computer using


an indicator


currently


enrolled


those


courses.


Group


Composition


Table


indicate


number of


student


' Florida


scores


used


tudy


after


ubtracting


non-completed


forms


forms


students


control


group


whose


program


tatus


known


numbers


are broken


down


into


racial


sexual


characteristics.


Racial


exual


Group


Compo


Student


Table
ition


After Omi


Control


ssion


d Experimental
Deletions


Control


pxE er i mental


1. no. completing 4 of 4 7 8
2. 3 of 4 2 6
3. 2 of 4 6 2
4. 1 of 4 0
5. 0 of 4 0 0


1. whi te male 15 15
2. white female 10 12
3. black male 12
4. black female 11 15
5. total white 25 27
6. total black 22 27
7. total male 26 27
8. total female 21 27
9. total N 47 54


I









Racial


Table


exual


Experimental


Compos
Groups


ition


Control


instructor


vlr- c wV I -.- w.
1. white male 10 14
2. white female 4 1
3. black male 1 1
4. black female 1 0
5. total white 14 15
6. total black 2 1
7. total male 11 15
8. total female 5 1
9. total N 16 16


cores


scores


reported


instructor


both


group


presented


Table


The mean


score


each


student as


well


as a


mean


those mean


each


instructor


included.


Table


presents


student


' mean


scores


divided


race


sex and


group membership.


include


mean


, sum of


, sum


squared,


Table


sum of


compares


quares,and


instructors


standard


means


deviation


for the


each


control


group.


expert


mental


groups.


also


contains


total


group


mean


um of


sum of


squared,


um of


squares


standard


deviation


each


group.


Three


Analy


Variance


Originally


three way


analysis


variance


using


instructors


means


been


planned.


instructor


were


have


been


randomly


assigned


only


cell


within


three


paradigm of


program


label,


race


sex.


That


ign would


have made


each


cell


tinct


and wnil d


hlvU pnniali


r ~I E*-


infl ianro


nf 02rk 4


n raC ur tn i*


Cent ro 1


Fynprimpntal








an alternative


three-way


anal


of variance was


completed


using all


students


' mean


scores.


was executed


using


statistical


Package


for the


social


iences


(Nie


et al


., 1975)


computer


program


three-way


analysis


variance with


regression


solution.


regression


ol ution


was used


becau


se of


unequal


numbers


among


groups.


That


solution


recommended


unequal


number


limitation


clear


possible e


source


error


recognized


unequal


influence of in


structors


regression


solution


houl d


have minimi


error


cannot


cons


idered


totally


eliminated.


The only


ignifi


cant


value


achieved


was for main


effects


race.


was s


significant


. with


black


rated


lower


than


white


Main


effect


experimental


category


approached


significance


.057


important


to note


that


numeri


trend wa


higher


scores


when


instructors


knew explicitly


that


students


participated


mnBa


Education/


special


Services.


other main


effects,


-way


or three


-way


interactions


yielded


values


significant


level


result


entire


program are


presented


Table 8.





















oo0-
(0 tOr
'a-).


02
LflOO
0(Y)-[


Lnt~r-LOm
ainm c\Jl


Ocr,
* '0


cn
-



300
zu.r
4-'0r


U)
a.


mc,

L r-



U's


S'C

SC1
ftX
C1


EL LE U-U- U-U- ULr ,EL L lLS
3~~~~~~t ncc 'aoi mmc r=r3mm~ aml
h r-.


Srr; S


S S S:


9- '4(t) u


0Cj0
WVD



v-a)


4),


0000
O *\O
UNGOU


ZZ: M


.OL)


r0-


LA N.t~F
~aO2ODO


aL u.S


'I


U-ZU-SL


* S *
- CMm <[U


U-EU-1

a

9-cJCV


S 1L. S
flwc9


9-




II II

E L-


r-CltiCr


4-Jo


l~






















4*O~cOkf


~r r-cO '
* ar


(\Ie--


r~unnr-
a a S a
en icro ne


r-o
CuJ'.o
(U) *


u-s u-s,
fla m fl


rC'Jmlf


a- ru-s 1 (
3 ~~ enP b 1 P
U, Q


rC'J 4*


In 4)
C J
- r
4)
WV'
0.4)Q
SWu


SJ
4)0
C:


in coOc-
*ff000
r- r 0 e


SO 0' '0
a Ssl


r~ai
er(cO
0 *N


0- I
zL)


tn '0
c mu)


a- ru- u- ru- s
fl~cflca N, flcrf N
Cs. C'

r~c~c; "*
a a a S.'- a a


u-ru-sL

a a~

r-CNflq


cc


II


0
U O
*8- u-
CE)


oJ ~e
4-lU


q


1L r 1C r
3 S PO fO




















tnctflro
Or-Qoo


Cc a, t
S (O


LA r 0 L
c'jt)Oor
S S~~c


'0 tO
~Cr-Cno
C-b) S


ILLZU..
flaCflL


u-S u 1 s
nw~co


rCNJltfld


r..C%


cYvtJ


Un00\
O5r


u-Eu-S Z


(0














000o L


f~lcnc


O tt
r~fl
0 .0


Eu-SI
xcoa


0o0
0 0 t3o


ncocn~


,-e'Jc~t*


F~n~ CM


SI























CM O ^


~numc'j
CJeJDo


nbC'Jn


cnnd


cc.-
"sac-


r- C"J C


r-coo
rc'Jcc
(-
ZMCfl'J


0000
0000
*a t


oo 'n
u1ODOn
.0
r-flC% JZ


0u~cX r
o c.irm


0)0
r-E


*l


cnn.


II II


LL a








Table 6


Students' Mean Scores as F
roup Membership with N, Me
um of Squares and Standard


actors


an, Sum of
Deviation


Race, Sex
X, Sum of
for Each


Group


erimental


Control


Males


Black
Females


= 12
= 3.4
= 41

= 14


.40
57.52
.69
15


= 15
= 3.07
,= 46.1


3.23
= 35.


= 127.57
= 12.48
= 1.12


= 2.41
-= 26.54


G
S








Table 6


- continued


Experimental


Control


white


Males


Females


= 15
= 3.73


= 56.03
= 217.87
= 8.58


= 12


= 3.69
= 44.31
2 = 174.95


= 11.33


=153.29
= 3.29


= 49.31
= 172.39
= 10.29
= .86


= 10
= 3.41
= 34.12
2 = 128.37
= 11.95








Instructo
GrouD
Sum of X


Table


rs' Means for Co
s, Including Gro
, Sum of Squares


ntrol
up Me
and


and Experimental
ans, Sum of X,
Standard Deviation









Resul t


Three


Table 8
Way Analy


of Variance


Race
Sex


Experimental


Category


Source


Main


-Way
R


of Variation


Effects


Interactions
S


Sum of
Squares


.025
.895
.918
.977


Mean


Square


4.008
5.895
1.918
3.977


0.879
2.523
0.034
0.120


ignif


.755
.523
.797
.726


0.823
2.363
0.032
0.112


0.014
0.021
0.183
0.057


0.484
0.128
0.858
0.738


3-Way Interactions 0.581 1 0.581 0.545 0.462
R S E 0.581 1 0.581 0.545 0.462

Explained 14.558 7 2.080 1.948 0.071

Residual 99.266 93 1.067

Total 113.823 100 1.138


cases


were


process













CHAPTER


VIII


INTERPRETATION


RECOMMENDATIONS


Interpretation


Data


AND CONCLUSIONS


Analysis


Hypothe


The data


gathered and analyzed


tudy


fail


to reject


hypothe


no difference


The difference


three-way


is toward an


based


did approach


analysis


on knowledge


significant


variance.


expectation


level


pectedly,


for higher


program


.057)


perhaps,


-concept


label


using


tendency


students


when


professors


know


that


students


, or have


been,


Education/


special


Service


students.


Development of


-concept


students


positive expecta-


tion


students


instructor


goal


Education/


special


services


program.


Poss


ible


explanations


positive


trend


need


cons


idered.


mentioned


earlier,


program


research,


indicating


that


retention


special


and graduation


student


rate


high


equivalent


Education/


rate


tradi-


tional


students


been


widely


disseminated


on the


Central


Florida


campus


ssible


that


instructors


have


assimilated and


tegrated


that


information


into


their


evaluation


process








poss


ible


that


when


experimental


group was


told


explicitly


that


student


were


Education/Special


services


student


already


those


success


instructors


fully


completed


have


assumed


number of


that


college


student


credits.


umption


previous


success


could


have


conceivably


those


instructors


respond more positively


(higher


scores


various


question


on the


Florida


Another explanation may


hinge


on i


instructor


experiences


with


student


they


knew


to be


Basic


Education/


special


services.


rhetoric


protests


about


program may


be more


olated


than


expected.


fact,


many


instructor


have


positive


past


experiences


are merely


reporting


expectations


based on


those experien


ces.


It must


remembered,


however,


that


only


trend was


indicated.


Follow-up


tudie


would


definitely


seem to


indicated.


It would


important


to know


variance


difference


increases


or decrease


ervi


with


student


time.


, using


tudy


same


non-Basic


instrument


Education/


would d


special


useful


comparing


scores


could


establi


that


Education/


special


Servi


label has


no particularly


negative


affects


on i


instructor


perception


then


perhaps


similar


tudy


using


random


labeling


both


Education/


special


ervi


non-Ba


Education/


special


service


students


.would


Id more


prec


vision


to the


analy








difference


was s


ignifi


cant


at the


level.


Blacks


were


rated


significant


lower


than


whites.


three-way


analy


variance


, using


regression


solution


, yielded


no interactions


between


or among


race,


ex and


program


label


specific


studies


race would


useful


in attempt-


determination


gene


variance


It may


that


variance


product


expectations


related


academically


irrelevant


socioeconomic


data


It may


however,


that


variance


reflection


profes


sors


' prediction


based


on experience


suggested by


(1975)


studies.


Additional


research might


include


an examination


lation


between


profes


sors


' inferred


-concept


student


subsequent


success


rates


student


e cl


asses


clear


from


present


data


whether


education


occurring,


nor was


that


an objective


research


Hypothe


Three


hypoth


no difference


based


on s


students


sex i


accepted.


There


eemed


little


or no


indication


variance


based on


sex.


variable,


as a


primary


area


concern,


could


probably


deleted


from


future


tudie


Education/


special


Servi


program.


Hypothe


Four


hypothes i


that


there


will


no s


significant


difference


between


mean


scores


on modified


Florida


Keys


group


combina-








hypothesi


, however,


should


tested again


subsequent


studi


program.


could


an extra


measure of


understanding.


Conclusion


primary


purpo


e of


tudy wa


to determine whether


knowledge of


student


being


Education/Special


Service


students


was related


to instructor


' perception


means


ured


as inferred


concept


those


students.


that


end,


tudy


been


incon-


While


was accepted,


hypothes


it approached


no difference


significance


based


to the


on program


extent


label


that


ques


tion must


remain


open


re-examination.


fact


that


numerical


trend was


higher


expectation


when


label


was known was


neither


expected


nor predi


those


involved with


research or


literature


surveyed


planation and


interpretation of


trend


continue


to be open


SCUSS


was evident


from


results


data


collection


that


used


tudy


originally


planned


analysis


could


serious


affected


behavior of


both


students


instructor


college


etti ng.


research


concerning


program


label


or ability


grouping


done


elementary


secondary


school


seems


to bear


little


resemblance


to the


result


tudy.


tudy may


have added


an entirely


new dimen


under


tandi ng of


dynamics


v -


T .








Finally,


tudy


Education/


indicates


special


services


need


in-depth


program at


Central


studies


Florida


Communi ty


College.


must


determi


ned wh


their


merely


an i


olated program which


seems


to make


difference or whether


there


are underlying


duplicated at


other


general


principle


institutions.


procedure


those


which might


principal


pro-


cedure


can be


covered


, then more meaningful


gain


might


be made


in the


attempt


provide


real


opportunities


students


higher education.













APPENDIX A


FORMS


LETTERS














FLORIDA


NEVER:


VERY


ONCE


ELDOM


AWHILE


OCCASION-


ALLY


FAIRLY
OFTEN:


VERY


OFTEN


Name of


student


evaluated


Compared with


other


student


same


age,


does


this


student:


get
get
keep
say
tell


along
along


with other


with


calm when


good
the


thing


the
thin


students


teacher?
Qs Qo wr


about


truth about


ong?
school


school


work?


RELATING


speak
offer
offer


for hi


peak


answer qu


ask meaningful


look
join
talk


people in
in school
to others


idea


front
estion


tion


the eye?
activities


about


class


in class?
in class?


school


work?


ERTING


offer
write


ut new things to
to do extra work
independently?


school


school


on h


own?


INVESTING:


fini


attention


exhibit
recogni


school


school


goal


real


work?


to class
work with


getting


activities
care?


behavior?
limitation


COPING:


TOTAL


Ja


-r













FLORIDA


KEY:


-CONCEPT


A SCALE


(College


INFER


Modified)


LEARNER


Student:


Sex:


Male


Female


Race:


Black


White


Other


VERY


NEVER


SELDOM


ONCE


AWHILE


OCCASION-


ALLY


FAIRLY
OFTEN:


VERY
OFTEN


Compared with


other


students


same


age,


does


student


along


get
keep
say
tell


speak
offer
offer


along


with
with


calm when


good
the


thing
truth


to speak


answer


ask meaningful


look
join
tal k
seek
on hi
offer
write


fini


people in
in college


other
new


/her own?


or ask


other


the i
thing


about


about
s/her
in fr


Not Applicable
or Unknown


students


instructor?


go wrong.
the college
his/her work
own ideas?


ont


question
questions


the class


class


activities


s about
things


to do


independently?
his/her work?


attention


/her work


goal


exhibit


recognize


real i


/her work?
o in class


extra


class


work


activity


with care?


getting


behavior?
limitation


your


immediate


Education/
t know


knowledge ha


special


this


service


student


Department


taken


coursework













FLORIDA


-CONCEPT


A SCALE
(College


0 INFER LEARNER
Modified)


Student:


Race


Black


White


Other


Male


Female


Education/


special


rvices


VERY


NEVER


ELDOM:


ONCE


AWHILE


OCCASION-


ALLY:


FAIRLY
OFTEN:


OFTEN:


Compared with


other


students


same


age,


does


student


get
get
keep
say
tell
spea
offe
offe


along


with other


along with
calm when


good
the
k up
r to
r to


thing
truth


peak


the i
thing


about


t Applicable
or Unknown


student


instructor


go wrong?
the college?


is/her work
gn ideas?


about


/her o\


answer que


ask meaningful


look
join
talk


on h


people in
in college


other
new


/her own


front


class


tion


tion


he eye?
activities


about


ass?


St
her work?


thing


offer or


write


fini


to do


independently?
his/her work?


attention


exhibit
recogn i


/her work with


goal


real


getting


extra


work?


activities


care?


behavior?
limitation


VERY













elected


acuity Member


FROM


Robert


. Ritterhoff,


Dean


Instructional


Services


You are


being


cipate in a
a graduate s
the inferred


dents


asked


resea rch


student


research will


You will


take
tudy


at the


-concept


help


receive


being


Univer


few minutes


done


student


us all better


summary


as part o
of Florida
enrolled
understand


result


your


time


doctoral
study i


at Central


needs


part
work c


Florida


examining


stu-


so desire


Let me
at all
cited.


assure
times.


that


student


Your cooperation and


' right


priva


participation


cy will


are greatly


upheld
appre-


Directions


Enclo


enrolled


various


are short
in one of


behaviors


your


tionnaire


sses


using


concerning


You are


scale


student


asked
d near


to rate


ho are
the f


currently
requency


page


PLEASE
AFTER


DO NOT


HAVE


DISCUSS


COMPLETED


PART


CALE


WITH


STUDENT UNTIL


tion


indicate


not k
please


now


an answer or


indicate


unknown.


Please


have
not


a response
use the "0


particular


response


Please


return


completed


form


to the


Dean


Instructional


Servi


Thank


participating


result t


return


, please


to the


Dean


put your name


tudy.


at the


Instructional


bottom of


desire


s umma ry


heet and


erv1ces
















FROM


Robert


Ri tterhoff,


Dean


Instructional


Services


Questionnaires


tudy


on inferred


-concept


Recently yo
to complete


received


have


regard


u were
and r


yours.
already


sent


return


However,
returned


reminder.


several
them.


them,


hort


record


poss
than


ible
k you


tionnaires
indicate


that


and
that


we are


very much


were


asked


we have
error.
please


However,
take a f


ew minutes


success


stionnaire


Service


ve not yet
to help


f this study.
s, please call


completed
ut. Your


them,


won't


participation


have


the Office


replacement copies.


or mi


Dean


please just
crucial to


placed


your


Instructional


Thank


you again


your


participation.













APPENDIX


SPECIAL


SERVICE


PROGRAM


CENTRAL


This


FLORIDA
OCALA,


Appendix


COMMUNITY


FLORIDA


a copy


COLLEGE


program


hure


developed


and written


Carolyn


West


John


impson


Charles


William Jones














SPECIAL


SERVICES


PROGRAM


Purpose


Special


Servi


Program of


Central


Florida


Community


College


provides


comprehensive


approach


instruction


nontraditional


student


through


pecifi


ally


designed


academic


courses


couns


el ing


--personal,


academic,


career-and


tutorial


services.


spons


ored


college


United


states


Office of


Education.


students


erved


student


with


academic


, financial,


or phy


ical


deficiency


enrolled


in theacademi


courses


and may


receive


counseling


through


college


personnel


They


also may


receive


inten


coun-


selling


tutorial


assi


stance


from


personnel


hired through


federal


grant.


These


student


also


have


access


to referral


servi


community


state


agencies


that


can give


specific


kind


assi


stance--


Vocational


Rehabilitation,


Divi


Family


ervi


others.


section


students


student


elect


in the


program or may


advised


u... .


counselor


to enroll


becau


e of


* VS


hiqh


school


grades


- V


s


.








Major Goals


Program


provide


human


tic,


non-threatening


learning


environment.


provide


supportive


servi


needed


academic


success.


specific


Program Objectives


Academic


increase


reading


ability


minimum acceptable


level


improve writing


ability


minimum a


cceptabl e


level


improve


develop math


ability


kill


identify


necessary


solve


social


academic


problems.


career


success.


develop


successful


tudy


provide


support


individual


instruction.


Student Support


assi


student


dealing


tape


college


procedures


andregulations.


provide


assi


tance


obtaining


financial


support.


To ass


finding


solutions


personal


problem


hindering


academic


success.


assi


student


obtaining


needed medical


information


aid.


enl i


aid of


the community


fulfilling


student


needs.


assi


curriculum


innovation and modification


for th


low-


income


and/or


academically


or physically


disadvantaged


Affective


student.

Domain








foster


faculty


taff


community


acceptance


respect


student.


To build s

To develop

To broaden


elf-confidence


an awareness


student


academic


educational


cultural


environment


or career goal


spectrum.


Courses


Offered


Special


Service


Program


include


education


courses,


designed


"high


student


which


have


been


stence


since


1966--


first


as a


remedial,


non-c


redi t


program


then


as a


full


college


tran


fer group


courses


Cour


taught


academic


component


program


include


social


science,


Engli


, reading,


mathemati c


ychology


adju


stment.


are college


level


courses


and all


earn


three


hour


college


tran


redit


Math


Goal


teach


student math


and arithmetic


skill


necessary


academic


or career


goal


Objective


have


percent


student


earn


grade


or better


one term.


Strategies


students


begin


working


level


competence


they


arrive with


proceed


through


intermediate


algebra.


Individualized


instruction,


tutor


para-


profess


ional


are used


help


student.


class


meet


five


per week.


A pre-


st-test


are aiven


and evaluation


test-


* .3


A I *


- '








or career


courses.


Objective:


have


percent


reading


student


improving


their


reading ability


two grade


level


completion


course


Strategic


Student


learn


vocabulary


through


instruction


word attack


kill


, dictionary


usage,


word


pro-


nunciation,


word meaning,


usage


etymology


They


learn


comprehend


through


truction


practice


main


recalling


idea s


specific


selection


fact


by making


, picking


inferences.


They work


on critical


reading


through


instruction


recogn 1


implication


assumption


anal


yzing


argument


understanding


basic


logi


pre-


post


test


given


to determine


student


rate


progress


reading.


English


Goal


develop writing


skill


Objective


have


percent


student


write


level


deemed

courses


necessary


success


in college or career


term.


Strategies


Engli


course


involve


work


following


areas


spelling,


tuation


sentence


structure,


word

essay


usage,

organi


paragraphing

zation. Met


outlining,


hodology


revi


include


ion and

writing











Error


sentence


construction


are corrected


repeated writing


rewrite exercise


Eval nation


student


progress


determined


teacher


observation


improvement and


standardized


pre-


Social


post-test


science


Goal


develop


ability


identify


find


solution


social


problems


Ame rican


society


able


to 1


number of


cultural


aspects


that affect


individual


life.


Objective:


have


percent of all


students


complete


course


term.


trategies


content


center


around


sent


-day


American


society


evaluated.


titution


Pragmatic


society


solutions


are examined


problems


sought.


group


back


Methodology


interaction,


texts,


involve


problem-solving,


handout


use of


film


scuss


small


, paper


method of


teaching.


course


behavioral


with


student


being


able


work


on any


objective


they


choose


a particular


time.


Evaluation


on sati


fac-


tory


completion


objective


course.


tandardi


test


admini


tered


to measure


changes


attitude


over


semester.








Objective:


have


percent


students


enrolled


course


complete


obj ectives


term.


Strategies


course


onal


adju


tment


signed


to help


student


understand


Personality


self


-concept


tests


are given,


along


with


number


attitude


aptitude


inventor


These


then


interpreted


student


, helping


them


come


aware


their


strength


and aptitudes.


Tech-


niques


include


group


discu


ssions,


taped


"rap"


sess


ions


structured


group


experiences.


Special


Methods


Used


Cour


Warm personal


relation


between


instructors


students.


Small


classes


student


Audio


equipment


, including


sound-on-slide,


lecture


to rage,


photograph,


video-tape.


Individualized in


truction that allow


student


to move


own pace.


Videotaping


sess


ions


for playback


evaluate


teacher


technique


Open-end,


student


behavioral ized


response.


courses.


-punitive


A human


Teacher


grading.

classroom atmosphere.


Attitude








two.


Instructors


are more


tudent-centered


sense of


matching


necessity


students


learning


basic


skill


with


necess


of learning


about


these


. They


also


cons


ider


important


instructors


students


know


accept


each


other


tudent-


teacher


relation


ship.


ritual


dropped.


teacher


land of


safety;


instead


with


student.


blackboard


lecture


not h


main


tool


communication;


the work


group


guiding


process


teacher as


student as


"them"


gone


instead


Small


Group


Method


technique


used


small


group


student


method


Students


are divided


into


groups


or 6


as they


enroll


with


each


group


electing


own coordinator.


These


group


then


help


carry


the work


whether


that might


objective


select


projects


can act


complete,


as a


or day


facilitator


to day


to five


class


groups


work.


instead


teacher


relating


group


students.


student


seem


to establi


h relationship


easier


small


group.


They


identify


with


group members


more


than


with


total


lass.


strategy


students.


seems


Peer


help


prevent


teaching


common


development of


occurrence


"isolates"


these


among


groups.


Criterion


Reference


students


are taught


performance


objective


course


work


compete


based.


student


given


objective


"me"








Exam


There


are no final


exams


each


evaluation


each objective


completes


that


objective.


Grading


stem


Poss


ibly,


most


obvious


diff


erence


program


grading


possible


grade


given


are A


grade


treated


like


incomplete


grade


that


averaged


into


student


grade


point


average


change


an N


grade


into


grade


or C


student


re-enroll


following


semester


begins


working where


topped.


will,


in no case,


repeat


objectives


already


done.


student


Involvement


Special


rvices


been


built


around


needs


students.


They


have


been


involved


building


continuou


evaluation


program and


because


have


completely


student


-centered educa-


tional


experience.


Tutoring


Goal


provide


individual


assi


stance


student


achievement


academic


areas.


Objec


tive


provide


referred


student


with


tutor


basi


cation


academic


courses.


Strategies


Tutors


are assigned


basi


education


ssrooms


are allocated


individual


student


both


instructor


referral


Il l. l l


tudnpnt c<1f


-refrral


I








assignments


as test


retake


general


problem areas


h as


writing


defi


iencie


tutor


coordinator and


structor


elect


tutor


on the


basi


subject


area


know edge


personality


variable


(can


they


be effective with


disadvantaged


students)


coordinator


oversees


tutor


activities


acts


as a


liason


between


instructor


tutor


tutors


instruct and guide


only;


they


grade


test


or handle


ssroom bookkeeping.


Counse


ling


Goal


provide


student


support


peripheral


non-


academic


areas.


Objectives:


provide


assi


stance


obtaining


financial


support.


assi


problem


finding


hindering


solution


academic


personal


success.


develop


an awareness


educational


career


goal


assi


student


obtaining


needed


media


information


aid.


enl i


community


filling


student


need


Strateai


nrnnram


a full


-tuna


nnn...tanrhi nn


I Irnol anti


c


I


l< P


I .I.


.


.








To meet


with


acquaint


community


students


with


advisory


financial


board.


aid avail


initial

on hand,


intervi


ew; to keep


assi


forms


students


fill


them out.


onfer


with


those of


with


CFCC


other


application


Financial


institution


process


Offi


assi


admi


students


ssion


financial


aid.


maintain


atalogs


other


institution


programs.


To maintain


personal


contact


with


admi


ssion


recruiting


personnel


other


Florida


colleges


univer


cities.


recommend


student


to the


Talent


each


Program.


provide


spec


assi


stance


physically


abled


students.


To attend

conference


local

s for


workshop


" coun


elor


state


DHEW,


regional


Divi


student


support and


special


Program personnel


Community


Goal


involve


local


community


education


for the


advantaged


Ob.iective:


enl i


cl. ,u .


community


aaenci


fulfilling


, -,


*J .


. V


V I








Meetings


community


special


leaders


Servi


organic


staff


nations


with


to acquaint


area


with


program


purp


oses.


Referral


student


program counselor


to appropriate


ommuni ty


agencies


uch as


urity


Admini


traction,


Mental


Health


institute,


Vocational


Rehabilitation,


Munroe Memorial


pital,


hands


Teaching


Hospital,


Bureau


Blind


ervi


alth


Department.


Participation


local


community


clubs,


example


being

Liones


Pilot


Club


Club


donation


cholar


Braille


fund and


tionaries.


The maintenance


contact


high


school


teacher


admini


strators


also


school


board


personnel


from Marion,


Citru


Levy


counties.


Evaluation


Research


Goal


eval uate


Objective


effectiveness


identify


strength


special


and weakn


rvices


esses


Program.


program


desc


riptive


survey


evaluation


data


Strategies


An


eval uation


by Miami


-Dade


Divi


taff


under Dr


. Dwight


Burrough


1971


evaluation


southern


Association


Accredita-


tion


Committee


1974


summa ry


statement


John


Roueche


1976.


1976.








Comparison


Services


. Pre and


Special


retention


tandardi


services


graduation


testing


non-Special


rates.


reading


Engli


student


evaluation


Special


Services


instruc-


Yearly

Yearly


evaluation

evaluation


taff


di rector


director


taff


Research


Retention


Graduation


Figures


basi


different


types


retention


studies


are done


CFCC


Special


Services


program.


first


total


enrollment


versus


total


graduation


over


defined


time


span


type of


tudy


does


not take


into


account


enrollment


during


time


span


or new


graduates


after.


The other


type


uses


ingle


population


reduction


system


that


takes


time in college


group


(fall


term


arri


through


attending


successive


without


first


terms


graduate on,


series


graph


until


student


or have


topped


detail


have graduated,


attending


retention


disadvantaged


students


over


a three


year


period


compare


program


population


with


rest


campus.


emplo


ingle


population


reduction


method.
















Overall Retention


Retained










Terms


I II I II I


1972-73


1973-74


NSS = 438






31%


1974-75


is the retention rate of the non-Specia


Services student.


%
Retained


Terms


1972-73 1973-74 1974-75
























%
Retained









Terms


1972-73 1973-74 1974-75


3 is the retention rate of the control group population (those


below 150 (25th percentile and below) on the Florida


students with


Twelfth Grade Placement


test who had no courses or only one course in the Special Services


Program.


Retained


Terms


107't2-7 iot I 07C7C 11 t


FPSS


36%








second


figures


different


kinds


black


American


retention


studi


Study


- CFCC


Black


Ameri'can


Enrollment and


Graduation


- Dec


1976


All C
Total
Total


collegee (S
Enrolled
Graduate


Per Cent


Srvs


= 1190


. Included)


special


Total
Total


Per Cent


rvice


Enrolled
Graduate


Only
474


Study B


- CFCC Black American


ingle Population


Retention


Sen~t.


special
Time


Lost
Retained

Total Re
Per Cent


- May


rvices


Enrollment


Graduation
im


tainted


1975


special


First


Time


ervi


Lost
Retained w/o


I1
Total
Per C


Enrollment


= 46


Graduation
it


Retained


ent


= 37%


Study


- CFCC


Black


American


Graduate


Comparison


Sept


Non-


Total
Total


. 197


service


Enrolled
Graduates


Per Cent


= 716
= 42
= 6%


-.Dec


. 1976


special


Total
Total


rvice


Enrolled
Graduate


= 474


Per Cent


. 197








tudi


total


enrollment


figures


are generated


from


Sept.


total


graduate


are generated


from May


1974


forward


In all


studies


black


Ameri


cans


taking


only


one S


special


rvi ces


course


are not


counted


as S


special


ervi


student


tudy


a comparison


special


ervi


graduates


with


non-S


special


black


graduate


Florida


state


average


for the graduation


minority


Central


Florida


one ofthe


high


est minority


graduation


rates


tate.


Theoretical


Philosophical


Foundation


purpose


section


to d


scuss


various


aspects


Special


ervi


Program at


Central


Florida


Community


College


seem


be contributing


to retention


graduation


nontraditional


student


attempt


will


be made


to provide


background


, rationale


supporting


John


data


on techniques


Roueche


University


approaches.


Texa


foremost


author ti


on "nontraditional"


student


education


After


yea r


studying


both


successful


unsuccess


program


. Roueche


public


recommendation


Catching


Remedial


Education,


(1973)


Following


are the


recommendation


explanation


how they


are being


ticed at


Recommendation


community


college


should


.mphasi


- .


work


to achieve


. -~1


v


wo rk


..


e








noti


community


that


we do


intend


serve


student


will


give


us the opportunity


Roue


point


out that


administrative


support


critical,


particularly


from the


hief


executive.


current


program at


from


inception,


received


such


support


from


highest


admini


strators.


only


fair


to note


that


support


not always


path


least


resi


stance


those


admini


trators.


They


have


to deal


with


other


sectors


campu


whose


-interest


long


range


slion,


or other


reasons,


attempt


to impede


or terminate


effectiveness


program or


program


itself


support


must


strong


enough


allow


program


to develop


efficiently


tand on


own merits.


Recommendation


eparately


organic


divi


developmental


studies


should


created with


own s


taff


administrative


head


Roueche


tudie


and many


other


reported


literature


become


apparent


that


"wholi


tic"


approach


the mo


success


nontraditional


student


Most


frequently


nontradi-


tional


students


have


long


tory of limited


success


in most


academic


areas


These


students


develop attitudinal


-concept


problems


affect


their


social


family


live


as wel


as academic.


These


problem


are not


dealt


with a


effectively


piecemeal


erie


courses


experiences


as a


concerted


effort


team


spec


iaNi


sts.








one subject may


little


value


failing


other


courses


cannot


finan


aid,


or i


having


personal


problems.


Because


diverse


complex


need


come with


these


students


there must


lose


understanding


and working


relation


hip among


those


involved.


lead


to Roueche


next


recommendation.


Recommendation:


Only


instructors


volunteer to


teach


nontraditional


student


should ever


involved


developmental


programs.


personnel


special


service


Program at


S. C


there


because


they want


to be.


not a


matter of


newest


instructors


being


stuc


with


asses


others


not want,


or a


matter


"fitting


something


" for


"those"


students


after


other


need


have


been


met.


However,


having


developmental


courses


as the


primary


focu


several


instructors


insure


success


program


Several


year


ago a


study wa


done


group


of Univer


Flo ri da


pro-


fessor


to d


cover


"the


best


teaching


method


traveling


over the


United


states


they


found


that most


people


most


place


could


identify


"good"


teachers


However,


these


"good"


teachers


chara


teri


common.


What


they


seemed


hare wa


an attitude


about


people,


particularly


about


tuden


Comb


Avila


Purkey,


their


book,


Helping


Relationship


(1971),


found


that


following


character


tingui


good


"helpers"


from


poor ones:








Friendly-unfriendly.


friendly an
threatening


enhancing.
to themselves


well-intentioned


and coun


rather


elors).


Helpers


They


than


see others


not regard


see people


evil


-intentioned


as being


them a


as essentially


(teacher


Worthy-


worth


unworthy


rather than


dignity


maintained;


whose


account


they


integrity may


(teachers,


Helpers
unworthy.


see other people


They


integrity which mu
o not see people a


couns


violated


elors,


see them as
t be respect
unimportant


or treated


Internally-externally motivated


their


rather


tha


behavior
n as a


as essentially


external


product


prof


as o


essors
Helper


developing


event


as being


ssess-


being
little


s see people
from within


be molded


directed;


rather


esse


than


they


pass


Dependable
ntially tru


behaving


people


see people


ive or


inert


-undependable.


tworthy


lawful


as understandable


dictable, or
Helpful
potentially
impeding or


sources
tion and


1971,


negative
-hindering


fulfilling a
threatening.
satisfaction


suspicion


as creative
(teachers an


Helpers


dependable


They
rather


(teachers,
. Helpers


enhan


They
rather


(teacher


regard
than


counts


prof


dynamic


essors


see people


sense


behavior


capri


elors,


see people


regard
than a
(Comb


people


s sources


Avila


ous, unpre-
and profes
as being


rather


than


sors).


as important


Purkey


stra-


trans


lation


these


attitudes


into


day-


to-day


behavior


what


meant


human


stic


classroom atmo


here.


These


attitudes


depth


are manif


personal


tructured


ested


counseling.


into


prog ra m


behaviors


However,


in several


from


these


ways.


simple


attitudes


These


courtesy


also


structures


fulfill


some


. Roueche


other


recommendations.


Recommendation:


developmental


courses


should


carry


redit


graduation


program certification.


already


been


tated


most


nontraditional


student


come








That


procedure


tran


smits


to them our


lack


of confidence


them and


reaffirms


-concept a


unable


or unworthy.


If we


begin


indicating


that


they


cannot


make


we are merely


increa


road-


blocks


success.


program mu


st be


It mu


to help


remembered


student


that


achieve,


goal


to "weed


success-


them out"


Central


ori da,


we have


taken


recommendation


ultimate


y having


nontraditional


student


take


five


fully


tran


rable


credit


asses


which


have


been


modified


accommodate


those


students


' needs


. The


classes


remain


equivalent


to other


sections


those


same


courses


taught


various


department


on campus


arrangement


transmit


powerful


message


hese


students.


them that


we believe


them,


we care


about


them,


perhaps


most


importantly,


they


continue


their


academic


careers


y will


so because


they


can achieve;


because


we lower


our s


standard


or pass


them out of


sens


e of


obligation.


However


there


are critic


claim


that


standards


have


been


lowered and


grade


earned


these


asses


are meaning


ess.


These


laim


refuted


grading


police


which


not only maintain


s tan -


dards


also


fulfill


. Roueche


next


recommendation


Recommednation:


Grading


poll


practice


should


non-punitive


Whether we


use Benjamin


Bloom


term,


mastery


learning"


or the


phrase


criterion


Roueche


reference


believe


that


grading,


student


we i


should


special


graded


ervi


on a


, along with


criterion








me re ly


a comparison


students


' achievement.


approach minimizes


ompetiti on


ctor


and al


student


to work


their


goal


We i


Spec


service


agree


with


the mastery


learning


people


that


something


worth


learning we


serve our goal


assigning


derogatory


grade


which


tell


nothing about


student


not achieve


riterion.


terms


tinct


stem


standard


standard


, criterion


which


clarify


reference


not only maintain


student


what


establ i


quality


to be


clear


the academic


done.


Blumefeld,


tional


ston


ociation


and Waugh


entitled


ented


"Effect


paper


Criterion


to the American


Reference


Educa-


testing


Upon


e of


Remedial


Exam


Opportunities


" (1971).


tudy,


which


been


replicated,


they


found


that


using


higher


criterion


and make-up


exams


greater


percentage


student


achi eve


cri teri on.


the method we


employ


special


Service


can maintain


equivalency with


other


department


' courses


while


creasing


opportuni ties


success


students.


under


tand


how this


integrated


into


workable e


system we


must


look


another of


Roueche


recommendation


Recommendation:


Instruction


should


accommodate


individual


differences


permit


students


learn


proceed


their own


paces.


addition


criterion


reference we


have


developed


performnnanc


objectives


have


an open-ended


tem which


does


allow


students








sphere,


they


also


tend


have


great


need


structure.


Roueche


tudie


(1976)


and more


become


evident


recently


that many


Patricia


nontraditional


Cross


student


work


have


learning


tyle which


relief


heavily


on external


structure.


The use


behavioral


or performance objective


imposes


needed


structure while


criterion


reference


testing


grading


hel p


ensure


that


the objectives


are being


met.


keeping


asses


open-ended


we reaffirm our


goal


learning


success


without


imposing


arbitrary


time


boundaries


reading and


Engli


classes


, diagnostic


test


used


to determine


where


student


should


tart


and what


particular needs


he might


have.


then


work


at h


own pace


until


achieved


the minimum criteria.


interweaving of


human


approach


which


tends


warm,


non-directive


tructured


tends


with


col d


behavioral


rigid


approa


difficult


h which


apparently


necessary


program


to b


success


Some


critic


claim


that


type of


system may


artificially


retain


students.


Indeed,


many


student


will


find


necessary


remain n


school


longer


However,


tati


on the


special


Services


Program at


. indicate


that


hese


nontraditional


student


graduating


at an equal


or higher


rate


than


traditional


students.


They are


generally not


expected


to do


One of


ide effect


an effective


program which


should








averaged


effect


higher percentage of


students


achieving


higher


criterion


when


make-up


exams


are used


higher grade


point


average


must


acce


pted


as a


normal


part


these


programs.


Recommendation:


Curriculum offer


developmental


programs


houl d


rel evant.


type


recommendation


seems


so hackneyed


that


deserves


little


cons


ideration.


However,


with


nontraditional


students,


takes


on tremendous


increased


significance.


Roueche


review


s umma ry


literature


to 1968


, public


salvage,


Redirection


or Cu


tody


(1968)


was shown


that


most of


these


student


were


certain of


their


educational


ability


or goal


needed


result


and applications


very


quickly


they were


going


persi


courses


special


rvices


Program


are well


united


this


purpose.


social


science


class


takes


personal


and contem-


porary


perspective


material


personal


on American


society.


interest and


reading


structured


includes


so that


immediate


result


can be


realized.


Engli


classes


also


implement


very


personal


ment.


trategi


personal


learning and


and mater


developmental


ychology


and applie


increase


takes


to each


students


cognitive


student


involve-


data


life.


empha


zing


relevance


early


their


experience


we enhance


probability


their


remaining


in college.


Recommendation:


Regular


college


curriculum offerings


should


comprehen


sive.


--








Recommendation


counsel


ling


function


developmental


programs


must


be of


real


value


stud


ents.


Rouec


indicates


that


the main


problem area


that


encountered.


fortunate


that


special


services


grant


provides


full


-time


couns


elor


program.


free


real


counsel


ling


function


such


as testing


referral


assi


stance


career


onal


counseling and


institutional


liason


effort


been


experience


that


an academic


counsel


assigned


directly


the mo


to the


effe


developmental pr

ctive. Although


ogram and


counsel


working as


and advisor


team member

organization


vary


it i


important


that all


personnel


sens


itive


to the


needs


of nontraditional

Recommendation:


students.


Effort


should


be made


to alleviate


abrupt


transition


from


developmental


tudi


traditional


college


curricula


recommendation


been


implemented


at two level


- here


other


institution


when


student


trans


fer.


trate


gies


for the


transition


on thi


campus


include


formal


informal


cuss


ions


almost


special


Service


lasses


on s


survival


kill


as drop


and add


different


ting


techniques,


etc.


Also,


many


formal


informal


contacts


have


been


made


between


faculty


member


While


there


are no data


support


hypothes


seems


that








should


have


increased


their


success


rate,


although


again,


no data


are available.


If their


success


rate


increased,


quite


poss


ible


that


their


-concept as


teacher


also


increased.


they


feel


more


capable


helping,


then


when


nontraditional


student


does


reach


their


assroom


they may


feel


more


confident


to deal


with


them.


Also,


these


structors


are receiving


students


have


shown


them


selves


capable


in other


college


courses.


perceptions


expectation


both


students


instructors


should


be enhanced


previous


success


an almost


ircular


pattern


reinforcement


Servi


Program


produces


capable


student


who are


accepted


recogni


culty


in other


areas


and who


hang


those


aculty


members


' attitudes


about


program and more


importantly


about


nontraditional


students.


Even


after


student


leave


Special


rvices


courses


their


progress


monitored.


Whenever


they


need


assi


tance


such as


tutor-


ing,


they


know


they


can come


back


help.


when


they


ready


to transfer


, they


often


seek


advi


and a


stance.


per-


sonne


parti


cularly


counsel


, frequently make


needed


contact


help


with


necessary


arrangements.


Recommendation:


Once


programs


are establ i


, effe


ctiv


recruiting


trategi


should


deve


loped


to identify


enroll


nontraditional


student








on the


centile


Florida


on a


Twelfth


simi


Grade


Placement


standard


Test


test


or the equivalent


high


school


per-


grades


other


indications


possible


difficulty


traditional


educational


situations.


have


developed


reliable


referral


cess


from the other


department


to S


special


service


with


referral


past


yea r


being


made


from


Fine


Arts,


ness


Social


sciences


, Vocational,


Applied


sciences,


Natural


iences


, along


with


referral


from


communi ty.


When an


instructor


becomes


aware


that


student


need


kind of


help


available


Special


Service


program,


knows


can call


that


student


nferred.


Most


instructors


have


now realized


that


these


student


will


have


greater


opportunity


success.


allows


that


instructor


to direct


attention


to his


other


student


thout feel ing he


abandoned


them.


In most


cases


student


relieved


greatful


new opportunity


. Mo


t of


them do manage


make a


"comeback.


Recently,


Admi


ssion


Office


made


positive


step


towards


increasing


nontraditional


student


enrollment


hiring


minority


recruiter


. They


too followed


Roueche


recommendations


hiring a


minority member


job.


Financial


officer


been


attempting


recruit


peaking


to ju


parent


high


school


students.


feeling


that


parent


are aware of


what


available


going


they


are more


likely


to b


supportive.


During


Culture


Week,


college


invites


business








Special


rvices


believe


that


through


these


aspects


program we


traditional


that


have


students.


their experiences


been


While


able


increase


they


will


here


itive


enrollment of


Ce. C


and will


encourage


non-


we believe


them


stay


succeed.


While we


machinery,


recogn i


we believe


that


that


we are only


our


contribution


one gear


college


the area


retention


graduation


nontraditional


student


been


most


significant.














Faculty


Director


Staff


.......... ...Carolyn


Counselor


cretary


........Lance


...... .... .Bonnie


Lancaster


Zartman


Academic


..John


Jean
Bill


Simpson
Covell


Jone


Elvira
Desmon d


Byron
Dan B


- English
- Reading


- Social


Harri


Brannan


Dyce
ecton


- Engli


- Math


, Psychology


science,


- Social


- Learning


Psychology


, Reading


ience


, Psychology


special i


Educational


Aides


. ..S


helia


Linda


Thornton


Chester


- Reading,


- Tutor


Fitzgerald


Engli


Coordinator


- Reading














BIBLIOGRAPHY


Reference


Cited


Anderson, D. F.
Expectancy
Children."


American


enthal


and Social
Proceeding


Intera


Psychological


"Some


tion


76th


ociation,


Effects


on I


Interpersonal


institutionalized


Annual


. 479


Retarded


Convention


-480,


1968.


Aron


Robert.


Paper pre
sonnel an
1975, ERI


"Effects
sented at
d Guidance


C


ED1157


of Tea


her Expectancie


Annual


ssociatio


Meeting
n, New


of The


York,


Myth


or Reality?"


American


York,


Per-
March,


Avila,


Donald


Helping
Inc.. 1


Arthur W.


Relation


Comb


ourcebook.


971


William W.


ston


Purkey.


Allyn


The
Bacon,


Baum,


Frank


Wizard


York:


Random House,


1950


Beez


Behavior


"Influence


Convention
DD. 605-606


Pupil


Performance.


American


1968.


ychological
II h .a..


gnideecorP


psychological


Report
- --


on Tea


76th


Annual


sociation,


Blumefeld,


Gerald


Criterion Re
Opportunities
American Edu


1971


ERIC


Darrel


ference


oston,


testing


Paper pre


national


Upon
ented


each


and
the


Robert


Waugh.


Remedial


at the


Annual


ociation,


"Effect


Meeting
York, F


ED049310.


Exam


bruary


Brandt,


Larry


Attitude


Performance


no.3


SPP


Mary


as a


Ellen


tion


Level


-314,


Journal


June,


Hayden.
students


"Male


scribed


of Educational


Female


Motivation
Psychology,


Teacher


1974.


Buford
S


, Betty
student


Doctoral


Campbell,


"Teacher


ubgroups in
dissertation


Donald


Experimental Desi


Expectancy


Texa


Culturally


in Relation to


Texa


Julian


ns for Resear


student


M University,


tanley


. I. .


Different


Achievement


1973


Experimental


Chicaao


.


Rand


Quasi


McNal lv


-








Claiborn


Failure


William


"Expectancy


to Replicate.


-383


Effects


Journal


October,


1969.


in the


Educational


ssroom:


sychol ogy,


Coleman, J. S.
Report), D
Government


Equality
department
Printing


Educational


of Health,
Office, Wa


Opportunity.


action


shington


and
D.C.


(Coleman


Welfare,
1966.


Comb


Arthur


Donald


Relation


ston


Allyn


L. Avila,
ic Concept
Bacon, Inc


William


Purkey


Helping


Helping


Profes


1971.


Combs,


Arthur W


Harper


, and
Row,


nygg.


Individual


Behavior


York


1959.


Comb


, Arthur W1
ment of Se
Psychologi


D. W. Soper,
-Concept and S
1 Measurement,


Courson.


-Report." E
23. DD. 493-


"The Mea


national


500,


sure-


1963


Conn,


Edwards


Emotion


School
1968.


Children


senthal,


sponse


to Tea


Crowne.


her


ychological


s' Expectancy
Reports, v.22,


"Perception


Elementary


Cornbleth,


Catherine,


pectations


Pupil


Davi


. and


Achievement and


Chri


tine


Button.


Teacher-Pupil


Interaction.


social


ERIC


Education,


. 38


. 54-58,


January,


1974


EJ090


Cross


Patricia
- Toward


dividuali


F orida


, April


"Accent


action


instruction,
8. 1976.


on Learning:


Each.
Univer


Beyond


Education


Symposium on I
Florida, Gain


esville,


Deitz


Samuel


Performance


and William W


ased


on Race


Purkey.
Student.


"Tea


xpec


hological


station


Reprints,


June


1969


, ERIC


EJ0083


Duse


Jerome


Children
American
New York


"Teacher


s Learning and
Sociological A


, Augu


Experimenter
rformance."


association


1973,


ERIC


Annual


Effects


Paper presented at


Meeting


York,


ED083345.


usek,
o


Jerome


Educational


Teachers


Research


Children


s Learning


661


-684


Review


, Fall,


1975.


Finn,


Jeremy D
Review of


Expectation
national Re


Educational


search,


Environment


, pp.


-410,


"E X-


--


I


__








owners


"Effects


on the
Student


University


ested


Academic


Doctoral


1966.


an Arbitrary
Achievement
ssertation,


Accelerated
of Education
Teachers Col


Group


ally
lege,


Placement


Disadvantaged
Columbia


oster


, Glen


Expectancie
of Learning
1976.


Carl


chmidt,


Label


David


'Learning


sabilities


abatino.
abilitie


. 58


-61,


"Teacher


'." Journal
February,


Guskin,


Alan


Education


Samuel


Reading,


Addi


social


sychology
1970.


Hankin


son,


Oscar H.


Culturally


of Wi


scons


"Expe


Different


station


school


Behavior of


Doctoral


Pupil


ssertation,


Univ


, 1970.


Chri


topher.


hool ing


Inequality


Ameri ca


Reas


York


sessment


Family


Book


Jensen,
Sc


ientist


"Review of Pygmalion
v. 51, pp. 44A-45A,


Classroom.


American


1969.


Jose,


Jean


Relate


and John


Cody


to Attempted


"Teacher-


Change


Pupil


Teacher


Interaction


Expectan


Academic


Ability
Journal,


Achievement.


. 35-


American
January,


Educational
1971.


each


Lockhart,


William


. The


Minne


Board


sota


Yale


Kami


Education.


Publi


hing


Jesse


stitutional
1967.


. Choper


Law.


"Brown
. Paul,


Nie,


Norman


and
New

O'Connell


Dale
York


Edwa rd


"Follow


Educational


Hadlai


Bent


Hull,


Stati


McGraw-Hill


Jerome


tudy of Te
Psychology


Jean


tical


Book


Jenkin


Package


Company,


1970,


. Dus


her Expectancy
v. 10. DD. 325-


Karin


1975.


Richard


ects.


, June


teinbrenner


social


ences


Wheeler.
Journal


1974


Perse


Caroline


stations:


Hodge


Their


Implication


ting,


Tracking


Education


and Teachers


Expec-


Inequality.


A Literature


York


Institute
Foundation


Review


institute


Education,
ashington,


and Synthe
on Plurali


Washington,
D. C., April


Amer
Grouj
). C.
197'


ican


Jewi


p Identity
; National


S


ERIC


Committee,
National
science


6150


Purke


V .


William W.


"Reformation


'


I I IL.-


Public


.-J V.


hool


-


n. I


Invita-