Morphology and functional communication of the deaf

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Morphology and functional communication of the deaf
Physical Description:
x, 139 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Brumfield, Shannon Maureen
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Deaf -- Means of communication   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 132-137).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Shannon Maureen Brumfield.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000071546
notis - AAH6800
oclc - 04536042
System ID:
AA00002203:00001

Full Text





















MORPHOLOGY


FUNCTIONAL
OF THE DEAF


COMMUNICATION


SHANNON MAUREEN


BRUMFIELD


DISSERTA


IN PARTIAL


TION PRESENTED TO
THE UNIVERSITY
FULFILLMENT OF T
DEGREE OF DOCTOR


E GRADUATE
FLORIDA
REQUIREMENT
PHILOSOPHY


COUNCIL OF

S FOR THE






































Copyright


Shannon


Maureen


Brumfield


1978







































my very


special


friends,


Dr. and Mrs.


Fred


0. Brumfield

















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


would


like


express


appreciation


to all members


my super-


visory


committee


for their


guidance,


suggestions


support


which


made


the completion


of this


stud


possible.


very


special


thank


to my


chairman


in absentia,


Dr. Edward


C. Hutchinson,


for academic


moral


support


during


my graduate


studies


and his thorough


guidance


this


study


toward


its completion.


would


also


like


to thank Marilin,


his wife,


on several


occasions


acted


as courier


in delivering


cor-


respondence


between


Gainesville


and North


Carolina.)


In addition


the time


and effort


so willingly


gave


to this


project, I


would


like


to thank


my cochairman,


Dr. Robert


Scholes,


for helping


to instill


in me


an enthusiasm


for research.


Appreciation


is also


extended


toward


Dr. Scholes


for helping


me maintain


necessary


momentum


to complete


this


study


with


comments


such


as "I


plan


to retire


when


finish


wish


to thank


Ira S


Fischler


for his contributions


and critique


on test


design,


experimental


procedure,


and data


analysis.


thusiastic


guidance


special


thanks


on psychologic

are extended


approaches


to the faculty


memory was


and staff


invaluable.


of the


Florida


School


for the Deaf


and Blind,


especially


to Mr


Joseph


Finnegan,


Mr. Jerry


Prokes,


Ms. Pat Westmoreland,


Mr. John


. Tiffany,


en-


T










For their


enthusiasm and


cooperation


thank


the subjects who


partici-


pated


in this


study.


would


like


to extend


sincere


thanks


to Mr


Marshall


Cohen


for his help


with


the statistical


analyses


of this


study.


would


also


like


to thank Mr.


James


Flavin,


Office


of Instruc-


tional


Resources,


University


of Florida,


for his production


of the


presentation


film and


his instructions


on the usage of


the video


equip-


ment


cameras.


Nothing


can express


how much


owe my family,


friends,


and Mitsouki


for their


support


toward


the successful


completion


of this


venture.


















TABLE


OF CONTENTS


Page


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.


ABSTRACT


CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION .


CHAPTER


REVIEW


OF THE RELATED


LITERATURE


Introduction


eories
Intr


S a a a. a a 3


in Deaf Education


oduction


Oral


vs.


Manual


Controve


a a a a a a4


Current
Summary


Theories


Philo


a a a a a S 8


sophies


Education


American


Sign


Language


as an Effective


Communi


cation


temr


Introduction


Acqui


sition


f Communication Systems by Normal


and Deaf


Children


Studies


Utilizin


Signs


for Communi


cation


Prose


and AMESLAN


Communication.


Summary of
Effective


American


Sign


Communication


guage


as an


system


Language


Assessment


Introduction


Cognitive
Linguistic


Resea


search,


Summary


Review


Language


assessment


Morphological Assessment
Introduction .


Rationale
Morpholog


for the Use


ical


Studies


Nonsense


llables


Deaf


Summary
Statement o


of Morphologi
f the Problem


Assessment











Page


BTT Graphic
BTT Manual


FC
Scoring


* . a a S S S S S S


Task.


Criterion


Graphic


and Manual


Ratin


Analysis


S S S S S S S S S S S64


CHAPTER


RESULTS.


S S S S S S SS S S S S S S69


Introduction
Linguistic P
Correlations
the Judged


rformance on Graphic and Manual


Among
evel


Graphic BTT, Manual
of FC Proficiency. .


BTT,


Demographic


Data


Etiolog
dB Loss
Reading


Leve


When


* S S SS S S S S 573


llin


First Acquir


First
Other


Persons
Number


Language
Hearing


in the


Impaired


at Home Who


ears


Home


Family


Can Fin


Atte


dance


Members


pell


at FSDB


and/or Sign


S 75


S S S S S S S S S S S S S76


Race
Sex


Summary


results


5 4 S S S S S S S S 576


CHAPTER


SUMMARY


OF DISCUSSION


a S S S S S S S S S S 586


Morphologic
Introdu


Assessment


action


Graphic


and Manual


S S S S S S S 586


scuss


S S S S S S S S S S S S87


Hierarc
Nature


Errors.


of the Test


S S S S S S S S S87


Format


S S S S S S S S S 90


Error


Types.


Correlations


Among


Graphic


Manual


and FC


ores


S SS S S S S S S S S SS 94


Introduction


Graphic


BTT,


Manual


BTT,


and FC


cores


. . 94


Discussion


S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S95


Correlations


with


eadin


and Writing.


. . 95


Memory


for P


rn)SP


and C


nitive


Implications


71


--- '


----


rv










Page


of Learning


Finger


pelling.


Loss


Imol


Age o
First
Perso
Other
Numbe
IQ
Race
icati


f


r
*


Subjects.
Language in the H
s at Home Who Can
Hearing Impaired
of Years of Atte


and Sex
ons for


Suggestions for


Further
Language


ome


Eilm


Family
dance


zer Spell and/or Sign


Members
at FSDB


Research. .
Assessment. *


APPENDIX A:



APPENDIX B:


APPENDIX


APPENDIX D:


APPENDIX E:




APPENDIX F:


SUBJECT



FINGER S
STUDENT
PROTOCOL
SCORING


PROFILE * * *



SPELLING TEST . .
INSTRUCTIONS . .
INSTRUCTIONS . .
SYSTEM . .


TEST EXAMPLES
INSTRUCTIONS
ANSWER SHEET


SIGNS REVIEWED
ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS


INSTRUCTIONS .
STORY PARAGRAPH


* S S S S S S S S S S



* S S S S S S 5 0 5 5 5
* S S S S S S S S S S S


* S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
* S S S S S S S S S S S


INSTRUCTIONS .
INSTRUCTIONS FOR SECOND
FUNCTIONAL COMMUNICATION


VIEWING.
EVALUATION


SHEET


BIBLIOGRAPHY



BIOGRAPHICAL


SKETCH.


v ------










Abstract of Dissertation Presented


to the


Graduate Council of the University of Florida
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



MORPHOLOGY AND FUNCTIONAL COMMUNICATION
OF THE DEAF

By

Shannon Maureen Brumfield


June 1978


Chairman:


Edward C.


Hutchinson


Major Department:

Cochairman: Robe
Major Department:


Speech


irt J. Scholes
Speech


This investigation was conducted


to obtain information about two


distinct aspects of


the communicative ability of


the deaf.


The first


research question dealt with the ability and extent to which the deaf


are able to utilize and/or understand


the syntax of a natural language


(i.e.,


English).


Previous linguistic experiments conducted in the oral


or graphic mediums had raised a question as to whether


scores were the result of


low linguistic


true ignorance for a task or difficulty with


the testing medium itself.


The functional


communicative effectiveness


(FC) of


the deaf for


conveying specific information when allowed to utilize the preferred


visual-gestural, American Sign Language (AMESLAN)


communication method


was also investigated.


The second question was to determine the nature


of the relationship between linguistic scores and


judged level of FC










etiology,


dB loss


in the better


ear,


first


language


in the home,


other


hearing


and/or


impaired


sign,


family


when


members,


finger


persons


spelling


at home


was first


can finger


acquired,


spell


number


years


at Florida


School


for the Deaf


and Blind


(FSDB)


reading


level,


age,


race,


sex.


.Tho Rorrv-Tnlhntt


L.anua e
u g


- - ~' - p -


Tests


Comprehension


of Grammar


(BTT),


a test


of morphology,


was administered


two distinct


testing


situations.


One preserved


the traditional


testing


format


of graphic


presentation


response.


finger


The other


spelling


presented


and signed


English


same


test


presentation


stimuli


where


a video


the subject


taped,


finger


spelled


response.


A paired


difference


t-statistic


revealed


a signifi-


cant


difference


correct


responses


in favor


of the graphic


presentation.


For the FC


told


rating


in his preferred


the subject


manner


read


a simple


communication.


paragraph


This


which


story was


video


taped


for later


scoring


groups


of judges


who were


fluent


in sign


and finger


spelling.


Performance


was rated


on a general


quality


scale


and on the inclusion


of specific


main


and detail


items


of the


story.


Analysis


of the Quality


Score


showed


the deaf


students


to be


slightly


below


average


in their


communicative


ability.


Graphic


scores


and Manual


scores


and Graphic


scores


and FC


ratings


were


highly


correlated


at the


.01 level.


Manual


scores


and FC


ratings


were


not correlated.


Regression models


were


developed


for prediction of


the variance


within


the dependent


variables


Graphic


BTT,


Manual


BTT,


and FC


as a


re-


r ir~

















CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


process


of language


acquisition


is dependent


upon many


biologi-


cal and environmental


factors.


Among


the sensory modalities


the auditory


form

of th

curso

limit


is of prime

is modality

ry comparison


ed


verbal


importance

usually ha


of hearing


expression


for normal


s a disastro


and deaf


of the childr


acquisition

us effect o

children re

en deprived


to occur.


n language.


veals


Deprivation


Even


the extremely


of auditory


stimula-


tion.


a report


to the Committee


on the Education


of the Deaf


Morton


in 1965


stated,


in addition


to other


information,


that


average


for the deaf


graduate
- the cl


a public


osest we


residential


school


have to generally


available


"high


schools" for


the deaf


has,


in ef-


feet,


an eighth grade


education.


Seniors
college


at Gallaudet


for the


deaf,


College,


rank


the nation'


close


to the


only


bottom


in performance


on the Graduate


Record


Exam. (p


. 108)


This


situation


has remained


relatively


unchanged


years


later.


Anken


and Holmes


reported


in 1977


that


even


after


years


of extensive


education


with


an overwhelming


emphasis


on language,


the linguistic


per-


formance


of the


average


prelingually


deaf


adolescent


has remained


tremely


poor


in the


areas


of reading


and written


composition.


ex-









such as etiology,


early


language stimulation and method of classroom


instruction.


Additional research has also been conducted to obtain in-


formation concerning performance on cognitive tasks, specific linguistic


tasks,


pertinent qualities of American Sign Language (AMESLAN)


as well


as the ability of


the deaf to precisely communicate information utilizing


their own visual-gestural


(sign language)


system of communication.


The present investigation was conducted


to obtain information about


two distinct aspects of the communicative ability of deaf adolescents.


The Berry-Talbott Test of Morphological and Derivational Rules


(BTT)


(Berry,


1966) was used to compare linguistic skills for specific mor-


phological items which were presented in two separate conditions--graphic


presentation and manual presentation.


The graphic and manual BTT scores


were then compared.


A measure was obtained of


the subject's communicative effective-


ness,


Functional Communication


, for conveying specific information


when allowed to utilize his preferred visual-gestural


(AMESLAN) communi-


cation method.


This FC score was compared with both BTT scores.


Finally


the two BTT scores and the FC scores were compared


to the subject's en-


vironmental,


educational,


and medical data.


















CHAPTER


REVIEW


OF THE RELATED


LITERATURE


Introduction


Because


some


correlation


between


the performance


of the deaf


the hard-of-hearing


has been


established,


pertinent


studies


with


latter

in deaf


group are

education


included


is locat


in the literature

ed in the first s


review.


section.


A review

The second


of theories

section


contains


theories


on the validity


of AMESLAN


as an effective


communica-


tion


system.


An examination


of the performance


the deaf


on language


assessment


tasks


is the main


topic


for the third


section.


Both


cogni-


tive


and syntactical


tasks


and their


evaluation


procedures


are included.


Specific


morphological


assessments


are found


in the fourth


section.


The rationale


and previous


usage


of the BTT


is also


reported.


Finally


a statement


of the problem


for this


investigation


is presented.


Theories


in Deaf


Education


Introduction


Debates


as to the


exact


format


of deaf


education


have


prevailed


over


centuries.


one side


there


are the educators


who take


some


form


of linguistic


viewpoint


- -


where


it is paramount


1- -


that

--4


the child b

I


e exposed

*


m


r


. I










purely


oral


school,


finger


spelling


and/or


signed


English


approaches.


(The


latter


two methodologies


are direct


mappings


of visual


clues


upon


spoken


English.)


among


these


groups


themselves


there


are disagree-


ments


as to the best


methodology


for implementing


language.


contrast


some


educators


feel


that


it is


more


important


for the


deaf


to first


acquire


form


of communication


system.


(This


would


necessarily


preclude


learning


traditional


English


at some


later


age.)


group


that


considers


AMESLAN


to be the primary


language


of the deaf


advo-


cates


this


system of


deaf


education.


The obvious


example


for their


tionale


is the markedly


superior


communicative


ability


of deaf


children


deaf


parents,


are exposed


an early


form of


communication


as opposed


to the generally


parents,


inferior


are usually


communica tive


deprived


abilities


of such


of deaf


a system.


children


However,


hear-


this


visual-gestural


viewed


system


as an inferior


has been


communicative


traditionally,


system


incapable


in many


cases


of expressing


still


any-


thing


very


simple


concrete


needs.


For this


reason


it has


been


only


cently


that


researchers


have


even


considered


studying


the basic


properties


and communicative


effectiveness


of AMESLAN


as a language


system.


Some


mni-


tial


experiments


support


the traditional


view


(Schlesinger,


1971)


whereas


other


than


investigators


previously


have


thought


found


this


(Bellugi


communication


Fischer


, 1972;


system more


Bode


sophisticated


1974).


An overview


of traditional


contemporary


philosophies


and the


suing


controversies


in deaf


education


is included


in this


section.


ra-


re-


en-










rare


to find


someone


opposed


earlier


diagnosis


of the problem


and immediate


amplification


and extensive


language


intervention.


There


however,


some


controversy


as to the


exact


manner


for implementation


of this


training.


The debate


of Oralism


Manualism


is practically


as old as deaf


education


itself.


Very


generally


the oral


group


believes


that


instruc-


tion


should


be purely


oral


and emphasizes


amplification,


training


residual


hearing,


and speech


reading.


manual


group


for the most


part,


also


believes


that


everything


previously


cited


important


how-


ever


, they


also


emphasize


the addition


of visual


clues


to the speech


code


either


finger


spelling,


signing


or both.


Arguments


for Oralism


are strong


and impressive.


Most


of the


world


s population


do hear; so


it is important


that


the deaf


child


integrate


into


this


society.


Signing


sort


is emphatically


discouraged


since


is believed


that


it will


contaminate


even


pre-


ven t


speech


development.


Without


signs


the deaf


child


is free


to develop


in an


unhindered


manner


more


"natural"''


mode


speech.


Signing


also


discouraged


for the additional


reason


that


it is


believed


to be


inferior


language


that


will


only


confuse


and confine


the natural


lan-


guage


development


of the child


because


signs


are viewed


as too inefficient


a method


to allow


for the subtleties


of normal


language.


These


arguments


are very


attractive


to the hearing


parents


of deaf


infants.


They


offer


glowing


hope


that


through


constant


language


stimula-


tion


someday


their


child


will


overcome


his handicap


and utilize


speech










Manualism


has an early


history


in the United


States.


French


Method (s

Gallaudet


igns)


College


was brought


today


to this


conducts


country


instruction


Edwar

using


Gallaudet


signs.


Wh il


and

e the


Manualists would not


deny


the child's


need


to speak


and learn


traditional


English, they


believe


that


some


sort


of visual


clue


will


enhance


this


process.


does


They


not give


contend

adequate


that the Oralist' s

visual information


emphasis

about th


on speech


e language


reading

content.


It has been


shown


Alterman


(1970)


that


only


20%-40%


of English


phonemes


are visible


on the lips.


movements


are transient


and quite


fine.


They


therefore


place


a great


strain


on visual


proficiency


memory.


Pelson


and Prather


(1974)


found


that


reading


performance


deteriorated so

The performance


mewhat w

of both


ith


groups


for both

was much


normal

better


and hearing

for phrases


impaired.


sentences


than fo

are the


r isolated


ones


words.


who have


It is often


the best


said


knowledge


that


the best


grammar


a good


readers

vocabulary


and a good


ability


to guess


at ambiguous


content.


Speech may


be the natural


mod e


of language


acquisition


for the


hearing


child


but if this


process


is dependent


on an intact


auditory


feedback


this


loop


auditory


as Fry

feedback


(1966) b

k speech


believed,


then


in the absence


not be the ideal


medium


or deficit


for communica-


tion


the deaf.


The Manualists


are quick


to elucidate


that


today


the deaf


popula-


tion


differs


from


one of 30


years


ago.


Now almost


all of the chil-


dren


are congenitally


or prelinguall


y deaf


whereas


in the 1940's











Much


of this


debate


can be related


to the heterogeneity


of the


deaf


population


itself.


The etiology


of deafness


is extremely


varied.


Therefore


it would


not be surprising


to discover


differences


in language


abilities


with


variations


in other


variables


such


as IQ


, dB loss,


educa-


tional


experience,


or anything


else.


Now,


only


about


5% of the population


come


deaf


postlingually


as opposed


to around


35% in 1940


(Vernon,


1968).


Today


rubella,


when


contracted


the mother


during


state


pregnancy


one of the


most


frequent


causes


of deafness.


The effect


this


disease


so in-


sidious


that


even


if the mother


should


contact


such


a mild


case


that


unaware


any pathology


it is


not unlikely


that


the baby will


have


a congenital


hearing


defect.


a little


less


than


one-half


of the


cases


the etiology


of deaf-


ness


is unknown.


exist


in isolation


but is frequently


accompanied


other


disabilities


which


may be congenital


or acquired.


There


is less


possibility


for accompany in


anomalies


for deaf


children


with


deaf


parents


since


in these


cases


the disability


is attributed


largely


to hereditary


factors.


a large


survey


Schein


(1975)


discovered


that


or more


deaf


school


children


had additional


disabilities.


It has been


noted


that


four


of the five


other


etiologies


commonly


associated


with


deafness


are also


associated


with


congenital


brain


damage.


The damage


in these


cases


very


subtle


and masked


the overwhelming


variable


of deafness.


Con-


* 1


r ., n. ty. nn r tb~A c, t Ac, AFfi',l -i- A t-r


nnrl r-


;t ic~


tn rip~art


nnnIr nn Ct ~r


mn thn rl ~


...- 1


ft r/- *-1


i t k nIl"rr nn r


y











Current


Theories


one time


the Manualists


not have


an adequate


reply


for the


contention


that


AMESLAN


was a poor


and inferior


language.


At best


that


could


be said


was that


AMESLAN


did afford


the deaf


some


medium of


communication.


Recent


preliminary


research


has revealed


that


AMESLAN


is really


more


sophisticated


than


previously


believed


(Bellugi


Fischer,


1972;


Cutting


Kavanagh,


1975).


It has also


been


noted


that


just


as spoken


language


has certain


phonemes


with


specific


boundaries,


signs


also


possess


equivalent


restric-


tions.


Signs


are a


unique


combination


of three


parameters:


place,


in relation


to body


parts,


where


the sign


begins


and ends, (b)


appearance


of the hand


tha t


forms


the sign


itself,


and (


action


the sign


(Kan-


napell,

signers


1974).

report


equivalent


it has been


of these


seeing


to "slips


observed


sign


of the


that


parameter

as either


tongue


the deaf


are violated


incorrect


" (Cutting


have


then


native


, dialectical,


Kavanagh,


their


1975).


own humor


or the


Indeed


puns.


There

as to the be


has been much

st method for


disagreement


implementing


among


the Manualists


the visual


clues.


themselves


Hollis


Carrier


(1975)


cited


the work


of Premack


to support


the hypothesis


that


using


a nonspeech


mode


to implement


a set of comprehensive


concepts


would


make


it easier


to learn


more


functional


mode


of speech.


Kannapell


(1974)


thought


of AMESLAN


as the "mother


tongue"


sug-


gested


that


current


trends


in bilingual


education


be followed


in refer-


- ~ ~ ~ t '.. -A-a- L.,^r...- ,.A 4, r *t f


V...r

t\ n n n rl


,,,,~:,1


t


n ~ n rrv nm


rrrcr










sign


have


only


meaning


in AMESLAN


seven


ral in


signed


English.


Inflections


affixed


a sign


not allow


for the
words.


ular


Engli


formations


for certain


Stress is
therefore,
derivation


equal
the d


can occur


and is


taught


have


as in adj


mainly
no idea


for adverbs;


that


ectives.


other


418)


Others


view


finger


spelling


as the ideal


visual


clue


for the deaf


child.


proponents


argue


that


since


it is


an exact


letter


for letter


duplication


of spoken


English


it will


give


the child


an exact


knowledge


of his language


is used


the Soviet


for every wo


Union,


preserve

rd that


for isolated


traditional

is spoken.


words


grammar.


However,


to help


Usually


finger


be used


in clarification


spelling

as in


(Morkovin,


1968).


Hoemann


(1974) found


that


use of finger


spelling


did favorably


influence


the deaf'


ability


to label


pictures.


did caution


that


must


be introduced


at the beginning


of formal


education.


When


it is first


presented


letter


young


but by


child


the unique


does


hand


recognize


configurations


a word


which


spelling


compose


out each


a particular


word.


Some


of the


arguments


against lip reading


can also


be levelled,


to some degree at


least,


against


finger


spelling.


The latter


is also


fleeting,


visually


small


and somewhat


context


specific.


At the speed


of conversation


precise


letter


configuration


not reached


before


movement

The Or


toward


alists'


next


objection


letter

n that


begins

finger


(Fisher


spelling


lHusa,


hinders


1973).


develop-









Summary


of Philosophies


in Deaf


Education


A review


of philosophies


in deaf


education


has indicated


the fol-


lowing:


Advocates


of Oral


and Manual


education


agree


on such


issues


early


diagnosis,


immediate


amplification,


and extensive


language


inter-


vention.


The Oralists


emphasize


oral


instruction,


auditory


training,


and lip


reading.


The Manualists


agree


that


all activities


in the above


item


are important;


however,


they


also


believe


that


additional


visual


clues


are necessary


to aid the deaf


s acquisition


of language.


There


has been


no evidence


that


signing


or finger


spelling


hinder s


the speech


of the deaf.


There


are disagreements


among


the Manualists


themselves


as to


the best


method


for language


intervention:


finger


spelling--which


spells


each


word


as it is simul-


taneously


spoken


signed


English--which


is also


a direct


mapping


to the


spoken


Engli


except


that


signs


as well


as finger


spelling


are utilized


AMESLAN--which


is the


unique


language


of the deaf


and does


not have


same


properties


or syntax


of spoken


traditional


English


English


as a second


language--which,


as an instructional










A nonsense


test


of morphology


utilizing


a manual


(signed


English)


as well


as the


more


traditional


graphic


mediums


for item


presentation


response


would:


precisely


define


points


of deviancy


give


educators


of the deaf


insight


into


their


present


and future


instructional


format


providing


evidence


for possible modi-


fiction.


A communicative


effectiveness


rating


based


on the subject's


ability


convey


some


standard


prose


in his preferred


visual-gestural


(AMESLAN)


medium would:


give


insight


as to the communicative


ability


level


the deaf,


as well


as the effectiveness


of AMESLAN


itself


convey


thoughts


and ideas


contribute


more


information


in the still


relatively


known


area


of AMESLAN


discern


correlation


on specific


linguistic


tasks


is related


to general


communicative


effectiveness


when


utilizing AMESLAN.


American


Sign


Language


as an Effective


Communication


System


Introduction


In this


communicative


approach


with


the deaf


concern


much


with


the particular


morphemes


or syntax


of traditional


languages


(i.e.,


English,


French,


Aztec,


Japanese,


etc.)


but rather with


com-


un-










gesturing,

English, a


and signing.


[plethora


It is known

ideas--ideas


that

such


in natural

as causality


languages,

("Getting


such


hit by


the ba t


mad e


John


cry.


abstract


concepts


can be


adequately


com-


municated.


One of the questions


most


frequently


asked


about


AMESLAN


that


of its communicative


of natural


(traditional)


effectiveness

languages. Is


when


there a


compared


to the efficiency


communication


deficiency


in this


particular


signing


system


even


when


employed


competent


signers?


Another


question


under


investigation


is whether


performance


on traditional


linguistic


tasks


give


some


indication


as to the general


communica-


tive


level


a deaf


subject


when


he is allowed


free


usage


of his


visual-gestural


Acquisition of


communication


Communication


system


Systems


convey


Normal


new


information.


and Deaf


Children


Around


the babbling


stage


of 4


or 5


month s


the deaf


child's


pro-


duction


begins


to differ


from


the normal


(Menyuk,


1969).


The hearing


child,

stantly


reinforced

repeating


hearing


nonsense


utterances,


syllables.


Naturally


amuse


the deaf


himself


child


con-


lacks


this


reinforcement.


Even


before


this


difference


in production


ticed


there


existed


an auditory


perceptual


difference


in that


the hear-


child


has been


responding


to sounds


localization,


discrimination


and increasing


sensitivity


to intonation


and rhythm.


ever


increasing


develops


between


the deaf


and hearing


child.


While


the hearing


child


gin to produce words


from


to 12 months,


this


not occur


for the deaf


child


until


or 4.


- 4


r~ ~ 4 **** t, r~tfl t*~ t~' .4 an n nr- nl r1aflhfC


nr, nrt


Fnr nnrnim 1


own


no-


0


~ ,,,,


1' --a nd


lan 01r9n~


Il~r. i


n-










time


then


the child


never


achieve


adult


competence


and performance


(Lennenberg,


1966).


Unfortunately


it is


not unusual


for language


stimu-


nation


for deaf


children


to begin


at the


time


of formal


education


which


is usually


around


of 6


or 7.


Hoemann


(1974) noted


that


the scho-


plastic


performance


of those


high


school


deaf


students


had a preschool


language


program was


significantly


better


than


their


peers


were


proved


this


experience.


Because


the deaf


population


uses


gestures


instead


of speech,


was once


thought


and in


some


cases


still


believed,


to be


a primitive


system which


could


only


be used


expressing


basic


needs.


Unfortunately


a very


primitive


gesture


system


is the only


means


communication


some


of the deaf.


These


people


are often


deaf


chil-


dren


of hearing


parents


and have


not been


exposed


to other


deaf


people.


Even


though


some


signs


seem


to be universal--as


in pointing


to the mouth


hungry


or "food"


--this


deaf


person,


for lack


of other


stimuli,


develops


own idiosyncratic


gesture


system.


Some


deaf


individuals


may develop


a more


regulated


system--due


part


to their


environment.


In schools


for the deaf


it is well


known


that


the children


do in fact


sign


when


the faculty


are not watching.


Later


if they


become


affiliated


with


other


members


of the deaf


community


their


signing


becomes


more


regulated


in that


certain


signs


are accepted


used


everyone


for a particular


word


or concept.


These


people


establish


a fairly


consistent


means


of gestural


communication.


As Bellugi


and Fischer (1972)


have


noted


there


are several


features










The above


authors


found


that


although


it took


longer


to sign


particular


word


than


say it,


the time


it took


a sentence


to sign


adjustments


was nearly


which


equal.


all signers


Research


so far has yielded


instinctively


utilize:


the following

"doing without"


or the exclusion


of words


which


not hinder


the intent


a statement


such


as the copula,


articles,


inflections, and


some


prepositions,


"incorporation"


indicate


or a slight


orientation,


variance


pronominalization,


a sign


number,


which


be utilized


manner,


size,


shape,


and (c)


bodily


or facial


shifts.


Not surprisingly


the above


three


signing


universals


are elements


that


have


and still


do lead


people


to believe


that


signing


a very


primitive


language.


Deaf


children


of deaf


parents


have


consistently


performed


better


than


deaf


children


of hearing


parents.


For the former


their


sign


vocabu-


lary


natural


appears


a little


earlier


than


words


in the hearing


child


(Stokoe,


1975).


This


sign


vocabulary


grows


at the


same


rate


as a speech


vocabulary.


One of the


reasons


for this


parallel


acquisition,


at least


in the


rather


early


stages


thus


far investigated,


could


be the early


interven-


tion


on the


part


of the deaf


parents


with


a communication


system which


the child


could


employ


in much


same


manner


that


the hearing


child


employs


speech.


Therefore,


the critical


language


period


not wasted.


It has been


suggested


that


perhaps


the deaf


follow


same


stages


acquisition


of certain


language


universalss"


--as


in the


use of negation










Research


in the development


of AMESLAN


in children


and the studies


of the properties


AMIESLAN


itself


are still


very


meager


and there


a current


debate


as to the validity


of AMESLAN


as a language


system.


Studies


Utilizing


Signs


for Communication


Schlesinger


(1971)


performed


an experiment


in which


his deaf


sub-


jects


were


encouraged


sign.


Results


indicated


that


even


when


per-


mitted


to utilize


their


gestural-visual


modalities


these


deaf


subjects


were


unable


to communicate


to each


other


the relationship


among


agent,


direct


object,


and indirect


object


from among


a set of picture


cards


permitting


all possible


mutations


of these


three


roles.


Because


these


results


it has been


hypothesized


that


since


deaf


fail


on certain


tasks


syntactic


ability,


even


cases


where


they


are permitted


use their


own gestural


communication,


that


they


lack


the means


of expressing


certain


relationships


and/or


they


totally


unaware


of these


relationships.


The implication


of the first


hypothesis


naturally


is that


gestural


communication


an inferior


language


because


of its inability


press


more


complex


and abstract


relationships.


Many


people


oppose


signs


this


very


reason.


It is felt


that


exposure


to signs


is contaminat-


in that


enrichments


it binds


afforded


signer


to the


traditional


concrete


language


such


and does


not allow


as abstraction,


per-


sonification, and humor.


There


however


anecdotal


evidence


a cer-


type


of humor


typical


of the deaf


and therefore


named


"deaf


humor,


are


ex-


tain









The syntactic

Schlesinger e


underlying


structure


experiment


relationship


under


investigation


was the direct


was


a rather


in the previously


and indirect


simple


object,


one occurring


cited


and the


frequently


in daily


life.


Bode


(1974)


replicated


this


experiment


with


one important


differ-


ence. I

factors.


'he deaf

With


subjects


this


were


variable


matched

constant


on environmental

her subjects had


and cultural


little difficulty


differentiating


their


partner's


signed


message


for the appropriate


direct


and indirect


subjects


object


not only


from


knew


among


about


a set of ambiguous


the relationship


pictures.


of this


concept


These


deaf


could


successfully


Prose and AM


communicate


ESLAN


to others.


Communication


Previous


investigators


have


analyzed


the deaf's


ability


com-


municate


words


and specific


sentence


structures


in AMESLAN.


formal-


ized"


analysis


has been


made


of the deaf


s ability


to utilize


AMESLAN


to effectively


communicate


prose.


Usage of "formalized"


in this


instance


is the requirement


to communicate


items


a specific


paragraph,


mere


retelling


a story


or event


with


which


the subject


is already


familiar.


Since


we are interested


in the communication


effectiveness


of what-


ever


signalling


system


is utilized, the


Semantic


Observational Approach


(for


rating


would


be the method


to employ.


This


approach


main

ideas


principles:

themselves.


a reality


and (b)


principle--which


a cooperative


is concerned


orincinle--which


with


is concerned


two











what


information


the listener


needs


to know


and keep


the conversation


pertinent


to the desired


goal


or issue


of the subject


(Clark &


Clark,


Chapter


1977).


Memory


a vital


component


prose


recall


consequent


com-


munication


to others.


performance


of normals


on certain


tasks


memory


is briefly


of previous


reviewed


experiments


(see


here;


and it will


section


three,


be assume

Cognitive


from


Research


the data

h) that


the cognitive


processes


of the deaf


for semantic


organization


are corn-


parable


to those


of normals.


a paragraph


recall


situation,


memory


(input,


storage,


output)


and linguistic

are lengthy, v


ability


ery


are main f

experiments


actors.


have


Because


been


stories


conducted


and paragraphs


on any subjects.


Mos t


of the


prose


recall


normals


is inferred


from


investigations


which


can study memory


a more


direct


manner.


These


studies


would


clude


investigations


with


words,


letters


, constituents,


sentences


for Short


or Long


Term Memory.


Clark


and Clark


(Chapter


, 1977)


cited


the following


as some


the crucial


fac tors


which


determine


memory


prose:


Type


of Language--as


a lecture,


story,


poem,


unrelat


sentences


a psychological


experiment


Input--as


cases


hear in


or reading


trial


and the


specific


instructions


as to what


to retain,


for example


word


for word


memorization,


general


particular


detention


. -


meaning


features


Interval--as


passage,


or notation


as in grammatical


in delayed


errors


or immediate


re-


r .


ma-










Certain


biases


are evident


in constructing


sentences


from memory:


input


of information


not actually


in the


sentence


tendency


towards


simple


(unmarked)


syntax


strong
appear


preference


in the initial


in English


for the subject


position


preference


for the affirmative


over


the negative


with


claus


a preference


to describe


events
Clark,


in order
Chapter


of their
, 1977)


actual


occurrence.(Clark


The kind


amount


of information


remembered


depends


critically


on the study


strategies


people


use.


This


can


seen


the different


performances


of people


are given


same


test


but presented


with


different


instructions.


There are


other


general


implications


evident


in memory


recall


tasks:


to obtain


meaning


rather


than


word


for word


retention


a tendency


to draw


the obvious


conclusion


a reliance
the reality


on world


knowledge


in conformity


with


principle


a tendency


use referents


--attempts


to integrate


new information


with


what


already


known


a tendency


towards


utili


zing


indirect


meaning where


listener


thinks


tries


was meant


to build
to build


the interpretations


a tendency
sentations


create


new


towards


where


creation


with


each


representations


of global


new sentence


unrelated


repre-


people
any single


sentence.


(Clark


Clark,


Chapter


, 1977)


As linguistic


ability


one of the


two essential


features


prose


recall,


it is


very


important


to remember


this


paramount


feature when











to effectively


communicate


new ideas,


communica tion


rather


than


linguistic


competence


is the


maJ or


issue.


Therefore


prose


passage


for this


study


is syntactically


relatively


simple.


Research


conducted


Odom and


Blanton


(1967)


indicated


that


syn-


tactic


order


not facilitate memory


recall


hearing


impaired


stu-


dents


as it did for the hearing.


The syntactically


ordered


stimuli


presented


in their


paired


associate


paradigm


consisted


of (a)


partial


sentences


[Verb


phrases


or partial [noun


(N)] and


V phrases


fragments


[partial


noun


phrases


and partial


verb


phrase


(VP)].


Other


stimuli


were


asyntactically


ordered.


Further


formance


research


the deaf


on the effect


and hearing was


of syntactic


conducted


order o

Tomblin


n recall

(1977).


per-

How-


ever,


he changed


his experimental


paradigm


from


that


of Odom and


Blanton.


He studied


immediate


recall


rather


than


recall


from


a paired


associate


task which


required


a longer


retention


period.


The stimuli


consisted


subject-verb-object


(s-v-o0)


strings


of 4


and 8


words


in length.


[Research


has shown


that


both


normals


(Clark


Clark,


Chapter


1977)


and especially


the deaf


(see


section


three,


Linguistic


Research)


biased


toward


this


syntactical


strategy.]


same


words


that


appeared


for the ordered


stimuli


were


recast


an asyntactical


manner


to form


the random


ordered


group.


Although


the hearing


impaired


group


per-


form


less


accurately


under


both


conditions


when


compared


with


their


hear-


peers,


analysis


revealed


a decided


preference


among


both


groups


r -- --x


A- -- -


are











rather


than


Long


Term Memory


and (b)


stimuli


material


which


utilized


the deaf's


predisposition


assign


the S-V-O


strategy


to all


phases


sentences.


There


Walter


have


Kintsch


been


(1977)


several

proposed


investigations

a hierarchical


prose


theory


recall


content


itself.


represen-


station


texts


amount


meaning


which might


be computed


phrases


within


a given


passage).


He admitted


tha t


his theory


was too general


too incomplete.


No processing models


were


given.


However


it does


afford


the researcher


some


rather


systematized


manner


in order


that


the investigation


meaning


texts


can become


the subject


of experimental


design.


Usage


a hierarchical


memory


model


not unique.


Collins


Quillian


(1969)


used


it in application


to words.


For example,


presen-


station


one word


as in "canary"


would


most


readily


activate


next


higher


category


this


case


"bird")


of which


it is


a member.


Kintsch' s


structured


theory


is based


hierarchically


on the hypothesis


a repetition


rule.


that


This


text


rule


bases


refers


the idea


that


given


a set of propositions


one (or


more)


is designated,


rather


arbitrarily


at this


time


the experimenter,


as the topical


thematic


element(


This


rule


would


thereby


specify which


propositions


are connected


to other


propositions,


thus


constituting


levels


hierarchy.


The thematic


proposition


at the


of the hierarchy.


For example,


a story


about


airplane


pilots


and their many


jobs


-. .. 4 S I


are


I 4


4


r


II..


.I


II










would


"transportation


between


cities


" "rescues,


and "dropping


food.


" A third


(subordinate)


level


of propositions


be determined


selecting


those


elements


which


share


agreement with


of the


sec-


ondary


level


propositions


not with


a first


level


proposition.


[Con-


tinuing with


the example,


the phrases


"of people


" "of freight,


mail"


would


all three


be third


(subordinate)


level


propositions


the second


(superordinate)


level


proposition


"transportation.


Kintsch


noted


that


as with


the thematic


proposition(


the superordinate


proposi-


tions


are chosen


intuitively.


Kintsch


was


interested


in evaluating


his theory


and chose


reading


rate


test


structure


as dependent


variables


for his experiment


since


one of the implications


of his hierarchical


theory


was


that


the number


of propositions


should


have


predictable


psychological


effects.


periments


with


the number


type


of propositions


as well


as syntactical


complexity was


tions


related


recalled.


to reading


summary


time


of the results


and the number


from


type


his experiments


of proposi-


tend


give


validity


to his theory.


Reading


time


can be


expre


ssed


as a linear


function


of the number


of propositions


process


sed during


reading


and the length


text.


Time


per propos


ition


is variable


sec.


short h
longest


iistori


narratives


psychological


sec


definition).


for the


The longest


paragraph


only


been


60 words.


manner


which


the subjects


process


a test


related


to the


propositions.
longer reading


A-


struck


Many


tural


-diffe


time than


relationship
rent-arguments
few-different-


among


require


arguments:


ex-


L










Superordinates


of their

A primacy


surface


were


better


structure


effect was


observ


recalled
or serial

ed for th


regardless
position.

e super-


ordinates.


No primacy


effect


was shown


for the subordinates.


recency


ordinates


effect was


noted


for both


and the subordinates.


(Kintsch,


super-
Chapter


1977)


No investigations


similar


to the


ones


above


have


been


conducted


with


the deaf


for either


communicative


or cognitive


information.


Summary


of American


Sign


Language


as an Effective


Communication


System


A review


of American


Sign


Language


as an effective


communicative


system


has revealed


the following:


one time


signs


were


only


viewed


as a very


primitive


method


to make


known


basic


wants


and needs.


Recent


research


has indicated


that


sign


language


does


have


certain


consistent


features


which


would


imply


that


it is


a more


sophisti-


cated


communication method


than


previously


thought.


Naturally more


search


as to the


exact


properties


involved


is needed.


Deaf


children


of deaf


parents


have


an advantage


over


their


peers


of hearing


parents


in that


the former


are given


a communication


system at


once


during


very


early


years


which


some


authors


believe


critical


more


sophisticated


language


acquisition.


Deaf


children


of deaf


parents


display


similar


stages


of in-


re-










It has been


advantage


shown


in traditional


tha t


language


deaf


children


learning


than


of deaf


deaf


parents


children


have


of hearing


parents.

guage ad


More


Vantage


research

persists


is needed

for older


to determine


deaf


if this


adolescents


traditional


for more


lan-


complex


syntactical


tasks.


There


as a communication


a great

system


controversy as

and its ability


to the validity

to adequately c


of AMESLAN


communicate


abstract


thoughts,


concepts


or basic


relationships.


Again,


more


search


is needed.


Because


of the specific


properties


of AMESLAN, the


ability


the deaf

has been


to communicate

questioned; th


concepts


erefore,


and ideas

a rating o


in their


f the deaf's


visual-gestural


ability


mode


com-


municate


in their


preferred


medium


(AMESLAN)


some


standard


paragraph


information


would:


give


additional


information


to this


debated


question


help


ascertain


if performance


on specific


linguistic


items


a reflection


of general


communicative


abilities


contribute


information


into


the relatively


unknown


area


of the deaf


s cognitive


processing


for memory


prose


when


test


design


and recall

compared w


ratings


ith


similar


his preliminary


to Kintsch's


theory


experimental


are utilized


findings


for hear


and results

ing subjects.


Language


Assessment


re-










here


one of communicative


effectiveness,


but rather


the ability


extent


to which


the deaf


are able


to utilize


and/or


understand


syntax of


a natural


language.


To what


extent


and in what


ways


does


syntax


of the deaf


differ


from


that


a hearing


child


acquiring


English?


Educators


of the deaf


have


continually


attempted,


albeit


for the


most


part


unsuccessfully,


to teach


English


from


infancy


through


young


adulthood ar

tic studies.


:e particularly

It would be


interested


invaluable


in the specific


to know


results


one testing


syntac-


procedure,


as opposed


to another,


would


more


indicative


the deaf


s true


lin-


guistic ability.

linguistic skills


It would


were


be equally


related


enlightening


anyway


to discover


to the overall


if specific


communicative


effectiveness


in situations


where AMESLAN


is used.


Language


was


first


assessed


indirectly


through


cognitive


tasks.


Later


studies


of specific


syntactic


structures were begun.


Both


cognitive


and specific


syntactic


research are presented


in this


section.


Cognitive


Research


People


have


traditionally


assumed


that


speech,


language,


thought


were


associated


with


each


other.


Speech


and language


have


ways


been


considered


primary


factors


for placing


humans


a rather


special


category


apart


from other


animals.


Speech


is acquired


by prac-


tically


everyone


and proceeds


along


fairly


consistent


stages


with


little


geographical


or cultural


variation.


Speech


was considered


the outward


manifestation


of the


presence


of lan


guage


Language


turn


was


viewed










which might


disrupt


acquisition


or interfere


with


language


already


acquired


was interpreted


for the specific


purpose


as an act


of teaching


the gods.

language w


Hence,


ras not even


intervention

considered.


As time


passed


speech


and lan


guage


were


no longer


thought


gifts


from


the gods.


However,


the b


elief


remained


that


the absence


outward


manifestation


of language


that


is, speech,


preempted


ability


to think


or reason.


An archaic


Spanish


rule


specified


that


deaf


children


who did


not speak were


not entitled


to inherit


the lands


their


parents.


(Naturally


these


parents


invested


a great


deal


of time


and effort


so that


their


deaf


child


could


utter


a few words


and thus


circumvent


the law.)


Remnants


of the association


of speech,


uage


and thought


remain


today


as in the


usage


of such


expressions


as "deaf


and dumb.


" Speech


pathologists


report


that


questions


often


arise


as to the


extent


of the


cognitive


ability


a speechless


individual.


Cutting


and Kavanagh


(1975)


presented


a good


framework


for viewing


speech and


language


which


were


seen


as "a


model


separate


entities


a symbiotic


partnership


performing


similar


functions


towards


similar


ends


but at different


levels"


503).


Caution


was


offered


about


danger


of forgetting


the interrelated


functions


of these


two systems.


However,


according


to their


theory


speech


works


upward


in the conmmunica-


tion


chain


to constrain


and alter


language


while


language


descends


the opposite


direction


to alter


speech,


the vocal


tract,


and perhaps


ri- on-r










and in the child,


and (c)


comparison


of sign


language


to speech.


It was


concluded


that


was possible


to have


speech


without


language


in fluent


aphasics


and babbling


infants)


and language


without


speech


in oral


apraxia).


However,


there


were


several


different


opinions


as to possible


entries


for the


category


of language


without


speech.


Would


it be


ceptable


gory?


to place


the chimpan


As for the deaf


zees


Furth's


book,


use


signs


Thinking


or symbols


Without


in this


Language


cate-


(1966),


was evidence


for the position


whereas


Bellugi


and Klima's


book,


Signs


Language


press)


was


evidence


for another


position.


However,


the absence


of speech


does


not necessarily


presuppose


absence


of language


and/or


thought.


Because


of the heterogeneity


of the


deaf,


language


assessment


has alwa


been


difficult.


Therefore


popular method


has been


to relate


language


to cognition


concept


formation


and then- evaluate


performance


on language


free


tasks.


Perhaps


the most


prolific


writer


in this


field


has been Hans


Furth.


He summarized


his results


(1966)


for the performance


of deaf


children


on certain


Piagetian


tasks


and concluded


that


their


performance


sentially


same


as that


of hearing


children.


Thus,


at least


for the


ages


concepts


evaluated,


the linguistically


incompetent


deaf


performed


cognitive


tasks


on a par


with


their


hearing


peers.


His results


are not without


contradiction,


but Furth


attributes


poorer


performance


the deaf


in these


studies


to the influence


environmental


factors


and/or


test


design.


In fact,


the detrimental


man


ac-


one


was


es-











In a


review


of all studies


conducted


with


deaf


and hearing


children,


Furth


(1971)


attempted


to isolate


the effects


of linguistic


deficiency.


Areas


were


grouped


according


rule


learning,


logical


symbols,


Piagetian


tasks


, (d)


memory,


and (e)


perception.


He concluded


that


a single


specific


cognitive


area


cannot


be designated


where


the deaf


per-


form


poorer


than


the hearing


controls.


Some areas where


younger


deaf


wer e


initially


poorer


were


located


but they


improved


with matura-


tion


and finally


equalled


the performance


with


their


hearing


peers.


The specific


tasks


must


be considered


when


interpreting


above


data.


Sinclair-De-Zwar t


(1969)


did find


syntactic


ability


cor-


related


with


the Piagetian


conservation


task.


This


result


was in opposi-


tion


to that


of Furth


whose


task


was more


elementary.


Goodnow


(1969)


cautioned


that


"type


thought


and "strength


or stability


of thought"


should


be considered


in that


is important


to test


familiar,


signifi-


cant material


to determine


what


the child


can do,


but it is equally


important


to discover


if the


response


is merely


a replication


past


experience


rather


than


an extension


experience.


Few studies


have


tried


assess


semantic


organization


through


language.


Tweney


and Hoemann


(1973)


chose


to ascertain


the development


of semantic


associations


in profoundly


deaf


children


with


regard


to the


syntagmatic-paradigmatic


shift.


Noun,


verb,


and adjective


associations


were


presented


signs


to the deaf.


This


very


related


shift


been


found


to occur


in hearing


children


between


ages


of 5


and 7.


n -


!L'r


1


Y


- -


nr 1


i II











Tweney


Hoemann,


and Andrews


(1975)


also


studied


semantic


organiza-


tion


through


the clustering


nouns


deaf


and hearing


subjects.


When


the stimuli


were


equally


familiar


to both


groups


no differences


in clus-


terings


were


found.


appears,


then,


that


for the relatively


elementary


types


of cogni-


tive


tasks


thus


far investigated


the performance


of deaf


children


similar,


although


at times


less


advanced,


when


compared


to that


of their


hearing


peers.


Linguistic


Research


Recently


researchers


have


investigated


the performance


of the deaf


on specific


syntactical


items.


These


investigations


which


focused


structures


revealed


more


descriptive


and quantitative


information about


the actual


linguistic


performance


the deaf


subject


than


the language-


free


cognitive


tasks.


Pertinent


studies


of the hard-of-hearing


are included


in this


sec-


tion


since


their


performance


reflects


many


of the


same


difficulties


the deaf.


Depending


upon


the specific


task,


an analysis


of the language


of normal,


hard-of-hearing


and deaf


children


usually


reveals


an approxi-


nation


the hard-of-hearing


group


to that


of the normals


a very


limited


and retarded


performance


the deaf.


However,


with


certain


more


sophisticated


syntactic


structures,


the hard-of-hearing


perform


very


similarly


to the deaf.


Sometimes


this


difficulty


is only


revealed


through


tests


explicitly


designed


assess


performance


on a particular










deficiencies


of the child


are quite


apparent.


many


tasks


per-


formance


is limited,


absent


or indicative


of immature


and/or


deviant


strategies.


Brannon


(1968)


compared


the spoken


output


of normal,


hard-of-hearing,


and deaf


children


according


a linguistic


word


class


system


devised


Jones,


Goodman,


and Wepman


(1963).


Fifty


spoken


responses


to pictures


were


recorded


from


each


with


the hearing


impaired


having


an additional


response


form


so that


they


could


write


each


response


as they


said


These


responses


were


then


classified


into


14 distinct


grammatical


classes.


The differences


in basic


vocabulary were


great


with


the normal


having


a vocabulary


of 10.876 words


and the hard-of-hearing


and deaf


having


vocabularies


of 4,440


and 3


256 words


respectively.


An analysis


according


to word


category


revealed


that


the hard-of-


hearing,


although


definitely


limited,


were


not significantly


different


from


the normal.


deficient


There


in adverbs,


was


pronouns,


a tendency


for the hard-of-hearing


and auxiliaries.


In comparison


to be


the deaf


were


deficient


in these


categories


as well


as in all of the remaining


ones.


Overusage


nouns


and articles


was noted


for both


hearing


paired


groups.


These


(Brannon


results


Hurry,


were


1966)


consistent


which


with


utilized


those


same


a previous


testing


study


procedures


analyzed


sentences


according


to categories


suggested


Myklebust


(1964)


Sentences


were


then


scored


as to


additions


, (b)


omissions,


(c) word


substitutions,


and (d)


word


order.


This


procedure


revealed










In order to determine a hierarchy for graphic,


phonetic, and as-


sociative characteristics in response selection Blanton, Nunnally, and


Odom (1967)


compared the performance of deaf


and hearing students on


three types of word association tasks which consisted of associative,

rhyming, and graphemic similarities.


Both groups had


the same order of preference:


associated, graphemi-


cally similar,


and rhyming pairs.


These results led


the authors to hy-


pothesize that the hearing and deaf subjects were using the same processes.

The deaf did indicate a greater tendency to associate words on the basis


of their graphemic similarity,


but this did not hinder their ability to


respond on the basis of other relationships.


Although hearing,


hard-of-hearing, and deaf


children may use the


same strategies on paired word association tasks,


written vocabulary of


the actual spoken and


the three groups was clearly distinguishable no


matter what categorization or scoring method was employed.


The hard-


of-hearing performance shadowed that of normals but showed deficiencies


in the usage of adverbs,


pronouns,


auxiliaries, and a tendency to over-


use simple S-V-O order in sentence

in a far more pronounced degree,


These same characteristics, but


were also observed for the deaf.


Rather than investigating mere word count and/or category differ-


ences,


other researchers have examined


the usage of


specific construc-


tions in the sentence unit considered


as a whole.


Wilcox and Tobin (1974)


investigated


the linguistic performance


Of ha rd-nf-hnrinQ no nrA thni n cn xr rhl/ron nn nar-nin ,ynrb ,'anerr.,nd*-4









constructions


were


considered:


present


tense,


the auxiliaries


beingn,


have+en,


will)


passive,


negative


passive.


There


were c

tions:


were


constructedd


two sets


and used


repetition


with


each


under


visual


of which


contained


the following


stimuli,


three


sentences


experimental


recall


where


which


condi-

pic-


ture


was


shown


and the appropriate


sentence was


required,


and (c)


repeti-


tion


without


visual


stimuli.


Both


groups


more


difficulty with


recall


task.


The performance


of the hearing


impaired


group


shadowed


that


of the normal


on all constructions


with


exception


of the auxiliary


have+en


and the


negative


passive.


The authors


interpreted


the results


as indicating


that


the hard-


of-hearing


performance


differed


in degree


rather


than


kind.


They


cited


the findings


of Menyuk


(1969)


for hearing


children


from


to 7


years


age.


as that


percentage


achieved


correct


Wilcox


for these


and Tobin' s


children


older


was


practically


but hard-of-hearing


same


children.


Correct


Usage


Menyuk


Wilcox &


Tobin


being


100%


100%


passive

have+en


292)


Quigley


and Power


(1973)


gave


three


types


of passive


sentences


a group


of deaf


children


rang


from


to 18


years.


Reversable,


non-reversable,


agent


deleted


reversable


passives


were


evaluated.


The subjects


were


required


to move


toys


representing


the subject


and ob-









a set of provided words.


Some of the words employed were:


was,


Verb-ed,


Verb-ing, and did.

Differences in performance and comprehension were seen as a func-


tion of age.


A hierarchy of difficulty appeared which from least to most


difficult was: n

deleted passives.


lonreversable passives,

Practically all of t


hension and production of


the passive by


reversable passives, and agent


:he hearing had mastered the compre-


8 whereas this was not the


case


for the deaf even at the


ages


of 17


or 18.


None of


the older deaf


adolescents met the


75% (items correct)


passing criterion for each struc-


ture.


The average correct


scores


for the older deaf adolescents were:


65% for nonreversable passives,


60% for reversable passives, and 35%


for agent deleted passives.


It seemed apparent that the deaf

as a marker for the passive. This str


often only used "by" of the agent


ategy coupled with the deaf's over-


use of S-V-O word order for sentence comprehension could cause them a


great deal of confusion especially in reading.


Hearing 3 year olds have


interpreted passives in this manner.

For correct interpretation of indirect and direct objects younger


children rely solely on the marker "to"


the girl.


as in "He gave the flowers to


Older children however can differentiate direct and indirect


objects by other strategies.


Sentence ambiguity may also be clarified


insertion of an article ("They fed her dog the candies" or "They


fed her the dog candies")


and (b)


appropriate disjuncture


as in a pause


or stress.










were


attending


9.5 19.4


classes


years.


in regular


Subjects


were


public

shown a


schools


series


and ranged

of slides w


in age


ith


from


each


slide


containing


four


pictures.


These


pictures


included


a "B


Reading"

ments as


where


in "The


the article was

ey .. the dog


inserted

candies"


before

thus


the last

rendering


two nominal

the entire


ele-

unit


as the indirect


object;


an "A Reading"


with


the insertion


of the


article


before


the last


nominal


as in "They


the candies"


thus


rendering


a single word


as the indirect


object;


and (


two other


ran-


domly


selected


pictures


from


other


test


sentences


which


bore


no re-


semblance


to the lexical


Subjects


were


items


presented


mentioned


in the


10 unambiguous


sentence


and 5


to be evaluated.


ambiguous


sentences.


"They


fed her dog


candies"


an example


one of the ambiguous


sen-


tences.


test


sentences


were


presented


both


orally


and graphically


as well


as a simultaneous


presentation


of the slide


pictures.


The sub-


ject


pointed


to the picture


number


which


corresponded


to the


sentence.


Lexical


errors,


the selection


of unrelated


pictures


to sentences,


were


practically


nonexistent.


However


average


14.5


year


old hard-


of-hearing


student


correctly


comprehended


only


59% of the unambiguous


sentences.


These


results


were


comparable


to the comprehension


a hear-


year


old.


age of 13 hearing


children


correctly


comprehended


91% of these


unambiguous


sentences.


The authors


noted


that


for the ambiguous


sentences


there


was a


preference


for the B


Readings


both


the hearing


and hard-of-hearing


groups.


This


preference


increased


with


s not present


in col-


--- .. -.


w










Scholes,


to 234 deaf


Cohen,and


students


Brumfield


in grades


press)


- 12 in


administered


a residential


a similar


school


task


for the deaf.


The similarity

hard-of-hearing


of the deaf's

students is


performance


quite


to that


remarkable.


of the public


The deaf


school


comprehended


of the unambiguous


sentences.


For the ambiguous


sentences


there


again


a preference


for the B


Reading


form.


This


might


suggest


that


deaf


, hard-of-hearing,


and hearing


shared


a comprehensional


strategy


bias.


Quigley


and Power


(1972)


began


the development


a Test


of Syntac-


tic Abilities


(TSA)


as part


a total


research


program


to evaluate


com-


prehension


and production


for the following


areas


determiners


, (b)


negation,


question


formation,


pronominalization,


reflexiviza-


tion,


the verb


system,


conj unction,


complementation,


and (i)


relativization.


Subtests


for nominalization


and several


aspects


com-


plementation


were


omitted


from


the final


version


of the TSA


because


authors


reported


little


understanding


of their


usage


18 and 19


year


old deaf


students


even


after


extensive


protesting.


For each


structure


under


investigation


the subject


the subtests


was required


to make


of the TSA

judgments


contained

as to the


written

correct


items

meaning


where

of the


stimulus

sentence


sentences


correct


and/or


determine


it when


necessary.


rammaticalness


The following


of the stimulus

are two examples:


The girl


hit the boy


went


home.


What


happened?


The girl


hit the bo


was










The girl


the girl


found


the ball


played


in the park.


Check


ONE box.


sentence


Right


Go to 2.


Wrong


Change


sentence


to make


it RIGHT.


Write


the right


sentence


here


(Quigley


Smith,


Wilbur


, 1974,


329)


Utilizing


a subtest


of the TSA


Quigley


Wilbur,


and Montanelli


(1974)


investigated


question


formation


the deaf.


Results


indicated


increasing


improvement


for the deaf


with


age.


However


even


youngest


hearing


than


subject t


the majority


n the third grade

of the older deaf


consistently


subjects.


obtained

response


higher


scores


hierarchy


appear


for both


groups


with


the best


comprehension


for yes/no


questions


followed


Wh- questions.


questions


proved


to be the


most


diffi-


cult.


Quigley


Smith


and Wilbur


(1974)


again


employed


subtests


of the


to stud


relativized


sentences


in the deaf.


The clauses


were


classi-


field


according


placement


[final


or medial


(M)]


and (b)


func-


tion


of the relative


pronoun


(subject


or object,


with


or without


a pro-


noun).


Results


of the processing


test


again


demonstrated


a marked


supe-


priority


the 10


year


old hearing


subjects


(83%


correct)


when


compared


with


the 18


year


old deaf


subjects


correct).


For both


groups


hierarchy


of difficult


existed


with


easiest


pronoun


for both


groups










The deaf


showed


mor e


improvement


with


for the final


position


with


correct


at age


as compared


with


only


correct


How-


ever,


increased


performance


with


was not witnessed


for the medial


position

similar


which revealed

to the 10 year


correct


old hearing


at age

subjects


This


response


latter s

s of 68%


core


correct


for the medial


position.


When


presented


with


embedded


sentences


the deaf


frequently


inap-


propriately


deleted


noun


phrase


in the following manner:


"The


chased


the girl


on a


red dress


The deaf


showed


particular


dif-


ficulty with


of possession


the possessive.


"who"


Older


a relative


groups


clause,


accept


and they


also


proper


form


recognized


as incorrect


sentences


where


possessive


was required


present.


However,


they were


also


unable


to recognize


as incorrect


sen-


tences with


possessive


form noun


phrase


where


was


required,


such


helped


the boy'


mo their


was sick.


A study


Davis


and Blasdell


(1975)


revealed


that


the hard-of-


hearing


also


had difficulty with


relative


clauses


purpose


of the


investigation


was to ascertain


certain


perceptual


strategies of


hearing


and hard-of-hearing


children


aged


years.


Sentence


stimuli


of the


following


form were


read


to the children:


man who


chased


the sheep


The children


pointed


to the


appropriate


picture


from


among


a choice


was


'B ss


I'who s e''










N1 VI N2 (The
comprehension


man


chased the sheep).


underlyin


This involved


state


gy -- S -V-0


N2 V2 N3 (The


indi


cated


underlying


ate the


a failure t
sentences.


grass


comprehend


This


either


response
of the 2


N2 VI N1 (The


sheep


the man).


response


refl


ecte


a failure


comprehend


either of


base


sentences


and could have resulted


from


use of


exical


items


as a bas


compre-


hension.(p.


285)


Results


indicated


a quantative


and qualitative


difference


in the


scores


of the


two


groups.


Although


both


groups


placed


more


emphasis


on making


the first


noun


the subject,


this


was more


often


true


for the hearing


group


(92%)


than


for the hard-of-hearing


group


(74%).


Among


the latter


group


there


was also


a marked


tendency


use the confused


strategy


V2 N3)


of takin


the object


of the relative


clause


and making


it the


subject


and using


the verb


noun


immediately


following


as the main


verb


and object.


This


type


response


persisted


in spite


of the fact


that


it necessitated


acceptance


a verb


that


appear


in the


stimulus


sentence.


This


acceptance


a totally


new verb


is important


in that


it in-


dicated


an overwhelming


tendency


of the hearing


impaired


toward


this


type


strategy.


In the Quigley


Smith,


and Wilbur


(1974)


experiment


required


responses


were


yes/no


to several


written


sentences


to determine


correct


perception


the stimulus


sentence.


deaf


might


easily


interpret


in his


sentences


the N2 of the embedded


clause


as the "logical"


subject


of V2.


The following


sentence


provides


an example


from


one of










However,


the overwhelming


preference


for an N2


V2 N3


strategy


obvious


in the above


example


because,


unlike


the Davis


and Blasdell


study


there


no need


to accept


a new verb.


"The


went


home"


more


likely


occur


than


"The


sheep


cut the


grass.


Wilbur,


sub tests


Quigley


of the TSA


and Montanelli


to investigate


(1975)


the deaf


administered

s performance


appropriate

on conjoined


sentences.


Results


indicated


that


production


of conjoined


sentences


more


difficult


than


judgments


of grammaticalness.


For the deaf


subjects


conjoined


subjects


were


easiest


followed


conjoined


objects


and conjoined


verb


phrases.


The general


pattern


of development


again


seemed


to shadow


that


of the hearing


subjects.


However


some


syntactic


deviations


were


found


to be peculiar


to the deaf


and resistant


to im-


provement with


age.


It appeared


that


the deaf


not mastered


a rule


of conjunction


in which


the subjects


of the


two sentences


must


serve


same


function.


In the following


two sentences


"The


kicked


and "The


cat ran away,


it seemed


many


of the deaf


that


the bo


ran away.


To ascertain


the deaf'


performance


on verb


inflections


and auxil-


diaries


Quigley,


Montanelli,


and Wilbur


(1976)


compared


the performance


of deaf


students


ages


- 19


years


with


that


of hearing students with


an age range


of 8


- 10


years


on the following


aspects


of the verb


system:


auxiliary


verbs


tense


sequencing,


verb


deletion,


and the confusion


and "have.


" The


appropriate


sub tests


of TSA


were


employed.


Results


revealed


extreme


difficulty


that


deaf


students


had with


was


cat


was


"be"










than


the 10 year old hearing


subjects.


A hierarchy


of difficulty


tense


could


be observed


which


from


least


to most


difficult was:


simple


past,


future,


present


progressive


, perfective,


and passive.


These


suits


concurred


with


those


which


Wilcox


and Tobin


(1974)


found for


their


younger


hard-of-hearing


students.


Judgments


of grammaticalness


did improve


for the deaf,


but this


was discovered


to be caused


an increased


awareness


the older


deaf


subjects

increased


Even


to judge

ability


if the deaf


incorrect

to recogni

did recogni


sentences as

ze a correct

ze a sentence


ungrammatical


sentence

as being


rather


as being gr

incorrect,


than


"ammatical.

as in verb


deletion,


they


were


quite


often


unable


to supply


a verb


that


was correct


in either


number


or tense.


This


difficulty


was similar


to the results


in the Wilcox


and Tobin


(1974)


study


where


there


was a marked


tendency


to confuse


"have"


and "be.


Summary


of the Review


of Language


Assessment


review


of language


assessment


has indicated


the following:


Language


and cognition may


be unrelated


to the


extent


that


young deaf


and hearing


children


usually


displayed


similar


performances


on elementary


Piagetian


tasks,


and both


groups


had no difficulty with


the semantical


organization


nouns


verbs


and adjectives


if the word


stimuli


were


familiar


to them.


However,


there


was


a question


as to the relationship


of language


cognition


with


an increase


age.


Sinclair-De-Zwart


found


re-










There


was a tendency


for hearing,


hard-of-hearing,


and deaf


to prefer


same


problem


solving


strategies.


a paired


word


test,


all three


groups


preferred


asso-


ciation,


followed


graphemically


similar,


and rhyming


pairs.


a sentence


repetition


task


under


three


experimental


conditions


the hard-of-hearing


and hearing


had the


most


difficulty with


the recall


task.


A tendency


with


an increased


interpretation


Readings


(Ar t


+ N)


for ambiguous


direct


and indirect


object


sen-


tences was


observed


among


the hearing,


hard-of-hear ing,


and deaf.


Although


even


the oldest


deaf


subjects


often


scored


lower


than


youngest


hearing


subjects,


the deaf


appeared


to follow


same


pat-


tern


acquisition


as the hearing


in that


the deaf


did acquire,


although


in many


cases


after


a delay


of several


years,


some


of the earliest


pearing


syntactical


forms:


present


past


tense


pluralization


yes/no


questions


relativized


clauses


in the final


position.


Other


data


indicated


that


some


structures


the deaf


showed


more


than


a gross


delay


but rather


a chance


performance


which


indicated


no valid


knowledge


of the particular


structure


under


scrutiny.


Passives


were


usually


acquired


hearing


children


T










old hearing


child.


Even


age 18,


the deaf


student


performed


correctly


65% for


non-reversable


passives,


60% for reversable


passives,


35% for


agent


deleted


passives.


Indirect


and direct


object


distinctions


were


initially


correctly


comprehend


hard-of-hearing,


through


and deaf


use of the marker


children.


"to"


hearing,


age of 13 the hearing


chil-


dren

tions


had acquired


with


additional


accuracy.


strategies


However,


and could


hard-of-hearing


make


the object


subjects


14.


distinc-

5 years


age comprehended


these


distinctions


with


only


Deaf


children


16.5


years


were


able


to comprehend


only


of these


struc-


tures.


Sentence


comprehension


for certain


question


formations


year


old deaf


subjects


revealed


a correct


performance


70% for


Wh- questions


60% for


tag questions.


For medial


embedded


relativized


clauses


che 19


year


deaf


scored


correct


which


is comparable


to 68%


correct


for a hearing


student


Deviant


strategies


were


observed


in the performances


of the


hard-of-hearing


and deaf


in their


confusion


of the verb


"be"


and "have"


inability


recognize


the need


for the possessive


noun


phrase


"whose"


tendency


to take


the object


of the embedded


relative


accuracy











Previous


syntactic


studies


were


conducted


in either


the graphic


or oral


There


medium which


a possibility


required


that


either


poor


graphic


performance


oral,


resulted


or pointing


more


response.


from


deaf


subject


s difficulty


in expressing


himself


in the required


test


format


rather


than


his lack


of English


syntax.


Tweney


et al.


(1975)


found


no differences


in semantic


categorization


between


deaf


and hearing


subjects


when


the stimuli


were


signed


to the deaf.


If the


same


test


were


given


under


two separate


conditions--one


utilizing


traditional


graphic


stimuli


responses


and the other


condi-


tion


employing


a format


more


indigenous


for the deaf


(signing


and finger


spelling)


for stimuli


presentation


and subject


responses,


scores


would:


answer


questions


as to the


true


linguistic


ability


of the


deaf


for these


items


serve


as a possible


design


for future


linguistic


investi-


gations


with


this


population.


The studies


indicated


that


knowledge


of syntactical


structures


in the deaf

appropriate


could


be classified


or deviant


strategies,


Sto delay

and comply


in acquisition,


absence


usage


of certain


of in-

struc-


tures.


Further


research


with


different


age groups


on language


structures


is needed


to help


ascertain:


which


or all of the above


conditions


is applicable


to specific


structures










Morphological


Assessment


Introduction


The communicative


ability


of the deaf


is examined


again


according


to the linguistic


approach,


but morphology,


rather


than


syntax,


is the


theme


of this


section.


same


questions


posed


in the introduction


section


how does


three


usage


are also


relevant


of morphological


rules


for this


section.


employed


Exactly when and


the hearing


child


cur in the deaf?


Can morphological


performance


the deaf


be enhanced


through


a presentation


response


format


more


indigenous


to the deaf


as in finger


spelling


and/or


signing?


Can performance


on these


specific


morphological


structures


predict


general


communication effectiveness


situations where


AMESLAN


is used?


This


section


includes


the rationale


the Berko


Test


of Morphology


(BTM)


usage


with


various


popu-


lations


Rational


including


the deaf.


for the Use of Nonsense


Syllables


In 1958


Jean


Berko


developed


a classic


study


to assess children's


knowledge


of English


morphology.


In order


to insure


correct


internaliza-


tion


of the English


rule


certain


inflections


she used


nonsense


stimuli


rather


than


real


words.


This


technique


would


eliminate


the possibility


of the child


experience


responding with


with


correct


a particular word.


inflection


For example, if


because


he knew


of previous


that


plural


of witch


was witches


have


simply memorized


that


form.


However,


if he correctly


responded


with


nonsense


word


"gutches"


as the


a:-


as the










Lists


of the


most


commonly


used


vocabulary


of first


grade


children's


conversations


eluded


, compositions,


all of the English


and letters


inflectional


were


studied.


morphemes.


From


These

this


lists


information


the author


decided


wha t


kinds


of extensions


might


be expected


to be made


young


child.


areas


assessed


were


plurals,


past


tense,


third


person


singular


of the verb,


progressives,


comparative


and superlative


of the adjective,


two possessives


of the


noun.


Derivational


compound


words


were


also


included.


When


written


the terminal


letter


may express


several


different


structures


(plural,


third


person


singular,


or possessive).


The spoken


allomorphs


of the letter


I-si,


/-z,


/-*z/)


even


though


syntactically


express


different


structures,


are phonologically


conditioned


identical


with


one another.


Similarly


graphic


inflection


of the regular


past


tense


is "ed"


however


the productive


allomorphs


(I/t/


/-d/


are also


phonologically


conditioned.


An example


for the


past


tense


would


I-ti


after


stems


that


terminate


in voiceless


sounds


as in /p/


, /k/


, /f/,


after


stems


that


as in Ib/


I'


terminate
v/, 1/1,


in voice


, In/


sounds


'~3~


/-ad/


after


stems


tha t


terminate


in /t/,


The progressive


"-ing"


and the adjectives


"-er"


and "-est"


variable.


It should


also


be noted


that


plural


possessive


1-0/


allomorph.


There


is no phonological


difference


singular


are


/tf i


wDtw


-










Also


noted


in the first


graders'


vocabulary


and consequently


tested


Berko were


words


consisting


a free


morpheme


and a derivational


suffix


as in "teacher"


or of


two free


morphemes


as in "blackboard.


" She


felt


that


there


were


enough


examples


to warrant


testing


the diminutive-


affectionate-y,


the adjectival-y,


and the


agentlve-er.


assess


the child


s use of various


morphological


rules


under


differing


phonological


conditions


nonsense


words


were made


which


fol-


lowed


phonolo


ical


rule


usage


in English.


Several


real


English


words


were


also


included


in the


test.


Each


test


plate


included


nonsense


pic tures


a text


which


omitted


the desired


form.


Figure


illustrates


an example


a test


for the plural


allomorph


A plate


similar


to the following


would


be used:


This


a wug.


there


is another


one.


There
There


are two of them.
are two


test


was also


given


to native


adult


speakers


of English.


Their


responses,


which


vary,


were


the criterion


used


in evaluating


the children's


responses


for the derivational


and compound


words.


test


was given


to preschool


and first


grade


children.


Con-


sistencv


. reeularitv.


and simolicitv were


three


main


characteristics of


/-z/


[










The importance


of Berko's


work


in linguistic


investigation


is evi-


dent


the fact


that


other


researchers


have


adapted


and/or


modified


the basic


test


and used


this


instrument


in morphological


studies


with


different


ments


populations.


of morphological


The basic


validity


sophistication


has been


nonsense


words


validated


as measure-


many


studies.


Anisfeld


performance


and Tucker


(1967)


on pluralization


studied


rules


the productive


year


old American


receptive


children.


general


hierarchy


of difficult


emerged


with


the easiest


allophone


being


followed


and finally


Ivimey


(1975)


used


the Berko method


to study


the formulation and


use of


morphological


rules


a large


sample


of London


school


children


between


ages


of 3.5


to 9


years.


His results


were


also


in broad


agree-


ment with


those


of Berko;


the acquisition


process


however


for his


popu-


lation


was much


slower.


The Grammatic


Closure


subtest


of the Illinois


Test


of Psycholin-


guistic


Abilities


(ITPA)


(Kirk,


McCarthy,


Kirk,


1968)


was modeled


directly


after


Berko


s test


but used


meaningful


lexical


items


assess


a child's


productive


competence


for morphological


rules.


This


particular


subtest


of the ITPA


is regarded


many


speech


clinicians


as one of the


subtests


that


actually


measures


what


all of the subtests


claim


appraise--mainly


the evaluation


of language.


There


an excellent


cor-


relation


between


Berko's


test


and the Grammatic


Closure


subtest.


Pettit


and Gillespie


(1975)


compared


the performances


of children


from 3 8


years


on 10


selected


items


from


the Berko


tes


and 10


from


test


--


--










Berry


and Talbott


(Berry,


1966)


published


a language


test


adapted


from Berko which


utilized


nonsense


pictures


and words


a sentence


com-


pletion


task.


Thirty-eight


items


were


used


to explore


the child


ability


to make


use rules


grammar


syntax.


All of the


morphological


inflections


which


were


assessed


in the Berko


test


were


also


incorporated


in the Berry-Talbott


Test


(BTT).


The authors


stated


that


their


test was


limited


to the knowledge


of linguistic


morphology


common


to children


between


years


age.


The plates


are presented


to the child


so that


may see the pic-


tures,


if he is able,


to follow


sentences


that


are read


to him.


attempt


Based


was made


on preliminary


secure


studies


normative


the authors


scores


for various


predicted


levels.


differences


per-


formance


levels


with


so that:


general


success
the 6-y
old I-


full
ear


. the
y complete


-XIV


XX (with


average


-year


sentences


(with


one error);


old child
on Plates


one error);
and allowing


would


the 7-year


one


error


average


child


years


should


be able


sweep


the series I


- XXX.


Vogel


(1977)


found


both


the BTT


and the Grammatic


Closure


subtest


of the ITPA


extremely


valuable


measures


for identifying


children


wer e


good


readers


from


those


were


dyslexic.


Both


tests


were


ministered


and results


indicated


that


the dyslexics


were


significantly


inferior


to the good


readers.


The author


hypothesized


that


difficulty


with


even


simple


morphological


inflections


could


result


in inefficient


use of the


semantic


and syntactic


clues


provided


morphology


V,










learning


pace was


slower


for the latter


population;


however,


the order


acqui


sition was


same


as for the normal


group.


Differ-


ences


favoring


correct


responses


for real


over


nonsense


items


appeared


for both


groups.


The disparity was


greater


for the mentally


retarded


group.


This


result


helped


confirm Berko's


supposition


tha t


there


difference


in application


a rule


a familiar


item and


the general-


ized


application


of this


rule


to unfamiliar


items.


It appeared


that


application


of inflectional


endings


appeared


first


in familiar


contexts


and then,


after


some


time


lapse,


this


rule


could


be extended


to unfamiliar


items.


Dever


and Gardner


(1970)


also


studied


the performance


of normal


and retarded


on Berko' s


tests.


Their


results


supported


those


Newfield and


Schlanger


(1968).


In the above


study


was observed


that


although


some


of the chil-


dren


failed


to supply


correct


morpheme


in the


test


situation,


they


did in fact


use it correctly


in conversational


speech.


In 1972


Dever


presented


a revised


Berko


test


and also


two samples


of free


speech


from


30 educable


mentally


retarded


boys.


Results


revealed


that


although


lexical


items


were


slightly


better


predictors


than


nonsense


items,


both


stimuli


were


poor


indicators


cor-


rect


morphological


usage


spontaneous


speech


for this


population.


No differences


in morphological


structures


in the language


of dis-


advantaged


and advantaged


children


were


found


when


Shriner


and Miner


(1968)


assessed


the groups'


receptive


. .


expressive


performance


on a










The authors


hypothesized


that


when


relevant


variables


such


as IQ


articulation


are controlled


the morphological


abilities measured


their


study may


not be sensitive


enough


discrepancies


between


groups.


The Berko


Test


not been without


criticism.


Some


critics


claim


that


use of


nonsense


syllables


a confusion


factor


and that


actual


language


is better


than


test


results would


indicate.


One of the harshest


criticisms


is the myth


an "ideal"'


or "standard


adult


model.


responses


of Berko's


adults


vary


for the derivational


and compound


words;

items


Gardner


however,

much more


(1970)


other authors

variable than


criticized


have

those


found


the adult


obtained


their version


responses


Berko.


of Berko's


test


Dever


on this


for these

and


point.


They


accepted


and scored


as correct


for the students


of their


teachers


' responses


for those


items


that


occurred


with


a frequency


over


15%.


Ivimey


(1975)


also


found


his adult


models


far from


stable.


He attributed


this


factor


to the increase


in linguistic


sophistication


measured


postschool


education)


so that


greater


deviance was


demonstrated


in manipulation


nonsense


words.


Larson,


Summers,


and Jacquot


(1976)


specifically


criticized


on the ambiguity


of adult


responses.


None


of his adult


models


achieved


a perfect


score


on this


test,


and the majority missed


between


six and


seven


items.


The following


four


items


were missed


more


than


half


of the adults:


the diminutive


of "nad


the derived


word


"nadhouse,


and the


two derived


adjectives


troppv


and "liggv


" The










A further


criticism was


what


Larson


et al.


(1976)


felt


highly

Berry


unrealistic

and Talbott


projected


this


projected

had made.


performance


contention.


levels.)


However


performance


(Refer


scores


to the section


scores


one looked


according


on the BTT


subjects did


of these


at the


errors


to age which


for the


support


made


majority


of the children,


in addition


to the


ones


previously


described,


these


additional


errors


were


on a fairly


high


level


for the BTT.


These


errors

which


include<

require


the plurals


the /-jaz


for the stimulus


allomorph,


items


and the derived


Lutzz"

noun f


and "spuz"


or the stimulus


item


"bine.


When


the higher


adult


mean


scores


were


compared


with


those


of the


children,


the results


a maturational


of other


effect


researchers


was


suggested.


the majority


Correlating


again with


of the children's


responses,


even when


incorrect,


showed


evidence


of regularity


and rule


formation.


Despite


the criticisms


Larson


et al.


(1976)


felt


the BTT


to be


a valuable


tool


in discovering


the evolution


a child


s morphological


development.


Morphological


Studies


of the Deaf


There


has been


only


one widely


reported


study


on the


use of


mor-


phological


and derivational


rules


the deaf.


In 1967


Cooper


assessed


the knowledge


of deaf


children


to apple


inflected


and derivational


suf-


fixes


on an instrument


modeled


on the


test


devised


Berko.


This


test


utilized


nonsense


pictures


and "words


to elicit


the desired


morphological


form.


was











Receptive


knowledge


was ascertained


in the following manner.


animal


was called


a "mogg"


and below


there


were


four


pictures:


one of


moggs,


one of


a single


mogg,


one of a mogg with


a different


animal,


one of


a different


animal.


children


were


asked


to put


on "moggs.


To determine


productive


knowled


the child


was asked


to modify


nonsense


following


words


type:


cued


"This


a picture.


is a man


Under


knows


the picture


to hipp.


was a text


He did it


of the


yester-


day.


What


did he do yesterday?


Yesterday


he (h)


If the sub-


jects


wrote


(h)ipped,


it was


taken


as an indication


that


productive


knowledge


of the


past


tense


existed.


There


were


three


types


of testing


for irregular


inflectional


pat-


terns.


In the first


form


the students


were


given


a picture,


for example,


"mife,


" and


read


that


were


to select


the picture


of the irregular


plural


in this


example


"mives.


" In the second


condition


the students


were


to choose


the word


that


best


completed


a sentence within


a given


context,


for example,


"Mary


has a tife.


Jack


has a tife.


They


both


have


two (tife,


tifes,


tive


, tives)


The regular


or the irregular


form


was scored


as correct.


In the third


condition


the subjects were


required


to complete


a sentence


in a given


context,


for example,


there


was a pic-


ture


an imaginary


animal


named


a "zife"


and there


was


another


picture


two animals


similar


to the first.


The subject


had to complete


sentence:


"Here


are two (


Credit


was given


for the regular


. I S


an "X"


^


I .r


J


r







52


Productive knowledge of derivational words was obtained by requir-


ing the subject to complete a statement,


for example,


"John's dog has


waggs on it.


Waggs are all over the dog.


It is a


dog."


Results indicated


the marked superiority of even the youngest sub-


jects over the average


score


of the 19 year old deaf students.


Patterns


of item difficulty for the deaf students shadowed


that of the hearing


students with performance for the two groups being closest on inflec-


tional items and farthest apart on derivational items.


Hearing females


passed each item clearly and consistently with a corresponding increase


in age.


This was not the


case


for the deaf females where the percentage


for passing each item increased erratically and inconsistently with


chronological


age.


There


was


greater discrepancy when


scores


were com-


pared with chronological


equivalent.


age rather than with mental age or reading


There was an increased tendency for both groups to use the


irregular plural with


age.


Plural nouns and past


tense were the easiest


items.


sive,


Next,


proceeding from least to most difficult were:


superlative adjective,


comparative adjective,


progres-


third person


singular, and 5) derived words.


Cooper's test,

the previous section,


as in several of the syntactic tests reviewed in

was a graphic evaluation, and he thought his test


a promising instrument for


assessing


children's knowledge of certain lan-


guage rules,


however,


he cautioned that although written and spoken


English have many common features,


there is not a


one-to-one correspon-


Al ann~~ rnna I-tc e..,arln, -bnr' I n d-.' nEn.n r, nn e4 nn rn rr










Nonsense


tests


of morphology


adapted


from Berko's


original


test


(1958)


are valid


in measuring


a child


ability


to apply


morphologi-


cal rules


to new


stimuli.


Consistency,


regularity,


and simplicity


three


characteristics


which


are evident


responses


even


if the


response


is incorrect.


These


child'


tests


developmental


of morphology


level


have


proved


in morphological


rule


useful


in assessing


application


and in dif-


ferentiating


among


normal


and other


population


groups


such


as the deaf,


the dyslexics,


and the mentally


retarded.


Children


always


perform


better


on morphological


tests


which


employ


real


rather


than


nonsense


items.


first


demonstrate mor-


phological


usage


with


true


words


and then,


after


some


delay


are able


to extend


this


rule


to unfamiliar


nonsense


words.


Rate


order


of morphological


of acquisition


rule


is preserved.


acquisition


Performance


may vary


is best


but the general


on the inflections


most


frequently


used


and/or


on those


having


the fewest


variants.


With


adults


have


achieved


a certain


degree


of linguistic


sophistication


because


of their


educational


backgrounds


there


a great


variety


responses--especially


for derived


compound


words,


diminutives,


and derived


adjectives.


The BTT has


been


shown


to be


a valid


test


of morphology


are










Cooper's


evaluation


(1967)


was


a paper


and pencil


test.


himself,


cautioned


about


adopting


a one-to-one


correlation


between


graphic


and spoken


language.


Therefore,


a population


like


the deaf,


use visual


and gestural


signals


as their


primary method


of communication,


a test


of morphological


rules


presented


visually


(sign


and finger


spelling)


requiring


a visual


response


would


give


more


valid


information


about


deaf's


knowledge


of morphological


rules


since


the procedure


would


be in


a medium


indigenous


to them.


An administration


of the


same


test


in the traditional


graphic

fects t


manner


he deaf


would


determine


s responses


the extent


and if the


poor


which


medium presentation af-


morphological


performances


could


an artifact


a particular


testing


procedure,


or true


ignorance


the deaf


for certain


morphological


rules.


Statement


of the Problem


purposes


spelled


and signed


of this

English)


research were to


vs.


the graphic


investigate

performance


the visual

of deaf a


(finger


doles-


cents


on linguistic


tasks


using


the BTT


and to investigate


a rela-


tionship


existed


between


these


scores


and judgments


of FC


proficiency.


FC proficiency was


judged


persons


know


edgeable


sign


language


finger


spelling


utilizing


point


Quality


Scale


and a specific


Item


Analysis


Sample


which


contained


the major


and minor


items


of the


story.


The sqnppifin p


wonl s


of this


investi ati on


were:









To determine


a relationship


existed


between BTT


scores


the judged


level


of FC proficiency.


To determine


if linguistic


performance


and/or


FC were


dependent


on any


of the following


variables:


etiology


dB loss


in better


first


language


in the home


persons


at home


can


finger


spell


and/or


sign


when


finger


spelling


first


acquired


number


years


at Florida


School


for the Deaf


and Blind


(FSDB)


reading


level


level


date


of birth


race

sex


other


impaired


family


members


ear

















CHAPTER


METHOD


AND DESIGN


OF THE STUDY


Introduction


This


chapter


contains


the procedures


used


for subject


selection,


the experimental


tasks


performed


the subjects,


reliability


procedures,


and the instruments


utilized


for analysis.


Procedures


Subjects


Thirty


students


were


randomly


selected


from


among


those


who were


attending


the Florida


School


for the Deaf


and Blind


(FSDB)


who met


following


criteria:


a hearing


loss


60 dB


or greater


in the better


ear as the primary


deficit


deaf


from


birth


the acquisition


or prelingually
of speech)


deafened


(before


a performance


score


of 95


or higher


a reading
higher


level


equivalent


to grade


three


a monolingual


English,
mixture


sign


(English)
finger s


home


;pellin


environment
g, and/or s


of all three


an age range


from


- 19


ome










Criteria


one through


six were


obtained


from


school


records.


profile


of the subjects


of this


stud


is in Appendix


Finger


Spelling Ability


Potential


subjects


were


given


a researcher


developed


test


of pic-


ture


naming,


finger


spelling,


in order


to determine


their


ability


to finger


spell.


a subject


failed


this


task


he would


have


been


auto-


matically


disqualified


from


the investigation


and another


student,


pos-


sessing

given t


the desired


he Finger


criteria,


Spelling


would


Test.


have


Words


been


ranged


randomly


selected


in difficulty


from


and

the


very


easy


everyday


ones


which


would


be familiar


a first


grader,


increasingly


difficult


and less


encountered


ones.


most


difficult


were


nonsense


pictures


where


the "names"


consisted


of letter


configura-


tions

tures

test,


uncommon to the Englis

the subject was shown

instructions, procedure


language.


the written

al protocol,


Naturally for the


name.


nonsense


See Appendix B


and scoring


methods.


plc-


for the

A passing


criterion


level


of 75%


correct


was selected.


Tasks


Each


student


responded


to the graphic


form


of the BTT


and the


manual


form


of the BTT.


They


also


retold


a simple


paragraph


story


any manner


they


preferred.


sequence


of these


three


procedural


tasks


was randomized


for each


subject


to minimize


the possible


order


effect.


Each


testing


session


was individually


conduct ted


a quiet


room during









to make


any mechanical


adjustments


on the instruments


utilized,


such


rewinding


of the video


presentation


tape


or changing


tape


used


filming


the subjects.


BTT Graphic


Each


subject


responded


to 38 questions.


nonsense


words


stimuli

form.


were presented o

In some instances


n 30 plates w

two stimulus


which

item


had been ma

s appeared


into


on a sin


a booklet

gle plate.


Instructions


Talbott


were


Language


in accordance


Tests


with


Comprehension


the published


of Grammar


protocol


(Berry,


the Berry-


1966).


first


two items


were


reviewed


with


the subjects


until


the examiner was


certain


that


nature


of the task


was understood.


For succeeding


items


the child


read


the stimulus


material,


responded


graphically


on his


answer


sheet,


and proceeded


to the


nex t


page.


There


was no time


limit


for this


task.


Samples


test


stimuli,


instructions,


answer


sheets


be found


in Appendix


BTT Manual


From


previous


visits


and conversations


with


students


and staff


at FSDB


was discovered


that


some


of their


signs


were


slightly


dif-


ferent


from


those


which


would


be used


in the manual


(visual)


presenta-


tion.


signs


Therefore,


was presented


to avoid


to each


possible


subject


confusion,


before


a written


the video


list


viewing.


of these


sub-


ject


provided


the examiner


with


his sign


for a particular


word


given


the sign


he would


see on the video


tape.


was










subjects


knew


that


exact,


correct


spelling


of the stimuli


word


not important


but that


some


finger


spelled


response


to each


item was


expected.


The standard


directions,


procedures,


sentences


nonsense


stimuli


utilized


for the Graphic


BTT were


presented


on a split-screen


19 inch


video monitor


(Sony,


192-U).


On one-half


of the


screen was


a pic-


ture


of the


nonsense


stimuli.


This


plate


remained


constant while


the other


half


of the


screen


examiner


used


signed


English and


finger


spelling


to communicate


the standard


graphic


stimuli


of the BTT.


only


procedural


difference


between


raphic


and manual


pres


entations


was that


in the letter task


the subject


had a 10 second


interval


to finger


spell


response.


There


were


no repeats


of stimulus


items


once


test


had begun.


The subjects


were


seated


about


feet


from


the monitor.


A micro-


phone was


placed


in front


of the child


to record


vocalizations.


students


saw and, if capable


heard


same


video


tape


film


of the


test


which


had been


filmed


on a portable


video


camera


(Sony


3210).


Video


recordings


of the finger


spelled


responses


of all subjects


were


made


for later


scoring.


The signs


reviewed


prior


to the film


presentation


and additional


instructions


are found


in Appendix


FC Task


The subjects


were


given


a story


(Form A-G)


from


Gra y


Oral


was










story


in any manner


they wished.


Instructions


were


presented


graphic,


oral,


and signed


English


form.


Video


recordings


of all stories


were made.


If the student


inquired


about


a particular


vocabulary word


the examiner


explained


This


task


placed


no time


limits


on either


the reading


of the


passage


itself


or on its communication


the subject.


See Appendix


D for the instructions


given


and the paragraph


taken


from


the (GORT).


Scoring


Criterion


BTT Graphic


and Manual


This


investigation


was


concerned


with


concept


conveyed


cer-


tain


English


morphemes


as in several


previous


studies,


production


of particular


allomorphs


for the


same


morpheme.


Therefore,


indication


that


the subject


did demonstrate


appropriate


knowledge


for the required


morpheme


was scored


as correct.


For example,


were


both


considered


as correct


responses


for the plural


and in


same


manner


"ed"


and/or


"led"


were


considered


as correct


for the


past


tense.


For the diminutive


and compound


words


the adult


models


of Berko


were


utilized.


Derived


adjectives


nouns,


comparatives,


superlatives,


possessives


were


scored


correct


only


when


the traditional


English


morphemes


were


produced.


For example,


even


if the subject


displayed


sign


language


or finger


spelling


that


he understood


the difference


tween


the comparative


and superlative


but failed


to finer


sell


V--










The experimenter


scored


all Graphic


and Manual


responses.


order


to establish


an index


of reliability


of the ratings


a hearing,


col-


lege


student


spelling


also


of deaf


scored


parents


Graphic


was familiar with


and Manual


signs


items.


was


and finger


previously


given


a short


training


session


so that


he would


be familiar


with


scoring


criterion.


These


responses


were


then


compared


with


those


of the


investigator.


tests


scored


the second


rater were


composites


responses


from all


of the subjects.


experimenter


rank


ordered


each


subject's


test


scores


for both


the Graphic


and Manual


performances.


Graphic


and manual


test


scores


were


very


disparate


some


subjects.


Therefore,


it could


not be assumed


that


because


someone


achieved


a certain


score


one medium


that


he would


perform


similarly


in the other medium.


After


rank


ordering


two sets


scores,


the highest


scores


each


medium


were


designated


as the high


Graphic


and high


Manual


groups.


next


10 highest


scores


for each medium were


designated


the medium Graphic


and medium Manual


groups.


Finally


the lowest


scores


for each medium were


defined


respectively


as the low Graphic


Manual


groups.


The subjects


from


each


group were


assigned


from


through


items


of the total


38 items


of the BTT.


This


procedure


resulted


in six com-


posite


tests


of which


three


were


graphic


and three


were


manual.


each


medium


there


was a separate


test


for the high


medium,


and low


erouDS.


(ThP


C 9m


1-irn a


of video


recorder


utilized


for the previous


***,*L ULtJLtI~ tV '


U










Overall

for the high


for both


manual

category


the medium


differences


ratings


resulted


an agreement

an agreement


and low categories


in level


agreement


showed


between


Manual

Manual


a .97 level


high,


ratings

ratings


agreement.


and the medium and


low categories


a good


illustration


of the fleeting


nature


of finger


spelling.


For example,


many


of the subjects


in the high


category


used


the sign


for the


possessive


which,


unless


particularly


emphasized,


very


difficult


to determine


as to whether


singular


or plural


possession


is indicated.


Hence,


a value


judgment


had to be made.


None


of the sub-


jects


in the medium and


low categories


showed


knowledge


of the


posses-


sive


so this


value


judgment


was not necessary.


A normal


z-test


for difference


in proportions


indicated


that


there


a significant


difference


between


the graphic


and manual


ratings


.05 level


with


being


equal


to 2


FC Rating


groups


each


containing


three


judges


viewed


and rated


stu-


dents'


functional


in signing,


finger


communication


spellin


stores.


and English.


All of the judged


Since


were


they were also


fluent

employed


in various


capacities


with


FSDB,


were


familiar


with


any expressions


or signs


which might


be colloquial


to that


specific


geographical


loca-


tion


and population.


Each


of the


groups


contained


one hearing,


deaf


one hard-of-hearing


judge.


Both


groups


saw the


same


stories;


however,


in order


to avoid


a possible


order


effect


appear-


was


one










All of the judges


received


their


instructions


(orally,


manually,


and graphically)


during


same


session.


However,


each


group


indivi-


dually


scored


own film.


Because


of the rapidity


of the material


be scored,


groups


saw their


same


films


a second


time


a few hours


after


their


first


viewing.


They were


given abbreviated


instructions


were


allowed


to make


changes


from


their


previous


observations.


The judges


were


given


a rating


sheet which


assessed


three


dimen-


sions


of communication.


was on this


sheet


where


marked


their


observations.


Part A


assessed


overall


communicative


efficiency


and the


quality


convey


general


concepts


on a


categorical


scale


of 1


- 5.


This


was the Quality


Score.


Part


contained


an item


analysis


for specific


main


and detail


ideas


of the


story.


Items


were


scored


according


point


system.


score


of 3


indicated


the judge


was confident


that


the idea


was con-


veyed


in its entirety,


a score


of 2


indicated


that


the judge


thought


the idea


to be partially


presented,


a score


of 1


indicated


that


the judge


was certain


that


the idea


was


completely


absent.


In Part


the ratio


a student's


finger


spelling


to signing


preferences


in communication


was


rated.


The scale


ranged


from 1


(al-


most


total


finger


spelling)


to 5


(almost


total


signing).


(See


Appendix


for instructions


and the Functional


Communication


Evaluation


Sheet.)


In order


to obtain


an index


of reliability


for the ratings


of the


Evaluation


the following


Were


there


three


differences


questions


between


had to be determined:


the six correlation










there


matrices


a difference
corresponding


between
of each


two correlation


group


(order


effect)


for the judges?


The correlation


between


Theme


and Quality


for all three


of the


above


questions


was analyzed


using


"Fisher'


transformation


proximate


normality"


(Bruning


Kintz


, 1968).


An "H"


test


homogeneity o

The "H"


if correlations


statistic


(Mendenha li,


revealed


1968)


nonsignificant


was then


applied.


differences:


among


the six individual


judges,


among


type


of judge,


or between


groups


of judges.


Furthermore,


since


each


of the


tests


for the three


questions


was performed


at the


.01 level


of significance,


the overall


sum


level


less


than


This


indicated


similar


judgments


raters,


hearing


type,


group.


can therefore


be inferred


that


for this


evaluation


FC ratings werereliable.


Analysis


To determine


whether


a method


of presentation


response


(graphic


or manual)


t-test


would


for related


influence

d pairs w


the linguistic


as utilized


performances


(Mendenhall,


of the deaf


1975).


In order


answer


questions


two and three


of the Problem State-


ment,


a single


measurement


for FC proficiency was


needed


so that


corre-


lations


between


this


measurement


and Graphic


BTT,


Manual


BTT,


and demo-


graphic


data


could


be computed.


The logical measurement


for FC would


be the


average


ratings


of the


iudr~es


on the overall


a A mnn A


Onal i tv


Sc ror


Thic


Tnnll 1 d


was


sn~ nnnrl


I


,


I1C











The Statistical


Analysis


System


(SAS)


Forward


Stepwise


Procedure


(Service,


1972)


selected


an 11 variable


model


for the dependent


variable,


Quality.


This


Stepwise


Procedure


first


selected


the variable


that


pre-


dicted


most


of the variance


for the dependent


variable


this


case,


Quality).


The procedure


then


continued


to select


next


most


important


variable


responsible


for variance


of the dependent


variable.


The addi-


tion o

tinued


f each

until


new variable


consequent


all of the independent


formation


variables


were


a new model


included


con-


this


case


the main


and detail


ideas


and Theme


of the FC


Evaluation


Sheet).


Probability


levels,


and F-ratios


for each


of the models


were


also


determined


the Forward


Stepwise


Procedure.


The 11 variable


model


for Quality


had an R2


.98 with


all factors


except


Theme


statistically


significant


at the .01 level,


F(29,18)


89.53,


The significant


factors


were


main


topics


A,B,D,E,


details


A-F.


These


factors


wer e


needed


to predict


the Quality


Score,


it appears


that


the judges, on


average,


carefully


considered


those


factors


in determining


their


Quality


Score.


It is thus


inferred


that


the Quality


Score


a good


measurement


of FC proficiency.


Refer


to Tables


and 2


at the end of this


section


for the SAS


model


the identification


of the variables


chosen,


their


occurrence


in the paragraph


which


the students


read.


To determine


whether


a relationship


existed


between


the BTT


scores


(graphic


and manual)


and the judged


level


of FC,


the variables,


as in-


--










sign,


when


finger


spelling was


first


acquired,


number


years


FSDB,


reading


level,


age,


race,


sex,


and other


impaired


family


mem-


bers)


its significance


to the Graphic


BTT,


Manual


BTT,


and FC


models


determined


the Forward


Stepwise


Procedure


the SAS.


of the three


mode is


the demographic


variables


were


considered


sig-


nificant


at the .05 level


or higher.







67


Table 1

Stepwise Regression Model for the Dependent Variable, Quality Score,


as Selected by the Forward Stepwise Procedure of


the SAS


= 0.9820


F RATIO


= 89.53


PROBABILITY


0.0001


VARIABLES F RATIO PROBABILITY- F


Theme Score


2.05


Main Topic A


0.1690


7.74


Main Topic B


0.0123**


6.67


Main Topic D


0.0188**


31.14


Main Topic E


0. 0001**


11.30


Detail A


0.0035**


10.90


Detail B


0.0040**


8.54


Detail C


0.0091**


38.18


Detail D


0. 0001**


6.64


Detail E


0.0190**


9.86


0.0057**


Tn~t-n-f P 7I nnJ


17 ~e


n nnnrri






68


Table


Theme


Functional


Main


Topics,


Communication


and Detail
Evaluation:


Topics


Part


from


Item Analysis


THEME:


Airplane


pilots


have many


jobs.


MAIN TOPICS DETAIL TOPICS


A:**


transportation


between


cities


of people


of freight

of mail


rescues


D:**


at land


sea


dropping


bringing


food


to hungry

to hungry


znimals


zoos


people

animals


from


act as traffic


police


spot


speeding


cars


on the highway


* Significant
** Significant


.05 level
.01 level


F:-k-k


B:jtft


B:**


D:**


E:Jt*

















CHAPTER


RESULTS


Introduction


Data


concerning


the linguistic


performance


on the Graphic


Manual


BTT are presented


in the initial


section


of this


chapter.


Corre-


national data


among


Graphic


BTT,


Manual


BTT,


and judged


level


of PC


are found


in the second


section.


Particular


demographic


data are pre-


sented


in the final


section.


Because


the interaction


among


some


these


variables


was of


interest,


there


some


overlap


introduced


the various


tables.


Consequently,


Tables


through


are collectively


presented


at the end of this


chapter.


Linguistic


Performance


on Graphic


and Manual


A paired


difference


t-statistic


revealed


that


there


was a signi-


ficant

manual


difference

presentation


in linguistic


responses.


performance


The -3.59


dependent


on graphic


t-statistic


indicated


a difference


in average


test


scores


for the


two methods


at the


.05 level


of significance.


negative


t-statistic


indicated


that


average


test


scores


for the Graphic


method


are significantly


higher


than


those


the Manual


method.


Table


shows


the subjects


individual


scores


.9 f. .- C


- 1 /^ 1


rr










18.33.


range


for manual


performance


was


- 30 with


a mean


of 15.93.


The transient


nature


of finger


spelling


as well


as the timed


response


period


graphic


allowed


medium.


may be responsible


Nevertheless,


for the better


be inferred


performance


that


with


for linguistic


tasks


of this


type


a graphic


presentation


a valid


procedural


method


for assessing


the linguistic


ability


of the deaf.


Correlations


Amon g


Graphic


BTT,


Manual


BTT,


and the


Judged


Level


of FC Proficien


Correlations


among


the Graphic


BTT,


Manual


BTT,


and the judged


level


of FC proficiency were


of the SAS.


Graphic


The information


and Manual


obtained

in Table


scores


from


the linear


indicates


.79 which


regression model


a correlation


is statistically


between


signi-


ficant


at the


.01 level.


This


not surprising


considering


that


same


test


and protocol


had been


utilized


with


the only manipulated


variables


being


those


presentation


response.


These


scores may


also


be viewed


in regard


to the ability


of the deaf


to perform


a similar


manner


two en-


tirely

dures


different

necessary


communication modes.


for a visual


Thus


presentation and


the elaborate


response


testing


would


proce-


not be


necessary


in order


to obtain


a measurement


of linguistic


competence


similar


to the


one utilized


in this


study.


Table


reveals


a correlation


.55 between


the Graphic


score


and the quality


score


which


has a statistically


significance










correlation


between


a significance


the Manual


level


Thus


scores


Manual


and quality


scores


scores


and qual-


scores


lacked


statistical


significance


at the .05 level.


However,


.09 significance


level


might


suggest


some


investigators


that


Manual


scores


should


not be completely


discounted.


summary,


Graphic


and Manual


scores


were


significantly


cor-


related


at the


.01 level.


Similarly,


Graphic


scores


and FC


quality


scores were


correlated


at the


.01 level.


However


Manual


scores


and FC


quality


scores


were


not statistical


significant


at the


level.


can therefore


be inferred


that


the Graphic


BTT may


be used


as a predictor


of FC


quality.


Demographic


Data


Linear


regression models,


as selected


the Forward


Stepwise


Procedure


of the SAS


were


used


for all of the independent


demographic


variables.


Each


variable


was


invest


ated


for its contribution


to the


following models:


the dependent


variable


Graphic


BTT,


the dependent


variable Manual


BTT,


and the dependent


variable


The best


linear


regression model


for the Graphic


(Table


explained


63% of


the total


variance


in graphic


scores;


the manual


model


(Table


explained


60% of the total


variance


in manual


scores;


the FC


model


(Table


explained


80% of the total


score


variance.


Cri-


terion


entry


a particular


demographic


variable


into a


model


a minimum


significance


level


was


was










etiology was


found


to be the following:


- unknown,


- rubella,


- birth


trauma,


- heredity


- meningitis,


- Rh factor,


- en-


cephalitis.


The above


seven


levels


of the variable


etiology were


analyzed


a dichotomous-comparison


format.


For example,


the rubella


factor was


compared


against


all of the other


six etiologies


or the hereditary


factor


compared


against


The factor


all six of the remaining


of heredity was


included


etiological


in the Manual


factors.


BTT model,


F(29


= 8.45,


ficantly


contributes


can then


a positive


be inferred


performance


that


heredity


on the Manual


BTT.


signi-


This


result


further


supports


find in


gs of previous


investigators


that


deaf


children


of deaf


parents,


thus


have


an early


exposure


to a manual


communication


system,


perform


better


than


deaf


children


of hearing


parents


are denied


this


earl


exposure.


Encephalitis


was included


in the FC model,


F(29


= 5.19,


However,


there


was


only


one subject


whose


etiology was


that


of encephalitis


so the correlation


with


should


be assessed


with


that


factor


in mind.


dB Loss


According


to Silverman


(1971)


term


"deaf"


is used


for chil-


dren


"who do


not have


sufficient


residual


hearing


to enable


them


understand


speech


successfully


even


with


a hearing


without


special


instruction"


399).


He used


Huizing


s classification


(1953)


which


was









Grade

Grade


III:


60 90 dB

More than
understand


= severe


loss


90 dB = deaf
ing ability)


speech
401).


The subjects


in this


investigation


had a dB loss


ranging


from


118 (94.97)


in the better


ear.


The obvious


conclusion


is that


all sub-


jects


were


severely


hearing


impaired.


For both


the Graphic


and Manual


BTT models


the variable


dB loss


was not


even


included


in the model.


This


would


concur


with


the results


of other


investigations


which


found


this


variable


(for


the severely


hearing


impaired)


to be insignificant


for academic


success.


However


in the FC model


this


variable was


statistically


significant,


F(29,15)


5.90


Other


studies


of signing


in the deaf


have


been more


con-


cerned


with


properties


of the communication medium


itself


and have


not, to my


knowled


ge, investigated


the specific


amount


of loss


once


was ascertained


that


the subject was


deaf.


Reading


Level


The main


records


reading


on the Stanford


level


of the subj


Achievement


Test


ects,

(SAT)


obtained f

. revealed


rom


a s


the school'

core of 5.3


(fifth


year,


third month)


with


a standard


deviation


of 2.3.


indi-


vidual


levels


ranged


from


- 9.9.


Readin


on the Graphic


level


was the only


BTT F(29,19)


variable


= 6.47


of statistical


On the Manu


significance

al BTT model


reading


level


was again


most


statistical


significant variable,


F(29,


= 17.59,


fact


that


read in


level


was also









have


also


found


reading


level


to be


one of the


most


important


variables


for high


linguistic


performance.


When


Finger


Spelling


First


Acquired


Finger


spelling


acquisition


ranged


from


almost


at birth


cases


of de

cally

This


af


children


significant

significance


researchers


which


of deaf


parents)


in the Manual


is in agreement

stressed early


age i

model,


with th

exposure


This


F(29,23)


e data


variable was


= 4.95,


collected


to finger


spelling


statisti-


<.05.


previous

for its


maximum


benefit


for the deaf's


communication


to be achieved.


The subjects


for this


investigation


ranged


from 16


- 18.


The median


was 17.13


years


with


a standard


deviation


Only


for the Manual


was


this


variable


statistically


signifi-


cant,


F(29,23)


, f<


With


the subjects'


ages


so close


gether


it is difficult


to discern


this


should


be such


a significant


variable


and only


for the Manual


model.


First


Language


in the Home


English


was the primary


language


in the home


for 27 students.


Sign


was the primary


language


two students,


one student


reported


a combination of


English


and sign


as the language


of the home.


These


three


levels


of the variable


first


home


language were


analyzed


a dichotomous-comparison


format


where


no level


reached


the signifi-










Other


Hearing


Impaired


Family


Members


From


among


all of the students


in this


study


only


subjects


ported


that


other


members


of their


immediate


family


were


hearing


paired.


This


variable


lacked


significance


for all three


models.


number


subjects


included


in this


variable may


one of the


reasons


was statistically


insignificant.


Persons


at Home


Can Finger


Spell


and/or


Sign


The above


variable


contained


three


levels


which were


analyzed


a dichotomous-comparison


format where


no level


attained


statistical


significance


for any model.


No manual


communication


at home


ported


10 students,


13 reported


some


manual


communication,


and 7


ported


that


manual


communication


was frequent


at home.


The lack


of significance


for the last


three


variables


cited--first


language


in the home,


other


hearing


impaired


family


members,


persons


home


can finger


spell


and/or


sign--may


all lack


significance


similar


reasons.


The subjects


in this


study were


older


students


lived


in the institutionalized


environment


of FSDB


where


everyone


finger


spelled


and signed.


There


would


be the possibility


that


the effect


the family was


replaced


that


a peer


group.


Number


of Years


of Attendance


at FSDB


The administrators


and school


records


assured


the researcher


that


all of the subjects


had had


some


prior


educational


experience


if they


had entered


FSDB


later


than age 4


or 5--which


is the earliest


program


re-


was


re-


re-


w-









This


variable


was


included


in both


the Graphic


FC models


but at statistically


insignificant


levels.


The fact


that


years


tendance


was complete


excluded


from


the Manual


could


a possible


argument


that


this


variable


had no statistical


significance


relative


to performance


on the tasks


of this


investigation.


The subjects


Ic?


scores


, when measured


on the performance


test


of the Wechsler


Test


of Intelligence


(wIsc)


yielded


a range


of 95


- 133


with


a mean


of 112.53


and a standard


deviation


of 10.05.


This


variable


was found


to be insignificant


for all three models.


Other


investigators


have


also


found


little


significance


between


performance


on linguistic


tasks.


Race


There were


26 white


subjects


and 4


black


subjects.


This


variable


insignificant


for all three


models


thus


can be inferred


that


race


was not a significant


variable


for the tasks


of this


investigation.


There


were


21 male


and 9


female


subjects


in this


investigation.


This


variable


not meet


the .50 significance


level


even


entrance


into


the three models.


Summary


of Results


r -, *6


at-


was


mI


r


r









The methods


presentation


and response--graphic


and manual--


of the BTT


did influence


the linguistic


performance


the deaf.


Graphic


scores


were


higher


than


the Manual


scores


at the statisti-


cally


significance


level


Graphic


scores


and the judged


level


of FC proficiency


were


highly


correlated


at the statistically


significant


level


However,


correlations


between Manual


scores


and FC proficiency were


statistically


insignificant


at the


.05 level


of confidence.


Graphic


scores


and Manual


scores


were


both


significantly


correlated


at the


.01 level.


The particular


demographic


variables


which


significantly


fluenced


performance


on the Graphic


BTT,


Manual


BTT,


and FC were:


Graphic


Reading


level


(significant


at the


.01 level)


Manual


Reading


level


(significant


at the


.01 level)


Etiology--Heredity


(significant


at the


.01 level)


significant


at the .01 level)


.05 1


f Learning
evel)


Finger


Spelling


(significant


at the


Rating


Reading


Level


(significant


at the .01 level)


dB Loss


(significant


at the .05 level)


Ft-i nl nv7--Fnr'pnhnl I ti


(I c nij i f-i an t


at the 0-5 level)






78


Table 3

Subjects' Individual Scores for the
Graphic BTT, Manual BTT, and FC Ratings


SUBJECT


GRAPHIC BTTa


MANUAL BTTb


FC RATINGc


2.66

2.33

3.16

3.00

2.66

1.33

1.00

3.33

2.00

2.00

3.16

4.30

2.66

4.00

2.83

3.00

3.83

2.83










Table 3


- continued


SUBJECT


GRAPHIC BTTa


MANUAL BTTb


FC RATINGc


3.00


2.83


4.66


1.00


4.16


1.16


1.50


1.00


4.33


2.33


score out of a possible 38 correct
score out of a possible 38 correct


average of


judge


ratings on


a scale from 1





80


Table 4


Mean,


Standard


for the
Obtained


Graphic
from the


Deviation,


BTT,
Linea


Minimum


Manual BTT,
r Regression


and Maximum


and FC
Model


ores


Tasks


of the SAS


VARIABLES


MEAN


STANDARD
DEVIATION


MINIMUM


MAXIMUM


Graphic


a
18.9333


5.3777


.0000


33.0000


Manual


BTTb


15.9333


.9302


4.0000


30.0000


2.7193


1.1135


1.0000


4.6600


scale


a
total
b
total
Based
range


38 items


items


on Quality


Score


which


had a 1


(very


poor)


to 5


(very


good)






81


Table


Correlation Coefficients among
the Graphic BTT, Manual BTT,and FC Scores
as Shown by the Correlation Procedure of the


VARIABLES


GRAPHIC BTT


MANUAL BTT


Graphic BTT


1.00000
0.00000


0.79545
0.00010**


0.55112
0.00160**


Manual BTT


0.79545
0.00010**


1.00000
0.00000


0.31372
0.09140


0.55112
0. 00160**


0.31372
0.09140


1.00000
0.00000


* Significant at
** Significant at


.05 level
.01 level






82


Table


Linear Regression Model
as Selected by the


for the Dependent


Forward


Stepwise


Variable,


Procedure


Graphic


BTT,


of the SAS


.6387


RATIO


PROBABILITY


0.0111


VARIABLES F RATIO PROBABILITY> F


of Learning


Finger


Spelling


1.78


0.1975


Years A


Reading


attending


FSDB


0.4008


Level


6.47


0.0198**


0.1727


Race


1.06


.3160


Etiology


Etiology


- Unknown


2.46


- Rubella


0.1333


1.29


0.2703


Deaf


at Birth


0.4671


No Manual


Communication


at Home


2.25


0.1504


Finger


Spelling


to Sign


Ratio


1.06


0.3153






83


Table


Linear


Regression Model


for the Dependent


Variable,


Manual


BTT,


as Selected


the Forward


Stepwise


Procedure


of the SAS


= 0.6013


RATIO


= 5.78


PROBABILITY


0.0009


VARIABLES


RATIO


PROBABILITY> F


of Learning


Finger


Spelling


4.93


0.0365*


Reading


Level


17.59


0.0003**


2.14


0.1567


0.0129**


Etiology


- Heredity


8.45


0.0080**


No Manual


Communication


at Home


1.58


0.2083


* Significant
** Significant


.05 level
.01 level






84


Table


Linear


Regression Model


for the Dependent


Variable,


(Utilizing
as Selected by


Quality


Score


the Forward


as the Unit


Stepwise


Meas


Procedure


ure)


of the SAS


= 0.8002


RATIO


= 4.29


PROBABILITY


0.0041


VARIABLES F RATIO PROBABILITYy F


of Learning


Finger


Spelling


0.42


0.5279


Years A


Reading


attending


FSDB


0.4090


Level


10.62


0. 0053**


2.12


0.1658


Other


Hearing


Impaired


in Family


0.3267


Etiology


- Heredity


3.49


0.0816


Etiology


- Rubella


1.39


0.2565


Deaf


at Birth


0.4304


Some Manual


Communication


at Home


.3425


dB Loss


5.90


0.0282*









Table


- continued


= 0.8002


RATIO =


4.29


PROBABILITY


0.0041


VARIABLES F RATIO PROBABILITY F


Etiology


- Encephalitis


5.19


.0378*


Presentation


Order


of Tasks


1.33


0.2670


* Significant
** Significant


.05 1
.01 1


evel
evel

















CHAPTER V
SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION


Discussion of the results of


this investigation is designed so


that the major findings relating to the two specific research questions

(linguistic presentation methods and possible relationships between


specific linguistic scores and


the functional communicative effective-


ness of AMESLAN)


are presented first.


The influence of demographic


factors is later introduced.


Finally,


suggestions for language inter-


vention and implications for future research are presented.


Morphological Assessment


Introduction


The linguistic performance of the deaf


as a result of


two presenta-


tion methods was the initial research question.

was to determine if written linguistic tasks ad


The primary objective


[equately reflect the


deaf's linguistic knowledge or is their poor performance a reflection

of their difficulty with the medium of presentation rather than with

the material itself?


Graphic and Manual BTT


A aired difference t-statistic revealed a significant difference










inferred

hension


that


for investigations


of graphically


presented


of this t

materials


ype


assessments


provide


valid,


of the

indeed


compre-

superior,


indications


of linguistic


competency


of traditional


English


the deaf.


Discussion


Among


the interesting


and plausible


hypotheses


for the above


suits


are error


hierarchy,


nature


of the


test


format,


and specific


types


errors.


These


topics


are discussed


in the following


section.


Hierarchy


of Errors


An analysis


errors


for this


study


revealed


a hierarchy


of item


difficulty


similar


to that


of Cooper


s (1967)


investigation


(see


Chap-


ter II,


Morphological


Research).


In this


investigation,


as in Cooper


(1967)


plural


nouns


past


tense


were


also


found


to be the easiest


items


and the derivational


items


most


deviant.


The four


items


which


wer e


missed


by more


than


half


of Larson


et al.'s


(1976)


adult


models


(derived


words:


diminutive,


compound,


ajentive,


adjective)


were


also


incorrect


for the vast majority


of the FSDB


students.


Table


shows


the morphological


hierarchy


according


to percentages


correct

trates


for both


the graphic


percentages


correct


and manual

t for each


presentations.

morphological


Table


structure


illus-

accord-


int to the graphic


and manual


procedures.


Plurals


past


tense


were


apparently


the easiest


items.


Gener-


ally


both


graphic


and manual


presentations


followed


same


hierarchy


but with


the manual


scores


far more


depressed


than


the 2raPhic


scores.


re-







88


Table 7


Hierarchy According to Percentages


Correct


for Graphic BTT and Manual BTT


ORDER GRAPHIC BTT % CORRECT ORDER MANUAL BTT % CORRECT


Plurals

Past Tense

Progressive

Possessive
Singular

Third Person
Singular

Adjective
Superlative

Adjective
Comparative

Possessive


Plurals

Past Tense

Progressive

Adjective
Superlative

Possessive
Plural

Adjective
Comparative

Third Person
Singular

Possessive


Plural


Singular


.008


Derived Word


Derived Word


N[ajentive(-er)]


Derived Word


Adjective


N[ajentive(-er) ]


Derived Word
N(diminutive)


.006


.006


.006


Derived Word
N (diminutive)


Derived Word
N(compound)


.003


.002


Derived Word
N(compound)


Derived Word


Adjective








Table 8

Percentages Correct for Morphological Structures
for Graphic BTT and Manual BTT


GRAPHIC BTT STRUCTURE MANUAL BTT


Plural


Past Tense


Progressive


Comparative Adjectives
.17 Superlative .18
.13 Comparative .13


Possession
Singular
Plural


.158


.008
.15


.133


.13
0
.003


Derived Nouns
Ajentive(-er)
Compound
Diminutive


.014


.006
.002.
.006


.006


Derived Adjective










formation


of the compound


word


(.002


correct)


as compared


with


the graphic


score


correct)


for the


same


structure


and for plural


possession


correct


Nature


as opposed


the Test


.01 correct).


Format


This


section


a comparison


between


the properties


inherent


the graphic


and manual


test


presentations


which


could


account


for the


superior


graphic


performances.


of finger


spelling


acquisition.


Al though


finger


spelling


employed


in classroom


instruction


at FSDB


, the


age of finger


spelling


acquisition


the subjects


varied


from


early


infancy


importance


of early


exposure


to finger


spelling


and its beneficial


pact


on later


communication


and educational


achievement


has been


well


documented


(Hoemann,


1974;


Hoemann,


Andrews,


Florian,


Hoemann


Jensema,


1976;


Quigley,


1969).


Not only


finger


spelling


any systematic,


intensive


language


exposure


at the preschool


level


has been


found


beneficial


for later


scholastic


achievement


(Sarachan-Deily


Love,


1974).


Nature


of finger


spelling.


Transient


and ephemeral


qualities


characteristic


of finger


spelling


and signed


English


(Fisher


Husa,


1973).


These


variables


demand


much


visual


alertness


and concentration.


It was


perceived


the experimenter


in this


study


that


in the majority


of cases, if

the subject,


the crucial

his manual


nonsense

response


stimuli


or question


was incorrect.


This


was not seen

was observed


are