The residential housing environment and social behavior

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The residential housing environment and social behavior a theoretical formulation
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Feldman, Bernard M
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Housing -- Environmental aspects   ( lcsh )
Human ecology   ( lcsh )
Social interaction   ( lcsh )
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Thesis--University of Florida.
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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 173-184).
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by Bernard M. Feldman.
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Full Text















THE RESIDENTIAL
SOCIAL BEHAVIOR:


Bernard


HOUSING ENVIRONMENT AND
A THEORETICAL FORMULATION


Feldman


DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY

197


OF FLORIDA

9















dedicate


this


dissertation


to my


lovely wife,


Gail,


for her patience,


support,


and most of


love,


and


to my


wonderful son Ari.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


express


appr


eciation


to several


individual


whose


help


was


more


than


had


to expect.


Benjamin


assistance,


Gorman

which


s insightful


proved


invaluable


comments


and


editorial


completion


this


dissertation.


Joyce


Gorman,


her


encoura


ement


during


many


periods


self


-doubt.


Felix


Berardo,


helpful


review


material


and


cons tant


willingness


to be


ass


is tance.


mother-


in-law,


Julie


Rockoff,


whose


rammatical


sense


was


infallibi


even


after


a hard


day


s work.


Do ro thy


Harvey,


Nuccio,


and


Mary


Warren,


librarians


who


always


tried


to fulfill


numerous


reque


sts.


And


to Ms.


Miriam


Helbok,


who


con-


scientiously


typed


this


work


record


time.













TABLE


OF CONTENTS


PAGE


ABSTRACT. . . . . . .


INTRODUCTION. ....... .. .. . . ..


CHAPTER


THE RELATIONSHIP
TRADITION AND
MENTAL THEORY


BETWEEN THE SOCIOLOGICAL
THE RESIDENTIAL ENVIRON-


Early Social Evolutionary Perspective
Classical Human Ecological Position..
Limitation of the Neo-Orthodox
Positions....... .. .. ......


SOCIOBIOLOGY: THE
THE RESIDENTIAL


THEORETICAL OVERVIEW FOR
ENVIRONMENTAL THEORY...


FORMULATION OF THE
THEORY.........


RESIDENTIAL


ENVIRONMENTAL


The
The
The


Formulaton of
Formation of
Formulation o


Prop
Theor
f New


ositions.... .
etical Proposition
Propositions.....


SUMMARY. . .. .


APPENDIX....

BIBLIOGRAPHY


BIOGRAPHICAL


SKETCH


ACKPJOIJLEDGMENTS .















Abstract
Council


Fulfillment


egree


Dissertation


University


of
of


the
Docto


Presented


Florida


Requirement
r of Philos


s for
ophy


Graduate
Partial
the


THE


RESIDENTIAL


HOUSING


ENVIRONMENT


AND


SOCIAL


BEHAVIOR:


A THEORETICAL


FORMULATION


BEPRNARD

June


FELDMAN


1979


Chairman


Major


Benj amin


Department:


Gorman


Sociolo


past


decade


numerous


investigations


have


focused


relation


ship


between


residential


housing


environment


and


social


behavior.


These


efforts


have


not


apprec


iabl


extended


our


know


edge


this


area


, nor


have


they


benefited


housing


practition


This


failure


primarily


due


cultural


variability


populations


studi


their


nature


, and


their


limit


scope.


Con-


sequently,


focus


this


dissertation


on the


formula-


tion


a residential


environmental


theory


order


direct


future


research


more


salient


avenues


inquiry.


The


social


evolutionary


and


human


ecolo


ical


perspec-








evolutionist


s assumptions


about


natural


forces


and


human


ecolo


s speculations


on environmental


interre-


lationships


fail


to provide


a cohesive


theoretical


system


study


biological


innate


perspective


social


, which


behavior;


combines


however


Darwinian


, the


theory


socio-


with


genetic


and


ecological


principles


, permits


such


an analysis.


The


basic


conceptualizations


this


orientation


are


delim-


ited,


while


findings


on innate


need


especially


they


re-


late


residential


housing


environment t


are


reviewed.


This


approa


serves


theoretical


overview


residential


formulation.


Zetterberg


Axiomatic


Technique


employed


construction


thorough


res


evaluation


idential


environmental


literature


is made


theory.


selecting


findings


pertinent


this


topic,


these


results


are


limited

tional


into


specific


reduction


and


propositions.

propositional


methods


reduction


are


defini-


used,


independently


or in


combination


, to obtain


propositions


high


informative


value.


former


instance,


key


terms


propositions


are


subsumed


under


more


inclusive


definitions.


latter


instance,


a certain


number


propositions


are


selected


that


other


propositions


can


derived


from


them


, while


these


stulates


cannot


used


to derive


additional


postulates.


Definitional


reduction








twenty-one


propositions


formulated by this


method,


eight


focus


on the


effects


crowding within


dwelling unit and


of physical


conflict,


results:


disorders,


residential


an increase e


emotional


dissatisfaction,


in the


disorders,


and


probabil-


accidents,


residential


change;


while decreasing the


probability of parental


control


over children and adequate maintenance of


the unit.


Five


propositions


concern


the effects


noise


that penetrates


dwelling unit and


probability of physical


results:


disorders,


an increase


emotional


in the


disorders,


annoyance,


and


probability


residential

of property


dissatisfaction,

depreciation.


while


The


increasing


remaining


eight propositions


deal


with control


semi-public space


exterior of


the dwelling unit and


probability of physical


crime,


residential


disorders,


dissatisfaction,


results :


emotional


and resident


lower


disorders,

al change,


while


the higher probability of proper maintenance


area,


neighboring among residents,


and control


over children.


These


itional


twenty-one propositions,


reduction are


through


subsumed under


process


six postulates.


defin-


Three


these


postulates


focus


on res


idential


privacy


(a needed


state

the r


social


separation of


results


the self


such limitation:


disorganization,


and


or group

higher 1


from others)


evels


economic waste.


and


of pathology,


The


latter


-4*


a a 1- --K.- --- 4. ---- Ia ,ce.i 0 *. a


- a--


,,, i.,1


s


r; L ~L







with


other


and


results


such


restraints:


higher


levels


pathology,


social


disorgani


zation,


and


economic


was te.


Thi


theory


demonstrates


relationship


between


nate


needs


and


social


behavior


within


context


the


residential


house ing


environment,


and


directs


future


research


efforts


toward


more


productive


areas


investigation.













INTRODUCTION


Among


all


species,


human


animal


only


one


that


has


the


capacity


totally


construct


environment


within


which


life


unfolds.


This


ability


gives


humans


con-


trol


over


their


pre


sent


and


future


development,


that


they


adapt


to and


are


select


ed by


environment


they


create.


Thi


control


environment,


nowhere


since e


people


more


not


apparent


only


than


spend


res


largest


idential


portion


their


allotted


time


within


context,


but


most


meaningful


relationships


occur


there


well.


Consequently,


environment


mos


t important


to human


growth


and


eve


lopment.


For


mos t


human


story


a balance


existed


between


the


res


idential


environment


and


human


needs;


however,


this


equi


librium


and


been


economic


upset


recent


expediencies.


technological


numerous


developments


instances,


human


need


for


privacy


thwarted


overcrowding


and


noise


po l


lution.


other


hand,


people


are


isolated


from


mean-


ingful


relationships


uch


features


fences,


long


corridors,


and


high


rise


dwellings.


The


dangers


present


paradoxical


situation


have


increase ingly


attracted








demonstrate


sali


ence


this


phenomenon,


but


have


not


contribute


to sociological


under


standing


nor


have


they


benefit


ed the


house in


g practitioner.


This


failure


due


many


viewpoint


the


people


involved


area,


hoc


election


res


earch


topics


and


contradictory


findings


these


studi


Cons


equently,


purpose


dissertation


s the


construction


a residential


en-


vironment


theory.


Such


a theory


an attempt


to organize


disparate


findings


on this


topic


into


a coherent


system


propositions,


there


alleviating


pre


sent


confusion


and


directing


future


res


earch


more


salient


avenues


inquiry.


The


sociologis


t and


house ing


practitioner


should


ene


from


res


ult.


Thi


theory


s based


on the


sociobiological


perspective,


which


a major


element


work


many


early


sociolo-


1 Although


their


interpolations


biological


princi


ples


led


numerous


assumptions,


formulations


three


the


most


eminent


these


persons


(Sumner,


Ward,


and


Giddings)


will


reviewed


to demonstrate


that


this


entation


Human


very


much


ecology,


a part


with


emphasis


sociological

s on the int


discipline.


errelation-


ship


environment,


heredity,


and


human


behavior,


pro-


vides


intellectual


antecedents


to the


present


theory.


Timasheff,


Sociological


Theory:


i Nature


Nichola


A


-Y


I I


Y-


m







Many


conceptualizations


that


form


bas i


our


theory


are


taken


from


ecological


orientation,


but


this


perspective


extensively


revis


and


updated.


focus


on the


community


level


cannot


generate


findings


adequately


informative


at the


individual


or group


level,


while


many


conceptualizations


about


human


nature


are


inaccurate,


incomplete,


or under


challenge.


The


contemporary


theoretical


overview


sociobiological


for


orientation


residential


provides


environmental


formulation.


based


on much


more


substantial


evidence


than


human


work


beings


early


from


sociologist,


evolutionary


nor


process,


does


but


exclude


demon-


states


the


effect


process


on human


development.


Man'


s innate


tendencies


are


delineated,


as well


their


function


on human


behavior.


Therefore,


the


conditions


with-


whi


human


life


thrives


or i


thwarted


can


determined.


The


Zetterberg


axiomatic


approach


to theory


construc-


tion


employed


vironmental


formulation


theory.


A thorough


evaluation


residential


en-


litera-


ture


made


topic.


selecting


Thes e


findings


findings


are


that


are


analyzed


pertinent


order


to lo


ally


incorporate


them


into


specific


propositions.


this


3Edward
bridge
1975),


Wil


Mass.
pp. 54


son, S
: The
7-575.


lociobiology


Belknap


Press


The


New


Synthes i


of Harvard


(Cam-


University,







theory,


they


are combined in an irreversible,


stochastic,


contingent,


and substituable


linkage.


The methods


defi-


national


reduction and


propositional


reduction are used


obtain propositions


of high


informative value.


former


instance,


key terms


propositions


are subsumed


under more exclusive definitions.


And,


latter


stance,


a certain number of


propositions


are


selected


(called postulates)


from which all


other propositions


are


derived.


These


postulates


cannot be used


to obtain added


postulates.


Furthermore,


propositional


reduction is


em-


played


not as


logical


yet appear


derivation of new propositions


in the


that


literature.


This


method of


theory construction


enables


theorist


to clearly


delineate


hia assumptions,


to make explicit


deductions,


s tructs.


and


to realize


In addition,


this


implications


method benefits


of his


the


con-


researcher


that


it allows


him


test propositions with


highest


payoff value,


permits


him to


locate


the most manageable


propositions


for


testing,


and


provides


him with a


lim-


ited area in which


to find


false propositions.


These factors


are


particularly salient


formula-


tion of


a residential-environmental


theory,


since


this


area,


both


theorist and


researcher


are


confronted


with a


plethora of


level


and widely disparate


findings.


This


situation prevents


theorist


from incorporating









perspectives,


since


they


have


an extent)


limited


their


more


general


viewpoint


with


more


specific


residential


environmental


formulations


behavorial


setting


Nevertheless


findings


tionist


, they


within


and


cannot


their


culturally


inte


general


variable


rate


most


framework,


orientation.


relevant


to its


reduc-


Moreover,


from


a practical


standpoint


this


framework


most


inappropriate


such


a task


, because


based


subjective


and


changing


interpretations


need


a residential


individual


environmental


aggregate.


theory


evident


from


scholarly


viewpoint


increasing


our


under-


standing


this


phenomenon,


from


substantive


orien-


station


constructing


inhabitants.


And


environments


, most


that


importantly


meet


, from


needs


a humanistic


perspective


alleviating


unnecessary


suffering


present


and


future


generations.


hoped


that


theory


formulated


this


disser-


station,


based


on a sociobiologican


conceptualization,


can


some


value


achievement


aforementioned


objectives.


5Roger
Stanfo


Baker, Ecolog
rd University


ical


(Stanford,
pp. 18-26.


Cal.:


Psychology
ss, 1968),
19














CHAPTER


THE


RELATIONSHIP


BETWEEN


THE


SOCIOLOGICAL


TRADITION


AND


THE


RES IDENT IAL


ENVIRONMENTAL


THEORY


The


Early


Social


Evolutionary


Perspective


The


soc


iobiological


ers


pective


forms


basis


the


res


idential


environmental


theory


presented


this


disserta-


tion.


Although


orientation


has


generally


been


ignore


sociolo


ical


scipline


over


fifty


years,


only


recently


has


attracted


some


inte


rest,


synthesis


sociology


and


biology


was


fundamental


many


early


sociolo


ists.


Accordingly,


conceptual


nations


three


most


Gidding


eminent


will


these


reviewed,


persons,


not


Sumner,


so much


Ward,


to show


and


rel


vance


their


work


formulation


residential


environmental


theory,


but


to demonst


rate


that


biolo


ical


basi


s of


human


social


behavior


a long


tradition


within


scipline.


William


Graham


umner


viewed


society


from


a natural


evolutionary

volves biolo


attempts


perspective


gical


to gratify


and


principles.


inherent


therefore,


Sumner,


needs


analyst


each


consisting


individual


hunger,


a


I








development


customs


and


structural


forms


These


coll


active


ways


behavior


or folkways


are


maintained


such


which


forces


acquire


habit,


greater


traditions,


control


and


with


reli


pass


ious


age


sanctions,


time.


When


folkways


are


raised


conscious


level,


they


are


transformed


vidual


into

colle


mores


ctive


that


help


expectations,


to socialize


while


indi-


authority


structure


sists


tends


within


insure


these


compliance.


parameters.


3 The


Consequently,


trugg


those


per-


most


not


only


improve


their


chances


survival


but


gain


increase


ed need


satis faction.


Sumner


views


this


resulting


inequality


a natural


phenomenon


that


mus t


not


chan


ged,


ince


survival


population


dependent


upon


accomplishments


superior


individual


ter


Frank


Ward,


while


basin


theory


on natural


evolutionary


principles


, holds


that


human


have


capacity


to hasten


human


the


condition.


evolutionary


Ward


proc


views


ess


Soc


and,


iety


thereby,


final


improve


product


evolutionary


proc


ess


that


involves


adaptation,


section,


and


synergy


(the


working


their


antithetical


forces


1William


. Sumner


Vol.


192


and


(New


Albert
Haven,


. Keller,


Conn.


Yale


The


ience


University


Press


2Wi llia


. Sumner,


Folkways


(Boston


Ginn


and


Co.,


1907),


33-34.


ety,








into new more complex


forms).


5 In


this


final societal


stage


, human progress


continues


through antagonistic


forces


self-preservation and group


fested


interests,


which are mani-


in pleasure seeking-pain avoidance as well as


repro-


ductive-affectional activities.


6 This


natural


evolutionary


process


serves


increase e


the sum total


of human happiness,


but


human


extremely


intellect allows


slow and inefficient.


purposeful


Nevertheless,


or talic control


social


forces,


thereby


facilitating a more


rapid attain-


ment


collective satisfaction.


In order to achieve such


control,


necessary to


implement a


program of universal


education,


since e


this


the most expedient method of ac-


quiring


knowledge


for social


improvement.


8 These ad-


vances


are also


dependent


on an


ideal


government or


soci-


ocracy to


scientifically regulate


the natural


forces


benefit of


all.


Accordingly,


Ward not only believed in


eventual


perfectibility of

tionary processes


human species


but also


that


through natural


humans are able


evolu-


to control


these


processes and hasten


expected harmony.


5Les ter
1914),

Ibid.,

7Lester


Ward,
171-


Pure Sociology
176.


(New York:


Macmillan Co.,


256-260.


Ward,


Annleton and Co..


Dynamic


1 911 ).


Sociology,


E I


Vol.


(New York:


63~176~33.


.








One of


the most


influential


sociologists


of his


time,


Franklin H.


Giddings


viewed


formation of society


from an


evolutionary perspective while social

dependent upon social activities. To
ment of an instinctive need for assoc


responsible


progress


Giddings,


nation is


seen as


the develop-

primarily


for the differentiation and survival of


animal


species.


Association increases


genetic


variation,


facili-


states


the acquisition of


food,


and improves


defensive capa-


abilities.


factors


ilar process


These cooperative effects


the development of


serve as


the causal


prehuman intelligence.


associative-cooperation,


more


A sim-


intimate and


extensive


in humanoids,


human brain.


transformation of


And


basis


for the evolution of


primarily responsible


elementary communications


into


for the


the concep-


tual


imagery


spoken language.


This


enabled humans


develop a consciousness of k

cooperative activities and f

primitive social structures.


ligence permitted


:ind or social mind

facilitated the for


Concomitantly,


the realization of personal


I


that expanded


nation of

human intel-

identity and


recognition of


desires.


From this


point on,


progress


almost entirely dependent on social


phenomena,


while


10Franklin H.


York:


Giddings,


The


The Macmillan Co.,


of Sociology
203-205.-


(New


11Ibid.,


-226.


Pri nciol es
r92a), pp,







physical


evolutionary factors


only


serve


to limit human


activities.


Progress


is now dependent on


the spread of similar


values


throughout


the human population.


Such values


hibit conflict and,


thereby,


contribute


to the


growth of


knowledge.


The


initial


development of


the social mind


oc-


curs


primitive


family.


In the next stage,


kinship


extended and outsiders


are adopted


into


the household.


This


gives


rise


formation of


clans.


Friendly inter-


action with neighboring groups


as well


as conquest


lead


the development


tribal


structures.


And


value cons en-


sus


increases,


tions.


However


tribes

thes


are organized


types


into


larger confedera-


associations are


limited


racially homogeneous


populations.


Societies


with large heterogeneous


populations


which diverse


elements


struggle for supremacy,


mark the


beginning of


civilized


life.


Initially,


these societies


have a militaristic


type


organization in order to estab-


lish political


unity and security.


The


imposition of a


state religion helps


foster such ends.


Nevertheless,


with


the


realization of


these objectives,


the people


become dis-


satisfied with


this


repressive


form of


organization.


This


13Ibid.,

14Ibid..


256-257.

257-298.







satisfaction


eventually


leads


to political


democracy.


Rapid


material


progress


follows,


since


new


freedoms


stimu-


late


trade,


produ


activity,


and


technological


advances.


These


ctors


increase


social


integration


population.


With


passage


time,


inequality


results


consensus


stro


However,


Christian


charity


suc-


cess


will


redr


ess


this


imbalance


foster


growth


morality.


Ward


believes


that


this


message


will


from


Western


societies


to less


fortunate


peoples


throughout


world.


This


brief


review


these


early


theorists


shows


long


tradition


evolutionary


perspective


within


soci-


ology


and


demonstrates


increa


sing


sophis


tication


this


approach


The


biological- deterministic


position


Sumner


modified


Ward'


s emphasis


human


intervention


evolutionary


y process,


and


changed


an even


eater


extent


Giddings


' concepts


consciousness


kind


and


human


volition.


However


, the


theories


these


men


are


largely


discredited,


to a lack


objectivity


false


assumptions,


showed


and


a marked


a belief


inability


unilineal


to rise


prog


above


ress.


intelle


They


actual


trends


their


time


this


may


explained


limit


information


available


them.


Although


much


criti-


cism


their


work


was


appropriate


, it


was


extens


ive,


since tlr


entire


evolutionary


perspective


was


discredited.







The


Class


ical


Human


Ecological


Position


human


ecolo


ical


perspective


provides


intellec-


tual


antec


edents


res


idential


environmental


theory,


since


somewhat


ess


speculative


than


early


soc jo-


biolo


ical


orientation,


while


emphasizing


effect


phy


Thai


environment


on human


behavior.


Robert


Park,


inator


approach,


realized


close


relationship


between


humans


and


other


life


forms ;


therefore,


applied


Darwinian


principles,


as elaborated


plant


and


animal


ecolo


gists,


to the


study


turnan


life.


Park


view,


interrelationship


individual


and


species


within


a common


habitat


a universal


phenom-


enon


all


living


thin


Relatedness


an unconscious


pursuit


each


and


every


organism


to acquire


necess


ary


sustenance


for


exis tence.


each


individual


within


habitat


attempts


to satisfy


phys io log


ical


needs,


bene-


fits


all


other


organisms


directly


or indirectly,


providing


conditions


their


survival.


A mutual


interdependence


thereby


effectuated.


Competition,


a basic


component


life,


s the


motivat-


ing


principle


perpetual


struggle


for


existence.


organisms


see


conditions


most


conducive


to their


survival,


they


come


into


contact


with


other


individuals


striving


for


same


end.


this


situation


competition


intensified,


ninrrri


inrl rliml


nnt


nnl ir


rn-ut and~


with


nvil rnnmpnt 1


fs r-


ori


I


* -


q K







fulfill


their


minimum


requirements ;


however,


struggle


to maintain


themselves


within


this


environmental


niche


con-


tinues,


they


begin


to adapt


conditions


their


life,


and


reby


increase e


their


chance


survival.


Uncontrolled


competition,


however,


does


not


increase


probability


destruction


survival,


organism.


but


eventually


Here


where


leads


ingenuity


nature


comes


into


play:


competitive


forces


act


to dis-


tribute


individual


achieved


which


competitive


specific


develops


tion


into

life


within


tends t

process


conditions

a more sp

forms nece


habitat,


o dimini


And


ecialized

ssitates


as each


position,

entity.


a form


a spatial

deleteriou

organism


the

This


separation


effect


adapts


individual

differentia-


cooperative


inter-


dependence


among


organisms.


Competition


does


not


ceas e


under


this


situation;


however,


s transformed


into


a mutually


beneficial


process.


The


a self


competitive


-contained


cooperation


environment


that


called


manifested


a biotic


within


community.


Park' s


economy


interest


that


not


exists


the


such


individual,


a community,


but


and


the


which


natural


makes


community


unique.


Park


states:


These
organized
happen to
the contra


symbiotic
assemblages


live


ry,


societies
of plants


together


they


are


the


are
and
same


not


merely


animals
habitat


interrelated


Un-1


which
. On
most


n n m nothing n


Irnmnlnv


~ nmmlmi ttr


kacl


Ptrartt


mannar








history


can
of


which


juvenile,


observed. I
origins that


adult


and


senile


an organism,


other


organisms


phases


one
is.


use


Spen


cer's


phrase,


a super


organism. 17


Within


tant


this


community,


contribution


another


stability.


factor

This


makes

element


an impor-

is domin-


ance.


competition


occurs


environmental


resources


that


perpetuate


positions


that


life,


certain


facilitate


such


specimens


begin


activities,


occupy


one


individ-


ual


or species


vironmental


acquires


niche.


These


control


favored


over


most


organisms


desirable


not


only


en-


have


conditions


that


are


most


conducive


their


survival


, but


they


establish


conditions


which


govern


survival


other


life


forms


within


this


community.


a consequence,


these


organisms


are


large


measure


responsible


distribution


individuals


within


habitat


state


equilibrium


which


results.


However


, as with


things


nature,


biotic


balance


does


not


remain


constant,


since

cess.


competition


force


s innat

life.


within

e and

The d


community


serves

dominant


a continual


fundamental


individuals,


pro-


motivation-


therefore


, help


maintain


order,


and


thus,


are


necessary


growth


and


continuation


community.


Park


succinctly


summarizes


function


dominance


when


states:


Thus


fundamental


everywhere


function


same.


dominance
stabilize


seems








maintain


order,


and


permit


in which the order
are embodied.18


the growth o
corresponding


structure
functions


When


due


fundamental


to internal


change


occurs


motivation


biotic


or external


community,


pressure.


The


former


situation


occurs


with


a major


alteration


popula-


tion


growth


a particular


species


which


changes


exist-


relationships,


or when


development


organisms


radically


alters


environmental


conditions.


The


latter


situ-


action


takes


place


event


that


a sufficient


number


alien


individual


come


into


community


and


thereby


trans-


form


established


equilibrium.


The


term


succession


used


to d


describe


extensive


change


biotic


community


that


result


either


maturation


or population


placement


However,


another r


term,


invasion,


refers


initial


alterations


spatial


organization


through


movement


alien


organisms


into


a given


community.


either


case,


network


relationships


that


account


for


biotic


community


seriously


rupted


and


the


members


are


danger,


since


the


survival


each


organism


pendent


upon


the


conditions


established


group.


Con-


equently,


natural


phenomena


competitive


cooperation


and


dominance


start


anew


to form


a biotic


balance,


but


this


community


will


also


eventually


destroyed


through


internal


and/or


external


transformation,


and


cycle


will


continue.








Although


these


natural


principles


have


sub


tantially


aff


ected


life


forms,


human


culture


adds


a dimension


that


must


taken


into


consideration.


Park


states


For
pendent
animals.
labor, m


one
upon
As
an's


thing


man


s physical


a result
relation


to hi


not


so immediately


environment


existing
physical


as other
division of
environment


een


mediated


throu


h the


ervent ion


other


has co-
upon hi


men.


The


operate
s loca


exchange


g


ed to emancipate
1 habitat.19


oods
him


and services
from dependence


According


to Park,


man'


unique


ability


to communicate


trans forms


symbiotic


relationship


biotic


commun-


into


a social


order.


Soci


ety


viewed


as a controlling


force


ity


which


humans


natural,


becomes


and


increasingly


therefore


under


unplanned,


the


activ-


direction


social


factors.


conceived,
*-4


social


order


consists


various


levels--the


economic


the


political,


and


moral


and


at each


succeeding


level


individual


more


depend-


ent


upon


dictates


socie


Society


functions


direct


human


aggressiveness s


into


more


benign


forms.


Conse-


quently,


due


to social


constraints


, this


aggress


iveness


turns


into


the


less


tructive


state


conflict


humans


consciously


contend


with


one


another


scarce


environ-


mental r

conflict


sources.


reduced


And


through


social

h the


interaction p

trans formation


rogresses,


natural


dominance


into


superordinate-subordinate


social


relation-


ships.


stage,


communication


among


individuals








results


development


customs


and


mores,


which


pro-


duc e


accommodation


among


contending


persons.


Finally,


most


advanced


social


process,


farthest


removed


from


the


natural


state


, is


assimilation.


When


this


eve


s attained,


persons


sharing

stage c


community,


develop


values,


orres ponds


but


a strong


sentiment


interests,


the


also


and


equilibri


transcends


one


intimate

um phase


biological,


another


contact.


through a


This


biotic


due


uniqueness


human


beings.


we have


seen,


competition


humans


modified


culture,


but,


Parkian


conceptualization,


still


re-


mains


primary


force


that


accounts


for


distribution


population


within


habitat.


humans


compete


economically,


a symbiotic


division


labor


results


with


the


same


type


interdependence


formed


nonhuman


com-


munities.


But


economic


wealth,


rather


than


some


other


fac-


tor,


determining


element


this


contest.


According-


economic


circumstance


accounts


for


one's


position


within


community


so persons


with


superior


financial


resources


inhabit


the


most


desirable


areas,


while


those


limited


means


are


forced


into


ess


attractive


places.


Thi


s enables


individual


similar


economic


levels


to settle


within


same


geographic


area.


These


persons,


due


to their


proximity,


are


frequent


contact


with


one


another


and


have


similar


-- - ---. C


mt A a- L_


~__._ __I


mr


s








tend


to settle within


the community.


Since


this


process


largely unplanned,


Park


terms


such entities natural areas.


further


states:


The community or city
formations, and these areas


the tot
social


composed of


are


inte


ality through the division of
phenomena.20


these


grated within
labor or


Park does not dismiss


importance of society in


development of


social organization,


nor the effect of soci-


ety


on human behavior.


But,


in his view,


the focus


of human


ecology should be on the natural


processes


biotic


community,


rather than


processes


that occur on


social


level.


According


to Park,


the ephemeral


character-


is tics


and complexity of


social


order preclude


inves ti-


gation,


and


belief


that


the social


order


essen-


tially reflects


the activities


biotic


levels.


Con-


sequently,


Park outlines


the objectives


ecological


analysis.


he states:


Human ecology


investigate the
ance and social


once t
which,


:hey
whe


process


fundamentally


ses


equilibriu


are achieved and


the biotic


by which
m (1) ar
(2) the


balance of


an attempt to
the biotic bal-


e maintained


process


social


ses by
equili


brium is


distur


one relatively


bed, the transition is made
stable order to another.21


from


Criticism of


the Classical


Human Ecological


Position


The classical


ecological orientation,


enumerated by


Park and his


disciples,


received


extensive criticism and,


n








a consequence,


development t


neo-orthodox


position.


Since


approach


on the


traditional


conceptualizations,


weakness


ses


classical


per-


active


will


enumerated,


while


revised


viewpoint


will


cussed


next


S ec


tion.


The


criticism


directed


class


ical


position


volves


four


main


areas:


the


a priori


designation


com-


petition


basic


motivational


force


humans


and


the


bas i


social


organization;


inability


separate


bioti


from


cultural


level;


fixation


on ag-


egates;


and


environment,


failure


except


mos t


to account


perfunctory


physical


manner.


Features


sted


these


criticisms


have


limited


approach


from


initial


attempt


acc


ount


social


phenomena,


to a d


escriptive


technique


population


patterns


and


interrelationships


negative


tempted


effect,


to improve


such


relatively


this


patterns.


few


formulation


Aside


individual


and


from


have


as a consequence,


little


been


done


to extend


applicability.


Accord-


ingly,


the


purpose e


following


discussion


not


only


to show


weakness


this


position,


but


to demonstrate


how


this


formulation


can


provide


a basic


viewpoint


the


construction


the


residential


environmental


theory


pre-


sented


this


dissertation.


nit.


ne* man',


ar1tn


$nnt~t


t' 1at.


rnhmno4 44- t wai~


* 9 n


nn ~


i- ~%r-


F


n'








anal


animal


and


The


interspecies


prey


contest


little


between


predatory


consequence


main-


tenance


population-


-resource


equilibrium,


to such


self


-re


gulatory


mechanisms


as starvation,


disease,


and


the


decline


reproduction.


Aggr


ess


does


not


res


ult


assumed


symbiotic


relationship,


but


rather,


re-


sponsible


innate


fear


outs


iders.


addition,


law


-the-


jung


mentality


classical


ecolo


does


not


account


necessary


control


intraspecies


aggression.


proc


ess


is not


somehow mediated,


the


destruction


population


would


certainly


result,


since


such


vital


functions


reproduction,


care


the


young,


and


mutual


defense


would


impos


sible.


The


ass


ical


ecolo


fail


to reali


that


gress ion


only


one


aspect


natural


competitive


process.


Numerous


other


forms


competition


not


only


re-


duce


or prevent


aggression,


but,


fact,


are


responsible


much


cooperative


behavior.


Examples


are


those


involved


territoriality


and


dominance;


former


process


reduces


conflict


through


physical


separation,


while


the


latter


pro-


motes


social


separation.


Thes e


competitive


forms


mini


aggressive


episodes


and


facilitate


cooperative


activ-


cities


, especially


among


individual


occupying


same


Ardrey,


The


Social


Contract


(New


York:


Atheneum,


Robert


--- ---


------


--








physical


location and/or social


position.


These more sub-


dued forms


of competition are selectively


advantageous,


since


they


establish order within


the population and


furnish


each individual member


the opportunity to


fulfill


unique


potential.


Robert Ardrey so eloquently states:


Order


Without


tha


can provide,
Yet without t
and promoting


and disorder
t degree of


the vulner


hat


members,


are


intimately


entwined.


order which only society
able individual perishes.


degree of


to fulles


society


the competition of grou

When crowding and other


disorder tolerating


t development


must wither a
p selection.24


forms


the diversity
nd vanish in


of overstimulation occur,


freedom to express


one


unique


potential


compromised or


even destroyed,


the more

gerous a


sion become


weakes t,


since


benign forms


aggressive state.


ineffective;


become vulnerable;


the stress which results


competition into

The mechanisms


individuals,


and


transforms


the far more dan-

controlling aggres-


especially the


the continued existence of


group becomes


questionable.


The classical


ecologists attempted


to understand soci-


ety through


the natural and consistent


processes


involved


social


organization,


but


they were unable


to do


so.


This


inability was


principally due


limitation of nine-


teenth-century


evolutionary theory,


which formed


basis


their orientation.


The struggle


for


existence e


they


envisioned does


not








destruction


individual


and


group.


Accordingly,


this


attempt


to investigate


processes


which


biotic


balance


and


social


equilibrium


are


maintained


and


trans-


formed


through


a natural


division


labor


useless


sociological


analysis


inc e


they


did


not


comprehend


forms


and


functions


competition.


Consequently,


Park


and


disciples


social


could


not


organization.


find


Their


natural


attempts


were


consistencies


interesting


failures.


The


Parkian


dichotomy


natural


and


social


order


received


more


criticism


than


any


other


concept


within


his


formulation.


While.


numerous


instances


these


attacks


are


justified,


they


are


not


based


on biological


factors,


which


are,


after


all,


foundation


Park


s orientation.


According


gly,


discussing


this


aspect


s approach,


emphasis


placed


on biological


phenomena.


The


distinction


essence,


between


a meaning


ess


biotic


and


separation,


social


since


orders


human


life


cannot


exist


without


genetic


inheritance


or environmental


experience.


one


could


imagine


a fi


eld


with


one


dimension,


an impossibility.


For


life


to develop


and


man


ture,


dependent


upon


an interrelationship


genetic


well


as experiential


factors.


Human


life


, indeed,


unique,


and


this


expressed


greater


flexibility








behavioral


patterns


sucking,


smiling,


and


head


movement


are


fundamental


development


an emotional


bond


between


child


and


mother


substitute.


Although


these


instinctive


activities


are


a necessary


condition


for


humans,


they


are


not


sufficient


development


human


life,


since


environmental


stimuli


must


present


well.


When


such


stimuli


are


low


levels


or absent,


the


subsequent


will


growth


severely


child


compromise


into


and


may


a normal

lead to


human


death.


being

Fortu-


nat


ely,


such


an extreme


situation,


which


social


nee


infr


child


equently.


are


so completely


Nevertheless,


disregarded,


feedback


between


occurs


child


and


environment


is much


more


complicated


than


an innate


response


to environmental


timuli,


which


when


pre


sent


pro-


duce


a further


response.


needs


child


are


satisfied,


selectively


focuses


attention


on the


mother.


This


not


only


fosters


an affective


bond


between


two,


but


enables


child


to make


more


exacting


environmental


distinctions.


environmental


Due


to this


control,


the


trust


child


and


elementary


begins


forms


to interact


with


more


individuals,


and,


as a consequence,


knowledge


and


learning


potential


expand.


The


classical


ecological


separation


the


biotic


and


cultural


level


analytical


purposes


totally








unwarranted,


since


such


a division


does


not


exist


real


ity.


a consequence,


social


analysis


based


on this


sup-


position


does


not


extend


parameters


our


understand-


ing.


fact,


responsible


generating


additional


confusion


an already


muddled


area.


The


classical


ecologists


view


society


an entity


that


inhibits


human


desires


and


controls


individual


activ-


ities;


however,


they


lieve


such


repression


necessary


the


continuation


man


since,


their


perspective,


humans


are


basically


selfish


and


unconscionable


beings


stated


their


basic


text:


The


world


petites,
tion, in


fact
with


seems
all


uncontrolled


the


a suppression


these


wild,


inte


res t


someti


natural


that


passions,


and
of


men


are


brought


instinct,


undisciplined


the


common


welfare,


mes, and the control
dispositions. 27


into


and ap-
Civiliza-


demand


always,


This


jaundiced


view


human


dispositions


and


society


as well


totally


without


merit.


Humans


could


not


have


become


social


animals


, and,


consequently,


society


would


not


have

need


been

for


possible


close


without


relationship


people'

s with


innate


others


capacity

their k


and


mnd


addition,


humans'


potential


aggressiveness s


mediate


d by


such


factors


ear,


indifference,


and


displacement


activ-


cities.


Concomitantly,


society


establishes


conditions


which,


an appreciable


ext


ent,


are


response ibl


for


human


behav-


ior.


I


enmzrd n


ov1 -


*-1 A *r


Ra

lasi


nnwi tinn


that


neonle


are


I


SL..


i








inherently


evil


and


society


a repressive


force


a sim-


plis


moral


supposition


which


totally


unfounded.


we have


seen,


uniqueness


human


life


mani-


fested


ghly


tial


through

complex


phenomena.


behavioral


diversity,


interdependence


More


than


any


between


other


which


innate


species,


due

and


Homo


experien-

sapiens'


innate


potentialities


are


dependent


on and


developed


the


cumulative


experience


living.


This


process


continual


change


enables


people


en-


vision


and


pursue


future


goals


that


are


removed


and,


numerous


instances,


inimical


to human


existence.


Although


humans


are


able


to control


their


destiny


more


than


any


other


species,


they


are


not


above


biological


constraints.


The


ective


factors


which


make


survival


possible


also


establish


parameters


for


fulfillment


species'


needs.


When


people


create


conditions


that


fail


to meet


these


basic


requirement


, morbidity


results


The


paradox


human


inheritance


exis tence


and,


involves


same


ability


time,


to transcend


necessity


genetic


living


within


constraints.


The


classical


ecolo


recognize


human' s


unique


situation,


edition


but


places


their


this


limited


species


perspective


a position


similar


human


con-


that


the
44ha


mos t
anrn


primitively
-a: a I


evolved


beings.


an, 4" a


- nI


They
1lt. .r -


fail


to realize


-. -. 1 a n -. 1


.taa~








society


human


condition.


For


them,


society


nothing


more


than


repressive


entity


used


to control


natural


immorality


human


bein


The


stract


macro


emphasis


to preclude


classical


anything


but


position


most


so ab-


perfunctory


understanding


natural


processes


involved


community


organization.


posedly


The


result


functional


competitive


interdependence


cooperation


which


and


sup-


dominance,


may


limited


value


when


discussing


distribution


plants


human


a habitat


, but


organization.


little


primates


use


generally


study


and


Homo


sapiens


in particular


there


exist


an intricate


relation-


ship


biological


potential


social


experience


, and


physi-


environmental


conditions


that


determine


spatial


arrangements


endowment


and


cohesiveness


humans


in part


populations.


This


, responsible


genetic


their


reac-


tion


social


and


phys


ical


environmental


stimuli


however,


these


latter


factors


determine,


an appreciable


extent,


selection


and


use


biolo


ical


inheritance.


Accord-


ingly


highly


abstract


conceptualizations


classi-


school


not


only


prevent


a meaningful


analysis


biological


constituents


involved


community


organic


zation,


but


does


not


permit


a determination


physical


and


social


phenomena


which


are


so much


a part


human


organ-








believed


responsible


distribution


and


probable


change


life


forms


within


this


habitat


are


used


ex-


plain


the


same


phenomena


human


community


as well.


both


ins tances,


however,


Park


failed


to account


for


effects


the


physical


environment


on development


and


even


location


organisms.


This


omission


particularly


egregious


cas e


humans,


since


people


more


than


any


other


living


beings


not


react


pass ively


to environmental


conditions.


They


continually


adjust


opportunities


and


limitations


imposed


on them


environmental


states,


and


as a consequence,


this


process


a vital


effect


their


existence.


addition,


humans


have


the


unique


abil-


ity


to transform


their


environment


to a degree


which


far


exceeds


that


other


animals.


This


permits


control


their


present


and


future


situation.


The


classical


ecologist 's


failure


to consider


this


interrelationship


emphasis


just


on generalities,


another

which D


example


events


fruitful


simplistic

analysis.


The


Limitations


the


Neo


-Orthodox


Position


Due


to the


criticism


leveled


against t


classical


position,


several


individuals,


including


James


Quinn,


Amos


Hawley,


and


Otis


Duncan,


attempted


to modify


this


orientation


order


to increase


utility


for


socioloicsL


Rnalvsis.


SincSe.


. LA


site


t A


-. --,


defects.


i.


I








Essentially,


Quinn


views


human


ecology


study


interpers


onal


relationships


among


men


, which


involves


competitive


efforts


acquire


finite


resources


environment.


Quinn


conceives


competition


mutual


modification


whereby


living


anisms


mutually


fluence


one


another


through


increase


ing


or decreasing


limited


supply


some


environmental


factor


upon


which


the


other


more


depends.


sophisticated


This


than


concept


that


competition


forth


somewhat


classical


orientation,


although


still


views


competition


basic


motivating


force


in nature.


addition,


Quinn


indi-


cates


futility


separating


human


behavior


into


biotic


and


social


ord


ers;


nevertheless,


focus


lies


with-


subsocial


level


based


competitive-cooperative


nexus


among


individuals


limited


environmental


resources.


The


similarity


position


that


class


sical


ecologists


structure


also


applies


seen


this


primarily


statement


groups


that


: "Ecolo


involve


ical


terrin-


trial


areas


an essential


component --for


example,


com-


munities


and


regions--as


contrast


d with


social


groups


which


have


no correspondingly


important


area/basis


Although


distinguishes


spatial


patterns


that


have


ecological


importance


and


those


that


not


, while


differ-


entiating


between


structural


and


functional


aspects


such








arrangements,


emphasis


on community


and


regional


aggre-


gates


same


level


abstraction


classical


formulation.


Cons


equently,


interpretations


are


lim-


ited


those


put


forth


more


traditional


view.


For


example,


Quinn


basic


principle


location


urban


enterprises


says:


This


location


middle,


or med-


ian,


everything


that


men


transport


to and


away


from


*.30


Without


shing


to elaborate


on this


principle


extent


felt


necessary


Quinn,


most


certainly


shows


weaknesses


so general


a level


conceptualization.


Whereas


the


classical


ecologists


made


some


attempt


incorporate


physical


environmental


factors


their


formu-


lation,


analysis


Quinn


they


perspective


apply


these


resource


elements


limitation.


only


This


affect


po~s


tion


negates


biosocial


factors


an analysis


human


organization,


and,


as a consequence,


reduces


humans


materialistic


entity.


Thi


digression


from


the


classical


position


does


not


strengthen


that


approach,


which


Quinn


intention,


but


essentially


removes


from


general


ecological


perspective.


Hawley,


perhaps


mos t


not


ed of


neo-ecologists,


attempts


to clarify


and


extend


the


classical


orientation


a more


thorough


delineation


ecological


principles.


recognizes


necessity


distinguishing


between


intra-


-








enumerates


various


phenomena


that


contribute


organ-


ization


comply


exity


However,


effort


to make


human


ecolo


a more


inclusive


scipline,


fail


to consider


eff


hi on


mo tivat ion


on organization,


except


an economically


rationalistic


manner.


Consequently,


comn-


petition


seen


as a f


actor


with


influence


on human


rela-


tionships


only


when


material


items


are


not


sufficient


satisfy


demand.


Accordingly,


Hawley


views


competition


a material


stic


and


transitory


phenomenon.


states


Eliminate
combined


no 1
This


onger
marks


newed,


exce
the


however,


population
below what
survivors.
competition


ion may
demands


eds the
end of


should


increase


required


expected


to continue


surviving


supply of th
competition.


there


until


competitions


thing


may


either


or a depletion


to sustain


But the point
is a self res


to b
olvin


e


of
the


made


demanded.


re-


further
the supply
demands of


here


g relationship.


that
31


Hawley


a priori


tive


provides


and


process


a substantive


confused


formulated


basis


and


conceptualization


traditional


clarity


the


ecolo


compete


ists.


Unfortunately,


not


only


considers


competition


primary


motivational


force


man,


but


limits


this


factor


to such


an extent


to exclude


human


motivation


from


human


organization.


attempt


discipline


and


to make


overcome


human


some


ecology


the


a more


criticism


inclusive

directed


against t


the


classical


orientation,


Hawley


does


not


make








dis tinction


between


biological


and


cultural


phenomena,


but,


rather,


cons iders


combined


effect


these


factors


adjustment


a population


to its


habitat.


s states


"Ecology


concerned


less


now with


how


habits


are


acqui


red


than


with


functions


they


serve


and


relationships


they


involve.


",32


This


approach


overcomes


untenable


pos i


tion


the


classical


school


but


only


substitutes


one


defect


with


etical


another.


orientation


largely


and


negates


reduces


analysis


purpose e


his


to a somewhat


theor-


more


superfic


level.


The


communal


level


analysis


employed


Hawley


similar


classical


orientation,


except


for


greater


sophistication.


view,


"the


adjustment


popula-


tion


physical


actions


many


work


individuals


occurs


but


not


through


through


independent


coordination


and


organization


individual


actions


to form


a single


func-


tional


forced


unit.


,,33


to take


this


a monistic


level


economic


abstraction,


position,


Hawley


since


only


possible


ascertain


mos t


indirect


adjustments


competitive


situation.


approach,


s standing


biological


Hawley


demonstrates


principles


than


his


a greater

classical


under-


an-


cestors.


shows


importance


physical


environ-


ment


on genetic,


somatic,


and


cultural


adaptations


human








populations


and


recogn]


zes


possibility


maladjustment


to such


conditions,


especially


du nn


g periods


rapid


change.


Neverthel


ess


incr


eas e


awareness


envi


ronmental


interaction


not


employee


d in


analysis


community


organization.


Like


class


sical


ecolo


gists,


not


concerned


development


with


nor


environmental


effects


human


influences


on human


manipulation


such


conditions.


concern


with


physical


environment


manifes ted


only


conditions


that


affect


economic


tegration


human


communities.


states:


Human
a physical
number of


the


phras e


something


relationships,


universe,
resistances
friction o


to be


an expenditure


streams,


tures


diture


may


air


passed
f time


occur


involve
which a
space.
over a
and en


currents, and


either


required.


collective


friction of
distance.34


Although


life


space


Hawley


increase


the
Lre
S
md


ing as they
overcoming
generalized


pace
thus


lergy.


even


itself


calls


Mountains,


man-made


or decrease


. The ter
is largely a
as manifested


demonstrates


struc-


the


ritorial
result


time


a greater


expen-


patterns


-cost


understanding


evolutionary


theory


than


class


ical


ecologis


and,


as a consequence,


able


to clarify


some


the


incon-


s istencies


traditional


orientation,


basic


con-


ceptualizations


are


essentially


same.


Duncan


and


Schnore


are


largely


agreement


with


Hawley,

limited


but


they


the


believe


territorial


that


human


ecology


arrangements


should


social


not


activi








framework

logical d


since


development.


seen


an important


Bureaucracy


and


part


stratification


techno-

n are


similarly


included,


since


they


represent


conditions


human

a part


adaptation.


human


And


ecology


political

, because


power


also


concerns


considered


control


ecific


believe


groups


human


over


ecology


others.


to be


In fact


basic


, Duncan


Schnore


formulation


socio-


ical


analy


sis1.


they


state:


"Human


ecology


avoids


reductionism


behavioral


concepts


and


etherealism


'value


pattern


' concepts


some


cultural


theorists


This


view


similar


original


position


Park.


Another


aspect


orientation


involve s


enum-


eration


provide


four


asis


functional


ecolo


y interdependent


analysis.


variables


These


that


factors


consist


population


aggr


ate,


as characterized


such


items


age,


sex


and


rate


growth;


environment,


involving


both


physi


social


elements


technology


, indicated


ava


ilable


equipment;


and


organization


population.


The


primary


focus


of human

dependent


ecology


elements


then,


and


an analysis

consequences


these


which


inter-


result.


their


formulation


, Duncan


and


Schnore


make


portant


contributions


to ecological


theory.


They


extend


350ti S


Ti rdl


hn ran


V


nnd


Tan~f


Schnorne


"Cultural.


Behavior-


.








parameters


scipline


from


monistic


economic


ition,


they


provide


a degree


methodological


pre-


S1 on


rese


arch


this


area.


Nevertheless,


their


basic


conceptualizations


are


closely


related


classical


position


and,


as a consequence


exhibit


similar


weakne


sses.


summary


new-orthodox


ecologi


were


not


able


overcome


fundamental


limitations


inherent


classical


creased


orientation


and,


applicability


several


While


they


instances,


modified


they


gener-


y improved


competitive


concept,


they


were


unable


sati


sfactorily


handle


cultural


component


human


exis-


tence -


This


phenomenon


forced


them


focus


on a


very


nar-


row


area


basically


economic


relationships


or to ignore


any


distinction


between


innate


and


cultural


factors.


This


largely


neg


ated


their


theoretical


conceptualizations


, since


biosocial


research.


perpsective


Consequently


was


, they


not


employed


failed


their


ecological


attempt


make


human


ecology


something


more


than


a de


scriptive


tech-


unique


limited


range


human


relationships.


Although


human


ecology


does


not


adequately


explain


any


area


human


social


behavior


does


contribute


several


important


conceptions


to such


an under


standing.


points


that


man


differs


degree


but


not


in kind


from


other


animals.


Therefore,


to understand


human


behavior


and


A% rr a ~r rt -, r An 4,nl4+n r ,A v -f l a i n


S'C n lat


tn rl nr


a inn~to


T nin








human


life


and


continued


adjustment


human


life


physical


environment


an important


contribution


ecological

universal


thought.

properties


addition,


their


as competition,


enumeration


cooperation,


and


such

dom-


finance


and


effect


these


natural


phenomena


on human


organization,


while


little


use


their


orientation,


points


out


essential


factors


human


relationships.


More-


over,


realization


that


spatial


location


and


spatial


distance


have


a profound


influence


on such


relationships


another


sequence,


cedents


important


human


for


contribution


ecology


theory


provides


presented


human


ecology.


intellectual


this


a con-


ante-


dissertation.














CHAPTER


SOCIOBIOLOGY:


THE


THEORETICAL


OVERVIEW


FOR


THE


RES IDENTIAL


ENVIRONMENTAL


THEORY


Sociobiology


provides


theoretical


overview


for


the


residential


environmental


formulation


presented


this


sertation.


bases

ties


This


of social

of group m


new


discipline


behavior,


embers.


which


This


focuses


on the


concerns


emphas is


biological


innate


seems


activi


to coincide


with


human


ecology;


however,


whereas


ecological


perspective


analyzes


human


interrelationships


through


economic


er-


dependence,


sociobiology


studi


genetic


characters tics


a population,


variability


such


characteristics,


and


the


environmental


effect


on heritability


a conse-


quence,


does


not


limit


human


behavior


some


speculative


undimensional


factors,


such


as competition,


and


then


con-


struct

biology


late


a framework

employs ev


hypotheses


on


out


olutiona

innate


such


speculation.


and


enetic


dispositions


Rather,


theory


and


tests


socio-


to formu-

such


assumptions


through


empirical


investigation.


Accordingly,


order


dental


to provide


environmental


a theoretical


formulation


rationale


for


constructed


resi


this


dis-


-~ ~ ~~ -


.a


1 a


r -r r


.








pertain


residential


cons


truct.


addition


hope


to demonstrate


applicability


such


findings


to sociological


inquiry.


Perhaps

particularly

determining


the

when

the e


most


difficult


concerned


extent


with


genetic


problem

human


facing

behavior


influence


sociobiology,

. involves


on such


activi-


ties.


demonstrate(


this

e the


point


innate


time,

basis


genetic


procedures


hundreds


phy


are


sical


able


traits


human


polished


inheritance


including


through


numerous


probabilities


in conjunction


with


abnormaliti


derived


individual


This


from


life


accom-


laws


histories,


and


more


direct


techniques


cell


fusion


cell


staining


that


permit


identification


chromo


some s


and


genes


respon-


sible


certain


physical


characteristics


However


, these


methodolo


have


very


limited


application


determining


heritability


social


characteristics.


Deprivation


experiments


are


principal


means


em-


played


determining


innate


social


behavior.


Animal s


are


raised


isolation


and/or


otherwise


treated


prevent


exhibit


exposure


a particular


to cultural


behavior,


stimuli.


one


subj ects


able


still


assume


heritability.


For


example,


one


such


experiment,


three


rhesus


monkeys


and


one


baboon


were


deafferented


on both


forelimbs


within


four


hours


birth


but


still


revealed








ambulatory,


climbing


reaching


behaviors.


another


phase


this


experiment,


rhesus


monke


addition


to deafferentation


forelimbs


, were


blinded


sewing


eyelids


together.


They


developed


same


behavior


patt


ems


This


experiment t


not


only


demonstrates


heri-


ability


specific


behavior,


also


shows


a particular


type


innate


behavior


known


as a fixed


action


pattern,


entire


ase


on innate


direction.


Experimental


deprivation


uncovers


another


kind


havior


called


an innate


releasing


mechanism,


which


pendent


on certain


environmental


stimuli


but


not


on exper-


iential


learning


Work


with


common


squirrel


reveals


tyis


type


innate


behavior


This


animal 1


buries


nuts


ground


each


fall,


employing


stereotyped


sequence


movements.


picks


a nut,


climbs


down


ground,


and


searches


a pi


ace


bottom


a tree


trunk


large


boulder.


base


this


object


will


scratch


a hole


mean s


alternating


movements


forelimbs


and


place


nut


The


nut


rammed


into


place


with


rapid


thrusts


snout,


covered


with


dirt


sweeping


motions


and


tamped


down


with


forepaws.


is not


this


possible


behavioral


from


patters


such


observations


innate


or acquired.


to determine


However,


researcher


can


eas


withhold


information








squirrel


winter

with


would


stores.


liquid


food


require


When


placed


in order


animal


a cage


learn


hand

with


how


raised

a bare


to collect


isolation


floor,


can


neither


observe


another


squirrel


burying


nuts


nor


able


to practice


such


an activity


In addition,


never


experiences


time


starvation


and


as a consequence


, it


not


ssible


to learn


that


food


hidden


chance


can


useful


times


need.


When


an animal


raised


under


these


conditions


, it


able


to complete


this


behavioral


pattern


on its


initial


tempt.


glven


nuts,


eats


until


satis


field;


how-


ever


additional


nuts


are


not


drooped


but


carried


mouth


tical


seemingly


structures


in search


frequently


a place


provide


to deposit


squirrel


them.


with


Ver-


such


an opportunity.


When


finds


a suitable


location,


animal


deposits


nut,


pushes


into


a corner


or niche


with


snout


, and


makes


covering


and


tamping


movements


with


front


legs,


although


does


not


dig


a hole


This


phenomenon


provides


a clear


example


innat e


behavior


that


not


dependent


on environmental


deprivation


technique


stimuli


also


enables


its

the


occurrence.

investigator


uncover


inherent


needs


that


must


fulfilled


animal


to develop


normally.


one


such


experiment


rhesus


monkeys


are


isolated


from


social


interaction


at birth


to six








months


age.


These


animals


are


unable


to interact


normal-


with


age


mates


, hete


rosexual


behavior


s entirely


absent


males


and


most


females


and


animals


artificially


egna


show


a complete


lack


inter


offspring.


This


condit


known


to persist


six


seven


years


and


presumably


permanent.


Another


experiment,


which


involves


deprivation


pri


vacy,


also


demonstrates


innate


needs


animals


The


sub-


ects


s study


are


common


house


mice.


ese


animal


are


territorial


and


females


under


normal


conditions


not


encounter


strange


mal


but,


experiment,


femal


are


impregnated


a stud


male


and


other


males


are


then


placed


same


cage.


cases


pregnant


animals


mounted


unfamiliar


males


suffered


abortions


and


fifty


percent


those


not


mounted


also


abort


Although


deprivation


experiments


reveal


heritabil


ity


many


behavioral


patterns


and


innate


needs


lower


animals,


res searchers


are


constrained


ethical


and


legal


factors


from


conducting


similar


kinds


experiments


on humans.


However,


circums tances


occasionally


allow


type


direct


obs ervation


on man.


For


instance,


un-


fortunate


children


born


deaf


and


blind


permit


4Harry


keys
"


Harlow


Deprived


cv rrn


e2A d i n


et al.,


o f iothering


"Maternal


and


thumer tctr i


Peer


Behavior


Rhe


Associations


Philon


nnhical


Soci


Mon-
Infan-


etv.


B B h


>.


.*n


;r


Ir Ir


,









determination


several


innate


behavioral


traits


humans.


Studies

smiling


such


and


children


laughing


reveal


seen


similar

normal


patterns


crying,


youngsters


spite


fact


that


these


children


can


not


learn


such


behaviors


from


others.


Another


study,


under


conditions


natural


deprivation,


reveals


existence


innate


needs


humans


, In


one


such


investigation


conducted


find


cause


morbidity


institutionalized


frequent


infants,


consistent


was


motherin


reported


was


that


extremely


lack


deleter-


ioUS


their


well-being.


first


infants


crie


d for


long


fall


eriods


into


this


a mood


behavior


hopeless


ceased


but


and


silen


babies


rief.


seemed


After


another


month


they


began


show


signs


behavior


resembling


that


adult


psychotics.


And,


finally


, many


these


fants


died


Since


possibilities


doing


this


type


research


are


limited,


investigator


forced


to employ


less


satis-


factory


approaches


uncover


innate


behavioral


characteris-


tics


and


needs


humans


One


such


method


based


concepts


homology


and


behavioral


stability.


The


former


conceptualization


refers


common


descent


behavioral


Eible-Eibesfeldt


, Ethology


, pp.


450-451.








patterns


extent


whereas


a trait


latter


disseminated


case


within


, the


and


focus


among


is on


taxa.


Accordingly


studi


are


made


various


species


expecial


those


most


closely


relat


man


, in


order


to find


com-


mon


roots


human


actions


and


stability


such


character


stics


asce


rtaine


to provide


added


support


heritability


these


patterns


humans


example


, numerous


invest


ators


demonstrate


that


behavior


patterns


such


territoriality


, dominance


, and


aggres


sion


are


found


primates


, including


man.


Another


inferential


procedure


, which


suppli


informa-


tion


heritability


human


character


stics,


study


analo


among


life


forms.


approach


function


specific


activities


various


species


are


enumerated


and


compared.


When


find


, as we often


that


similar


cies


action


, and


patterns


human


serve


we have


same


additional


end


various


evidence


that


spe-


shows


innate


basis


ese


activities


For


example


studies


reveal


not


only


stence


altruistic


behavior


in numerous


species,


including


Homo


sapiens


but


they


also


demonstrate


selective


advantage


this


activity


pattern.


Animals


that


manifest


such


havior


are


more


likely


transmit


genetic


material


n~ ~ ~ ~ 1*..*In,1


8 ,.


rnr


n .. r.l


TIT


r-


,-,








future


generations,


since


their


ability


to survive


proved


and,


as a consequence,


fitne


group


participate


successfully


natural


struggle


increased.


According


gly


these


analytical


techniques


provide


evi-


dence


biolo


ical


basis


many


facets


human


so-


cial


behavior,


they


are


especially


valuable


this


instance,


constraints


placed


on more


direct


experimental


procedures


Sociobioloby


not


only


employs


various


methodologies


to determine


heritability


human


social


behavior;


also


provides


a rational


an understanding


fac-


tors


involved


development


such


behavior


, since


incorporates


evolutionary


theory


within


perspective.


Accordingly


changes


, innate


genetic


social


activities


frequencies


within


are


dependent


a population


, which


are


following


agents:


mutation,


rotation


distortion,


Mutations


genetic


result


drift


from


, gene


flow,


changes


and


that


section


occur


chromo-


some


or DNA


(deoxyribonucleic


acid),


and


are


caused


natural


errors


cell


division


or environmental


pollut-


ants


Segregation


distortion


results


from


an imbalance


genetic


frequencies


formulation


gametes


, while


lIbid.


- .-L


-129.








genetic drift


brought about


through random error


associ-


ated with


selection of


gametes,


thereby


changing


frequency


of particular


genes.


In a small


population


this


type


genetic


variation is more pronounced,


since


probability of


deviation from actual


population parameters


increased.


times


this


may result


replacement


particular


genes


by others


the population.


Gene


flow is


simply


the result of


the migration of


dividuals


from a population and


their replacement by


others


with


different


genetic characteristics


into


that popula-


tion.


Selection is


since


the most


res pons ible


important


the most


evolutionary process,


frequent and extensive


changes


life


forms.


generally results


in the


increased


capacity


a breeding population


to survive and


reproduce,


due


genetic superiority.


Persons


possessing


this


nate quality are


better


able


to adapt


the environmental


conditions


their habitat,


and,


a consequence,


they


have a greater probability


of pass


their


innate


super-


iority to future


generations.


This


eventually results


increased


fitness


the


population.


Environmental


selection of behavioral


conditions most responsible


patterns within a population are


-'nf


1 3.,.,~








those


which


most


affect


existence


that


population.


Such


activities


predation,


benefici


most


sistence


adaptations


frequently


and


are


involve


reproductive


stributed


defense against

patterns. As


throughout


these


group,


life


ectancy


reproductive


rate


increases.


Never-


theless,


this


seemingly


ideal


state


cannot


exist


a period,


since


population


rowth


eventually


disrupts


equilibrium


between


group


environment.


this


situation


exacerbates,


continued


existence


population


increasingly


compromised.


Numerous


spec


, including


human s


have


developed


nate


controls


that


help


prevent


population


collap


se.


Emigra-


tion


ever,


frequently


environmental


Other


control


emplo


to achieve


constraints

mechanisms c


may


ome


this


prevent


into


ective


this


play when


how-


state


emigration


is not


possible,


and


are


more


severe


their


effect.


High


density


les


generate


stress


whi


causes


widespread


morbidity


population,


especially


weakest


members.


The


consequences


this


may


result


a severe


decline


re-


production,


inhibitions


in maturation,


a decrease


resist-


ance


to disea


and


death.


These


eff


ects


have


not


only


been


observed


lower


animals,


but


humans


as well


6John


Calhoun,


Scientific An


leri


"Population


can


CCVI


Sn


rI


Density


(February,


and
1962


r\r rra cv- -nnn A n r


I r


rh~ ~r


Pathology
-146; John
r xtron -F n r








Infanticide


and


cannibalism


are


also


ass


ociated


with


phenomenon.


For


example,


nomadic


lions


forced


out


their


prides


invade


other


groups


and


kill


cubs


and


some-


times


adult


members.


Thi


situation


not


unique


lions


but,


rather,


prevalent


numerous


species


Field


studies


on the


hanuman


langur


reveal


that


cannibalism


infants


occurs


frequently


under


high


density


conditions.


Humans


also


exhibit


such


controls


similar


situations.


Carr


-Saunders


cla


sic


work


on population


finds


that


cannibalism


a common


form


population


control


many


primitive


societies.


Infanti


cide


also


equently


practiced


humans


control


population,


indicated


following


s statements


Infanti


very
parts
tive


early


people


cide


times


was
and


world.
regularly


almost


still


a universal


1


Almost al
practice


quite
Sthe


custom


from


common in many
so-called primi


infanticide


and


have


done so
tribes
peoples
common
than it
plorers


> for
of A


ages.
merican


belong
practice


pre
and


sence


Many Aus
Indians,


this


that


group.


one


when


anthropology


itralian


and


tribes,


some


Indeed,


notices


reading
ists. .


sence


accounts


many
African
s such a


rather


ex-


for


Man?"


Chombart


for


Galle


Science,


DeLauwe,
, Gove,


CLXXVI


(April,


information


and


1972),


corres


ponding


Paul


that


given


McPherson.


18George B
National


Schall


Geographic,


"Life
CXXXV


With t
(May,


e King
1969),


494-


he Beasts,
519.


19Simon
Simon


Mohnot,


Infant-Killing in
(February, 1971),


ome


the
175-


Aspects
Hanuman
198.


Soc


Langur,


ial Changes
" Mammalia,


and
XXXV


F







Europe


was


no t


until


well


into


Middle


Ages


that


infant


cide


came


to be


looked


upon


as a crime,


and


there


much


evidence


that


no means


abs ent


from


modern


world.


These


control


mechanisms,


except


under


most


extreme


environmental


circumstances,


act


to insure


survival


individual


selective


and


pressure


group.


population


increases,


least


expands


and


individuals


sue-


cumb


to such


pressure.


The


resulting


diminution


popula-


tion


not


only


benefits


those


that


survive,


but


increases


survival


probability


future


generations,


since


nd i


vidual


that


lives


s innat


ely


more


able


to face


environmental l


contain


enci


es.


point


errelationship


out


between


discuss


eneti


ion,


proc


have


esses


focused


and


on the


environmental


conditions,


especially


within


context


overpopulation.


Neverthel


ess,


have


not


considered


innate


social


haviors


res


ponsible


control


population


nor


how


such


action


function


to insure


control.


Animals


must


compete


against


environmental


conditions


and


with


one


another


to obtain


resources


necessary


sustain


and


perpetuate


their


exis


tence.


Under


most


favorable


circumstances,


material


needs


are


easily


sati


sfied


and


protection


from


predation


the


max imum.


Competi


tion,


course,


still


takes


place,


but


aggressive


form








mediated


spatial


and


social


stance.


However,


due


inevitable


changes


environmental


conditions,


uppos


edly


state


transformed.


situa-


tion


iora


and


trugg


stence


intense i


, competition


increasingly


manif


este


d in


a more


destructive


ess


state,


since e


control


mechani


sms


are


longer


ective.


Animals


overcome


natural


fear


one


another


attempts


to survive,


and


as a conse-


quence,


are


their


increasingly


portunities

limited.


for

This


escape


not


and


only


needs


makes


their


privacy

exist-


ence


more


prec


various,


due


to increased


stress,


but


also


exacer


bates


gress


ion.


we have


seen,


type


con-


flict


eventually


results


more


stable


social


arrangements,


and


a population


better


to meet


environmental


contin-


agencies


Numerous


investigations


demonstrate


that


agg


ress


ion


innat


lower


animal


as well


humans.


Experiments


squirrel


and


rhesus


monkeys,


which


involve


sur


ical


esions


temporal


lobes


brain,


reveal


a marked


decrease


aggr


ess


ivenes s


after


such


procedures.


humans,


similar


methods


are


employed


on individual


who


manifest


extremely


aggr


ess


behavior,


when


other


hniques


have


fail


These


results


also


show


a diminution


agg


ressiveness


such


situations.








Experiments


which


involve


brain


stimulation


rather


than


deprivation


provide


added


support


heritability


ressive


behavior.


a unique


interesting


vesti


action,


cats


that


indicated


passivity


toward


rats


had


electrodes


implanted


lateral


hypothalmus.


After


operation,


cats


remained


non


gres


sive


until


stimulated


an electric


current.


intensities


ese


animals


rose


and


strated


to prowl


around


cage


while


ignoring


rats.


When


stimulus


was


ghtly


increased,


cats


viciously


rats


back


neck


, which


most


instances


result


ed in


death.


Moreover


, th


ese


attacks


were


not


indiscriminate.


When


present


a choice


objects


to attack


such


live


rats,


dummy


rats


, toy


dogs


, and


rubber


blocks


these


animals


invariabi


selected


live


rats.


Similar


findings


were


obtained


in experiments


on other


mammals


, indicating


considerable


phylogenetic


continuity.


Monkeys


Comparati
367-377;
Plotnick


Afte


r Anterior Temporal Lobec
Physiological Psychology,


information
on rhesus m


corres
.onkeys,


ponding
Harold


to
Kl


:tomy,
LXVI
that
.uder


ai


Journal of
(March, 196
given for
nd Paul C.


Bucy.


24John


Flynn,


Neurophysiology
York: Rockefell
Foundation. 196


"The


ai


Neural


nd Emotion
Univerist
, pp. 89-9


Aggres
Donald


ess


and


s


sion
C.
sell


in C
Glass


ats,"
(New


25Warren
Warren


Roberts


, Melvin


. St


einb


erg,


Lawrence


Iltt..- I tt2 1. t.- -


.C -~ C. 1A-n nn-s'f


--Af


8),


~ ,,,








humans,


ethical


experimentation;


cons iderat ions


neverthel


ess


eclude


, investigations


this

show


type

that


persons


suffe


from


temporal


lobe


epilepsy


or rabies,


whi


ch involve


aforementioned


neural


areas,


often


exhib-


uncontrolled


violent


behavior.


addition,


reports


brain


injured


persons


frequently


indicate


similar


result


one


tudy


eighty


-three


self-referred


violent


pa-


tients


were


given


detailed


psychiatric


and


neurolo


ical


examinations.


was


found


that


about


half


these


people


had


symptoms


epileptic-


like


phenomena


ten


turned


out


to have


quarters


epileptic


had


symptoms.


previous ly


Amon


sought


these


medical


patients,


help


three-


their


pul


violence,


half


had


attempted


sui


cide,


and


many


had


a hi


tory


setting


fires


and


being


cruel


to animals.


The


majority


reported


that


they


quently


tried


to work


out


their


aggress


ion


on the


highway.


The


following


cas e


study


a brain


injured


child


typical


numerous


reports


that


indicate


an association


between


type


ace


ident


and


aggression:


one-


year-old


girl


fell


on a concrete


road


and


suf-


fere


d from


brain


dama


Until


she


was


treated


ten


years


later,


experienced


convul


sive


attacks


about


three


times


daily.


She


had


difficulty


concentrating,


her


I.Q.


was


only


seventy,


her


moods


were


unstable,


and


her


behavior


was


IS


C e e~** aa a. a 4. CA A C F...' t1 C


AAIA 1 AIL ~


l,tL,


~Y~~Y








amygdaloid


nucleus


patient


was


given


anticonvulsant


medication.


After


these


treatments


, her


behavior


changed


dramatic


call


was


able


to read


concentrate,


lost


her


tendency


toward


violence


, and


was


able


to live


normal


life.


These


studies


, as well


as numerous


others


, demonstrate


that


similar


neurol


ical


patterns


are,


part


, res


ponsible


aggr


essive


behavior


diverse


speci


, in


eluding


humans.


a conse


innate


quence


asis


, these


such


inves


nations


behavior


since


provide


culture


support


has


effect


on anatomical


structures


and


little


influence


lower


animals.


Physiolog


ical


inves


tions


furnish


added


evidence


erent


nature


ressive


activity


es.


Experiments


on do


ves


, rats


monk


, and


numerous


other


animal


demon -


state


a market


increase


gres


siveness


when


sex


horman


testosterone


s admini


stered


The


seen


eff


ects


humans


testosterone


When


on aggr


hormone


essiveness


admini


stered


also


sex


2Harold N
Behavior

28Michael
Effects
Ecology,


Edward


arab


aski


Disorders


Bennett


Treatmen t


XII:


(March


Fredericson,


Neurolo


"Social


With


, 1940),


"Stereotaxic


VII


(Jul


Hierarchy


Testosterone


148-165


information


Amygdalo tomy
y, 1963), 1-


Rin


Doves


for
26.


: The


Propionate,


: James


on rats


cott


corresponding


that


given


Bennett








chan


procedures


or for


various


other


reasons


, patients


generally


demonstrate


an increase


such


behavior.


reover,


diminution


testosterone


assoc


iated


with


a decline


in ag


gressiveness.


example


, reports


indicate


that


therapeutic


cas


tration


violent


prisoners


an ex-


tremel


effective


method


reducing


aggressive


active


es.


Additional


evidence


innate


basi


behav-


supplied


inves


tigations


patterning


phys


ical


movements


preceding


stic


encounters.


These


studies


report


a close


assoc


nation


such


express


sive


activ-


ity


among


various


animals


, including


monk


, chimpanzees


and


humans.


search


on the


similarities


neurological


and


physiolog


ical


mechanisms


respond


sibile


production


agg


ress


behavior


human s


their


osest


evolution-


ary


relatives


provides


stron


support


innate


aggre


ssive


actions


. These


findings


conj unction


with


concomitan t


results


studies


on more


primitive


animal


furni


sh additional


evidence


heritability


such


behavior.


And


data


on the


similarities


phys


ical


29
J29ame
Girl


Money


: The
from


tity


Hopkins


and


Alan


Eberhandt


Differentiation


Conception


Univer


sity


Man


Dimorphism


to Maturity


Press


, 1972)


(Baltimore


, pp.


Woman,
Gender
Johns


Boy and
Iden-


498-451.


--







movements


diverse


accompanying


human


agonistic


populations


activities


as well


among


lower


cultur-


animals


lead


one


conclude


that


this


behavior


inherited.


Aggress


most


direct


-C r


manifested


physical


discussed,


ulation


fect


causes


attack


this


through


his p

high


on other


frequently


injury


phenomenon


levels


eings.


we have


results


death


is more

stress


however,


severe

which


previously


reduction


pop-


indirect


consequences.


results


morbidity


and,


in extreme


instances,


population


collapse.


Numerous


investigations


support


this


conclusion


one


such


experiment


, deer


were


isolated


on an island


Chesapeake


Food


was


plentiful


predators


absent.


herd


ent


grew


reason,


until


reached


population


soon


animals.


declined


For


ar-


approximate


ely


ghty


in number,


although


food


and


safety


were


more


than


sufficient.


Autopsie s


found


physiologi


changes,


to stress.


Another


expe


riment


was


conducted


on rats


These


ani-


mals


twice


point,


were


that


allowed


at which


excess


to multiply


animals


stress


were


until


could


removed


reached


ected.


order


eve


this


to prevent


population


exposed


collapse


this


while


condition.


oth


The


ers


males


were


continually


exhibited


such


~








pathological


behaviors


hyperactivity,


withdrawal


, and


pansexuality


female


failed


to build


nests


their


offspring


infant

crease


and


state.

d beyond


negl

As

the


ected


a


conse


that


quence,


final


level


managed


s


population

In summariz


urvive

never


ing


the

in-

ese


chaotic


res


ults


researcher


concluded


obvious


that


behavioral


repertory


Norway


rat,


which


emerged


from


trails


evolution


domestication


must


break


down


under


social


pressure


generated


population


sity


A similar


experiment


was


conducted


on the


tree


shrew,


a species


closer


to humans


evolutionary


development.


Under


high


population


den


sity


adult


females


produced


ess


milk


and


their


sternal


land


failed


secrete


which


prevented

result, t


them


these


from


youn


identifying


sters


their


frequently


off


died


spring


malnutrition


were


killed


their


mothers.


Toward


exper


iment, fe

masculine


males


completely


behavior


ceased


mountain


reproduction


g cage


images


and


exhibited


young


males


testes


failed


to des


cend


and,


in some


instan


ces,


testes


adults


receded


into


body


cavity.


Eventually


most


animal


s died.


interest


ting


study


on human


s clearly


demonstrates


relationship


among


overcrowding


, aggre


ssive


-stress


, and








pathological


behavior.


Pri


soners


with


long


records


violent


offenses


were


match


ed with


other


inmates


that


had


equally


violent


extensive


crimes.


records


ersona


criminal


space


acticit


individuals


non-


from


eac


group


was


violat


ed and


their


behavior


compared.


The


violent


prisoners


exhibited


sue


reactions


clenched


fists


and


expressed


feelings


stress


at distances


four


times


greater


than


more


peace


subjects.


investigation


persons


living


in overcrowded


dwelling g


units


less


than


eight


square


meters


per


person,


found


that


such


individuals


had


rates


upper


respiratory


infections,


stomach


ailments,


and


mental


mor-


bidities


twice


that


persons


residing


less


crowded


environments.


eres


ting


study


on humans


, based


on the


findings


Calhoun


animal


experiments


, was


conduct


ed in


Chicago.


The


dwelling


unit


density


was


conduct


ed in


Chicago


The


dwellin


unit


density


each


seventy-


five


areas


city


was


ascertained.


addition,


rese


archers


controlled


social


class


s and


ethnicit


The


results


showed


a significant


relationship


between


high


35
Augustus
owners "
59-64.


. Kin


Journal


"Body-Buffer


'~s yxhiatnx~


Zone


CXXVI I


Violei


(January


nt Pris
, 1970)


tr. -Ia a .,-,.n -S S .


36,,,


r


r n


I .


1


1 r rr


1








density


various


pathologies


such


ineffectual


parental


care


, juvenile


delinquency


and


mortality


In high


density


environments


animals


including


human


cannot


esc


stress


produced


innate


aggre


ssive


potential


consp


ecifi


Cs.


a cons


sequence,


serious


mor-


bidit


results


which


frequently


leads


to death.


other


hand


, aggres


sive


behavior


vital


survival


and


perpetuation


individu


al and


group


Accordingly


sity


must


control


ed for


humans


achieve


their


potential.


paradox


stence


s that


need


priva


s counterbalance


ed by


nee


d for


affiliation.


we have


seen


natural


avers


animal


s toward


one


another


improves


chances


survival


however


bene-


fits


that


animals


achieve


from


affiliation


are


just


neces


must


sary


maintenance


inhibited


life.


reproduction


and


Agoni


care


stic


behavior


young


, espe


ially


easier


more


highly


to obtain,


evolved


shelter


cies.


easier


addition


find


and/or


, food


construct


and


defen


more


effective


through


coordinated


activities.


However,


primates


, in general


humans,


particular


affiliation


since


mos t


permits


important


dissemination


development


information


culture


present


and


future


generations








innate


basis


affiliation


demonstrated


many


investigations


on various


ecies,


including


human s.


Pri-


mate


infants


exhibit


similar


fixed


action


patterns,


which


re-


veal


their


need


contact.


These


patterns


rapidly


develop


into


innate


releasing


mechanisms,


thereby


enabling


infant


to discriminate


quence


among


, increasing


environmental


probability


stimuli,


need


and


sati


as a conse-


faction.


For


example,


human


smile,


which


homologous


grin


other


primates,


occurs


spontaneously


after


birth


however,


a few


weeks,


this


activity


becomes


more


discriminate


and


can


elicited


oval


shapes


corresponding


to human


eyes.


infant


continues


to mature,


more


facial


features


are


required


to exhibit


this


behavior.


And


, finally


will


smile


only


faces


that


have


become


familiar


The


innate


basi


affiliation


also


demonstrated


distress


human


calls


infant


infants.


monkeys


monke


when


the

the


analogous


infant


cry-

separ-


ated


from


mother


makes


frequent


"whoo"


calls


that


continue


until


physical


contact


rees


tabli


shed.


Reports


on human


infants


show


that


crying


usually


occurs


person


view


leaves


and


ends


when


individual


re turns


38Paul


Smilin


Wolff,
" in D


Bernard


"Observations
eterminants of


- Foss


(London:


Infant
Mehtuen


Early
Behavi
, 1963)


Development o
or, Vol. II,
,pp. 158-197


f
ed.


it.... ~ ---- --C- b.- a .


*I,, t.


39,,_








addition,


experiments


on primates,


which


animals


are


isolated


from


conspecifics,


report


numerous


patholog


ies


result.


Studies


on monkeys


reveal


such


effects


defi


cien-


cies


sexual


and


maternal


behavior


, hyperaggressiveness,


excessive


fearfulness,


and


depression


Inve


stigations


chimpanzees


demonstrate


similar


abnormalities.


Studies


on human


infants


who


receive


adequate


care,


ex-


cept


minimal


contact


with


others,


show


such


effects


retardation


physical


development


, extreme


apathy,


h death


rates.


Perhaps


highest


form


affiliation


is expressed


altrui


stic


behavior.


There


are


numerous


examples


such


behavior


primates.


a particularly


interest tin


g experi-


ment


, monke


could


only


obtain


food


y pulling


ever


however


took


such


action,


their


cage
V-~ t^.--


mage


would


receive


an electric


shock.


They


chose


stop


eating


41
Harry F
System,
Allen V


(New York
formation


Harlow


and


Behavior


Schrier, H
: Academic


corres


Margaret


Nonhumr


arry F.
, 1965)


ponding


. Harlow, "
an Primates


Harlow
, p. 58
> that g


and


iv


The


Vo


Frank


George
er for


Har


Aff


ectional


1 II, ed. by
Stollnitz
Mitchell, in-
low and Harlow.


42Edward
Young
160; R


W. Menzel,
Chimpanzees
ichard W. G


corresponding


"Responsiveness to
" Behavior, XXIV (


ay a
that


Donald


given


Go


Object
January
Idfoot,


-Movement in
, 1964), 147-
information


Menzel.


43"Infant


twice and
Eibl-Eib


Development
of Minimum
esfeldt. Lo


V


Under
Social
e and


Conditions o
Stimulation


Hate.


trans.


Restricted
" cited by


-. ,


Gerald


S


Prac-


Irenaus
trachan


. -- v








Human s


also


exhibit


altruistic


behavior


as demonstrated


a study


on kidn


donors.


When


these


individual


were


asked


to make


such


a sacrifi


most


readily


ree


year


after


pro


cedur


overwhelmingly


felt


that


their


cision


had


a profound


and


benefit


cial


effect


their


lives.


one


donor


said:


more
feel
fore
I've


I have
afraid


much


more


what


am a better


done


.The


confident


people


rson,


whole


some thing


with


would
much


my
my


lif
life


before


say
happier
e is di
.45


if


was


erent


we have


supported


seen,


theoretical


innate


basis


speculation


affiliation


as well


as empirical


eviden


but


until


recently


evolutionary


perspective


could


not


explain


selective


advanta


altrui


stic


behavior,


since


such


acts


seem


to decrease


probability


survival


individual,


group


future


gener-


ation.


However


, through


application


genetic


theory


has


been


determined


that


altrui


stic


behavior


does,


deed,


improve


survival


present


and


future


enera-


tons


, since


the


ben


efit,


terms


survival,


exceeds


cost.


Under


this


circus


stance


, the


select


fitness


individual


or group


s increased


The


theoretical


jus


tifi


cation


and


substantive


findings


lead


to conclude


that


affiliation


, even


terms


45,.


1 1 .fll1,-- 174~na-a~


n


--L 1 1


Iltf: r;fH At J


Ilrr~ nun


f 1


1









self-sacrifice


innate


in Homo


sapiens,


that


humans


must


interact


with


consp


ecifi


phys


ical


emotional


well


-being


same


time


we have


seen


that


aggr


ess


ion


nec


d for


privacy


s also


inherent


in man


and


neces-


sary


survival.


According


gly


we will


focus


factors


that


limit


aggr


session and


promote


affiliation.


Familiarity


perhaps s


1ost


important


phenomenon


respond


sible


stress


ssion


affiliation


present


s thereby


in new


reduced


primates


encounters.


which


greatly


, since


a conse


relieves


quence,


facilitates


development


relationship


s among


conspecifi


This


effect


s demons tated


an experiment


on rhe


sus


monke


These


animals


were


reared


a laboratory


without


their


mothers


One


group


animals


was


completely


isolated


from


seven


days


after


birth


until


ninth


month.


next


nine


month


, they


lived


wire


cages


which


enabled


them


see


and


hear


human s


one


another


second


group


was


kept


together


a lar


room


first


eighteen


month s


their


lives


while


third


group


was


separated


into smaller

animals were


peer

then


units

placed


during


the entire

same enclo


period


sure


and


All


their


social


strated


preferen


that


ces


animals


were


ermined.


overwhelming


gly


The


chose


results


demon-


to interact


with


those


with


which


they


were


most


familiar


Cs.


A









The


chimpanzee,


man'


closest


relative


known


peaceful


disposition


nevertheless,


when


it encounters


a stranger


highly


ssive.


This


seen


from


report


Jane


van


Lawick


-Goodall.


states:


Just
er w
tran
went


vie


for h
the s
They
their
quite
fear,
Oily
shot


screaming
in fury,


the
into
and


young


a
011


below
femal
down
feet


chased


barking,


as we were


e noticed
ger, every
quietly a
tim failed


close.


she
stood


Then,


climb
for


tree


female
shook i
ster, h


t


Flo a
hair
nd sl


ting
nd 0
on
owly


to notice


with


ed higher
a moment


seize


w


t
al


neighboring
y uttering
The chase


some


lly s
their


bananas


taring
bodies


towards the
them until


panting
in the
looking


d the


and


-p
id


ready


fixedly at
bristling
tree. and


they


were


squeals


branches.


and


branch


as clinging an
violently with
f shaken, half


tree
loud
went


ground


on her


with


d slapping
her victim


ran


along


bot1


with
'waa'


Flo h
barks


on until


caught
a fists


the grot
from the
behind.


mnd


up
and
wit


d, her li
both han
leaping,


ot
0o


Flo
with
then
h he


vicinity


Flo


and


then


now
s bunched
s. Soon
scrambled
r heels
ground
the
slammed
Dine her


on ne
n the
forced
her,


stam


r


hands. she


. Oily,


still


Many


studies


on humans


demonstrate


importance


familiarity


promoting


affiliation.


one


such


investi-


gation


subjects


were


placed


into


three


sets.


The


subjects


each


were


then


seated


across


from


one


another


three,


SIX,


twelve


instance s


without


speaking.


end


sessions


, the


subjects


werw


asked


to indicate


feelings


toward


other


person


set.


more


frequently


they


met,


more


they


liked


their


partner.


- r


U. 1


tnt 4.11 I1 -'Ln- C WnI a n- .


48 ..


AIl


,f xn,,


LL L


I








human s


Chimpanzees


unfamiliar


and


deviant


individual


one


most


likely


attacked.


This


phenomenon


is exemplified


a recent


experiment


. Six


subj


ects


were


iven


test


was


describe


extremely


complex


y precise


, they


pers


were


onalit


iven


indicator


fictitious


After


scores


test


each


was


par-


ticipant.


Half


subj


ects


were


then


informed


that


their


scores


differed


sharply


from


norm,


and


they


were


believe


that


one


person


received


an extremely


deviant


rat-


Thus


each


individual


viewed


group


cons


ting


himself


four


non


-deviant


and


one


eviant


final


phase


experiment,


subjects


were


asked


take


part


learning


test.


individ


uals


would


serve


learner


, while


others


were


to be


judge


es.


per


son


ected


learner


failed


give


an adequate


respon


, he


would


receive


a severe


shock.


The


experimenter


then


asked


each


participant


to rank


others


order


they


wanted


them


selected


learn


The


results


showed


that


those


with


supposedly


normal


per


sonalities


chose


deviant


unpleasant


task,


and


subjects


who


believed


that


they


differed


from


norm


selected


hypothetically


normal


individuals.


addition


when


a


subjects


a


were


asked


to choose


one


* 4


. Q








Although


limitation


familiarity


aggress


a vitally


ion


important


promotion


factor


affilia-


tion


, greeting


and


appeal


semen t


stures


also


contribute


reduction


ression


which


facilitates


toge theme


These


behavioral


patterns


are


exhibited


numerous


species


but


are


particularly


evident


primates


, and


they


are


asso-


ciated


with


such


asic


activities


as feeding


, the


care


young


, and


defense.


ssin


ype


greeting


behavior


emplo


d by


chimpanzee s


human s


s bas


feeding


responses


through


young


a comparative


in both


anal


es.


This


movements


revealed


these


activ-


and


from


inves


tigations


that


reported


a widespread


pattern


such


activities


occurring


conjunction


with


one


another


The


smile


not


only


serves


limit


res


sion


humans,


but


also


tends


to eli


friendly


responses


It


originate


an infant


s attempt


encourage


contact


maintained


as a universal


dence


gree


support


ting

its


exp


session


innate


rather


man.

than


addition,


cultural


evi


origin


is provided


homologous


and


functionally


equivalent


pat-


terns


found


non


-human


prima


tes.


Another


ges


ture


which


appears


universe


human s


and


also


found


extended


form.


other


This


primates


rituali


nod


movement t


or bow


indicates


, a more


peaceful








These


mechanisms


limit


human


ression


, which


vitally


being


important


however


to his


human


social


survival


identity


s equally


physical


dependent


well-


on af-


filiation


wi th


conspecifics,


contributes


inter-


dependent


activities


Accordingly


, such


estures


help


maintain


balan


between


these


inherently


diver


ces


, there


y making


human


existence


ssibl


Sociobiology


provides


theoretical


and


stantive


sup-


port


innate


basis


numerous


behavior


patterns


combining


evolutionary


theory


and


population


biolo


with


empirical


finding


a conse


quen


are


able


to make


inferential


assessments


importance


aggression


hypotheses


and


throu


affiliation


gh genetic


to human


analyst


survival


, experimental


these


depriva-


tion,


and


inters


specific,


comparative


analy


sis.


results


demon


state


inherent


ses


activities


this


information


stence.


Man


reveal


needs


s the


privacy


paradoxical


nature


protection


human


ainst


attack


and


morbidity


which


results


from


stress


Concomitantly


human s


need


affiliation


to develop


and


maintain


their


very


existence.


Therefore


order


achieve


a proper


balance


between


these


diverse


phenomena


, population


sity


must


controlled


to effectuate


an adequate


separation


among


con-


specifics.


other


hand,


opportunities


affective







human


behavior


and,


consequently,


not


only


demonstrates


inadequacies


ass


ical


sociobiological


and


human


ecological


approaches,


but


helps


to explain


hoc


and


disparate


findings


employed


support


residential


environmental


formulation


we have


scusse


sociobiolo


involves


study


biological


social


behavior


This


necess


states


interdi


sciplinary


approach


which


contributions


such


elds


biolo


etholo


, and


sociology


are


employed


compliance


with


prin


ciples


evolution


, genetic


and


ecolo


The


Darwinian


selection


s augmented


conce


plain


ptuali


dev


zations


elopmen t


these


innate


latter


social


sciplines


behaviors as


ex-


well


predict


chan


such


behaviors


Darwinian


ers


pectiv


, selection


involves


creased


survival


an individual


geny


over


con-


ecifi


defense


due

life


to a superiority


sustaining


resources.


acqui

This


sition

state


and/or


achieved


through


process


adaptation,


involving


structural


functional


within


changes


present


organism


environmental


that


are


context.


advantageous


Mutation


s the


ultimate


source


s advantage


or fitness


54Edward 0
Times Ma
CIC


.Wil


son


azin e


, "Human
October


Decen


1975


s Animal


, pp


16-21,


" The


New


York


46-48







Although


action


Darwinian


evolutionary


section


ocess


provides


does


basic


not


explan-


satisfactory


account


elements


involved


adaptation.


Conse-


quently,


sociobiology


employs


conceptualizations


enetic


and


ecology


a more


complete


understanding


this


process


The


forces


largely


res


ponsible


genetic


variation


are


mutation,


gene


flow,


drift,


and


selection.


Mutation,


pontaneous


ultimate


change


determinant


genes,


genetic


the

chan


initial


as well


Notwiths tand-


importance


cre


atmi


new


traits


mutation


self


s a


decidedly


weak


evolutionary


force,


due


to its


generally


recessive


form


and


development


counter-


balancing


forms.


Gene


flow


involves


movement


indi-


viduals


crease


among


enetic


populations.


variation;


short-term


however,


effect


g run,


reduces i

decreased


nterpopulation


a hi


variability,


frequency


since


population


and


trait


increased


low


frequency


population.


Random


drift


involves


mating


that


results


a g


generational


deviation


mean


genetic


frequency


a population.


tends


to reduce


variabil


ity


small


error


populations,


increase


The


since


probability


principal


types


sampling


nonrandom


381.


5Hartl,








drift


are


assortative


mating


inbre


eding.


former


situation


refers


to a phenomenon


in which


individuals


with


similar


chance


traits m

e, while


late

the


at a higher


latter


probability


phenomenon


than


would


involves


occur


dispro-


portionate


martin


individuals


with


one


or more


common


ancestors.


population


both


reduced.


instances


genetic


Selection,


variability


which


primary


process


tion


genetic


organisms


change


with


involves


specific


nonrandom


genetic


reproduc-


characterists


Although


Darwinian


conceptualization


based


this


process,


is more


complicated


than


originally


conceived.


Selection


largely
dy


determined


amount


genetic


variation


and


frequency


genetic


material


in a popula-


tion.


Adaptation


pcos


sible


only


when


genes


are


present


that


respond


to a particular


environmental


agent.


The


probability


response


increases


with


genetic


variabil-


a population


and


diversity


mutations,


which


tend


increase


with


genet


variability.


Additionally,


populations


with


high


genetic


frequencies


have


a low


adap-


tive


potential,


since


mutations


are


lost


through


repro-


duction


59
Ibid., p,

Ibid., p.


379-401.

388.


61 ,








rate


section


also


influenced


genetic


constituents


a popul


action.


For


example


when


ethal


homozyg


ous


trait


a hi


gh frequency


in a population,


remove


at a rapid


rate;


however,


rate


decreases


quency


reduced.


high


quencies


carriers


but


quencies


percentage


heterozygous


individuals


incr


eases.


more


common


example


phenomenon


involves


situation


which


homo


dominant


organisms


are


favored


over


hetero


zyg


individuals,


but


heterozygotes


make


some


contributions


to succeeding


g generations.


stance,


sel


section


rate


at intermediate


frequen-


due


reproductive


contribution


reces-


sive


individual


s at


frequencies


and


heltering


eff


ect


low


requenci


The


environment


determines


intensity


selh


action


since


survival


individual


s dependent


on it


environmental


tolerance.


Accordingly,


intensity


section


a function


environmental


change


and


individ-


ual.


tolerance


this


situation.


The


interdep


endent


rela-


tionship


living


entiti


as well


physical


phenomena


are


determinants


such


change.


These


forces


lead


alterations

existence.


structural


prosper,


and


material


individual


must


parameters


conform








contingencies


new


situation.


Selection


favors


those


with


genetic


variability


adaDt


most


efficiently,


while


others


decline


numb


Ecolo


ists


study


effects


environment


livin


g things.


These


investigations


reveal


environmental


influence


on morphological


as well


behavioral


character-


istics


populations.


These


efforts


have


contributed


construction


populations


environmental


predictions


parameters


structural


diverse


reorganization


under


various


circumstances


The


Darwinian


conceptualization


evolution


provides


rationale


interpreting


development


innate


behavioral


characteristics


livin


g things,


while


genetics


and


ecolo


delineate


mechanisms


evolution,


well


furni


former


substantive


discipline


support


increasing


for

gly


this

able


orientation.

to determine


The

the


genetic


constituents


to demonstrate


conditions


and


population


populations.


latter


relationship between en

characteristics, as well


discipline

vironmental

as deter-


mine


parameters


such


traits.


Accordingly,


socio-biol-


ogy


emplo


Darwinian


conceptualization


con3 unc-


tion


innate


with


genetic


basis


ecological


social


behavior


principles


animal


analyze


including


er.


v;5









human s.


In addition,


pertinent


finding


in other


areas


such


biolo


ethology


sociology


also


contribute


this


anal


Thi


s per


spective


serves


theoretical


overview


residential


environmental


formulation


next


chap


, PP


67
Ibid.














CHAPTER


FORMULATION


THE


RESIDENTIAL


ENVIRONMENTAL


THEORY


we discussed


previous


chapter,


humans


devel-


oped


from


same


evolutionary


proc


ess


as other


animal


and,


therefore,


differ


ree


but


not


kind


from


other


be in


. According


gly,


we are


subject


to similar


biolo


ical


nee


as members


other


ecies,


especially


those


phylogen-


etically


similar.


The


needs


privacy


and


affiliation


are


neces


sary


our


survival


survival


other


animal


same


time,


we poss


ess


a superior


intellect,


which


enabi


elect


alternatives


not


ined


any


others.


activity


and


Thi


dramatically


increases


expands


potential


to meet


cope

our


our


needs.


Unfortunately,


such


flexibility


not


without


dangers,


since


frequently


make


choice


that


are


inimical


our


interest


Thi


nowhere


more


apparent


than


resi


dental


environmental


setting,


since


we are


able


con-


struct


s tances


dwellings


build


that


units


promote


that


well


have


-bein


opposite


but


many


effect.


Cons e-


quently,


chapter


focuses


development








Zetterber


axiomatic


approach


employed


formulation


our


theory.


This


method


is particularly


use-


our


purpose,


disparate


order


find-


ings


this


area.


also


provides


a relatively


simple


method


organizing


these


results,


while


permitting


derivation


highly


abstract


new


constructs


future


efforts.


first


sec


tion


s chapter


, each


proposition


will


enumerated


and


evidence


in support


these


con-


structs


will


provide


Definitional


reduction


will


used


following


section,


which


key


terms


propositions


will


subsumed


under


more


inclusive


defini-


tions,


formulate


highly


abstract


postulates.


evidence


furnish


that


exis


These


ts for -these

formulations


postulates


can


will


employed


also


to derive


additional


propositions.


Consequently


, new


propositions


will


deduced


from


postulates


to demonstrate


salience


this


theory


researcher.


The


Formulation


Propositions


The


greater


degree


crowding


within


dwelling


unit


, the


higher


probability


physical


disorder


among


residents.


Two


dramatic


experiments


lower


animals


provide


sup-


*1~~~ Sennr ;h


nn ~rrm nn n


Fnnl, F


h 1 Ctr nllrrF.


n~ n


~rnuC


nr ru


^ I-








first


investigation


involve s


a population


Sika


deer


on an


island


esapea


Bay.


1916,


four


animals


were


trans


ported


this


hab


itat.


1955


population


had


increase


to nearly


300.


Althou


h the


food


supply


was


adequate


to susta


population


investing


ator


lived,


from


work


with


other


animals


, that


crowdin


would


ave


and


deleterious


examined


results


serve


Therefore

controls fo


five


deer


were


erimen t


shot

while


others


continued


live


under


crowd


ed conditions


Sud-


denim


three


months


1958


over


half


deer


ed and


another


sharp


decline


was


record


following


year


The


young


were


most


ser


iously


ected.


1960


population


stabilized


approximat


eighty


Dur nn


the

deer


period


collapse,


abnormal


enlar


autopsies


d adrenal


were


lands


performed

were re


twelve


ported.


invest


said:


Mortalit


lowin


severe


evidentlyl
metabolic


res


ed from


sturban


shock


fol-


, probably


a result
activity,


f prolon
judging


d adrenal


from


cortic


stological


hyper-


material.


There


was


not


evidence


inf


section


, starvation


or other


obvious


causes


to explain


mass


mortality.1


The


second


experiment


was


conducted


under


laboratory


conditions


Norway


rat


Healthy


animals


were


placed


four


pens


, eight


rats


per


enclosure


These


pens


con -


tainted


water


food


and


nes


ting


material


sufficient








quantities


support


population;


however


space


in each


sec


tion


was


adequate


only


twelve


animals.


When


population


reached


eighty


excess


rats


were


removed


This


was


done


to maintain


a constant


state


crowding


, while


preventing


immediate


population


collap


se.


addition,


ramps


were


cons


tructed


to connect


each


section,


thereby


pro-


vidin


middle


pens


with


pathways


This


not


only


made


these


enclo


sures


more


access


ible


but


stopped


dom-


inant


mal


from


regulating


numbers


within


ese


areas


were


unable


to guard


both


ramps


simultaneous


a cons


sequence


, overcrowding


was


more


severe


these


sec


tons


During


sixteen


months


experiment


, infant


mortality


reach


percent


ese


sections


while


was


percent


other


enclosures.


Although


effect


adults


was


ss severe


, 50


percent


females


ner


areas


d and


mortality


rate


males


was


much


higher


than


would


ected


under


normal


conditions.


Autopsies


these


rats


showed


abnormalities


associated


with


stress.


inve


action


on humans


that


found


a relationship


between


residential


overcrowdin


and


ical


patholo


was


conducted


France


this


study,


scientific


sampling


was


employed


to enumerate


population


and


respondents







furnis


hed


attitudinal,


demographic,


and


environmental


formation.


Medical


records


respondents


were


used


determine


frequency


and


duration


illness


while


social


ass


, age


and


family


size


were


control


Overcrowding,


determined


number


square


meters


per


person,


was


only


factor


related


to phys


ical


morbidity.


When


available


space


was


below


eight


ten


square


meters,


frequency


illness


doubled


and


duration


per


episode


increase


study


Unit


ed S


states


provides


added


support


proposition.


inve


gation,


information


was


obtained


from


the


Local


Community


Fact


Book


Chicago.


Thi


s source


upplied


data


number


persons


res


each


seventy-five


community


areas,


num-


ber


house ing


units


in eac


area,


and


number


rooms

fore,


within


abl


each


building.


to determine


The r

number


researchers


rooms


were,


each


there-

communn-


ity.


Thi


information


enabled


them


to obtain


a measure


overcrowdin


, the


number


persons


per


room,


dividing


population


each


community


into


number


rooms.


addition,


age-adjusted


death


rate


each


area


was


obtained,


while


such


factors


as social


class


and


ethnicity


were


controlled.


Milieu


a -


Social


et L'Etude


Ja


ociologique
A-A -


des


Cas


Indi-
4


3"Le


r r 1


4


r


~I








The


investigators


reported


an assoc


nation


between


over-


crowding


and


mortality.


Thi


relationship


was


significant


level.


rec


ent


study


conducted


researchers


at the


Univer-


sity


exas


involved


over


25,000


people


and


covered


per


twenty


-six


years.


Information


on crowding,


determined


number


inmates


house


ed in


stitu-


tion,


was


obtained


eight


prisons


and


one


mental


hospital.


The


mortality


rate


was


also


calculated.


A hi


ghly


positive


relationship


was


found


between


these


variable


each


facility.


The


prisoners


were


also


effect


crowd-


on blood


pressure.


Those


cell


with


nineteen


square


feet


per


person


or 1


ess


had


significantly


her


readings


than


inmates


ess


crowd


ed units.


The


greater


degree


crowding


within


dwelling


unit,


the


higher


probability


emotional


disorders


among


resident


Two


support


investigations


on lower


proposition,


since


animals


their


are


enumerated


dramatic


findings


stimulate


d intere


t in


this


phenomenon.


4Omar


Gall


Population


for


Man.


Walter


Density


Science.


Gove,


and
CLXXV


and


Pathology
I (April.


: What


- S *


iller
are


- .


McPherson,
the Relations
30.


|







The


study


on the


Norway


furni


strong


support


for


this


proposition.


During


confinement


crowded


enclosures,


these


animal


exhibited


a wid


e-range


behavioral


abnormal-


ities


The


female


crowded


middle


pens


became


less


adept


construction


nests


and


eventually


ceas


such


activ-


ity.


After


a few


months,


they


simply


piled


material


floor,


thereby


depriving


young


needed


protection.


Thi


behavior


became


more


pronounced


femal


brought


only


a few


eces


material.


select


ed locations,


since


they


were


distracted


from


task.


the


final


months,


they


made


no attempt


to build


nests,


which


con-


tribute


extremely


h in


cidence


infant


mortality.


Thi


area


s inattention


as well.


their


While


off


carrying


spring


their


was


young


manife


, they


another


quently


allowed


them


to fall


and


did


not


attempt


to retrieve


them.


a result,


many


infant


were


trampled


or di


ed of


starvation.


The


however,


dominant


they


mal


were


occasionally


least


went


berserk,


affected


attacking


crowding;

juveniles


female


and


other


mal


Moreover,


they


demons treated


marked


predilection


for


biting


the


tail


other


animals


Another


group


males


did


not


discriminate


between


appropri


ate and


inappropriate


sexual


partners.


They


initiated


such


activity


with


other


mal


young


, and


females


not


estrus.


When


repulsed,


they


tried


rape


other


animal


group


males


appeared


that.


first,


seemed


unaffected


~


w


--


_








others,


even


running


from


femal


es trus.


Perhaps


the


mos


t bi


zarre


behavior


was


exhibited


a group


rats


called


"prob


ers


These


animals


were


hyp


era


ggres


sive


and


hypersexual.


They


attacked


juvenile


as well


dominant


mal


and


attempt


to mate


with


any


femal


months


experiment,


these


animals


became


cannibal


istic.


Extensive


ervations


Indian


langur


provide


add


support


proposition.


These


animal


were


mni-


tially


tudie


d in


a reg


with


ess


than


twenty


monkeys


per


square


mil


: in


situation


aggress


encounters


were


almost t


unknown.


an area


with


However,


approximate


when


these


animals


monkey


per


were observed

square mile,


situation


was


chaotic.


Many


mal


were


able


establi


territories


there


fore,


they


formed


rovin


bands


that


attacked


established


troops.


these


monk


pre-


vail.


they


kill


adult


males


and


frequently


bit


juvenile


to death.


Several


investigations


on humans


also


demonstrate


relationship


between


crowding


and


emotional


orders.


one


study


households


were


selected


and


residents


Calhoun,


139-


146.


Phylli


behavior,


trand,


Jay,


The


ed. by
1963),


Indian
Charles


U -


272-


Langur Monkey i
H. Southwick (New


Primate


Social


Van


284.


v


F --








matched


on demographic


characteristics,


economic


factors,


and


number


years


same


address.


respondents


provided


information


on numerous


features


their


housing


environment.


In half


households,


memb


ers


had


his-


stories


such


disorders


alcoholism,


sexual


maladjustment,


personality


disturbance


es.


This


group


was


found


significantly


more


crowded,


as means


ured


number


rooms


per


family


and


space


per


household,


than


controls


interesting


study


was


conducted


Saint


Elizabeth


Hospital


Washin


ton.


Observatons


on a crowded


ward


re-


vealed


that


space


had


become


highly


valued,


scarcity.


The


status


order


among


patients


was


mani-


fested


through


territorial


control,


whereby


those


most


dom-


inant


controlled


most


space


Territory


was


jealously


protected,


whi


ch placed


low-rankin


individuals


a diffi-


cult


situation.


The


omega,


s tance


had


use


nothing


more


than


bench


on which


slept.


could


not


use


water


fountain


and


frequently


was


prevented


from


using


toilets.


His


incontinence


was


more


result


spatial


deprivation


than


psychosis.


When


patients


were


moved


larger


quarters,


behavior


percent


patients,


including


omega,


showed


dramatic


improvement


9
William C
organizat:


. Loring, "Housing Ch
ion," Social Problems


aracteristics
, III (March,


and S
1956)


social
. 160


Dis
-168


-~-~-








somewhat


more


soohis


ticated


investigation


was


con-


duct


ed with


ninet


-one


male


Filipinos


random


ected


from


Sampaloc


quest onaire


area


that


Manila


took


Each


some


respondent


twel


fill


hours


forty


-minute


symptom


check-


Factor


anal


S'S


was


used


uncover


Oss


ible


assoc


nation


reported


symptoms,


demo


graphic


chara


cteris


residentail


environmental


items


initial


factor


referred


to psychos


omatic


and


alienated


states


second


factor


concern


d arousal-


withdrawal


and


oral


ssivity


, and


third


factor


dealt


with


anxiety


eruptive


violence


Such


items


"feel


like


committing


thin


cide


in anger


" "cries


" and


ses


alone


temper


'"feels


over


like


little


break-


things"


were


related


to crowding.


.The


greater


ree


crowding


within


dwe 11 in


unit,


higher


probability


accidents


among


residents


national


study


, under


auspices


United


States


Public


Health


Servi


between


July


, 1959


June,


1960


, reports


that


accidents


were


significantly


higher


households


with


more


than


one-and-


a-half


persons


per


room


than


injury


less


was


crowded


units


significantly


addition


greater


such


severity


dwellings


11A
An rh ~nn 7


.1~M I-II-


Mmnnip


s~r'iidprnn


t~nd


Pail


flnrdrn


. I


I I /-^


I .







extensive


invest i


ation


on the


residential


environ-


ment,


including


crowding,


was


conducted


Baltimore.


involved a

of control


tes t


The


group


former


300 f

group


families


and


ginally


a similar

inhabited


number


lum


dwelling


but


were


rehous


ed in


a new


income


project,


while


latter


group


remained


lum


units.


These


partic


pants


were


matched


on demographic,


health,


and


stment


criteria


and


environmental


quality


was


ascertained.


After


initial


interview,


respondents


were


questioned


other


occas ions


to det


ermine


environ-


mental

ficant


chan


on physical


differences


were


emotional


found


between


well-being.


thes


Signi


populations.


Accidental

especially


injury


for


was


greatly


those


een


reduced


years


age


test


and


group,

low.


TM.


segment


had


one-


third


fewer


accidents.


The


reduction


crowding,


as measured


persons


per


room,


contribute


improvement.


Support


for


propos


ition


was


furni


hed


a study


conducted


land.


investigation,


police


rec-


ords


were


age


used


four


to obtain


and


fourteen


names


involved


children


non-fatal


between


automobile


accidents


as pedes


trians.


This


population


was


sampled


and


matched


with


controls


on age


sex


and


location


res i


dence.


Parents


or guardians


were


questioned


to gain


data








on such


items

and h


family


Losing


structure,


quality.


soc


ioeconomic


A significant


character-


relationship


was


found


crowding,


as measured


persons


per


room,


and


ace


idents


children


between


ages


four


and


even.


Moreover,


a hi


her


incidence


accidents


was


reported


older


group


that


lived


crowded


units.


The


unit,


greater


lower


degree


crowding


probability


within


parental


dwelling


control


over


children.


Perhaps


firs


t inves


tion


on thi


phenomenon


was


made


eattl


, Washington.


this


study,


a random


sample


Parent-Teacher


SSOC


nation


members


was


taken


and


ques-


tionnaires


distribute


female


head


household


These


women


were


questioned


on environmental


characters


dwelling


unit


and


effect


on rol


performance.


The


age


housewife


as well


her


SOc


ass


was


controlled.


ssatis


faction


over


uffi


client


residential


space


was


associated


with


difficulties


supervision


children.


extensive


invest


action


on thi


phenomenon


was


con-


ducte


d in


Hong


Kon


A multi


sampling


was


employ


ed in


which


3,966


people


from


urban


area


Maurice


Backe i tev


and


Alan


John


-l


ton.


Social


Pat-


NE


.


. I


h









colony


phase


were


interviewed,


concentrated


husband-wife


initial


family


pairs


were


one


intervi


stage.


sec


community.


ewe


ese,


as well


others


who


were


marri


ed and


res


ided


with


their


spouse,


but


one


ese


individuals


was


not


available


estioning.


Information


was


elicited


mental


health


respond-


ents


marital


conflict


and


control


over


children


, while


crowding


was


determined


amount t


square


feet


per


person.

parental


order


control


to find


over


out


children,


effect


those


crowding


interviewed


were


ask


"How


often


our


children


play


outside


house


and


you


know


where


are?"


This


was


asked


only


parents


with


children


eighteen


years


or younger


, who


resided


home.


significant


relationship


was


found


expected


direction.


A previously


mentioned


study


supply


additional


evi-


dence


tion


support


, residentail


this


crowdin


proposition.


was


this


estimated


invest


each


seventy-five


communities


Chicago


, while


court


records


were


used


to determine


delinquency


rate


males


twe en


social


ages


class


twelve


and


and


ethnicity


sixteen.


were


Additionally,


formulated


indices


to account


their


effect


on delinquency.


relationship


between


crowd-


and


delinquency


was


found


significant


level







Indirect


support


this


proposition


provided


study


coil


dormitories


Unive


rsity


California,


Berkel


Information


on crowding


was


obtained


from


univer-


sity


itory


hou


res


records


idents.


and


Additional


questionnaires


information


distributed


was


to dorm-


furnished


observation


student


Analys


data


activities


showed


within


that


environment.


inhabitants


crowded


rooms


spent


reader


proportion


their


time


away


from


this


setting


than


those


less


crowd


ed units.


The


greater


degree


crowding


within


dwelling


unit,


higher


probability


conflict


among


res


idents.


inves


tigation


that


focused


on the


p055s


ible


effects


a new


resid


ential


development


on rehoused


slum


families


was


conduct


ed in


England.


Interviews


were


mad


to ascertain


changes


intrafamilial


relations


well


other


areas.


The


respondent


reported


a decrease


tens ion


among


family


memb


ers


, esp


ecially


between


fathers


and


daughters.


This


was


result


increased


privacy,


to a reduction


number


persons


per


room.


experiment


that


provides


evidence


support


this


proposition


was


conducted


under


auspices


Department


Sim Vander Ryn and Murry


Silverstein,


Dorms at
S-r "*'""i "- '--


. ,


Berkeley:
-r n.


a. '-


151








Navy.


this


investigation,


sailors


were


exposed


crowding


a ten


-day


period.


Subj


ects


were


matched


such


chara


cteri


stics


, education,


rank.


were


then


to determine


their


level


need


achi


eve-


men t


tion


affiliation


enabled


dominance


researchers


dogmatism.


to pair


s informa-


subjects


cases


low


, high,


or mixed


scores


these


traits


Each


test


was


suppo


remain


room


entire


s of


experiment t


while


controls


were


only


expose


experimental


situation


hours


day.


ese


accommodations


were


crowded


in all


other


way


s adequate.


Therefore,


experimenter


s were


able


test


effect


crowdin


as well


termine


fluen


per


sonality


char


acte


this


phenomenon.


order


to obtain


necessary


data,


sample


spatial


location


and


activities


was


taken


twenty


minutes


during


one


and-


a-half


hour


periods


morning


and


after-


noons.


addition


, the


test


dyads


were


observed


for


five


minute s


hour


early


morning


and


evening


Analysis


data


reveal


that


test


subj


ects


main-


tainted


or increased


territorial


control


during


g confinement,


while


their


matched


dyads


exhibited


a decrease


ed in


such


havior.


similar


pattern


withdrawal


was


demons


treated


intradyadi c


activity.


test


pair


exhibited


a marked


--














that


test


pairs


incompatible


or with


needs


affilia-


tion


dominant


accounted


highest


levels


terrn


trial


behavior.


Moreover,


ose


with


he terogeneous


low


affiliatory


nee


were


found


to manifest


most


solitary


beh


avior.


Social


interaction


was


most


pronounced


among


pair


s high
0


on dominance,


although


controls


showed


a diminu-


tion


such


activity


experiment


prog


resse


fact,


interaction


such


test


subjects


was


intense


that


dyads


were


unabi


to complete


experiment


third


group


had


to be


res


trained


from


several


y injuring


one


another.


Support


s proposition


comes


also


from


a study


autistic,


normal


, and


brain-dama


children.


These


young-


sters


were


homo


geneously


ass


signed


groups


children


seven


s free


to eleven


play


, and


situation,


more


each


than


group


eleven


was


children.


observed


several


hours


and


information


recorded.


Autistic


young-


sters


exhibited


almost


no aggr
00


session


and


withdrew


even


fur-


their


crowdin


increased


, while


normal


children


were


more


ne ss


in crowded


settings


The


brain


dama


were


most


aggre


ssive


under


various


experimental


conditions


but


highest


level


such


behavior


was


recorded


group


which


had


more


than


even


youngsters


20T.,


Al +rnn -in l I 1 nr7rbr~rn


1


TT 114',


"'Tb


Tr/^ m r


Trnr


hl~mn


111


1


y^ *-~in"









Inferential


support


this


proposition


provided


an experiment


on crowding


ers


onal


attitude.


this


study,


students


an introductory


psy


chol


course


were


randomly


ass


signed


to eight


oups.


Each


group


, which


consi


sted


eleven


to fifth


een


subjects


was


placed


room


with


an avera


4.06


square


feet


person.


The


four


control


groups


rang


ed in


size


from


three


five


sub-


ject


with


an average


square


feet


per


person.


Subj


ects


were


seated


folding


chairs


arran


in rows


minimize


face


face


contact,


subj ects


were


required


to dress


in a


similar


manner.


Both


groups


were


asked


complete


a sixty-four


item


repression


sensitization


scale


assess


feeling


on such


dimensions


comfortable


-uncomfortable,


sad-happy


, and


positive-negative.


They


also


fill


short


form


Knowles


Mood


Adjective


Checklist.


After


approximately


hours,


which


subjects


performed


symbol-cancel -


lation


task


fill


time


y again


completed


ratings


feelings


as well


evaluations


experimental


environ-


ment


instructions,


experimenter.


group


significantly


exposed


more


crowded


negative


conditions


personal


was


feeling


found


than


control


subjects


and


expressed


significantly


more


negativism


toward


aspects


experiment








A study


Toronto,


crowdin


Canada.


family


population


relations


was


was


selected


conduct


a multi


stage


sample


households


thirteen


census


tracts.


The


sample


was


stratified


on such


criteria


scent


mo the r


under


fort


y-five,


and


residence.


Additionally,


half


sample


contained


family


with


more


than


one


per-


son


per


room


while


remaining


house


eholds


had


ess


than


number.


all,


wives


husbands


were


inter


viewed.


Two


jectively


measures


termined


crowding


from


census


were


date


employed


, while


: one


was


other


was


res


pondents


subjective


evaluations.


Seven


items


were


used


asses


s the


quality


family


relations


these


four


involved


relationship


e tween


husband


and


wife


, two


concerned


relationship


between


parents


children


and


one


focu


on siblin


In addition,


such


factors


as education


, ethni


city


, and


occupation


were


control


husband-wife


relationship


, subj


ective


crowding


was


related


inution


an increase


intercourse


in arguments


while


objective


threats


crowding


and


was


a dim-


associ


ated


with


an increase


physical


puni


shment


children


and


more


quarrel


s between


siblin


The


final


inves


tigation


support


this


proposition


employs


similar


design


as well


crowding


measures








precedin


g study.


Interviews


were


conducted


with


over


married


couples


and


information


was


obtained


their


sexual


stori


Moreover


such


factors


, ethni


city


, and


incidence


divorce


were


controlled.


research


her


found


that


sixty


percent


mal


who


reported


being


crowd


expr


esse


d di


ssati


faction


over


equency


sexual


intercourse


whereas


only


thirty


per


cent


those


who


did


not


indicate


such


feel


ings


were


ssa


sfie


. The


finding


female


were


forty


and


twenty


-two


per


cent


respect


tively


For


both


groups


these


diff


erences


were


significant


leve


In addition,


women-

adults


expo


were


to objective


ten


percent


more


crow


as children


likely


engage


extra-


marital

editions


sexual


The


activity


date


than

indi


those

cated


living

that c


in uncrowded


on t inuous


con-


crowding


tende


increase


homo


sexual


incentuous


activity


espe


call


females.


This


study


provides


strong


inferential


support


proposition,


since


one


would


expect


that


such


factors


increase


marital


d di


sfaction


activities


would


in marital


tend


sex


, in


ces


level


extra-


conflict.


eater


gree


crowdin


within


dwelling


unit,


her


probability


res


identical


ssatis-


faction


among


residents


to raise








A previously


mentioned


study,


which


focused


on house-


hold


crowding


and


performance,


supplies


evidence


support


proposition.


s inves


tigation,


house-


wiv


were


asked if


crowdin


interf


ered


with


various


chores


and


indicate


thes


activity


ssa


faction,


as measured


percentage


complaints,


was


expr


esse


4.50


percent


respondents


living


unit


with


ess


than


person


per


room,


while


atis


faction


incre


asked


39.4


percent


those


units


with


more


than


1.00


per-


son


per


room.


Similarly,


ssatis


faction


with


kitchen


space


was


6.90


percent


dwe


llin


with


ess


than


0.40


persons


per


room,


but


incr


ease


35.9


per


cent


with


more


than


1.00


ersons


per


room.


The


ercenta


complaints


bedrooms


ran


ed from


percent


35.2


percent


and


livin


rooms,

ities


5.60

were


percent


evaluated,


27.3


percent.


complaints


over


When

the


household

preparation


activ-

and


serving


meals


were


12.8


percent


units


with


ess


than


0.40


per


ons


per


room


and


33.3


percent


dwellings


more


than


1.00


persons


per


room.


ssati


faction


with


activities


associated


with


rest


ranged


from


7.70


percent


31.0


per-


cent,


while


percentages


child


care


were


2.20


29.9


and


leisure


activities,


5.00


34.8.


The


previously


mentioned


study


rehoused


fanijit


supports


the


proposition.


inves ti


gation,


CniA1 f -la4 tnm4 e t l- .' ,an.n 244l


*r SIII Ir


A AIII*I r.uA~


I.~lc t,


ct,,e


~ACII1 e,


t.IAYA








same


number


that


remained


deteriorated


units.


The


find-


wings


showed


that


reduction


in crowding


was


in part


responsi-


increased


sati


sfaction


those


in new


dwellings.


test


women


were


significantly


more


sati


sfied


with


their


apartments


, reported


ess


family


conflict,


felt


their


units


were


worth


cost.


Additionally,


these


women


re-


ported


a significant


increase


neighboring,


largely


increased


space.


investigation


conducted


I-on


Kong employed


multi


sampling


design


which


persons


over


eighteen


were


interviewed.


These


couple s


were


ques-


tioned


their


oss


ible


dissati


sfaction


with


crowding


lack


privacy


their


dwelling


units.


data


revealed


that


suC


h complaints


increa


sed


crowdin


increased.


Additional


was


reported


that


crowding


reduced


neighboring


visits


friends


Another


study


this


phenomenon


focused


on res


idents


a trailer


park


at Stanford


University.


resi-


den t


, only


four


refused


to participate.


Information


was


elicited


on demo


graphic,


environment


attitudinal


fac-


tors,


and


one


estionnaire


each


trailer


was


selected


ensure


independence.


Since


was


each


controlled,


unit

and


was


identical,


crowding


was


physical


measured


environment


number








persons


per


unit


: three


persons


less


those


with


four


or more.


The


res


pondents


crowded


units


were


gnificantly


less


sati


ed with


degree


privacy


, noise


tidi-


ness


than


other


resi


dents.


And


finally,


a case


stud


family


living


one


room


poignantly


demonstrates


dissati


sfaction


that


results


from


crowdin


yth
ere


stron
or di
never


had
told
say,
be a
not
earl


Living i
m as the


one


oth


is no way


sapp
exp


to g
us
'To


ones
rove,
ress


o
to
b


er


exc


get
their


to bed
Even





s early
at all


room, one mus
s, willingly
ept to follow


The


angry to
opinion


same


when


Tomorrow


as eight
sleepy, b


next


morning


we
is


w


or nin


weaker
disgus
s. For


time,


t


or unwillin


same
gly--


shes


ones
ted


ere grown
a work day
e o'clock.


ath
li


had
had


coul


but


example,
when my


when
to get
to be


.d approve
wouldd
we all
father
Should
lis might


were


put


out.


Dur in


radio
even in


rams


was


da
we
my


was
had


Antonia


who
.to


chose
in t


father


lord


in the


La
it


Charta
over us


courtyard


was
in


in
her


until


char


own way.
e finished


house,


She made
cleaning


us wait


and


sometimes


cold


I would


have


toilet


She


would


refuse


open


door


I would


bors
go.


jump
hear
can' t


up and
'Ay L
stand


down ye
a Charta


any


1 ing
, let
onger


for
me


all
in.


the neigh-
I have to


All


house
would


and


have
would


nicel


like


thought
y, as I
our nex


father
e wall


have


about
had
t-doo


take


between


a place


was


always


the
kno


fixing


named


neighbor
room. I
cked down


to entertain


ou


about.


to move,
would he
and .
r friends


my
I
thought,
him to


. then
.29


!