Self-actualization and marital adjustment in married dual-career couples

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Title:
Self-actualization and marital adjustment in married dual-career couples
Physical Description:
ix, 148 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Young, A. Stuart ( Alex Stuart )
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Self-actualization (Psychology)   ( lcsh )
Marriage -- Psychological aspects   ( lcsh )
Married people -- Employment -- Psychological aspects   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1981.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 138-147).
Statement of Responsibility:
by A. Stuart Young.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000294859
notis - ABS1194
oclc - 07809340
System ID:
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Full Text
















SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND MARITAL ADJUSTMENT
IN MARRIED DUAL-CAREER COUPLES








By


STUART YOUNG


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY




IIMTTIITDCTTV nrc flflTnA




































DigitizeJ y the I nrernet Archive


011 with funding from


University of Florida, George A. Smathers


Libraries


with support from LYRASIS and the Sloan Foundation















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


researcher wi


acknowledge


assistance


coopera-


tion


several


persons


in th


develop


nt and


comply etion


this


study


Particular


appreciation


express


to Dr.


L. Tolbert


Chairp


person


supe


sory


committee.


Appreciation


expressed


to committee


e members


Roderi


McDavi


Amatea


Donald


Avila


author wishes


to ac


know edge


support


Travi


Carter


Phylli


Voss


ahner


haron


Zahner


during


years.


Parti


ular


gratitud


express


Eric


inhardt


Univers


Computing


rvices


Univ


rsity


North


orida


and to Dr


Thomas


Goodal


Dean


Student


Affair


Univer


Florida


generous


encouragement.


Finally


researcher


is most


grateful


to Sally


Young


love


understanding,


many


hours


of hard work


espec


ially


during


com-


pletion


study.


, Dr


. Ell


















TABLE


CONTENTS


Page


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.


LIST


OF TABLES.


ft~ ~~ ft ft ft ft S S S ft ft S ft S S S f S f


ABSTRACT.


CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION.


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le. .
f the Study
earch Question
ion of Terms.


* S S ft ft S S S 5 ft S ft S 5 ft S S
* S ft ft S ft S ft S S S S S S S S S
* S ft S S ft S ft ft ft ft ft ft S S S ft
S S ft S S S ft S S ft S ft 5 ft S ft


REVIEW OF


RELATED


LITERATURE


ft S ft S f S S S S f ft ft 59


areer Ma
racteris
blems of
tional H
k in the
ategies
ctualiza


of t
1-Car
h in
1-Car
Dual -


eer Marriage


ation


* 5 9 ft ft S ft
* a S ft ft ft ft


-Actua
uremen
Adjus
s in T
titude
ture o
's Emp
eption
rtance


liz
t o
tme
ran
s o
f c
loyl
s o
of


action
f Sel
nt.
sitio
f wom
career
ment
f the
Need


in the Sexes .
f-Actualization


en and men. .
patterns .
and Marital Adj
Spouse .
S0 . .


* S S S S ft ft ft ft
* S S ft S ft S S ft
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* S S ft S S S ft ft


U


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tment


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1 th I .
and Working Wives
A-. s i i.


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7--









Page


RES SEARCH METHODOLOGY.


Research


Population


a aa S 55


Questions
d Sample.


nstrumentati on.


Personal


Ori entati


Dyadic Adjustment
Questionnaire


Analysis of
Limitations


n Inventory
cale .


Data


Study


S. . 6


RESULTS


DISCUSS


ION,


CONCLU


IONS,


IMPLICATIONS


scussion


Conclu


Implication
For Coun


elors


Research.


S S a S S aS S S a9


APPENDICE


DEMOGRAPHIC


QUESTIONNAIRE


DYADIC ADJU


LETTER

RETURN


STMENT

AMPLE


POSTCARD


SCALE

GROUP.


* . . a 102

.* . . . 107


PARTICIPATION


* a . . 109


CONSENT


S a a a a a a a a S S S S S S S 111


LETTER


INSTRUCTIONS


RETURN POSTCARD

TELEPHONE FOLLOW


a a a aa a a S S S 1


FOR RESULTS

-UP CALL.


. . a a . .5 115


. a a a . a . 117


ANALY


VARIANCE


FOR SELECTED


DEMOGRAPHIC


VARIABLES


. 119


REFERENCES.


a S S S S S S S S S S S a S S S S S 5 138


BIOGRAPHICAL


SKETCH


S S S S S S S S S S S S a S a a a a a a a 11 8














LIST


OF TABLES


Page


TABLE 1


Relationship of Receipt


Date of Marriage


of Highest


to Current


Degree


pouse


TABLE 2


Career Satisfaction


TABLE


Length


of Marriage


Current


pouse.


TABLE


Percentage of Time


Devoted


to Career


Family


TABLE


Reason


for Working


TABLE


Mean


nd Standard
and Women.


Deviations


on the


S S 4 4 7


TABLE


Correlations


Between


subjects


. 7


TABLE 8


Analy


High,


of Variance


Medium


Procedure on


Self


Marital


-Actual i


zing


Adju


stment


Marital


Groups


TABLE


Correlation


Between


Actualization


parity


Score


of


Dyadic


Hus
Adj


band and
ustment


Wife


Self


TABLE


Duncan


"Relation
Marriage.


Multiple


Range


Between


Test fo
Receipt


Dyadic


Adju


Degree"


stment on


Date of


TABLE


Duncan


Career


Multiple


Sati


Range


Test


Dyadic


Adju


stment on


facti on


TABLE 12


Duncan


Support


Multiple R
on Reason


;ange Test fo
for Working


Inner


Directed


TABLE


Duncan


Multiple


on Career


Range


Test


Dyadic


Adju


tment


tage














Abstract


Unive


Disse
rsity


rotation


Presented


Florida


to the


Partial


Graduate


Council


Fulfillment of


Requirements


Degree


Doctor of


Philo


ophy


SELF-


ACTUAL I


ACTION


IN MARRIED


AND MARITAL


DUAL


-CAREER


ADJUSTMENT


COUPLES


tuart


Young


March


Chairman:


Dr. E.


Tolbert


Major


Department


Coun


elor


Education


purpose


e of


tudy was


to investigate


levels


self-


actual


zation


dual


-career marriages


secondary


purpose was


nves


marital


tigate


adju


relation


stment


ship


dual


between


-actuali


-career marriage


zation


following


research


question


were


inves


tigated


What are


leve


actual


ation


of men


versus


women


as measured


by th


Personal


Orienta-


tion


Inventory


(P01)


What


relation


between


level


self-actual i


zation


as means


ured


by the


and marital


adju


stment


means


ured


Dyadic


Adjustment


(DAS )


What are


relation


among


high


medium


"pair


-total"


self-


actual


zation


scores


and marital


adjus


tment


for dual


-career


couple


What


relation


between


couple d


disparity


self-








husband and wife


score)


and the marital


adjustment of


each


couple?


What are


relationships


among


demographic


data,


Time


Compe-


tence and


Inner


Directed


Support


cales,


and marital


adjustment?


The sample con


ted of


, M.D.,


and J


women


graduates


University


Florida


and their


husbands


A demo-


graphic


questionnaire,


DAS,


were used


gather the


data.


Fifty


couples


(100


individual


representing


percent of


e who agreed


to participate


an initial


mailling,


compri


sample


group.


results


were


as follows


significant


differences


were


found


in hu


bands


' versus


wives


level


elf-actual i


nation


on the


several


significant


correlations


were


found


between


for all


subjects


as a


group.


Time


Competence,


Inner


support,


-Actual i


Value,


tential ity


pontaneity,


-Regard,


elf-


Acceptance,


Capacity


Intimate


Contact were correlated


ignifi


cantly with


total


score.


significant


differences


were


found


in marital


adju


tment


for hus


band and wife


'-actuali


nation


scores


tratified


into high,


medium,


couplel e"


groups.


ignifi-


cant


correlation


were


found between marital


adju


tment and


"couple-


sparity"


sel f-actualization


scores


Receiving


degree


five


years


before marriage,


being


very


fied"


career,


being


career


stage


related


significantly


to marital


adju


stment.


"Achievement" motivation


in a career was


found


to b


significantly


related


to low


Inner


Directed


support.


Self


-Actual i


action


in dual


-career marriage was


related


to high


11 ntn nc








marital


adjustment


than


does


"joint"


personal


development of


couple.


result


reveal


that dual


-career marriages may


be able


tolerate di


separate


level


personal


development


results


reveal


significant


positive


relation


between


high marital


adju


tment and


career sati


faction,


career


tabil ity


becoming married


at least


five


years


after receiving


terminal


degree.


Finding


indicate


that


individual


motivated


achievement


dual


career marriage may


study


need


concluded


high


with


support


from external


a description


sources


implication


for counse-


lors


Marriage


couns


elors


need


to be


aware of


level


personal


development


both


husband


Coun


elors


need


to be


aware


possible e


relation


hips


between


career-related


factors


marital


adjustment


dual-career marriages.














CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION


American


family


changing.


The movement


of women


into


labor force


having


profound


effect


upon


the organization


family


percentage of working women who


are married


dramat-


ically


increa


from


percent


1950


to 5


percent


March,


1978


(United


States


Council


Economic


Advisors,


1978)


. There


are now more


"two-


income"


family


United States


than


"single


income"


fami-


Since


income


1976 more


(Hershman


family


Levenson


have


, 1979)


or more


than


person


traditional


earning


family where


husband


sole


income


provider


. The


two income


family


becoming


very


popular


lifestyle


because


changing


economic


condi-


tions


because


more


liberal


attitudes


toward


role of


women


society


dual


-career family


gaining widespread


popu-


clarity


particularly


years


Women


have


always


worked


but,


since


Worl d


rapid


expans


development


occupations


created a much


greater


demand


for the well


-educated woman.


Nye and Hoffman


(1963)


attribute


tremendous


having machinery


increase of women


permitting


labor


the woman


force


to more efficiently


labor-


perform


sehold duties


outside


home


, (b)


smaller


families


spread of


an egalitarian


ideology.


Whatever the


reasons


for the









Because


many working women


are married


or will


become marri


family


are having


to adjust


and plan


to accommodate multiple


life


This


cation


pattern


the divi


sion


implied,


until


labor within


recently


family


little


. Increase


or no modifi


ingly,


however,


two-career or dual


-career


family


perceived


as a


life-


style which


not only


tolerates


career


pursuit


a woman


, through


reallocation


household


and child


care


responsibilities


facili-


states her


career


(Rapoport


Rapoport,


1969)


The dual-career


family


family unit


which


both


husband and


pursue


which


profess


are highly


ional


alient


technical


personnaly


, or managerial


, hav


occupations


a development


sequence.


(Rapoport


Rapoport,


1969


,p. 3)


have


a family


life with


one c


hild


or more.


term


"dual


-career family"


term


"dual


-career


marriage"


Several


(without


trends


children)


in marriage


are used


seem


erchangeably


emerging


literature.


as a result


these


changing work


patterns.


Particularly


for marriage


where


both


individual


are 1


"higher-


positions


there


is a


trend


away


from mal

requires


authority


more


female


lity


servience.


traditional


sex-role


two-income

behavior.


family

New values


appear


self-


at work


expr


in these


ession


marriages.


personal


There


development.


is much


There


great


r need


greater


haring


task


response


ibilities


and more


collaboration


sion-making.


redi


tribution


house


ehold


chore


because


additional


work


rol e


stands


to reintegrate


husband


into


family


unit


through


haring


response


abilities.


necessity


band will









Problem


The emerging dual-worker or dual-career marriage provides its par-


ticipants with many benefits.


dual-career pattern also presents new

Because of the multiplicity of new rol


certain problems are more


Some of the issue


At the same time, however,


challenges for the family.


for both husband and wife,


likely to occur in the dual-career marriage.


which are unique to the dual-career couple are job


mobility (who will


benefit?), competition and resentment,


time manage-


ment, and career versus


family demands.


The problems that the dual-career marriages


pose


imply because


both persons are career-committed will


be easily absorbed by some


marriages and encountered with some or great difficulty by others


(Bailyn,


1970


Barry,


1970


Bebbington,


1973


Gross & Avery,


1977)


Some of our most motivated and productive individual


gravitate toward


profess


ional


careers and, more and more,


these working people are form-


ing dual-career marriages


by establishing a marriage with another per-


son in a career.


Since thi


work group represents such an important


resource for


society and,


indeed


, because much of society'


leadership


comes


from thi


group,


appropriate for counselors to pay par-


ticular attention to the dual-career marriage.


Recent research has


revealed that these marriages are under great


stress because of the necessary career dedication needed to achieve


success (Rapoport & Rapoport,


1969; Rice,


1979)


Counselors need a


greater understanding of the benefits and rewards as well as the con-


cerns of the


dual-career marriage.









individual


focu


strongly


influenced


attitudes


toward


human


develop-


ment.


of human


1970'


potentiality


, particularly


emerged


was a


as a


period


dominant


when


theme


full


American


development


society


Simultaneous


deterioration


family


life,


with


a ri


sing


divorce


rate


increa


abuse


family members,


general


marital


malai


however


cause


concern


among


some


helping


profe


ssionals


regarding


current


emphasis


on personal


development.


Purpose


purpose of


dual -career marriages


:his

and


study was


relations


examine


-actual i


hip to marital


adju


action


stment


instrument,


Personal


Orientation


Inventory


(POI)


upon


theory


vidual


each


sel f-actual i


selected


other


level


zation was


dual


used


to determi


-career marriages


differ


self-actualization.


whether or


significantly


relation


ships


indi


from


among


sel f-actual i


zati on


both men


and women


in sel


ected


pro-


fess


and marital


adju


stment as


ermined


Dyadi


Adju


stment


Scal


(DAS)


were


investigated


Rational


The work


ir client


counsel


toward


largely


ychological


involves

heal th.


their

Abraham


attempts


Maslow


to move

(1976)


"fully


-human"


person


useful


conceptual i


action


heal thy


personality


because


tenden


other


approaches


content


with


normal


cy averagenesss


value -free


attitude of


other


approaches


contrasts


dramatic


ally with


the positive,


optim


forward-


looking


approach


of Ma


-actuali


zation


a term


t








needs


are arranged


in an ordered


hierarchy


. Human


development


pro-


gresses


from


lower to


higher needs


based


upon


sati


faction


succes-


level


need.


development


person


predominant


cons


ideration


couns


elors.


Marriage


counselor


trai ners


of marriage


couns


elors


are interested


in both


quality


of marriage


individual


development of


each


partner in marriages.


Coun


elors


working with


dual


-career couples


toward


self-actual i


have


the opportunity


zation.


study


help each


focused on


partner move


higher need,


sel f-actual i


ation,


becau


socioeconomic


standing


dual


career couple and


nature


the dual


-career


relation


While


some


research


suggest


that


the wife


having


the most


difficulty


handling


role


(Johnson


& John


son,


1977


1961


Bryson,


Bryson


Licht


Licht,


1976


Heckman,


Bryson


& Bryson,


1977),


other re


each


suggests


that


husband who


finding


difficult


some


to adjust


extent,


(Kaley,


new dual


Axel


-career marital


1963


pattern


Bailyn


, 1970)


affecting


both


band and wife


study


examined


relationship


between


-actual i


action


and marital


adju


stment


dual


-career marriage.


understanding more


about


relation


between


sel f-actual i


action


and marital


adjust-


ment


counsel ors


will


have


framework


for developing


strategies


work


with


initiatives


ingly


-career couple.


inve


popular marital


stigate


tudy may


benefits


pattern.


A more


hel p


and concern


thorough


ustify new


increas-


understanding








marriage and family counselors.


This study may also help counselors


understand the career development patterns of dual-career couples.

Scope of the Study


This study was


limited to women M.D., J.D., Ph.D., and Ed


graduates of the University of Florida and their husbands.


examined marital adjustment,


The study


self-actualization, and gathered demo-


graphic data of the sample.

The Research Questions


study was des


related to


signed to investigate the following question


self-actualization and marital adjustment:


What are the


level


self-actualization of men versu


women


scores as measured by the Personal


Orientation Inventory (POI)


What i


the relationship between


level


of self-acutalization


as measured by the POI and marital


adjustment as measured by the Dyadic


Adjustment Scale (DAS)


. What are the relationships among "pair-total"


self-


actualization scores for dual-career couple


(grouped by high


medium


and low scoring pairs) and marital adjustment


What is


the relationship between couple


s disparity and self-


actualization as measured by the POI (defined as the difference in

husband and wife POI scores) and the marital adjustment of each part-


ner?


What are the relationships among demographic data,


Time Compe-


tence, and Inner Directed Support POI scal


and marital


adjustment?









Definition of Terms


Dual


-career


family:


Family


in which


both


husband


wife


pursue


profess


ional,


technical,


and managerial


occupations


. which


highly


port


salient


Rapoport,


personally,


have


1969,


a developmental


have a


family


sequence


life with


" (Rapo-


one child


more.


Dual


-career marriage:


A dual-career


family which may or may not


have children.


Dual-worker


family


A family


which


both


husband


and wife work


which


either


husband


or wife


not working


career


position


Marital


adju


stment


process


variable measured


at one


point


time


determined


,y (1)


trouble


some


dyadic


differences


inter-


pers


tension


pers


onal


anxiety;


dyadic


sati


faction


dyadic


cohe


consensus


on matters


importance


dyadic


functioning


Spanier,


1976)


Profess


ions


Occupation


which


require


substantial


educational


preparation


field


engineering,


social


science


, medicine,


education,


(United


States


Department


of Labor,


tandardi


accepted


behavior


related


to the


performance


certain


Steinman


Fox,


1969).


Self


-actuali


zation


The unique


ability


people e


to maximi


their


potential


that


they


can.


A direction more


than a


tate,


-actual i


ation


character


y personal


growth,


positive mental


health,


-


e for self-


*fulfillment,


the capacity


to transcend


. 15)









Traditional


-career


family:


A family


which


wife


is not


employed


in an outs


ide work


rol e


assumes


only


homemaking


role


while


husband


is employed.















CHAPTER


REVIEW OF


THE RELATED


LITERATURE


review


literature will


include


dual


-career


marriage,


-actuali


zation,


marital


adju


stment,


sum-


mary


review of


literature.


Work


always


been


at the


heart


American


Dream.


wheel


American


progress


have


been


grease


with


hard


labor


a robust


ambitious


population.


all,


however,


have


shared


equally


in the


bounty


their


labors.


course


American


story


radically


influenced


nature


work


both


men and


women


In


early


New England,


most


people


were


farmers


or arti


sans


whos


e major work


centered


around


home


work


husband


wife


was then


complementary,


each


partner


upport-


other


carrying


out the


essential


ehold


response


ibilitie


early


indus


trial


zation


period,


textile


industry,


being


largest


and most


important


type


of manufacturing,


drew many women


to work


. Men


continued


farming.


Civil


era redefined


women


s work


as including


nursing


promi


sed more


equality


for every-


one b


y defeating


slave


system


America


was moving


to the


West


stepping


indu


trial


zation


toward


nineteenth


century.


Farmer


were


struggling


ni, L'n 1 wi ii ,,, it,. nt~~r r i.k? tu~ IrtA n it.nnanf a,


Un~


hi, r~nnrF


m? Irn


Crn


c.lnHn mnll~nn


I


-^ I ^









indu


. Unfavorable


working


conditions


harsh


treatment


women


resulted


in many


efforts


organize.


developing


American


social


structure


formed


a pattern


which


tered


divi


labor


between


men and


women


Women


were


focus


more


social


pressure,


particularly


after


World


assume


excl u


role


housewife.


America


was changing.


After


World


both


production


con-


umption


increased


resulting


inflation


encouraged many women


continue


working


out of


economic


necess


ity.


period


after


World


found


rapid


development


occupations


creating


a greater


demand


well


-educated


woman.


labor


force


was being


trans


formed.


Growth


labor


force


ticipation


by women


been


dramatic.


increase


percentage


total


labor


force


participation


climbed


from


percent


1940


to 4


percent


1979


repre


sents


an increase


from


percent


1940


to 5


percent


1979


women


working


age participat-


labor


force


(Norwood


Wal dman,


1979)


growth


been


particularly


large


in the


age group where


many


young


profess


ional


starting


their


careers


(Norwood


Waldman,


1979)


Dual


-Career Marriage


our s


society


woman,


appears,


is able


to avoid


potential


"role


train"


y limiting


herse


to participation


only


in the


house-


hold


role.


incompatibility


women


s family


roles


which


confine


them to home-oriented


response


ibiliti


with


participation


labor


*^ t'*- F~n;C


ntnkl" an,


k n amnr


are


r, ..


i~n~nmn


rnmn iinmnn


rn rrn n3r


T- n


I


. r









be preferred.


times


ast,


career women


have


stand


alone;


now,


however,


women


are freer


to deviate


from


socially


prescribed


expectations.


common


A particular


marital


cons


pattern,


tellation


the dual


-career marriage


f variables,


including


relatively


psychological,


social,


interpersonal


forces,


produces


each


dual


-career


family


Leach


point


out,


however


that:


pattern


a segregated
able as equa
increased.


one which
sentiment


(Leach,


cited


divi


male


lity


increa


reality


authority a
labor have


access


ideal


ingly


female


become


to education


held


remain


Rapoport &


ubservience


increa


an egalitarian


out but


s great a
Rapoport,


ingly


un


the world h
partnership


S. the gap


1969,


easily
6)


ten-
ave


between
bridged


Character


the Marriage


context


which


original


marital


contract


formed


pro-


vide


structure


for the


course


the marriage.


Dual


-career


marriage


can be


main


types


(Rice,


1979)


first


type


one i


which


both


partners


fully


expect


the wife


career


structure


marriage


includes


commitment of


both


their


respective


careers.


In thi


type


deci


plans


are made


to accommodate


these


careers


second


type


dual


career


is the marriage


in which


the wife


decides


to seek


a career


some


time


after the


marriage


establi


hed.


s later


pursuit


career


not a


component


initial


under


standing


and,


after


a time,


when


the marriage


reaches


point,


husband,


necess


will


usually


have


begin


ekarnn mnr a nf 4


'3 k. r nnra 4 n


Arnmnne+'


t-k~lA


maria


~rimrlnn


rllrli~; n


F~~nh


T-e~ T


f~









unfortunately,


stress


change


sometimes


results


some


very


difficult


choices


between


marriage


career.


each


partner


knows


before


marriage


that


work


important


spouse,

careers


the

It


couple


poss


will


have


ible,


foundation


however


, to place


the mutual


too much


support


importance


work,


detracting


from


closeness


the marital


relation


hip.


Rice


(1979)


went


so far


as to


state:


acknowledgement


value


system


cretizing
economic


mate s
benefits


high


relatively more


election


or phy


than
ical


priority o
important


other


facto


work


in each


spouse


psychologically in
rs, e.g., political


con-


attractiveness.


establi


hment


dual


-career marriage


until


very


recently


meant


little modification


traditional


rol e


men and


women


home.


Increa


ingly


however


dual


-career


pattern


only


tolerating


additional


career


but facilitating


tein


(1971)


offered


an explanation


the problems


dual


-career marriage.


review


partner


dual


-career marriages


showed


that


a success


combination


work


family


life


was poss


ible


through


restructuring


the marriage.


was suggest


that


university


community might


first


place where


prohibitions


again


nepotism may


reduced


significantly


to allow


husband


and wife


pursue


their


careers


together


Dual


-career


law partner


relation


permit


a great


deal


flexibility,


particularly


woman,


in developing


practice


reentry


into


after


dropping


out.


stein


suggest


"institutional


solution


" like


development


profe


sional


child-care


services


which may


help


dual-career


couple


adjust


to work


family


prob-









Some


research


indicates


less


than


acceptance of


dual-


career marri


contemporary


society.


scuss


dual-


career marriage


Poloma


Garland


(1971)


tate


that


individual


ceptions


societal


titutions


have


not changed


dramatically


regarding


women


work


home


author


found


that


women


"tolerate


dome


tication"


order


combine


career


family


life


successfully


They


reported


as reasons


for thi


itu-


action


. difference


socialization


process


between


men and


women,


a longs


standing


tradition


unequal


opportunities


for women,


psychological


process


cognitive


ssonance,


as well


as a genuine


liking


for the


situation


the way


538)


Berman,


Lief


(1975)


describe


two-profess


ion marriage


in which:


Underlying


overt


illu


an equal


relation


covert


traditional


ana a more
"contract"


helpless
tends to


er underlying
supported by t


tance,


that


dependent


result


needs


underlying


from


superior,


female.
the wife


her cultural
g expectation


s early
early s


assumptions,
s of the men


trong male


covert


-image,


246)


John


-Parson


(1978)


found


study


women


and L


that


working


women


reverted


to traditional


ociocultural


perception


home


rol e


but women much


preferred


their


"dual


career"


life


ty le


more


traditional


role.


final


tudy,


Poloma


Garland


(1971)


attempted


to discover why


profess


ionally


trained married


women


work


they


are career


committed.


author

spread


conclude


career


that


"There


involvement


no indication


for the married


wife


immediate wide-


mother.


. the









A study


women


denti


(Linn,


1971)


however,


found


that


a high


commitment


career


not prevent


them


from


having


very


sati


factory


marriages.


Approximately


one-third


the married


women


reported


inter-


rupting


their


career


an average


four


years


mainly


because


pregnancy


or family


demands


Retirement


an early


for married


women


dentists


was rare


a high


percentage


men expressed


accep-


tance


their wife


career.


Adjusting


balance


working


sehold


roles


dual


career


places


stress


on the marriage.


Nadel


enberg


(1977)


conclude:


a problem without


loves


in the


same without


dimini


other


the work


solution.


a configuration
commitment. Bu


availability.


that


What e
would


work


what


ach


spouse


not be


commitment
one wants.


cost


cannot
training


comes


with


eliminated,
. (p. 1075)


benefit.


Even


we empha


though the
importance


cost


con-


Problems


Dual


-Career Marriage


dual


-career marriage


is character


simultaneou


par-


ticipation


both


partners


in career


-committed work.


tudy


thirteen


dual


-career


couple


(Rapoport


Rapoport


, 1969),


five major


areas


stress


suggest


ted:


Overload


dilenriia


extent


to which


one partner


partici-


pates


household


child


-rearing


activities


beyond


purs


career


. The experienced


overload


function


impor


tance


of having


both


children


a career


, (b)


importance


high


standard


living,


degree


to which


household


task


reapportioned, and


he degree


to which t


e couple


can physically









Discrepancy


between


personal


onT'ms


social


norms


dilemmas.


Characterized


particularly


as the


difference


of women


what


between


what


i ncerely


expected


perceived


society,


as being


"right"


individual


Identity


dilemma


"deeper


-level"


tion


about


funda-


mental


character


culturally


defined


stics


sex roles.


self

Dual


how these


-career couple


relate


seem


SOC1O-


to have


chological


boundary e


or "ten


line


adju


ting


to new


sex roles


beyond which


they


experience


comfort.


social


network


dilemmas.


problem


experienced


dual-


career marriages


meeting


traditional


expectations


active


involvement


in the


family


friend


relation


hips.


Role


-cycling


dilemma


influence


stage


career


(preparatory


establi


hment,


plateau,


engagement


on the marital


relationship


family


life


Because


work


commitment


toward


careers,


one or both members


dual


career may


feel


limited


amount


support


their


indi-


vidual


pursuit


personal


growth.


pattern


similar needs


value


can be


source


conflict


because


one partner


cannot


provide


what


other needs


emotionally


. Hunt


Hunt


(1977)


formulate


problem of


move


dual


beyond


career


ting


as one i


"economic


which


the marriage


familial


institution


unable


" which


combine


a private


ehold


continuous


careers.


traditional


marriage


luxury


household maintenance


child


care


. -


t r 1


i I


.I


ill I


I ..


1









is not


efficient,


they


explain,


"turn


dome


stic


work


over


servant


class


confine


children


to the


upervi


hired


help


childcare


institution


SI C


414)


. They


suggest


an entire


restruc-


turning


societal


institution


Bebbington


(197


a report


on the


function


stress


dual


-career


family,


states


that


"unacceptably


high"


stress


can either


better


tolerated


or perceived


experienced


differently


dual


-career marriage.


Conditioning


early


childhood might


prepare


individual


eventually


participate


dual-career marriages


accept


as normal


high


.level


stress.


dual


-career


couple,


stress


then


relative


term,


perhaps


benefitting


marriage


connoting


an unde


sirable


state.


Bebbington


concludes


General


zing,


maintained


a life


tyle


in response


as the


need


dual


-career


to achieve


family
specific


objec-


tives--


rather


relationship
the context


as an expression


dual


-career


contemporary


couple with


society.


the chosen
one another


536)


means


integrating


the multiple


role


required


dual


career marriage


Rapoport


Rapoport


(1971a)


state


that


"dual


-career


families


seem


to optimize


interests


their member


recog-


nizing


overlaps


of interests


as d


tinct


from complementaritie


based


upon


exclus


domains


intere


Johnson


Johnson


(1977)


suggest


that


a woman


could


be more


effective


managing


he would


compartmentalize


"her


career


role


from


her mother-


role"


One way


accomplii


would


to i


nsulate


emotional


home


from


her work


role


D~ra arra untr nonrnk am rtita 1 n 1na V r'n~Ifin Inc r c~


(1070\


"A


_~~ylnn


"T-nn


13 i r a


rlll~l


,1111


I


n Vrn CI 1 am


nd ~~r 61 I I a F


r~


|









support


while


at the


same


time managing


competitive


feelings;


deal-


ing with


a finite


amount


time


light of multiple


role demand


preserving


one's identity


as a "person


as d


tinct


from a


"spouse"


Emotional


Health


Dual-Career Marriage


Several


aspect


personality


dual-career marriage


have


been


inve


tigated


researcher


. In


tudy by


Ohibaum


(1971),


where marital


status


was not emphasized,


highly


educated


profess


ional


miscellaneous


profess


ional


nonprofess


ional


women


were


tested


determine


relation


among


elf-concept


value


character


-actuali


zation.


highly


educated


profess


ional


were


found


have


fess


higher


ional


self


women


-esteem and more


presented


positive


themselves


self-concept


as self


These


-reliant


pro-


indepen-


dent


were


found


have


integrated


traditional


view of


woman


s role.


The mi


scellaneou


profess


ional


, however,


presented


thems


elves


as s


thriving


independence


achievement


rejected


traditional


woman


role.


Members


one-career


-career


families


(Burke


Weir,


1976)


were


given


FIRO-B


to inve


tigate


need


structures.


A sample


band


was s


elected


from


three


profess


ional


association


(profe


ssional


engineer


indu


trial


accountants


chartered


accountants


mailed


questionnaire


both


band


and wife


found


that


sewives


highest


scores


on wanted


expre


ssed


inclu


ion,


wanted


expre


ssed


affection,


wanted


control


lowest


score


nn PoYnrcce:H


rnnt-rnl


Wltc h~nt'i


nf hnncowiunc .


rnmnaro d


fn tfh


nthcir


.









scored


low on


wanting


affection


on wanting


expressing


inclusion


results


indicated


that


persons


dual-career marriages


compared


with


traditional


marriage


are not


as concern


with


seeking


sati


sfac-


tion


from


relation


with


other


people.


Power


authority were


important


issues


bands


working


wives.


Finally,


found


that


both


partner


dual


-career marriage were more


"self-


reliant


inclined


to b


better


united


relation


hip which


tered


development


individualism


Personal


Orientation


Inventory


(P01)


was used


compare


onality


variable


inner


-directedness


self


-actualiz


values


tential ity,


-regard,


-acceptance


dual


-career


families


ulty member


dual


traditional


were


-career


randomly


-career


families


selected


families


husband


(Huser


divided


from


Grant,


into


dual


1978)


traditional


-career


Fac-

fami-


families


cored


significantly


higher


than


husband


from


traditional


family


cale


on inner


-di rectedness


tentiality,


elf-


acce


ptance.


Wives


from dual-career


families


cored


significantly


higher


on inner


-dir


ectedness


. An


item analy


responses


showed


that


bands


wives


dual-career


families


are more


inner-directed


flexible


applying


personal


values


than


husbands


wives


user


traditional


Grant


families


(197


SI C


conclude:


would


woman


seem


that


a wife


-actual ized


mark


man to choose


him a


direction,


being


a career-oriented


quite


from other men


different,
as a group









problem of


coordinating


career


paths


then


become more difficult


the dual


-career couple.


Asti n


(1967)


found that


certain


factors


were


associated with


par-


ticipation


women


doctorate


labor force.


ults


research


were more


showed


that


likely


those who married


be working


seven


during


to eight


or before graduate


years


school


after the doctorate


than


those who married after


receiving


doctorate.


Astin


found


that


women who worked


immediately


after receiving


the doctorate were


inclined


be working


seven


or eight


years


later


Women more


likely


to be working


n later years


were married


lawyers,


businessmen


social


sci enti


sts.


The effect


discrimination


career development


of women


dual


-career marriages


been


argued


in the


literature.


ycholo-


couple


were


asked


discuss


their most


ignifi cant


pers


onal


profess


ntial


ional


probl ems


scientific


in an effort


productivity


to determine


between


husband


causes


and wive


differ


(Heckman


Bryson


Bryson,


1977)


A content


analysis


revealed


that


sexual


crimination


was not


cited


as the most


frequent


explanation


better career


performances


of hu


band


. The most


frequently


cited


reasons


for poorer performances


the wive


were


that women were


"willing


to place


their career


secondary


need


their


family


as a


whole,


needs


their


band


career


seeking


behavior


recent


biological


sciences


psy-


S S
L. a a ~ 1. a a a n a a .8.. a a i. ~ a flA, a I.. *fl-fl


2. ...L 4 1.


stm


,L,1


,r,,~,.


* J-h kJB JKk


iu


i









outstanding


job offer


and the wife was


unable


to locate


position while


moderately


good


offers


were


available el


where,


neither


egalitarian


non-egalitarian


choices


were


significant


either


psychology


or bio-


logical


sciences


very


good


graduates.


offer before


second


husband


imul ation


definite


where


offer


the wife


almost


hal f


choice


were egalitarian


ychol ogy


sample


whereas


biological


sciences


there was


significant


non-egalitarian


square.


authors


concluded:


Employer'
situation


current insi
before making


the constraints
S. we think


acknowl edge


and not


to blame


leading to
t important
reality of


them


or two acceptable pos
one another for their


in many ways,
arrangements.


tudi


stence on


cons


job offer


idering


to the wife


nonegalitarian


for
these


elve


itions


failure


blaming


dual
(in


should


. Coupi


forec


band


one of


choi


-career couples t
stitutional) cons


they


find


victims


psychology


couple


to find


blame


them


acceptable


sent


traint


two good
selves or


institutional


, productivity


dual


career marriages


(Bryson,


son,


Licht


Licht,


1976


Bryson


Bryson


Johnson


was determined


an evaluation


academic


performance


both


husband


wife.


These


studies


found


that


psychol ogi


st wives


were


productive


than


their


psychology


bands.


Bryson


(1976)


tudy


the authors


found


that


these


same


chologi


wives


however


were more


produce


tive


than


other femal


psychology


control


results


suggest


that


bands


in the


se marriages


were


very


productive


and,


while


the wives


were


as productive


band


, they were more


productive


than


their female


colleagues


Married


sociologi


(Martin


Berry


& Jacobson


, 1975)


were


found









gaining more


fessional


promotion


careers


, avoiding


The authors


demotion


suggest,


practicing


however,


possible


longer pro-

"cross-


fertili


action"


effect


study.


Research


on the


dual


-career marriage


hows


some general


cons


tency


some


contradictory


results.


Advantage


and disadvantages


dual


-career


pattern


are seen


vary


from men


to women


. Certainly


dual


-career family


benefits


the added


income


, higher


standard of


living,


and the


1ncreas


flexibility


tyle of


life


afforded


imultaneou


haring


work of


family


couple.


power


band may


increa


price,


ability


however,


the wife


leaving


the marriage


becau


e of


financial


freedom,


increased


house-


hold


role


haring.


The wife


appear


benefit


dual


-career


pattern


y gaining


greater


-esteem


, greater opportunity


self-


development,


more autonomy


the advantage


added


income.


Women


also


price


for thi


life


tyl e


becau


se of


greater


emotional


stress


to the


assumption


new role.


For most


women


however


appears


that


advantage


dual


-career


pattern


are outweighed


the opportunity


both


personal


pro-


ssional


development.


trategie


-Career


Adaptation


phenomenon


changing


work


family


will


easily


imitated


into


our society


. S


several


authors


(Ross


1964


Hoffman


1974


Hedges


& Barnett,


have


suggest


ways


to help


family


adapt


Hedges


Barnett


(197


recommend


. Day


care.


Establ i


hment


i


more centers


at more


areas


unable


.


l









Upgrading


household


equipment.


Upgrading


desirability


service


personnel


to work


home.


More efficient


home management.


Giving


priority


to and


sharing


work.


Adaptive work


rules


Development


of more


part-time


jobs.


Recognition


life-cycle


pattern.


Helping


employers


understand


interrupted


education


employment


pattern


Fuller


haring of


family


respon


ibiliti


tearing


egalitarian


attitude


husband


and wife


about


household


tasks


child


care.


Some


couples


unable


find


full


employment


in the


same


city


choo


to live


apart.


Many


these couples


maintain


contact


marriage


commuting


frequent


use of


telephone.


Little


research


available


on these


couples


because


they


represent a


very


new adaptive marital


pattern.


Gross


(1980),


however


, has


found


that


couple


living


apart may


find


easier if


they


are older


are married


longer,


have


at least


establi


shed


career,


have


fewer


children


responsibilities


Rossi


(1964


suggests


other


institutional


changes


including


chang-


suburban


pattern


living


because


difficulty,


decentrali


zation


business


indu


stry.


Hoffman


(1974)


recommends


impl ementati on


leave without


seniority


rights


to counter-


act the


work.


discriminatory


demand


influence


research


childbearing


on the dual


respond


sibiliti


-career marriage will


con-


tinue


.








versus


equalitarian),


estic


responsibilities,


satisfaction


image,


career salience,


and career


line offer


promi


areas


estigation


dual


-career marriage.


success


society will


oci etal


with which


largely


institution


future


that


dual


depend upon


tein


the marital


-career marriage


will


restructuring


(1971)


-work


both


suggests


partner


adju


family


positive outlook


unit mo


appropri


"greater communication


sens


e of


purpose


marital


bond and


one's


life work"


563)


-Actuali


zation


Abraham Maslow


s theory


-actualization


been


widely


applied


to many


field


incl uding


political


science


iness


manage-


ment


, anthropology


scusse


however


psychology.


-actualization


whatever


applies


context


human


theory


development.


widely


applied


theory


personality


postulates


that


human


need


are arranged


an ordered


hierarchy


Human development


progresses


from


lower to


higher need


based


upon


sati


faction


each


success


their


level


potential


need


unique


developmental


capacity


cess


which


people


uncovers


to maximi


an essen-


tially


"good"


inner


nature.


theory


suggests


that all


people


have


a capacity


trive


-fulfillment.


People


seek


become


their own


"real


self by


freeing


themselves


from


conditions


experi


ences


which


are limiting


stifling.


Needs


cordinq


to Ma


- ". .


(1954,


r r


80-92)


there


are five major needs


y








safety


needs


need


for organization


balance


free-


from


danger or


threat,


and a


preference


known


as oppose


the unknown.


belongingness


love


needs


Longing


and wanting


give affection


finding a


place within


one's social


group.


esteem nee


two major


category


need


feelings


achievement,


competence and


confidence,


need


prestige and


recognition


society.


need


elf-actuali


ation.


need


to strive


toward


potential


person.


Masl ow


(1948)


states


that


person


chooses


between


prior and


sequent


needs


ased


upon


fulfillment


successive


level


needs.


Relative


potency


need


influences


arrangement of


"higher"


"lower


" needs.


Higher


needs


have


certain


character


stics


which


stingui


them


from


lower


needs.


Higher n


eeds


are formed


later


life


are of


lesser


importance


better


survival


environmental


, require


condition


better emotional

for development.


health


Higher need


require


have


more


implication


irable


social


cons


sequences


and are


closer to


-actuali


zation


than


are lower n


, 1948)


Research


on s


-esteem


fourth


level


hierarchy


revealed


interesting


relations


hips


involving


sex role


(197


study


on cross


-sex identification


found


that


female


conformity


the male


stereotype meant


higher


self


-esteem


both men


and women.


an examination


-concept,


senkrantz


, Vogel


Bee, Broverman,








career-committed


profess


ional


women


had more


positive


self-concepts


than


homemakers.


These


tudie


reflect


the positive


relation


hips


role


flexibility


on s


-esteem.


-actuali


ation,


term originally


used by


Kurt


Gold


tein


(1939),


refers


a personal


growth


process


which


proceeds


after all


lower


need


have


been


sati


fied.


tudy


psychological


health


in which


subject


were


chosen


based


upon


utili


ation


their potential,


certain


qualities


emerged


as character


-actuali


people


, 1954,


200-208)


According


to Ma


these


character


stic


were:


Efficient


perception


reality


and more comfortable


relations


with


Acceptance of


self,


others,


nature.


spontaneity


Problem


centering


focu


outside


person)


quality


detachment;


need


privacy


Autonomy;

Continued


independence of


freshness


culture and environment.


apperception.


The mystic


experience


the oceanic


feeling


Gemeinschaft


IIgef
gefuhl


A feeling


hip with


human


race.


Interpersonal


relations


deeper


stronger)


The democratic


character


structure.


crimination


between means


(highly


ethical


moral


unconventional


definition


f riaht and wronac


. S









4. Creativeness.

5. Resistance to enculturation.

In addition to the positive characteristics, however, Maslow (1954)


also recogni


shortcomings and failings in the self-actuali


person:


They can be boring, stubborn,


irritating


They are by no


means


free from a rather


superficial


ity to their own productions,
Temper outbursts are not rare.


family,


vanity, pride, partial-
friends, and children.


these people are strong


but also they are independent of the opinions
they may become absentminded or humorles


of other people.
s and forget


their ordinary social


politen


not free of guilt, anxiety,


internal


strife, and conflict.


Self-actualizing people,


ess.


. these people are


sadness, self-castigation


228-229)


in summary


are generally characterized


by positive mental


health


, have resolved basic emotional needs,


feel


safe and unanxious


show love, and have a more "realistic"


view of the real world and themselves.


Self-actualizers, however, are


not immune to human imperfections.


Self-Actualization in the


Sexes


The individual


s capacity to


strive for self-actualization is


affected by both environmental


and intrapsychic conditions.


suppor-


tive and freeing family situation provides an excellent foundation for


maximum development of the person


It is difficult to determine


through research whether


self-actualizing people choose other


sel f-


actual i


riage


ing people as


encourage individual


mates or if certain conditions in existing mar-


in their own personal growth


Burke and Weir (1976) found little evidence to support the sug-
n ctinn that man wo rnnrih.utinn tn t-hir nAwn narcnnal nrnwfh









higher than


traditional


husbands


on the


inner-directedness,


existential


ity,


sel f-acceptance


cales


. Career orientation


women,


however,


was found to


strongly


related


high


sel f-concept


eemed


orientation


to be


related


to personal


promotion of


values


(Coun


self-actualization


el man,


through


1971).


studies


on differences


rates


-actualization


between


males


females


Schroeder,


1973)


showed


Another


females


tudy


score


(King,


higher


1974),


(Foulds


however,


& Warehime,


found


1971


no sex


differences


groups


of matched marriages.


King


concludes


that


these


results


support


suggestion


that


-actuali


zers


choose other


self-actuali


people e


as mates.


Several


couples.


studies


tudy


report


marital


rates


elf-


success


actualization


dual-careers,


for married


Slali


(1979)


found a


significant


relation


between


high


-actuali


nation


rate


success


of marriage


band


profe


ssional


women.


imims


(1979)


found significantly


higher


-actual i


ation


scores


androgynou


versus


traditional


wives


Marital


sati


faction


for tradi-


tional


wives,


however


, was significantly


higher


. Finally,


a group


very


happy"


marriages,


only


eight


subjects


were cons


idered


experiencing


actuali


ing marital


relation


hips"


(Hittle,


1979)


trong


(1980)


found


light


support


for the hypothe


that


-actual izing


university


student


were


less


willing


to partici-


pate


"gender


differentiated"


marriage.


These


students


were also


found


be willing


participate


in egalitarian marriages


FPPmC~


tn Pei


IV!pn~ -' .i I I


rPr atilnnchin nV


|


FP1 f-


rnncpncric


lul


I I|*"r


I









and wives,


positive


relation


between marital


success


factors


self-actuali


Measurement


zation


-Actualiz


puted


ation


The most


widely u


conceptual


assess


zation


ment of


-actua


personal

lization


growth


as defined


Everett


hostrom


Personal


Orientation


Inventory


(1964)


. Th


two major


scales


subs


cales


consists


of 150


pairs


two-choice


items.


revi


ew of


Lindamood


, 1975)


find


instrument


par-


ticularly


useful


counsel


ling


ychotherapeuti


setting


as a


point


departure


greater client


-awareness


self


exploration"


Another


inventory


signed


to measure


self-actualization


ents


and students


was developed


Jones


(1975)


Jones


-Actuali


items


zing


which


cal e


was found


correlated


test


with


scal


-retest


on the


reliability


POI.


a study


cons


truct


validation


Harder


(1969),


sampling


marri


ed women,


found


that


some


character


stics


(openness


adju


stment,


fullness


life)


support


-actuali


action


theoretical


formu-


lation.


Goodman


(1968)


states


that


need


hierarchy


face


validity


clearness


first


serious


attempt


at an


operational-


zation


hierarchy was


made


several


years


earlier


Porter


1961)


er and


uttle


(1972)


cite


plau


ability


two-l evel


erarchy


higher


lower needs


implying


that


lower


level


needs


must


satisfied


before


higher needs


become


important.


another measurement


hierarchy,


Mitchell


and Moudgil


(1976)









sample may


have


been


taken


from non


-self-actual i


people,


sample


did not meet


a definition


-actualization


studies


factor


serious


analytic


y qu


tudy


estion


Robert


concept of


Walton


need


and Mile


hierarchy


(1971 ),the


authors


ally


found

rived


that

need


their

category


factors


Hall


not conform

and Nougaim


to Ma


(1968)


low'


also


conceptu-

suggest


that


, as people mature,


different


needs


become


important


to them.


This


conceptual


ation,


which


implie


that


needs


emerge with


age or the


career development


process


variance with


idea


that


lower


need


must


fulfilled


before


advancing


to higher need


appears


that Mas


need


hierarchy


still


controversial


conceptually


valid


cons


truct.


tudi


however


which


indi-


cate


usefulness


-actualization


theory


psychological


research


counseling.


growth


-deficiency


theory


important


implications


research


on the


high


need,


self-actual i


zation


Marital


Adju


stment


The manner


affected


in which


roles


husband


that each


and wife


spouse


relate


assumes


to each


other


The detrimental


effect


incompatible e


however,


sex-role


spousa


behavior


acceptance of


in marriage may


change


oft


sex-role


en be minimi

attitudes.


Transition


and women


have come


assume


standard


accepted


behavior


relating


to the


performance


f certain


task


teinman


Fox,


1969)


Although


there


tion whether


cul inity-femi n i nity"


can be


mo c


In rodr


nfl ,


ctinnlo


.nn1~r


di~man


Svnl


Fthe-r -


I~*3 -. I' I .I .' Ii" -.I SI*( I -I s*


(frnncftnti -


r


|i


f 1i 1 j


r


I


Ik in









femininity


as independent


dimen


ions


"androgynous


as not


character-


ized


endorsement of


sex personality


character


scribing


relationship of


healthy


personality, Bern


states


society where


rigid


sex-rol


diffe


rentiation


already


outlived


utility


perhaps


androgynous


person


will


come


define


a more


human


standard


psychological


heal th"


. 162).


patterning


roles


maintained


external


forces


, society


at large


other


individual


psychological


forces.


Goode


(1960


eory


"role


strain


" states


that


an individual


s choices


shaped


bargain


" where


are organ


effort


made


reduce


arrangement


strain"


is both


carefully


conscious


allocating


subcon


energies


scious


skill


process.


as spouse


parent,


employee


proceed


through


cycles


(Ross


, 1968)


have


different


property


Anti


cipatory


preparatory


phase.


Honeymoon


early


establi


shment


phase.


Plateau.


steady


-state


phase.


engagement


. The


role


termination


phase.


Transition


periods


between


role


stages


characterized


poten-


sequilibrium and


problem


(1968)


find


other


potential


difficult


for men


women


to rol


assumption


parenthood.


an investigation


childrearing


Rossi


found


neither


sex was prepared


parental


because


demanded


greater


instrumental


focus


(action


and d


ion-making


-oriented)


mother


greater expressive


(affective-oriented)


focus








Five


ample


women


1964,


1970


(two),


1973,


1974 were


analyzed


to investigate


change


sex-


role attitudes


(Mason,


Czajka


Arber


, 1976)


Result


showed


harp decline


"proportion


women


believing


that maternal


employment


harmful


children


wel l-


being"


. 593)


Educational


attainment was


found


strongly


related


to women


sex-role


attitudes


with


S. higher education


more


recent


employment


experience


being


associated with


traditional


outlook


593)


There


married


some evidence of di

ingle college women.


fference


Married,


-perception


childless


college women


were compared


ingle


college women


on their


perception


female


sex role


(Rapoport,


Payne,


teinmann


, 1970)


Married


college women


differed


significantly


< .05)


on the


Inventory


Female


Values


from


single college women


perceiving


themselves


more


achieving


and on


perceiving


their


ideal


woman


to be


significantly more


-achieving


<.05)


. The authors


conclude


e married women,


having decided
children, were


regarding
growth an


having


remain n


femininity a
development


influence


already
college
ed by t


ecured a


instead


traditional


nd more concerned


outside of


with


family


band


f bearing
stereotypes
their personal
concept. (p.


Attitudes


women


and men.


Al though


there


is some


evidence


that


working mothers


see homemaking


as a


meaning


function


(Neysmith


1977)


other


research


indicates


that


"dual


allegiance"


to family


career


by working women


can be


success


. Gannon


Hendrickson


(1973


found


a survey


of 77


clerk


and office workers


that working


wives


with


strong


family


orientation


tend


to be


just


as job-committed


Thes









children


work


very


commitment


high work


the more


cormnitment


central


that


was i


higher the woman'


identity.


-concepts


career-onre


nted


non-career


-oriented women


(Birnbaum,


Counsel man


, 1971)


were


found


significantly


ferent.


women


were


given


Leary


Interpersonal


Check


Bill


Inde


Adju


stment


Values.


subjects


were


further


divided


into


groups


as either


areer-ori


nted


or non-career-oriented.


-career-oriented women


perceived


them


elves


significantly more


"doci l e-dependent"


<.01)


than


their


stereotype


a career woman


they


reported


career women


as more


"blunt-agg


ress


ive"


<.05)


than


their


ideal.


significant


difference


between


career-oriented


non-


career-


oriented


subjects


were


in self


-concept


<.01)


ideal


self-


concept


-ideal


screpancy


<.05)


early


study


(Morgan,


found


that a


woman


position


career


or non-career


not influence


self


erceptions


however


other r


esearc


(Ricely


Page


Rosenkrantz


1968


Howe,


found


signifi


relationships


between


-esteem


acceptance of


sex-


role


stereotypes.


Most of


these


sex-role


tudi


tended

women


to support

are related


theory


to higher


that masculine


character


self-esteem.


tudy


1974-


baccalaureate


graduate


conti


, 1978)


found


that


employed married women


were more


satis


field


(59 percent


very


sati


fied)


with


their


jobs


than


employed


single women


percent


very


sat-


fied).


author concludes


that


ing married


seems


exact


an independ


ent influence


, per-


t~~~ 4 S1 *


Be
*


*


I


1 r.,


i









as an alternative


importance


focus


negative


interest


features


, again minimizing
p. 16)


It ha


been


suggest


that


women


will


have


a stronger


labor


force


attack


hment


the future


(United


States


Council


Economic


Advi


sors


1978),


acceptance of


emerging


attitude


meeting


some


resi


tance


a sample


ychol ogy


Today


reader


Tavri


(1973)


found


that


, for men


belief


that


sex difference


are learned


inevitable


, religious


liberalism


political


liberalism were


related


support


Women


Liberation Movement


(WLM)


For women,


how-


ever


, life


events


scrimination with


work,


sexism,


difficulties


combining


work


and marriage)


most


influenced


their


attitude


toward


. Only


percent


sample was


determined


be threatened


by th


at the


oppo


ite extreme


an equally


small


proportion


was behaviorally


idealogi


call


galitarian


A larg


group of men


percent)


was term


by the


authors


as unliberatedd


liberal


These


were


men


"support


women


s liberation a


long


as i


somewhere


se"


. 196).


The authors


suggest


that


ckbone


WLM may


come


from


wives


group of men


because


matters


like


combining


homemaking,


child


care


are salient matter


for thi


ampl


well


-educat


women


attitudes


of manager


have


been


found


to be


affected


sex-rol


perceptions


. In


a study of


1974 manager


working


iness


indu


stry


Krusel 1


Alexander


(1971)


found


that


both men


women


"would


would


having mal


be uncomforta bl


with a


upervi


woman


sors


supervi


that


sor"


they them-


233)


. The








involve managers


in examining


their own


attitudes


toward


women


the work


situation;


regarding women,


orientation
situations


toward


where


heir
work


they


to look at


skills
; and


some


their


then


can interact


actual


dependability,


to put women
as equals.


data
their


and men
(p. 235)


Resear

commitment

research. h


on the


attitudes


to both work


however


of women


family


, is reported


on th


, in summary,


for women


relation


pos

hip


suggest

ible.


between


ts


that


Conflicting

career


tatus


(working


or non-working)


the woman


perception


of herself.


Some


investigations


point


a positive


relationship


between


career


orientation


itive


self-concept


while


other


investigation


find


no relation


between


career orientation


itive


self-


concept


instead of


choosing


concentrate


one's energies


on e


either the


family


or the


career


, certainly


one of


better personal


goal


must


to integrate work


family


life


ective


suggest


that men


or women


are more


suited


domestic


or employment


sphere


is much


too simple


stic


a view


to be


acceptable


in today


s society


. Both men


and women


vary


their


commitment t


work


family.


The h


strongly


husband' s


affec


acceptance of


success


the wife


the marital


s career

relation


been


ship.


found


Rapoport,


Rapoport and Thi


essen


(1974)


state


that


husband


orientation


"pivotal


integrating work


family


They


state


that


sharing


work


roles


inside


outside


home


contributes


greater enjoyment of


everyday


activities.


tudy


on work


commitment,


ey (197


found


a significant


relation


between


sati


faction


and marital


adju


stment


for mal









Other


studies


(Katz,


Goldston,


Cohen &


tucker,


1963;


Barry,


1970)


found


husband


played


an important


part


integrating the wife


working


role


into


the marriage


Barry,


review of marital


research


reveal


that


"healthy"


marriages


"those


in which


band


secure


enough


own identity


that


he can


supportive of hi


wife


effort


to find


herself


new role"


. 52)


Trust,


support,


a conciliatory


attitude


by the hu


band were


found


to settle


conflicts


more


readily


in marriages


with


working wives.


statement


Bailyn


(1970)


summary


importance of


hus-


band


s role


hese


marriages:


A hu
life


band


mode


crucial


integrating


for the


success


family
--at lea


and work


terms


of marl


satis


faction


career


--of


life.


any attempt
(p. 108)


wife


include


men with wives


entering


labor


force


have


not accepted


nstitutionali


ation


women


work


similar manner


Kaley


(1971)


found


that married


profess


ional


men held


negative


view


coping


ability


professional


married


women.


Men,


not women


, thought


that men were


superior to women


in s


upervi


sory


itions.


Huser


Grant


(1978)


found


that


husband


from dual


-career


family


scored


significantly


higher


than


husband


from


traditional


family


on the


scal


inner-


directedness


tential ity,


sel f-acceptance


. I


a final


tudy


on the


emotional


health


of men


married


to working women


(Booth,


1977)


husbands


with


employed wives


showed


fewer


stress


than


band


married


to women who


were


solely


ewives.









Inventory


Feminine


Values


that


daughters


"traditional"


expecta-


tion


parents


"homemaker"


occupational


interests


while daughters


"achievement"


expectation


parents


"career"


occupational


interest


A large


percentage of


& Angri


1970


working women


As tin


have


, 1969)


had mothers


sson


who worked


Cnernovet


(Alm-


Jone


(1977),


in another


tudy


of mate


employment,


found


that


androgynou


subjects


largest


proportion


working mothers


Astin

were more


(1969),

concern


in her

d with


research on


education


family

their


, found

sons be


that


cause


parents


man's


tatus


thought


to be


determined


"occupational


achievement"


woman


s status


is presumed


determined


other factor


as the


man she marries


home


children


. According


to A


woman


learn


early


her rol


that


of wi f


and mother


education


becomes


nted


toward


preparation.


Women


typi


ally


have


careers


which


are character


inter-


eruptions


for childbearing


childrearing


(Astin


, 1969).


These


breaks


in work may


result


from


conditions


husband


s career


Astin


states:


Her husband
important d


woman


marri


's education
eterminants


field
woman


a man in the


same


specialization


s career


field


havior


can oft


en main-


tain


having
young.


new interest


to take a
Therefore


rarri e


fiel


oss.


woman


and
76)


and keep
full-time


even


up with
job when


hort


new development


children


career


are not true withdrawal


they


necessa


rily


without


are very


terruption
from her s


repres


ent a talent


several


studies


have


examined


relation


ships


between


onal-


rm arVd


mmrnm +m~ n+


1O aa


Afcl n


1o a'c


ractiltef- nf


1r lo-


\r ~rlri


w









(reflected


citizen


tatus)


and mother


employment


status


signifi


cant


determinant


career


development of


women


" (p


study of m

non-working


maternal


college


employment (A

senior women


Itman


mothers


Grossman

were gi


, 1977),


ven


working


a battery


tests


to examine


future


life


plan


Daughters


of working mother


scored

mothers


significantly

on career or


higher


ientation


<.01)


High


than d

career


daughters


orientation


non-working

correlated


significantly


= .4


with


perceived maternal


sati


faction


the working


mothers


where


career orientation


correlated


nificantly


with


high


perceived maternal


sati


faction


non-working


mothers.


Barron


strength


"hedoni


senior


ale wa


coll


used


ege women


identify


(Gump,


high


Extreme


scores


standard


deviation


from


the mean)


women


were


obtain


these


were


examined


terms


future


plans


happi


ness.


High scorers were more


certain


future


plans


while


scorers


were more


uncertain


Even


though


high


scorers


higher


level


striving,


they


still


maintained


interest


in men and marriage.


finding


as means


indicate


ured


that women


Barron


who were more


strength


purpo


sive


cale were


resourceful


likely


to accept


traditional


woman


sex role


Almqui


t and


Angri


(1970),


in a


tudy which


attempted


theory


that


career


-oriented


women


turn


away


from


traditional


conforming,


"sociable


-oriented"


role


choose male-









oriented


women


had working mothers,


as compared


with


two-thirds


career-sa


years


lient women


to inve


tigate


Eyde


(1959)


relation


studied


between


seniors


work


alumnae


values,


five


background


factors


and women


s work motivation


Alumnae with


"masculine"


work


value


were


found


to be


high


work motivation


whereas


those with


minine


values


were


escribing


career


development


of both


men and


women


More-


land


(1979


suggests


several


psyc


hological


task


h must


accom-


trans


ition


periods


between


adole


science


entry


into


adult


world.


During


"Leaving


Family"


period


(Levinson


Darrow,


Klein


Levinson


McKee,


1976)


men and


women


receive


differ


ent mes


sages


from


significant


others.


Whereas


men are supported


their


efforts


establi


unique


identities


women


are prepared


both


stance


these


Lives


from


their


family


exchange


their


family


home


home


their


husband"


These


double


mes-


sages


likely


to create


probl


for women


terms


contradictory


expect


station


Other


potentially


diffi


cult


period


like


s trans-


ition"


can present


with


"productivity-oriented"


female


with


e-ori


For women


real


zation


that


soci


etal


role


are incons


stent


with


goals may


create


"low


self-worth


-directed


anger"


301).


Morel and


suggest


that


a greater


awareness


these


trans


itional


stages


accompanying


deve


lopmental


to b


encounter


both


men and


women


help


sens


itize


counsel


lors


to thi


normal


althy


process


choice


enter


a career


for women,


summary


been


found









strength,


"masculine"


work


values,


life


periods


were


hown


related


Wife


sex-role


Employment


problem


and Marital


both men


Adju


and women.


stment


Wherea


"happine


ss" i


marriage


refers


pleasure,


"adjustment"


connotes


balance,


ability,


an equal


weighting


various


marital


factor


Adju


stment


happiness


can co-exi


in marriage


as some


research


indi


cates


, adju


stment


happiness


can have


very


little


relation


hip.


reconciliation


work


with


family


life


becomes


more


impor


tant


as married


women


enter


labor


force


. Career


which


are demand-


create


greater


stress


for the


family which must accommodate


careers


instead


search


on the


relation


between


adjust-


ment


employment


should


examined


with


a clear


perspective of


date of


study


type


of marriage


(high


commitment or


com-


mitment)


Gover


(196


found


that


non-employed wive


higher marital


adju


stment


scores


than


employ


wive


cores


marital


adju


tment,


however


were


found


to b


greater


lower socioeconomic


groups.


Another


tudy


taines


, Pleck,


hepard


'Connor,


1978)


on working


non-working women


who were


given


a test on marital


adju


stment


found


significantly


lower marital


adju


stment


on "wi


hing


one had


married


someone


se" and


"having


thoughts


about


getting


a divorce"


with


only


working


group.


an early


working


tudy


on divorced


non-workina women.


Lock


happily married


and MacKeoranac


couple


(1949)


found


with


I i.


.. II









was not a major variabi


to be considered in accounting for adjustment


in marriage.


In another more recent study, Wright (1978)


with a


sur-


vey by the National Opinion Research Center for the years


found no

and house


1971-1976


significant differences in satisfaction between working women


wi


The author concludes that "working women enjoy getting


out and other benefits, but they pay for it in terms of a more hectic


pace and complicated life"


312).


The returned questionnaires of 71


couple pairs (Gross & Avery


1977) were analyzed to investigate the


relationship


between marital


satisfaction of husband and wife and employment


tatus of the wife.


Results


showed that wives were


less satisfied with the homemaking role


when their husbands state that they helped with the homemaking tasks


and child care.


Wives


of husbands with more conservative attitudes


were more satisfied with the homemaker job than wi


of husbands with


liberal


attitudes about the homemaking job


ship was found between wife


s marital


significant relation-


satisfaction and participation


of husband in homemaker tasks.


The combination of satisfaction with


the homemaker job and employment status


however


was related to wife's


marital


satisfaction.


In finding these interesting results the authors


remark:


Perhap


the most straightforward interpretation of the negative


relationship found between husband responsibility for homemaker


tasks and wife


there is


's satisfaction with the homemaker role is that
compunction for a husband to help his wife with


household chores when she enjoys doing them.


more


liberal


husbands are


wives of


likely to perceive themselves


as "just a housewife" and more readily find sources of


faction in other activities.


satis-


Wives of conservative husbands,


nn t+ho n+Hiar hnAr mat1 ,ai/ a mnrn rnne+r, ,nnAr mm A rl n H i









Husband


from


three


profess


ional


organizations,


profes


ional


engi


neers


, indu


trial


accountants


chartered


accountants


their wives


percent


working)


were


sent


two questionnaire


tudy the


relation-


between


wife


employment


tatus


and wife


sati


faction


performance,


husband'


sati


faction


performance


(Burke


Weir,


1976)


Working wive


very well


Compared


sewives


, working


wives


were more


likely


to value


communicating


with


their


husband


actually


communicated more with


their


husband


reported


better


mental


phys


well


-being,


marital


sati


faction,


less


job di


ssati


sfaction.


authors


conclude:


Thus


whatever


benefits


participation


whatever


accrue


the work


difficulties


force


husband


wife


experience


family


appear


with


from


to mitigate


arrangement.


to work


into


are actual


personal
an area


taking


status
they i


Thu
zing


growth


operations
step women


to the


in relation
increase their


some


appears
f their


fulfillment.


more


highly


may well
existing


-esteem.


feel


that
pers


wive
onal


S


elect


preferences


They


regarded


they


cultural


are moving


in our society.


are upgrading


values


their


thereby


an early


tudy


relation


ship


between


marital


adju


stment


income


marriages


with working


wives


Blood


Wolfe


(1960)


found marital


sati


sfaction


reported


employed


wives


was greater


than


>y non-employed


wives


when


their


husband


income was


research,


conducted


Detroit,


found


lower marital


sati


faction


in the


higher


income


group


y employed


wives.


study


suggest


some


positive


evaluation


of marriage


low-income


families


with work-


women


lower


evaluation


with


higher


-income


families


Conver


ely ,


(1961),


another


early


tudy,


found


that









educational


categories,


the differences in marital adjustment between


employed and non-employed were insignificant.


Marital


band


adjustment in marriages with working women from the hus-


perspective has been investigated by only a few researchers.


Married female teachers and their husbands were sample


ed to investigate


the relationships between job involvement and marital adjustment (Rid-


, 1973)


Results showed a significant relationship between job


satisfaction and marital adjustment for husbands.

relationship between job satisfaction and marital


A non-significant

adjustment was found


for wi


except when they had school


age children


Hopkins (1977),


found that


in a study of traditional and dual-career families,


salary and job satisfaction were positively related to mari-


adjustment for traditional


husbands and "time-related" career


variable


were positive


husbands.


ly related to marital adjustment for dual-career


study also found that the husband


evaluation of the


wife's satisfaction with the divi


of marital


sion of labor was the best predictor


adjustment


In another study on husband


s perceptions of the role of women


(Axelson


, 1963), husbands of working women expressed a more


liberal


view of the wife


Perceptions of the


s employment status than husbands of non-working women.


pouse


Most investigations of marital adjustment have been done on the


related sociological


factors.


psychological


factors, however


, hav


also been found to be important in the study of the marital


relation-


shin.


Marrianp than i


-t


affort0h hv hna h -th immmia*to nvi rnnmmnf nc -









In a


study on


stability of marriage,


Dean


(1966)


gave married


coup


Dean


Emotional


Maturity


Scale and


Scale of Marital


Adju


stment


to test


the hypothesis


itive


correlation


between


emotional


maturity of


partner


and marital


adju


stment.


The wife-


related


scores


hu s band


s emotional


maturity correlated


with


marital


adju


stment


. The


author


claimed


some


empirical


support


pro pos


ition


that


"emotional


maturity


related


to marital


adju


stment"


457)


private


social


agency


offering


counseling


services


were


searched


eston,


Peltz,


Mudd


scher,


to find


cases


where


both


spouses


taken


test


called


the Marriage


schedule,


con-


training


pers


onal ity


rating


a schedule


containing


information


about


engagement


period.


result


were


from


116 ca


counsel


post


maritally


cases


couns


eled


premaritally


authors


conclude


that


"The


tendency to


report


partner


similar


terms


stronger


the marriage


which


no evidence


poor


adju


stment


than


marriages


concerning


which we


have


evidence of


unhappiness


. Another


tudy


(Luckey,


1960)


also


found


that


congruence of


perception


in married


couples


was related


to marital


sati


faction.


factor


anal ysi


Interpers


onal


Check


tein


Glaudin


(1966)


found


very little


relation


between


pers


onality and


marital


ad.ju


tment.


women,


marital


adju


stment


was related


perception


husband


as dominant


and managerial


a kind


way,


perce


ption


them


elves


as trus


ting


unrebelliou


till









in the partners and to a


"rigid defense in always doing the right thing"


655).


Importance


of Needs


needs of each


spouse have also been found to be related to


marital adjustment.


In one study (Katz, Goldston


Cohen & Stucker,


1963)


for husbands


, it was found that an ability to interact effec-


tively with the spouse was related to how well


needs


were satisfied


in marriage.


This same relationship did not hold true for the wives.


In another study on marital


spousal


satisfaction,


"complementarity" of needs was


the theory of inter-


tested using the EPPS scores of


56 married couples (Katz,


Glucksberg & Krauss,


1960)


Five relation-


ships of EPPS scores were in contradiction to the theory of "compi


mentality" of needs and none were in support of it.


found that total


their own


tudy also


satisfaction among wives was positively related to


scores on Nurturance and Succorance on the EPP


Scanzoni


(1978) comment


on the manner in which traditional


"sex-role modern" women handle their needs in daily


When a dispute i


life:


over something that more directly affects


the woman herself (for example


autonomy or expressiveness),


resorts to individualistic bargaining strategies.
modern wives (with fewer children) who possess high
of intangible resources tend to bargain on the basi


vidualistic interests.


the goal


Sex-role


level


of indi


The traditional woman negotiates with


in view of group well-being and group


Her own interests are
If the family does wel
her. (p. 116)


submerged into those


does too


ol idarity


of the group.


and that satisfi


Family Health


A new focus for studying the family i


gaining the increasing









dimen


sons


healthy


family


functioning


are identified


from


a review


family


concepts


including


identity


proce


sses


, change


, information,


role


tructuring.


dimen


ions


are all


interl ocking


"based


upon


circular or mutual


cause


ality"


Barnhill


orientation


identifying


healthy


family


structure


represent


new and


positive


approach


to di


covering


what makes


families


work


effectively


Family


Working


Wive


increa


sing


participation


women


labor market mean


that


decreasing


people


number of


Accordingly,


career


jobs w

paths


ill


pursued


between


marriage


a larger

partners


number


more


difficult


coordinate


under


these


increa


ingly


competitive


con-


editions.


family will


escape


effect


these


changes


life


style


Impact


the working


wife


Lipman


-Bl umen


(1976)


suggest


that


a result


changing


sex role


there will


be more


ingle


parent


fami


lies


fathers


will


have


more


emotional


involvement


family,


sework


will


hared


husband


children,


exual


activity


will


commence


an earlier


age,


female


-headed


families


will


increase


women


will


entering


labor


force


increasing


numbers.


potential


opportunity


in the


redefining


sex role


both men


women


is suggest


Lipman-Bl umen


(1976)


Role


having


When
tive


often


are used


to confront


we step out
coloration;


as vulnerable


ject t
,*, .nt.n


special


as escape


thems


elves
those


our outer


iuman b
hurt,


-- r.nnm4 4 n,,


n -


'eings.
but w


hatche


role


shell


Wi
e al
*4


each


keep


other


we give


are gone


thout


fac


our s
e the


people


from


as individual


hell


poss


our protec-
we emerge
we are sub-


ibility


44-1Cr


1


fk I L









percentage of time spent with children and doing household tasks both


in the United States (Clark,


1977) and in Russia


(Dodge,


1966) ha


been


significantly influenced by the assumption of the working role by


the wife.


Rapoport, Rapoport and Thiessen (1974) suggest,


in a more


positive


view of role sharing


that couplel e


symmetry"


(sharing of work


roles


inside the home and outside the home) contributes to greater


enjoyment of everyday activities.


In integrating the activities and


roles


of married men and women


, Rapoport and Rapoport (1975) maintain


that the concept of equity has advantages over equality


"equity"


They define


as the fair allocation of both the opportunity and constraints


of marriage, while "equality,". in a somewhat more difficult application


to marriage, connotes the equal distribution of all marital


responsi-


abilities.


Turner (1971) hypothesizes that


substantive home activity


, in.a marriage with relatively low


as a result of work commitment by both hus-


band and wife, di


solution of marriage may be


easier.


Other research,


notable that of the Rapoports


(1969,


1971a


, 1971b), Hopkin


(1978),


user


and Grant (1978)


shows that work commitment by both husband and


wife can be accommodated by the marriage.


Berman


, Sacks, and Lief (1975), however


describe the two-


professional marriage as one in which


Underlying the overt illusion of an equal


covert traditional


and a more helpless,


'contract'


stance,


that i


dependent femal


tends to result from the wife


her underlying needs,


and her cultural a


relationship is a


s, a superior, strong mal


This early covert


early


self-image


assumptions, and i


supported by the underlying expectations of the man. (p.


246)









Woman


perceptions


begin


to change;


sees


herself f


as more


capable.


Woman


starts


difficulty with


see her husband


period


because


as a


co-worker


cannot


reassert


. The


band


himself


superior,


acceptance


of wife


possibly


perceived


as weakness


colleague


friend


Berman


(1975)


suggest


appropriateness


counseling


time:


in a


imagined


couples
upportive


need


an appropriate


pleting
that re


relatio
their
lations


can be
atmos


helped
phere o


more of
and mutua


student


coun


through
looking


these marriage
lly beneficial


neither member


years.
selling


these


can make


tran


i


their r
can stay


tion
eal


period
and


together


However,


developed
couples it


after


separation


many
com-


hoped
ess


tructive


they


can have


new partner


more


a more


understanding


real i


to fulfill


asses


or both,
sment of


with
their


he hope
needs and


them.


a study


working


wives


(Orden


Bradburn,


1969)


marital


happiness


both


partner


lower when


wife


was forced


to work.


husband


ceived


overall


negative


happiness


side


was s


the marriage


significantly


as greater


lower because


" The wife


per-


saw the


positive


side


marriage


decrease


significantly.


Clavan


(197


commenting


on family


structure,


suggest


several


implication


Woman


s Movement


family


utility


conjugal


family


system,


care


children


as a


full


-time


role,


subordinate


ition


woman


are all


ques


tioned.


Clavan


states


that


sexual


behavior


as independent


from


nstitutionali


family


new framework


can bring


important


changes


to the


family










alternative


lifestyles


from


experimentation,


family


disorgani


zation.


summary,


impact


that


working


women


will


have


on the


family,


future


, may


subs


tantial


becau


se more


and more


time


will


spent


away


from


the home.


Benefit


increasing


participation


wive


labor force


family


include


an increased


involve-


ment


band


in family


life,


greater


sharing


house


ehold


role


band


and more


economic


flexibility


because


second


income.


Poss


ible


detrimental


effects


from the wife


s working


include


an increase


mode


in single-parent


children,


families,


extreme


general

, family


lack


disorgani


norms


zation.


Husband


participation


ehold


role


Work


force


partici


pation


by women


is demanding


a greater


haring


dome


stic


response


ibili


ties


by men.


however


are not responding


to these


additional


in the


same


manner.


tudy


involving


families


with


non-working


women


Clark


(1977)


found


that


increases


husband


s work


time


reduced


significantly


band


haring


child


care


recreation.


Another


study


(Hopkins,


1978)


found


that


dual


-career


husbands


with


wives


high


com-


mitment


took


on more


household


chores


than


traditional


bands.


Finally


, two-profess


couple


were


interviewed


see i


there were


relation


hips


between


family


involvement


the home


continuous


similar


employment


history


(Weingarten


, 1978)


Re


sult


revealed


that


a more


equitable e


family work


distribution


was found


in the


con-


4I-
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I


1


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nmnlin


rl








Couples n
or uncons


"compen


work
work


they


their ma


negotiate with


ciou


ly take


action" for
out again,


include


culine


each
on the


their


hour


not always


asks


tatu


other


so that


child-care


away


cons


wives


task


from home,


cious


that


are


conscious


as a means


--so that
less there


husband


ateni


family
ng to


summary


Review of


Literature


The movement


women


into


labor force


as a


result


of better


educational


opportunities


freedom


from


time


consuming


household


chores,


spread


an egalitarian


ideology


having


repercus-


on family


life.


Both men


women


are having


to adapt


resulting


new life


tyle


created


changing


sex-role


attitudes.


literature


suggests


trend


increa


support


labor


force


participation


by women


Fewer women


believe


that


children


harmed


as a


result


of maternal


employment,


there


evidence


to indicate


that


women


can simultaneou


ly maintain


a work


commitment


a home


commitment.


Conflicting


research


reported


on the


relation


between


career


status


working


or non-working)


the woman


s perception


hers


Some


inve


tigation


indicate


no relationship


between


career


orientation


self


-concept


while others


point


a pos


itive


relation-


between


career


orientation


"masculine


character


" and


-concept


husband


itive


attitude


toward


working wife


been


found


to have


a po


itive


relation


hip with


integrating work


family


marriage


husband


of working


wive


seem


accept


dual


career


concept


better


than


traditional


bands.


are









mother


Other possible effects of the increase in participation of


women in the


labor force on the family may be:


(a) an increase


single-parent family


, (b) an increase in sharing and involvement in


household responsibilities including child care by men,


(c) an increase


in female-headed families,


(d) a general


lack of norms and model


children, and,

For women,


marit

ness


al


in its extreme (e) family disorganization.

the freedom to choose the work option is related to


happiness, while for men, one investigation found that happi-


increased in relation to satisfaction with work for family


oriented men but decreased for career oriented men.


Marital


happiness


in dual-career marriage has also been found to be positively related


to similarity of


spousal


needs and to change adaptability.


More married women with children are working, but family


working wives tend to be smaller


maternal


with


The theory of negative effects of


employment on children has not been supported by the recent


literature.


Investigations of the relationship between marital


adjustment and


wife career status have offered a variety of conclusions.


Many


studies


showed better marital adjustment for working women, but others found


the opposite to be true. Income has been seen to be both positively

and negatively related to marital adjustment.


Similarity of spousal


perception, husband


s emotional maturity,


and perceived husband's dominance of the relationship have been found


to be related to marital adjustment.


Other studies concluded that the


2k41 4s- nnf nnn enntes +n^ e,+4eCt, 4+kn; nanre nVn 4kn n+knmn ..r I1 ,4- A 4.,.,









is becoming


increa


ingly


easier for women


to move


into


the work


force.


Because


many


these


women


are married


or will


become married,


dual


-career marriage


is becoming


a popular


style.


The opportu

-confidence,


inity to


express


a career may


their creativity,


enable


develop


women


to develop


their potential,


at the


same


time,


contribute


income


to the


family unit.


Work


career,


however


, may


also


have


disadvantages


both


woman


family


resulting


from the


added


role


Entry


the wife


into


work


force


certainly


requires


entire


family


to make


life


tyle


changes.


Adju


stment


new sex rol


cause


identity


problem


both


husband


wife,


also may


cause


similar


difficulties


social


network


with


friend


family


. These


other


cons


iderations


dual


-career marriage make


vulnerable


tress.


Paralleling


growth


female


labor


force


over


quarter


a century,


another


important


social


phenomenon,


sometimes


referred


as the "Human


Potential


Movement,


" has


emerged


as a


domi-


nant


influence


on individual


development.


Abraham Ma


theory


personality,


which


postulate


human


need


as arranged


an ordered


hierarchy,


one approach


to thi


itive,


optimi


growth-


oriented movement


believed


that


essentially


"good"


inner


nature


Human


ople


development


uncovered


progresses


as th


from


seek


lower


to maximi


to higher need


their


based


potential


upon


sati


faction


successive


level


need


Self-


actualization,


"growth


need


, proceed


only


after


lower


*s a S I -


**


1 1


II I Ir I I


1


*


rl I rr 1









self-actual i


action


there


is some


evidence


that


self-actuali


zing


people


tend


to choose


other


self-actuali


zers


as mates


development


the whole


person mu


st certainly


one o


most


important


cons


ideration


counselors.


Development


potential


reaches


into


every


area


of life


as career


interest


creative


development


son,


love


relation


addition


to having


focu


on the


individual,


couns


elors


must


also


sens


itive


significant


love


relation


ship


their


clients.


Marriage


counselors


trainer


marriage


couns


el ors


must


concern


themselves


simultaneou


with


quality


marriage


ful


deve


lopment


each


in the


marriage


tudy will


help


answer


some


important


questions


concerning


relationship


between


sel f-actualization


and marital


adju


stment


the dual-career marriage.















CHAPTER


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


purpose


this


study was


to examine


elf-actual i


zation


relation


between


-actuali


zation


and marital


adju


tment


dual-career marriages.


onal


Orientation


Inventory


(POI)


hos-


trom,


1964),


based


upon


Abraham Ma


theory


-actuali


action,


was used


to determine


career marriage


differ


whether or not


significantly


individual


from each


selected


other


dual


n level


-actuali


zation.


short


demographic


stionnaire


(Appendix A)


was a


developed


which


included


Dyadic


Adju


stment


cale


(Appendix


relation-


hips


between


marital


adju


stment


selected


demographic


factor


self


-actuali


zation


were


inves


tigated


Women


graduate


from


Univer-


Florida


s profess


ional


school


s--medicine,


law,


doctoral


level


careers


graduates


were


--and


their


tudied


spouses


ensure


that


they were


dual


profe


-career marriages


ssional


were


obtained


in the


sample.


earch


tion


What


are the


level


self


-actualization


men versus


women


as means


ured


Pers


Orientation


Inventory


(P01)?


What


relationship


between


level


self-actuali


zation


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What are the relationships among "pair-total" self-actualization


scores for dual-career couples (grouped by high, medium, and low scoring

pairs) and marital adjustment?


What i


the relationship between couple


s disparity of self


actualization as measured by the POI


(defined as the difference in


husband and wife POI scores) and the marital adjustment of each partner


What are the relationships among demographic data,


tence and Inner Directed Support POI scal


Time Compe-


and marital adjustment


Population and Sample


The subjects in thi


study were derived from the alumni record


the University of Florida.


A random sample of women M.D.,


J.D., Ph.D.,


and Ed.D.


graduates


was selected from the records and asked to partici-


pate in the study (Appendix C).


To obtain a sample of dual-career marriages,


letters


the sample was mailed


asking the following questions:


Are you working in the career for which you prepared?


Are you married to another professional


person


(person in


a high-commitment career and advanced graduate study)


If the answers to both questions are YES, will


you and your


husband participate


in a


study by filling out two questionnaires (one


for each of you)


should take you


20-25


minutes to complete the


questionnaires.


The final


sample consisted of 50 couple


(100 individual


Each


dual-career couple in the sample met the following requirements:


Thp rniinlo wac mayrl -Fnr a minimum noF fhro vmarc


i.









order


for the


questionnaire


to have maximum


value, the


dual


-career marital


pattern


needed


to be e


established.


Three


years


marriage


to the


same


person


and working


four


year


high-


commitment


career were minimum criteria


tudie


have


hown


that


sampling


professional


women


graduates


is a success


to obtain


data


on dual


-career


couple


Poloma


Garland


study


(1971)


on profess


used


ionally


.D.,


M.D.


employed married


women


women.


graduate


women


their


their


study were


employed


at the


time


interview


which


were


conducted


respondents


' homes.


Both


husband


wife were


interviewed


imultaneous


separately,


to gather


data


on career


commitment


these marriage


another


tudy


labor


force


participation


women


(1967)


percent


return


rate


from


ample


National


Academy


Science


Astin


found


that


percent


sampled


women,


band


doctoral


degree


only


cent


sample was


husband


not a


college


graduate.


These


results


suggest


that


female


profess


ional


very


likely


to marry


another


profe


ssional


person


selection


procedure


expedited


obtaining


efficiently


large


sample.


Individual


studying


profe


ssional


school


Univer


Florida


represent


a very


broad


geographic


xture


student


review of


locations


graduate women


from the


Univer


Florida


from


years


shows


a minimum of


tate


District


Columbia


represented.


ince


these


students


-.5-..-'.-


-4 .lL,


1i


- -- --.2 1-. ... r .F.


. I


.. ~


u


L


i.


P1









of the eligible M.D.


graduates (66) were asked to participate


in the study.


In the group of eligible J.D


(253)


starting with the


first name, every other person was asked to participate.


In the group


of Ph.D. s


and Ed.D. s


(506), starting with the first name, every fourth


name was asked to participate.


Since an insufficient sample size was


obtained in the first mailing, a second mailing went to an alternate


list consisting of the J.D


. names not chosen in the first sample and,


in the Ph.D.


and Ed.D


. list, every fourth name starting with the second


eligible name.

Since the study required the couple to have been married for three


years and for each spouse to have worked in hi


her career for a mini-


mum of four years, only women who graduated before Spring,


their husbands were included in the sample.


1976, and


A postcard (Appendix


was enclosed with the original


letter to the sample group.


Couple


agreeing to participate were asked to fill out the card with their


names, addresses, and res

mailed to the researcher.


;pective professions.


card was then


The complete packet of material


consisting


of two POI


(Appendi


, two DASs,


two demographic questionnaires, consent form


, letter of instructions (Appendix F),


return envelope, and


card to request results of the study (Appendix G) was mailed to all


eligible participants.


Fifty couples


representing 62 percent of


those who were mailed the questionnaire, comprised the final


sample


group.
A follow-up telephone call was made to those respondents who
inr1id d their tflonhnnP nimhboc nn tho rot+norlnd rnrd (flnnondYiv -









couples


willing


to participate


return


packet were


contacted


y telephone


after


two weeks


remind


them to


send


back


completed


questionnaires.


Instrumentation


Personal


Orientation


Inventory


Everett


hostrom


, with


consultation


Abraham Ma


low,


developed


Personal


Orientation


Inventory


n 1962.


developed


to reflect


humani


view"


-actual i


indi-


vidual


as developing


their full


potential


, living


full


live


being


emotionally


healthy


scribing


POI,


hostrom


(1976)


tate


two-choice


reflect


significant


practice,


several
ow. Rie


comparative-


value judgement


are b


writers
sman, R


ased


in human


oger


on the


Perl


value


as seen


theoretical
psychology,


-judgement


item


by therapists
formulations
including


Individual


taking


test


select


one o


two statements


which


true


them


in each


item


cons


two major


cale


ubscales


t major


cal e


support


Ratio,


interpret

directed


in terms


"other


individual


-versus


are more


inner-directedness


autonomou


Inner-


are sel f-motivated


directed


respond

Ratio,


internalized


react


measures


principles


to external


degree


while


forces.


to which


other-directed


other major


person


orien


individual


scale, Tim

ted toward


e


present


able


to blend


past


future


into


a meaningful


con-


tinuity


-r -r


m


.1 r


.*










of Man


(Constructive)


Synergy, Acceptance of Aggression, and Capacity


Intimate Contact.


Shostrom (1964) chose the test items "because


they reflect value orientations which are commonly held and which are


held to be significant to one's approach to


In scoring the POI,


living"


Inner Directed Support and Time Competence,


the two basic


cales


are first scored.


The ten subscales which mea


sure other important elements of self-actualizing are scored separately.


In contrast to other diagnostic instrument


which primarily


assess


degree of pathology of the client,


the POI offers a relative measure of


the client's


mental


health.


This


approach can be more easily inter-


preted by the counselor in a positive manner due to the non-threatening


nature of items on the POI.


If the goal


of counseling i


progress


toward


self-actualization,


then the POI can provide a "point of depar-


ture" for the counseling process


The POI has been critically reviewed by several


authors and


research using the POI


is plentiful.


In a


tudy of the construct


validity of the POI, Knapp and Comrey (1973) found that the Emotional


Stability


scale on the Comrey Personality


Inventory (CPS) was signifi


cantly related to the


on the POI


Time Competence and Inner Directed Support scal


Results from the 84 college volunteers found that nine of


correlations were


significantly related at the


level


of accep-


tance.

counsel


In another study of validity (McClain,


levels of


Eleven of 14


1970), peer ratings of


self-actualization were correlated with POI

POI scales were significantly correlated for


-U IS UI Ur U


- aI U


- a a 4 *


* ~ I4 I ~*. llu -- -v C-a .. a.. III ..a I a 1J *


+. L








-Actualizing,


pontan


eity,


Acceptance


Aggression


scales


pre-


effectiveness


counsel


lors


' rol


silver


stein


(197


tudy


on the


reliability


, using


estimate


found


internal


cons


test


low to


moderate


ranging


from


-retest


reliability with


a one-week


time


lapse


was found


to b


with


range


(Klavetter


Mogar,


1967)


Lindamood


(1975)


a critical


review of


POI,


comment


that


two major


deficiency


test


are i


length


overlap


item


author


suggest


reduction


num-


ubscale


Validity


reliability


are reviewed


favorab


authors


report


that


attempts


"faking"


usually


result


n lower


scores


Higher


scores


obtained


from


ycho-


logically

socially


ophi


irabl


cated"


ways


subje


uently


ever


result


efforts

lower


respond

scores.


summary


can be


regarded


as a valid


reliable mea-


sure


of Ma


s self


-actuali


action


construct.


Although


immune


to imperfe


tions


found


most


personality


inventor


pro-


vides


a meaningful


measure


several


components


-actualization


addition


an overall


measure


-actuali


zation.


Dyadic


Adjustment


cale


Dyadi c


Adju


stment


panier


, 1976)


acknowl


a"proce


of marital


adju


stment


it mea


sures


dyadicc


adjust


y looking


process


only


specific


points


on the


continuum"


panier


deve


loped


after


reviewing


many


adjus


tment


inventories


with









which were to be included in the scale.


The four empirically derived


subscal


were:


dyadic satisfaction


dyadic cohesion, dyadic consen-


sus, and affectional expression.


Spanier (1976)


reports that the items determine the individual


"perception" of the adjustment of the relationship.


-item ques-


tionnaire was normed on 218 married working persons


in central


Pennsyl-


vania who were employed primarily in one of four industrial


or corporate


firms


Three judges evaluated the DAS for item validity.


items were


evaluated to determine if they were:


(a) rel


evant measures of dyadi


adjustment for contemporary relationships


, (b) consistent with earlier


work of Spani


er and Cole (1974)


, finding


satisfaction, cohesion, and


consensus as dyadi


components, and (c) carefully worded with fixed


choi


responses.


Criterion-related validity was investigated in an


administration to


18 married persons and 84 divorced persons


. Each


of the


items correlated significantly with marital


status


(the


divorced group differed from the married group


<.001).


Construct


validity was examined in a correlation between the Locke-Wallace


Marital Adjustment


and the DAS.


Correlation was found to be


for married respondents.


In an investigation of reliability,

a variant of the Kuder Richardson formula


internal


Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha,

. was used to measure the


consistency of the DAS.


The author states that the DAS is appropriate for research because:

For those wishina to use an overall measure of dvadic adiust-









range


cale


151,


with


higher


scores


denoting


better


marital


adjustment


cale


Reliability


Number of


Items


Dyadic

Dyadic


Dyadic


sensus


faction


Cohe


Affectional


Expre


cale

ubscale


cale


ssion


Dyadic


Adju


stment


cale


tionnaire


was attached


questionnaire.


The questionnaire


included


items


about


the marriage


about


several


aspects


career


development.


information


obtained


on the


questionnaire was


used


answer


question


about


both marital


adju


stment


self-


actual


zation.


Analys


of Data


A t-


test


was used


compare


level


sel f-actual i


action


on all


scales


for men


s versus


women


s scores


using


level


significance


as evidence


difference.


relationship


marital


adju


stment


self


-actualization


investigated


y correlating


scores


on the


to DA


ubscale


total


scores


. Thi


procedure


was applied


to all


subject


as a group.


inves


tigate


third


research


tion,


four marital


group


were


selected


on the


two criterion


cut-off


scores


high


a low)


criterion


cut-off


scores


were


determined


establi


ina nprrcntil


pe from t


aaa rPIaatet


(.1.


mpn and


women


scores


on the


I









third


group,


high


scores


were


in the


high


one-third


group.


first marital


group


consisted


couples


in which


both


spouses


cored


above


high


criterion


cut-off


on the POI;


second


group


consi


sted


couple


which


both


spouses


scored


mid-range


scores


third


group


cons


isted


couples


which


both spouses


cored


below


cut-off


on POI


scores


fourth


group


con-


listed


those


couple


not included


other three groups.


one of


a pair


cored


three


percentile


points


either


below or


above


cut-off


or lower


score


group,


spouse


spouse


score


with


was clearly


borderline


a member of


score


higher


was automatically


cons


idered


same


group


as the


one clearly


in the


group.


analy-


variance


procedure


was used


analyze


relation


ships


between


Time


Competence


Inner


Directed


support


total


score


using


couples


summed


scores


as a


measure


adju


tment.


inve


stigate


fourth


research


ques


tion


which


there


was a


sparity


Moment


couple


correlation


s sel


was used


-actuali


zation


on couple


scores


Inner


Directed


Pearson

Support


Product


Time


Competence


POI disparity


score


(calculated


subtracting


husband


score


from


wife


s score)


sum o


band


wife


total


score


each


couple


fifth


research


tion,


analyst


varl


ance was


used


demographic


data.


Total


Dyadic


Adju


stment,


Inner


Directed


support,


Time


Compete


ence were


dependent


variabi


using


scores


as a group.


i,', 4c4, ~4n r nI


h


C,,,~,,


F A* r~n









desire


to appear high


in marital


adjustment


defend


life-


ample


Univers


study was


of Florida


chosen


from


These graduate


alumni


their


spouses


records


repre-


some


profess


ional


school


which


limit


general i


ability


tudy


Couple


choose


not to participate may


also


result


study


This


study


investigated


couple


largely


residing


South,


since


represents


only


graduate


from


1950


to 1976


represents


only


one age group.


only married


dual


-career


couple


were


selected


sample


this


tudy was


limited


non-consideration


divorced


separated


couples.















CHAPTER IV

RESULTS

Results from the questionnaire yielded demographic and career-


related data about the sample group.


Forty-three subjects held either


Ph.D.s or Ed.D.s


subjects held J.D.s,


13 subjects held M.D. or D.D.S.


degr


ees,


nine subjects held master


degr


, one subject had an educa-


tional


specialist degree, and one subject had a bachelor


s degree in


engineering.


With the exception of the


1955-1959 time period


at least three


subjects


received their highest degree in every five-year period between


1950 and 1979


Seventy-six


members of the


sample


received their highest


degree in the last ten years


received it in the 1960


and three in


1950-1959 time period.


Seventy-nine subj


ects were in their first marriage, nineteen


sub-


jects had been married twice, and two subjects had been married three


or more times.


The time relationship between the


receipt of degree


and the date


of marriage to the current spouse i


shown in


Table 1.


Eighteen subjects received their highest degree at

before they were married to their current spouse.


least five years

Fourteen received


their highest degree between one and four years before marrying their


current spouse.


The group who received their degree between one year


before and one year after the


date of marriagewas composed of 15 sub-










Table


Relationsh
Date


ip of Receipt
of Marriage t


of Highest
Current S


Degree
pouse


Received Degree Number of Subjects


5 Years or More Before Marriage 18

1-4 Years Before Marriage 14

1 Year Before or After Marriage 15

1-4 Years After Marriage 24

5 Years or More After Marriage 29


Total 100


There


was a wide


range


repre


ented


sample.


Fourteen


subject


were


years


or older.


ixteen


subject


were


between


ages


large


group


however,


between


ages


only


nine


subjects


were


than


years


Table


repre


degree


career


satisfaction


ample.


Only


five


ssati


sfied"


four


"neutral


subjects


are repre


ented


ample.


large


number


ample were "very


satis


fied"


their


career


another


large


group


reported


that


they were


"sati


sfied"


their


career.


Length


f marriage


current


spouse


reported


n Table


Al~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~CnY 4-kn,.n& 1b *nnY nn u "lte9% rlii ,~,*


was


iYI i


nl~b, nlrn~


F"


-


I


''


IW


niin nr n3n hn


F '1U Irn~HF n


J-k R I


I l#


- <









Table


Career Satisfaction


Degree of Career Satisfaction


Number of Subjects


Very Satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied


No Answer


Total


Table


Length of Marriage to Current Spouse


Number of Years Married


Couples


Years

Years

Years


Years


13-15 Years

16-18 Years


19-21
an OA


Years


I r ,I ---









Table 4


shows


percentage of


time


subjects


devoted


to career and


family


table


hows,


greater than


percent allotment of


time


career was


indicated


only


one s


subject.


Fi fty


subject


, however,


responded with


career percentage greater


than


a family


percentage


equal


divi


career/family


time


commitment wa


indicated


percent


ample.


Only


nine


subjects


responded


with


greater


per-


centage


devoted


to family


time.


Table 4


Percentage


Time


Devoted


to Career


Family


Percentage of Time Percentage of Time um
Devoted to Family Devoted to Career


Response


2


Total


questionnaire


career they were


56 were


asked


Eight


establi i


hment


subjects


subject


tage


indicate what


were


stage


"exploration"


were


their


stage


"maintenance"


stage.


Table


responses


sample


to a


tion


on "reason


working


" Subject


were


asked to


indicate


their


first,


second, a









myself and family," second in number of


elections for first choice,


and "self-satisfaction and independence" dominated the category for

first reason for working.


Table 5

Reason for Working


RFirst Second Third
Reason for Working Choice Choice Choice


To Support Myself and Family 33 16 14

To Give my Family Extra Income 3 11 10

Self-Satisfaction and Independence 46 27 15

Achievement 8 34 32

Opportunity for Self-Development 10 12 28

Total 100 100 99


study was an inves


tigation of


self-actualization and the rela-


tionship between self-actualization and marital


career marriages.


Personal


adjustment in dual-


obtained by using the Dyadic Adjustment


cale (DAS)


The DA


attached to a questionnaire developed by the author.


In the


couple


summer of 1980, dat

1 husbands and wive


a were collected from 50 dual-career


in the sample group had been married


to each other for a minimum of three years and had been working in


Self-actualization data were obtained by using the


Orientation Inventory (POI) and marital adjustment data were









couples.


Fifty


-seven


couples


responded


out of


an original


85 who


volun-


teered


to participate


initial


mailing.


Seven


returned


question-


naires


were


eliminated


because


insufficient


information


or because


one spouse


chose


not to complete


the questionnaire.


final


sample


repre


ented


percent


those who


were mailed


questionnaires.


result


each


research question


are presented


cons


ecutively


Research


Question


What


are the


men versus
Orientation


level


women


as means


Inventory


ured


-actual i


ation


(POI)


order


test


significance


in mean


scores


for men


and women,


-tests


were


used


level


confidence wa


establi


shed


Twelv


scores


measuring


twelve


dimen


-actual i


action


were


derived


from the


POI.


mean


scores


on each


cale


both men


Means


women


on the


fell


scale


within


are not


one s


seen


standard


vary


deviation


from the


adult


adult


norms.


norm group


dual-career


sample


The

ented in


means


Table


standard de

significant


aviation


for men


differences


were


and women


found


are pre-

either


major


cale


or sub


cale


for men


versus


women.


Research


Question


What


relation


between


level


-actuali


and marital
Dyadic Adju


action


adjus
stment


as means


tment
Scale


ured


as means


ured


Pearson


r correlation


was used


to analyze


relation


between


individual


scores


Several


correlation


were


found


to be


significant


level


acceptance.


correlations


between


are s


hown


Table









Table 6

Means and Standard Deviations


on the POI


for Men and Women


Women Men
POI Scale Mean SD Mean SD p


Time Ratio

Support Ratio


Self-Actualizing Value

Existentiality


0.54


19.12


0.40


19.30


Feeling Reactivity


15.74


Spontaneity


Self-Regard


1.80


1f-Acceptance


15.60


16.10


Nature of Man
(Constructive)


11.96


Synergy


Acceptance of
Aggression


16.14


16.06


Capacity for
Contact


Intimate


16.80


3.03


16.18


3.43


< .05









Table 7

Correlations Between POI and DAS for All Subjects


Personal
Orientation
Inventory


Time Ratio

Support Ratio


Time Incompe-
tence


Dyadic
Consensus


-.197*

-.140


-.194*


Dyadic
Satis-
faction


-.119

.007


-.105


Cohesion


-.366*

.399*


-.339*


Affectional
Expres-
sion


-.050

-.162


-.064


Total
Dyadic
Adjustment
Scale


-.265*

-.239*


-.255*


Time Competence


.119


.300*


.062


.256*


Other Directed


Support


-.124


Inner Directed


Support


.196*


Self-Actualizing
Value


Existentiality

Feeling Reactivity

Spontaneity

Self-Regard

Self-Acceptance


Nature of Man
Constructive

Synergy


.194*


.082

.079

.226*

.264*

.154


.161

.136


.016


.090

.004

-.005

-.001

.052

.045


.056

.120


-.194


.343*


.223*

.240*

.198*

.275*

.160

.315*


.120

.126


-.234*


.193*


.262*


.292*

.079

.032

.105

.231*

.131


.183

.244*


.258*

.140

.114

.236*

.257*

.225*


.177

.192


Acceptance of
Aggression


.105


.058


.284


-.020


.160


Capacity for


Tn+ima-t-o Cnn+t+


Ai d


nFRn


947*~


-.390*


31F~+


1315(









the components of Time Ratio,

while the other component, Ti


Time Competence, was positively correlated


me Incompetence, was negatively related.


Time Ratio correlated


-.27 with DAS total


score at the


level of


nificance.


One of the components of


support Ratio, Inner Directed


support


positively correlated while the other component, Other Directed Support,


was negatively related


support Ratio correlated


-.24 with DAS total


score at the


.05 level


significance.


Dyadic Adjustment Scale total


score was also


significantly related


at the


.05 level of


significance to POI subscales including Self-


Actualizing Value, Existentiality, Spontaneity,


Acceptance, and Capacity for


1f-Regard,


Intimate Contact.


Major scal


and subscale


on the POI were significantly correlated


to DA


scores.


Time Ratio and its two components,


Time Competence and


Time Incompetence, were significantly related to DA


Dyadic Consensus


and Dyadi


Cohesion


subscales


at the .05 level of acceptance.


The Inner Directed and Other Directed Support components of the


support


Ratio POI scale were correlated


significantly to DAS Affec-


tional


Expression and Dyadic Cohesion


ubscal


Inner Directed Sup-


port correlated


.19 (p


<.05) with Dyadic Consensus DA


score.


Sup-


port Ratio correlated


-.40 (p


.0001) to the Dydadic Cohesion DAS


ubscale.


Several


subscal


correlated


significantly with DA


subscal


Self-Actualizing Value correlated at the


.05 level of significance with


nflIar4 r" Cnn rnn


IJJILI *t..I T .rZltt~*~ ri I rti LJn


FYnrpccinn. and fvsHir fnhpcinn


Fyi tfln-


I


I\ CCn~~; hn~l








Cohesion.


nificantly with


pontaneity


Dyadic


Capacity


sensus


Intimate


Affectional


Contact

Express


correlated


Synergy


correlated

While


< .01)


Nature of Man


with Affectional


subscale


Expres


ion.


not correlate


signifi-


cantly with


Dyadic


Adju


tment


or any


ubscales


Dyadic


faction


cale of


cons


picuou


no significant


correlation


with


cale


Research


Ques


tion


What


are the


elf-actualiz


couples
scoring


relation


action


(grouped


pair


among


scores
>y high,


and marital


"pair


total"


for dual-career


medium, and
adjustment?


Marital


groups


were


elected


on the


criterion


cut-off


scores o

Support,


in Inner


from


Directed


aggregate


support


Time


percentile


Competence.


scores


cut-off


Inner D

scores


directed

were


establi


shed


percentile


percentile


cut-off


score


and 9


between


Time


high


Competence


one cut-off


cut-off


score was


between


establi


percentile


scores


were


below


high


scores


were


above.


From


these


total


percentile


scores


marital


group


were


selected


. The marital


adju


stment


f these couple


was analyzed


analy


variance


using


um of


each


couple


scores.


Ten low


couples,


scoring


couple


couples


medium


that


were mixed


scoring


were


couple


found


high


on Inner


coring


Directed


Support


Time


Competence,


scoring,


high


scoring,


eight mi


couples


were


found.


or i









Table 8


Analysis of Variance Procedure on Marital Adjustment of
High, Medium, and Low Self-Actualizing Marital Groups


Degrees of Sums of FValue p
P0I Scale Freedom Squares alue


Inner Support 3 2902.65 1.76 .1704

Time Competence 2 2132.39 1.97 .1571


*D < .05


Research Question #4


What i


the relationship between couples


parity of self-actualization as measured by the
POI (defined as the difference in husband and
wife POI scores) and the marital adjustment of
each partner?


A Pearson Product Moment correlation was used to inv


estigate the


relationship between disparity in husband and wife Inner Directed Sup-


port and Time Competence POI

Dyadic Adjustment scores. T


cores and the sum of couples' total


he range of Inner Directed Support disparity


was from the wife scoring 37 points higher than the husband to the hus-


band scoring 31


points higher than the wife.


The range of Time Compe-


tence disparity was from the wife scoring


points higher than the


husband to the husband scoring seven points higher than the wife


Results found no


significant correlation


between Inner Directed


support and Time Competence disparity and Dyadic Adjustment.


Table 9


hows these findings.


Research Question #5


What are the relationships among demographic


data


, and Time Competence and Inner Directed


Support POI scal


and marital adjustment?









Table


Correlation


-Actuali


Between


ation


Disparity
Score and


of Hu


Dyadic


band and


Adju


Wife


stment


Correlation With
POI Scale Husband/Wife Disparity


Inner Directed Support -0.085 .56

Time Competence 0.073 .62


Analyses


variance were performed


on the


relation


among


data


on the demographic


questionnaire and


Inner


Directed


Support,


Time


Compe-


tence,


Dyadic


Adjustment.


table


these analyse


vari-


ance


can be


found


Appendix


Duncan


Multiple


Range


Test


com-


paring


group mean


was used


clarify


significant analyses


variance


significant


relation


ships


were


found


between


date of


receipt


degree


Dyadic


Adju


stment,


Inner


Directed Support,


Time


Compe-


tence.


These


relation


are s


hown


Tables


significant


relation


hip was


found


relation


between


Table


receipt of


hows


degree


relationship.


date of marriage,


Duncan


Dyadic


Multiple e


Adju


Range


tment.


Test,


Table


Dyadic


Adju


tment found


significant


difference


grouping


answer means


for the


first


response,


"received


degree


five


year


or more


before marriage.


significant


relationships


were


found


between marital


status


f .Y1~~ I.L. ab nr ~ 2- u f~rAn A 4. b~n ~f


,,,,:,~\


n; ,,,, A~


r


tnnnu


I rnnnw~


L


)mElni


Ir









Table


Duncan


s Multiple Range


Test for Dyadic Adjustment on "Relationship


Between Receipt of Degree" and Date of Marriage


Group
Answer N Mean Membership


5 Years or More
Before Marriage 18 118.33 A

1-4 Years After
Marriage 24 111.54 B

5 or More Years
After Marriage 29 109.83 B

1-4 Years Before
Marriage 14 108.43 B

1 Year Before or
After Marriage 15 107.87 B


Note:


The Duncan


s Multiple Range


Test was used to group the answers


into homogeneous
a subset are not


ubsets in which means of any two groups


significantly different at the


within


.05 level


acceptance.


No significant relationships were found between birthdate, and


Dyadic Adjustment,


Inner Directed


support and Time Competence.


Tables


, I, and J


how these results.


significant relationships were found between the number of


children in the family, and Dyadic Adjustment


Inner Directed Support


and Time Competence.


These results are shown by


Tabl


K, L, and M


A significant relationship wa


found between career satisfac-


tion and Dyadic Adjustment as shown in


Table D.


Table


shows the


grouping of mean


for the five answers.


The first four answers form








the "very


satisfied"


answer was


found


tinct


from the


"dis-


satisfied"


answer


terms


higher


dyadic


adju


tment


Table


Duncan


Multiple


Range


on Career


for Dyadic Adju
faction


tment


Group
Answer N Mean Membership


Very Satisfied 54 113.04 A

No Answer 2 112.00 B A

Satisfied 35 111.14 B A

Neutral 4 103.00 B A

Dissatisfied 5 99.60 B


significant


relation


was found


between


the mo


important


reason


for working


Inner


Directed


support


(Table


Table


grouping


means


five


answers.


four


answers


form


a homogeneous


subset


answers


form a


homogeneou


subse


Although


group overlap


fourth


answer,


"achievement"


answer was


found


to be


tinct


from


three


responses


terms


lower


Inner


Directed


support


significant


relation


were


found


length


time


between


marriages


Dyadic


Adju


stment,


Inner


Directed


Support


Time


Competence.


These


result


are s


hown


Table


significant


relation


hips


were


found


career/family









Table


Duncan


Multiple


Rang


Test


Inner Directed


Support


on R


eason


Working


Answer N Mean Merouhip


To Give My Family
Extra Income 3 93.67 A

Opportunity for
Self-Development 10 89.40 A

Self-Satisfaction
and Independence 46 88.09 A

To Support Myself
and My Family 33 84.76 B A

Achievement 8 78.25 B


significant


relation


ship was


found


between


career


stage


Dyadi


Adju


stment


(Tabi


Duncan'


Multiple


Range


Test


Dyadic


Adju


stment


on career


stage


found


grouping


mean


"maintenance


answer


to be


significantly


different


from


the means


remaining


answers.


Table


shows


these


results.








Table


Duncan


Multiple


Range Te;
on Career


Dyadic


Adjustment


tage


Answer N Mean MeGroship

Maintenance 34 117.21 A

Establishment 56 108.84 B

Slowing Down 2 106.00 B

Exploration 8 104.50 B















CHAPTER V

DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS

Discussion


One of the major questions addressed by this research was the


actualization of men and women in dual-career marriages


self-


as measured by


the Personal Orientation Inventory


. Although Slali


(1979)


investigated


how the relationships of professional women related to the self-


actualization of their husband


level


and Huser and Grant (1978)


self-actualization for dual-career versu


tudied


traditional


husbands and wives, no research was found which specifically examined


level


of self-actualization for dual-career husbands and wives.


possible explanation for the


dual-career marriage i


lack of research on human development in


the only recent rapid increase in the number of


dual-career marriages.


When the


levels of self-actualization between men and women in the


-career marriages were compared, no significant differences


were


found for either the major scales


or subscal


on the POI


These


results are parallel


to the conclusions reached by King (1974) that


self-actualizers choose other


self-actualizers as mates.


The findings


tend to contradict, however, at


least for dual-career women,


research in two studies


Foulds


and Warehime (1971),


in an investiga-


t+nn nf thn col f.-r+aiih1i72+inn nF man zndl wnmmn csihiort+c


-Fnlnrl thfa









from an


investigation


chroeder


(1973)


which


found,


when


elf-


actualization


scores


males


female


were compared,


that


females


scored


higher


on 1


cales.


Perhap


effort


balance


career


family


demand


dual-career marriage


requires


sacri


fice


personal


development


for women.


other


hand,


results


seem


support


premise


that


neither


sex 1


proportionately


advantaged


dual-career


marriage


in terms


personal


growth.


likely


that


haring


roles


family


provide


an equali


zation


role


strain


resulting


mutual


accommodation


for the


need


spouse.


pres


sure


conform


to societal


rol e


greater


in the


dual


-career


marriage.


capacity


however,


to absorb


pressure


seems


to be


greater.


There


research


indicate more


problems


ress


both


women


as a


group


and men


as a


group,


because


dual


-career


marriage.


Women


are experimenting


with


new careers


pro-


cess


they


are either maintaining


responsibilities


home


family


or attempting


hift


some


home


duties


to the


band.


husband,


however,


immune


problems.


He may


have


difficulty


understand-


wife


commitment


a career,


he may not


be willing


emotionally


accept


home


child


care


response


ibilitie


which


cons


iders


undignified


These


changing


role


affecting


per-


sonal


growth


husbands


and wive


se marriages.


study was


an attempt


to investigate


-%-u a I.,


Afisri


relation


-rmrQmr marian M


between


RPciut f


husband


c commr1d t


' and wives'


min-i


.


I I


s1. I









A significant relationship was found between POI Time Competence


scale and Total


Dyadic Adjustment.


In general,


the results


how a


nificant relationship between the tendency of the person to


marily in the present with awareness


adjustment.


live pri


and contact and high marital


It is possible that persons primarily oriented to the past


and future are unresponsive to marital


concerns because of emotional


investment in thinking of the past or in hope that conditions will change


in the future.


Perhaps individual


with the past and whose


current


who have fewer worries


living


connected


situation is stable are freer


to devote themselves


to their marriage


. Awareness of persons


living


in the present to the world around them and to the needs of others may

facilitate their sensitivity to the marriage.


The results also show a


significant correlation between scores on


the Inner Directed Support and Total Dyadic Adjustment.


subjects, being primarily independent and


Self-actualizing


self-supportive (Inner


Directed),


tend to perceive their relationship


as more adjusted.


explanation from these results i


that Inner Directed people are


concerned about their relationships


and, hence,


tend to assume it is


adjusted.


A more


likely explanation, however,


that Inner Directed


persons, being


less


supported by the views of others, are freer to


resolve conflicting i


issues and to take the initiative in solving mari-


concerns with the spouse.


Being


less


supported by the views of the


spouse,


the Inner


Directed person might not carefully weigh the advan-


tages of making a statement about a problem.


The Other Directed person,


6 lr n~lCni .nhnr k n4n nn n ~Cnn nri mnvl es* mn rrnnn $,nn '1bi e nabn *r n, rn4 I, nnn r 4-nnn\ +









oriented


fearful


risking


failure


(Rice,


1979,


trengthen


plaus


ibility


problem.


Conversely,


results


show


significantly negative


relation


between


Time


Incompetence


Other


support


scale


Total


Dyadic


Adju


tment.


From the


findings


on the


support and


Time


Competence


scales,


under


tandable


that


negative


relation


should


Lower


ratio


represent


greater time


incompetence


tendency to


"other"


directed.


These


relation


indicate


greater


tendency


lower


coring


subject


to deal


inadequately with


concerns


relation


hip.


Perhaps


their


greater


inve


stment


support


from others


inclination


live


past


or future


limits


their capacity


respond


to matters


daily


living


marital


dyad.


significant


correl ation


was found


between


-Actuali


zing


Value


Total


Dyadic


Adju


stment


. These


results


are parallel


to those


Slali


(1979)


found


that


high


self-actuali


zation


rates


were


related


to marital


success


husbands


profess


ional


women


self-


actual


person,


among


other


qualitie


been


character


having


deeper


stronger


interper


onal


relation


low,


1954,


. I


, indeed,


these


character


are inherent


self


actual


people,


well


-adjus


ted marital


relation


facili


tated.


pontaneity was


found


correlated


significantly to


Total


Dyadic


Adjustment.


Perhap


individual


have


capacity


freely


express


these


lves


spouse


are 1


inclined


to withhold


troubling


m~rif~


rmnrornc


flrct+n r+ 4nna


'


n F+an


vacil +*


frnm


inrnmnl+o mooc sn=









nonverbally


These


unexpressed message


from


spouse may


start a


series


interaction


marriage.


Clear


between


direct


husband

verbal


and wife which

communication


are harmful

can mitigate


against


formation


started


communication


pattern


A feeling


high


self-worth,


-Regard,


was found


corre-


lated


to Total


Dyadic


Adju


stment.


One could


argue


that


individual


with


high


-regard might


be l


ess


concerned with


quality


their


marriage


because


-centeredness


ess


concern


the wel


fare of


others.


more


likely,


however,


that


individual


with


better


feel ing


themselves


have more


-confidence,


more


faith


potential


others,


an overall


positive


attitude.


possi


that


feeling


high


sel f-worth


pervade


other


aspects


their


lives,


including


their


reported


perception


love


relation


ships.


p055


ible,


however,


that


feeling


of high


self-worth


times


blind


them


important


realities


their


lives.


-Acceptance


also


correlated


significantly with


Total


Dyadic


Adju


stment.


reas


enable


assume


that


individual


are high


self


-acceptance


under


tand


their


limitation


deal


with


others


nondefens


ively


and, hence,


facilitate


problem


olving


marriage.


final


subs


cal e


which


was found


to correlate


ignifi-


cantly


to Total


Dyadic Adjus


tment was Capacity for


Intimate


Contact.


Certainly,


likely


that


capacity


for good


intimate


relation-


related


to marital


adju


stment.


Knowing


that


one is accepted


and cared


another


person


contributes


to marital


adjus


tment.


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difficulty


encountered


dual-career


couples


accommodating


work


family


roles


marriage.


Perhap


dual-career


lifestyle


forces


couple


to communicate


to work


together


because


role


overlap


Dyadic


Cohesion


relation


ship


showing


high


significance


with


a POl


subscale


support


Ratio,


interesting


view of


ten-


dency


"other-directed"


persons


supported


view


other


result may


expl gained


itancy


"other


-directed"


individual


to be


independent


a tendency for


them


rely


on others


initiating


activity


These


result


fall


n line with


observa-


tions


Rice


(1979)


Moreover


relation


spouse
mitted


one partner


than


, feelings
spouse may


fee
is


is a grea
perceived


vulnerability


then


withdraw to


ter


degree


to b


can result.


a more


commitment


sent


The more


istant


one's
com-


comfort-


able


quently


emotional


feel


these


individual


relation


song


ship


level.


partner


-and


' being


committed


tance


-dance maneuvers


able


sense


tend
true


pouse will
perplexed


subse-


delay married


commitment


to the


only


scale


with


no significant


correlation


to the


was Dyadic


faction.


appears


from


results


that


elf-


actual


zers


are just


as apt


ssati


sfied


as they


are to


satis-


field


in their marriages.


Dual


-career marriages


likely


have


wide


range


of marital


sati


faction


comment


from one


subject


study may


suggest


reason


positive


significant


Dyadic


Cohe


sion


relations


lack


nifi


cant


Dyadic


faction


relation


ship with


cales.


husband


remarked,


will


make


it work


separation


not considered


Another


subject wrote .


I 'm married


hour


These


comments


w


cr u uu


u r.






86


Research Question #3 investigated the relationship between husband


and wife self-actualization disparity and dyadic adjustment.


between husband and wife self-actualization


Disparity


level was not found to be


significantly related to marital


that couples


adjustment


with a high self-actuali


These result


ing person and a


may indicate


low self-


actualizing person are not more


likely to experience poor marital


adjustment than marriages with two high or


self-actualizing indi-


vidual


Varying degrees of movement toward


self-actualization appar-


ently can be tolerated by the dual-career marriage


Given thi


general


perspective,


it i


not unreasonable to assume that a


large measure of


flexibility i


important for the healthy functioning of the marriage.


The dual


-career marriage may go through several major emotional


changes


when the wife interrupts her career to have a child or when work


demands come in conflict with family demands.

be better able to cope and adjust with change


Healthy marriages may


The difficulty in


balancing career and family demands with the heavy time commitments


required by each individual


forces the couple to be concerned that the


relationship is working out fairly for both.


The results may indicate


that differential growth of husband and wife can be tolerated by the

dual-career marriage.


Research Question #4


investigated "couple-level" self-actualization


rates and their relationship to dyadic adjustment.


The group in which


both husband and wife scored in the upper self-actualizing percentile

range did not have significantly higher marital adjustment than either


the medium or mnw nrnlun


Pprhran in marrianac whprp therm ic hinh









level


Even


though


there


ls a s


significant


relation


between


indi-


vidual


level


-actual i


action


dyadic


adju


stment


, similar


level


sel f-actual i


zation


couple


related


to dyadic


adju


tment.


These


results


are not d


similar to


those


of Hittle


(1979)


found


actualizingg marital


relation


among


only


eight


subjects


Both


who de


husband


cribed


their marriage


and wife


in the


as "very


happy.


dual-career marriage may


have


heightened


sense


importance


equity


relation


since


both


partners


feel


that


reward


sacrifice


should


fairly


stributed,


reasonable


that


both


husband


and wife may


adju


their


own level


personal


development


not adversely


affect


their


marital


stability


esult


here


suggest


that


marital


relation


hip with


two self


actual


zing


individual


S IS


not more


likely


adju


sted


than


relation


marriage


which


with


neither


-actuali


individual


zing


self


partners


-actuali


individual


zing.


concerns


Perhap


out-


weigh


marital


concerns.


These


results


might


interpreted


mean


that


-actual i


sons


have


negative


reaction


to the


pers


growth


partner


if thi


growth


perceived


as being


equal


or greater


than


their own


freedom


to develop


onally


restricted


sense


because


ambival ent


feeling


toward


growth,


marital


adju


stment


might


adversely


affected


Rice


(1979)


addresses


ssue


pertains


to the


wife


career:


wife


differential
to conflict.


rapid


advancement


growth


rates


S. wherever


can result


changing


there


perception


expectation


differential


, leading
growth on









with the ebb and flow of each partner's


life, -achieving new


understandings and adjustments where necessary.


interesting to note that this


73-74)


ame relationship does not hold


true for "individual"''


scores


as discussed in Research Question #2.


this


analysis,


sel f-actualization score


are significantly related to


dyadic adjustment for individuals.


Self-actualizing individual


have a greater reliance on their own view of the quality of their mar-


riage a


being well adjusted.


When couple


are stratified, however


into high, medium, and low


self-actualizing groups,


the analysis


reveal


that the


level


of self-actualization of the couple i


related to marital adjustment.

Several analyses of variance were performed on the relationships


among the demographic data, and Dyadic Adjustment


Inner Directed


port, and Time Competence


scales.


Although "date of receipt of degree"


did not


show any significant relationships with the dependent variable


the relationship between marriage date and "receipt of degree" did


show


a significant relationship.


Since the answer which differed


signifi


cantly was


finding i


"received degree five years or more before marriage," thi


not unreasonable in view of difficulties sometimes encountered


in starting professional


careers.


A certain amount of career stability


may provide a sound foundation for the formation of a marriage.


years, and in many cases in the


should be ample time to


Five


ample population more than five years,


establish a new career


It has been suggested by Bebbington


(1973) that the dual-career


marriage


may accommodate high


level


of stress


because


stress


is per-








bi rthdate,


number of


children,


number of


times


married,


Dyadic


Adju


stment,


Time


Competence


, and


Inner


Directed


support.


unreasonable


that


flexibility


dealing with


daily problems may


counteract


challenges


personal


growth


and marital


adju


tment.


potential


negative


effects


of life


events


be mitigated against


tolerance.


Several


career-


related demographic


question


significant


relation


with


Dyadic


Adju


tment and


Inner


Directed


support.


"very


sati


sfied"


answer


question


asking


respondent


to rate their


career


sati


faction


further evidence


to the


importance of


significant


relation


hips


between


itive


career


-rel ated


data


good


marital


adjus


tment.


Perhaps


there


spillover


effect


into


the mar-


riage


satisfying work


in a


career


A well


-adju


ted marriage may


have


similar


effect


on a


career


Two other career


questions


significant


rel ation


hips


with


Inner


Directed


support and


Dyadic


Adjustment.


The grouping


"achievement"


answer


as being


tinct


from


remaining


answers,


with


exception

with "ach


an overlap with


ievement"


one other


motivation may


answer,


receive


suggests

direction


that


individual


through


inter-


nal i


principal


Individual


form


dual


-career marriages


extremely


achievement


oriented


(Rapoport


Rapoport,


1969;


Rice,


1979),


particularly


their own


careers.


Perhaps


the goal


achievement


oriented


individual


must


reinforced


from


external


sources.


Achieve-


ment


personal


goal


as the


data


suggest,


does


seem to


supported


from within


person.


These


results


are parallel


to the









The final career-related variable which was related significantly


to Dyadic Adjustment was career stage


finding is consistent with


results which found higher adjustment for individuals who married at


least five years after receiving their highest degree.


of the uncertainty that coincide


the financial


Perhaps some


with the establishment of career and


stresses involved in starting a career have been mini-


mized by the group in the maintenance stage.

Dual-career marriage offers its participants the opportunity to


pursue two careers in one marriage.


The amount of time that husband


and wife divide between the marriage and the careers is a consideration


which may involve the quality of marriage.


The results of thi


tudy


how that the percentage of time devoted to family and career i


significantly related to marital adjustment.

to those of Gannon and Hendrickson (1973) and


These results are parallel

Safilios-Rothschild (1970)


who found that it was possible to have a


and family

individual


"dual


It is also possible, since this analysis


scores


-allegiance" to both work


was performed on


, that in some marriages there exists a balance of


career and family commitment contributing to marital adjustment which

is not revealed by this analysis.


The results of


each Question #5 showed that there were three


career-related factors from the questionnaire with a high degree of


relationship to marital


adjustment.


Establishing a career well


advance of marriage, considering one


career to be in the "maintenance"


stage, and being "very satisfied" in one's career all


tal adjustment.


related to mari-


These findings seem to suDDort the conclusion that.









Conclu


finding


this


study


lead


to the


concl u


that


couple


"joint


orientation


toward


-development


"indi


vidual"


orientation


to self


-development


which


relate


to marital


adju


ment.


not unreasonable


to conclude


from these


result t


that


vidual


development


plays


a greater


part


in higher marital


adju


tment


than


does


similarity


couple


development.


finding


suggest


that


what


response


ible


for the


different manner


which


"couple"


"individual"


self-actualization


level


relate


dyadic


adju


stment


can be


explained


perceived


personal

way they


growth

relate


-actualizing


to their marriage


persons

. The


their


personal


spouse


growth


to the


one part-


ner may


interpreted


as a


threat


to the


marriage


esult


from


ques


tionnaire


indicated


that


several


career


related


variable


related


to high marital


adjustment.


positive


relation


career


and marital


adju


stment might


interpreted


mean


that


there


is a s


pillover


relations


between


career


satisfaction


stability


in marriage.


reasonable


to conclude


that


posi


tive


experience


in one area


life


can be


reflected


other


areas.


dual-career marriage


, family


career


seem to


strongly


related.


From these


results


more


than


poss


ible


conclude


that


a stable


secure


family


situation


positively


influence


career development.


The increa


popularity


dual


-career marriage


dramatically


I i


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