Johnson's Crossing

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Material Information

Title:
Johnson's Crossing an institutional analysis of rural black community
Physical Description:
viii, 187 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Simmons, William J., 1937-
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
African Americans -- Social conditions   ( lcsh )
Sociology, Rural -- Florida -- Johnson's Crossing   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1981.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 180-186).
Statement of Responsibility:
by William J. Simmons.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000296327
notis - ABS2689
oclc - 08069822
System ID:
AA00002194:00001

Full Text















JOHNSON'S


CRO
OF


ING:
RURAL


AN IN
BLACK


STITUTIONAL
COMMUNITY


ANALYSIS


SIMMONS


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO
COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF


UNIVERSITY


THE GRADUATE
OF FLORIDA
REQUIREMENTS
PHILOSOPHY


OF FLORIDA


WILLIAM















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The


author wishes


to make


special mention of his


debt


following:


Joseph


Vandiver who constantly worried about


deadline dates


tion


and accuracy


this manuscript.


of information


Without him,


the work mo


prepara-

st likely


would not have been


finished on


time.


Gerald Leslie


suggesting


topic


this


study


and


for providing


direction


and


guidance


initial


stages.


Elizabeth


manuscript


Graham who


and make detailed


volunteered


criticisms


to proofread


the writing


style.


Thomas


author


Goodale whose


from wavering


encouragement


pursuit of


concern kept


Ph.D.


The


pressuring


various members


the author to either


graduate


finish


committee who


quickly


kept


or give


idea


ever


completing the work.


Felix Berardo who


insisted


that


author forget


timetable and produce


a work


of which


one


could


take


pride.


His words of wisdom will


ever


remembered when

















TABLE


OF CONTENTS


Page


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


S S S S S S S S S S S S S Sii


LIST

LIST


OF TABLES

OF FIGURES


* S

S S S S S S S S S S S S S 5


ABSTRACT


CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


S~ S S S S S S S S S S 1


Rural


Bla


ck Studi


John
Goal


son


s of


s Cro
this


ssing
Study


REVIEW


Earl


OF THE


Rura


LITERATURE .

1 Black Studi


Contemporary


Studi


S S S S S S S S S S22


III


COMMUNITY


ESTABLISHMENTS


S S S S S S 529


The Westside Community


Center


The Churches


and


Leader


ship


S S S S S S 532


Jackie


s Liquors


S S S S S S S S S S S 5 5 047


The Tree


S S S S S S S S S S S S S 549


Home


Appearance


S 0 5 5 5 5 5 S S S S 53


METHODS


OF COLLECTING


DATA


S S SS S S 55


Secondary


Sour


ces


Informant


Participant


The Que


FINDINGS


* S S S S S S S S55
* S S S S S SS 559


Observation


stionnaire


S S S S S S









CHAPTER


Page


SUMMARY


AND


CONCLUSIONS


. . . 133


APPENDIX


HISTORICAL


BACKGROUND


OF STUDY


AREA


. . 144


COMMUNITY


STUDY,


1978


S. . . 170


BIBLIOGRAPHY


S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S 180


BIOGRAPHICAL


SKETCH


S S S S S S S S S S S S 187















LIST OF TABLES


TABLE


Page


Structure of Households


in Johnson's


Crossing


Johnson'


Membership,
Head, of


Crossing


Family


Other than


Structure


Spouse


Extended Family


Children


Households


Number


of Years


Respondents


Lived


in Johnson'


Crossing


S S S S S S S S S S S 96


Black


Baptist


Denominations


United


States


1972


Years


of Schooling


Completed


Johnson'


Cro


ssing


Res


idents


Perceptions


of White Teacher


Attitudes


Concerning


Black Children


Income of Households


in Johnson's


Crossing
















LIST


OF FIGURES


FIGURE


Page


Maps


Johns on


and


Surrounding


Area


Putnam


County


Map


. . . 57


.I














Abstract
Council


Fulfillment


of Dissertation P
of the University


ese


nted


of Florida


the Requirements


to the Graduate


Partial
Degree o


of Philo


sophy


JOHN SON


CROSSING


INSTITUTIONAL


ANALYSIS


OF A RURAL


BLACK


COMMUNITY


William

August


Simmons


1981


Chairman:


Major


Joseph


Department:


. Vandiver
Sociology


Ph.D.


Johnson


s Crossing,


a small


Black


settlement


in North-


east


Florida


, has


survived


as a


community


in spite


of minimal


development


basic


institutions


that


are


inclusive


in the


concept


"community.


This


rese


arch,


in part,


was


undertaken


to determine


impact


those


institutions


upon


lives


residents


Johnson


s Crossing


The


four


stated


goals


research


were


pro-


vide


a descriptive


account


life


style


condition


of people


in a rural


Black


community,


to show


elements


that


bind


population


into


a sense


of community,


to determine


"coping"


mechanisms


employed


residents


in order


exis


t in


such


a setting,









The methods


employed


to obtain


the data


were


participant


observation,


the questionnaire,


the key


informant,


use of


secondary


sources


such as


public


library.


When


situation did not lend itself


to structure,


unstructured


interview


technique was


used.


findings


showed


that


there


were


two major


institu-


tions


interacting upon


residents,


thus


allowing


them


to identify


and


as a community.


church


These


, have been strong


institutions,


forces


family


the area since


1862


but at


this writing


show signs of weakening.


Although residents


Johnson's


Crossing


did not perceive


political


educational


in race relations,


changes


or indeed,


as reflecting marked


as having


affected


progress


their


routine


living very much,


they


did not


seem generally


particularly


angry


or militant.


Much


of Black America


lives


under


conditions


very


different


from


Contemporary


inner cities


research on


of metropolitan


variety


of Black


centers.


communities


is needed;


this


research


on one


such


community


represents


a modest start


in meeting


this


need.















CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


This


research describes


the way


life


of Black


Americans who


live


in a rural


area


of Northeast Florida.


is an account


of a specific


Black community


and will


act,


hoped,


a catalyst


to others


field


community


research.


As a prelude


credit should be


to presenting


given


rural


early


community


exponents


study,


rural


sociology.


They


are Liberty


Hyde


Bailey


Kenyon Leach


Butterfield,


both


graduates


the Michigan Agricultural


College


(now Michigan State


University).


Neither was


sociologist


traditional


sense


but


role


played


them in


the emergence of


rural


studies


did much


prepare


the way


this


new


area


research.


Bailey,


the early


1900's,


was


the most widely


known


figure


area


agriculture.


standing


most


prolific


agricultural


writer of his


time


gave


rise


to his


reputation.


Throughout his


lifetime,


idealized


farm


and


farmer.


He felt


that


"effectively"


educated men


women


should be


the ones


placed


the open


country,


as an


* I S


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Bailey


advocated


teaching


agriculture


public


schools


that


as a regular part of


curriculum should be based


curriculum and believed


life experiences


student.


thinking


had reference


simple


country


school


and his writings


helped


to set ideals


development of


rural


social


life.


Whereas


Bailey


referred


a herald of


sociology


(Nelson,


1969,


18) ,


Kenyon


Butterfield


took a more


pro-


fessional


approach


field


rural


sociology.


received a master's degree


University


of Michigan


1902,


and became an


instructor of


rural


sociology


1903,


first man


to hold


such a


position.


Butterfield


authored


four


books of which Chapters


Rural


Progress,


published


1908,


considered


the most


important.


In Chapters


in Rural


Progress,


attempted


define


"rural


problem.


" He was


convinced


that whereas


problem of


cities was


congestion,


problem of


rural


areas was


one of


isolation.


insisted


that


farmers were


"middle


class"


and


that


"class"


isolation was


part of


rural


problem.


stressed


the need


education,


organiza-


tion


and better


communication among


farm people.


As president


of Massachusetts


Agricultural


College


(1906-24)


urged


colleges


introduce courses


in rural


sociology


and agricultural


economics,


further


advocated


9 9


S -!,


A- -- -- - - n .1-. -J .L L.. -. A-. 1


,1


LL~L


^J


i


4








sociology


courses


at his


school.


In 1912,


the American


Academy


of Political and Social


Sciences


(March


1912) ,


wrote an article


subject of


rural


sociology


college discipline.


courses


represented a


serious


attempt


to describe


aspects of


rural


life,


which


students


today will


regard


as proper


subject matter.


Interestingly


enough,


spite of


influence of


two


great men


such


as Bailey


and Butterfield,


administrators


of agricultural


colleges


followed


their


suggestions.


was


teacher's


colleges


that


first


introduced


curricula


in rural


sociology.


It was only


after


introduction


other


social


areas


that rural


sociology


developed as


a college


discipline.


Rural


Black Studies


Studies


life


styles


and


conditions


rural


Black


Americans


have been relatively


few.


a sense,


DuBois'


classic


early work,


Souls


of Black Folk


(1903),


represented


initial


sociological


response


to Black


life


conditions


era.


rural


To DuBois,


South


native of New


following


slave


England and a


graduate of


Harvard University,


the conditions


life


endured by most


Black


people


in rural


Georgia


during


the closing


days








Despite


attention which


eloquence


this


of his


book brought


writing


young


personal


scholar,


DuBois'


account was


not


followed by


similar


analyses--or


protests--by


sociologists.


Not


until


1930 did


systematic


field


studies of Black


people


rural


South


get under-


way


These


studies will


be summarized


Chapter


will


become evident


that


chapter,


little


research


centering


on rural Black communities


been conducted


since


school


desegregation decision


influence of


1954.


the changes which


results


grew out


that decision,


the Civil


Rights


Movement of


late


1950's


and


early


1960's,


impact of more


recent Affirmative Action


governmental


procedure,


and


beginning


of return migration


of Blacks


to many


areas of


South--all


these


and many


other


factors


have


perhaps


changed


Black


situation


Southern


rural


communities.


It is


anticipated


that


increased


national


interest will become manifested


concerning


structures


predominantly


Black


communities


and


impact of


desegregation.


It is


hoped


that


this


report will


enhance


study


such


rural


complexes.


Johnson's


Crossing


Johnson's Crossing


located


in western Putnam County,








intersects with


a secondary


road,


SR C21


from Johnson.


Thus,


this


area is


This


identified as


community was


Johnson's


first


settled


Crossing

during


(figure


1860's


White


slaveholders


and a number


slaves


from


area


of Palatka,


the only


city


consequence


in Putnam County.


Johnson's Crossing


unincorporated and


is predominantly


Black,


containing


only


few White


families.


For purposes


this


research,


White


families


play no significant role.


Therefore,


references


concerning


residents will


include


only


the Black


population.


geographical


boundaries


community


Johnson's


Crossing


are Cowpens


Lake Road,


extending


east


one and


one-half miles


to Magnolia


Baptist Church;


North


on Cowpens


Lake


Road


one-half mile and


South


on Cowpens


Lake


Road


the Oak Grove area;


North on


SR C21


one mile and


South


on C21


one mile.


This


area


encloses


populace


designated as


local


residents


cons ensus


Johnson's Crossing.


and self-reporting,


residents,


know the boundaries


community.


Therefore,


there


no misunderstanding


local


people where Johnson's


Crossing


begins


ends.


Putnam County


community.


no official


Therefore,


accounting


county voting


population


records were


examined


approximate


the number


persons


area.


These


figures


proved


to be


unreliable


could not be


used.


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nFF: n:


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to Johnson's

county voting


Crossing,

records


are all

show this


listed


as Whitesville.


community


to be part of


The

two


voting


districts,


these


districts


there


were


listed


registered Democrats


Independents.


Because


the official


tally


of residents


did not


correlate


with


resident's


figures,


the decision was made


survey


each household


With


the designated


the director


community.


Westside Community


Action


Center,


a survey


form was


put


together.


Included


were


data


that could be


used


community


agency


reports,


well


as questionnaire and


census


information.


Seven


young


adults,

of the


trained by


center,


joined


researcher, as well

the researcher in a


director


door-to-door


canvass


the designated


community.


results


this


census will


seen


in a


later


chapter.


Goals


this


Study


This


research was


conducted with


four


goals


in mind.


first was


to provide a descriptive


condition of


cally,

little


all-Black

attention


Johnson


(1934,


people in a rural

communities in th


from scholar


1941) ,


wit


Charles


account of


Black

Unite

h the


life


community.

d States hav

exception of


Johnson,


Edwin R.


style


Histori-


e received

Charles


Embree

































In U


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r-i -




ao C I I I I 3t






f~- a
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= a -
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-r



-t
____________________________________________________








studied


Blacks


urban


areas


or small


towns.


Since


rural


areas,


with


their


own


unique


problems,


have


received


little


attention,


one


purposes


this


research


was


to understand


one


Black


community


and


role


American


society.


The second


goal


was


to show


elements


that


bind


population


into


a sense


community


spite


minimal


development


basic


institutions


community.


According


to Warren


(1963) ,


a community


exists


when


five


major


elements


are


present:


production-distribution--and


consumption


(economics),


socialization


(education),


social


control


(politics


social


participation


(religion),


and


mutual


support


(family).


These


institutions,


interacting


with


each


other


some


combination,


must


present


concept


of community.


This


research


reveals


institutions


that


are


present


and


effect


lack


of effect


inhabitants


Johnson


s Crossing.


There


are


"coping


mechanisms" that


are


employed


residents


Johnson


s Crossing


which


help


them


function


an area


Putnam


County


which


historically


been


neglected


social


and


community


services.


third


goal


was


describe


these


mechanisms


and


their


use


local


inhabi-


tants.


Finally,


this


research


reveals


attitudes


of Black


people


~t.. .~ r 1- --.I r n nt-.....


- n ,1 -


11


L" ~E,-l


L L- -








A Black


education major


knew


that


upon


graduation,


nothing


else was


found,


he/she


always


could


teach.


Desegregation


changed all


that,


and


the attitudes


parents


toward


White


teacher who


child are


revealed.


now had


Attitudes


responsibility


toward


educating


county-wide


employment and


job discrimination are


possible exclusion of


Blacks


also an area of


even


focus,


from service


and menial


labor jobs


as well


from


jobs


professions.


To rephrase


the goals


research as


succinctly


as possibly,


in a rural


broad


it is


Black


themes:


a study


community,


present


with particular


institutional


other


pattern of


focus


sources


living


four


of what-


ever


local


identity


found


to characterize


residents,


effects


the basic


institutions


upon


residents,


the methods


"coping"


with a


lack


services,


impact on


local


residents


of work and schooling


outside


community


and of


recent


changes


affecting


status


of American Black


people.















CHAPTER


REVIEW


OF THE


LITERATURE


this


review


literature


pertaining


rural


Black


Court


community,


decision


research


on school


studies


made


integration


before


are


termed


1954


early


Supreme


rural


studies


those


made


period


following


are


termed


contemporary


studies.


This


done


an effort


to determine


changes


have


occurred


d in


conditions


and/or


life-


styles


rural


Blacks


these


have


remained


essentially


same.


Early


Rural


Black


Studies


Carter


. Woodson


conducted


a study


Association


the Study


Negro


Life


and


History


entitled


Rural


Negro


(1930


basic


concern


was


plight


percent


of Black


Americans


who


then


lived


rural


areas


South.


He began


study


with


premise


that


Blacks


this


country


want


justice,


something


that


seemed


unattainable


conditions


until


under


White


which


people


they


knew


live.


more


In his


about


book


them


he made








tenancy,


industry.


evils


peonage


Woodson describes


system,


"pitiful"


Blacks


poor


food


wretched


living


conditions


people.


Blacks


were


subject


to many


serious


diseases.


In a comparison with


Whites who


lived


the same


area,


it was


found


that


Blacks


had a much higher mortality


rate.


Woodson


found


that


majority


of Blacks


lived


on small


farms,


yet only


one-fifth


these were owned


them.


rest of


acreage


they


tilled as


"croppers,


" share


tenants,


or on some other


tenancy


basis.


Woodson concluded


other


recreational


evils


and religious


that


South.


tenancy was


Woodson also


life


Blacks.


cause of most


looked at


surmises


that all


problems


of Black people


could


not be


blamed


landowners.


He delineated


shortcomings


religious


admitted,


experience of


was


people.


failure of


Part of


church


problem,


recognize


changing


times


and


to become


an influence on


younger


people.


In expressing the efforts


and obstacles of


Black


people


they


struggled


to advance,


Woodson


could


think


of no better word


than


"discouraging.


Charles


Johnson,


Edwin R.


Embree,


and Will


Alexander


conducted a


study


during


era


the New Deal.


This


research,


The Collapse


of Cotton


Tenancy


(1935)


was


a study


the cotton


culture


as practiced


in five of


"Old


South"


C4-n -nc


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r^Qnrn a


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Mlnr 4-


rn1 nn lnA


I


1


I








cotton belt.


They noted


that


there were many misconcep-


tions


by people when


they viewed


tenant


situation


involved Blacks.


tenants were Black.


Most people assumed


In fact


that


numbers of


the majority


sharecroppers


in Georgia


alone were


65,104


Black


and


81,75


White.


Rupert


Vance,


who


collaborated


this


study,


placed


number


tenant


families


cotton belt at


1,790,873.


this


number


1,091,944


were


White


688,839


were Black.


They


found


that


White


family


units were


larger


than Black


family


units


because of


high mortality


rates


among


Blacks


also


black


family


breakups.


A historical


check


revealed


that


after


Blacks


slavery,


this


new


White


kind


family


began


tenancy.


to compete with


From 1920-30,


White


tenant


farmers


increased by


200,000 while


the Blacks


experienced a


decrease of


,000.


report


three were


dealt with


delineated:


classes


renters who


tenants,


used


of which


land for


fixed rental


to be paid in


cash or


in equivalent


crop


values,


share


tenants who


furnish


their


own


farm equipment and


animals


and agree


to pay


fixed


percentage of


crops


they


raise,


and


share


croppers who


have everything


furnished


from them and who pay


a larger


share of


profits.


most


situations


tenancy,


landowners


kept


books


rarely


the


C


tenant come


out


A.


ahead.


It was


estimated


II


*LnA A a









conclusion of


this


report was


that


old plantation


type


farm organization,


pattern


in which


only


one crop


planted,


system of


tenure,


finance


production,


belonged


an unreclaimable


past.


These


practices


to be


changed


entirely


best


interests


area


system itself were


to escape collapse.


There


to be


reorganization of


farming


the Old South.


Unlike Johnson


et al.,


Arthur


Raper


conducted


study


in a


specific area


the south.


research,


Preface


to Peasantry:


A Tale of Two


Black


Counties


(1936) ,


focused


two Georgia


counties,


Macon and Greene.


These


counties


felt, were essentially


representative of


counties


along


the Black-belt which


stretched


from


Virginia


Texas.


Greene


county,


which


had been


devastated


boll


weevil


during


the early


twenties,


was


representative


older


began


counties


to be


lying near


tilled when


eastern


soil


coast.


eas


Macon


t began


county


fail.


Having


suffered


very


little


from boll


weevil


damage,


Macon


county


began


to reach


its peak in


the mid-twenties.


The author,


time


having


in both counties,


studied

provides


extensive


charts,


tables


periods


and photographs


which


leave


little doubt in anyone's mind


thoroughness


involved


study.


From


the data


gathered,


he concludes


that


collapse of


the plantation


economy


"preface









A summary


this


book


could be


reduced


this:


plantation


system,


whether


evolving


or declining,


exploiter


land and labor.


It reduces


the masses


of people,


Black


and White,


to poverty,


keeps


them in


ignorance,


destroys


The


them


system ultimately


slightest


drives


dream of


the more


a brighter


aggressive wage


future.


earner


away


from


soil.


The


families


that remain are


usually


unaccustomed


to community


leadership and


responsibility.


They


tend


to become


small


owners


and renters,


and develop


low standards


living.


The result


emergence of


permanent


peasant


class.


Charles


Johnson's


Growing


Black Belt:


Negro


Youth


the South


(1941) ,


was one of


several


studies


same


theme.


It is


a study


social


growth


and


development of Black


youth in


eight counties


Black


belt,


story


told by


youth


themselves.


More


than


2,000


Black youngsters were


studied.


Their


ages


ranged


from 1


and they were


Black population of the


representatives of


South.


youth were


rural


subjected


a series


of six tests,


five of which were devised


especially


study.


A smaller


number of


these were


selected


intensive


interview.


Johnson


found


that


lower


classes,


problems


were


those


related


to poverty,


economic deprivation,


poor


S S


,,








economic difficulties,


were more conscious of


the difficulties


concerning race


relations,


education,


marriage,


and of


social


relations within


Black


group.


study


found


that


schools


that were


provided


the education of Black youth were


inferior


grossly


inadequate.


The


pains


of harsh reality were


eased


somewhat


due


to the


belief


that education was


truly


the means


social


prestige


and economic escape.


Johnson,


like Woodson


(1930) ,


found


that


these


young


people did


not need


church


and religion as much


their


parents.


times


churches were


not responsive


therefore could not meet


more mobile Black


population.


the needs of


Facilities


the changing


less docile,


recreation were


few and,


in most


areas,


inadequate.


The


youth


usually


frequented


questionable establishments


amusement.


young people developed


a more


strict moral


code


toward


sex


than


their parents


tended more


toward a


stable


family


life.


They


did not necessarily want


identify with


Black


groups


or ethnicities.


them,


Black


or White


complexions


were


less


desirable


than brown or tan.


In Shadow of


the Plantation


(1934) ,


Johnson


conducted


a study


in Macon


County,


Alabama.


area


studied


contained


Black


families.


The


study


gives


historical background


showing


remnants


of slavery.


researcher


gives


an in-depth


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less


than


ten miles


from Tuskegee


and its


college,


it did not


benefit


from the


educational


opportunities


available.


This


study


shows


that


since


the Civil


War,


there


had been


very


little


change


in farming methods.


Black


families made


use


same


simple


tools


to grow cotton


as were


used


when


slavery


existed in


the county.


Because most of


them knew


little


else,


they


still


tried


to make


a living


on depleted


soil.


Blacks


usually moved


from farm


farm but


almost


always


within


the county.


Whereas


under


slavery the master was


looked


upon


guidance


and financial


backing,


landlord


had assumed


that position.


Johnson


observed


that


usual


custom of marriage and divorce


that applied


to White citizens


was


not


same


among


Blacks.


There was


no stigma


attached


unions without


legal


sanction or


to illegitimacy


of offspring.


A legal marriage


could be


terminated by


simply


writing


strip of


paper.


The diet of


the people


seemed more


limited


than when


slavery


existed.


Most subsisted


on a


diet of


salt pork,


corn


flour


bread,


and


sorghum molasses.


Few vegetables were


included


considered


the meals.

harmful. A


Milk was


Ls one would


scarce and

expect, t


"greens"


were


he mortality


rate


was


these


very


high.


people


sharecroppers,


to work


hard.


tenants,


Women and


field


children


hands,


were


S


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Two


significant


studies were conducted


during


decade


thirties.


Although


not


primarily


centering


on all-


Black


communities,


they nevertheless


had


impact


for rural


research investigators.


John Dollard's Caste


and Class


in a


Southern


Town


(1937)


s a


study which


gives


insight


into


relations


between


Black and White


groups.


community


called Southerntown


the book,


material


but is


in reality


results


Indianola,


of five months


Mississippi.


of residence


The

the


town.


The author


collected


life


histories


of Blacks,


held


interviews


with both Blacks


and Whites,


and


conducted personal


observations


their


behavior.


First,


author


describes


relationship


between


the caste


levels


two castes.


Then he discusses


gains


the White middle


class


regarding


economic advantages,


sex


relations,


prestige.


This,


as well


as caste


patterning


in religion,


politics


education,


attitudes


given as


of Blacks.


the background


An attempt was made at


explaining


explaining


aggression of

and Whites aa


Blacks


against Blacks,


ainst Blacks,


as well


Blacks

the d


against


defensive


Whites,

beliefs


White


caste.


the author


states,


"the


aim of


this


study


to group and describe


the emotional


structure which


runs


parallel


formal


structure


community"


(Dollard,


1937,


16) .


Usina


a different conceptual


aDDroach.


Hortense


Powder-








(1939)

analyze


used

the


techniques


same community


the cultural

, Indianola,


anthropologist

Mississippi.


"Cottonville,


" the name given


town


in her


study,


about


3000


people with an almost


equal


population


Blacks


and Whites.


The people of


this


town


adapted


themselves


best


they


could


the hardships


life


imposed by


factor


group relationships


based on


inequality


power,


social


position and privilege.


Miss


discusses


how the point of


Powdermaker


attitudes


view of


first shows


the modes


the dominant


Whites,


life


Whites.


operating through


reveals


their


preferred


legal,


economic,


and social


position,


checks


irritates


the Blacks.


also


shows


how violence,


partly


repression,


Lynching proved


threat of


to be


overt


erupts


the common


action by


Black


denominator


the Blacks


community


that


against


itself.


reduced


Whites.


author


sets


forth details


Black


life


town


plantation.


Details


the nature


the Black


family


Cottonville,


forces


that made


creation,


relative


ease


of di


integration


and


position


that


children


held within


it are


revealed.


Miss


Powdermaker


discusses


forms of Black


religion


the manner


in which


the more


fervent


forms


of Black worship


are matched by


practices of


certain


White groups.


Like


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with a


formal


statement about


Black


attitudes


toward


Whites


and a description


processes


important in determining the


of change which were


future of both Blacks


Whites.


A study was


conducted


in Natchez,


Missi


ssippi,


a city


that


time of


some


10,000


people,


of whom 50


percent were


Black.


The


study,


Deep


South


(1941)


dealt with


rela-


tionships


between


people


in the


city


surrounding


rural


population


(three-fourth of whom were


Black).


researchers,


Allison Davis


and Burleigh


Gardner,


used


Yankee City


class


scheme


that was


devised by W


. Lloyd Warner


that


famous


New England study.


Some of


researchers had


assisted in


Yankee City project


and were well


equipped


to employ


this


anthropological


approach.


investigations


were


carried out by


two married


couples,


one


Black


other White,


who


lived in


the area


years.


This


period of


time made


possible


the establishment


of rapport


community


identity,


enough


that


caste


and


class


charac-


teristics


could be easily


distinguishable


investigators.


The


factual


data


presented are


considered by


some critics


unrivaled


their


completeness


scientific objectivity.


A research study


undertaken by


Morton Rubin attempted


look at life


Black belt


area of


Alabama.


This


study,


Plantation


County


(1951)


, tried


to answer


the questions


what is


distinctive


about


life


plantation


area


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are


dynamic


ces


operating


plantation


area


today


as compared


changing


to earlier


social


years;


structure


had


and


what


effect


population


planta-


tion


area.


The


author


made


extensive


comparisons


contrasts


between


Black


community


White


community.


Although


study


styles,


was


was


not


directed


complete


exclusively


enough


give


toward


a basic


Black


under


life-


standing


of conditions


affecting


Blacks


plantation


communities.


The study

conditions whi


dealt


were


with


problems


causing


Blacks


changing economic

to emigrate from


area,


also


addressed


forces


which


tended


bring


people


back.


The


stratification


system


which


Rubin


termed


"race-caste"


was


given


much


attention


chapters


seven


eight.


He found


that


older


Blacks


were


acculturated


with


idea


that


Whites


were


superior,


that


they


resented


younger


Blacks


discussing


anything


diff


erent.


However,


with


coming


Farmers


Home


Administration


and


small


factories,


Blacks


were


beginning


see


that


there


existed


other


channels


improving


them-


selves


than


cropping


or serving


as domestics.


They


began


develop


indep


structure


endence

farms.


from

This


the

was


controllers of the

causing confusion


power


both


Blacks


and


Whites.


Rubin


says


that


forces


have


been


created


.. .








defined but


compromise


slow.


young


people of


plantation


area


will


have


examine


the old


ways


new ways with


clear


and analytic minds


order


to discover


that


goal


of a good life


they want and


desire"


205)


Throughout most of


theme,


these


studies


prevalence of poverty.


there


It is


a common


understandable


that


poor


rural


Blacks


suffered many


hardships,


so did most


the country


during


this


decade of


thirties.


However,


what


various


authors


were able


reveal


was


fact


that many


Blacks


saw no


hope,


future


themselves


under


existing


socio-political


systems.


A vestige


slave


system,


"separate


equal"


doctrine,


was


still


prevalent


in much of


the South.


It was


felt by


Blacks


that with


time


education,


inadequate


it was


things


would


get better.


Blacks


felt


that if


political


structure would


allow


equal


access


opportunity


into


education and economic


institutions,


shackles


poverty


and ignorance would be


loosened.


World


War


altered


the economic


status


a great


number


of rural


Black Americans


allowing them


fill


vacancies


that were created by men who went


to war.


migration


from the rural


South which had been


triggered


during


first


World


War


became greatly


accelerated.


Many


Blacks


moved


to urban


areas


the northern and


central states


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After


War


barriers


to education


began


falling.


year


1950,


Supreme


Court


decided


that


Marion


Sweatt,


graduate


state


student


student


university


Texas,


in Oklahoma


and


must


approximate


George


McLaurin,


be accepted


their


needs


major


study,


once


there


, must


treated


same


manner


as any


other


student.


In 1954,


a different


Supreme


Court


decided


its


Brown


Board


of Education


deci


sion


that


"separate


but


equal"


could


exist


and


barriers


to education


must


come


down.


decade


which


followed


, the


Civil


Rights


Movement


successfully


attacked


many


other


barriers


which


had


confronted


Blacks.


Did


removal


these


obstacles


change


dramatically


plight


of Blacks


rural


areas?


An attempt


will


be made


next


section


to deal


with


issue.


Contemporary


Studies


Hylan


Lewis


conducted


a study,


Blackways


Kent


(1955)


York,


South


Carolina,


a small


industrial


town.


Kent


was


invented


name


this


community


about


4,000


people.


Lewis


lived


Black


section


community


while


making


observations.


There,


he did


find


bittern


ess


over


frustrations


that


seemed


to characterize





--


m





Im










this


community


there were


those who were


"respectable"


others were were


"non-respectables.


respectable


were


the ones who


tried


to assimilate


the values and


cultural


standards


the dominant


White


population.


When writing,


the author uses


colorful


common


language


people,


yet does


in such a manner


as not be offensive


to the


population


studied.


For


example,


uses


term


"nigger,


" but when he does,


gives


more


reality


story.


Members


this community were


preoccupied with


ideas


sex


and drinking


just as


had been


found


other


communities.


Also


like other


communities,


they were


concerned


about every


problem of


the economy,


their personal


appearance,


and a


host


of other basic


issues.


It would not be


uncommon


to hear


local


recreation spot,


conversation with


themes


like


hard


times,


"rocking"


(receiving


unemployment


compensa-


tion),


hitting


the number,


the range


effectiveness


different


types


guns,


whether


certain


individuals would


prefer


use


a gun rather than a


knife during


a fight,


"run-ins"


with


police,


Blacks who


"run


the man with


everything


they


know,


" and whether wives


sweethearts


were


playing


around.


Lewis


says


that residents


believed


that


in spite of


problems


the community,


from


job shortage


poor









Lewis


also wrote


an article,


"Innovations


and


Trends


the Contemporary


Southern Negro Community"


(1954),


in which


looked


at both rural


and


urban Blacks.


found


variations


content and quality


of southern Blacks


to be


associated


with


subregions,


urban and rural residence,


socioeconomic


levels.


says


aware of


demographic,


that both


largely


and


Blacks


accepted


economic changes


and Whites were greatly


the ecological,


that were


industrial,


occurring.


Lewis


says


that


changes


rural


Black


culture were due


chiefly


immediate


pressures


leadership


change,


originating


in or


channeled


through


urban


southern Blacks.


The observation

were developing


is made


that more


between Blacks


and


impersonal


Whites


relationships

the distribution


of public


services


and rewards.


The author


observed that urban


residence


Blacks


South automatically


increased


their


status


and power,


although


spatial


and social


distances


between


recently


arrived and upwardly mobile


urban Black


and


the so-called


lower


class


Blacks were


probably


growing wider.


rural


Black was


increasingly


finding


that he could benefit


econom-


ically


by migrating


urban


areas.


With


time,


new,


increasingly


urban,


Southern Black


community was


becoming


more


like


Northern


urban Black


community


of a generation


or so earlier.









an All-Negro Community


in Oklahoma"


(1957).


community


was


the once


famous


Black


town,


Boley,


Oklahoma.


research was


designed


to show the


uniqueness


of Negroes


areas where


there was


no superordinate group


to be


faced


daily.


Contrary


to belief


that


studies


urban


areas


have


tended


to show the


"real"


Black


personality,


this


study


reveals


a different outlook.


These


kinds


of communities


permit


a multidirectional


development of


behavioral


forms,


and only


certain aspects


the area.


The


are


research


patterned


shows


after


that Blacks


White


, left alone,


culture


will


develop


same


democratic


ideals


the dominant


society.


The


research


suggests


that


it was


White


hostility


that


limited


the growth of


town


and after


a long


struggle,


residents


lost


their desire


to expand.


George Mitchell's


Somebody


Important


Young


Black


Voices


form Rural


Georgia


(1971)


notes


that


lifestyles


rural


Blacks


are


still


being


ignored.


This,


suggests


partly


because


the rural Black


poses


little


threat


to White


America.


To reveal


thinking


some young


Blacks


from


rural


South,


the author


interviewed


six youngsters


between


14-20 years


age.


their


own


words


they


describe


their


aspirations,


frustrations,


loves,


hates,


opinions,


uncertainties.


Concern of


problems


of racism and


poverty


are


usually


focused on


urban


ghetto which


leads


one









South,


represent no


threat,


but


their voices


need


be heard in order


America


understand


them as


human


beings with


unique


kinds


of problems.


Mitchell


Wall's


says


observation,


he wrote

"The ac


the book


ceptance--assumed


recognition of


acceptance


James

, not


just


reasoned


acceptance--of


Blacks


as human beings


essential


the overcoming


of a national


racism that


functions


primarily


because


Whites


have managed


to deny


the humanity


invisible


Blacks


their midst"


(Mitchell,


1971,


author


chose


Georgia' s


poverty-stricken Lower


Chattahoochee


Valley


in order


to write his


book.


subjects


live


in or near


four


small


towns


with


an average


population


about


2,000.


This


area


is recognized


as one


the most


poverty-stricken regions


the county.


nearest major


city


Columbus


and


subjects


live


thirty-five


to eighty-


five miles


away.


There


are


industries


the valley


very


families make


their


living


farming.


The major


contributors


the economy


are


peanuts


pulpwood.


The young people


the book were


paid


two dollars


hour


interviews


(much more


than


parents made),


and were


told


that


they would share in the


royalties


after


initial


expenses were deducted.


Having been


told


that


they


would be writing


a book about


themselves


gave


them a


feeling


that


they were


important


the country.


They willingly


-~~~~~I a .a'a*Ia


~I 1


-


ii 11


* 4


1 11 .


II I









rural


sion


poverty.


end.


"Black


Political


He makes,


leaves


Control


however,


this


no summary


reader


Greene


County


or conclu-


s judgments.


Alabama"


(1976


was


research


ed by


David


Coombs,


Alsikafi,


et al.

involves


It is


two-dimensional


a comparison


of Greene


research de

County, whi


sign which

ch has an all


Black


government


body


with


other


counties


that


not


have


Black


political


control.


report


compares


SOC10-


economic


data


state


Alabama


1970


with


data


three


counties.


also


compares


nonagricultural


wage


and


salary


employment


data


1969-70


1973-


as well


as Federal


grant


monies


received


dollars


from


1970-7


results


this


report


show


that


once


govern-


ment


became


Black


controlled,


there


was


more


rapid


expansion


compared


government


others;


employment


in Greene


a greater


flow


County


external


private


funding


Greene


County;


great


improvement


level


living


Blacks


Greene


County;


more


accommodating


agreements


both


Black


White


leaders


in a variety


of relation


sips.


indication


that


Federal


government


was


willing


pour


vast


amounts


of capital


into


this


region


social


political


climate


time.


How


long


this


will








"Utopia"


of self


government and are


able


to make accomplish-


ments


given


the chance.


theme of


few writings


economic deprivation


contemporary


can


authors


still


of rural


seen


Black


studies.


However,


little mention


is made of


education


problems


or concerns.


Although


these


studies


provide an


adequate basis


judge,


could be


that many


rural


Blacks


do not


view


education as


a key


issue


once was


case


or perhaps


the educational


systems


have


become


better


them.


The answers


cannot be


discovered here,


further


studies


on rural Blacks might


give


insight


into


problem


rural


education.

















CHAPTER


COMMUNITY


ESTABLISHMENTS


When


one


arrives


community


called


Johnson


Crossing,


nothing


out


ordinary


strikes


eye.


Noticeable


might


a few


homes


along


highway


and


a sign


pointing


way


town


Johnson.


However


, at


intersection


of Highways


and


C21,


there


a huge


tree


where


people


gather


almost


daily.


Across


street


store


that


sells


wine


beer.


The


men


usually


wander


to and


from


these


landmarks,


"tree"


Jackie


Liquors.


These


are


but


areas


selected


as observa-


tion


points


rese


archer.


Each


six


areas


of observa-


tion


will


be discussed


this


section.


The


Westside


Community


Center


The


Westside


Community


Center


located


one-quarter


mile


from


the Johnson


s intersection


on Highway


C21.


It is


a part


of what


once


was


Grove


Elementary


School,


newest


section


housing


center


time


researcher


S U S


I I
--- -I.--


-U


- 222 ~ --A- -- -J I- ~ -- ,


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r.


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LL


Lt


L


..3








McMeehin,


Florahome,


and parts


of Melrose.


home office


the county program was


in Palatka.


The


activities


the center varied


daily.


schedule


of activities was:


Monday


- Willing


Workers


Sewing Circle


Tuesday


Retired Citizens
Called Meetings


Open Sessions


Wednesday


- Senior Citizens


Volunteer


Program


Thursday


Friday


Voters


- Special


League Meeting


called meetings


Community


In addition


this


schedule,


local meetings


that


were


not scheduled


Outside,


the churches were


when weather permitted,


held


center.


young men would be


playing


the only


basketball


court


found


community.


the building,


classrooms


were set


"Operation Headstart.


While


not


under


supervision


center


itself,


program nevertheless


complemented


center


s activities.


people who will


perhaps


Here will be


follow the


found


example of


young


the older


adults


and remain as


The


Headstart


part of


program ha


the community.

d enrolled approximately


students


and


teachers,


both of whom were


from other


communities.


Ordinarily,


one would


expect


children of


rural


fami ips


fn he


1 1 C-'


tvmicai


St.erett-vne--overals -


hnooft s.









were


always


neat


in appearance


and well-groomed.


It seemed


that


the parents


took


great


pride


in preparing


their


children


each


day


. If


was


typical


Headstart


programs,


then


, at


least


this


could be


considered


a positive accom-


plishment.


teachers


apparently were


having


impact


upon


manners


building,


their


they


charges.


When


spoke


the children would


researcher


used


enter


title


"sir


Typical


was


"good morning,


sir"


"good


afternoon,


sir.


" The


researcher


reflected


that


this


a rarity


anywhere


today.


children were


fed hot meals


school


each


day,


prepared by


cafeteria


the center


some


was


offi


"best"


located between


ce.


cooks


county.


Headstart


On numerous occasions


classrooms


researcher,


while


sitting


the director's


office,


developed a


sudden


hunger


and would have


to visit


kitchen.


During the


kind


year,


of activity


the Community


that needed


Center was


to be held by


the hub


residents


Johnson


s Crossing.


Novice


political


groups


such as


Senior Citizens


Voters


League would meet


there


occasion


dictated.


researcher was present


occasions when


county


officials


were


brought


to address


residents on social


services


available


the community.










being


made


center


director


and


community


leaders


interest


young


adults


activities


their


community,


both


political


and


social.


The


Churches


Leadership


Throughout


history


Black


man


America,


church


played


a vital


role


in his


Soc


ialization


process.


The


American


society


, and


Christian


been


religion


"creation"


promulgated


advantage


of White


that


society


while


same


time


serving


an invi


sible


partner


in the


inhumane


treatment


of Blacks


this


country.


However,


was


Black


White


Chri


man


stian


who


taught


leaders.


Christian


Biased


was,


religion


learned


men


came


out


this


experience.


During


era


of slavery,


many


Black


freedmen


or freemen


used


their


knowledge


Christian


religion


to strike


hard


shackles


of slavery.


Nathani


el Paul


was


one


those


preachers.


In a speech


delivered


in 1827,


said,


"slavery


so contrary


laws


which


God


nature


laid


down


rule


action


which


conduct


man


to be regulated


towards


fellow


man


which


binds


him


love


neighbor


himself,


that


ever


, and


ever


will


meet


the decided








attempts


slaves


from


South.


Religious men,


Quakers


in particular,


to God's


raised


laws.


their voices


the Methodists


against


slavery


and Baptists


began


contrary


to add


this


increasing


chant


for manumis


sion,


stage was


for more protests


free


Black religious


leaders.


Abolitionists were


pressing


issue


freedom for


slaves


this


country


advocating


this


freedom from


the many pulpits.


Abolitionist


leaders were


slow,


however,


to accept


Black Churchmen.


In 1836 Abolitionists


voted


down


a move


to have


a Black minister preach


them.


1844,


the Methodists, at


time


representing


one body,


split


into


two


separate


organizations when Northern Church


leaders


declared


that a bishop could not


own slaves.


Political Activitism Following


the Civil


War


Black


preacher played


important


role


politics


immediately


following


the Civil


War.


area


politics


there were more ministers


and artisans


involved


than


some


other


social


institutions


affecting


lives


Blacks.


Twenty-two


Blacks


served


the Congress


from 1870


1901,


and of


them,


six were


lawyers,


and


three were


preachers.


The others were


skilled men in other


trades


and businesses.


Relying


on his


church


as his


political


base,


preacher


was


quite active


constitutional


conventions


elective









Bruce,


Boulder


both


later


elected


served


United States


for a while


Senate.


a member


Reverend


the Mississippi


legislature.


In 1879


Reverend James


Lynch,


a Methodist minister,


was


elected


Secretary


of State


in Mississippi.


Reverend


Christopher


Payne,


1896 was


elected as


first


Black


West


Virginia


legislature.


Many ministers


and organized


churches


became


concerned


with


the civil


rights


of Black


people


during


this


time.


They


advocated an


end


to discrimination,


segregation,


and racial


bigotry.


The


1872


General


Conference of


the A.M.E.


Church


passed several


resolutions.


One of


them read:


Resolved,


that we


hereby pray


that


the Congress


"Civil
by the


every


ways


United
Rights


Hon.


States,


Bill,


Charles


end that equal
American citizen


the nation


now


in session,


" now pending


Summer,


rights


pass t
offered


of Massachusetts,
may be awarded t


traveling


(Smith,


1968,


the high-
130).


Black


church membership grew rapidly


following


the Civil


War.


The Baptist Church by


500,000 members.


The A.M.E.


1870


grown


Church,


to more


which had


gone


than


underground


South during


the Civil


War,


emerged


and


expanded


membership greatly


in both


the North and South.


The A.M.E.


Zion


Church grew


from approximately


25,000


in 1860


200,000


in 1870.









full-time


pulpit and


sought


to administer


their


constituents


as best


they


could


from a


less


politically


active


position.


It was


not a


good


time


Blacks


in the


North or


South


to become


very


vocal.


In addition


fact


that racial


tolerance was


low point,


courts


criminal


justice


system seemed also


to be


against


Blacks.


Franklin Frazier


(1963,


noted


that


result of


elimination of Negroes


from the


political


life


the American


community,


Negro Church became


arena


their politcial


activities.


" The


political


activities


within


church


seemed


to have


fostered an activist


following


that


surfaced


again


during


era


New


Deal


carried


into


fifties.


During the Civil


Rights


struggle of


1950


1960


decades,


was


church,


in most


cities


of civil


strife,


which


was


forefront


protest movement.


Some


religious


leaders


used


the pulpit


to suggest a


link between


early


Jewish martyrs


and Black


people


(Cleage,


1969;


Dunston,


1974).


Not all


interpretation


history


and functioning


of Black

Church a


religious


s a force


851-852)


traditions

in inducing


perhaps


the most


have presented

social change.


famous of


Negro


Myrdal


those who


(1944,


saw


church


. often having


functioned


to provide


Black










did not


in any


important way


challenge


existing


system


economic


short,


and social


this view,


religion


domination


the classic


"opiate of


of Black

Marxian p


people"


people.


hrase describing


could


seen


applicable.


an influential


article written


the Civil


Rights


Movement was winding


down,


Gary T.


Marx


(1969


sought


interpret


role of


Black Church


that mass movement.


He concluded


that


there were


indeed


types


of co-existing


religiosity


the contemporary


religious


traditions


Black


activity

other,


people.


however,


One of

social a


these did


activism in


had been


very


tend


to substitute


an escapist


important


fashion.

the Civil


religious

The

Rights


Movement,


fostered


the dedication


those


large


numbers


of Black


people


who


struggled


to bring


about


change.


Other


Blacks


have


stressed


that


the church


can


no longer


move


"innocently"


through history without being


accountable


(Boesah,


1977).


There are writers


theologians


who express


view that


church and religion


always


been


core of protest


(Cone,


1969;


Herzog,


1972;


Johnson,


1971;


Jones,


1971) .


King


(1967)


tried


to show


that


church


religion


plays


a significant


role in


determining whether


Black


arena


develops


a community


or erupts


in chaos.


Frazier


(1963,


P-,. a


says


"for


the Necro masses


. the











The Churches of


Crossing


A number


of viewpoints


role


Black


church


and Black


preachers


have been


printed


in recent


years.


However,


problem of


church and


social


change


as has


been


delineated


by much


this writing


does


seem


apply

church


to Johnson's

es in this c


Crossing.


community


There


and all


are three organized

are of the Baptist denom-


nation.


said


that


they


are


the outgrowth


original


Gilgal


Baptist


Church.


A brief


discussion of


each


these


churches


is necessary


here.


Gilgal Baptist


Church


Gilgal


the oldest


three


churches,


having


been


founded by


slaves


1863.


The original


name


church


was


"Bush Harbor.


The original


location was


alongside


lake


opposite


side of


SR 20.


Bush Harbor


burned


down


mysteriously


back in


1868


and was


relocated


at its


present


site


away


from the


lake


and renamed


Gilgal.


It is


generally


recognized


that


first baptism and ordinations were


performed by


a White Baptist Minister.


He was


Pastor


Eliam Baptist Church


Timmons,


located in


pastor,


present


recognized


day Melrose,


the need


Florida.


Negroes


to have


their


own


organized church,


so he performed


a .9 a


Johnson' s


rFI









members


have


left


community


various


reasons,


they


return


from


away


as Jacksonville,


Florida,


70 miles


away,


third


Sunday


each


month.


This


that


seem


services


take


are


this


held


time


at Gilgal.


reunion


The


with


members


friends


visitors


relative


es.


founder


church

s and


family


can

their


members


be found

families


could


the 1

are

seen


local cemetery.

buried there.


wandering


The

After


through


original

service


tomb-


stones


and


headstones


pointing


places


were


relatives


are


buried


They


are


proud


church


and


their


heritage.


Gilgal,


during


time


this


writing,


youngest


ministers


area.


was


seminary


trained,


he had


a way


delivering


sermons


in the style


modern


Black


preachers.


Harry


. Richardson


1966


stated


"Recent


figures


show


that


only


one


fifteen


men


entering


minister


seminary


training.


other


words,


92 percent


men


entering


Negro


minister


each


year


are


professionally


unprepared.


minister


did


not


"whoop"


and


"holler,


" the


old


style


which


consisted


jumping,


shouting,


and


screaming


to incite


audience.


chose,


rather,


open


sermons


with


a song


delivered


him


and


would


talk


about


esent


-day


living


how


survive


today


s world.


This


delivery


differed


from


Frazier


s (1949)


assertion


that


Black


church


seems


to be









Usually,


after


the minister


has delivered


the message


and given


invitation


to join,


a deacon will


stand


up and


start one of


songs


that bring back memories of


that


"ole


time religion.


These


songs


reach back


the days


slavery when most of


slaves


only


going


home,


death,


and


resurrection


look


to for


their


future.


such


song


sung


frequently


this


church


says:


I mus '


tell


Jesus


troubles


cannot bear


these burdens


alone


I mus
Jesus


' tell


Jesus,


xmas'


can help me Jesus


tell


Jesus


alon


A favorite


song


of one of


the older deacons


says:


wanna
wanna
wanna


where Jesus


where


Jesus


where Jesus


Dats


' de


reason


wanna


go--I


wanna


Meet my mother over


Meet my mother
Meet my mother


over
over


there,
there,
there,


where Jesus
where Jesus
where Jesus


Dats


' de


reason,


wanna


go--I


wanna


Usually,


this


song


brings


about a


lot of hand


clapping


and


shouting by


audience.


the Deacon is


particularly


active and moves


among the


people


or crosses


in front


putpit,


the audience


tends


to rise and move with


rhythm


the beat.


Sometimes


this


kind of


singing might


go on


20 minutes,


depending upon


number of


people who


are


faintina


or shouting.


On a


civen


LJ


undav when


the minister










are


warmed


and


ready


receive


"Holy


Ghost.


Preaching


this


point


entirely


different


than


written


script.


is when


"reaches


back


raises


mother


from


dead.


Usually


this


takes


form


talking


about


mothe r


being


gone


or father


being


gone


a mother,


that


land


Come


time
that


time,
I'll
land,


I'll


shake


mee


hand


that


Oh Lord,


where


land


m bound.


When


services


are


over


Sunday


that


preacher


joins


with


deacons


and


shouts,


then


people


that


spirit


was


church.


Although


they


may


remember


what


was


said,


they


can


relate


action


that


took


place.


When


service


dismisses,


people


usually


linger


around


church


to speak


with


people


that


they


might


see


another


month


or to shake


hands


with


minister


who


is not


a full-time


pastor


this


church


service


another


as well.


The


minister,


not


being


a permanent


resident


community,


does


not


show


political


inclination


while


pulpit


Whether


it is


because


members,


like


some


rural


Black


churches,


don


t believe


their


pastors


being


politicians,


or unconcern


part


pastor,


this


researcher


was


unable


to discern.


However,


this


nonpolitical


r I -~ -


I 1.. .- -


-.-..


* 1


r


b


1








Mount


Bethel


Baptist


Church


at Edgars


second church


established


community was


named


Mount Bethel.


some


reason


that no one


been able


explain, it is


called Mount Bethel


Baptist Church


Edgars.


Edgars


a small


community


approximately


four miles


away.


church


actually


the old


Oak Grove Elementary


school


mile


area,


from the


residents


near


Westside Community


intersection of


prefer


to call


SR 20


church


Center,


and C21.


Grove


one-fourth


Some of


because of


location.


The


researcher


chose


to do


same;


hence


throughout


this work,


it shall


be referred


to as Oak


Grove


Baptist


Church.


Grove


Baptist


Church was


begun


1887.


Some of


older residents


families


Gilgal


started


result


Baptist Church.


of problems


If one could


between

that


a church had


"class,


" Oak


Grove


Baptist would be


cons


idered


church


community.


that was


Services


"classiest"


are held


three


second and


this


fourth


Sunday


of each month and sometimes


a fifth Sunday.


same


people who


supported


Gilgal


third


Sunday,


support


Oak


Grove


Baptist


second and


fourth


Sunday.


may


There


are a


not be members


few exceptions.


of Oak


Grove,


The Gilgal members


they participate


actively


services.


They may


serve on


Usher


Board


nr s1 n"


in tbh c-hni r


1


ne ?nf n-r


C t-jl ~p


whn


i..nfa


the I id









Walker,


who


is a member


of Oak Grove,


told


researcher


that


she once


suggested


that


two churches


combine as


one


pool


limited resources


the community.


She said


that


the members


of both


churches wanted


to run her


out


town.


She might have been


joking,


people


feel


very


strongly


about


their


individual


churches.


Pastor


of Oak


Grove Baptist


one of


first


local


Black


community politicians.


He was


first Black


person


from western Putnam County


run


for political


office.


He ran


for the


school


board.


He was


defeated,


defeat he gained a


certain measure of


respect


from other


Blacks


as well


some


Whites


area.


In his


sermons,


Pastor usually presents


"message"


people


before


he starts

for those


"call Aunt Jane.


persons who want or ne4


"Calling' means

ed to shout.


"whooping"

On many


occasions


the Pastor will


bring


outside


speakers


to deliver


message.


This


tends


increase


participation


because most speakers


usually


bring


a following with


them.


At Oak


Grove,


the Pastor


tends


to deliver


sermons which


might be


considered


political by


some observers.


tries


show in his message


that


ethics


the bible


can apply


liberation


struggle


(Jones,


1974).


Pastor


also


a more


active


following


on matters


of a political


nature.


allows


political rallies


and potential


office


-I-- *t .. -n'n.rr -r f


tt. -


m


1-.
.9 .-


nCII+In~


1.


n~m~lT JTHn


CCL


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Baptist Church,


is quite


secular


approach


to religion


the world


(Jo hnston,


1954,


The church has


two choirs,


one of


young people who


sing


songs


the modern nature,


an older


group which


referred


in some churches


"ame n"


choir.


"amen"


choir


usually


sings


in the


style of


Black


choirs of


many


years


ago.


They


still


sing


"long meter"


"short


meter.


" These are


songs which have no certain


pattern


that


one


can


write on


paper,


but


"church


goers"


feel


timing


and sing


in perfect


unison


with


leaders


group.


This


group


performs only


occasionally,


usually


time of


special


programming.


On many


occasions,


the minister


after


delivering


sermon


will


strike


up a


song.


These


songs


usually


are


ones


that seek help


troubled hearts


or minds of


day.


They


don't


usually


emphasize


the world


tomorrow,


but


they


seek help


today.


such


song


want Jesus
want Jesus


to walk with me
to walk with me


While


I'm on


this


tedious


journey


want Jesus


to walk with me


Hold my
Hold my


hand Lord,
hand Lord,


Please hold


Please hold my


hand
hand


While


I'm on


this


tedious


journey


want Jesus


to walk with me.


Although


Pastor


does


not


emphasize


the emotionalism


c~nnlccs


nfl,


Tn hnct-nn I1QSA -;


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not my


style


to create strong


emotional


favor


among


the congregation.


However,


still


have


to create


an atmos-


phere which


allows


the members


to give


vent


their


feelings.


one


Black woman


stated,


"whenever


the burdens of


this


world and


bear,


just


tribulations of


take


life


the Master


seem


too much


upstairs


for me

place i


hands.


know then


that everything


going


to be


alright.


don't


shout in


church,


but


do sing


feel


good about


There


no cemetery


at Oak


Grove Baptist.


residents


still


prefer


burial


at Gilgal


or other


areas


away


from


community.


Grove does,


however,


have dining


facilities


where meals


are often


served after


service.


Magnolia


Baptist


Church


Magnolia Baptist


the newest and


smallest of


churches


in Johnson's


attended


three


one-half


Crossing.


chruches.


mile east of


is also


location


SR 20


and


least


on SR


intersection.


This


area


called


Whitesville.


Magnolia Baptist was


founded


1891


own


Pastor,

have se


different


irvices


from

the f


the other


irst Sunday


Pastors.


only.


This


The members


itself


a drawback


to church


attendance.


church


small


cramped


inside


having


seating


space


less


than one








It seems


to be


a church in


trouble,


but


few members


want


to keep


going.


The researcher


attended


church


fewer


times


than


he attended


the other


churches,


but each


time


he attended,


there was


Pastor was


a different minister.


trouble with


It seemed


community


that


permanent


residents.


one


service,


rouse


speaker was


emotions of


a female minister who was


the congregation as well


able


as any male.


Magnolia


Baptist


operates


service


the manner of


Gilgal Baptist with


a notable


exception.


Pastor


tries


from the


to a


outset


highly


of his


emotional


sermon


state.


stir


The


or exhort


church being


audience


small


rather tight,


the Pastor


seems


almost


close


enough


congregation


to reach


out and


touch


them.


services


are opened


up with


a song


followed by prayer


from one of


the Deacons.


On a


typical


Sunday,


prayer


would be


prayed


following manner:


Our


Father,


Our


Father,


Our


Father who art


in Heaven,


we come


before


you


this


morning


with bowed heads


and humble


hearts.


We want


to just say


last night's


thank


lying down,


you.
and


Thank you
this morning


rising up


to face


another


day.


it wasn't


for you Lord,


we might be


some


lonesome graveyard.


you.


Thank


you


being


e just
so good


want


thank


us.


We realize Our


Heavenly


Father


that you're


doctor who's


never


lost


a patient


you're









Oh Father,


Oh Lord,


Come on and help me Jesus,


Dig your
Wrap me


ever


loving


fingers


the bossom of


your


into my
love.


heart


And oh Lord Jesus--When we


our


journey,


When we


can't


come
sing


end of


anymore--when


we can't shout anymore--when we can't


pray


anymore--give


a home


in your


Kingdom where


we shall


ever


dwell


with


thee--Amen.


prayer


usually


done


in a


singing


and preaching


style.


it is


"strong"


prayer,


the church responds


repeating


last words of


each line by


praying person,


while


others


hum.


Sometimes


a soft


song


introduced


during


prayer


and all


the congregation


joins


time


Pastor


gets


the congregation


already well


"warmed.


" At


this


time


Pastor


announces


the order


service


program continues.


When


Pastor


comes


up again,


it is


time


sermon.


Usually


choir


sung


a song


designed


once again


to get


congregation ready


to receive


the message.


The Minister


this


time


usually


reads


a short passage


scripture


to start his


sermon.


church


still


stirring


from


the choir,


the minister


goes


into the


"meat"


sermon rather than diminish


emotional


feelings that


are


already present:


It was


early


on one Tuesday morning when


Lord
glory


tili ri


touched my


to his


heart and


name.


know


cinf faodr an rI ro i qr^


cried


glory--glory--


it must be Jesus,


z~* ("nlxrnr


~ wca i


\I r i~r








chariot wheels


in fire, ha,
an unclouded


hands
stand


shall


He shall
sky, ha,
"hosanna"


around his


take
They
fan,


beautiful


running
is frien


shall


knee deep
d through


place


they


throne


their


shall


and prai


name


forever


and ever--Amen.


service


ended,


minister


doesn't


normally


stay


around


long.


The home


permanent minister was


Tampa


tried


, a city


leave


approximately


soon as


miles


possible.


away.


usually


Magnolia Baptist,


like


Oak


Grove


Baptist,


no cemetery


own


They


buried


their


dead as


far way


Interlachen,


eight miles


away.


survival


church


was


doubt


as of


this writing.


Jackie


s Liquors


When


one


enters


Johnson


s Crossing


from either


direction,


the one


visible


establishment


Jackie


s Liquors.


It is


located at


intersection of


SR 20


and


C21,


corner.


a neat


concrete


structure


with


parking


spaces


the customers


front.


Other


than


community


center


and


churches,


Jackie


Liquors


seemed


to be


"hub "


social


life of


community.


business


White-owned,


the majority


clientele


are


Black.


However,


being


on a major


highway


midway


between


two cities


seemed


to have aided


the business








beverage


that


consumed


there.


said


that


Jackie


a White


female


, placed


trash


cans


under


"tree"


order


to avoid


having


view


unsightly


conditions


that


arise


when


beer


cans


, wine


bottles,


skey


containers


pile


The


package


store


Jacki


s has


been


flourishing


a number


not


years,


an original


having


resident


started


the community,


1956.

having


Jacki


moved


was

there


from


Palatka.


Recently,


a bar


been


added


package


store


It


months


is open


year


mostly


because


weekends


local


during


inhabitants


warm


prefer


cool


fresh


outs


ide,


particularly


"tree


only


employee


other


than


Jacki


her


husband


was


a Black


mal


who


worked


bar


part-time.


weekends


one


could


see


cars


lined


along


highway


leading


the store.


res


earcher


knew


people


who


came


from


Gainesvill


quite


often


order


"juke


Jacki


friendliness


bar


patrons


and


jovial


atmos


ere


were


reasons


given.


There


was


very


little


rowd


behavior


permitted


because


Jacki


hired


a private


bouncer


wee


kend


activities


When


baseball


games


were


held


community,


many


fans,


as well


play


ers


would


gather


at Jacki


s for


an evening


socializing.


This


was


truly


a vital


establishment


community.









The


"Tree"


one


Florida,


travels


is not


through many


uncommon


rural


to find a


towns


package


in North


store


Central


either


fringes


Alongside or very


Black


near


community


or on


store would be


highway.


large


tree.


Johnson's


Crossing was


no exception.


"tree"


Johnson's


Crossing was


located on


corner


intersection


of SR


and C21.


On any


day


that


the weather permits,


"tree.


people


could be


From early morning


till


seen


after


gathered


sundown


under


they


congre


gated


there.


It was


the gathering place where many


"bull


session"


was


held.


afternoon


was


time


for most


drinking


that


occurred


daily.


The men would walk across


street


Jackie'


Liquors


and purchase


their


beverage


then


come


back


"tree"


to enjoy


They


said


that


they


enjoyed being


the open,


people


it also gave


they passed


them a


the corner.


chance


see


There did


other


seem


to be


much


"hard


liquor"


consumed on


premises,


but


there was


plenty


of beer.


Drinking was


the only


activity


that


took


place


"tree.


Some of


youngsters


taken


urban


habit


of smoking


"doogie.


Doogie


the word


used


for pot--


.
vn~rl 7iimnn


Wlhrar l1lrtnhnarr c!+-alo


cmnb6rl


k ntt ~ ~ t ~ r


TnThan m3ntr


nr rnn








Other


institution.


activities


An old


took


cable


place


spool


under


this


that


community


been


left by


power


and


light


company


was


brought


"tree"


tilted


over.


This


became


table


card


playing.


When


weather


was


good,


men


who


did


not


work


or were


retired


could


seen


engage


game


of bid


whist.


researcher


had

for


been in th

six months


community


before


playing


realized


that


cards

the


under


men


also


"tree"


gambled


with


cards.


weekends


game


switched


to poker


and


money


changed


hands.


men


did


storytelling


under


"tree


and


this


involved


a bit


"cussing


However,


researcher


never


heard


men


use


kind


cursing


that


was


done


women


who


came


one


weekend.


They


were


almost


drunk


when


they


arrived


with


their


cooler


full


of beer.


They


under


"tree"


with


men


and


cursed


most


them.


Each


women


looked


though


weighed


more


than


pounds


and


could


hold


own


with


anyone.


was


very


fair


skinned,

ignore t


and


:hem,


the

but


other

this


was

only


ebony

made


black.


The


women


men


laugh


tried


curse


more.


them,


was


, but


some


men


were


clearly


embarrassed.


They


refused


those


women


what


they


would


ordinarily


a man.


After


being


ignored


more


than


an hour,


women


left.


men


were


relieved


resumed t


hei r


A C+i Vi t


i eS








when a memorable argument


took


place.


participant,


was


saying


that


the most expensive


stone


jade.


"Denver"


was


the other participant.


argument went


like


this:


"Everybody


Ows


hard


jade


find.


It is


most expensive


stone


the world.


Denver:


"Nigga,
and try


you're
to buy


crazy


some


. Go
jade,


to a store


then


buy


a diamond.


see


which


most expensive


"Man,
place
China


don't


you
and


tell


can


find


know.


jade


only


the world


India.


Denver:


"Bet,


Diamond


Nigger!


is more


Any


amount


expensive


you want.
and anybody


with


common


sense


knows


this.


put


your money where


your mouth


don't


take


talking


have


your money


to bet.


'cause


about.


researcher


a college man


man,
than


tell


him


don't want
know what


s time


turn


can


that


s to


tell


jade


him.


you.


is more


recognizes
) "Here's
Tell him
expensive


diamond.


Researcher:


"I'm sorry


but


really


don


t want


to get


involved


matter what
get angry.


say,


this


someone


I'd rather


discussion.


is going


stay


out.


"No,


go ahead.


Ain't


nobody


going


get mad.


Just


tell


these


dumb


niggers.


Researcher:
is a
Ruby
next


"Well,
more
is th


since


precious


ie most


(There was


res


earcher


you


insist.


stone
*


expensive


a pause
nd then


than
e and


Diamond
jade. A
diamond


stared


turned


r4-h^ar mnm








ain't


rich?


work


a gymologist


and he told me
expensive and
to believe."


From that day


that jade
that's what


the researcher was very


was more
I'm going


careful


to involve


himself


"debates "


under


tree.


"decent"


people of


the community


frequent


"tree.


usually


they


remain in


had


their


to get


someone


automobiles


and


from


talk


there,


rather


they would


than be


seen standing


there.


Respectable


girls were


not allowed


frequent


that spot but


could


park


other


side


call


their mates who would


then


go over


them.


"tree"


was


also


public urinal.


backside,


there were


some


small


saplings


the men would


venture


over


these


rather than make


long


trip


home.


With


beer


that was


consumed,


those


saplings were


lucky


to have


gotten as


large as


they were.


No one


seemed


to mind


or notice


when


someone walked


over


area.


Although


there was


a restroom at Jackie's, across


street,


seemed


to be


much bother to walk


over


there.


In spite of


the negatives


that might


associated with


"tree,


" it


it dies or


is an integral


destroyed,


part


a part


community.


community


When


lost--a


part


that most


visitors


see


upon


first


entering


community


known as


Johnson's


Crossing.









Home Appearance


While


traveling


through


community,


researcher


noticed


neat


appearance of


homes,


which


did not


seem


to be


typical


of Black rural


communities.


Therefore,


checklist was


structure of


devised


to determine


respondent


inner


homes.


and outer


results


are


follows:


Construction


of House:


Brick
Frame
Mobile


Home


Outer


Appearance:


Painted


Unpainted


Utilities:


Running Water


Heat


Lighting
tures


Fix-


Lamps


(Some


homes


ave


lamps


and


Refrigerator/Ice


Box:


lighting.)


Washing


Machine:


(68%)


(31%


No Re


sponse


Telephone:


(31%


No Response


Television:


Yes


(95%)


Automobile :


Ninety-two percent of


Yes


homes


(66%)


study


(34%)


area were









home


that is usually


depicted


typical


Black


rural


South.


The


residents


this


area


seemed


take


pride


in their hou


ses


and


property.


Striking


too,


was


fact


that


recent


had


washing


machines


Gone


are


days


the big


"boiling


pot"


wash


tubs


back


yards


which


was


typical


a few


years


ago.


some


minds


, a washing


machine


s a


luxury.


Johnson


s Crossing,


viewed


just


another


necessary


appliance.


Television


antennas


can


seen


rising


above


nearly


homes


community.


seems


that


s is


nece


ssity


this


area.


evenings,


is one


entertainment


outlets.


one


time


' in


the community


a T.V


have


. set


was


one.


a status


one


symbol.


four


Today,


homes


that


s unusual


have


not


vision,


researcher


was


told


that


"tel


sion


tool


devil


won't


have


one


in my


house


other


three


houses


not


want


to have


another


bill


pay,


especially


when


something


they


deem


unnecessary.


From


appearance


these


homes


one


might


speculate


reasons


differences


these


and


other


rural


Black


community


es.


However,


fact


clear


that


Johnson


Crossing


does


not


approach


the stereotypical


view


most


rural


communities.


There


seems


to be


a sense


communi ty


-


--















CHAPTER


METHODS OF COLLECTING


DATA


Before


the description


Johnson


Crossing


people,


the manner in which


these data


were


gathered


should be


described.


Four methods


of fieldwork were relied upon in


community,


each


complementing


the other.


The methods


used


were of


public


library


local


government offices


secondary


sources,


informant,


participant


observation,


and


the questionnaire.


Secondary


Sources


Before


Johnson'


attempting


Crossing,


to study


researcher


lives


considered


people of


it necessary


to gather


background


information


about


area.


Thus,


demographic


information,


a number


visits were made


governmental


offices


county


seat,


Palatka.


A deter-


mination


true boundaries


population


area


designated


as Johnson's


Crossing was


needed.


It was


discovered


that


target


accurate


community


accounting


an unincorporated area


population could not be


garnered








(see General


current


Highway Map,


enough


Figure


the researcher's


information was


purposes.


registrar's


office could identify


regi


stered


voters,


many


citizens


the area


are


registered


to vote.


Once


again


the data were not sufficient


researcher'


objectives.


this


point,


a decision was made


to devise


a questionnaire which


could be


used


to do a


complete


community

county of

Although


census.


ficial

ideas


census data


and members


for the


could also


local


research were


political


being


used by

organizations.


formulated


early


as February,


1977,


the field work wasn't begun


until


April


planning


that

office


year.

e and


It started


with


registrar'


visits


office.


to the county


These


visits


were made during


the weekdays,


which means


that


researcher


had


to arrange his workload at


University


of Florida


allow


time


to make


forty-eight mile


trip


to Palatka.


Once


there,


little


time was


lost


going


county


planning


office,


Fortunately


registrar's office,

the researcher, all


courthouse,


these


building


library.

s are


located within


three blocks


each other.


Palatka,


being


a small


town


(population of


about


10,000),


typical


of many


similar sized


towns.


"communication


exists which alerts


necessary


officials


fact


that something unusual


taking place.


Since


rn co:l rr h r I nt- i -


hnP knnwn


nunlr no


i nit nt


vi .it


Syst em"


II


1 fi r





57

















Y~ *-

Y~~rr -.

II -.i j-i
*S '
-I Ir 'p U1;1r~I


if- I
;jJ' -- 'j


it,' -~ b

.*Iig,1:: 1~,II
'i;iIl jI >II2:!i'. I




--' P It' -
-if-3 r I
if -t- JI'
aI( a -1 -.. -: -

-

I! Aic1"
I~~ -*- --aL -


--I *
i-- V if.








-~ -1
*_ -. -. *- uFY If
1 4*


I- rt "


f -: if i


_ _a -ir
S -1 0
,'?'~ C




1 1 Y~~ -I -*





1- r -'( r~

I ~d It i%
-~ I. *. if..
'N a's.t. 'Jo'
!Ia i iL
r at it ir








University


of Florida,


the word was


relayed


to other


offices


the county


system.


clerks that met with


researcher were very


cooperative


friendly.


They


tried


direct


this


researcher to other possible


sources of


informa-


tion.


county


planner's


office was


time


conducting


a research


project


city


of Palatka.


During


a meeting


he directed


where


background


researcher to

information


Palatka


area


Public

could be


Library

located.


suggestion


library


proved


invaluable


because


was


there


that


proposal


this


research was


finally


completed.


Palatka


Public Library,


located


on a major


thorough-


fare


through


city,


housed


very


valuable


information about


beginnings


the county


and surrounding


areas.


Two


unpublished


volumes


there,


written


during


the early


1930's,


revealed


names of persons who could


assi


comple-


tion of


this


research.


The historical


significance of


Palatka


and Putnam County


the various


these


to East Florida,


townships within


unpublished works.


as well


the county,


Reference was made


founding


delineated

to historical


documents which


University


could be


of Floria's


found in


Yonqe


original


'Library


form only


(See Appendix A).


researcher made extensive


use


these materials


before


proceeding with


face-to-face


encounters.


(This


technique of


__








The


unpublished works,


Alan


Swanson,


Pilo-Taikita:


A History


of Palatka,


Florida


Robert Dowda,


A History


of Palatka


and Putnam County,


gave


background data


early


history


of East Florida


and Putnam County.


These


researcher


to other materials which


proved helpful


learning


which Johnson's


settling


Crossing


area


called


a part.


West Putnam,


librarian


could


allow the


unpublished books


to be


removed


from


building


because


they


are


the only


ones


that


were


printed.


These


books


are


usually


kept in a


special


section


the director'


office and one


to know of


books or


he will


never


a chance


see


them.


After


a number


of visits,


librarians


knew what


to get when


they


saw the


researcher


coming


in the


building.


The City


of Palatka


very


proud


library.


Today


it displays


with


pride


the cannonball


that


was


fired


from a


Yankee gunboat


in 1862


and


embedded


itself


library wall.


This


is a proud


city with a


proud heritage


formation


of East Florida


and Johnson


s Crossing!


Informant


Whereas


history


county


could


be obtained


from


the library,


very


little was


found


the Johnson's


Crossing








infer


certain relationships


and


outcomes.


Therefore,


"key


informant"


(Whyte,


1955,


301;


Dalton,


1964,


65-66)


became


important in


the research.


unstructured


interview


(McCall


and Simmons,


1969;


Filstead,


1970;


Lofland,


1971)


was


used by


researcher.


Four


informants


were


singled out who


knew


the area


and


people,


resided


community


or most of


their


lives,


and were


respected by most


the people.


These


four were


invaluable


this


research.


Data


which


could not be


obtained


from the questionnaire


were


supplied by


these


informants.


One of

community 1


these


eader.


informants was


She made


local,


a point


knowing


self-styled,


everyone


the community,


direct one


and if


she didn't


proper source.


have


It w


information,

as with her


she

aid


could

that


most


the older


citizens


came


to know


researcher.


This


leader,


to be referred


as Mrs.


was


first


informant contacted by the


researcher.


Mrs.


was


proud of


community


and


position she


held within


After having been away


a number


years,


said


that


now


"home


to die.


This


informant


readily volunteered


knowledge


she had


the community.


Many


hours were


spent


listening


to stories


the old


days.


Mrs.


let it


known

that


that


the old days


community.


seems


, her

that


father was

there was a


most


another


powerful

"settle-


Tfl~n 'rob I c'h ton c *hrncs nii 1 cs:f m*fllf


*hbi r


hnmn


'Pbhic


mPnt"'


wh 1" ~h w~ c


frnm


t nwn









Mrs.


s father was


postmaster.


Mrs.


family


was


so prominent


that


land on which


they


lived was


named


them.


Today,


that name


is still respected by


local


residents


the community.


This


informant,


to be


referred


to as Mrs.


was


also a


valuable


asset


research.


Mrs.


held a


position


most of


the community which


community


activities.


allowed


to be


researcher


aware of


found her


to be a warm and sincere


individual


who exuded


an air


honesty.


became


the one


person


who was


consulted


chiefly


to confirm or


check


statements


or conversations


held


with


others


community


activities.


Many


hours were


spent


in her presence,


even


when


she was


being


interviewed.


Observing


her


in her


activities


gave


this


writer


information


that might


have


been missed


asking


questions.


Mrs.


contributed


the development


the question-


naire


census


form


that was


later used


to garner


data


about


the community.


had need of this information


her work


project,


forces were


combined,


with


understanding


that


data


would be


shared when


the work was


completed


(See Appendix


It was


Mrs.


who


located


interviewers who


helped


with


the door-to-door


survey.


Mrs.


, church historian,


was


another


vital


informants.


She was


little


lady,


years


old,


who didn't








other


with


churches


tape


grew


recorder,


from


the original.


so it had


to be put


was


aside.


pleased


However,


she did allow notes


to be


taken as


talked.


been


in Johnson's


Crossing


of her


life


and knew


about


everybody


who came


there


length


time.


knew


history


of most of


prominent


families


community,


and


also


served


interviewer


a check


validity


statements


the others.


California Red was

If he could be believed,


the most

he knew


talkative


about


informants.


everybody


town.


He was


first


interviewed


tree


(which


been


described


earlier).


He was


a retired


University


of Florida


employee


and knew not only


Johnson's


Crossing,


about misbehavior


University


as well.


This


informant,


having


lived


the community most of his


life,


was


very


knowledgeable about


social


stood on


life of


the community.


corner or


bar,


course,


figures


from where


he didn't miss


too much.


He could


tell


who was


dating whom and who wa


"tipping


out"


their


"old


ladies.


He could


tell


the wife


beaters


and


the husbands who


ran from


their women.


However,


favorite


tale


was


about


the coaches


University


who


allegedly


slipped


into


the girls


' dorms


at night.


Over


a period of weeks,


approximately


hours wore


spent


company


this


interesting


fellow,


California


Red.


first month


of face-to-face contact in the


target


-L J








same


time


trying not


to appear


suspicious.


Rural


small


town


people


are


usually wary


strangers,


especially


ones who ask questions.


Generally,


people of


Johnson


s Crossing were


friendly,


but not


point,


the researcher


felt,


that


personal


questions


about


one's


family


life


could be


asked.


Visits


during


this


period were mostly


the weekend,


with


one


two days during


the week when


time


could be


taken


from


University.


Mrs.


informed


researcher


that


since


large percentage of


population was


away


work


during


the day,


visibility


that was


sought would be


at a minimum


level,


but


that


this


was


good.


It would


give


people more


time of


time


year


learn of


Winter-Spring),


research mission.


few of


Because


non-employed


would


be outside of


approached,


more


their


time was


homes

spent


anyway.


As warm weather


the community.


seventh month,


it was


felt


that


researcher


gained


credibility


enough


the community


questions of


personal


nature without offending


or causing


alarm among


residents.


researcher


did not know


time


that a


study


had been


conducted


the community


six years


earlier


Dougherty


Cl972)


This


study


upset


some


residents


and


they were wary


other researchers.


Consequently,


AA- r, rn r a 4- a" nrn n Fi 4


4i mnb ..?~ e


~n nr;inr


nnn rl n~


mnrn









Participant


Observation


Greatest reliance was placed


techniques of partici-


pant observation


(Zelditch,


1976,


566-76;


McCall


Simmons,

between

personal


1969). In Joh

the observer an

relationships,


trust of


inson'


Id his s

proved


the residents.


Crossing,

subjects,

to be in

however, a


the

the


association

face-to-face


valuable


ifter


in gaining


few months


became apparent


that participation by


the observer was


needed


as well


as other methods


order


insure


reliability


data.


The observer was


invited


to participate


in many


activities of


delivering


community,


ranging


a sermon at one of


from card


local


churches.


playing


Having


learned


that


the observer


once been


ministry,


one of


informants


tried


to place


him


pulpit as


"Spiritual


leader.


necessity


also


The offer was


visiting


turned


local bar


down because


and recreation


spot


other observations.


This


might not


have,


as one


resident


said,


"set


too well


here


this


community.


"Here,


our preacher


to walk


straight and narrow.


However,


religious


services,


as well


community meetings


and


social


affairs,


were


attended.


Participation in organized meetings


community


---A---- ~ ~ ---------


1-------------


- .5- -


r~onr or T rniron n -c r is is-a ri L ri -r ri 'o i rT i I it c L *r r 1 -a ri r- cj


1.., It


L,,j,3








their


communities with


probing


questions.


A certain


trust


was


gained when


community


people


knew


that


a book


was

bein

Flor


being written a

g conducted by

ida rather than


bout


their


a Black

someone


community


person

from


fro

the


and

the


local


research was

University of

government


offices.


Most


persons


then wanted


to be


as helpful


as possible.


process of


study,


observations


were made at


six


locations


which served


focal


points


of community


gatherings.


These observation


points were


Westside


Community


Action Center,


Jackie's


Liquors,


"tree"


three


Baptist


Churches


Gilgal


Baptist


Mount


Bethel


Baptist,


and


Magnolia


Baptist.


A di


scussion


each


the observation


posts


been


presented


(see Chapter


III)


During


this


phase of


research,


observer was


given


a State


University


System grant


from


State of


Florida.


In effect,


the grant allowed


researcher


receive


Johnson


salary


s Crossing.


one year while


In October


conducting


1977,


study


participation


life


community


to rush back


began without


University


every


added


day.


factor


Time was


having


spent


their


community


from October


through March


1978,


not


every-


day,


but


enough


that


people


came


view


researcher










Initially,


tape


the observer


recorder when attending


tried

some


use a


of the


small


social


portable


gatherings


at the


tree


and


the bar.


Quickly,


folks


it be


known


that


they


didn't appreciate


Therefore,


after


leaving


some of


social


gatherings,


it was


task


recording


some


the events


of the day.


This was


especially


so after


three


or four beers.


On several occasions


this was


necessary


order


the men


to engage


in conversation,


a kind of


"warm-


talking,


laughing,


or joking.


However,


attempt


was


made after


each


visit


record accurately what had


taken


place.


The Questionnaire


After


the decision was made


to devise


a questionnaire


(Lazarsfeld,


1954;


Maccoby,


1954)


local


Community


Action


Agency


in Johnson


s Crossing was


contacted


concerning


feasilibity


such a proposal.


The


thought occurred


the director that


the data


could also


be used


in preparation


annual


reports


that


agency


had


to submit


to H.E.W.


in Atlanta,


Georgia.


staff


local


agency


could be


used


to participate


the census/questionnaire,


that


door-to-door


canvassing.


However,


approval


to be given


the County Community


Action Agency


director


in Palatka.


- -


. II


I









discussion of


project with


the director


CAA


(Community


Action Agency)


Palatka


it was


learned


that


staff


Wests


ide CAA was


being reduced.


If the


local


director wanted


to ass


ist in


study,


there was


no problem;


however,


there


could be


no other


staff


assistance.


director


agreed


that


study


could be


useful


their


reporting


system and


gave


it her


blessings.


The


Westside director


decided


that


she would


assist


survey,


and


it was


determined


that


paid


local


citizens,


ones who


knew the community well,


could be


used


assist.


Over


a period of


to assist with


two weeks,


project.


five y

After


young women were


three


selected


orientation meetings


in which


naire


area


explained,


and


survey were described,


the procedures


handling


question-


the paper-


work


discussed,


staff was


ready


canvas


community


designated


as Johnson


s Crossing.


The


staff


worked six hours


rate of


$3.00


an hour.


six hours


could be


used


during


the morning,


afternoon,


or both.


idea


was


to cover


every


household


in a


certain


area


during


the day.


Since most of


community


was


known by


each of


the workers


, they


idea


of who


was


at home during


certain hours


and who was


out.


It was


left


their


discretion what


time


visit


each household.


In some


instances,


a second


visit


to be made


S -


I .


-- r.








On Friday


evening the report was made,


and eleven of


homes


had been


left out.


The workers


agreed


finish


these


on Saturday morning when


On Saturday


they were


afternoon,


sure


survey


families


ended.


would


It was


through


use of


this questionnaire/census


that


the most


reliable


information was gathered.


The questionnaire was


designed


to elicit


responses


relating

social s


to family,


services,


education,


attitudes


occupation,


about government


politics,

al aid, a


religion,


general


information about housing


conditions.


A copy


questionnaire


shown


in Appendix B.


Not all


resi-


dents


responded


the questionnaire,


however,


Two


homeowners


said


they would


fill


out


form and bring


Westside


center.


One particularly


foul-mouthed,


snuff-dipping woman


chased


surveyor


out of her yard.


Questions were


asked


neighbors,


however,


in order


to get some


information on


these


subjects.


The


information on


the questionnaire


was


through


efforts


researcher


Westside Community Center


director.


However,


the director


use guidelines


and


questions


already provided on a


form by


Office of


Health


Education,


and Welfare


(H.E.W.).


Each


year


had


to submit


surveys of


Atlanta,


the community


Georgia.


Items on


Regional


H.E.W.


form relating


Office


to economics,


home construction


, income, selective


service,


and


governmental








Putnam County Community


Action Agency were


submitted


the County


director.


These,


along with


items


interest


researcher,


make


the questionnaire.


Most of


questions were written


in such a


way


to create


no ambiguity


understanding


and interpretation.


style was deliberately


kept simple


that


those


assisting


survey would


have


no problem giving


an explanation


should


need


arise.


focus


the questionnaire


researcher was


five


institutions,


and education.


The


family,


religion,


Westside Center


economics,


director,


however,


politics,


realized


that

that


this

were


focus

needed


could be


used


future


uncover


planning


additional


data


community.


Finally,


to conclude


this discussion


field methods,


pencil


and paper was


presence of


conversation


"black box"


informant


seemed


usually,

s. The


to disturb


pocket-sized


tape


but not always,

act of writing w


some


used


thile


informants.


recorder)


also


having


little


seemed


cause


nervousness.


notetaking was


Therefore,


limited.


To offset


use of


these methods


these difficulties,


notes


were written


or dictated immediately


after


each


interview


order

The


insure


study


the accuracy


of Johnson's


of what was


learned.


Crossing is an attempt,


not merely


to describe


facts


about


the community,


but also


to add


meaningful


interpretation of


contemporary


life


a Black


- n n r1Ir~1 c'~.4-4i ne r 4-4 C' n ncy nf r n r rn~nh m rr.b a4-, aA


ck;


rrr*~l


n


r


~hCC;~n


"''-"-


_3 T- ^


~ rn~Fnn t


n~


M'n ^








The


secondary


sources


community


census,


bolstered


informants


and above


all,


observation and


inter-


pretation based


on participation


life


communi ty,


provide


the basis


for the empathetic


interpretation


which


Weber


called


verstehen.
















CHAPTER
FINDINGS


focus


the questionnaire


this study (see Appendix B)


was


that was


five


developed


institutions:


family,


religion,


politics,


education,


economics.


Each


these


institutions


significant


life of


community


and is


less


so in Johnson's


Crossing.


this


chapter,


each


these


units


will be


discussed


separately


the order


listed above.


Family


The Black


family


been held


responsible


for many


problems


Black


people.


family


seen


as partially


responsible


for the economic,


social,


and personal


problems


faced by


instance of


Blacks.


social


As Moynihan

pathology


puts

can be


. not


traced


every


the weakness


of the


family

tangle


structure"


structure .

of pathology


(Moynihan


et al.,


. nonetheless,


the weakness


1965,


center

family


30) .


, ~ I A 1


-I I ...


PI I


* -<









among


Negroes


affected


practically


every phase of


their


community


life


adjustments


larger White world.


Because of


absence of


stability


family


life,


there


lack of


traditions.


Life


among


a large


portion


urban Negro


population


. lacks


continuity


roots


do not


go deeper


than


contingencies


daily


living.


More


than a


few writers


held


these


views


concerning


scale


and


consequences


of family


disorganization


among


Blacks.


The acceptance


these viewpoints


can be summed


up by


following


statement:


"The


general


formulation


problem that


the socioeconomic


system constrains


family


in ways


that


lead


to disorganization


that


family


organization


then


feeds


back


into


system to sustain


and perpetuate social and economic disadvantage--is


reasonably


well


accepted"


Whereas


(Rainwater


the above


Black Family,


teristics


Hill


studies

(1972,


family which he


characteristics which have been


family


are strong


Yancey,

focus


1967,


on


has


calls

employee


kinship bonds,


309).


the weakness

delineated c

strengths. T


d


strong wo


harac-

he


survival

rk orienta-


tion,


adaptability


family


roles,


strong


achievement


orientation,

Staples

Black Family


and strong


(1978,


instability


religious


259)


than


orientation.


a different


that


view


of Moynihan


concerning


(1965).










family

tear f


stability,


families


but


asunder.


socioeconomic


. Whatever


conditions


future


that


of Black


families,


it is


time


to put


to rest all


theories


about


Black


family


instability.


The


following


data


should sub-


stantiate whether the


described by


people of


pathological


Johnson'


viewpoint of


Crossing


Moynihan


are


(1965)


or show


kind


strengths


delineated by


Hill


1974).


data


presented in


this


section are based on obser-


nations


households


as head of


household,


including


and 39


children,


other members


adults


community.


total


household members


studied in Johnson's


Crossing


were


247.


Table


presents


a picture of


household


structure.


primary


individuals


table


are defined


"household heads


living


alone


or with


persons


of whom


are


unrelated


to him"


(Nye


and Berardo,


1973,


32).


information


just


presented may


be more meaningfully


interpreted,


perhaps,


considered


terms


typology


presented by


Andrew


Billingsley


(1968)


in his


comprehensive


study


Black


families.


Billingsley


categories


(1968,


families


15-21


in his


identified


typology


three


family


general


structure:


nuclear


families


that


consist "of


husband


and wife with


their


own


children


and no other members


present;


extended


families


which


include


in-laws


and other


relatives who


share


tne same













Table


The Structure of Households


in Johnson's


Crossing.


Number


Type of
Household


Total
Number


Percen-


Number


tage


Children


Persons


Husband-Wife


Families


Children Present


No Children
Present


One-Parent Families


31.8


14.1


Mother-headed

Father-headed


Primary


Individuals


Living


Other


Alone

Persons


15.2

10.5


Present


TOTAL


99.7








same household


nuclear


family.


These


general


cateogires


are


subdivided into


twelve different


types


family


structures.


Table


shows


types


subtypes


of Billingsley's


families


interviewed


classification,


in Johnson's


represented


Crossing.


general


categories


and


subtypes


that Billingsley


(1968)


identified as


well


number


Johnson's


Crossing


families who


each


category


are briefly


discussed below.


Nuclear


Family


Three


specific


types


families


are


listed


under


Billings


ley's


(1968)


nuclear


family


types


The


incipient


nuclear


family


(Billingsley,


1968,


one


in which


there


a husband and wife


living


together with no children.


He estimates


that


20 percent


of all


Black


families


are


this


category.


In Johnson's


Crossing,


there


were


families


(14.1


percent)


that are


this


type.


Another


type


of family


simple


nuclear


family.


this


family,


the husband and wife


are


living


together


their


household with


their own


adopted


children,


other members


present.


This


family


type


that


most


universal.


There were


such


families


community


Johnson's


Crossing.


In Billingsley's


(1968,


schema, 3


percent


of families were


this


category.


















































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The


third


type of


family


attenuated nuclear


family.


This


family


either


a mother or


father present,


living


together with his/her minor


children


parent's


household with


no other persons


present.


This


type


family


commonly


referred


a broken


family.


Johnson's


Cros


sing had


families


this


type.


Nineteen


families


(5.8


(22.3


percent)


percent)


were male


were


headed.


female-headed


This


five


represents


families


a signifi-


cant


percentage


increase when


one considers


that Billingsley's


report


shows


that


these


families


comprise


only


six percent


all Black


families


United


States


1968,


18) .


A contributing


factor to


disparity


between Johnson's


Crossing


Billingsley's


(1968)


figure


fact


that


in Johnson's


Crossing,


when


separation


occurs,


the wife with


her


children


tends


to stay


lower-cost-of-living


setting


this


rural


area.


Here


can


also


remain


close


to friends


family who


offer


consolation


as well


support.


buted


A further


to the small


cause


number


variation


of households


could be


studied.


attri-


Chance


variations


away


from


the mean


can


easily


occur when


N is


small.


Another


salient


point


about


attenuated nuclear


family


that


in Johnson'


Crossing,


they were


less


numerous


than


simple


nuclear


family,


they


have more


children


compared


53).








Extended Family


Under


19-21)


extended family


lists


types,


incipient


Billingsley


extended


(1968,


family which


consists


a married


couple with no children of


their


own


who


takes


other


relatives;


simple extended


family which


a married


couple with


their


own


children


who


take


in relatives;


attenuated extended


family which


consists


a single,


abandoned,


legally


separated,


divorced or widowed mother


father


living with


or her


own


children,


who


take


other


relatives


into


household.


Johnson's


Crossing


does


not have


incipient


extended or the


simple extended


types.


However,


five of


primary


individuals


have


children of


family members


living with


them.


The other four primary


individuals


have


persons


living with


them,


but


they


are


unrelated


these


household heads


These


are


family


types


not


covered by


Billings ley'


1968)


typology.


Robert Staples


(1978,


202)


paraphrased Billingsley


(1968)


when he


reported


that Black


extended


families


take


four


classes of


relations or


secondary members:


minor


relatives,


including


grandchildren,


nieces,


cousins,


and


young


siblings


under


peers


primary


parents,


including


siblings,


cousins,


other


adult


relatives;


elders


primary parents,


"(1)i








In Johnson's


Crossing,


extended


family


includes


parents,

law of t


who are


ancestry,


siblings,


:he head


part of


are


grandchildren,

the household.


family


classified as


nephews,

Other h


adoption,


"augmented"


and siblings-in-


household members


marriage,


family members.


Table


shows


extent


acceptance


extended


family


members


brother or


households.


sister


term sibling


the head


refers


household.


The


table


shows


that


there


are


several


types


extended


family members


among


the Johnson's


Crossing


families.


The


nineteen households have


taken


in extended


family members,


but


seven


those are


unclassifiable


according


to Billings-


ley'

The


s (1968)


typology


data show only


residing with

two or more p


under


one


and are

parent


family,


parents.


only


one


Two


while


listed


"other non-specific.


the head


three househo


households


household has


contain


two or more


the household

Ids contain

one sibling


siblings.


There


are


households


with


one


grandchild and


house-


holds with


two or more


grandchildren.


One household has


one


nephew


and one


household has


two or more


nephews.


Two of


households


contain one


sibling-in-law.


fact


that


most


residents


own


their


own homes


and have


no need


room with


other


family


members,


reflected


number of households


that have extended


family members,


-~~. n --


---1 --


- r --


-1, -1---


.-4: Ir 1C~5a r fl La fl 11m Tn fl fl fl In I lL l n tz r a r Of 1 fl


i --















Table


Membership,


Other Than


Spouse


and Children


Head,


of Extended Family


Households


Relationship
to Head of


Household


Households
with one


Other


Person


Households


with


or more
Persons


Total
House-
holds


Parents

Siblings

Grandchildren

Newphew

Siblings-in-law


Other


Total


Non-specific









Johnson's


Crossing


a support


system.


To paraphrase


Billy,


out


a subject


that'


in Stack


what kinfolks


s research,


are


"they


about"


help each


(Stack,


other


1974,


When


asked


to whom


they would


turn


assis-


tance


case


family


illness


, 84


percent


households


stated relatives,


seven


percent neighbors,


eight


percent


friends,


and one


percent


gave


no response.


One must


still


take


into


account


fact


that many


residents


are


related;


therefore,


many


relatives


will be


spoken


friends.


Augmented Family


Billingsley


lists


a category which


he calls


augmented


family.


These


are


families


that


have


unrelated


individuals


living with


them as


boarders,


roomers,


lodgers,


and other


long-term guests.


Johnson's


Crossing


comes


closest


have


this


unrelated


type with


persons


four


living


primary


individuals who


household.


However,


fact


that


these are not husband-wife


families


and

fit


there

into


are

the


no children in the

augmented category.


home,

These


they do not exactly

seven unrelated


persons,


however,


for the


were


purpose of


listed by


documentation of


researcher under


numbers,


classifi-


cation of


"attenuated augmented


family.


45) .








Two


Families of


Johnson's


Crossing


In order to get a


clearer picture of


family


structure


families


in Johnson's Crossing,


the community


researcher


to observe more


chose


closely.


Obviously,


the names


have been


changed,


but


information


descriptions


are


correct


in every


detail.


The Roberts


family


This


family would be


classified according


to Billingsley's


(1968)


family


types


an attenuated


nuclear


family.


family


broken but,


this


case,


head of


the house-


hold


father.


teenage


children,


a boy


and a


girl,


complete


household unit.


father


been


divorced


approximately


The


researcher


six years


first met Mr.


this wr

Roberts


iting.


at Jackie's


Liquor


store when he was observed by


informant,


pur-


chasing


same brand of


spirits


informant.


That


immediately


became


a point of


discussion because


informant stated,


"people


around here don't


drink


that


kind


of gin,


that'


what we


drink


down


south.


It was


learned


that


"down


south"


meant Pompano


Beach,


Florida,


where Mr.


Roberts


had spent most


of his married


life.


A drink was


shared by


the observer


and


informant while discussions


thrilling


days


down south


were held.


n,,,, a n .n-C .. i.r f


- 4 3~ n .-.


*1I


htrnn Ylrn~


A


C Ck








an adjacent


city) ,


an immediate


friendliness was


established


which

the 1


lasted


ate


the entire


evenings when


period


there was


study.


nothing


else


Usually,


to do


Johnson


s Crossing,


two


"southerners" would


talk


under


the old


tree.


Roberts


said


that he was


second


husband of Mrs.


Roberts.


They met when


they were both


rather


young.


He had


just


finished


college


and she was


in a cos-


metology program.


Roberts


said


that


they


fell


love


at first


sight


of each


other.


The wife was


still married


time


future Mrs.


and had one child,


asked her


a girl.


husband


After


a divorce.


dates


Six months


after


they met,


Johnson's


Crossing.


Robert


They


s became


moved


a nuclear


to Pompano


family


Beach where


taught


school


and


the wife worked


in an


industrial


plant.


Eleven


years


and


two children


later,


Roberts was


the head of


the household and was


given


custody


their


only

with


This


son because he

his mother. T


arrangement


threatened


he wife


run


retained


lasted almost a


year


away


custody


and


if he had

of both


then


to live

girls.


youngest


girl


decided


that


too wanted


live with


father.


mother


reluctantly


agreed because by


this


time,


she,


mother,


was


living with


another


mnian.


seems


that in south Florida Mr


. Roberts was well


respected by


both Blacks


and Whites.


He has


been


referred


S ~~~~~~~~I. .A


r rr r.


11


*









asked some


residents


about


informant).


However,


after the


divorce,


reputation became


tarnished.


As Mr.


was


Roberts


says,


his problem.


"no-good women


The more he


drank,


good whiskey


the more women he


became


involved with,


and


the more


influence


lost.


Finally


children,


he decided


that he had had


left Pompano


Beach


enough.


returned


With his


to Johnson'


Crossing


raise


family


and be


near


parents.


In Johnson's


Crossing,


Roberts


purchased a mobile


home


rather


than


live with his mother


father who


a large home


and 15


acres


of land.


The


story


told


that


Mr.

was


Roberts,


$25.00


Sr. ,


per


acre and


purchased many


gave mos t


tracts


to his


land when

children


when


they


became


adults.


That was


the way


Roberts,


Jr.,


gained


access


to his


property.


The other


brothers


and


sisters


never


left


community


but sold most of


their


property.


The mobile


iS a


home


two bedroom,


that Mr.


bath,


Roberts


sunken


and his


living


family


room


live


type.


The


living room is on


front end


home


surrounded on


three


sides


by windows.


Near


front


windows


a large


stereo


component


set,


with


flowers


flanking

room is


each


a large


the

sofa


large

and c


speakers.


hair.


one


side of


the opposite


side of


I I I.- I. -1. ~


m


* -1


1.


i


->


,t


^


r 1









it and


magazines


surrounding


the shape


There


are


plants


hanging


from


ceiling


front


windows


and


corner


near


loveseat.


home


carpeted


throughout,


even


chen.


home


latest


in mod


ern


appliances


kitchen


including


glass


topped


dining


table.


children


started


sleeping


same


bedroom.


After


they


reach


their


teens,


slept


sofa


at his


bed.


Most


grandparents


time,


' home.


however


young


man


, he chose


wanted


to sleep


follow


father


s foot


steps


but


was


interested


school.


He quit


llth


grade


father


never


trie


however,


father


force

was a


him


n able


making


back


exce


classroom.


student

llent


who


tried


grades.


The

impr


says


t


young


lady


ess

hat


determined


to do what


her


older


brother


sister


failed


wants


to march


across


stage


during


graduation.


this


community,


Roberts


family


considered


upper-middle


class.


They


owned


land.


said


that


they


had


money


and


children


are


educated


except


son


of Mr.


Roberts,


Jr.) .


They


are


recognized


as high


status


people


members


community.


Although


community


small,


young


people


tend


to socialize


homogeneous


groupings.


some


cases


this


resulted





-








Mr.


which was


Roberts'


also


wife belonged


prominent in


the Andrews


community.


family,


time


union between


two families,


the wife was


sister-in-


law to Mr.

sister. W


Roberts.


Then marriage


Her brother was married

e plans were discussed,


to Mr.

this i


Roberts'


[nter-


family


relationship did not enter


The community people


seemed


into


to accept


conversation.


relationship


no one was

Crossing,


overly


concerned.


Roberts was


After


returning


involved in an


to Johnson's


accident.


settlement with


insurance


company was


substantial


enough


so that M

writing.

going to

agreed th

The daugh

possible.

Diploma t

public sc

of this i

to finish

order to

Roberts f

want, I'l


The Holme


.r. Roberts has not had to retu

The young man in the family d

the Army as soon as he was eli

at this might be the best move

ter decided to try and finish

She wants to take the Genera

est at the earliest possible d

hool career). The father has

dea by explaining to her that

school so early, and she need

grow up. However, she was ins

finally said "you're my baby an

1 support you all the way."


s Family


irn


to work


decided


gible


for

school


1


that


and

him

1 as


as of


this


he was


father


to make.


soon


Equivalency


ate


tried


shorten her


talk her


out


immature


ed


to stay


istent


there


that Mr.


that'


what


you








Holmes.


They


took her


in to live with


them when


she was


one


year


old.


child was


never


officially


adopted,


but


accepted as


the daughter


parents.


In reality,


child knows


who


her


biological mother


She was


given


this


information rather


early


in life.


now


calls


her


biological mother by


her


first name,


Eva,


mother who


her biological


rearing

father


her,


"mama.


there


She does no

are whispers


>t know who


community


that


the mother does


not know


either.


only


father that


child knows


is Lijah,


calls


him


"daddy.


This


type of


family would be


typed by


Billingsley


incipient


extended


family.


This


family


lives


a home


that was


built by


Lijah.


constructed


of wood and


siding with a built-in


fire-


place


that was


added


decorative


as well


as practical


purposes.


Lijah


referred to as


"Jackleg"


carpenter who


learned his


skills by working with


the carpenters


rather


than

with

down


attending sc

two bedrooms

for visits,


thool.


but

Lijah


structure was o

family members


decided he


needed


Originally


began


additional


built

come

space.


He eventually


expanded


structure


into


four


bedroom,


bath house with


a den


and


a recreation room.


recreation


room contains


built with blowers


that it


fireplace,


a unit


could heat


that was


entire


room.









The


father


could be


considered semi-illiterate because


he has


only


a fourth-grade


education


and does


not read very


well.


learned early


life


auto


repair


business


the members


community would bring


broken


down


autos


to him.


Thus,


he was


able


to make


a decent


living


a young man.


later


got a


in another town as


a carpen-


ter'


helper


and


this


how


learned


skills


needed


to build his


own home


as well


as some others


community.


As a child,


Lijah worked on


farm and learned about


planting.

one of th


result of


ie best and more


these early


experiences,


productive gardens


in an


he has

area where


very


little


farming


done.


time


this writing,


Lijah was


self-employed in


Gainesville


at a


vegetable


stand.


Mrs.


Holmes,


"Annie,


" is


from a large


family.


Her


parents


had


children


and she


youngest.


stayed


in school


marriage,


long


enough


according


finish


to Annie,


tenth


was


simply


grade.


Her


because of


a desire


to get


away


from home


and all


that


family.


other


children


family


had moved


away years


ago and


she was


the benefactor


their


generosities


during


visits.


She became,


the older


folks


say,


"spoiled.


When


she quit school,


pitfalls


she had been warned of


her older brothers


and sisters.


possible

did not


pay


them any


attention


and,


as she


says,


"a hard head makes


-S .. -l -





. i


r.








later


on decided


that


it was


alright.


Annie could not have


children.


She did not know this when


first married,


but after years


trying,


finally


consulted


a physician


who gave her the news.


a result of


this


news,


they


decided


to care


for one of


children


of Lijah's


sister.


household was


complete with


Annie Holmes was


employed


arrival


Irene.


in Gainesville


a domestic


worker


to move


an office.


to Gainesville


says


becau


that her


it was


family


crowded


not want


there


were


too many problems


associated with


crowded


living


"All


of my

have


friends

to offer


and family


that


are


can't


here.


get by


What

staying


does


Gainesville


here?"


daughter was


enrolled


school


in Melrose


and was


doing


well.


said,


"the only problem here


getting


her up


so early


the morning


to school.


Other


than


that,


everything


fine with me.


teachers


in Melrose


can


just as


good a


as anywhere


else


long


as we back


them up.


Holmes


family was well


liked by


residents


community.


It was


said


that Lijah would


take


little


"nip"


every


now


then but


never


got drunk.


He attended


church


at least every


services when he w


first Sunday

as there. A


and was


nnie was


very

very


active

active


three churches


community


and also served on


- .


. .. -


a~~ L*% I. a -t a n~ a mq- L Ia A


Il rr I


-- It








although both


are


their mid-thirties.


Each has


lived


the community most of


their


lives.


Annie


once


left with


her parents and lived in Orlando while


she was


an adolescent.


Her


father did not


like


large


city


and after


one


year,


returned


to Johnson's


Crossing.


Lijah had been


away


as Atlanta


where


lived


six months.


When he


returned


to Johnson's Crossing,


he said


that it would


take a


thousand horses


to pull


him


away


again.


Before


looking more


in detail


at marital


status


other aspects


household data,


it must be


noted


that both


these


families


could be


seen


"problem"


families


that neither


represented


the model


family


composed of husband-father,


wife-mother,


their


own


offspring.


is warmth,


Even so,


strength,


above


and a sense of


accounts


deep


suggest,


belonging


there


them.


Marital


Status


One of


topic of marital


itmes


status.


the questionnaire


addressed


Based on past research,


there


little doubt


that Black


families


are more


likely


to be


headed by


one


parent


than


are


White


families


Farley


and


Hermalin,


1971;


Glick,


1970).


Recent


studies


have shown


that in


1970


female-headed households


among


Black


families








parents


1979,


total


two-parent headed


households


had


dwindled


54.9


percent.


percent of


Black f

percent


families with


(U.S.


females


Bureau of


as head of households was


the Census,


40.5


1980).


In Johnson's


Crossing


total number


of households


responding was


eighty-five.


this


nubmer,


42 were headed


by males


and


43 were


female


headed.


Forty-six of


respon-


dents


had no spouse


living with


them and


household


heads


chose


not


to respond.


Three of


households


responded


that


they were


not married but were


simply


cohabitating


or living


together.


This


revelation


came as


a mild


surprise


researcher because


Black


people


tend


to be


reluctant


admit


this


kind of


living


arrangement.


The


respondents who had no


one-parent


families


spouse


, both male


living with


them were


female headed,


those


listed as


primary


individuals.


significant


to note


that


51 percent


these


families


are


average of


female headed.


40.5


percent stated


This


above


earlier.


national


fact


that most


respondents were


female may,


in part,


account


large


number


females


listed


as household heads.


Family


Size


For the country


a whol


there


little


doubt


that








females


aged 15-44


who had


ever


been married had


children


compared with


for Whites


(U.S.


Bureau of


the Census,


1973F:


Table


12) .


1977,


Black


females


aged


15-44,


rate of


live births was


89.9


1000.


For white women


rate was


per


1000


(u.s


. Bureau of


the Census,


Statistical Abstract


the United States


1979,


100th


edition,


The data show that socioeconomic


factors may


contributor


this difference


in fertility.


Black women


who have not


completed high


school


have


a much higher


fertility


rate


than


White women of


equal


education,


but


high school


graduates,


the gap


is not


as wide.


For women who went


college,


trend was


reversed


(U.S.


Bureau


the Census,


1973


Tables


18) .


In 1977,


however,


65 percent


Black women who


finished


college


expected


to have


one or


children while


60 percent of White women had


same


expectations


(Bureau of


the Census,


1978) .


Data


show that


among


Black


females who earn


under


a year,


fertility


rate


is higher than


for comparable Whites.


However


, beyond


this


amount,


differences


are


marked


(U.S.


Bureau


the Census,


1971,


Table


15) .


According


the data,


region


residence


also


a bearing


on family


size.


For


example,


Blacks


who


live


South


expect


to have


children


figure


Tn zI m a


nlrtAci nf" 4


Cnl-hh


F, nmi iroc


3 n


Wh; i ae


*


1 I I *.i


c: