Circadian and circasynodic fluctuations in responses to tactile stimuli

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Circadian and circasynodic fluctuations in responses to tactile stimuli
Physical Description:
xii, 150 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Neelakantan, Priya, 1946-
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Biological rhythms   ( lcsh )
Touch   ( lcsh )
Psychology thesis Ph. D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Psychology -- UF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1981.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 114-119.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Priya Neelakantan.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000297287
oclc - 08371959
notis - ABS3660
System ID:
AA00002192:00001

Full Text




















CIRCADIAN AND
RESPONSE


CIRCASYNODIC
ES TO TACTILE


FLUCTUATIONS
STIMULI


PRIYA


NEELAKANTAN


A DISSERTA


IN PARTIAL


TION PRESENTED TO TH
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF
FULFILLMENT OF THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF


E GRADUATE C
FLORIDA
REQUIREMENTS
PHILOSOPHY


COUNCIL

OF THE


[

































Copyright


Priya


1981


Neelakantan
































To my parents












ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


A number


of people


aided


the


completion


this


dis-


sertation,


and


each


them


deserves


a word


appreciation.


chairman,


Franz


Epting,


ably


oversaw


academic


program


and


guided


through


the


completion


disserta-


tion.


The


research


was


carried


out


under


a National


Cancer


Institute,


Division


Cancer


Control


grant


20791),


and


was


supervised


Henry


. Pennypacker,


Jr.,


the


Principal


Investigator


this


grant,


and


a member


corn-


mittee.


Working


with


Pennypacker


and


other


members


research


team


has


been


the


most


stimulating


and


creative


experience


graduate


years


at the


University


of Florida.


Charles


Vierck,


Jr.,


Department


Neuroscience,


provided


me with


invaluable


guidance


and


gave


me access


facilities


equipment,


and


. Robert


Abrams,


Department


Obst


etrics


and


Gynecology,


also


provided


me with


necessary


technical


equipment.


Dorothy


. Nevill,


Department


intellectual


Psychology,


counterpoint


often


presenting


forced


me with


me to reevaluate


an

my


premises.


All


three


also


served


on my


committee.


Other


help


technical


nature


was


generously


given











Calvin


Adams,


provided


important


critical


advice


during


academic


career.


would


like


thank


Rich


Cohen,


Brian


Cooper,


and


Ray


Thomas


their


vital


ass


distance


the


use


solid-state


electronic


equipment,


and


microprocessors.


A number


people


generously


donated


their


time


serve


subjects


during


pilot


phase


this


project.


They


are S

Hall,


was


;haron


Brauns,


Caroline


an immense


Lea,


help


Eleanor

and He


with


Criswell,


ster


checking


Lilian


Stephenson.


and


Febles,

Roberta


plotting


Deborah

Gastmeyer


data.


thank


them


all,


Dawn


Stephens


Mendoza,


who


ably


typed


the


final


draft


this


paper.


Finally,


am indebted


husband


his


many


hours


of participation


this


research


roles


that


ran


entire


gamut


from


subject


to critic.













TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.................. ................... iv

LIST OF TABLES.......................... .. ......* ......v*


ABSTRACT. ............................... . . xl

CHAPTER


Circadian


Circasynodical Cycles...................... 8
Breast-Self-Examination (BSE).............. 24

EXPERIMENT I; CIRCADIAN CYCLE I.............. 28

Methods...... . ...... ........ ......... 28
Results............................. ...... 34


EXPERIMENT II: CIRCADIAN CYCLE


Methods.................................... 46
Results...... .. . ................... 53

IV EXPERIMENT III: CIRCASYNODIC CYCLE........... 75

Methods. . ....... ........... ...... 76
Results........... ..... ............ ..... 82

V DISCUSSION..... .......... .. ..... .... 105

Behavior......................... ..... .-. 105
Physiology. ....... .. ...... .. ... ... ...... 109


Cycles. .........................


2....


LI ST OF F IGUR~S ..........,........ ........


INTRODUCTION ................... .......











PAGE


RAW

RAW


DATA

DATA


SUBJECTS

SUBJECTS


IN EXPERIMENT

IN EXPERIMENT


II.....

III....


BIOGRAPHICAL


SKETCH...............













LIST


OF TABLES


TABLE


PAGE


Variables
Dependent


Summary


Exhibiting
Effects


Statistics


Significant


Comparing


Time-


Subject


' Performance


Prior


to Pregnancy(N)


to Performance


Variability


During


Punctate


Early


Pregnancy(G)


Stimulus


Thres-


holds
Three


Across
Circas


All


Ses


ynodical


sions


During


Cycles


Statistical


Showed


Summaries


Significant


Variables


Differences


That


Between


Circasynodical


Pha


ses


Comparisons


Between


Primary


and


Yoked


Control


Subjects


on Select


Variables













LIST


OF FIGURES


FIGURE


PAGE


Individual


ected


subj


ect


variable


and


function


means


time


Only


SEMs


above


played in
sensation.


Individual


the


inter


subj


ect


mean


est


have


been


economy


and


dis-


pre-


means


ected


variable


a function


time


Only


SEMs


above


mean


have been


dis-


played in
sentation.


interest


economy


pre-


Group


means


function


mean
of e
repr


have


economy
esents


time.


been
of
the


ected
Only


displayed


pre


variabi


SEMs
in


sentation.


mean


above


the


the interest
Each point


obs


ervations


Group


mean


variable


maximum


as a


coeffici


function


ected


ents
time.


text


scription


maximum


coeffici


ent


ex.


Individual


subj


ect


ARM)


means


ected


variabi


above


function


the


mean


have


een


time.


display


Only
d in


SEMs


interest


economy


esentation.


Individual


subject


DPB)


means


selected


variabi


function


time.


Only


SEMs


above


erest


mean


have


een


economy


displayed i
esentation.


VII


Individual


variable


above


economy


mean
of


subj


ect


BHS


function


have
prese


means


time.


displayed
nation.


Only


the


ected


SEMs


interest


- e 0 *1


*I a +


a -- -i


-I


r


Irrrr











FIGURE


PAGE


Group


means


function


mean


have


ected


time.


been


Only
splayed


variables


SEMs


as a


above


the


interest


economy


ese


nation.


Group


mean


maximum


coe


ffici


ents


ected


variables


as a


func


tion


time.


maximum


coe


text


efficient


description
index.


Individual


subj


ect


means


and


SEMs


for


oral


temp


erature


function


circasynodical


test


pha


ses.


XIII


Individual


subj


ect


means


and


SEMs


punctate
function


pre


sure
circas


thres


hold


ynodical


test


pha


ses


XIV


Individual


lump


circas


means


detected
ynodical


and


(mm)


test


SEMs


as a


function


phases.


Individual


volume


(ml)


means


as a


and


SEMs


function


breast
circa-


synodical


test


pha


ses.


Individual


means


and


SEMs


scale


value


breast


firmn


ess


match


hed


a function


cir


casynodical


test


pha


ses.


X VII


Individual


value


means


breast


and


SEMs


nodularity


scal


matched


as a function


circ


asynod i


test


pha


ses.


XVZII


Group


means


as a


and


SEMs


function


for


ected


vari


circasynodical


test


pha


ses


XIX


Group


mean


maximum


coe


ffici


ents


ected


variable


as a


function


circ


asynodical


test


pha


ses


See


text

















Abstract


Dissertation


Present


to the


Graduate


Council


Univer


sity


Florida


in Partial


Fulfillment


Requirements


the


Degree


Doctor


Philo


sophy


CIRCADIAN


AND


CIRCASYNODIC


FLUCTUATIONS


RESPONSES


TO TACTILE


STIMULI


Priya


Neelakantan


December,


1981


Chairman


: Franz


Epting


Department:


Psychology


Tac


tile


sensitivity


was


measured


over


circadian


day-night


and


circasynodic


menstrual


cycle.


Con-


comitantly


skills


pertaining


to breast


self


examination


(BSE)


were


observed


during


same


time


periods.


Data


over


circadian


cycle


were


collected


from


women


and


men


total


cycles.


main


body


experiment


subjects


were


tested


once


every


hours


from


0900


hour


0600


hour


following


day.


The


direct


measures


taken


were


oral


temperature,


there


sholds


punc-


tate


pressure


and


skin


stretch


the


index


finger-tip,


per-











between


performance


and


ability


were


obtained


the


each


session.


Data


over


circas


ynodical


cycle


were


obtained


from


nulliparous


women


their


reproductive


age


(primary)


one


postmenopausal


woman


and


one


man


The


primary


women


were


tested


during


phases


menstrual


over


continuous


Each


subj


ect


was


tested


same


time


on each


test


day.


Test


day


stmenopausal


woman


and


man


were


oked


one


to each


the


primary


women


The


measures


obtained


were


punctate


pressure


threshold


index


finger


-tip,


threshold


lump


in highly


nodular


breast


model


, subjects


' breast


firmness


and


nodu-


clarity


matches


and


finally


breast


volume.


Increase


in oral


temperature


was


often


accompanied


increased


tactil


sensitivity,


and


self


-reports


increased


arousal


attention.


Lump


tection


improved


with


each


suc-


cessive


session.


In conjunction


with


changes


in breast


firm-


ness

BSE,


1200

and


2100


on each


hour

occass


would


the


BSE


optimal


several


time


to perform


examinations


should


be done


to maximi


tactil


discrimination.


Women


their


reproductive


year


showed


east


variability


during


post-


mens


trual


phase


which


was


also


time


lowest


breast


volume


The


criterion


used


identify


lump


-L


appeared


v













CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


All


process


behavior


sense


is dependent


data.


upon


Periodically


organism


occurring


ability


exogenous


cycles,


instance


those


temperature


photoperiods


and


numerous


modulators


our


endogenous


ability


biochemical


process


cycles,


sense


data.


are


potential


Behaviors


on which


endogenous


and/or


exogenous


cycles


impact


may


show


same


periodicity


that


characterizes


the


entrainer.


As both


endogenous


and


exogenous


entrainers


are


acting


simultaneously


behavior,


observed


behavioral


rhythmicity


may


complexly


determined


interactions


between


effects


two


entrainers,


and


may


difficult


titrate


the


effect


each


modulator.


Fluctuations


sensitivity


sensory


stimuli


will


have

and

the


a possible

development

performance


longterm


the o

tasks


impact


rganism,


which


and


senso


subsequent

immediate

ry acuity


maturation


effect


crucial.


Rhythmic


changes


receptivity


sensory


stimulation


that


occur


early


developmental


history


may


define


"critical


periods"


when


specific


magnitudes


of specific


stimuli


may


h -A ---- I a A~ w, ,n 4


I- ....z


mll eke,


r3 ItrA 1 A nm rr n 5


r I I___


k











that entail


perceptual


skills,


like


vigilence


in space


travel,


defense


strategies


that


require highly proficient


rapid


pro


cessing


visual


and auditory


data,


reading


braille


, (d)


deciphering


vibrotactile


communication


codes,


diagnostic uses of


palpation


that


require


fine


resolu-


tion


tactile


information,


will


particularly vulnerable


variations


ability to


make


these discrimination.


The method


palpation


one of


the oldest diagnostic


tools


used by


the medical


profession


and


layman.


The


increasing


prevalence of


easily


palpable cancers


accessed method


and


cancer


urgent


detection has


need


enhanced


importance of manual


self-examination


especially


the case


breast


cancer.


Identification


exogenous


and


endoge-


nous modulators


the


tactile discrimination


task


breast-


self-examination


(BSE)


can


help


to develop


strategies


maximi


zing


BSE proficiency


The most


extensively


investigated


behavioral


fluctuations


have been


those with


a 24


hour


or circadian


period.


Behaviors


with a


lower


frequency


fluctuation have also


been


described.


Fluctuations with approximately


a circasynodical


period have


been


those


that


parallel


hormonal


changes


during


the men-


strual


cycle.


A review


the demonstrated


variations


the


qon nrt7


~v 7 t pn


anti r01 a1- r


a1 1r nn


th0 nii rIn~ti


hPh~vi nrs











Circadian


Cycles


Numerous


animal


and


human


behaviors


show


very


definite


diurnal


and


nocturnal


patterns.


possible


dis-


cussion


this


section


will


be restricted


the


sensory


systems


and


to human


rather


than


animal


data.


Variations


each


sensory


systems


will


be discussed


separately


except


the


when t

nature


his


might


and/or


not


the


possible


number


or convenient


measurements


that


because

were


taken.


Finally


variations


performance


on a


variety


tasks


will


be discussed.


Investigations


of circadian


cyclicity


have


their


origins


discovery


effects


steroids


on sensory


thresholds,


and


cyclicity


the


secretion


steroids.


Richter


s (1965)


report


that


adrenalectomi zed


rats


were


hyper-


sensitive


salt


stimulated


observation


humans


with


similar


steroid


deficiencies.


Henkin


et al.


(1963)


found


that

tion


patients

showed t


with


aste


Addison


s disease


sensitivity


who


times


were


not


greater


on medica-


than


normal.


They


found


a similar


lowering


thresholds


sound


and


smell


(Henkin,


1970;


Henkin


et al.,


1967).


Observation


cyclic


variation


blood


lymphocytes


man


1946


Brown,


1962)


and


further


observation


that


this


paralleled


fluctuation


urine


17-ketosteroids


investigation


I


.&.


-- ---


- --


u~n










steroids


were


related


to circadian


variations


in adrenal


cortical


function:


control


subjects


with


Addison


s disease


showed


only


minor


fluctuations.


Audition.


Henkin


et al


(1967)


then


explored


pos-


sibility


variations


sensitivity


during


24-hour


cycle.


They


found


that


auditory


sensitivity


peaked


around


0300


hours


(time


cortical


steroid


trough)


people


who


went


to bed


at 23


hours.


After


0300


hours


there


was


a decrease


sensitivity


the


level


steroids


increased.


Again


during


day


steroids


declined


there


was


an increase


sens


itivity


around


1700-1900


hours.


But


although


the


patients


with


adrenal


cortical


insuffi


ciency


had


lowered


auditory


thresholds,


when


came


integration


speech


stimuli


there


was


gross


impairment


compared


the


performance


normal


subjects.


These


authors


suggested


that


lowered


steroid


level


facilitated


transmission


within


the


neuron


but


not


synapse


, resulting


heightened


sensitivity


but


lowered


ability


to perceive.


Vision.


Data


fluctuations


visual


sensitivity


have


come


from


research


originating


air


and


space


travel,


and


defense


strategies.


The


main


focus


these


experiments


was


performance


on complex


vigilance


tasks


with


little


analysis


- -


data


identify


whether


the


reported


behavioral


vari-


w w










2100


hours


1200


hours


, separated


a week)


The


subjects


were


allowed


carry


their


daily


activities


between


testing


sessi


ons


every


three


hours


They


found


best


performance


vigilance


and


auditory


task


between


1400-


1600


hours


and


performance


trough


between


0200


-0400


hours.


A similar


variability


in vigilance


reported


Frazier


et al.


1968)


whose


subjects


followed


a specified


daily


schedule


and


were


housed


during


the


testing


days


single


rooms.


Subj


ects


were


not


isolated


and


there


was


interaction


with


technicians


and


other


experimental


personnel.


They


were


cogni


zant


time


day.


Thus


in both


experiment


social


cues


were


present


which


have


been


shown


to be powerful


entrainers


human


rhythms


(Aschoff


et al.


, 1971;


Orth


Island,


1969).


Certain


animal


experiments


have


tried


isolate


sensi-


tivity


and


response


bias


effects


on circadian


variation.


Rosenwasser


Set al


S(1979)


found


that


both


visual


sensitivity


and


behavioral


activity


measured


showed


a circadian


variability


in rats.


The


Data


free-running


were


collected


rhythms


were


hourly


longer


from


than


rats


hours


day


both


rats


on both


measures.


In both


rats


reached


acrophase


more


than


an hour


before


acrophase


response


rate.


For


baboons


res


ponding


an auditory


stimulus


the


rhythms


detectabilit


v and rate


response


were


found


to be 180


degr


ees


_








Taction.


There


have


been


no direct


investigations


circadian


changes


tactile


seaitivity,


but


keeping


with


Kenshalo


1966)


suggestion


a relationship


between


vasodi-


lation


and


changes


skin


sensitivity


we will


examine


some


closely


related


literature.


Based


on the


observation


that


skin


reactions


intradermally


injected


histamine


vary


with


time


administration


and


that


corticosteroids


as well


biosynthesis


of histamine


seem


intervene


the


reac-


tion,


Reinberg


et al.


(1965)


investigated


possible


existence


skin


reactions


to histamine


that


parallel


the


adrenal


cir-


cadian


rhythm.


Their


subjects


were


adults


women


men)


who


were


tested


every


hours


hours.


Testing


was


begun


at a different


time


each


subject


to prevent


the


emergence


an artifactual


rhythm


due


faticrue


effects.


They


found


that


cases,


the


human


skin


reaction


to histamine


reached


a peak


around


time


lowest


exc


retion


17-hydro-


xycorticosteroids.


Similarly,


subjects


with


penicillin


allergy


had


their


biggest


reaction


to a pencillin


scratch


test


around


2300


hours.


These


obversations


raise


the question


whether


there


are


periods


high


stress


tolerance


and


periods


biological


vulnerability


stress.


more


slowly


developing


condition


like


carcinogen-induced


malignancy


also


showed


such


rhfy t hrhi ci ty~


(Mottram,


194:5)


Ina


within-subject


comparison


of effects


time


day


rats









Mitotic


counts


on human


mammary


cancers


showed


a prepon-


derance


an ultradian


Observation


cancer


had


the


rhythm


obliteration


past


superimposed


the


the


circadian


conclusion


that


circadian.


rhythm


in carcinomas


mitotic


activity


maintained


at a uniformly


high


rate


radiotherapy


effective


in rein


stating


the


circadian


rhythm


character


stic


healthy


epidermis.


A spectral


analysis


showed


that


radiotherapy


had


an effect


the


ultradian


com-


ponent


rhythm


and


furthermore


, by


implication,


that


this


was


probably


an effect


variation


radiosensitivity


cell during


life


(Garcia-Sainz


Halberg,


1966).


Task


Performance.


The


significance


fluctuations


sen-


sory


sensitivity


becomes


greater


found


impact


proficiency


in related


tasks.


Blake


(1967)


observed


performance


on 8


tasks


different


diurnal


times


consecutive


days.


Performance


on repetitive


tasks


improved


day


progressed


with


exception


digit


span


which


after


an initial


improve-


ment


started


to deteriorate.


Time


estimation,


contrary


Thor


(1962)


Akerstedt


and


findings

Froberg


did


(1976)


not


exhibit


collected


a diurnal


performance


Pattern.


, physio-


logical,


subjective


arousal


measures


during


a 24


hour


period.


Circadian


patterns


were


present


in adrenaline


excretion


and


oral


temperature


but


not


in noradrenaline,


pulse


rate,


and











Froberg


also


observed


no significant


differences


between


sub-


ects


classified


basis


a questionnaire


"morning


active


" and


evening


active


tapping


task


an ultradian


rhythm


approximat


ely


minutes


was


identified


femal


subj


ects.


This


rhythm


was


independent


ambient


and


body


temperature


and


hormonal


changes


during


menstrual


Podni


Dous


1976).


Cir


most


cadian


consistently


cyclic


ity


replic


phy


ated,


and


biological


there


variabi


a general


has


but


been


weak


relationship


between


oral


temperature


and


some


the


perfor-


mance


measures


Variations


in performance


proficiency


have


generally


been


difficult


to replicate.


Circasynodical


Cycles


The second

encountered in t


largest


infradian


literature


zeitgeber


lunar


most


cycl


frequently

or the


synodic


month,


equal


little


over


days


Behavioral


fluctuations


that


have


equency


appro


ximately


synodic


month


will


referred


to as circasynodic


cycles


The


name,


however


lunar


cyc


oes


not


imply


zeitgeber


that


but


onl


these


that


cycles


they


are


have


entrained


approximately


same


frequency


The


cir


casynodical


cycl


that


will


discussed


this


section


behavioral


variation


during










Variations


activity


levels


of rats


during


the


estrus


cycle


were


first


recorded


1927


. P.


Richter


(cited


Richter,


1965).


Activity


peaked


every


fourth


day,


10,000-


20,000


cycles


activity


drum,


and


dropped


inter-


evening


days


to 2


,000-4,000


cycles.


Ovulation


occurred


just


before


activity


peak.


Male


rats


did


not


show


these


activity


cycles.


In a sample


women,


Morris


and


Udry


(1970)


used


pedometers


to record


activity


variations


over


three


menstrual


cycl


es.


There


was


a mid-cycle


activity


peak


with


two


lesser


peaks


one


premenstrually


on day


and


second


menstrually


on day


Individual


variations


from


cycle


to cycle


were


large


and


pattern


emerged


only


after


averaging


across


cycles


adjusted


observation


first


28-day


made


cycle


on animals


length.


with


Another


subsequent


behavioral


confirmation


on humans


was


timing


of copulatory


behavior.


When


copula-


tion


was


observed


occur


during


estrus


in mammals


and


during


ovulation


question


primates


similar


(Michael


biologically


et al.,


1971),


adaptive


raised


behavior


humans.


Udry


Morris


(1968)


coll


ected


data


over


1,000


menstrual


cycles


, on


occurrence


intercourse


and


orgasm


from


women.


All


three


groups


women


(lower-middle-class


married,


upper-middle-class


married,


and


upper-middle-class


single)











rate


orgasm


was


due


physiological


dependence,


while


differences


rate


intercourse


reflected


greater


susceptibility


social


influence.


The


rate


orgasm


their


data


was


times


frequent


on day


was


on other


days


and


the


trough


occurred


on menstrual


cycle


days


and


A better


under


standing


the


likely


biological


may


changes


facilitated


conducive


the


to adaptive


identification


timing


copulation


changes


indivi


dual


sensory


stems.


Gustation.


In a cross-sectional


study


to chart


develop-


mental


taste


sensitivity


changes


in men


and


women,


both


sexes


were


found


to reach


maximal


sensitivity


between


and


years.


After


thi


age


the


rate


OSS


sensitivity


was


times


1964).


more


Once


rapid


more


in men


using


was


hydrochloric


in women


acid


(Kaplan


(HCL),


Fisher,


propyl


thiouracil


student


PROP),


and


nurses


quinine,


over


one


they


menstru


followed

al cycle


taste sensitivity

Taste sensi-


tivity


was


measured


every


days


Most


the


women (11-


-14).


_ had


increased


sensitivity


the


substances


during


menses;


women


during


this


same


phase


had


a decrease


sensitivity


while


the


rest


showed


no change.


Kaplan


and


Fisher


concluded


that


heterogeneity


their


findings


was


one


Tnnr0


i n~*anfl


hi nl nai cal


rhpv


rz Li trtl l;r f


not


i ndi nca


r^


& JL


I











entered


study


at different


times


their


menstrual


cycles


then


each


subject


would


arrive


the


identical


menstrual


phase


with


a different


amount


exposure


task.


The


lack


homogeneity


menstrual


time


effects


taste


sensi-


tivity


could


therefore


a reflection


individual


differences


amounts


of practice


task.


Wright


and


Crow


(1973)


obtained


preference


ratings


five


concentrations


different


phases


the


glucose


from


menstrual


groups


cycle.


women


their


during


between-


groups


design


women


during


the


post-ovulatory


phase


had


significantly


lower


mean


preference


rating


glucose


solutions

a similar


than

study


women

Dippe


during

1 and


other


Elias


phases

1980)


the


compared


cycle.


sweetness


preference


women


who


were


their


first,


second,


third


progestin


trimester


oral


pregnancy;


contraceptive


not


users


in menses;


low


or high


noncon-


traceptive


users,


but


diff


erent


phases


menstrual


cycle.


Approximately


80-8


pregnant


women,


group


of noncontrace


ptive


users


during


the


post


menstrual-


preovulatory


phase


pref


erred


concentrations


solu-


tions.


Low


progestin


oral


contraceptive


users


rated


higher


concentrations


solutions


more


favorably


Group


ahnvAt


ia nomnarable


Wriah


and


Crow


sample


women


and


V


LU LIIL


I


.











phase


when


Dippel


and


Elias


report


a decrease


the


con-


centrations


preferred


about


their


women,


Wright


Crow


observed


no difference.


Finally


, among


a group


hypophysectomized


time


women


observation,


on cortisone


reported


replacement


a decrease


therapy


oss


sense


smell


and


taste


s t-operatively


(Schon,


1958)


These


data


again


implicate


hormonal


mediation


olfaction


gustation,


but


they


still


do not


isolate


the


differential


ects


the


relevant


hormones


nor


explicate


mechanism


mediation.


summari


Kaplan


and


Fisher


tested


the


same


women


several


times


over


one


menstrual


cycle


and


found


that


a little


over


half


the


women,


ere


was


an increase


taste


sensitivity


during


the


time


of decrease


in endogenous


hormon


es.


contrary


hypohysectomized


women,


also


with


reductions


circulating


hormones


, experienced


a decrease


sensitivity


When


there


a dramatic


elevation


proges-


terone


due


pregnancy,


women


had


a greater


preference


for


concentrations


sugar


solutions


Conversely,


women


taking


low


progestin


oral


contraceptives


showed


a significantly


higher


pref


erence


higher


concentrations


the


sugar


solu-


tions


while


women


taking


high


progestin


oral


contracepti


ves


eInT7O r'- C'~ f


crao4-TnOc a


nra f Pr rn r 0


ch;i fj.


fi ffr TPnr ^s


c~ k nrlta ~










during


pregnancy


dep


dresses


estrogen


effectiveness


and


depresses


sugar


preference


(Dippel


Elias,


1980) ,


s this


depr

the


session

scale


due


increased


preference


has


gustatory


shifted


sensitivity


lower


that


concentrations


because


an aversion


to higher


sugar


concentrations


suggest


ted


Wright


and


Crow


findings)


does


ead


to a general


increase


in gustatory


sensitivity


then


prediction


Kaplan


and


sher


sample


would


that


greater


sensitivity


would


occur


postovulatory-premen-


strual


phase


This


was


not


found.


may


that


preference


rankings


have


little


to do


with


thresholds


sensitivity.


Animal


data,


virtue


permitting


superior


expert


mental


control,


are


answer


some


these


questions.


Female


adult


rats


show


a greater


preference


saccharin


than


mal


rats;


a preference


that


appears


to be


related


to hormones


secreted


the


ovaries


Ovariectomized


rats


showed


a signifi-


cant


drop


in saccharin


preference


but


when


injected


with


estradiol


benzoate


and


progesterone,


once


more


showed


preovariectomy


However


level


relationship


saccharin


between


preference


saccharin


(Zucker,


preference


1969).


and


leve


estradiol


benzoate


and


progesterone


does


not


seem


to be


one-to-one.


Castrat


ed mal


rats


had


a slightly


greater


preference


sacc


harin


than


did


intact


male


rats


, but


when











Olfaction.


Le Magnen,


his


classic


work


area


olfaction


(cited


Money


Ehrhardt,


1972)


observed


that


after


puberty,


women


showed


greater


sensitivity


than


men


children


smell


of musk


and


some


urinary


steroids.


This


sensitivity


was


lost


after


ovariectomy,


but


regained


when


treated


with


estrogen.


Using


citral,


Schneider


and


Wolf


(1955)


found


that


women


, during


menstruation,


had


significantly


higher


threshold


than


women


the


intermen-


strual

lower


phase.

threshold


They

than


also

men.


found t

Since


hat


they


women


had


found


a significantly


that


subjects


with


nasal


obstructions


had


a higher


threshold,


they


postulated


that


higher


threshold


found


among


menstruating


women


may


be due


to nasal


congestion


known


sometimes


accompany


men-


struation.


In a subsequent


testing


this


hypothesis,


Schneider


et al.


(1957)


observed


the


relationship


between


nasal


mucous


membrane


and


olfactory


threshold


hypogonadal


women.


Two


the


women


who


were


put


on estrogen


treatment


showed


a lowering


their


sensory


thresholds,


and


hormonal


effects


were


reflected


their


urinary


excretions


(gonadotropin


and


17-ketosteroid


the


third


sub-


ject


who


was


put


on androgen


therapy


showed


a decrease


acuity.


They


concluded


that


there


was


a positive


correlation


n rv/rrt- 4 nnc


n;~ rnrran


=Inrt


nlf~rih r11


kalw~an


~kaC


~rli Ctt


-i ri -











fact,


there


are


human


pheremones,


one


would


expect


cyclical


changes


in sensitivity


to them,


but


not


necessarily


to other


olfactory


stimuli.


Vierling


and


Rock


(1967)


tried


examine


this


possibility.


They


used


exal-


tolide


that


Le Magnen


had


used


earlier


and


found


cyclical


sensitivity


the


part


student


nurses


tested


times


during


their


menstrual


cycles.


Their


data


are


presented


as a composite


cycle


mean


scores.


These


authors


also


found


that


neither


smoking


nor


respiratory


infection


had


significant


tivity


on day


occurred


(the


effect

on day


luteal


the

(the


phase).


threshold.

follicular


Vierling


The


peak


phase)


Rock


and


point


sensi-

another


out


that


exaltolide


found


not

but


human


excrete it.

adult males


mimics


compound


urine,


presence


excrete


androst-16-en


furthermore


is variable


approximately


twice


that


-ol which


children


during


adolescence


as much


adult


females


indicating


that


a likely


male


pheremone.


Vision.


Kopell.


et al.


(1969)


determined


two


flash


threshold


women


on menstrual


cycle


day


and


over


two


cycles.


The


duration


of each


the


two


flashes


was


tested,


millisecond.


subjects


Presumably,


were


tested


photopic


a room


vision


with


was


"constant


Si nh i A''


SVn<*ri mmnI-^r


an nni-


ronnr+-


. I i ,


'Ilhp


intP rtf ;I 1


I |II-












before


Higher


each


testing


threshold


session


values


were


and


assayed


reported


cortisol


during


the


levels.


premenstrual


phase.


The


group


mean


threshold


values


approached


significance


during


this


phase


and


there


was


a significant


negative


corre-


lation


with


plasma


cortisol


levels.


Diamond


et al.


(197


determined


luminosity


threshold


detection


a bri


light


four


women


with


normal


menstrual


cycles.


Women


were


ted


once


a week


weeks.


Heightened


probable


time


visual


sensitivity


ovulation


and


was


observed


following.


They


during


also


observed


sharp


drop


sensitivity


during


menstruation.


A similar


change


was


not


found


women


taking


oral


contra-


ceptives


each


men.


subject


However,


s position


no attempt


menstrual


was


made


cycle,


identify


and


as-


sumption


that


pooling


individual


scores


from


same


men-


strual


phase


would


reflect


characteristics


unique


respective


phase


the


menstrual


cycle


is untenable.


There


no evidence


the


literature


support


such


pooling


data:


anything,


there


suggestion


hetero-


geneity,


and


the


case


such


a small


sample


(n=4)


this


practice


is even


less


valid.


Barris


et al.


(1977)


with


better


experimental


control,


measured


photopic


and


scotopic


a -- 1- 9 -1


r


* q *


S ~ ~ 9 -


^


11











were


tested


during


three


consecutive


cycles,


while


three


were


followed


only


one


Barris


et al


reported


deer


ease


number


scotopic


visual


ses


threshold


detected


and


on day


increase


four


the


testing


estimated


day


ovulation)


No changes


photopic


thres-


hold


were


found.


Since


there


was


significant


flu


ctuation


visual


sens


itivity


mal


control


, and


alarm


ratio


femal


subjects


on all


the


day


testing,


was


not


significant,


Barri


et al


concluded


that


varl


ability


found


female


subj


ects


was


not


fatigue


practi


effect,


but


a sensitivity


change.


Taction.


Changes


cutaneous


thresholds


during


the


menstrual


cycle


have


been


examined


more


tematically


animals


, espec


ially


genital


area.


femal


rats


subcutaneous


injections


-ug)


estadiol


benzoate


(EB)


every


other


day


during


four


week


testing


produced


significant


increase


the


sensory


field


the


pudendal


nerve


as compared


that


untreated


controls


(Komisaruk


et al


, 1973).


Kow


and


Pfaff


(1973)


have


reported


similar


incr


eases


with


stemic


estrogen


treatment.


This


question


raised


estion


generality


these


effects


do other


skin


areas


also


show


similarly


heightened


sensitivity


Bereiter


and


Barker


(1975)


peripherally


measured


facial


recep-










experiment


until


reliable


lordosis


response


to a mal


rat


was


and


observed.


showed


The


such


control


response


group


received


a mounting


mal


sections


In order


verify


further


whether


these


changes


were


due


to central


perpheral


hormone


-level


changes


they


section


trigeminal


nerve


root


in some


preparations.


They


found:


that


rats


showed


increase


rece


ptive


eld


areas


and


lower


thresholds;


and


there


was


no difference


between


groups


with


and


without


Vth


nerve


cut.


They


concluded


that


influence


estrogen


tactil


sensitivity


a general


phenomenon


not


restrict


to body


areas


contacted


mal


during


mating


similar


acute


experiment


Bereiter


and


Barker


(1980)


determined


the


time


course


hormone


induced


enlargement


rece


ptive


field


areas


In ovariectomized


rats


admini


stered


for


, or


days


there


was


maximal


enlargement


receptive


fields


after


day


Castrated


mal


rats


given


days


EB al


had


similar


increases


receptive


fields


Ovariectomize


d rats


admini


stered


progesterone


10 day


day


after


day


showed


Increases


receptive


areas


although


latter


group


there


was


induction


lordo


In normal


untreated


rats


receptive


eld


area


increased


during


estrus


and


decreased


during


estrus.


Observation of


such


changes


during


the estrus


helped











also


showed


some


increases


in receptive


fields;


these


changes


were


accompanied


increased


blood


serum


leve


1 of


that


was


comparable


that


rats


admini


stered


EB 2 of


days


They


interpret


indicative


a poss


conversion


testosterone


to estrogen.


Their


series


experiments


helped


to establi


that


hormone


induced


receptive


field


enlargement


was


specific


to estrogen.


Human


data


unfortunately


are


not


so unequivocal


Herren


(193


measured


point


thresholds


pain


and


touch


absolute


threshold


women


with


regular


cycl


coll


acting


data


from


cycles


all.


found


a within


subject


variation,


with


greater


sensitivity


during


the


luteal


phase


(testing


days


before


onset


menses)


than


follicular


phase


days


after


the


onset


menses


The


stati


stical


significance


diff


erence


was


not


calculat


and


no measurements


hormonal


changes


were


reported.


Thirty


years


later


Kenshalo


(1966)


demonstrated


a change


the


cool


threshold


during


the


menstrual


cycle.


When


skin


was


adapted


over


degrees


centigrade


the


cool


threshold


was


significantly


larger


during


the


follicular


phase


than


luteal


phase.


For


instance


in Subject


with


skin


adapted


degrees


centrigrade,


there


was


an approximate


tm a n


mnh


a. -


I I' 11(1 i r


- rA a


I r*


4-ho


trfln


*hraochn l a


finn,


ihJo


fn114-l











vasodilation


and


lowering


cool


threshold.


women


who


were


administered


progesterone


derivatives


from


found


an increase


in cool


sensitivity


ovulation


had


occurred.


Robinson


and


Short


(1977)


measured


sensitivity


to pain


two-point


discrimination


thresholds


2-RL)


breast


area


prepubertal 1


boys


and


girls,


nulliparous


women,


preg-


nant


women


during


pre-


and


postpartum,


and


men.


There


were


no prepubertal


differences


between


the


boys


and


girls.


Between


adult


men


and


women


there


was


no difference


pain


thresholds


but


women


were


significantly


more


sensitive


than


men


on 2-RL.


Rhythmic


fluctuations


2-RL


in women


during


the


normal


men-


strual


cycle


were


significant.


Maximal


sens


itivity


occurred


immediately


prior


or during


menses,


and


out


cycles


there


was


also


a peak


during


ovulation.


Although


varia-


tions


pain


sensitivity


were


present,


there


was


considerable


variability


frequency


and


phase


occurrence


peaks.


Under


oral


contraceptives


there


was


no midcycle


peak


2-RL


but


there


was


a peak


during


menses.


Pain


thresholds


showed


little


variability.


During


prepartum


there


was


significant


increase


2-RL


such


an extent


that


often


could


not


determined.


Immediately


after


parturition


sensitivity


very


anr~n


m1-.-rr


A%FA 4; 4-


i ni rr t


nrr: nlr 1 rt


nk ~ ~n nh n


~.th Y" h











decreasing


hormones


at ovulation,


menses,


and


parturition.


An examination


hormonal


changes


these


times


indi


cates


that


at ovulation,


although


estrogens


are


the


decline


there


increasing


trend


in proge


sterone


a brief


four


ve-


fold


increase


luteni


zing


hormone


; during


menses


three


hormones


are


low,


and


during


postpartum


there


a rapid


decline


eve


prog


esterone


but


there


are


high


eve


prolactin


and


oxytocin.


Animal


preparations


have


consistently


demonstrate


increa


ses


in cutaneous


sensi


tivity


with


admini


station


estradiol


benzoate.


This


increased


sens


itivity


had


been


identify


in sexual


and


nonsexual


skin


regions.


likely


that


breast


comes


under


the


comply


influence


a multiplicity


hormones


and


increases


in its


sensitivity


some


cannot


the


simple


hormones;


stically


related


moreover,


to decreases


possible


that


hormones


could


have


opposite


effects


at different


level


concentration


as well


as different


effects


the


presence


other


modulating


hormones.


Kenshalo


(1966)


found


in pr


eliminary


research


that


cutaneous


vibratory


sensations


did


not


show


any


stematic


changes


during


menstrual


cycle


According


to Dies


pecker


Koloktroni


(1971)


however


, vibratory


changes


occur


mlk aty


4-ac, 4-A aiih4nr.4- an fl hrPritrn 4-rcr t


o n~rn inrT


r -f


rlrlr; nrr


Cneiarl


fllctr


clrhi arf a











days


prior


to onset


menstruation.


The


cycle


regu-


larity


each


subject


was


not


determined


before


testing


Intra-individual


changes


during


cycle


were


not


compared


but


between-group


comparisons


were


made


without


statisti-


cally


adequa te


number


subjects


each


group.


A circadian


and


a circasynodic


variation


body


volume


have


been


recorded.


Kroetz


(1940)


observed


a diurnal


fluctua-


tion


the


volume


the


foot


and


the


lower


third


leg.


The


volume


reached


a minimum


between


o010L0


hours


and


0900


hours


and


rose


during


waking


hours.


Ingleby


(1949),


During


(1955),


and


Nassar


and


Smith


(1975),


each


used


a different


method


measure


breast


volume


over


menstrual


cycle.


All


three


studies


found


minimum


breast


volume


occur


during


follicular


phase


and


the


maximum


volume


during


the


luteal


phase


just


prior


onset


menstrual


flow.


There


was


also


indications


a possible


mid-cycle


ovulatory


increase


in breast


volume.


demonstra-


ting


that


breast


volume


changes


during


oral


contraceptive


con-


trolled


menstrual


cycles


paralleled


changes


during


the


normal


cycle


, Milligan


et al.


(1975)


lend


further


support


hypothesis


that


changes


during


the


menstrual


cycle


are


probably


progesterone


induced.


Percentual-Motor


Performance.


The


hvnothesis


that


cir-











phase


while


the


proficiency


trough


should


occur


during


the


progestenic


luteal


phase


Hutt


et al


(1980)


tested


women


on a ser


choice


reaction


time


task.


Digits


were


presented


three


zes


increasing


range.


Stimulus


presentation,


subject


response


and


reaction


time


were


automatically


recorded.


Subj


ects


were


tested


during


preflow,


flow,


and


and


day


after


cessation


flow


during


menstrual


cycl


Each


woman


received


practice


sess


ions


prior


to her


entry


into


the


study


and


achieved


proficiency


error


leve


women


entered


study


during


their


follicular


phase


and


other


entered


study


during


their


luteal


phase


Only


measurements


over


one


complete


cycle


were


used


for


data


analy


ses.


second


study


was


done


which


women


who


were


under


observation


in a general


hospital


eir


complaint


pre-


menstrual


tension


served


subjects.


All


women


had


other-


wise


normal


menstrual


cycles


The


training


procedures


were


identical


those


described


above


All


women


were


tested


times


a week


continuous


wee


One


subj


ect


completed


only


sessions


and


a seco


subject


completed


sessions.


On each


test


day


blood


sample


were


taken


from


each


subject


and


analysed


eve


of lutenizing


hormone,


estrogen


nrflfl0


1-rnnP


Tn both


studies


means


trual


phase


did


not


siqnifi-


.-


I











between


levels


the


three


measured


hormones


and


perfor-


mance


ranged


from


.49,


none


reached


significance


the


level.


Although


sample


was


small


this


study


each


subject


provided


7200


readings


and


still


intra-


individual


change


could


be related


to hormonal


activity.


Earlier


use


this


task


had


shown


to be


sensitive


physiological


influences


and


individuals


receiving


varying


amounts


practice


similar


task


had


gone


show


further


gains


proficiency


(decreases


in reaction


time).


Accordingly,


difficult


attribute


lack


effect


difficulty


level


task


or the


level


proficiency


subjects.


Breast-Self-Examination


(BSE)


Cancer


breast


leading


cancer


cause


leading


death


cause


the


cancer


Occident


death


women.


According


1980


Statistical


abstract


United


States,


1978,


134,1000


women


ages


45-64


years


died


breast


cancer


and


estimated


that


1 out


women


will


develop


breast


cancer.


One


woman


dies


breast


cancer


every


17 minutes


(Holleb,


1974).


The


National


Cancer


Institute


reports


that


nearly


the


1 million


Americans


who


now


develop


cancer


each


year


can


expect


to be











encourage


practice


- the


early


compelling


detection


intuitive


procedures


appeal


the


only


idea


because


that


tection


early


cancer


will


be rewarding


(Cole


Morrison


1980,


1263)


as data


coming


from


Italy


(Bonadonna,


1980


dicate


that


early


detection


can


mean


less


extensive


surgery,


an improved


adjuvant


chemotherapy


plan,


and


a better


prognosis.


Every


breast


cancer


detection


method


has


both


eloquent


advocate


and


equally


eloquent


adversary.


Mammography


has


been


lauded


ability


to detect


early


lesions


long


be-


fore


they


become


palpable.


large


scale


study


that


com-


pared


mammography


and


palpation,


two


fifths


cancers


that


were


detected


palpation


were


not


seen


x-rays


Both


screening


methods


had


comparable


error


rates


with


pal-


pation


doing


slightly


better


than


mammography


(Shapiro


et al.,


1971).


Despite


fact


that


mammograms


can


now


taken


with


very


low


levels


radiation


a breast


dose


low


rad,


can,


after


years,


produce


new


cases


per


million


women,


per


year


2. Mammography


valuable


screening


method


only


women


over


years


hapiro


et al.,


1971


and


fortunately


sus-


ceptibility


cancer


due


radiation


exposure


decreases


with


increasing


also


age


time


an expensive


exposure


screening


pro


(Feig,


cedure.


1977).


Two


Mammography


mammographic


'r71 42 q


hrPa ~t


'I i IInmP ~


F~i CS


wnn 1 d


cort


S160f


I 1 I


m


P~ rh


ilS


m


i


Ii V











aged


years


Feig


estimated


detection


benefit


would


per


1,000


or put


in other


terms


per


160,000


investment.


Wolfe


(1974)


found


that


at least


tumors


sample


brea


cancer


patients


were


palpable


and


those


that


fell


between


and


c ini


diameter


could


detected.


a comparison


between


BSE


and


palpation


the


physician


Theissen


(1971)


concluded


that


BSE


was


more


likely


to be effective


when


the


woman


s breasts


were


small


small


medium,


and


pendulous


rather


than


firm.


On the


contrary


palpation


physician


was


equally


effective


across


dif-


ferent


breast


character


stics.


The


fact


still


remains


that


over


the


breast


cancer


lumps


are


discovered


the


woman


first


(Lei


, 1977).


Improve-


ments


woman


s BSE


proficiency


can


only


enhance


her


detection

it is cost


skill


Profi


effective


ciency

access


in BSE


can


all,


eas


whi


ily


acquired,


sugge


that


greater


attention


should


paid


to research


directed


at improving


training,


timing,


and


dissemination


BSE.


BSE


involves


lateral


movements


the


fingers


over


breast


tissue


palpatingg)


and


the


development


the


ability


identify


a mass


that


is unusual


either


firmness


or si


cir'h


C~~~~flfln f'~ U l-II* I


frnm


raq4-


hr0r :-c


r


th~f


r(~n


1


1


| l ,


I


1 | I,--*


ill I II











differential


change


suspicious


mass.


Accordingly,


is a


task


that


potentially


would


influenced


changes


cutaneous


sensitivity


and


routine


changes


the


palpable


character


stics


brea


During


premens


trual


menstrual


phases


there


a heightening


breast


natural


nodularity


due


to engorgement


the


breasts


time.


Haagensen


1971)


recommends


the


best


time


self


examine


immediately


after


menstrual


phase


when


these


phy


biological


effects


are


a minimum.


From


literature


reviewed


we already


know


that


breast


undergoes


volumetric


changes


during


the


menstrual


cycle


, there


also


a likelihood


variations


tactile


sensitivity


and


perception


but


how


stematic


these


fluctua-


tions


are


and


how


they


may


impact


upon


tactile


detection


task


like


BSE


an empirical


que


stion.


The


objective


study


was


to describe


intra-individual


circadian


C1rca-


synodical


variations


tactile


sens


itivity


and


breast


volume


with


concommitant


measurement


the


individual


s percep-


tion


firmness


and


nodularity


her/his


breast,


and


individual


s ability


to detect


simulated


breast


lumps


embedded


breast


models


increasing


complexity.













CHAPTER


EXPERIMENT


: CIRCADIAN


CYCLE


A pilot


experiment


was


conducted


to refine


design


apparatus


details


pertaining


recording


circadian


fluctuations


proficiency


on active


and


passive


touch


tasks.


dependent


measures


were


oral


temperature,


firmness,


breast


(passive


with


during


tissue


touch)


movement


search


absolute


and


(active


breast


threshold


measures


touch)


mode


: (a)


and


touch


cutaneous


minimum


with


sens


lump


roughness


no movement


itivity


detected


discrimina-


tion.


Method


Subjects


Four


unpaid


volunteers


dextral


women


and


sini


stral


man,


participated


the


experiment.


They


ranged


age


from


years


age.


The


three


women


were


grad-


uate


student


the


man


was


an assistant


prof


essor.


All


four


were


sophi


sticated


the


conduct


and


participation


kind


experimental


procedures


used


s study.


Apparatus.


A centigrade


clinical


thermometer


grad-


uated


an accuracy


0.1C


was


used


take


oral


temperature


Firmness


breast


tissue


was


measured


with


the










test

the


head

metal


was

rod


a 1.28

passed


cm diameter


through


cylinder


an opening


with


flat


each


two


end.

flat


metal


plates


that


were


cm apart.


arrangement


helped


to hold


rod


in an erect


sition.


The


upper


end


the


was


fitted


with


a mm scal


A remote


sighting


telescope


(Eberback


Corp.,


Detroit,


Michigan


was


placed


at a di


stance


comfortable


experimenter


and


focused


the


scale.


The


test


head


was


lowered


breast


tissue, weighted ard defor-


mation


tissue


was


read


off


scal


50.0


, 150.0,


, 350


, 450.0,


550.0


An adaptation


the


Von


Frey


hairs


was


used


creases


affects


diameter


reaction


the


time


stimulus


stimulation


nylon


(Lele


fiber


et al.,


inversely


1954)


Accordingly,


diameter


was


kept


constant


and


amount


pressure


applied


was


manipulated


changes


the


filament


length.


A 0


mm diameter


monofilament


was


used.


The


length


filament


ranged


from


mm at


mm step


intervals


The


pressure


appli


ed ranged


from


600.0


to 72.0


with


a minimum


step


interval


18.0


and


a maximum


130.0

mined


mg.

with


The

the


pressure


exerted
a


a strain


monofilament


gauge


Statham


was


Instrum.


deter-

Inc.,


Angeles


, California


40064)


The strain


gauge


was


connected


an amplifier


and


then


to a graphic


recorder


(Varian


Asso











a pin


vise.


Stereotaxic


fixtures were


used


to position


this


filament


perpendicularly


above


contact


surface of


strain


gauge.


A graduated millimeter


scale on


the


stereo-


taxic arm helped


to lower


the


filament


at a constant rate


through measured


distances.


Ten readings were


taken at


each


levels


contact:


at contact,


0.5 mm,


1.0 mm,


2.0 mm,


and


3.0 mm lower.


Amounts


pressure


exerted by


the mono-


filaments


at each


point were calculated by referring


back


calibration data.


Previously developed


procedures


(Madden


et al.,


1978)


were


used


to make


cm radius


hemispherical breast model


with a


volume of


250 ml.


Cancer


lumps were


simulated by steel


ball


bearings with diameters


0.4,


0.8,


1.0,


1.6,


2.4,


3.2 mm.


Commercially


Flexi-grit,


available


Industries,


abrasive


Philadelphia,


coated


polyester


Pennsylvania


19132)


was


used


task of


magnitude


estimation


roughness with


active


touch.


The


9 grit


sizes


presented


were


0.5,


1.5,


8.0,


15.0,


23.0,


24.0,


and


82.0 mic.


The


sheets of


abrasive


surfaces


were


cut and


inserted


into


plastic


holders


that


exposed


a 3.2


cm diameter


circular


grit


surface.


Procedure.


Subjects were


tested


once every


hours


I r1nn- i nnnii c


nr-Oi nil


hniirs


S tar


t i mes


Li, a j %-l,-I


test


I J I


/w


1. J .











different

occas ibon


session


on subs


time


to randomize


equent


test


effects


*occasion/


preceding


Efforts


test


were


made


to minimally


disrupt


natural


day


and


night


activity


None


femal


subj


ects


smok


ed and


the


mal


subject


was

test


not


permitted


session.


Coffee,


smoke

tea,


at least


any


15 minutes


alcoholic


prior


beverage


was


not


permitted


starting


one


hour


prior


session


time.


Testing


was


conducted


in a quiet


room


leading


off


from


a larger


central


area.


was


seated


comfortably


front


a small


table


Across


middle


table,


a black


elt


screen


was


set


to prevent


visual


cues.


Slits


screen


permitted


pass


her/his


hand


through


Experimenter


side


screen


Oral


temperature


s oral


temperature


was


taken


beginning


each


sess


ion.


Whil


S sat


the


chair


thermometer


was


placed


sublingually


at 1


east


5 minutes


and


then


E record


temperature


total


oral


temperature


readings


were


recorded


each


the


test


times.


Lower


absolute


pressure


threshold


S next


passed


her/his


nonpreferred


hand


through


screen


and


rested


the


hand


bee


had


s wax


hand


a bed


mold.


the


The


index


mold


was


finger


custom


The


hand


made


was


each


placed


S and


with


palmer


surface


facina


and


mall


bride


across


fincrer


mold


- a


L. ..


I











ball


index


finger.


The method of


constant


stimuli


was


used


apply


series


"Von Frey


hairs.


Each


session


comprised


sets


trials


at each


pressure.


Four


trials


each


sented.

"Ready"


set were


The onset

which was


catch


trials


each


followed


during which no


trial

after


was


stimulus was


signalled by


a variable


pre-


an oral


interval


seconds


by the


stimulus.


was


instructed


to respond


after


the


sec


ond


stimulus


interval


with


a oral


"yes"


stimulus was


felt,


or a


"no "


stimulus was


felt.


the male


subject


over


one


cycle both


preferred


and nonpreferred hands were


tested


verify


bilaterality


tactile


sensitivity.


Data


over


8-13


cycles


were


collected


from


nonpreferred hand


and


cycle on


the


pre-


ferred


hand.


Roughness discrimination:


was


always


first


presented


with


anchor


stimuli


grit


sizes


.5 and


6.0 microns


which


were explicitly


designated


and


respectively.


The


com-


prison


stimuli


were


presented


randomly


one


at a


time


task was


test


to make an


surface


estimate


in comparison


roughness magnitude of


constantly present anchor


stimuli.


was


instructed


use


the


index


finger


the non-


preferred


hand


was


also


told


that


anchors did not define


limits


range of


roughness magnitude and


estimations


.. -


"- -


'











Data


were


gathered


over


one


cycle


preferred


hand


mal


subject,


and


total


cycles


were


gathered


nonpreferr


ed hand


all


subj


ects.


Lump


detection


The


breast


mod


had


soft,


smooth,


gelatinous


interior.


The


lump


simulations


were


affixed


self-adhesive


foam


pad


and


model


was


placed


The


breast


model


simulated


nonnodular


postmenopausal


or very


young


breasts


, and


simulated


lumps


represented


late


cancers


adhered


the


chest


wall


The


lump


size


with


whi


session


began


and


the


radial


sition


the


lumps


unde


rneath


model


were


randomly


varied


from


trial


trial.


During


each


stimulus


trial


only


one


lump


was


made


available.


Approximately


trial


were


catch


trial


when


lumps


were


present.


were


not


restricted


to a specific


search


pattern


finger


topography,


instructions


were


to start


the


search


the


click of


stop


watch


and


stop


when


she/he


heard


the


ck again.


was


allowed


one


minute


search


model.


Lump


finds


were


orally


indicated


and


was


asked


to hold


her


finger


spot


until


E had


verified


response.


tracking


procedure


fixed


step


intervals


was


used


to establish


search


proficiency.


During


an ascending


seri


I; .ra


l flfl


- I I


C


, .7


nf Plh


.IxAn


flnn.S0nh1*i VP


rflrrPr!1


tr~;ll











Firmness


breast


tissue


This


was


last


measure


taken


during


each


test


session.


was


supine


during


measurements


was


positioned


such


that


probe


the


measuring


devi


was


perpendicular


to S'


chest


wall


The


probe


was


lower


ed directly


a to


nipple.


Before


probe


was


lowered


was


instructed


inhale


and


hold


her


breath


during


measurement


procedure


as normal


breathing


movements


interfered


mation


with


breast


accuracy


tissue


was


the


firmness


recorded


twi


readings


Defor-


each :;f ithe 6


weights


50.0,


150.0,


and


total


measurements


were


obtained


each


test


times


Results


Data


were


reduced


entered


into


IBM


5120


computer.


They


were


stored


on di


scs


easy


access


and


analy


ses


Subj


ects


' circadian


temperature


did


not


appear


to be


affected


at which


ambient


circadian


temperature,


measurement


nor


procedures


clock


were


time


started


specific


subject.


The


group


mean


temperature


peaked


at 1500


house after


which


ere


was


a steady


decline


The


test


stati


stic


df=7


, 57)


was


significant


at p<0


.01)


Punctate


pressure


thresholds


were


graphically


det


ermined
























SCn


N Co
W4iCd


V U)1
'Ua,~
(d 0
rHUrQ
U) 0) 'U -H
'-p Q1rJl


$-flctI*


-Ii 4J
1)a
w.Qjw Ir
-wwwy C
Cfl S-i

4O .COE
















































E
en

~uJ


It
Dw.






























tol


mw ,Qrd d
Eu a,
,cfl OW





Wort C rd
(~O


0) .0)0d
I d rH WW
~P 3 C.)
r4m 4JW

H4-40,CQ





a, a
'-4 rl
U,)
*r43





































MILLIGRAMS


SUBJECTIVE
SCALE
VALUE


apa


"-


t n


Sw vs\r1


BhlUaarns


GRAMS











which


measurements


were


taken.


Group


means


and


standard


errors


are


presented


in Figure


III.


The


same


group


data


are


pres


ented


as maximum


coeffecients


Figure


Maximum


coeff


ecients


were


derived


representing


each


mean


score


a ratio


lowest


mean


score


obtain


parti


cular


dependent


variable


during


circadian


cycl


session

among m


scal


times.


means


Thus,


is provide


magnitudes


are


a common

ed, even

involved


metric

though


the


for

units


various


comparing


vastly


raw


variability

differing


measures.


The


rationale of


this


method


evaluating


variability


been


discussed


length


Johnston


and


Pennypacker


(1980)


Sensitivity


the


pressure


stimulus


varied


from


test


occasion


test


occasion


and


subject


subject


Two


subj


ects


had


their


lowest


threshold


(increased


sensitivity)


during


0900


hour


sess


and


their


highest


threshold


(decreased


sens


itivity)


0000


hour


The


other


subj


ects


had

the


their

lowest


maximum


sensitivity


sensitivity


the


0300


1200


hour


hour


session.


Session

These


and

trends


were


more


apparent


in one


subj


ect


in each


pair


than


other.


It is possible


then


that


are


observing


a cyc


with


approximately


hour


frequency


with


peak


and


trough


occurring


hours


apart.


See


Figures


and


II which


nr a e an *


i nrr o


ciil-ri


0fl~t


ras1-a?


and


F mur.


A- A--I-- '-S- O-


data)


L


I


C:























U) H(
CdC



mOCcO
Q) CWQ)~



dHHC Q...

Qd ) 4.'m


0 1)


too
Wm C- i-i


oc~w


"-O




ca.
rzk






















SUBJECTIVE


GRAMS


VALUE


SCALE


,1



























4IM
4-l IQQ-
0 0


owir


rdW


C3 a)
Ud OU)




























I I


I I


I I











was


considered


critical


size


and


estimations


this


size


over


24 hour


cycle were compared.


It was


felt


that a


size nearer

was more li


the middle of


kely to


the


susceptible


range

: to


zes


sensitivity


presented

y fluctuations.


However


systematic


trend was


observed


in any


the


sub-


jects.


To measure


applied was


breast


subtracted


firmness


from


the deformation


deformation


at each weight


previous


weight applied.


to calculate


The


scale of


number


deformation


grams


required


arrived


produce


at was used


a defor-


mation


cm.


Once more


an intermediary value was


chosen


to maximize


effect


any,


variations


the


firmness


of breast


tissue.


This measure was


affected by


the amount


inhaled by


and how well


was


able


to hold


the air


inside


lungs during


the measurement


procedure.


The data


from subject


subject


showed random or no


fluctuation.


Data


the detection


a lump


a breast model


were


collected


only


from


subjects


during


one


cycle each.


The


smallest


lump


size


was


detected


during


the


0900


and


the


0600


hour


sess


ions with


lump


searches


at all


other


times


being


less


proficient.


However


these data


can


only


seen


sug-


gestive of


systematic


fluctuations


proficiency.













CHAPTER III


EXPERIMENT


CIRCADIAN


CYCLE


Since


Experiment


had not


revealed


systematic dif-


ferences


between measurements


two


hands,


subse-


quent


testing


on cutaneous


sensitivity was


restricted


to only


one hand.


All


observations were conducted


on Ss'


nonpreferred


hand,


since


this


hand,


due


less


expected usage,


was more


likely


to stay


intact


over


the multiple


test


occasions


The


previous


data


also


indicated


that


testing


cycles


that


started with


0900


hours session


time were


least


disrup-


tive and most acceptable


subject;


accordingly


testing


was


begun at


the


0900


hours session


time.


Ss' eating


and


sleeping patterns


possible


between


avoid


session


systematic


times were


confounding


varied


these


as much

influences.


There was


some question


to how much


the


variability


Ss' performance was due


variability


in E's


proficiency,


so a completely


automated


procedure


for measuring


cutaneous


threshold


skin


stretch was


added.


Instead


of breast


firmness measures


breast


volume measures were obtained.


body weight was


recorded


at least


twice


during


each


cycle


monitor


any weight


losses


or gains


that may


occur


across


thrpp cVn1e~ of


nhbsrvation -











the


fingertip,


lower


absolute


threshold


skin


stretch


stimulus


fingertip,


matches


and


E of


firmness


nodularity


breast


tissue


that of breast models,


proficiency


on a


lump detection


task,


and


self-rating


attention


and


arousal.


These measures were


obtained


once


every


three


hours.


The


first session


occurred


at 0900


hours and


last at


0600


hours


following morning.


familiar with


Before


testing


study


procedures


were


and had


completely


received


at least


a month's


hourly practice on


the


various


procedures.


Methods


Subjects.


Three dextral


females


and


one dextral male


between


ages of


and


33 were


paid


participants


study.


All


were


graduate or post-doctoral


students.


None


the women had been


on contraceptive


pills


least


six months


preceding


their


entry


into


study.


One


female


subject


the male were


cigarette


and


pipe


smokers,


respec-


tively.


All


smoking,


eating,


and


drinking


of nonacoholic


beverages were restricted


time


immediately


after


session.


A session


typically


lasted


an hour.


None of


subjects were


taking


regular medication


or drugs


during


their


participation


study.











telethermometer


(Yellow


Springs


Instrument


Co. ,


Inc.,


Yellow


Springs


, Ohio


45374


was


used


to obtain


finger


tip


temperature


measures


meter


The


deflection


telethermometer


degrees


Model


Centigrade


had


that


full


provided


sc&ale


good


readability


and


accuracy.


A panel


switch


permitted


scale


to be


temperature


range


interest


within


total


scal


range


510C.


The


telethermometer


was


also


equipp


ed with


terminal


a maximum


probes


and


another


switch


allowed


control


the


probe


that


was


read


any


one


time


The


thermi


stor


had


time


constant


sec


after


sec


contact


with


stimulus


surface


registered


final


temperature.


A commercially


available


aesthisiometer


(Rowan


Pro-


ducts,


Inc. ,


Panorama


City,


91402)


was


used


admini


ster


punctate


pres


sure


stimulus


The


nylon


filament


stimulus


with


a diameter


0.13


mm was


attack


hed


to a slender


metal


rod


at its


upper


and


came


a pen-like


metal


case


with


groove


in its


projected


upper


out


half.

the


A small

groove.


knob attached

Movement of th


the


knob


inner


and


down

scal


aroove


along


the


raised


side


and

the


lowered

groove


filament


indicated


A graduated


length


filament


from


outer


tip


point


where


it emerged


from


metal


case.


The


JA-


essure


values


obtained


- -- -











pressure


values


replications done on


load


cell


connected


an amplifier with


a digital


display.


A vibration


system


(The


Ling


Dynamic


Systems-100


Series:


Model


102,


Ling


Electronics


Inc.,


Anaheim,


California


92803)


with


a maximum ramp of


1.5 mm was


used


to administer


a dis-


create


lateral


movement


stimulus.


The


vibrator was


connected


to a compatible


solid-state


power


amplifier


that


enabled


con-


trol

the


ramp


total


range of


velocity.


Two


potentiometers


vibration ramp


and


controlled


the magnitude of


step


intervals.


Step


intervals


mic were


used.


stylus with


flat


2.0 mm diameter


circular


tip was


attached


vibrator.


A response box with


response buttons


a light was


provided.


Silicone


similar


breast models


that described


used


were made


in Experiment


Two


a manner


series of


models


were made,


one of


increasing


firmness,


the other


increasing nodularity.


Increasing


firmness was


obtained


increasing


percent


curing


agent added


the gel mix-


ture


before


it was


cured.


series


eight models


increasing


firmness


was


obtained.


Previously


cured


firm


silicone


with


firmness


reading


on a prototype durometer


(Rex Gauge


Co.,


Inc.,


Glenview,


Illinois


60025


was


cut


into


squares,


(2.0


cm x


2.0 cm x u.x


rods,


Z.0 cm x z


0 cm x 0.2











A silicone


plastic


mixed


with


a catalyst


(Duplicast


Corp.,


Sonoma,


California


95476)


was


used


to make


a high


elity


mold


the


breast


tissue


Duplicast


a nontoxic


stance


that


been


found


useful


in many


applications


from


physical


anthropology


jewelry


manufacturing.


A bri


ef questionnaire


reacuested


to rate


her/him


self


and


Experimenter


level


arousal


. S/he


was


asked


to estimate


attentiveness


during


session


and


perfor-


mance


proficiency


Appendix


Testing


Areas


All


testing


was


done


a quie


t well


-lit


room


equipped


with


sink


and


closets


The


room


was


furni


shed


with


a medical


examination


tabl


, and


large,


medium


and


small


tabi


A 1


meter


square


black


felt


screen


was


set


top


small


table


on one


side


screen


and


E sat


other


Slits


felt


screen


permitted


pass


her/his


hand


through


screen


while


precluding


any


visual


cues.


On E


s half


tabl


, the


surface


was


covered


with


thick


self-adhesive


foam


pad.


The


large


table


on S


eft


was


with


vibratory


stimulus


source.


hand


mold


subject


s nonpreferred


hand


rested


this


table


Foam


wedges


were


used


to rest


s elbow


when


hei/his hand: was


mold


The


black


felt


screen


extended


large


table


si, ni,


thai-


S multi~


nnt


h <*r AAn: -R


hand.-


I I


IAT'l n t0h


- mal r


SPP


tnth pn











session


time and


continued


once


every


three


hours


until


0600


session


time


which


completed


one


full


cycle.


Each


ses-


sion


lasted


anywhere


from 50


minutes


hour


and


20 minutes.


Subjects were


instructed


to get


eight hours of


sleep during


the night


preceding


start


testing,


but


unfortunately


this


could not


be monitored


did not


spend


testing


area.


Between


sessions


S either


slept,


ate,


drank


nonalcoholic


beverages,


or studied.


Efforts were made


vary


her/his


inter-session


time


activities


across


the


three


cycles.


small


testing


table


facing


the opaque


screen


passed her/his


nonpreferred hand


through


the


slits


and


rested


hand


bees wax hand mold.


The


index


finger


was


inserted


into


slot


the mold


and


was


held


level


with


table


finger


restraint.


The mold


extended


halfway up


forearm and


foam wedge was


inserted


under


s elbow


support and


comfort.


sublingual


oral


temperature was


taken.


The


YSI


ther-


mistor was


the mold


taped


and


skin


surface


temperature was


read


off


index


finger


the dial


telethermometer.


Skin


surface


temperatures were


taken at


beginning


end


the


lower


absolute


threshold mea-


1~~~~~~~~~k 1 ll ia uac44miivi nIol


~nrl


e C ; mrr 1 lie


al r r am a n C cl


nrln crl~fa


nr~e atlra


I J-l 1


f !I











Subject


s punctate


pressure


stimulus


threshold


was


first


measured.


A 2


mm diameter


dot


the


ball


index


finger


was


marked


as the


area


stimulation


A small


spot


light


was


turned


facilitate


s manual


admini


station


punctate


stimulus.


Procedures


similar


ones


used


eriment


above


were


used


to present


the


stimulus.


Blocks


five


trials


at each


stimulus


magnitude


were


admin-


istered


until


trial


each


stimulus


magnitudes


above


and


below


s sensitivity


threshold


had


been


presented.


Approxi


mately


catch


trial


were


randomly


interspersed


between


stimulus


trial


The


skin


stretch


probe


was


glued


spot


marked


index


finger


The


spot


light


was


turned


off


and


response


the


box


was


control


placed


panel


and


close


to S


started


s preferred


the


stimulus


hand.


cycl


E moved

A light


response


box


came


indi


cate


onset


trial


which


was


followed


after


varying


interest


mean


sec


range


1.5)


the


stimulus


(lateral


movement)


probe)


with


a probability


approximately


50%.


S responded


essing


one


buttons


response


box


elled


eel"


Feel.


" When


S pressed


one


the


response


buttons


light


went


off,


stimulus


probe


reset,


after


inter-trial


-interva
-interva:


sec


the


licrht


u


v


-- -- w


\^ A











the accuracy


response.


Trials were


again


presented


in blocks of


five at


each


stimulus


magnitude.


The


experiment


was


terminated


when


stimulus


trials


above


and below


sub-


ject's


threshold


had been


administered.


The


probe was


then


unglued


from


finger


removed


her


hand


from


the mold.


was


next


presented with


firmness


and nodular


series


breast models.


The models were


presented


one


time


foam pad


surface of


table.


s nonpreferred hand


was


guided


location


model.


used


a gentle


pressing motion


the


fingers


the model


and


lower


outer


quadrant


her/his


contralateral


bared breast


to com-


pare


firmness.


was


allowed


switch


and


from between


model


and breast


as often


as necessary


to make a


judgement.


then reported whether


the model


was


more or


less


firm


than


her/his


breast


tissue.


For


comparison


nodularity


used


a circular


finger motion


to palpate


over


breast


over


the model.


was


instructed


compare


percent


nodularity of


the model


that


her/his


own breast


tissue


and


then


report whether


the model


was more or


less


nodular


than


breast


tissue.


E next


used her


nonpreferred hand


to palpate


select breast models


that best matched


firmness


and


nodularity


breast


tissue.


P i v mod 1 =


from


nodular


series


of models


were


used


i^ i-tr











fingers


were


placed


specific


lump


spots


and


was


asked


not.


palpate


Twenty-five


spot


and


percent


report


the


lump


s/he


trials


felt


were


a lump


randomly


separated


catch


trials


during


which


fingers


were


placed


on nodularity


the


same


size


and


shape.


Results


Data


were


collected


over


eight


complete


circadian


cycles


three


women


of normal


reproductive


age


and


with


known


unusual


hormonal


condition,


three


complete


cycles


one


adult


male,


and


finally,


one


complete


additional


circadian


cycle


one


women


during


early


pregnancy.


Thresholds


detection


punctate


and


skin


stretch


stimuli


were


graphically


derived.


The


breast


casts


were


mea-


sured

was c


volume.


ontoured


Each


around


cast

cast


was


set


to hold


in a sandbed


level.


and

The


the

cast


sand

was


then


filled


with


mustard


seeds


line


the


inner


side


model


that


marked


the


boundary


the


breast


tissue.


contents


were


poured


into


laboratory


graduated


cylinder


and


the


volume


was


read


off


the


scale.


The


mean


three


consecutive


volume


readings


within


one


another


was


taken


volume


that


breast


cast.


The


firmness


and


nodularity


breast


tissue


matches


were


converted


the


respective


sca











In mic,


breast


volume


in ml,


scale


values


and E's


firmness


false


and nodularity match,


positives


percent


breast model


lumps


lump detection


detected


task


and


and


finally


s self


ratings


her/his


level


arousal,


extent


attentiveness


during


the


session,


the degree


correspondence


between


s performance and


ability,


experimenter


s level


arousal.


The data


were


entered


into


IBM-5120


computer


stored


on diskettes.


Data were


arranged


in matrices


that were


identified by


subject


code,


session


time


replication number.


Figures


through


present


individual


means


each


testing time


on 11 measures.


There was


a significant


effect


time


on subject ARM'


sensitivity


to punctate


stimuli.


The


highest


threshold


(sensitivity


trough)


occurred


during


0600


hour


session


and


lowest


threshold


(sensitivity peak)


during


1800


hour


session which was


also when her


oral


temperature


peaked.


There was


a negative


correlation between


threshold


and


oral


arousal


temperature


level


= -0.61).


reflected


This


a significant


subject's


time


ratings


effect,


of her


and her


self-rating


attentiveness


very


closely


paralleled


arousal


rating


0.92,


AC-C


<.05)


Subject DPB'


s (Figure VI) mean


oral


temperature


and


self-


ratinra


. LJ -


arousal


and


attention


show


"evening


person's"

























a r)

0)



Cr4









Clu2
H


*t-1


PIC



Wa0)
Ir4W
row(


'-I H
0J0
a) a
H '


4443


CO


.9'
4'
















% LUMPS
DETECTED


FIRMNESS


SCALE


NOOULAR~rY


VALUE


SCALE
VALUE


AROUSAL
RATING


% OBSESSION
TIME


U
4.


SCALE
VALUE
- o


II


I


I






























sb-I
0
El- .r
a)


a)C
0


Wa

rd c)
'-4C


aQ'
f9 a LA
QI 0WLI 4 0
fCH. 0r ~
- l C,


(na):
Wa )
to 0















% LUMPS
DETECTED


FIRMNESS
SCALE
VALUE E


NODULARJTY
SCALE
VALUE


AROUSAL
RATING G


% SESSION
TIME


SCALE
WLUE


In


I-- I


.


IL


.I


























U2CW
arCI
SI-





a)
QrH


0
02
HF


CI


4J
Cl


Sn 0

51 rd 4-
rncnw o


4


wo ci
0
.04-Ic


SCJ2















% LUMPS
DETECTED


FIRMNESS
SCALE
VALUE


N ODULARITY
SCALE
VALUE


AROUSAL
RATING


% SESSION
TIME


SCALE
VALUE


I


I


I






















tao


SCo
Or4
(04i~
C.)

-'






rle
U)a
ac

.0




tar


a,




-HO)r





H
H
H




5k-I
















LUMPS


DETECTED


FIRMNESS
SCALE
VALUE


I I


NODU LAR ITY
SCALE
VA LUE


A ROUSAL
RATING


% SESSION
TIME


SCALE
VALUE


I


-C


I





























s- r OO
o Q1 r4





Cd 4-) 02 a)
a) -H


Ur





(lu,
Hn


0)
rH r-I


4444I
Cd (


C O
fd a)
C)
SLI..4
0


6 4'


C a














LUMPS


DETECTED


FIRMNESS
SCALE


NODULARITY
SCALE


AROUSAL
RATING


% SESSION
TIME


SCALE
VALUE


VALUE


VALUE


- 'o


I











period


four months


over which


the


three circadian


cycles


data


were collected.


During


first


cycle


two


equal


peaks


oral


temperature occurred


1500


house and


0000


hour.


During


the


second


cycle


ten


days


later


there was


a single oral


temperature


peak


at 2100


hours,


and


during


last


cycle


(two months


later


temperature


peaked


during


1500


hour


session


and


stayed


same


level


during


1800


hour


session


after which


started


to drop with


trough


0300


hour


session.


The details of


this


progres-


sion may


inspected more


closely


consulting Appendix C.


DBP's


sensitivity


to punctate


stimuli


did not


parallel


her


oral


temperature,


especially during


the


first


two cycles.


Typically


her


lowest RLs


occurred


during


the


first session


after which


there was


a decline


and


fairly


erratic


responding.


Motivation as


indicated by


self-ratings


arousal,


attention,


and


performance


appeared


to override arousal


levels


indicated


oral


temperature but


could


not


sustained,


confirming


observations made by


other


researchers


Conroy


Mills,


1970).


During


last


session,


this


subject


s performance


and arousal


levels ap

was great


peared


to be better


variability


synchronized.


in responding


across


Accordingly

replications


there

and


when


three


replications were


pooled


the


variability pre-


ri iidcrc


rlPtl-rim I nl nl


-


significant


time


effect.


The only


siqnifi-


,











more


likely


that


DPB was


being


especially


attentive


stimuli


during


this


time


than


that


she was


responding


specific


changes


in breast


tissue


characteristics.


The


pattern


oral


temperature changes


the male


sub-


ject


(CMD)


characterized him as


"morning person"


(See


Figure


Tx) .


temperature


typically during


1200


peaked


hour


as early


session.


0900


Time


hour


effects


and


on oral


temperature were


significant with


peak


1200


hour


and


trough


at 0300


hour


(also


see


Table


Self-rating


arousal


reflected


a similar


time


effect


generally


paralleled


oral


temperature


(r=0.61).


The mean breast volume


during

than t


the four nocturnal

he mean volume during


lump detection


task


sessions was

a the diurnal


there was


significantly


sessions.


a progressive


greater

the


improvement


percent


lumps detected


over


eight


sessions.


Per-


formance on


this


task


during


the


second


half


cycle


was


superior


that


during


the


first half


(See


Table


II)'.


CMD


self-rating


ability


showed


correspondence of


a slight negative


overall


correlation


performance


-0.037)


with actual


performance on


lump detection


task.


Data were


collected


from


subject


over


two


hormonally


normal


circadian


cycles;


during


third


circadian


cycle


BHS


r 7ravi ra


FPi anrs=t VT T Vn-r0csPnt TflSn


TJ;~ 1IIP~


i 1


P1l pl-.pd


Q wpk







67











TABLE


Variables


Exhibiting


Significant


Time-Dependent


Effects


SUBJECT CODE DEP. VAR. IND. VAR. F(df) p
(SEX) 8 SESSION DAY VS.
TIMES NIGHT


ARM (S)


Punctate Stim.


3.27(7,16)


Arousal


4.11(7


BHS (')


Punctate Stinm.


11.10(1,14)


Skin Stretch


Arousal


DPB ($)


Breast Firmness


Attention


.98(7,8)


12.20(1

2.90(7

3.54(7


CND (*')


Oral


Temperature


.30(7


Punctate Stim.


13.60(1


Breast


Volume


4.82(1.14)


% Lumps Detected


Arousal

Arousal


8.06(1


.97(7.16)

.98(1.22)


ALL Ss
(without gravid
circadian
cycle)


Oral


Temperature


Punctate Stim.


% Lumps


X
(N
X
(N>D)


Detected


(1,80)


4.40(1,80)


Arousal


X
(N

4.70(7,80)


14.40(1,80)











times were a


significant modulator


the


threshold.


There


was


also


significant


correlation between


the


threshold


punctate


pressure


stimuli


the


skin


stretch


threshold


0.73,


df=6,


0.05).


During


the early pregnancy


circa-


dian


cycle most of


these dependent variables


had


markedly


different


values.


Oral


temperature was


higher


and


thres-


holds


skin


stretch


and


punctate


stimuli


were elevated


(decreased


sensitivity).


Breast


volume


had


significantly


increased


and BHS


now matched her


breast


tissue


to a


firmer


less


Table


nodular


II presents


breast model


summary


than


these


had


previously done.


findings.


There was


slight


(nonsignficant)


improvement


in lumps


detected.


Despite


fact


that


there was


decreased


cutaneous


sensitivity, there


was


no decrement


lump detection


task.


also


interesting


to observe


that


self-ratings on


performance were


superior


to ratings


during


prepregnancy


cycles


although


there was


no difference


in attention and


arousal


ratings


between


two occasion:..


Comparing


monally distinct


circadian


states,


functions


several


during the


differences


hor-


are apparent.


There was


a general


decrease


in variability during


hour


cycle.


One


striking


difference was


that


the oral


tempera-


if1nr -+ r,-". 1rr n,'rm(r','anrl v


had


twnw


neaks with


cycles


tii rP


II s








69









TABLE


Summary


Statistics


to Pregnancy (N


Comparing Subject BHS


to Performance


During


' Performance


Early


Prior


Pregnancy (G)


Direct BHS-N (n=16) BHS-G (n 8)
Measures Mean (SD) Mean (SD) t (df) p


Oral Temp.


Punctate Stim.

Skin Stretch

Breast Volume

Breast Firmness


Breast Nod.

% Lumps Det.


36.19

106.31


4.94


270.75


1.80

6.50


53.10


0.55)


(48.18)


1.99)

8.11)

0.79)

0.73)


(11.53)


36.66


0.32)


227.50 (111.68)


11.35 (

388.13 (


7.00 (

5.62 (


61.88


3.28)

14.27)

0.92)

0.35)

9.61)


2.49 (22)

3.76 (22)

5.98 (22)

25.89 (22)


14.30

3.18

1.84


Self Ratings


Arousal


Attention

Performance


15.56


5.15)


77.80 (12.91)


0.38


0.34)


19.50

83.12

0.81


4.35)

6.51)


1.85

1.09

3.18











Group


demonstrated


mean


(excluding


a significant


gravid


session


time


cycle)


oral


effect


(See


temperature


Figures


X and


XI) .


The


temperature


peak


occurred


at 1800


houms and


trough


0300


houms replicating


the


most


frequently


found


pattern.


wer e


Punctate


significantly


stimuli


affected


threshold


the


and


diurnal


ratings


and


arousal


nocturnal


hours.


Despite


decrease


in self-ratings


arousal,


attention,


performance


percentage


lumps


detected


was


slightly


higher


second


half


sessions


than


first


four


sessions.


































(dEC F




WOHS



U)d


OHO



sEo >1 F

Ql4i C)
Oct's
04-4 aO












% LUMPS
DETECTED


FIRMNESS
SCALE
VALUE


NODULARITY
SCALE


AROUSAL
RATING


% SESSION
TIME


SCALE
VALUE


VALUE


In


I I I


u_ o
" 'I


T


-v
I
I


il--I




























004-4
4-4 0
































-II.







'U
C,
'a

C
(I)




I-
a
U
'a
am


LJI


SIi


I I


7"' ~















CHAPTER


EXPERIMENT


: Circasynodic


Cycle


Circadian


data


exhibited


wide


fluctuations


tactile


sen-


sitivity


but


pattern


change


did


not


replicate


either


interindividually


intraindividually


across


occasions.


Pro-


ficiency


tactile


tasks,


the


other


hand


did


not' vary


significantly


function


time.


In order


follow


havior


over


circasynodic


cycle,


became


necessary


test


during


at least


three


phases


the


menstrual


cycle


postmenstrually


, midcycle,


and


premenstrually.


Behavior


was


sampled


or three


days


during


each


phase


in an attempt


to correct


random


fluctuations


and


get


a more


accurate


measure


profi


ciency


representative


particular


men-


strual


phase.


Two


women


their


reproductive


years


(primary)


with


regular


menstrual


menstrual


cyc


were


tested


over


three


menstrual


cycles.


Test


occasions


one


postmenopausal


woman


were


yoked


(explained


below)


those


one


primary


woman


and


test


occasions


one


male


were


yoked


those


sec


ond.


The


dependent


variables


measured


over


three


circasynodic


solute


cles


threshold


were


(stimulus


oral

value


temp

that


erature,


dectable


lower

at least











Methods


Subjects


The


four


paid


participants


in this


study


were


women,


and


year


old,


who


reported


regular


menstrual


cycl


and


intake


hormones


or other


regular


medication


one


65-year-old


postmenopausal


woman,


also not


on hormones


regular


medication


and


a 34


ear-old


mal


All


were


d-extral


and


had


years


education


past


high


school


diploma


They


had


also


participated


relat


ed research


but


were


naive


to possible


hormonal


eff


ects


on behavior.


Apparatus.


A clinical


centigrade


thermome


was


used


record


oral


temperature.


The


was


used


same


aes


admini


siometer


ster


described


a punctate


under


pressure


Experiment


stimulus.


pressure


transducer


A custom


built


load


cell


was


temporarily


used


to monitor


amount


pressure


used


during


palpation


breast


model


The


load


cell


consisted


hypod


ermic


syringe


filled


with


mineral


oil


and


connected


tygon


tubing


pressure


transducer


National


semiconductor


LX160ZG)


The


transducer


was


interfaced


with


an Apple


minicomputer


that


provided


a continuous


splay


the


amounts


pressure


maximum


used


pressure


It al


was


sound


reached.


An 18


tone


when


cm square


the


foam


specific


covered,


1c nla


qj-A C


Sat form


was


valued


the


load


coll


ectinq


LJ


I | 1 1


7 1'111


-L











had


a compression


load


cell


C-4000


series


(Kulite


Semiconduc-


tors)


with


an effective


range


0-4500


which


was


inter-


faced


Apple


II minicomputer.


The


load


cell


connected


transducer


amplifier


KH-10


(Kulite


Semiconductors)


that


provided


a gain


and


an Analog


Devices


AD571


Analog


Digital


convertor


was


interfaced


computer.


The


Apple


microprocessor


was


used


to deliver


on line


auditory


feed-


back


amount


palpation


pressure


used.


A BASIC


program


permitted


tone


sound


when


desired


maximum


pressure


was


reached.


A set


five


100,


and


five


gm weights


were


used


specify


maximum


pressure


setup


pressure


trans-


ducer.


Breast


models


lump


detection


task


were


made


using

These


procedures


models


were


described


above


hemi-ellipsoids


with


under


Experiment


a base


diameter


a height


volume


The


model


interior


was


made


ratio


silicone


to curing


agent.


Forty


percent


total


volume


model


interior


was


made


simulated


phys


biological


nodu-


larity.


nodularity


was


again


three


shapes:


squares


cm x


cm x


rods


cm x


cm x


.2 cm),


and


small


cubed


nodularity


cm cube


in approximately


if


D











'40'


on a specific


'00'


durometer


and had


a diameter


and


mm.


One


lump was


inserted


into


each


the


five models with a


square


piece of


nodularity


below


such


that when


finished models were


turned


over


and


placed on


their


bases


the


nodularity would be on


top of


lump.


Matching-to-sample breast models were


used


the ones


in Experiment


A silicone


plastic


impression material


also des-


cribed


above,


was


used


to make models


the


subjects'


breasts


for purposes of


obtaining volume measures.


A set of


spreading


calipers


(Siber


Hegner


Co.,


Inc.,


New


York


10001)


was


used


to determine


linear measure-


ments of


the contours of


the breast


tissue.


Testing


Areas.


Subjects


sat


inside


test booth.


The


booth was well-lit with


small


platform on


one wall.


Imme-


diately


was


above


completely


the


platform was


draped


with


cm x


an opaque


cm opening


screen.


that


Continuous with


this


interior platform was


an exterior


platform at which


experimenter


sat.


Procedure.


All


four


subjects were given


oral


clinical


thermometers


and


instructions


on how to


record


their


sublin-


cruaL


basal


body


temperature


(BBT).


Records of


BBT were kept


.











symptoms.


Test


days


were


three


day


during


the


premenstrual


phase,


three


day


during


postmenstrual


phase


and


three


days


during


midcycle.


The


postmenopausal


woman


had


her


test


days


the


same


day


as one


of the


primary


women


mal


had


test


days


same


day


second


primary


woman.


Testing


was


carried


out


at the


same


time


of day


each


subject


over


three


circasynodic


cycles.


One


complete


sess


ion


consisted


following


sequence


procedures


booth.


was


ssed


seated


nonpreferred


a comfortable


hand


chair


through


the


draped


opening


and


hand


was


placed


the


hand


mold


with


foam


pad


support


elbow.


E put


a dot


ball


the


index


finger


and


said


"ready


" E


thereafter,


indicated


stimulus


interval


with


click


a stop


watch.


A forced


choice


response


procedure


was


used


Two


stimulus


intervals


were


presented


to S


task


was


indicate


which


inte


rval


punctate


pressure


stimulus


was


esent.


Pre


determined


random


seri


were


used


to decide


whether


or the


second


interval


would


contain


stimulus.


Onset


and


offset


both


interval


were


indi


cated


stop


watch


click.


duration


each


interval


was


approximat


sec


and


duration


stimulus


was


sec.


Stimuli


at each


magnitude


evel


were


presented


blocks


five


trial


s and


.


1- J


, --










removed


her


hand


from


the mold,


and


the mold


was


replaced


load


cell


arrangement


lump detection


task.


The


load


collecting plate was


covered


with


thick


self-


adhesive


foam pad.


The Apple


was


turned


on and


appro-


private


program was


activated.


The


practice model


was


placed


padded


platform and


weights of


gm were placed


the model.


The observer


button was


depressed


to set


the


maximum pressure at


the weights


applied.


The weights were


removed


and


the


system was


ready


operation.


When


pressures


gms or


greater were applied


the model, it


triggered


a series


beeps


until


the


pressure


exerted was


reduced


a lower value.


During


earlier measurement of


the


load defor-


nations of


female breast


tissue


(Madden


et al.,


1978)


it was


observed


that


the maximum weight


that


could be


tolerated with-


out


discomfort was


beeper


sound


around


gm ensured


beeper


700

that


amount


gm.

even


Accordingly,


Ss did


pressure


setting the


on occasion


used would


still be


within


range of


human


tolerance.


was


told


that


the model


in position was


a practice model


that had no


lumps embedded


but


represented


firmness


nodularity


the models


that were


to be


used


task.


S practiced


palpating


the model


with her/his


nonpreferred hand


- a -


learned


use


the


appropriate amounts


pressure.


w











held


together


while


moving


fingers


a circular


motion.


Each


spot


was


examined


with


three


small


palpations


with


tematic


use


light,


medium


and


firm


pressure


on each


palpation.


When


was


sure


how


much


essure


use


and


was


familiar


with


the


nodularity,


the


practi


model


was


replaced


an experimental


model.


fingers


were


placed


sequentially


on two


spots


the


mode


, each


spot


was


palpat


ed in


the


man-


ner


instructed


and


S orally


indi


cated


in which


spot


a lump


was

used


present,


"first"


stractor


sec


ond


in each


mod


The

el.


same

S did


nodular


not


move


spot


her


was


his


fingers


from


one


spot


to another


model.


E Dick


s hand


and


held


over


the


spot


to be


examined.


S examined


spot


with


specified


three


circular


finger


motions


and


lifted


her


fingers


then


rotated


the


movabi


platform


top


and


positioned


next


spot


under


fingers


and


orally


signalled


"next.


" S


lowered


her


fingers


and


examined


second


spot


an id


entical


manner


The


task


ended


when


trials


lump


zes


below


and


above


accuracy


level


been


presented


The


load


cell


arrangement


was


removed


and


for


the


next


thick


foam


platform


was


placed


sition


. S


undressed


the


waist


and


with


her/his


nonpreferred


hand


matched


firmness


and


nodularitv


- -. -


contralateral


breast











Finally,


a cast


was


made


the


same


breast


that


was


matched


spreading


previous task.

calipers was


The

used


millimeter

to obtain


scal


linear


on a

measure-


ments


the


breast.


ti issue. as


described by the


stances


between


the


sternum


and


lateral


boundary


breast


tissue,


and


from


breast


surements


were


under fold


taken


the


the


upper


test


boundary


occasion


These


i and


mea-


then


were


used


on every


subsequent


test occasion


to maintain


con-


stancy


bounds


breast


tissue


across


test


occasions


Results


Dat

to four


tory


a


on six


menstrual

normal, r


dependent


cycles


regular


variables


were


nulliparou


menstrual


cycl


collected

s women w


and


over


ith


no known


three


a his-

atypical


hormonal


condition.


One


man


one


stmenopausal


years


after


natural


cessation


menstruation)


woman


were


similarly


tested


at similar


intervals


over


same


time


span.


Due


an unexpected


change


the


mens


trual


cyc


length


one


primary


and


subj


a midcycle


ects


phase


, testing


were


during


missed.


one


premenstrual


Therefore,


data


phase


were


ected


from


subject


over


menstrual


cycles


Since


efforts


were


made


sample


performance


more


than


once


during


each


ting


phase


data


were


coll


ected


during


sessions





























Uc,

a U)
4- CdC

'C
wino.'
'0 e
rduw
04-





























--1I



ri"rer,
CaFlr(


-J



Srd~i
owz
lt td 4


















































































































































































































&


I I
































'ri
s144J



SU)

luC

C -
'U -




Z4CZ

rd r0









*rI










































&cy


I