Heterosocial skills training with sex offenders

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Title:
Heterosocial skills training with sex offenders
Physical Description:
x, 128 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
McAnaney, Michael W ( Michael Wayne ), 1946-
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sex offenders -- Rehabilitation   ( lcsh )
Social interaction -- Study and teaching   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1981.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Michael W. McAnaney.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000297545
notis - ABS3920
oclc - 08434283
System ID:
AA00002191:00001

Full Text


















HETEROSOCIAL
WITH SEX


MICHAEL


SKILLS TRAINING
OFFENDERS


McANANEY


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO
THE UNIVERSITY
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF
DEGREE OF DOCTOR


THE
OF
THE
OF


GRADUATE CO
FLORIDA
REQUIREMENTS
PHILOSOPHY


UNCIL

FOR


OF

THE


UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA






























my mother,


Madeline


Gallagher


her


gentle


per


sistent


encouragement;


wife,


Karla


Wallat-McAnaney


her


patience


support;


and


memory


father,


Harry


W. McAnaney


advising


"work


from


your


neck














ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The


author


would


like


thank


following


persons


their


contribution


study.


The


Chairman


committee,


Robert


Myrick,


gave


me steady


direction,


good


advice


inspirational


mes-


sages.


other


committee


members


Wittmer


and


Ben


Barger


offered


valuable


feedback


throughout


process.


The


trainers,


Ted


Shaw,


Mary


Mance,


Amy


Collins


and


Paul


Watkins,


did


an excellent


conducting


train-


ing.


Dave


House


videotaping


generously


Jackie


Kal


offered


was


office


courageous


space


and


the


patient


her


role


as confederate


during


postte


st video


role


plays.


I would


also


like


to thank


Peggy


Bryan,


Beth


Osborne


Benita


Cooper


their


help


role


plays.


Roger


rating


Keroack


procedure.


Pat


A special


eger


thanks


helped


refine


to Lynna


video


Griffith


and


Vera


Page


their


work


final


video


ratings.


Pete


and


Mike


Smith


helped


technical


aspects


videotaping.


Debbie


McKenz


and


Mary


Ann


Jess


also


--


--










supervisor


at NFETC,


Don


Walsh,


was


generous


and


under


standing


throughout


course


the


study


Thanks


the


many


other


NFETC


staff


who


aided


in a


variety


ways


project.
















TABLE


OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


LIST


OF TABLES


vii


Viii


ABSTRACT


CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


. . . 1


Need


Purpose of
Definition


Study


the Study


S a S S S S S 2


S S S S S S S S 5 5


erms


Organi


zation


Study


S S S S S a 7


REVIEW
Extent


OF THE


LITERATURE
Problem


Rape


a 10


Sexual
Public


Contact
Nuisance


with
Acts


Characteri


Children...[..
S S S O


Offender


Gene


Demographic


Psychological


The
The
The


Chara


Character


cteri


stics


stics


. 20


Rapist . .
Pedophile


Ince


Offender


st Offender
Treatment


S 29


Sex


Off


ender


Treatment


Laws


Programs


S S S S S S S S 32


and


Methods


Social


Skill


Hetero


Hetero
Skills


Soc


Soc


Skill


Theoreti
Problems


Diff


erences


of Definition


Rese


arch


S ~ ~ S S S 5 S


METHOT)OT.OflY


Page













Experimental


Co-Trainer


Treatment


s a a a .


The


Social


Skill


Module


Confederate


Criterion


Instruments


Heterosoc


Skills


Behavior


ckli


(HSB)


S-R Inventory


Anxiousness


SRIA) .
Social


Analysis


elf-E
Data


steem


Inventory


SSI)


RESULTS
Resultin
General


g Sample
Findings


* a a a a a a .
* . . .


Equivalency
Heterosocial


Hetero
Hetero


Soc
Soc


Treatment/Off


SUMMARY,
Summary


Skill


Anxiety


Self
ense


CONCLUSIONS


-Esteem


Inter


AND


action


RECOMMENDATIONS


* a a a a *


Trainers


and


Training


Process


Data


Coll


section


Conclu


sions


Limitations
Implication
Recommendations


. . . . .
. .


APPENDIX


HETEROSOCIAL


INCLUDING


SKILLS


RATER


BEHAVIOR


INSTRUCTIONS


CHECKLIST
AND RESPO


FORM


NSE


DEFINITIONS.

S-R INVENTORY


OF ANXIOUSNESS . .


THE


SOCIAL


SELF-ESTEEM


INVENTORY


SOCIAL


SKILLS


MODULE


Page















LIST


OF TABLES


TABLE


CLASSIFICATION


INCESTUOUS


FATHERS


TESTS
GROUPS


GROUP
TWEEN


FOR EQUIVALENCY
I & II .


CHARACTERISTICS
EXPERIMENTAL AND


INTERRATER


RELIABILITIES


BETWEEN


EXPERIMENTAL


AND EQUIVALENCY
CONTROL GROUPS


HSB


BE-


CHECKLIST


ANALYSIS OF
AND CONTROL
ANXIETY AND


VARIANCE BETWEEN EXPERIMENTAL
GROUPS, HETEROSOCIAL SKILL,
SELF-ESTEEM . .


. 73


ANALYSIS OF
INTERACTION


VARIANCE


OF TREATMENT


OFFENSE


4 4 4 4


Page















Abstract


Dis


ser


Univer


station


sity


Presented


Florida


Requirements


Doctor


HETEROSOCIAL


Graduate


Partial


the


Philo


SKILLS


Council


Fulfillment


Degree


sophy


TRAINING


WITH


SEX


OFFENDERS


MICHAEL


December,


McANANEY

1981


Chairman:


Robert


Myr ick


Major


Department


Couns


elor


Education


The


purpose


study


was


to determine


effec-


tiveness


a heterosocial


skill


training


module


with


sex


offenders


A randomized


control


group,


ttest-only


esign


tested


four


major


null


hypotheses


three


null


sub-hypoth-


eses.


dependent


variable


of heterosocial


skill,


het-


erosocial


self-esteem


and


heterosocial


anxiety


were


measured


with


three


criterion


ins


truments


The


Heterosocial


Skills


Inventory


Behavior


SSI)


Checkli


modified


(HSB),


this


Social


study,


Self-Esteem


S-R


Inventory


f Anxiousness


(SRIA).











were


assigned


treatment


or control


groups.


treatment


group


was


further


divided


randomly


into


two


groups


subjects


each.


The


eight


esson


training


module


was


completed


five


weeks.


sets


male/female


co-trainers


implemented


heterosocial


skill


module.


Role


play


videotape


feed-


back


activity


negative


directed


self


-talk,


attention


three


performance


problem


anxiety,


areas:


and


het-


erosexual

volunteers


skill


deficits


simulated


Following


social


training,


Female


co-trainers


conversations


self-report


with


sttests


female

offenders


were


admin-


istered


play


and


videotapes


conversation


with


were


made


a female


subjects


confederate.


a role


Using


HSB,


subjects


' behaviors


were


rated.


All


hypotheses


were


stated


null


form


and


were


tested


level


of confidence.


two-way


analysis


variance


dent


was


variable


used


as well


test


differences


interaction


between


depen-


treatment


type


offense.


Significant


differences


were


found


between


groups


total


(p.02)


voice


subscale


scores


(p.02).


Form


conversation


and


affect


subscal


approached


significance.


Self-esteem


anxiety


measures


yielded


non-significant


re-











Data


indicated


that


module


was


effective


creasing


heterosocial


skill


incarcerated


sex


offenders.


Recommendations


were


discussed


for


further


research


plementation


the


treatment


module.















CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


Sexual


offenses


have


increased


steadily


United


States.


For


example,


reported


rape


risen


percent


past


years


(Chappell,


, 1977).


1979,


nearly


76,000


forcible


rapes


women


were


reported


FBI,


an increase


percent


just


years


(FBI


Uniform


Crime


Reports,


1980).


Awareness


sex


offenses


been


encouraged


women


s liberation


movement.


In ad-


edition,


expanding


social


family


services,


such


spouse


child


abuse


centers,


have


also


heightened


public


aware-


ness


and


concern.


Rape,


child


molestation,


incest


are


crimes


that


have


traditionally


been


dealt


with


through


prison


sentences


However,


ment


states


possible


now


some


have


sex


laws


which


offenders


make


are


special


found


treat-


to be


"mentally


ordered"


"sexually


deviated"


(Brecher,


1978).


Except


a few


community


-centered


programs,


most


sex


offenders


are


securely


incarcerated


in a variety


state


stitutional


settings


including


prison


forensic


hospital


n rn rr r r m r


1; 4m44,:-n V.- -.-i n


* tm nrr nf nfl


who


tnl; Ch; n


*rl.L


rnn


rinn


net


n











Although


sex


offender


treatment


more


than


a 30-year


story,


most


major


inpatient


programs


currently


operating


United


States


are


ess


than


years


old


(Brecher,


1978;


Weinrott,


1980).


Early


programs


were


psycho-


analytically


oriented.


More


recently,


behavioral


theory


techniques


have


been


used.


Since


current


theories


stress


faulty


or insufficient


contemporary


treatment


learning in th

often consists


developmental

of specific tr


years


gaining


deficit


areas


such


sex


education,


assertiveness


train-


ing,


interpersonal


communication


skill


However,


there


is a need


to design


implement


a sy


stematic


training


pro-


gram


that


will


help


sex


offenders


develop


more


appropriate


adequate


skills


relating


opposite


sex.


Need


Study


There


a need


controlled


experimental


studies


dealing


offenders


with


tend


social


to be


skill


socially


sex


immature,


offenders.


their


Although


interpersonal


problems


manifest


themselves


most


notably


in their


relation-


ships


interactions


with


opposite


sex.


Laws


Ser-


ber


(1975),


working


at Ata


scadero


State


Hospital


Cali


fornia,


concluded


that


most


sex


enders


were


incapable











diverse
involve


skill


s and


teraction.


own


treatment


confidence
functioning


ers


have


esteem


background


both


anxiety


deficiencies


assoc


Furthermore,


program


interferes


in sex


noted


also


sexual


the


. and


iated


tnls appears
interpersonal


with


we have


S. that


with


offenders


social


noted


lack


effective


Other


important


behavior.


role


in our


of self-
social


res


Yet,


with


a few


notable


exceptions


(see


Chapter


II) ,


systematic


attempts


to remediate


social


skill


deficits


, to


reduce


heterosocial


anxiety


or to enhance


heterosocial


self-


esteem


in sex


offenders


have


not


been


a part


treatment.


Admini


strative


problems


acquiring


femal


role


play


purpo


ses


and


lack


of female


staff


have


sometimes


been


cited


failure.


a res


ult,


effectiveness


heterosocial


skill


training


with


sex


offenders


remains


case


report


or single


subjects


design


level


(Abel,


Blan-


chard,


Becker,


1977).


Research


with


minimal


dating


or shy


college


students


accounts


most


available


literature


on heterosocial


skill


eral


s training.


successful


Curren


attempts


(1977),


to enhance


example,


social


reviewed


skill


sev-


and


crease


social


anxiety


population.


Citing


screening


recruiting


methods


which


selected


ess


anxious"


popu-


lation,


stated


a need


test


effectiveness


of social


earch-


self-











A central


problem


social


skill


research


has


been


availability


and


reliability


of dependent


measures.


Those


specific


measurable


behaviors


which


reflect


social


ade-


quacy


inadequacy


seem


to have


eluded


researchers


(Hersen


Bellack,


1979).


A study


may


have


shed


some


light


problem.


After


comparing


performance


a group


sex-


deviates


a group


of similar


aged


mal


identified


their


female


friends


adequate,


it became


apparent


that


specific


motor


skill


, the


amount


of affect


splayed,


and


components


voice


and


flow


conversation,


clearly


criminated


between


Heterosexual


groups


Skills


Behavior


The


Checkli


authors


(HSB)


developed


recom-


mended


use


Bristol,


Young,


in future


1977).


studies


There


(Barlow,


Abel,


a need


Blanchard,


more


informa-


tion


that


can


be coll


ected


with


measure.


Less


expensive


more


accountable


systems


treat-


sex


offenders


need


to be


found.


Criticism


treatment


programs


Florida,


for


example,


has


adoption


a "sunset

Sex


provision


offender


statute


programs


are


governing


generally


sex


supported


offender


state


money


Frequently,


program


budgets


are


less


than


ade-


quate


high. T


staff


treatment


-to-resident


efficiency


ratio


in relation


often


time


unfavorably


number


..


; LJ l











organized


training


module


with


lesson


-by-lesson


procedures


measurable


objectives


would


benefit


the


taxpayer,


program


staff,


and


offenders.


A training


module


to assi


sex


offenders


devel


opment


of social


skill


was


developed


investigator.


Training


components


feature


role


playing


with


confederates,


video


feedback,


didactic


material.


Variabi


related


heterosexual


skill,


anxiety,


and


self


-esteem


will


meas-


ured.


There


s a


need


to examine


efficacy


in an exper-


mental


design.


Purpose


the


Study


purpose


s study


to develop


a social


skill


treatment


program


incarcerated


sex


offenders


investigate


effectiveness.


In addition,


follow-


research


questions


will


examined:


sex


offenders


participate


a six-week


training


module,


will


their


heterosexual


skill


measurably


creased?


sex


offenders


participate


the


training


mod-


ule,


will


their


heterosoc ial


annle


measurably


decreased


sex


offenders


participate


in the


training


a -


.@ mm


..











Definition


of Terms


For


purposes


s study,


following


defini-


tions


will


be used:


Heterosocial


skill


s--interpersonal


behaviors


neces-


sary


initiate


maintain


a conversation


with


a member


opposite


sex.


Heterosocial


anxiety--anxiety


experienced


as a re-


suit


an interaction


with,


or an anticipated


interaction


with,


a member


opposite


sex.


Heterosocial


self


-esteem--an


individual


s assess-


ment


adequacy


performing


sexual


and


social


role


behaviors.


Sexual


offender--an


incarcerated


person


convicted


a sexual


offense


under


Florida


statutes


(i.e


, rape,


child


molestation,


exhibitionism,


or ince


determined


to be


suffering


from


a psychosexual


disorder.


Confederate-- female


who


volunteer


role


play-


activities


and


work


cooperatively


with


investigator


trainers.


Forensic


hospital


--a state-supported


mental


health


facility


designed


treatment


sex


offender


s--


those


found


incompetent


to stand


trial,


or who


are


"not


guilty"


rea-


* *


..


..


r











Psychosexual


disorder--a


psychological


dysfunction


marked


fantasies


and/or


acts


engaging


in illegal


socially


unacceptable


sexual


behavior.


Sexual


offense


--a sex


which


is contrary


so-


S exis


ting


mores


results


a legal


conviction.


Organization


Study


The


remainder


study


organized


into


four


ditional


review


chapters


literature


study.


appendices


further


research


Chapter


II contains


established


design,


hypotheses


ration-


to be


tested


and


experimental


variable


are


described


Chap-


III.


results


study


are


reported


Chapter


Chapter


V includes


a summary


study,


conclusions


recommendations.














CHAPTER


REVIEW OF THE



Extent of t


LITERATURE


Problem


Any


attempt


to describe


extent


of the


problem


sexual


offenses


in the


United


States


difficult


at best.


Child


molestation


and,


in particular,


frequently


undetected,


unreported,


and


unprosecuted


(Groth,


1978).


timates


unreported


rape


range


from


70-90


percent,


making


most


under-reported


of all


serious


crimes


(Amir,


1971)


Although


stati


are


unavailable


as to whether


not


rate


of child


mole


station


changing,


forcible


rape


appears


to have


been


increase


many


years.


FBI


stati


show


that


violent


crime,


in general,


rose


per-


cent


between


1933


1973


, but


reported


rape


increased


percent


(Chappell


et al.,


1977).


is suggested


some


res


earchers


that


these


increases


are m

tudes


ore


apparent


toward


sex


than

and t


real,


therefore


reflecting


more


more


reporting


relaxed

More


atti-

sophis-


ticated


data


gathering


methods


have


also


been


cited


as a pos-


sible


cause


increased


numbers.


However,


majority












In Florida,


in 1971,


forcible


rapes


numbered


1,708
lent


4,573
olent
sented


and repr
crimes.


esented
In 1979,


repres


crimes.
a 15.5


rate


ented


The


1979


percent


incr


percent


these


10.4


crimes


percent


figure


increase


ease


appears


over


V1O-


totaled


VZi


repre-
1978,


to be accel


rating.
offenses


4,781


number


increased


in 1979,


of arrests


from


with


2,668
rate


per


for o
1971


their


100,000


sex


per-


ris


number


children
reports


tional


from


reported


appears


and


this


trend.


37.9


sexual


to be


acc


(Crime


51.7


ass


recent


aults


increasing


eleration


Florida


The


on minor


with


follows


, 1975,


rape
a na-


. 22)


Defining


a sexual


offense


can


a problem


since


sexual


attitudes


mores


frequently


change,


according


time,


place,


sexual

still

wife (


and


cultural


behavior


prohibit

Gebhard,


vary

certain

Gagnon


context.


Consequently


considerably.

n consenting


Pomeroy,


S


Some

acts b

Christ


laws


states


between

enson,


governing


, for example,

husband and

1965). Adult


homosexual


relations


in private


are


illegal


36 of


states


Even


states


where


such


acts


are


legal,


however,


there


are


diverse


interpretations


what


constitutes


adult-


hood,


consent,


privacy


(MacNamara


Sagarin,


1977).


With


regard


this


issue,


Gebhard


et al.


(1965)


and


others


con-


eluded:


Data
are


obtained f
interpreted


rom


a study


to show


that


1,500
there


sex
are


flE, .CC -a


off
two


enders
broad


- --. l --- --- -


sons


i A


..


..l.:~L


/ -1\


cr,


1Hn







-10-


should
minimum


such
cally


therefore


time


cases


uncommon


tempered


na money
Offenses


accordingly


should
which


which


are


public


spent
stati


and


with


prof


ess


norms


ional


would


cons


or pathological


ider


, such


outside


those


cultural
offenses


involving
victims,


force,
incest,


those


in which


exhibition.


children


ese


are


offen


ses


are
and


more
the


greater


likely


to disrupt


ssibility


Soci


should


social


organi


psychological
d focus its e


zation


damage
efforts


these


offen


ses


treatment


be prepared


rese


arch.


to spend
. 873)


money


According


to Gebhard


coll


eagues


(1965),


a sexual


offense


. an overt


act


committed


a person


own


immediate


sexual


gratification


which


contrary


prevailing


sexual


mores


soci


ety


which


lives


and/or


legally


punishable


results


being


legally


convicted"


Early


ecuted


writings


(Karpman,


often


1954) .


included

Currently,


crimes


which


the prof


ess


now

ional


go unpros-

litera-


ture


focu


ses


attention


almost


exc


lusive


following


types


sexual


crimes


(Brecher,


1978) :


Acts


involving


force


or duress,


such


as rape


Sexual


contact


with


children


Acts


public


which


are


deemed


a public


nuisance.


The fastest


growing


crimes,


according


to FBI


states


tics


mos


S


Rape







-11-


rape


is not


just


a big


city


problem.


In recent


years


(1960-


1973),


sharpest


increase


has


occurred


citi


with


pop-


ulations


between


50,000


100,000


(Chappell


et al.,


1977).


Who


are


victims


rape


A victim


typically


single


female


group


between


three


times


ages

more


of 16


like


and 1

to be


. A

raped


woman

than


this


other


women.


will


likely


same


race


and


socioeconomic


status


has


her


assailant.


offender


s likely


to be


about


five


years


her


senior


(Chappell


et al.,,


1977).


Studies


differ


with


respect


the


frequency


lone


versus


pair


or gang


rapes.


About


percent


fenders


in one


study


acted


alone


(Groth,


1979).


Another


study


found


over


percent


white


victims


were


as-


saulted


more


than


one


attacker


(Chappell


et al,


1977).


Brownmiller


(1975)


cited


three


studies


which


percent,


percent,


percent


arrests


rape


involved


mul


tiple


offenders


The


effects


rape


victim


vary


depending


type


rape,


rapi


characteristics


victim,


victim


social


support


system.


Generally,


rape


victims


describe


experience


as one


most


traumatic


their


lives.







-12-


Following


attack,


victim


usually


experiences


a heightened


sense


powerlessness


vulnerability.


though


psychological


impact


most


problematic


sting,


phys


ical


damage


can


serve


as a continual


reminder


event.


rape


trauma


syndrome


has


een


identified


Burgess


Holmstrom


(1974)


consisting


three


phases


acute


reaction


phase


characterized


shock,


disbelief,


dismay.


victim


usually


in an agitated,


incoherent


highly


volatile


state


a few


days


to a few


weeks.


the


outward


adjustment


phase,


victim


appears


to have


put


trauma


aside


, getting


on with


life


as usual.


The


duration


phase


bri


a result


victim'


normal


attempt


to deny


and/or


cope


superficially


with


the


rape.


integration


res


solution


phase


character-


ized


depression


victim


s defen


ses


weaken.


The


tim


must


face


and


work


through


the


issues


which


remain.


must


integrate


a new


view


of herself


and


resolve


her


feel


ings


about


her


assailant(


Sexual


Contact


with


Children







-13-


crime


can


prosecuted.


Indecent


exposure,


indecent


as-


sault,


open


gross


lewdness,


contributing


delin-


quency


a minor,


carnal


abuse


sexual


battery,


sodomy,


incest


are


all


charges


which


could


pressed


this


of-


fense


(Groth,


1978).


In 1973,


members


Children


s Divi


sion


the


Amer-


ican


Humane


Association


testified


before


a Senate


committee


claimed


that


Although


100,000


other


children


estimates


are


are


sexually


higher


abused


(Largen,


each


1978),


they


remain


only


guesses.


One


reason


our


ignorance


extent


child


molestation


appears


to be


our


lack


willingness


to face


deal


with


it real


stically.


Sgroi


(1978)


ety


stated


abhors


that

the


"sexual

abstract,


abuse

but


children


tolerates


crime


soci


in reality"


xv) .


Incest


is receiving


national


attention


through


books,


magazine


article


televi


sion


(Brady,


1981).


The


mnci


dence


incest


reported


researchers


varies


greatly


with


population


being


surveyed.


Hallack


(196


reported


that


percent


a group


teenage


girls


confined


to a state


training


school


had


had


sex


with


their


fathers


or stepfath-


ers.


Other


studies


disturbed


or delinquent


populations


yield

search


similarly


high


Kinsey


rates


Institute,


however.


, a


elded


percent.

a much


Re-

lower


year


of between


elded







-14-


study


found


were


acquainted


76 percent


were


with


offender.


known


victim.


Swanson


Other


(1968)


studies


have


shown


same


trend


(Mohr,


1962).


Chri


stie


et al.


(1979)


children


victim


also


took


s home,


found


place


that


percent


while


or while


offender


child


offenses


was


was


again


a guest


iting


a home


friend.


Frequently,


tim


related


offender.


Al-


though


incest


offender


can


a sibling,


grandfather


uncle,


majority


arrests


are


father-daughter


cest


(Mei


selman,


1978).


these


cases,


offender


can


biological


or the


functional


parent.


A sexual


rela-


tion


ship


may


develop


slowly


over


years


and


progress


from


fondling


intercourse


, or


could


a sudden


impulse


triggered


situational


stress


(Groth,


1978;


Giarretto,


1976)


Vic


tim


impact.


Burgess


Holmstrom


(1978a)


identified


victim


zation


problems


which


result


from


child


mole


sta-


tion.


firs


type


rape


trauma,


which


victim


experiences


assault


life-threatening.


In a large


num-


ber


of child


rapes,


multiple


offenders


are


involved.


The


stability


younger


victim


make


recovery


potentially


more


difficult


than


older


rape


victim.







-15-


authority

maintain


Additional


secrecy.


stress


Noticeabi

continues,


caused


symptoms


such


the


typically


pressure

develop


withdrawal,


excessive


baths


(Burgess


Holmstrom,


1978b)


Masters


and


John


son


(1970


state


that


the


psychological


effects


child


molestation


depend


when


oc-


curs


and


amount


of guilt


anxiety


engendered.


Female


adolescent


victims


typically


express


significant


guilt


depression.


Reactions


include


running


away


from


home,


prom-


iscuity


and


drug


abu


Seigel


(1974)


cited


four


factors


which


were


related


the severity


trauma


experienced


victim.


The


victim


likely


to suffer


more


intense


long-lasting


fects


relationship


was


an emotionally


close


one,


contacts


were


repeated


over


a long


period


time,


the

their


physical

e was a


contact


high


was


degree


intense

of force


(i.e.,


or violence


involved.


A dramatic


illustration


long


term


effects


cest


is portrayed


The


Last


Taboo


(1977),


a 30-minute


film


highlights


a weekend


marathon


encounter


group


group


est


was


victims


comprised


as children.


women


Through


their

role


twenties


play,


who


using


I were

males


as father


surrogates


unresolved


psyc


hological


issues


surface


relationship


as crying,


penetration),







-16-


Public


Nuisance


Acts


most


common


so-called


nuisance


offenses


pro-


hibited


law


are


exhibitionism,


voyeurism,


obscene


communications


phone


or lett


er.


Continuous


exhibitionism


perhaps


most


common


all


sex


offenses


(Gebhard


al.,


1965).


An exhibition


st i


person


whom


the


exhibiting


his


genitalia


a desired


end


itself.


a recent


survey


sex


off


ers


treatment,


rapists


child


mol


esters


were


found


to have


parti


cipated


an early


in window


peeping,


exhibitionism,


and


a vari


ety


other


"nuisance"


offenses


(Groth,


Longo,


McFadin,


press


Frequently,


this


behavior


repre


sents


a developmental


stage


their


movement


toward


rape


or child


molestation,


and


some


offenders


continue


to exhibit


themselves


after


committing


more


serious


offenses.


Little


known


about


psychological


harm


to the


victim


an exhibitionist,


or voyeur,


or obscene


phone


caller.


Fear,


shock,


sgus


are


the


most


common


reac-


tions


adult


difficult


short


assess


or long


has


not


term


been


impact


on children


scussed


lit-


erature.


Summary.


The


literature


on sex


offenders


offenses


--


~n -I U r 1---..-. -- & U I -


A ---- m


I


-*







-17-


impact


victims


sex


crimes


is a recent


field


of study


energized


women


liberation


movement


interest


in child


abuse


neglect.


All


indica-


tions


are


that


the


physical,


social,


psychological


dam-


inflicted


ctims


sex


offenses


severe.


many


cases


total


ramifications


being


a victim


are


not


felt


until


much


later.


This


eviden


ced by


number


offenders


who


were


victims


themselves


(Groth


Longo,


1981).


Character


stics


Offender


Numerous


descriptive


studi


have


been


conducted


or-


der


to develop


a profile


sex


offender


., Karpman,


1954;


Gebhard


, Gagnon,


Pomeroy,


Chri


stenson,


1965;


Aiiir,


1971;


Although


regard


MacDonald,


little

the p


1971;


Chri


empirical


, Marshall,


research


personality


has


sex


been


& Lanthier,


conducted


offender,


1979).


with


profes-


sional


literature


replete


with


clinical


impressions


taken


from


years


of contact


with


population


in prison


treatment


centers.


Several


these


studi


have


compared


and


contras


two


major


subtypes


sex


offenders


, rapi


child


molesters


Others


present


classification


systems


which


dif-







-18-


General


Demographic


Character


Most


rapi


are


relatively


youthful,


usually


their


early


twenties


Amir


s study


(1971)


Philadelphia


was


typ-


ical


, finding


mean


rapi


to be


years.


Rapi


Chri


stie


et al.


(1979)


study


averaged


years


age;


however,


study


was


conducted


a maximum


secu-


rity


prison


with


a high


percentage


older


repeat


offenders


career


criminal


Brownmiller


(1975)


emphasis


zes


that


rape


a crime


of violence


whi


like


other


crimes


gression,


tends


to be committed


young.


Groth


found


that


most


repeat


rapists


commit


their


first


offense


tempt


(Groth


et al


in press).


Educational


level


intelligence


level


rapists


proximate


norm


their


group.


Mean


grade


level


achieved


mean


was


. following


eleventh


a normal


most


stribution.


studi


with


Karpman


(1954)


reviewed


literature


between


1951


and


found


I.Q.


scores


to be


normal


or above,


and


normally


stributed.


Edu-


national


level


was


but


no comparison


was


made


with


re-


spect


sex


offenders


and


others


same


socio-


economic


level.


Studies


differ


with


respect


race


and


rape.


The


dif-


fo rn n an a


a ~ ~ ~~C a an, aS A -A. s.. I-- .1.-C-


I


claamh~


I I







-19-


were


black.


Yet,


a Wisconsin


study


(Pacht,


et al.,


1962)


re-


vealed


that


times


more


whites


were


convicted


rape.


In 1968


United


States,


whites


accounted


percent


rape


arrests,


and


blacks


percent.


Blacks


were


approximately


15 percent


the population


that


year.


study


following


253 r

racial


apist

and


in Denver


ethni


(1962


difference


-1969)

s among


revealed


rapi


whites,


35 percent,


spani


percent;


I4


blacks,


percent


(MacDonald,


1971)


In contrast


rapist


child


molester


tends


be older.


one


study


of 1,195


cases


, only


28 percent


child


mol


esters


were


under


as compared


to 75


percent


with


a rape


charge


(Henn,


Herjani


Vanderpearl,


1976).


rapid


MacDonald


study


mentioned


above


, 50


per-


cent


were


below


years


with


percent


Although


a mal


child


mol


ester


average,


tends


to be


an under


-achi


ever


educationally


(Chri


et al.,


1979).


remains


unmarried


more


frequently


than


norm.


When


he does


marry,


divorce


rate


lower


than


rap-


(Gebhard


et al.,


1965)


Child


mole


sters


have


fewer


non


-sex


related


crimes


than


rapid


sts.


Rapi


sts,


instance,


have


been


found


.- '-I I-


more


crressive


and


antisocial


.,


s-









-20-


alcohol


other


drugs,


majority


offenders


were


not


intoxicated


time


their


offense


(Groth,


1978).


The


authors


and


reviewers


these


scriptive


studies


caution


readers


again


st drawing


hasty


conclusions


from


their


data.


For


example,


Chri


stie


et al.


(1979)


Martinsen


(1974)


their


state


that


studi


poverty


could


rapi


result


pedophiles


judicial


proc-


ess


favoring


those


who


can


afford


best


lawyers


who


appear


to have


been


productive


members


society.


psychological


Characteristic


Offender


earlier


st and


most


comprehensive


attempt


to clas-


sify


describe


sex


offenders


resulted


Karpman'


work


published


in 1954.


Thi


was


first


book


devoted


entirely


to the


sex


offender.


Gebhard


and


others


Institute


Research


published


a survey


describing


various


types


sex


offenders


1965.


Others


have


refined


and


added


these


two


pion


eering


works,


most


notably


Pacht


et al.


(1962),


Cohen


et al.


(1969),


MacDonald


(1971),


Rada


(1976)


Groth


(1979).


Two


broad


general


stinctions


between


offenders


appear


literature.


The


first


refers


degree


crim-











researchers


that


group


should


not


considered


primar-


sexually


deviant


persons


(Cohen,


Garafalo,


Boucher,


Seghorn,


1977).


second


stinction


drawn


between


offender


whose


deviant


behavior


was


due


to a situational,


transient


reaction


to stress


imposed


external


circumstances,


and


offender


whose


behavior


is primarily


result


ternal


psychological


dynamics


(Groth,


1979)


These


tinc-


tions


have


important


implications,


particularly


when


treat-


ment


programs


are


available.


Rapist


In general,


rapi


st is


a man


with


serious


psycholog-


ical


problems.


These


problems


handicap


him


severely,


par-


ticularly


relationships


with


others


Typically


unabi


to form


emotionally


ose


relationships


with


males


or female

ized by


The


a lack


relationships


sharing,


he does


warmth


form


or trust.


are


character-


Although


may


intellectually


competent,


judgment


is usually


poor,


especially


when


stressed.


awareness


of himself


is usu-


ally


limited,


as well


as his


awareness


need


feel


ings


of others.


He harbors


deep-seated


doubts


about


adequacy,


particularly


role


as a man


(Rada,


1976;







-22-


also


finds


few


satisfactions


other


spheres


life.


takes


little


pride


work,


or hi


hobbi


es.


"Having

attempts


developed


to rectify


avenues


personal


situation


expression,


. through


sexuality


aggression"


(Groth,


1979,


. 108)


Attempts


have


been


made


to category


or type


rapists.


Cohen


et al.


(1977)


cautioned


against


simplis


super-


ficial


category


zation


of offenders,


referring


multi-


dimensional


nature


factors


involved


act


rape.


They


go on,


nevertheless,


propose


three


patterns


offenses


differing


in terms


motivation:


Aggressive


sion.


Aim


a vehicle


: Sex


service


expression.


The


aggres-


ender


scribes


emotional


state


as one


anger.


Sexual


Aim:


Clearly


motivated


sexual


wishes,


offender


s aggre


service


aim.


Force


used


to subdue


the victim


so sex


can


take


place.


Sex-agre


ssion


Diffusion


Agg


ress


hostility


have


become


erot;


icize


Inflicting


pain


necessary


excitement


and


gratification.


According


express


do-sexual


to Groth


power


act.


(1979),


or anger.


goes


rape


this


on to present


use


sense,


sexual


a pseu-


typology,


unlike







-23-


ster


sense


masculine


adequacy.


He wants


pos-


sess


victim


may


kidnap


her


rape


her


repeatedly.


Since


perceives


test


masculinity,


rape


s a


mixture


exc


itement,


anxiety,


anticipated


pleasure


fear.


He also


fears


women


and


their


control


over


him.


He frequently


intense


unacknowledged


dependency


needs


which


give


women


an exaggerated


power


over


him.


Frequently,


experiences


sexual


dysfunction


during


rape


almost


never


finds


sexually


satisfying.


He will


typically


dis-


tort


perceptions


victim'


enjoyment.


lack


sati


faction


only


increases


his


compul


sion


to find


"right"


victim


who,


imagine


, will


so impres


with


him


will


respond


with


abandon


and


ask


see


him


again.


Thi


type


of offender


may


commit


a series


rapes


a short


period


time.


aggressiveness


may


increase


becomes


more


desperate


attempts


to actualize


fantasies


however,


typically


only


uses


enough


force


subdue


victim.


may


use


a weapon


but


only


to invoke


fear


and


maintain


control.


His


offenses


can


either


pre-


meditated


or opportuni


may


triggered


an event


which


undermines


sense


competency


or self-esteem


(Groth,


1979).


Anger


rapist.


Thi


type


offender


considers


rape







-24-


through


discharge


anger


than


sex


act


itself.


typi


cally


uses


more


force


to subdue


victim


than


necessary.


Frequently


victim


sustains


enough


physical


trauma


require


medi


attention.


anger


rapist does


not plan


attack


fre-


quently


havior


surprised


after


and


fact.


somewhat


This


disb


type


elieving


rape


own


is usually


be-


trig-


gered


an identifiabi


precipitating


event


which


offender


feel


s annoyed,


down


or hurt,


particular


a woman.


The


anger


that


results


from


his


s tration


hurt


is displaced


frequently


on an unsuspecting


victim


an impul


sive


burst of


violence


Although


anger


rape


may


more


frequently


reported,


type


offender


appears


to be


outnumbered


power


rapid


, contributing


proximately


percent


rapes


(Groth,


1979).


Sadi


stic


rapist.


Sex


and


aggres


sion


become


fused


this


type


of offender.


Inflicting


pain


on another


that


is necessary


for


satisfaction


some


these


offend-


ers


only


a necessary


preliminary


sex


others.


more


aggressive


they


are,


more


powerful


and


excited


they


feel.


they


zarre,


They


are


thrive


on a feeling


fascinated


hence the


morbid,


ritualistic


omnipotence


occult,


overtone


Frequently,


violent


some


their


-


-


--







-25-


media


because


occasionally


murders


victim


frenzied


attack


(Groth,


1979).


Pedophile


Typically


referred


as child


mol


station,


pedophilia


doe s


these


represent


offenders


a clinical


are


diagnostic


from


category.


a homogeneous


However,


group.


was


true


rap:


ist,


important


to make


stinction


between


sexually


deviated


pedophile


who


finds


children


preferred


objects


the


antisocial


personality


whose


sexual


abuse


a child


reflects


a pattern


gen


eral


aggressive


forms


severe


anti


Soc


behavior.


psychopathology


In addition,


can


certain


result


be-


havior.


"Thi


includes


alcohol


, schizophrenics


older


individual


where


brain


deterioration


a weaken-


normal


inhibitory


control


In fact,


pedophilia


exhibitionism


are


most


common


sex


offenses


committed


senile


and


arteriosclerotic


individual


s" (Masters


Johnson,


1970,


57).


Sexually


deviated


pedophile s


are


gene


rally


socially


sexually


immature.


They


are


usually


solve


, compliant


men


with


dependent


inad


equate


personalities


They


find


demands


res


pons


ibiliti


adult


life,


particularly







-26-


Clinical


experience


with


this


group


offenders


indicate


a high


incidence


sexual


victimization


trauma


pedophile


or exposure


s own


some


childhood


type


(Prender-


gast,


1980).


Regarding


etiology,


psychodynamic


interpretations


stress


the


fixated


or regressive


aspects


behavior


(Cohen


et al.,


1969;


Groth,


1979).


More


behaviorally


-ori


ented


interpretations


stress


conditioning


faulty


learning


the


offender


(Abl


et al.,


1977).


Typically


offender


finds


children


attractive


tially


because


they


are


less


threatening


and


are


easily


ma-


nipulated


and


controlled.


The


appeal


eir


hairl


ess


asexual

denial


bodies

of adult


represents,


sexuality


at leas

After


initially,


numerous


a fear


sexual


and


contacts


physical


appearance


begins


to be


associated


with


sexual


plea


sure


becomes


highly


attractive


sexually


appeal


(Laws,


1980).


Like


rapist,


pedophile


can


be subtyped


accord-


to certain


personality


features


and


sex


object


choice.


Once


again,


Groth


(1978)


typology


appears


to be


the


more


complete.


fixated


pedophil


offender


typically


has


lengthy


history


of sexual


contact


with


children.


Their


own











relating


with


others


adult


heterosexual


or homosexual


world.


Their


sexual


knowledge


limited


attitudes


sexual


identity


are


immature.


They


remain


unmarried


yond


their


group,


but


they


can


achi


eve


a stable


marriage


lasting


relationship


with


someone


who


a complimentary


personality


(Chri


stie


et al.,


1979)


They


generally


estab-


lish


a relationship


with


a child


over


a period


time,


slowly


gaining


trust.


Their


sexual


acts


with


children


are


almost


always


premeditated.


Courting


behavior


often


taken


simple


kindness


and


genero


sity


Many


times


their


vocational


choi


ces


put


them


into


close


proximity


with


chil


dren


couns


elors


, little


league


coaches,


teach


ers).


The

usually


fixated

limited


pedophiles' sexual

to smelling, mutual


contact w

fondling,


rith


children


sucking


and


caressing


Their


motivation


seems


to be


affection,


warmth


love


tact


and


with


with


closeness.


one


They


or more


children


usually


frequently


victims


intense


report


falling


A longing


, similar


con-


an addi


tion


or compulsion


(Laws,


1980).


Adult


conta


other


hand,


avoided


out


of f


ear


and


feelings


inadequacy


Regressed


Pedophile.


Thi


offender


s psychos


exual


social de


velopment


appears


to be


normal.


However.


* a.







-28-


Frequently,


offender


is married.


A crisis


relationship


with


wife,


perhaps


a financial


setback,


illness


, or a vocational


failure


could


precipitate


the


sex-


ual behavior

trary to his


with children.

values, he is


Although


dep


resse


behavior


d and


control


con-

are


weak.


s sexual


contact


with


adults


normally


continues


during


this


same


period.


behavior


is de


sperate


unconscious


effort


cope


with


a specific


life


-crisis


A further


category


zation


offered


Groth


(1978),


this


time


with


respect


psychological


aim


underlying


pedophile


s behavior.


Child


tomr


sexual


and


serves
anxiety


like


to gratify


ault


equivalent


dynamics
a wish,


express


any


to defend


an unres


a symp-


symptom


against
conflict


olved


nature


interaction


between


fender
intent
election


victim


reve


the determinants


a child


motivational


prompting


a sexual


contact.


se-


Such


offen


ses


egories:
contact.


can


pre
(p.


ssifi


assured


sex


into


contact


basic


fore


cat


sex


pressured


sex


contact,


the


offender


either


en-


tices


child


through


persuasion


or cajolement.


He might


trap


child


through


creating


an indebt


edness


or obliga-


tion


He often


bribes


child


with


gifts


, good


times,


ornm


?,n.


ncr,~~~w .*5i-* I. K.


cr. a


4-n hn70a


rehi ri


rt*nn pn1-


n~n. Ir n


Ill I ;


|ir-,


I


I


1 f


I







-29-


Groth


further


divides


this


category


into


exploitive


sa-


distic


assault.


looking


The

sexual


forcefully


exploitive


gratification


and


sexual


a feeling


offender


power.


child


simply


an object


over


which


can


extend


con-


trol.


power


rape,


sex


being


used


as a vehicle


relieve


nonsexual


needs


power,


control


and


dominance.


child


usually


not


harmed,


or she cooperates


But,


this


offender


capable


harming


victim


phys


cally.


Like

offender


the

deri


aggression


sadi

ves p


are


stic


rapist


pleasure


fused


from

and a


adults


inflicting


brutal


sadisti


pain.


sexual


Here


attack


child

sex


occurs.


extreme


cases


, the


offender


finally


kill


victim


(Groth,


1978).


Incest


Offender


Most


different


forms


of pedophiliac


behavior


can


occur


within


a family


context.


With


regard


complicating


issues,


Groth


(1978)


stated


In pedophilia
the dynamics


every
form
tions
must


case


of family


hips


we are


primarily


an individual,


parental
dvsfunc


among


examined,


inches
tion.


dealing
whereas


ere


The interr


nucl


structure


with


some
ela-


family
the fam-


2~1 --1 r I


__1


1~


j 4


F^


*







-30-


frequently


a dependent


individual


and


transfers


this


depen-


dency


to his


child.


Because


cannot


provide


wife


with


emotional


male


support


companionship.


needs,


frequently


may


feel


look


elsewhere


resentment


and


even


contempt


then


turns


him


to his


becomes


daughter


inattentive


as a surrogate


to hi


wife


needs.


-mother


cause


s is


a relationship


which


can


still


control


(Groth,


1978).


Regarding


type


incest


offenders,


Mei


selman


(1978,


. 111)


off


ers


a cl


ass


ification


system


presented


Table


number


offenders


in each


category


depends


set-


ting.


For


example,


an urban


population


of offenders


would


yield


endogamic-


subc


cultural


category


Offender


Treatment


years


between


1948


1958,


first


four


treatment


California,


programs


Wiscon


sex


sin,


offenders


were


Massachusetts


established


Washington.


These


programs


resulted


from


changes


laws


those


four


states


with


respect


to individual


convicted


sex


offenses.


Changes


category


laws


of criminal


identified


whose


sex


deviant


offenders


behavior


a spe


reflected


cial


a men-


;-* 1 i ln oe


1r 1







-31-


TABLE


CLASSIFICATION


INCESTUOUS


FATHERS*


Endogamic


Heavily


dependent


on family


emotional


sexual


needs


Unwilling
outside


Personality


to unable


to sati


sexual


needs


family


Disorder


ineff


ectual


social


relations


Intell


ectual


dency
Intensel


def


ense


to paranoid


involved


structure
thinking


with


daughter,


ten-


over-


controlling


of her


Sometimes


preoccupied


with


sex


Often


involved


with


prepub


descent


daughter


Subcultural


Variety


Lives


isolated


rural


area


Moralisti


, periodically


atoning


sins


Social


milieu


semitolerant


of incest


Usually


involved


with


postpubertal


daughter


Psychopath


Criminal
Sexually
ital


history


promi
bonds


scuous,


unrestrained


mar-


Little


emotional


attachment


to daughter


Psychotic


Severe


func


ego ai
tional


sorgani
origin


zation


organic


Drunken


Incest


occurs


only


when


father


is extremely


intoxicated


Pedophilic


Generally


attracted


young


children


sex


partners


May


lose


interest


daughter


as she


ages


Mental


defective


Low


intelligence


a factor


reduced


ego


control


nnni.-r 9 n r.


~ i tll~ ~ ~ nn ~ t


~lru; nn


k ; F(k I L!C rd~ h


hn l~t


TnnneC







-32-


treatment.


This


is still


case


states


today


(Brecher,


1978)


Offender


Laws


The


"sexual


psychopath"


laws


represented


an advance


treatment


because


they


recognized


the


sex


offender


a psy-


chologically


sturbed


individual


need


special


help.


However,


laws


have


also


been


used


some


states


confine


prisoners


longer


periods


time


than


might


have


been


possible


under


usual


statutes


(MacDonald,


1971).


Bowman


Engle


(1965


summarize


the


legal


medical


objections


sexual


psychopath


laws


ected


tection
to couns<


Also
tion
and
are


that


S. are


jur


. the


and
cross
the d


due


pro


denied,
y trial,


right


he rights of
examination.


difficulties


again


cess


especially


equal
the


pro-
right


to appeal. .
t self-incrimina-


subpoenaing witne
The medical obje


of diagnosis


and


sses
actions


identi


fiction


tion


sexual


of criminal


res


pon


psy


chopath,


sibility,


the limita


ine


ffec-


tiveness
tistics.


treatment


and


the inadequate


757)


Alabama


Penn


sylvania


have


both


had


their


sex


fender


Act


statutes


(1954)


repealed.


provided


In Pennsylvania,


indeterminant


Barr


confinement


-Walker


treat-


ment


"sexual


psychopath


In 1966,


thi


was


sta-







-33-


little


attention


constitutional


rights


fender


and


recently


been


repealed


(MacNamara


& Sagarin,


1977).


Probably


most


glaring


inadequacy


early


laws


systems


which


grew


out


them


was


their


failure


provide


specific


treatment.


Defense


attorneys


continued


point


sexual


out


omission.


psychopath


could


Brecher


be kept


(1978)


locked


emphasized


until


that


treatment


was


success


sfully


complex


ted


. The


likelihood


that


they


could


win


release


'cured


was


severely


impaired,


course,


fact


that


treatment


was


provided


them


dur-


their


incarceration"


. 39).


Wisconsin


law,


enacted


1947,


more


adequate.


recognizes


psychology


cal


nature


many


sex


of fen


ses


. It


protects


constitutional


rights


offender


pro-


vides


necessary


essary


active


admini


strative


diagnosis


s and


clinical


treatment,


machinery


Pacht,


nec-


1976) .


A crucial


issue


cing


courts


entire


med-


ical/legal


stem


question


of a convicted


offender


appropriateness


sification


treatment.


system


Wisconsin


developed


determination.


Thi


a clas-


system


L IIA~L:I(S


- S


e - -a -


k~n n~


I


m


-I-







-34-


An offender


this


to be


time


sexually


in Wi


sconsin


tested


deviated,


evaluated


interviewed.


placed


days.


If he


a special


Dur-


found


program


within


prison


tem.


he i


found


not


to be


suffer-


from


a psychosexual


order,


is sent


to a regular


correctional


facility


(Pacht


et al.,


1962).


Treatment


Programs


Methods


a survey


state,


county


private


hospitals


Di Furia


Mees


(1964)


found


considerable


diversity


pro-


viding


sex


offenders


treatment.


Only


percent


the


hos-


pital


surveyed


off


ered


a separate


program


sex


offenders


Eighteen


percent


offered


treatment


percent


treated


sex


offenders


along


with


other


patients.


According


this


survey,


median


length


sex


offender


treatment


was


a little


over


one


year.


major


criterion


success


these


programs


was


better


adju


stment


with


fam-


il1',


jobs


and


friends


problem


with


follow-up


was


acute


today.


Treatment


tive


approaches


psychoanalytic


were


drawn


theori


, with


mainly


very


from


nondirec-


few


pro-


grams


surveyed


favoring


a behavioral


approach.


According


self-reports


, prof


essional


staff


these


programs


showed






-35-


Not


early


attempts


treatment


were


as inadequate,


however


Between


1948


1954,


the


Metropolitan


State


Hos-


pital


Norwalk,


California,


developed


an exemplary


program.


Although


Alfred


few


written


Kinsey


traces


Wordell


program


Pomeroy,


remain,


eminent


sex


Doctors


research-


ers,


were


impressed


their


VIS


(Brecher,


1978).


Without


Norwalk


return


any


developed


rate


successful

a program


in contrast


model

which


to a 20


to follow, the

produced a low,


percent


staff


percent


return


other


street


groups


The


clothes


patients


Wives


and


were


family


allowed


wear


could


them


their


their


quarters


There


was


unlimited


uncensored


correspon-


dence,


part


a therapeutic


the staff.


work p

Inmates


program

could


women


"fire"


any


therapists


guard


were


they


didn


like.


Probably


most


impressive


was


program


ability


to generate


a 24-hour-a


-day


therapy


milieu


which


inmates


had


intense


vestment.


Unfortunately,


ef-


fectiveness


this


program


was


lost


when


State


Cal-


ifornia


built


million


Atascadero


State


Hospital


where


sex


offenders


were


subsequently


sent


(Brecher,


1978).


According


to Brecher


(1978)


survey


sex


fender


treatment


programs


United


States,


1972


marked







-36-


problem

Resnik,


was

and


published


a Pennsylvani


a Maryland

a criminolo


psychiatrist,


Professor


H.L.P.


Marvin


Wolfgang.


Some


Wolfgang


and


Resnik


s proposal


have


found


their


way


into


more


innovative


treatment


programs.


These


include


sex


re-education,


participation


wives,


per-


sonali


zing


victim,


use


femal


co-therapi


sts,


and


treatment


of sexual


inadequacy.


Brecher


survey


sex


offender


treatment


programs


included


both


institutional


communi ty


based.


Five


in-


stitutional


programs


are


described


some


detail,


which


are


described


here


In Washington,


Fort


Steilacoom


s Self


Help


Program


eludes


four


objectives


the


offender


must


learn


to recognize


own


antisocial


behavior


patterns;


must


understand


origins,


development,


and


operations


those


patterns;


must


accept


responsibility


deviant


behavior


make


a commitment


to change;


and


must


develop


new


patterns


behavior


which


will


gain


him


community


acceptance.


This


meet


model


intensive


called


group


"guided
9


sessions,


self

with


-help


no staff


offenders


present.


pervi


sion


is cl


ose


, however,


with


staff


playing


a guidance


and


consultative


role.


Couples


therapy,


use


of female







-37-


program,


Alcoholic


Anonymous,


is used


recognize


each


offender


s progress


through


treatment.


ROARE


Program


was


pioneered


at Rahway


State


Prison


New


Jersey,


William


Prendergast,


ROARE


stands


Re-education


of Attitudes


and


Repre


ssed


Emotions


em-


phasi


zes


regression


accompanied


emotional


catharsi


repressed

a more co


childhood


mprehensive


sexual

program


trauma.


with


ROARE


building


evolved

of New


into

Jer-


s new


United


facility


States


in Avenel


specifically


It is


only


designed


facility


sex


offenders.


A sophisticated


video-feedback


temr


now


employed


help


offenders


and


therapy


analy


problems


treat-


ment


process.


The


Avenel


program


also


a Patient


Directed


Respon-


sibility


program


(PDR).


A PDR


program


participant


decides


himself


the
what


form w
other


which


therapy


participants


session
or staff


shall take,
members he


wants


pre
9


ne may cn
gaging in
feelings-


sent
oose


so on.


to be alone


a soliloquy


-for


therapi


sequent
p. 45)


some


the


"acting
replay


occas


studio,
out" hi


him


ions,


en-


and


Common


elements


Dr. Gene


Abel


et al


. (1978) ,


-behav-


ioral


psychologists,


described


five


common


elements


treat-








-38-


Empathic


relationship.


Whatever


theoretical


orientation


program,


importance


a warm


accept-


relationship


between


the


rapist


therapist


seen


a necessary


prerequisite


treatment


effectiveness.


Confrontation.


Although


specific


methods


differ,


programs


stress


importance


confronting


of-


fender


with


responsibility


offense.


offender


confronted


on any


use


denial,


rationalization


or min-


imization


his


responsibility


deviate


behavior.


Heterosocial-heterosexual


skills


training.


The


ma-


jority


programs


stress


need


development


skills


which


facilitate


appropriate


interaction


with


adult


females.


Frequently,


this


done


through


individual


role


play


with


female


staff


or with


volunteers.


Unfortunately,


many


insti-


tutional


settings


make


this


type


interaction


difficult


impossible.


Increasing


sexual


arousal


to adult


females.


Some


rapists


indicate


that


mutually


enjoyable


or consensual


tercourse


is not


erotic


them


and


that


force


or coercion


is a necessary

ically-oriented


element


therapies


their

involve


sexual

e the


arousal.

exploration


Psychodynam-


the


fears


that


are


assumed


underlie


this


lack


arousal.


I, -tl ..u 4 ~


~.. a. x.. a ,~- -
J.. a .1- -a--


*1


1


r 1


*


r;


^ r~







-39-


Decreasing


sexual


arousal


rape.


the


pre-


vious


element,


while


psychodynamic


therapies


use


a variety


insight


-oriented


indirect


methods


of accomplishing


this


goal,


behavior


use


covert


desensiti


nation


and


avers


techniques


Whatever


approach


used,


de-erot-


icizing


precipitating


stimuli


ultimate


object


sex


offender


treatment


programs.


Group


therapy


Whether


offender-


or staff


-led,


most


programs


use


group


therapy


primary


treatment


modality


In early


programs,


method


was


used


initially


out


necessity,


given


insuffi


cient


trained


staff


to conduct


indi


vidual


therapy


sessions


However,


programs


soon


found


that


peer


group


pressure


responsibility,


hone


sty,


change


it exerts, are


a potentially


potent


therapeutic


force.


The


group


forms


type


surrogate


family


which


provides


support


necessary


sk-taking


change


(MacDonald,


1971;


Brecher,


1978).


Behavior


modification.


behavioral


approach


treatment


sex


offenders,


pioneered


men


like


Gene


Abel,


University


of Tennessee


, Memphis


, and


D.R.


Laws


at Ata


scadero


State


Hospital


California,


having


wide


spread


influence


on sex


offender


treatment.


Stres


sing


faulty


learning


early


conditioning







-40-


appropriate


arousal


patterns,


acquisition


SO-


cial


skill


(Abel


et al


, 1978).


purposes


accompli


shing


and


above,


precise


and


direct


methods


assess


sexual


arous


al had


to be developed.


In his


review


physiological


meth-


asses


sing


arousal


(known


as pallography),


Zuckerman


(1971)


concluded


that


direct


calibration


of penile


erection


was


superior


to all


other


measures.


most


successful


devices


used


measure


sexual


arousal


in males


Abel


et al.


(1978)


stated:


Numerous


reports


circumference h
circumferential


cling
water,


curs


penis
eter


diameter,
sible. (


enis


mercury


elas


, the


, causing


apparatus


ave b
devi


een
ces


which


measure


published.
are elastic


are


fill


or graphite.


tubing


Most
tubes


ed with


penile


encir-


either


tumescence


lengthens


contractions


e tubing.
calibration


With


changes
penile s


170)


around


inner


this


OCc-


diam-


inner


is pos-


Coupled


with


audio


and


video


presentations


sexual


stimuli,


technology


can


very


useful


assessment


deviant


sexual


arousal.


This


also


has


important


impli


cations


treatment.


For


example,


a child


molester


may


demonstrate


arousal


10-year


-old


boys


, but


also


to adult


women.


One


rapist


may


exhibit a


rousal


to a relatively


non-







-41-


clinical


decisions


regarding


diagnosis


, prognosis


and


treat-


ment.


Penile


devices


can


be employed


behavioral


treat-


ment,


as discussed


earlier,


through


use


various


con-


ditioning


paradigms


such


fading,


covert


sensitization


aversion


techniques


(Laws,


1980).


As clinicians


and


rese


archers


this


area


have


discov-


ered,


altering


an offender


sexual


arousal


s frequently


enough.


Barlow


(1977)


stated:


Therapi


with


clinical


procedures


rese


to change


arch


ers


patterns


working
f sexual


arousal have
efforts alone


erose


xual


treatment
arousal,


many
fully


despite


noted


ins


uffi


in establishing


behavior


goa
decr


patients
relate


1


easing
are u


success


patterns.


het


erose


these


xual


failures


in many c
increasing


eviant


nabl


persons o
ul modifi


. [


Social


situations
. (p. 23


ciency of
functional


cases


eteros


arous


to date


cation
skills


are


Whether


ese


het-
r the


exual
or both,


or success-


oppos


sex


arous


deficits


respond


sible


0)


Heterosocial


skill


training


s a


re-educative


approach


de-


signed


to aid


offender


establishing


maintaining


appropriate


social


sexual


relationships.


The


need


this


type


training


with


sex


offenders


group


studies


test


effectiveness


been


called


repeatedly


literature


(Abel


et al.,


1978;


Pacht,


1976).










relationships.


res


made


earch


Despite


approach,


before


about


definite


theoretical


it needs


prom-


considerable


statements


effectiveness


. 96)


can


(Pacht,


1976,


Social


Skill


s and


Heterosocial


Skill


Literature


It i


only


within


past


year


that


social


skill


have


become


a focus


study


1960


Sa series


studies


conducted


Zigler


and


colleagues


were


carried


out


which


social


demonstrated


competence


a significant


level


relationship


of psychiatric


between


impairment.


Low


social


competence


was


associated


with


more


severe


symptoma-


tology


more


difficulty


post-hospital


adjustment


(Her-


sen


Bellack,


1977;


Zigler


Phillips,


1961,


1962).


25-year


report


psychotherapy


project at Johns


Hopkins


University,


Frank


(1974)


cites


improved


social


skill


as one


benefit


sler


cial


(1976),


aspects


in reviewing


short


these


term


earlier


psychotherapy.


studies,


found


that


scovery


the


importance


social


skill


did


not


spawn


new


treatment


strategic


designed


improve


social


skill


of psychiatric


patients.


Some


researchers


fault


psychodynamically-oriented


therapi


this


shortcoming


Speaking


point,


Hersen


Bellack


(1977)


ci fte


1- i h 4_ tnaa


hP 7~ flh1


ll na~ f 4 ns ~ A


kaCt.thn~


1


I I







-43-


According


to behavior


sts,


psychodynamic


approach


ac-


knowledge


exi


stence


poor


interpersonal


adjustment


but


focuses


tempts


treatment


improve


on symptom


social


zing


removal


through


or uns


group


tructured


therapy.


In contras


behavioral


approach


offers


a one


-to-


one


relationship


between


diagno


assessment


conse-


quent


treatment


strategies.


Thus


relevance


the


treat-


ment


patient


specific


problem


areas


is enhanced.


In addition,


assessment


techniques


which


grew


traditional


to predict


approach,


how


despite


an individual


their


would


sophi


behave


stication,


under


failed


a given


social


environmental


circumstances.


(1976)


failure


cites


traditional


three


reasons


approach:


predictive


personality


alone


was


assumed


to account


poor


performance


effect


Soc


international


environment


observations


was


were


ignored;


class


hampered


ification


global


def-


initions


personality


variabi


leading


to inaccurate


unreliable


measures,


and


an almost


total


reliance


self


report,


whi


ch precluded


aspects


person


s behav-


that


may


beyond


awareness


From


a behavioral


perspective,


bas


social


com-


petence


is a set


learned


abiliti


call


ed social


skills







-44-


result


with


faulty


individual


(Hersen


with


Bellack,


learning
social


stories


skill


leave


deficits


1979,


success


social


skills


training


being


credited


behavior


therapy.


In fact,


cons


idered


some


as one


most


significant


achievements


(Hersen


Bellack,


1979).


Heterosocial


Skill


Heterosocial


skill


are


"those


skill


necessary


so-


cial


interchange


between


members


opposite


sex"


(Ga-


ass


Gal


ass


1979,


131)


Although


hetero


social


skill


can


include


almost


exc


a broad


lusively


range


on behaviors


behavior


research


relevant


focused


initiating


con-


tact


between


shy


or minimal


dating


college


students


Although


progress


has


been


made


toward


understanding


paramet


area


ers


heterosocial


study


still


skill


embrioni


For


past


years,


example,


though


consistent


agreement


can


be found


between


raters


when


comparing


level


of social


skill


in individuals


, the


spe-


cific


behaviors


which


account


ose


differences


have


yet


to be

Hersen


determined


Bellack,


empirically

1977). Ar


(Curren,


kowitz


1977;


sler,


et al. (1975)


1976;


analy


hnh ~ rI nr


t ~ ~ ~ ~ n -4 r I flf


rot nl nln in,)


tin 4-ara


nfl cOa7Cf


hok HT7-


Jp4 rI


Ilrl


I 1-











which


discriminated


high


and


daters


was


silences,


high


frequency


daters


having


had


fewer.


Gala


ssi and


Galass


(1979)


summarized


situation


re-


garding


assessment:


For


males


, the


search


specific


behavior


anxiety


mndi


ces


not


been


encouraging.


any


one


inves


tigation


only


a few


the


indices


reveal


diff


erences.


The specific


indices


that
tent


have


and


differentiated


incompetent


male


hetero


Soc


s include


ially


compe-


heart


rate


specific


anxiety


signs


; initiating


interac-


tions


response


and
ures
time


form


res


ponding


timing


verbally
placement;


conversation;


; obtaining
: number of


a date i
silences


to approach


voice


verbal


n a phone


contel
call


response


nt


cues
ect,
meas-


; talk
latency.


Unfortunately,


across
sistent


these


studi


pattern.


findings


ere
139)


are


appears


not


to be


replicated


no con-


verbal


nonverbal


behavioral


sequences


emitted


responded


to during


interpersonal


action


are


very


com-


plex.


, behaviors


deemed


"skillful"


on one


context


a date)


could


judged


inappropriate


in another


(job


inter-


view).


Norms


also


differ


with


respect


to culture,


socioeconomic


havior which

skilled, but


ecifi


status


must

the


Thus,


judged


interaction


interpersonal


not


only


as relatively


those


context.


ese


observed


skilled


behaviors


judgments


or un-


within


are further


influenced


values


and


norms


held by


specific


groups







-46-


validate


intellectual


functioning.


"Relatively


simple


tests


basic


sensory


motor


abilities


failed


while


uses


more


complex


tasks


proved


quite


successful"


329).


this


regard,


Arkowitz


et al.


(1975)


call


study


so-


cial


skill


different


ces


based


on behavioral


measures


which


take


into


account


reciprocal


and


interactive


charac-


teri


dyadic


interaction"


11).


Theoretical


Differences


Four


sses


variable


have


been


postulated


as being


responsible


social


inadequacy--conditional


anxiety,


skill


deficits,


cognitive


stortions


phys


ical


attrac-


tiveness


(Curren,


1977;


Gal


ass


Galassi,


1979).


Those


who


favor


anxiety


basi


poor


social


per-


formance


rect


hypothesize


response


that


anxiety


individual


inhibiting


learned


performance


cor-


(Wolpe


Lazarus,


1966)


skill


s advo


cates


theori


that


lack


experience,


faulty


learning


or learning


disabilities,


individual


doesn't


possess


skill


s for


competent


per-


formance


(Curren,


1977).


Another


explanation


poor


social


skills


concerns


cog-


nitive


evaluations


distortions.


Due


"negative


self


evaluation


, high


performancee


standards,


unreali


;tic


expec-











physical


attractiveness


role


is receiving


heterosocial


more


problems


attention


Less


concern -


attractive


indi


vidual


, according


this


view,


may


have


fewer


opportuni


ties


less


to practice


skillful


develop


regardless


skill


eir


They


skill


may


level


rated


(Galassi


Galassi,


Problems


1979).


Definition


In light


theoretical


differences


and


methodolog-


ical


problems


just


cited,


a single


operational


definition


social


skill


which


applies


many


contexts


seems


nearly


ssible


those


literature


interpersonal


defines


behaviors


social


that


skill


contribute


variably


to individ-


effectiveness


as part


of a larger


group


(Argyris


, 1965),


"complex


ability


maximize


the rate


itive


reinforcement


to minimize


strength


punishment


from


others"


(Libet


Lewinsohn,


1973,


ability


to develop


rapport


express


intere


st and


under-


standing


in a social


interaction


, 1968).


Curren


(1979)


beli


eve s


we need


to develop


a narrow,


motor-skill


based


definition


SOC


skill.


He beli


eves


that


present


time,


definition


most


fundamental


problem


study


SOC


skill.







-48-

V


measure


ects


the types
we choose


how


we decide


e manner
of control
to analyze


in which
1 groups


our


measure


we select subjects,


we employ


data


how


325)


Heterosocial


skill


per


se has


been


defined


Barlow


et al. (1977)


as skills


relevant


initiating,


maintaining


and


terminating


a social


and/or


sexual


relationship


with


member


osite


sex.


Since


different


skills


are


re-


quired


different


stages


of a relationship,


more


meaning


can


derived


from


definitions


which


are


more


specific


either


initiating


or maintaining


(Gal


ass


Galassi,


1979).


Research


Three


general


areas


account


majority


rese


arch


social


skills


research


with


psychiatric


population,


assertivene


studi


heterosocial


skill


train-


with


minimal


dating


coll


students.


Goldsmith


McFall


(1975)


found


that


when


mal


psychi


atric


inpati


ents


were


given


only


three


hours


interpersonal


skills


training,


they


demonstrated


significantly


greater


provements


than


control


groups


in ability


to handle


diffi-


cult


interpersonal


situations.


Finch


and


Wallace


(1977)


gave


a group


male


schi


zophrenic


inpatients


sessions


social


skill


training


The


skill


group,


when


compared


with











Rathus


(1972)


conducted


studies


designed


to deter-


mine


effectiveness


assertiveness


training


with


male


undergraduates.


first


study


demonstrated


a de-


crease


general


specific


fears


related


to social


com-


petence.


second


study,


assertiveness-trained


par-


ticipants


were


rated


as significantly


more


assertive


than


controls


basis


of five


audio


taped


responses


to struc-


tured


que


stions.


McFall


Marston


(1970)


conducted


a study


with


non-assertive


college


students


Subjects


were


assigned


ran-


domly


control


groups


(placebo


and


treatment)


treatment


groups


(one


with


performance


feedback


one


without).


Both


self


-report


and


behavioral


measures


yielded


significant


improvement


experimental


over


control


groups.


Curren


(1977) ,


review,


divides


literature


according


three


ma3or


assumptions


concerning


the


eti-


ology


and


maintenance


of heterosexual


social


inadequacy


conditioned


anxiety,


faulty


cognitive


processes,


skills


deficits.


Borkovec


demonstrating


et al.


(1974)


that


supported


high


anxious


anxiety


subjects


theory


could


successfully


discriminated


a heterosocial


role


play


sit-


-49-






-50-


additional


studies


growing


out


conditioned


anxiety


theory,


decrease


tematic


fear


desensiti


response


zation


associated


was


with


successfully


heterosocial


used


sexual


situations


(Bander,


Steinke,


Allen,


Mosher,


1975;


Curren


Gilbert,


1975).


Typically,


these


studi


, treatment


consisted


working


through


fear


hierarchy


pairing


re-


laxation


training


with


increasingly


fearful


stimuli.


Fi-


nally,


individual


parti


cipat


in an actual


face-to


-face


role


play


or real


dating


situation.


The


second


explanation


hetero


social


anxiety


views


individual


s faulty


performance


source


cognitive/evaluative


expectation


problem.


negative


In support


appraisal


consequences


theory,


Clark


Arkowitz


(1975)


found


high


anxious


subjects


under-


estimated


their


own


performance


in a heterosocial


play.


Smith


and


Sarason


(1975)


demon


s treated


that


high


socially


anxious


individual


possessed


a high


generalized


need


to be


liked,


were


highly


motivated


to avoid


disapproval


and


were


overly


concerned


with


others


' evaluations


them.


Curren


(1977)


focused


most


review


liter-


ature


third


ass


umption--that


"the


source


anx-


iety


heterosocial


sexual


interaction


partially


re-


active


due


an inadequate,


inappropriate


behavioral







-51-


between


and


high


heteros


sexually


socially


anxious


indi-


vidual


on global


ratings


skill,


performance


hetero-


sexual


social


interaction


situations.


Curren


uses


Bandura


(1969)


label,


response


acqui


sition


approach,


describing


treatment


model


adapted


ese


studies


A variety


methods


were


use


to help


the

such


heterosocially

as modeling,


individuals


behavioral


overcome


rehearsal,


their

self-


problems


observation


from


video.


Although


studi


were


reviewed,


only


a few,


accord-


to Curren,


were


sufficiently


free


of methodological


shortcomings


to warrant


serious


consid


eration


their


find-


wings.


He praised


attempt


Twentyman


to demonstrate


and

the


McFall'


construct


(1975) s

validity


tudy


of i


for

ts as-


sessment


devi


ces


In thi


study,


31 college


students


who


scored


low


assigned


Survey


treatment


of Heterosocial


or control


groups


Interactions


Treatment


were


included


mod


eling,


behavioral


rehearsal


with


female


assis


tants


coach-


ing,


audio


feedback


repetition.


Results


indicated


sig-


nificant


group


different


ces


on an array


measures


including


self


-report,


phys


biological,


global


and


specific


anxiety


rat-


ings


ratings


skill


anxie


conversation


duration


during


social


behavioral


situations.











randomly


assigned


one


treatment


groups


(behavioral


rehearsal


or behavioral


rehearsal


plus


homework)


or to


a con-


trol


group.


Treatment


consi


sted


of discriminating


between


approachable


taking


curately


unapproachable


conversations


to nonverbal


, telephone


cues


females,


skill


(MacDonald,


initiating


and


responding


Lindquist,


main-

ac-


Kramer,


McGrath,


Rhyne,


1975).


Curren


(1977)


states


that


"the


re-


suits


from


MacDonald


et al. 1975


study


can


generally


taken


supportive


response


acquis


ition


model


treatment


heterosexual


social


anxiety"


. 142).















CHAPTER


METHODOLOGY


The


purpose


this


study


was


assess


effective-


ness


a six-week


training


module


the


heterosocial


skill


heterosocial


incarcerated


sex


anxiety,


and


offenders


hetero

e stud


social


self-esteem


comprised


treat-


ment

The


control


treatment


groups


group


was


selected

divided


from

into


the same

two groups


population.


per-


sons


each,


of whom


received


the


same


heterosocial


skills


training.


The


control


group


did


not


receive


treatment


modul


until


after


study were


completed.


Data


was


elected


on both


groups


and were


analyze


stati


stically


to de-


termine


signifi


cant


differences


chapter


describes


experimental


procedures.


Population


The


population


study


consisted


of residents


the North F

Gainesville


lorida


Florida


Evaluation


NFETC


Treatment


is one


there


Center (N

e forensic


FETC)


hos-


pital


Florida


under


Department


Health


Reha-







-54-


offenders


are


sent


this


facility


from


a commit-


ting


court


or from


Department


of Corrections


after


being


found


guilty


a sex


offense


(e.g.,


rape,


child


moles-


station,


exhibitionism)


being


found,


after


a screen-


evaluation,


to have


a psychosexual


disorder.


offenders,


Hispanic,


approximately


percent


percent


white.


were


black,


mean


percent


was


with


a range


in age


from


16 to 60.


mean


level


education


attained


was


tenth


grade,


with


socioeconomic


level


being


typically


lower


middle


class.


Nearly


percent


were


single


with


15 percent


married


percent


divorced


or separated.


Less


than


one-third


the


residents


the


sex


offender


program


were


committed


to NFETC


court.


They


were


con-


victed


a sex


offense,


found


to meet


criteria


a Men-


tally


Disordered


Offender


a minimum


court-ap-


pointed


programs


currently


operation


Florida.


Before


this


law


was


altered,


under


Chapter


917.12


Florida


Statutes,


sentencing


was


withheld


pending


outcome


treat-


ment.


treatment


programs


must


make


periodic


reports


court


concerning


an offender


s progress.


Once


treatment


completed,


an offender


is returned


court


fur-


their


disposition.


'he program'


report,


as well


as other







-55-


In August,


1979,


Chapter


was


changed.


Under


new


law,


an offender


is either


placed


on probation


or sen-


tenced


to prison.


On arrival


Department


of Correc-


tions


system,


offender


screened


a Joint


Department


of Correction


s/Department


Health


Rehabilitative


Ser-


ces


team.


offender


meets


following


criteria,


placed


on a waiting


list


transfer


one


three


HRS


sex


offender


treatment


programs


Florida:


a psy


chosexual


disorder;


did


not


murder


or attempt


to murder


years


victim


and


a sentence


motivated


between


to accept


1 and


treatment.


Those


offenders


who


meet


above


criteria


but


have


a sen-


tence


longer


than


years


are


placed


on a waiting


future


Each


entry


consideration


resident


During


three


goes


initial


years


through


prior


to parole.


an intensive


evaluation


stage,


evaluation


resident


willingness


and


ability


to benefit


from


treatment are


as-


sessed.


end


this


to 90 day


period,


their


accepted


into


treatment


(lasting


months


returned


Department


of Corrections


to fini


sh hi


s sen-


tence.


There


are


three


buildings


to which


a sex


offender


might


De assi


gned


on arrival


A building


consists


three


or i







-56-


pods


are


separated


a secure


control


room


where


NFETC


treatment


staff


maintain


three


-hour


shifts.


prof


ess


ional


staff


member


acts


as primary


therapist


each


pod.


In addition,


paraprofessional


staff


perform


observation,


charting


and


daily


maintenance


functions


primary


treatment


modaliti


three


buildings


include


group


therapy


four


times


a week,


individual


or small


group


consultations


specialized


short


term


training


groups


such


substance


abuse,


sex


education,


or stress


management


training.


Research


Design


A random


zed control


group


posttest


only


design


(Isaac


Michaels,


three


1971)


subhypoth


was


eses


used


This


test


design


four


was


ma3or


sen


hypotheses


because


and


previ


ous


research


Checklist


suggested


(HSB)


was


that


a highly


Heterosocial


reactive


Skill


instrument


Behavior


(Alexander,


1979).


test


In addition


experimental


to reduce


interaction


procedure,


effects


experimental


pre-


design


con-


trole


d for


effects


story


and


maturation


(Isaac


Michaels


, 1971)













Ho 1)


There


will


no significant


difference


between


experimental


control


groups


variable


Heteroso-


cial


Skill


as measured


the Heterosocial


Skill


Behavior


Checklist


(HSB)


There


will


no significant


difference


be-


tween


experimental


control


groups


the


variable


voice


, as measured


HSB.


There


will


no significant


difference


be-


tween


experimental


control


groups


on the


variable


form


conversation,


as measured


HSB.


Ho Ic)


There


will


no significant


difference


be-


tween


experimental


and


control


groups


on the


variable


affect,


as means


ured


HSB.


Ho 2


There


will


no significant


difference


between


experimental


control


groups


variable


heteroso-


cial


anxie


as measured


S-R Inventory


Anxiousness


Ho 3


There


will


no significant


difference


variable


heterosocial


self


-esteem,


as measured


So-


cial


Self-Esteem


Inventory.


Ho 4


There


will


no significant


difference


between


rapi


pedophiles


experimental


group


vari


ables


of heterosocial


skills,


heterosocial


anxiety


het-


--








-58-


Sampling


Procedures


Forty


residents


treatment


sex


fender

used t


program


o determine


rticipated

inclusion


study.

training


The


criteria


module


were


single,


heterosexual


or bisexual.


Using


domly


a table


assigned


random


to either


numbers,


treatment


residents

or control


were r

group.


:an-

The


treatment


group


was


further


divided


randomly


into


two


groups


each


order


to expedite


training.


Experimental


Treatment


Co-Trainers


There


were


four


trainers,


females.


A team


comprised


one


male


one


female


co-led


each


treatment


groups.


investigator


author


module


trained


trainers


consul ted


with


them


dur-


treatment.


selection


trainers


was


based


on their


clinical


erience


and


interest


social


skills


training.


They


par-


ticipated


an eight-hour


heterosocial


skill


workshop






-59-


a simulated


abbreviated


form


the


modul


that


was


used


with


residents.


Social


Skill


Module


training


module


consi


sted


eight


-hour


sess


ions


with


objectives


step-by


-step


procedures


outlined


each


sess


ion.


The


module


was


developed


primarily


from


the


follow-


Behaviors


found


to differentiate


adequate


from


adequate


males


on HSB


(Barlow


et al.,


1977) ;


Ideas


and


concepts


from


books


Shyness


(Zimbardo,


1977)


Contact:


The


First


Four


Minutes


(Zunin,


1973) .


Treatment


methods


used


with


socially-anx-


ious


college


males


(Twentyman


McFall,


Arkowit


1977);


Principles


cognitive


behavior


modification


(Meichenbaum,


1977) ;


Results


from


a pilot


study;


Clinical


experience


investigator


with


popu-


lation.


The


six-week


training


modul


was


comprised


eight


lessons


It focused


following


general


areas


con-


versa


ition


skill


self


-esteem,


body


image,


negative


self







-60-


gained


in previous


sessions.


Role


play


was


used


extensively


throughout


training.


There


were


eight


lessons


module


(Appendix


In general,


they


focused


following


introduc-


tions


, setting


group


norms,


individual


needs


assessments,


role


play


skill


assessment


of personal


strengths


weaknesses


, establishing


goals


action


plans,


introduc-


tion


to skills


assessment


checkli


of skills


feedback


anxi


ety


on video


problems;


role


under


plays,


tand-


practice


in effective


stening


responding;


practice


initiation


converts


action,


risk-


taking,


over-


coming


negative


self


-talk;


role


play


most


feared


hetero-


social


situation,


critique


feedback;


social


simula-


tion


(party


with


female


confed


rates,


practicing


social


con-


versation,


risk-taking)


and,


review


of personal


goal


action


plans,


more


role


play


critiques


Confederates


In order


to simulate


actual


social


encounters


and


give


participants


a chance


to reality


test


their


skill


female


volunteers


were


used


during


the


training.


volunte


ers


worked


cooperatively


throughout


training


role


play


situations.


Mean


the confederates


was


approximately







-61-


Criterion


Instruments


Three


criterion


instruments


were


used:


The


Heteroso-


cial


Skill


Behavior


Checkli


(HSB)


(Barlow


et al.,


1977);


S-R Inventory


Anxiousness


(SRIA)


(Endler,


Hunt,


Rosenstein,


1962)


as modified


Arkowitz


et al.


(1975);


Social


Self


-Esteem


Inventory


SSI)


developed


Lawson


(1979)


measure


modified


heterosocial


s study


self


investigator


-esteem.


Heterosocial


Skill


Behavior


Checkli


(HSB)


The


HSB


was


developed


measure


behaviors


associated


with


initial


heterosocial


contact.


It is designed


specif


ically


males


provides


a score


which


can


be matched


again


norms


establi


shed


with


heterosocially


adequate


and


inadequate


mal


(Barlow


et al.,


1977).


Trained


raters


fill


out


checkli


st while


viewing


five


-second


segments


a five-minute


videotaped


role


play


between


a male


subject


a female


confederate.


The


play


situation


given


both


male


and


female


typically


tices


a party


female


or a waiting


decides


room


which


approach


her.


the


no-


In each


seg-


ment,


behaviors


are


rated


as either


present


or absent


four


areas


voice


, form


of conversation.


affect


... -


motor







-62-


development


ins


trument,


socially


adequate

a group


white

being


mal


were


evaluated


selected,


sexual


staff


deviation.


agreement,

Twenty a


from


Lde-


quate


coll


high


school


males


, 10


black


white,


were


also


selected


agreement


five


females


who


rated


them


as popular


with


their


classmates.


The


adequate


groups,


black


white


males,


scored


high


percent


appropriate


behaviors


(89.4


percent,


s.d.


7.3),


while


inadequate


behaviors


8.8) .


group


Motor


averaged


behavior


71.2


percent


was


only


appropriate


measure


which


did


not


significantly


discriminate


adequate


from


adequate.


Alexander


(1979)


assessed


reliability


HSB


with

North


a population


Florida


of 79


Evaluation


sex

and


offenders

Treatment


treatment


Center.


Interrater


reliability


half


was


-reliability


found


was


high


found


(90

to be


to 100

high


percent).


Split


three


dimensions


affect,


.87;


voice,


and


1.00;


leted


form,


this


study


and


.79.


. Test-retest


Motor


behavior


reliability


was


was


de-


ques


tion-


because


score


form


.90,


.72)


Test-retest


reliability


voice


was


.74,


< .00)


affect


.53,


< .02).


m







-63-


(very


poor


skills)


to a 5


(very


good


skills


scale.


These


ratings


correlated


moderate


but


significantly


with


ratings


voice,


form


covers


action


affect.


Motor


behavior


not


correlate


significantly


(Coleman,


Murphy,


Abel,


Becher,


1979)


The


Sarason


HSB


was


(1979)


modifi


found


ed by


that


investigator.


equency


with


Kupke


which


and


male


used


pronoun


significantly


you
OU^^^^


with


in interaction


rating


him


with


as more


a female


socially


correlated


skilled.


rating


was


added


"interest"


measure


under


"form


conversation


Motor


behavior


was


deleted


as well


"inflec


tion"


measure


under


voi


due


to difficulty


aif


ferentiating


it from


other


voice


measures


S-R Inventory


of Anxiousness


(SRIA)


The


SRIA


a self


-report


inventory


developed


Endler


et al. (1962).


Recognizing


that


situations


contribute


more


variance


construct


anxiousness


than


indi-


vidual


differences,


they


developed


an inventory


that


was


sit-


nationally


modifiabl


this


measure,


a situation


scribed


such


, "You


are


about


to be


introduced


an at-


tractive


woman


at a party


Fourteen


response


modes


follow


For


example







-64-


Arkowitz


(1975),


study


of social


competence


, using


five


heterosocial


situations,


found


a signif-


icant


difference


between


scores


high


low


frequency


daters


using


modified


version


SRIA.


In addi


tion,


he found


SRIA


scores


to drop


significantly


as a re-


sult


training.


SRIA


has


been


found


to intercorre-


late


with


other


valid


and


reliabi


measures,


such


Social


Anxiety


stress


Scal


(SAD)


and


Fear


Nega-


tive


Evaluation


Alexander


(1979)


Scal


(FNE)


found


(Watson


SRIA


to be


& Friend,


ess


1969).


reactive


tendency


toward


socially


irabl


answers


than


use


with


sex


offenders


and


changed


ess


over


time.


same


study,


a test


re-test


correlation


.0001)


was


found.


The


SRIA


correlated


with


SAD,


another


self-


report


social


Social


Self


anxiety


-Esteem


measure


Inventory


.63)


(SSI)


The


30-item


Social


Self


-Esteem


Inventory


developed


Lawson,


Marshall


McGrath


was


modified


invest


gator


use


this


study.


All


but


items


were


altered


to make


them


specifically


heterosoc


in nature.


For


example


am easy


like


was


changed


to Femal


find


me easy


like.


There


were


negatively


keyed


situations







-65-


psychology


revealed


students.


a single


Factor


general


analy


factor


that


30-item


scale


accounted


percent


total


variance.


Analys


Data


A two-way


analyst


variance


was


performed


test


for e

ences


experimental


between


control 1


rapist and


group


pedophil


differences


on the


and


dependent


differ-

t vari-


ables


Statistical


significance


was


level


of confident


ce.


Equivalency


between


experimental


control


groups


was


determined


t-tests


group


means


on the


variables


age,


length


time


treatment,


race


offense.


Pearson


determine


product-moment


interrater


correlations


reliability


were


HSB


performed


Checklist


lowing


posttesting.















CHAPTER I
RESULTS


The


purpose


this


study


was


to determine


effec-


tiveness


a six


week


heterosocial


skills


training


module


with


sex


offenders.


A randomized


control


group,


posttest-


only


design


was


used


four


major


null


hypothe


ses


and


three


null


sub-hypotheses


were


tested.


dependent


vari


ables


of heterosocial


skill,


heterosocial


self-esteem


heterosocial


anxiety


were


drawn


from


three


criterion


instru-


ments:


The


Heterosocial


Skills


Behavior


Checklist


(HSB),


Social


Self-Esteem


Inventory


(SSI) ,


and


S-R Inventory


of Anxiousness


(SRIA).


Since


HSB


total


score


is comprised


three


areas


(voice,


form


converts


ation


and


affect),


three


null


sub-


hypotheses


were


tested


order


to determine


their


relative


contributions


differences


between


experimental


control g

teraction


roups.

between


The

the


fourth


major


treatment


hypothesis


and


type


tested

offender


for in

(rap-


or pedophile).


two-way


analysis


variance


was


used


test


differences


between


exnerimental1


and


nnntnrnl


nmrniis


n 11 n,-











femal


co-trainers,


t-test


was


used


to determine


effects


trainers.


The


t-test


showed


no significant


difference


between


treatment


groups


on all


three


measures


, thus


data


were


collapsed


to form


one


experimental


group


= 18)


comparison


with


control


group.


These


results


are


presented


Table


4.1.


Resulting


Sample


Group


means


total


sample


and


experimental


control


groups


with


respect


age,


months


treatment,


race


and


off


ense


are


shown


in Table


original


sample


participants,


data


were


gathered


on 37;


ex-


perimental

treatment


19 controls


groups


misse


several


subj


ects


sessions


and


Sone

were


therefore


excluded.


One


control


subject


exerc


ised


his right


not


participate


posttesting


Since


more


pedophiles


are


exclusively


homosexual


and


over


years


age,


only


selection


criteria,


original


sample


= 40)


had


25 rapists


only


pedo-


phil


es.


After


randon


assignment,


pedophiles


were


treatment


groups


only


four


control.


Also,


one


control


group


participant


who


declined


posttest


was







-68-


TABLE


TESTS


FOR


EQUIVALENCY


BETWEEN


EXPERIMENTAL


GROUPS


Variable Groups N X S.D T D.F pr>t

HSB Total I 10 91.3 6.4 .01 10 .99

II 8 91.2 12.1 .01 16 .99


SRIA I 10 146.8 37.5 .04 15 .96

II 8 146. 37.6 .05 16 .96


SSI I 10 135.5 25.2 .34 .3 .73

II 8 130.8 31.1 .34 16 .73







-69-


TABLE


GROUP


BETWEEN


CHARACTERISTICS


EXPERIMENTAL


AND


AND


EQUIVALENCY


CONTROL


GROUPS


Group N Avg. Months in Black White Rapist Pedophile
Age Treatment

Total 37 25.5 13.9 4 33 23 14
Sample

Experimen- 18 26.1 15 2 16 8** 10**
tal Group

Control 19 25.1 13 2 17 16** 3**
Group


**Not


equivalent


level


(Fis


hers


Exact


Probability)







-70-


analysis


variance


was


done


with


white


subjects


only.


No significant


change


was


noted


data,


therefore,


blacks


' data


were


included


results.


General


Findings


Equivalency


Equivalency


between


experimental


and


control


groups


was


analy


with


res


pect


age,


length


time


treatment,


race


Table


except


ratio


of rapi


, groups


ratio


were


of rapists


to pedophiles


equivalent on all

to pedophiles.


As reported


variable


Fisher


Exact


Probability


Tests


showed


significant


group


differences


.01)


types


of offense


Heterosocial


Skill


total


percent


appropriate


scores


the


HSB


check-


were


an average


scores


two


raters


both


of whom


rated


tapes.


Pearson


product


moment


cor-


relations


were


done


to determine


interrater


reliability.


Acceptabi


corre


lations


were


found


vol


form


con-


vers


ation,


and


ect.


These


findings


are


presented


Table


4.3.







-71-


TABLE


INTERRATER
HSB


RELIABILITIES
CHECKLIST


Measure Raters N X S.D. r

Voice I 37 96.3 7.6
.80
II 37 93.6 9.7


Form of I 37 82.7 16.8
Conversation .87
II 37 85.1 14.1


Affect I 37 85.8 16.8
.90'
II 37 82.9 18.1











Total.


The


HSB


total


score


is a combined


percent


propriate


score


obtained


from


three


subscales


voice,


form


of conversation


and


affect.


experimental


group


scored


percentage


points


higher


than


control


group


on HSB


total.


As presented


Tabi


obtained


stati


stic


> F.O


was


significant


and


null


hypotheses


was


ected.


Voi


ce.


The


voice


measure


was


altered


deleting


election


since


measure


was


found


to be


difficult


rate


were


in a pilot


loudne


study.


pitch


remaining


dramatic


three


effect.


areas


rated


A subject


was


rated


inappropriate


could


not


heard


clearly,


voice


was


higher


pitch


than


conf


ederate


placed


special


dramatic


emphasis


on words


, in


any


five


30-second


segments.


experimental


group


score


mean


percentage


points,


higher


than


controls


on the


voice


measure.


Due


dispers


scores


in both


groups


(S.D.


9.8),


different


ces


were


stati


stically


significant.


obtained


-stati


stic


6.02


> F.02)


was


significant


beyond


level


confidence.


Since


was


hypoth-


esized


that


there


would


no significant


difference


between


experimental


and control


groups


voi


variable,


s







-73-







TABLE 4.4
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE BETWEEN
EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS,
HETEROSOCIAL SKILL, ANXIETY AND SELF-ESTEEM


Measure Group N X S.D. F D.F. p>F

HSB Exp. 18 97.5 5.0 0*
Voice Con. 19 92.8 9.8 *

HSB Form of Exp. 18 88.0 13.9 2.49 1 12
Conversation Con. 19 79.8 14.9 *

HSB Exp. 18 89.9 11.9
Affect Con. 19 79.3 20.32 *

HSB Exp. 18 91.3 8.0 5.29 1 02*
Total Con. 19 83.6 11.2'

SRIA Exp. 18 146. 36.4
Con. 19 160. 54.1 75 1 .39

SSI Exp. 18 133.4 27.2 1.08 1 30
Con. 19 120.2 39.4


*Significant at
Weighted cell


means


level.
solution


to ANOVA.







-74-


and


interest.


In order


to be rated


appropriate


subject


must


initiate


topics


conversation,


respond


vo-


cally


at least


once


per


30-second


segment


female'


vocalizations,


refrain


from


allowing


pauses


ove r


five


seconds


in each


segment,


and


make


comments


which


demon-


state


interest


woman.


mean


percent


appropriate


scores


form


measure


was


percent


higher


experimental


group


than


control


Even


though


this


appears


to be


in the


probable


direction,


as presented


Table


4.4,


obtained


-stati


was


not


significant


level


of confidence


Since


was


hypothesized


that


there


would


no significant


difference


between


experimental


con-


trol


groups


measure,


the null


hypothesis


was


not


re-


ejected.


Aff


ect.


The


three


behaviors


that


were


the


focus


tention


affect


ratings


were


racial


expression,


eye


contact,


and


laughter


An appropriate


rating


was


given


subj


ect,


whose


facial


expression


was


accord


with


topic


conversation


female


s expression,


who


maintained


contact


at 1


east


five


seconds


each


30-second


segment,


who


refrained


from


high-pitched,


nervounu


Sanchtr -







-75-


group


mean


on the


affect


measure


was


10.1


percentage


points


higher


than


control


group


mean


presented


Table


4.4,


obtained


-stati


stic


2.82


> F.10)


was


not


sig-


nificant


level


of confidence


Therefore,


null


hypotheses


were


not


rejected


Heterosocial


Anxiety


version


the


S-R Inventory


Anxiousness


used


this


study


requires


subj


ect


to imagine


himself


five


different


males.


situations


He reports


which


how


call


anxious


interactions


would


with


rating


tent


his


heart


would


beat


faster,


that


he would


perspire,


that


mouth


would


get


dry,


and


so forth.


was


hypothesis


that


there


would


no significant


difference


between


experimental


and


control


groups


the


variable

Inventory


heterosocial

Anxiousness


anxiety, a

Although


s measured


experimental


S-R

group


scored


lower


anxiety


measure,


different


ces


between


group


means


points)


were


stati


stically


minimal.


pre-


sented


Tabl


obtained


F-s


tat:


isti


F.39)


was


not


significant


level


confidence


Therefore,


null


hypotheses


was


not


rejected.







-76-


confidence


in situations


which


were


specifically


heteroso-


cial.


This


was


accomplished


replacing


word


"people"


with


word


femalel


or the


"opposite


sex.


was


hypothesized


that


there


would


no significant


difference


between


experimental


control


groups


on the


variable


of heterosocial


self-esteem


as measured


a mod-


ified


version


experimental


Social


group


mean


Self-E


was


steem


13 points


Inventory.


higher


Although


than


control


group


SSI,


this


difference


was


not


statisti


call


meaningful.


As presented


Table


4.4,


obtained


-stati


1.08


p > F.30)


was


not


significant


eve


1 of


confidence.


Therefore,


null


hypotheses


was


not


rejected


Treatment/Offense


Interaction


In order


to determine


any


differences


exi


sted


be-


tween


rapists and


pedophiles


response


heterosocial


skill


s training,


an analysis


variance


was


performed


experimental


group


offense.


was


hypothesized


that


there


would


no significant


difference


between


rapists


pedophiles


experimen-


groups


variables


of heterosocial


skill,


heteroso-


cial


anxiety


heterosocial


self-esteem.


results


are







-77-


TABLE


ANALYSIS


OF VARIANCE


OF TREATMENT


OFFENSE


INTERACTION


Measure Offender N X S.D. F. D.F. p F

HSB Rapists 8 94.8 5.8 2.20 1 14
Total Pedophiles 10 88.5 10.5 220 1 .14


SRIA Rapists 8 143.5 38 02 1 88
Pedophiles 10 148 37 *


SSI Rapists 8 133.5 32.800 1 98
Pedophiles 10 133.4 23.7















CHAPTER


SUMMARY,


CONCLUSIONS


AND


RECOMMENDATIONS


Summary


Forty


sex


offenders


the


North


Florida


Evaluation


Treatment


effectiveness


Center


participated


a six-week


a study


heterosocial


skill


test


training


module.


A randomized


control


group,


posttest-only


design


was


use


to determine


effects


training


on heteroso-


cial


skill


, anxiety


and


self


-esteem.


Four


major


null


hy-


potheses


three


null


-hypotheses


were


tested.


these


, one


major


hypothe


one


-hypothesi


were


ected.


Both


HSB


total


score


and


voice


scale


score


showed


a significant


difference


between


experimental


and


control


groups


with


experimental


group


scoring


higher.


No significant


differences


were


found


between


expert


mental


control


groups


S-R Inventory


Anxious-


ness


or the


modified


Social


Self


-Esteem


Inventory.


Also,


no signifi


cant


differences


were


found


between


rapists


and


pedophile s


experimental


group.







-79-


studied


test


type


which


measures


could

age,


offense.


produce

length


For


the


group


time


most


differences


treatment,


part,


the post-

race and


experimental


control


groups


were


equivalent.


Only


variable


"type


offense"


did


a significant


difference


occur


(.05


level).


This


might


attributed


to randomization


proce-


dures.


No attempt


was


made


to control


for


this


aspect


equivalency


because


requirements


randomized


postte


st-only


design.


To maintain


integrity


ran-


domization,


attempt


was


made


reassign


subjects.


Out


participants


study,


percent)


were


rapists


random


percent)


assignments,


were


percent


pedophiles


rapists


However,


were


after


assigned


control


group


and


percent


pedophiles


experimental


group.


The


only


attrition


control


group


was


a pedophile,


final


composition


control


group


offense


was


percent


rapist.


This


was


a poten-


tial


source


of bias


interpreting


data


offenders'


response


treatment


differed


significantly


offense.


Yet,


this


may


a negating


factor.


testing


rapists


pedophiles,


Alexander


(1979)


found


differences


HSB


SRIA


with


sex


offenders


according


age,


however,


no differences


were


found


y of-







-80-


treatment


race,


the


lack


equivalency


as to offense


between


experimental


and


control


groups


was


not


considered


a significant


hinderance


to drawing


conclusions


from


data.


Tra iners


and


Training


Process


The


groups,


experimental


each


group


was


which had


divided


own


set of


into


training


male/female


co-


trainers.


Procedurally


trainer


effect


was


controlled


ecting


sets


trainers


equivalent


age,


training,


and


experience;


time


stressing


lines


lessons


standardized


training


procedures


module.


addition,


both


training


groups


were


brought


together


Lesson


Social


Simulation


Trainer


effect


was


de-


termined


and


stati


on all


stically


dependent


comparing


variable


experimental


result


groups


t-tests


showed


no significant


differences


between


experimen-


groups.


This


suggested


that


both


training


groups


could


combined


comparison


with


control


group


for


data


analysis.


sets


male/female


co-trainers,


parapro-


fessional


staff


sex


offender


unit,


participated


four


hours


in-service


training


to learn


module.


These







-81-


investigator


met


with


each


trainers,


consulted


with


them


and


prepared


next


esson.


Between


sessions,


offenders


were


videotaped


brief


simulated


social


encounters


with


female


volunteers


with


whom


they


were


not


acquainted.


During


first


few


training


sessions,


some


time


was


devoted


to playback


critique


these


tapes.


Thi


feedback


provided


a reality


check


offender


s level


of skill


or comfort


with


unfamiliar


female


partner.


Although


eighth


and


final


review


sess


completed


lessons,


climax


training


was


Social


Simula-


tion.


half


(five


Both


hour


training


shifts


white


groups


to attend


one


black).


combined


a social


These


and


mixer


were


scheduled


with


volunteers


females


were


recruited


from


outside


institution


and


from


other


units


than


sex


offender


unit


within


institution.


Music


and


re-


freshments


were


provided


and


participants


were


structed


to get


to know


as many


the


females


they


could.


This


lesson


provided


needed


reality


testing


gains


made


during


previous


lessons


Data


Collection


HSB.


In using


HSB


checklist,


Alexander


(1979)







-82-


administered.


Three


attractive


women,


their


early


white


to mid-


and


one


twenti


black,


were


used


confederates


role


play


conversation.


None


of the


women


were


acquainted


with


subjects.


white


female


was


taped


with


28 of


participants.


Since


could


not


finish,


remaining


four


whites


(two


experimental


and


two


control)


were


taped


with


another


female.


four


blacks


were


taped


with


a black


confederate.


Instructions


were


same


all


three


confederates.


They


were


instructed


to be


pleasant


but


restrained


refrain


from


initiating


conversation


unless


a 10


-sec


lence


occurred.


that


time,


they


were


instructed


ask


subject


location


home


town


some


other


sim-


ilar


question.


This


occurred


on six


occasions


with


dif-


ferent


subjects


was


successful


getting


conversa-


tion


flowing


once


again.


The


through


videotaping


two-inch


was


done


hole


as unobtrus


paper


which


ively


as possible


covered


win-


dow


to a small


lowing


inner


"Imagine


that


office.


you


Each


are


subject


on the


was


outside


told


and


party.


You


notice


an attractive


woman


alone


and


decide


approach


her


Maintain


a conversation


with


about


five


minutes"


. the


investigator


did


briefing


and







-83-


five


30-second


segments


rating


purposes


This


was


ac-


complished


erasing


five-second


sections


at carefully


timed


-sec


interval


Rating


was


initiated


at the


first


verbal


exchange.


raters


, both


white


females


ages

ing


participated


which


consisted


rating


together

training


tapes


hours

and d


train-


discussion


definitions.


Raters


were


both


employ


ees


of NFETC.


was


her


first


few


days


of work,


and


other


worked


a different


sec


tion


Center.


Neither


was


acquainted


with


participants


or had


knowledge


which


subjects


had


received


training.


Ratings


tapes.


were


Both


done


raters


independently


reported


each


most


rater


difficulty


rated


with


ect


variable.


Judging


appropriateness


facial


expression


and


laughter


frequently


depended


content


conversation


aff


ect


female.


Inter-


rater


reliability


was


despite


difficulty.


The


voice


rating


presented


problems


so.


Specifically,


both


affect


raters


was


reported


being


difficulty


demonstrated.


determining


Possibly


dramatic


because


difficulty


, the


Pearson


Product


Moment


Correlation


voice


was


.80.


According


raters,


form


conversation


seemed


to be the


easiest


to rate.


The


interrater


reliabil






-84-

Conclusions


training


module


designed


this


study


was


effec-


tive


increasing


hetero


social


skill


the


partic-


ipants.


Mean


total


score


differences


behavioral


meas-


ure,


the


HSB


Checkli


were


significantly


higher


ex-


perimental


dictate


group


that


when


compared


three


HSB


with


subscal


control


voice


data


accounted


more


the


variance


than


either


form


of conversation


or affect


measures.


However,


in compare


son


with


previ


ous


norms,


(Barlow


et al.,


1977


relatively


high


(92.8


percent


appropriate


voice


score


the


control


group


indi


cates


p055


sted


ibility


either


that


group


no marked


prior


deficits


training.


in this area

Apparently any


deficits


that


did


experimental


groups


were


fectively


remediated


training,


accounting


very


high


mean


(97.5


percent


appropriate)


score


ex-


perimental


group


voice


measure.


Control


group


mean


scores


form


conversation


affect


subscales


were


relatively


low.


Although


expert


mental


group


scores


these


two


measures


were


de-


sire


It is


d direction,


possible


neither


that


met


skill


level


measured


significance.


form


fect


subscales


require


more


practi


than


training


pro-


vided.







-85-


occurred.


One


explanation


that


training


affected


participants


self


-assessments


an unanticipated


direction.


For


example


, a participant


with


unreali


stically


high


self-


assessments


regarding


heterosocial


skill


comfort


level


prior


training,


could


report


a decrease


in self


-esteem


or an increase


anxiety.


The


posttest-only


design


prohib-


ited


examination


individual


creases


or decreases


these


measures.


It i


also


possible


that


SRIA


and


modifi


ed SSI


lacked


sensitivity


necessary


measure


effects


training.


Finally,


regarding


treatment/offense


interaction,


data


indicate


that


both


rapi


pedophiles


can


benefit


equally


from


heterosocial


skills


training.


Although


rapi


outscored


pedophiles


slightly


on all


measures,


no differ-


ences


approached


significance.


Limitations


artific


iality


inherent


institutions


presents


treatment


problems.


Opportunities


to put


into


practice


new


behaviors


reinforce


progr


ess


are


limited.


con-


straint


may


be a limiting


factor


in general


zing


final


results


, particularly


to non-institution


settings


Racial


differences


were


dealt


with


during


training








-86-


(two


control


and


experimental).


Since


no significant


differences


was


race


included


were


final


found,


results.


data


Although


from


blacks


attempts


were


made


gear


training


and


posttest


videotaping


black


participants


using


black


female


confederates


problem


subcultural


difference


heterosocial


val


ues,


attitudes


and


behaviors


remains


a limitation


study.


was


clear


that


many


the


skill


learned


are


not


subculture


or cl


ass


specific,


such


as listening,


speak-


clearly,


blacks


etc.

latins


However,


and


whites


trainers


appeared


reported


to have


that


varying


the

def-


initions


appropriate


heterosocial


behavior.


All


these


concerns


are


viable


but


addre


ssed


study.


It i


investigator


s beli


that


many


prob-


lems


dealt


with


the


treatment


would


also


apply


those


who


are


exc


lusively


homosexual.


However,


those


with


exclu-


sive


homos


exual


ference,


with


no aspirations


toward


het-


erosexuality


were


exclud


ed from


participation


in this


study.


Therefore,


conclusions


are


limited


to heterosexual


popula-


tions


sex


offenders.


complex


process


involving


use


HSB


Check-


st had


several


potential


sources


error


that


are


diffi-


cult


tn rnnnfrnl


r-4 1I


~-ni 1 R


1; *S


C 4 A3 4


nt~nn


nrr ckn







-87-


role


play


conversation,


participant


s varying


reac-


tion


to being


vid


eotaped.


Another


problem


encountered


process


was


the


ability


play


met


jects,


the white


with


same


female


white


requirements


attractiveness,


conf


ederate


subjects


regarding


etc.,


was


to complete


Another


age,


recruited.


female


stranger


Only


role


that


to sub-


exper-


mental


subjects


differences


controls


resulting


from


remained


a different


to be


taped


confederate


were


appropriate


stributed


between


groups.


However,


ves


tigator


views


this


lack


standardization


confeder-


ates


a limitation


study.


Implications


There


s a


need


to rehabilitate


sex


offenders


to de-


crease


their


dangerousness


and


to help


them


become


more


re-


sponsibl


citizens.


sex


offender


literature


points


clearly


to interpersonal


problems,


particularly


het-


erosocial


sphere,


as being


critical


concern


treatment.


pre


sent


study


demonstrates


that,


an Ins


titutional


set-


ting


with


minimum


cost


terms


of staff


time


money,


with


brie


f training,


an eight


esson


training


course


can


be effective


helping


sex


offenders


increase


their


hetero-







-88-


clear


and


measurable


objectives,


are


a practical


cost


effective


method


treatment.


Although


this


type


treat-


ment


not


designed


to replace


indepth


therapy


with


dividual


focus,


training


group


approach


is standardized


can


replicated.


can


implemented


para-


professional


staff.


A major


problem


treatment


programs


institutional


settings


staff


and


resident


morale.


Part


reason


ambiguous


nature


growth


change


process


, both


terms


treatment


ectives


and


meth-


achieving


objectives.


The


response


module


both


staff


and


res


idents


was


enthusiastic.


Part


that


enthusiasm


may


have


been


related


the


close


rela-


tionship


was


between


clearly


content


"felt need"


and

for


off


ender


this


inadequacies.


type


training.


There

Part


enthusiasm


was


also


attributed


to a rationale


that


was


clearly


understood,


objectives


that


were


precise


stated


behavioral


methods


means


during


outcomes


treatment.


Thi


type


treatment


might


be a partial


solu-


tion


moral


e/burnout


problem


among


both


patients


and


staff


some


institutions.


Recommendations







-89-


account


for


most


differences


between


adequate


adequate


performance.


Thi


may


lead


to refining


treat-


ment


module


and


an increased


sensitivity


measure.


More


exploration


needs


to be


done


complex


inter-


action


between


anxiety,


skill


deficits


and


negative


self-


talk.


Each


person


a unique


process


involving


most


these


elements


varying


degrees.


challenge


is to diag-


nose


this


process


prescribe


appropriate


treatment.


Also,


since


important


therapy


issues


surface


as a result


feedback


training,


interface


with


other


treatment


personnel


modalities


important.


Deeper,


more


intra-


psychic


issues


are


often


triggered


training,


these


may


need


special


attention


other


therapeutic


sessions.


Some


attention


should


be focused


on subcultural


differ-


ence


among


offenders.


Unl


ess


done


trainers


during


training,


a one-dimen


ional


view


what


consid


ered


"correct"


behavior


can


be engendered.


Within


lim-


flexibility


necessary


with


groups


of participant


from


diverse


backgrounds.


When


using


female


volunteers


as confederates


role


plays


and


simulations,


careful


attention


should


paid


their


preparation.


This


would


insure


optimal


standardi-


zation


during


U-A A


tra tmnnt +


anti


i~~f-n


r'nl 1 cactI- nnan


tn nAA4I


,







-90-


This


training


should


occur


early


in an offender's


treat-


ment


order


insure


an accurate


assessment


het-


erosec


adequacy.


Easy


access


talks


with


female


para-


professional


staff


within


artificial


institutional


en-


vironment


sense


has


potentially


confidence


could


negative


consequences.


engendered,


especially


A false

y given


capacity


offenders


to di


stort


any


interactions


with


females.


Treatment


objectives


homosexual


rapists


pedo-


philes


often


include


development


appropriate


adult


homosexual


behavior.


Sufficient


differences


exist


between


heterosexual


training


and


necessary.


homosexual


A homosocial


worlds,


skill


making


training


specialized


module


would


meet


needs


type


offender.


Research


fectiveness


type


other


should


training


done


modules


test


such


ef-


assertiveness


training


stress


management


training.


Improvement


effe


ctiveness


and


effi


ciency


delivery


treatment


services


could


result.


Thi

general,


type


would


training


less


institutional


necessary


treatment


interpersonal


problems,


particularly


trauma


laden


heterosocial


sphere,


were


dealt


with


an early


stage


development.


The


family,