Citation
"The absent values, the palpable voids"

Material Information

Title:
"The absent values, the palpable voids" deconstructing Henry James
Creator:
Torsney, Cheryl B., 1955-
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v, 222 leaves : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Death ( jstor )
Hymen ( jstor )
Literary criticism ( jstor )
Mirrors ( jstor )
Narratives ( jstor )
Novels ( jstor )
Poetry ( jstor )
Textual criticism ( jstor )
Words ( jstor )
Writing ( jstor )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1982.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 210-221).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Cheryl B. Torsney.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
000334307 ( ALEPH )
ABW3946 ( NOTIS )
09339032 ( OCLC )

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Full Text







"THE ABSENT


VALUES,


PALPABLE


VOIDS"


DECONSTRUCTING


HENRY


JAMES


CHERYL


TORSNEY


A DISSERTATION


PARTIAL


PRESENTED
UNIVERSITY


FULFILLMENT


DEGREE


DOCTOR


GRADUATE


COUNCIL


FLORIDA


REQUIREMENTS
PHILOSOPHY











ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


incere


thanks


several


friends


their


help


on this


project:


Fogel,


nurturing


nascent


interest


Jame


to Dr


Jack


Perlette,


introducing me


post


tructuralism


helping


me through


countless


academic


ordeal


Carl


Bredahl,


careful,


honest


criti


to Dr


Aubrey


Wil liams,


providing


time,


pace


official


Wi ndham


escort


her magic


fingers


cheerful, ind

particularly


efatigable


to Dr


rs. Mary

tair Duckworth


ever


generous


with


time,


books,


immense


knowledge.


Most


all,


deepe


t admiration


appreciation


to my


husband,


Jack


Torsney,


eeing me


through,


from


very beginning












TABLE


CONTENTS


Page


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.


ABSTRACT


CHAPTER


MASTER


CHIEF?.


. 1


Notes


S S S S 3


CHAPTER


"SHAKING


HACKLE


OF THEORY


UNATTENDED"


Notes


CHAPTER


THREE


DECONSTRUCTING


AMERICAN


Notes


5 0 5 5 55 0 5 0 S S S S 5114


CHAPTER


FOUR


HYMENEAL


STRUCTURE


SPOILS


POYNTON


Notes


S S C S S S S S S S S S S S S 5150


CHAPTER


FIVE


WING


OF METAPHOR


WING


OF THE


DOVE

Notes


* S S C S S S S a S S S S

* S S. S S S S S S S S S S S P 5 5


CHAPTER


Notes


BIBLIOGRAPHY


BIOGRAPHICAL


KETCH.








Abstract


ssertation


he University
Requirements


"THE


Presented


Florida


Degree


VALUES


DECONSTRUCTING


in Partial


the Graduate


of Doctor


PALPABLE


HENRY


Council


Fulfillment


Philosophy


VOIDS"


JAMES


Cheryl B.

August


Torsney

1982


Chairman:


Major


tair M.


Department:


Duckworth


Engli


Until


recently


we have


lacked


the methodology


with


which


describe


difficulties


with


Jamesian


oeuvre.


the most


popular


approach


ersive


alism


to James


underside


thematic


narrative.


t-structuralism,


ychological


With


however,


development


we now


have


, ignore


structur-


concepts


explain


Jamesian


text


elude


question


canvas


are, first,


these


texts


hide


, and,


second,


how they


hide:


devices


they


textual


manif


esta-


tion


their


sence,


particular manner


in which


each


text


absents


tsel f


begin


explaining


recent


hift


certain


philosophi-


thinking


reconcei vi ng


notion


meaning


shift


been


from a


tradition


"presence,


belief


cogito


belief


unity


sign


philosophy which


repudiates


presence


consciousness


elf,


as a


result,







rejects


concept


origin


tran


sparency


writing


Under


system of


absence


, language,


function


diff rance,


constantly


defers meaning


elude


efforts


to fi


meaning


because


ignifi-


cancer


delayed


verbal


play,


and,


contend


James


poetic


exemplified


n The


Novel


suggest


as much.


bulk


f the


study


however,


is devoted


decon


tructive


analyses


of three Jame


novel


American,


poil


Poynton,


Wings


Dove.


first,


meaning


effect,


lost


tran


lation.


Because


must


question


Newman


lingui


prowess


we understand


cannot


threaten


Bellegardes.


Meaning,


form of


completeness


for Mr


deferred


Gereth


lingui


fulfillment


play


on "point"


love


Fleda


second


Vetch,


narrative.


third,


we glimpse


abyss


always


fate


meaning


James,


through


eyes


textual


representative,


Milly


Theale.


Although many


cholar


Ameri can


literature have only


grudgingly


accepted


French


critical


trends


believe


that


treating


James


Derrida


intertextually,


as participant


in a


conversation,


both


speak


louder


and more


clearly.












CHAPTER


MASTER


CHIEF?


ama


person,


really


expose


"fictitious


work"


to--
have


as a battered


long


inevitably


producer


ceas


technician"


to read


with


myself,
e; I


naivet


can only


tively,


read


writing


critically,


the thing


constructively,


over


can


reconstruc-


swallow


all), my
within.


and looking


at it


so to


speak,


from


Henry
Howard


James


Letter


Stur


November


1903


Henry


that


Jame


looms


dominate


over


American


fictional


pre-Edenic


scene


Genesi


same


. s


ingl


handedly


received


view


catechi


Jame


brought


forth


from


void


fictional


poeti


codified


prefaces,


novel


letter


sket


reviews.


Preface


, especially,


became


an orthodox


primer


generations


readers


wri ters


example,


Percy


Lubbock


preface


1957


edition


of T


Craft


Fiction


(1921)


descri be


James


"the most magisterial"


novelists


large


unhurried mind,


solitarily working


never


ceasing


to work,


enti rely


indifferent


to th


changes


chance


popular


Jame


manipulation


indirect


"dramatic"


method


narration


Lubbock


sees


as particularly


prai


worthy


method


fact,


hallmark


art:


"Henry


James


writer


fi cti on,


judge


use all


ssibilities


the method


with


intention


' '


- --







revealed


is very


great.


range


method


permanent y


enlarged


introduction


Novel


(1934),


till


only


collection


f James


York


Edition


Prefaces


Ri chard


Bl ackmur


laud


Jame


own analysis


apology for


method,


painting


James


as the


wise


, benevolent,


most


important,


moral,


father


teacher


Bl ackmur


comment


hall


probably


find


as Jame


found


again


again,


that


things


most


difficult


to master will


best


later,


craftsman


both


culty
amply


heer moral


or securing


atte


material


only method


fact


d delighting
delight of
complicated


that


to a rigidly
representing


craft


solving
effect


difficulties
conceived fo
the material


knew


technical


diffi


simple,
ubmitting


rm were


often


strength


light.5


James


sati


Leavis,


too,


primarily


though


exclu


ively


because


profound


concern


for moral


problems.


Great


Tradition


(196


Leavi


traces


James


moral


concerns


Jane


Austen


George


Eliot


"Having


novel


that


kind


moral


pre-


occupation


language


tudy


quickly


covered


much,


little


French masters


teach


him,


to what


tradition


belonged


6 Despite


like


James


later


novel


technique


came


to exhibit


an unhealthy vitality


undernouri


ment


etiolation"7),


Leavi


cons


tently


prai


James


"clairvoyant moral


intelligence


. In


an act


supreme


adulation,


Wayne


. Booth


Rhetoric c


Fiction


(1961)


sets


Jamesian


"central


intelligence"


hierarchy


ible


points


view.


9 Thus


glorified


revered,


James


establi


as the






Master


Psychological


flocked


shrin


Realism,


trinity:


critics


persuasions


James


James


second


, and


James


Pretender.


read


myth


ster


according


critics


from


Charles


Anderson


to Larzer


Ziff


According


received


view,


James


belonged


Western


tradition


realism,


devoted


to "the


serious


treatment


everyday


reality


standard


bearer


great


reali


tradition


Jane


sten


Georg


Eliot,


addition


continental


writers


like


stave


Flaubert


Emile


Ivan


Turgenev


were


James


role mod


source


tudy


upon


source


tudy


test fi


their


i nfl uence


on James


production


James


hims


is rather


tight-lipped


regarding


model


despite


undi


even


effu


admiration


, Flaubert,


Balza


Georg


Notes


on Novelists


undeniable


Jane


sten


influence


however


that


provide


both


thesi


Leavi


joke


Rudyard


Kipling.


Kipling


hort


tory


heard


"The


Janeites


between


two soldiers


officers


discuss


concerning


secret


conversation


society woman


over-


named


Jane.


as I wa
'ad died


maintain


word.


inclined t
'Any 'ow,
I remember
happenedd s
or I'd ha'


leaning


over


saying
barren


Mosse


'Amm i


fruitful


knew


agree with


left


every word
subsequently.


seen


dead mackerel


deny


in the


about
'Ammi


no dire


they
I


says
that


such


what


says


highestt


thing
says y


pity '


sense


S, t
oung


an' lawful


'adn't


was bosko


packing


-case


dark.


on account
noticed M


absolute.


with


face


'Pahardon me


e. '


twas


' th


00.


Gander


prog'ny.'
o' what
acklin mu


Then


on 'im
, gents


e cut


like
I


'But
Jane







k im


happenn
lawful
was 'E


says


'but


to be moderately


issue


nery


in the


well


matter
-informe


on which


son;


do
d leave
name


Jame


James


early


novel


rick


Hudson


American


especially,


refl


an intere


"slice


" local


olori


popular


-century W


western


literature.


Where


Jame


made


greatest


contri-


bution


however


which may


, was in the


defined


ychol ogi cal


an attempt


how what


realism


goes


mode


on within


characters


, to present


only


thought


emoti v


, even


hall


ina-


tory


state


veloped


theory


consciousness


scribed


form


those


consciousnesses


might


effectively


take


then


produced


Ruth


those


Yeazell


forms


remarked


novel

can be


Th

aid


tyle


later


dramatize


novel


painful


truggi


intellig


ence


literally


come


terms


with


full


cons


ciou


sness--an


thus


some measure


hold


in c


celebrated


quarrel


helped


establi


firmly


Jame


canonical


position.


rather


cordial


with


Walter


esant


was provoked


cture


Besant


delivered


Royal


institution


April


1884


entitled


"The


Fiction.


talk


esant


best-s


lling


writer


eight


nineti


nove


again


charge


frivolity


examining


role


teacher.


"'Th


world


' he


says,


'has


alwa


been


taught


whatever


litti


morality


ssesses


tory


fable


, apologue,


para-


allegory


own fictional


twice


attests


to h


belief


pragmatic


aesthetic.


example,


novel


about


11, 76







directed


at both


working


-clas


crowd


within


work


middle


e-cl


reading


public


proposes


establish


Palace


light


ommuni ty


enter whi


would


ubvert


revolu-


tionary


tendenci


working


rechannelling


energy


Sort


Condition


of Men


(1899)


prea


ches


trade-


unionism.


organic


, Ang


Kenn


invited


-described


Republi


favor

short


"root-and


quadrille,


-bran


states


eform"

her D


to her


purpose :


drawing room,

"You men have


and after a

long since


organic


yours


ves--


is our


turn


now;


we look


help.


are not


going


work


longer


master:


we are not


going


work

for


long

resh


hours

air.


longer:


exerci


we are going


amusement.


A third


time

novel


every


Alabaster


offers


as an exempTlum


young man


overcomes


cowardice


learn


about


teem and


real


friend


hip when


discover


true


identity


. Thinking


himself


gentleman,


young


Gerald


crushed


to learn


that


father was


"notorious


Rosen


usurer


Golden


quare


the man


whose


name


become


ssing


proverb,


" and


that


family


fortune was


ill-got


nove


Besant


believed


commodity


direct


instrument


social


progress, "


vast


engine


e" of


popular


influence.


should


respect


many


it performs:


it converts
ideas, it s


morality


than


emotions


and kee
sal tea
mankind


ps
che


ev


abstract
rengthen


is seen


pity,


alive
r; it
er do


ideas into
faith, it
in the act
admiration


sense


is the


only


read; i


living model
preaches a h


ual


sympathy;


book
the


world;
terror


which


only way


*


- S i


s; it gives
higher
t commands


it create


unlver-


great mass


which
*


people
S


I


I


q


I







knowledge


them


anecdote


talk
s. a


even
and e


illu


ambition


nriche


stratio


into


their
ns.20


their
peech


hearts


with


teaches


epigrams,


good


novel


then,


according


Besant,


preach


a sermon


signed


to route


reader


heaven.


responsible e


reader would


deviate


from


that


path


example,


young


lady


brought


quiet


country


village"


would


surely


"avoid


description


garri


life


James


responded


with


what


termed


"simply


plea


liberty,


an essay,


i kewise


ti tl ed


"The


Fiction,


" public


September


1884


number


of Longman


Maga


reprinted


Partial


Portrait


Ever


tactful,


Jame


begin


prai


Besant


effort


saying


"There


something


very


encouraging


having


into


form c

follow


certain

s. how


an implicit


ever, i

censure


ideas


on the mystery


complete rebuttal

public expectation


tory


of Besant


manifesto


-telling.


What


assumptions and

form. James'


most


radical


pronouncement


that


novel


high


art:


novelist


an artist,


an artisan.


Since


novel


work


art,


neither


novel


novel


st must


adhere


arbitrary


rules


"Art


lives


upon


scussion,


upon


experiment,


upon


curiosity


upon


variety


attempt,


upon


exchange


views


company


tandpoint


only


respond


ibility


novel


that


intere


ting


only


reason


stence,


states


Jame


that


attempt


represent


life


that


attempt,


novel


becomes


like


life,


organic


nature


Explai n


James


nnlA rnn44n,,a,,. 1


1 *


r n n


. -


I


nntrnl


nCkavi






that


each


parts


there


something


each


other


parts


Thus


character


, plot


other


novel i


element


mutually


inseparable,


"What


is character


determination


incident


Jame


What


incident


leaves


illu


refutation


what


tration


considers


character?"


"the most


inter


testing


part


of Mr


. Besant


lecture"


--his


uperfi


reference


"the


'conscious


moral


purpose


novel


--until


last,


rhetori-


emphasis


final


rebuttal


that


James


sums


laims


tion:


Vagueness
meaning o


Will
being
You w
will


discussing
questions
morality a
see how it


in such


your


discuss


morality


not define
picture) a
to paint a


ot tell
the Art
(in the
re quite
is that


a
I


your t
picture
moral


us how


ion,


nd y
erms


fatal


our
and


can be
picture
ou would


Fiction; que


widest


another


sense


affair,


find


conscious
explain


what


moral


either moral


or carve


about


tions


execution;
and will v


so easy


purpose
novel


or immoral


moral
it?
art ar


statue:


question


them


essay


accompli


what


James


hoped


would:


make


interest


novel


little more


what


some


time


threatened


fail


be--a


serious


active


, inquiring


interest


publication


even


caused


small


, eliciting


another


rejoinder


from Robert


Loui


tevenson


, public


December


Longman


arguing


again


Jame


definition


realism.


essay


tentacle


influence


criti


are still


continue


visible


read


around


"The


throat


Fiction"


of many


as Jame


tradi tional


flat,


incontrovertible


endorsement


Aristotelian mimetic


organic


art.







Well


took


some


nasty


public


swipes


at Jame


1914


addendum


to hi


novel


Boon


initiating


second,


genial,


literary


quarrel


James


engaged


elder writer


befriended,


encouraged,


promoted


neophyte


, gently


critic


zing


espousal


pragmatic


purpose


literature


. In


Times


Literary


uppl ement


publ i


James


arti


entitled


"The


Younger


Generation,


which


wri ter


asses


several


younger


colleagues.


While


prai


efforts


friend


admirers,


like


Edith


Wharton


Conrad


comply gained


that Arnold


Bennett


. Well


produced


ordered


formal es


novel


them James


said


"They


ueeze


to the


utmost


plump


and more


or 1


juicy


orange


particular


acquainted


tate


affirmation


energy,


however


directed


or undirected,


constitute


them '


treatment


theme


Forgetting


that


James


always


qualified


prai


e with


private

courteou


criticism


Well


and

read


that

the


even


article


Times


as a


critic


personal


ism was

attack.


nonetheless


retaliated


adding


Boon,


what


Leon


Edel


Gordon


call


"the


most


esoteric


chaotic


works


chapter


entitled


Art,


Literature


of Mr.


Henry


James


chapter,


which


sents


catching


caricature of James


work,


parodies


things


about


Jame


that


irked


Well


seventeen


years


involved


manner of


peech,


character


plot,


obscurity,


personal


manner


Taking


Jame


"The


Younger Generation"


as h


point


departure,


Well


sparages


Jamesian


novel


like


church


without


congregation


distract


you,


with


every


light


W V


w_


II







placed,


intensely


there,


dead


kitten,


an egg


hell,


trying.


wound,


Well


left


copy


Boon


James


at h


club.


James


response


first


expresses


regret


over


now necessary


solution


fine


f their


thing


long


about


friend


hip,


fictional


then


form


to me


defend


that


own practice.


open


widely


tiff


aerent


windows


attention;


that


just


like


wi ndows


ster


so to


frame


eloquent


play


defense


process."


caused


Well


remorse


James


conclude


responded


admitting


embarra


sment


trying


to mend


friend


July


1915


than


year


before


died,


James


closed


door


on Boon


Well


forever:


am bound


tell


you,


" Jame


wrote


"that


don't


think


your


letter makes


sort


case


bad manners


Boon.


What


ended


as invective


Boon


begun


innocently


enough


a friendly


disagreement


concerning


proper


form and


function


fictional


art.


social


"The Con

mediator,


Temporary


Novel"


vehicle


Well

under


declares

standing,


the

the


novel

instru-


ment


self-examination,


parade


of moral


exchange


manners


, the


factory


customs


criticism


institutions


social


dogma


ideas.


destiny


novel


sugg


ests


Well


the most


potent


arti


because


going


analyse


conduct,


conduct


, suggest


devise

conduct,


beautiful c

illuminate


conduct,


through


scuss

h and


conduct,

through.


HR will n


t teach


hut di crin<


Snnint


ERn *1*l- LJ


nlav.."' ,


Wells


1 -


nlllr







religious


social


estions.


Wells


espouses


pragmatic


aesthetic,


which


admits


an engage


didacticism,


an effort


improve


reading


publ i


James,


course


, propound


modified


sake


philosophy


no view of


which


life


defines


literature,


final


maintain,


letter


other


Well


than


"But


that


have


form of


latter


especial


admirable e


exactly


range


variety,


ticity


liberality,


fairly


living


on the


sincere


shifting


experience


individual


practitioner.


conclude


letter with


firm


statement


conviction:


that makes


life


makes


interest


makes


importance


, for


consideration


application


these


things,


know of


no s


substitute


whatever


force


beauty


process


Well


able


reduce


agreement


to metaphor,


putting


to James


litera-


ture


like


painting


an end,


me literature


like


architecture


means


use.


sense


both


confrontation


were


class


, pitting


Horace


utile


person


of Besant


Well


again


dulce


person


Jame


James


emerged


triumphant,


invincible


aesthete,


champion


formal


arti


fiction.


Through


years


scholar


focu


on James


aesthetic


concerns

the most


European


theme,

popular


value


character,

Jamesian th


dealt


form


Iemes,


with


and

the


technique.


conflict


as early


between


1916


example,

American


Rebecca


West


Henry


James.


Critic


fifti


ixti


Scuss


theme


in dnnh 2nr


2e raron+i u


.a^z t, U C


10Q7Q


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the more


important


works


emerge


from


ixtie


Dorothea


Krook


The Ordeal


sciou


sness


Henry


James


(1962)


Sallie


Sear


' Form


Perspective


in the


Novel


Henry


James


(1968),


dealt


exten


ively with


variety


Jamesian


character


types


Other


criti


made


their


favorite


James


figures


subjects


literary


investiga-


tion


Corona


Sharp


offered


tudy


several


ficell


Confidence


Henry


Jame


Evolution


Moral


Value


Fictive


Character


(196


Muriel


hine


treated


younger


generation


tional


Children


of Henry


James


(1969)


esian


narrator


became


subject


many


tudi


including


egal


Lucid


Reflector:


Observer


in Henry


James


Fiction


(1969)


most


recently


both


Mary


Doyle


pringer


Edward


Wagenknecht


have


publ i


tudie


James


women


Rhetoric


f Literary


Character


Some


Women


enry


Jame


(1978)


Henry


James


Portrait


of Women


Girl


Fiction


(1978)


respectively


luminou


Jamesian


form


also


offered


critical


seeding


beginning


with


Warren


Beach'


pioneering


effort


The Method


Henry


James


(1918)


running


through


some


work


ixtie


Laurence


Holland


s The


expense


of Vi


Essay


on the


Craft


Henry


Jame


(1964)


Ward


arch


Form:


studies


structure


James


Fiction


Experimental Novel


(1967)

(1978)


Sergio


Although


Perosa


Henry


difficult


James


scuss


theme,


character,


or s


structure


in James


without


treating


technique,


some


critics

mode.


have


chosen

instance,


devote


while


entire


their


tudi


critical


to examining


assumptions


ingle


diverge widely







Charles


Thomas


Samuel s


(The


Ambiguity


Henry


James


, 1971)


hlomith


Rinmmon


(The


Concept


Ambiguity:


Example


Jame


, 1977)


cons


Anderson


ider the


tudy


element


James


ambiguity


technique


Jamesian


Person


text.


Place


Charle


Thing


Henry


James


Novel


(1977)


Chri


tian


Gauss


Award


treatment


Jame


s practice


using


pl aces


thing


symbol


people e


so that


fictional


characters


come


understand


each


other


think


they


are able


establi


h meaningful


relations


Nearly


criticism,


however,


while


refl ecti ng


diverse


interests,


assumed


at bottom


mimeti c


function


novel


And,


as a result


readings,


broad


though


they may


appear


have


fact,


rather


narrow


range


possibility


There


exists


point


which


case


Kate


Croy


culpability


Wing


Dove


becomes


moot.


reason,


perhaps


circumscribed


range


critical


bias


reading


Prefaces


as a


scriptive,


"fairly


exhau


tive


reference


book


on the


technical


aspect


fiction.


Critics


have


tended


swallow whole


Bl ackmur


category


Jame


sian


concern


as s


tated


Prefaces


, general


divi


"Art


Difficulty


" "The


Plea


Attention


Appreciation,


"The


Nece


ssity


segment


Following


Blackmur


lead,


they


have


dang


rously


announced


themselves


privy


to "the


geniu


intention


Jame


novel i


Bl ackmur


tate


James


novel i


intent


as he


sees


near


conclusion


introduction


Novel:


wanted


SI. I


truth


about


I.I


imDortant


asDects


" and


. .l


I


1.






finen


vividly,
acutest


self


ess,


not abstractly


imposing
relevant


--the


waste,


bewilderment


life


gave
and
arti


on it


sens


subject
with it


while


, selected,


value
process
st.44


ibility,


or in mere


form


art--was
situations


art, t
formed,


meaning


which


the
felt


formless
leading


imaginative


made


society


lucid


contrasts
that conf


statement,
imagination
it. Life


but
. the


d likely
endless


repre


entation


d intelligent,
and opposition
ronted the


B1 ackmur


s reading


Prefaces


as a


template,


criti


generated


innumerable


variations


on that mimetic model


example


Jamesian


character


from


Roland


Mallet


to Mai


Maggie


Verver


became


blood


vesse


consciousness.


seemingly


James


done


, prescribed


right


road


fictional


practice,


interpretive


critic


demonstrated


validity


however


James


truly


enunciated


definitive


poetics


fiction,


that


recent


fictional


practice


seems


so thoroughly


face


of Jamesian


trictures


scriptures)


need


only


look


alone


read


Donald


Barthelme


"The


Glass


Mountain


standard


piece


anthologies


contemporary


fiction


. The


"story"1


cons


hundred


numbered


sentence


presented


in the


form


--hardly


mimetic


picture


reality


James


Although


entirely


amimetic


ince


does


some


extent


relate Ambrose


adventures


Ocean


City,


Maryland,


title e


tory


John


Barth'


collection


Funhouse


can scarcely


considered


announce


organic


form


Jamesian


sense.


tructed


within


shifting


time


frames


narrative


interrupted


intermi ttently


theoretical


discourse


on fictional


technique.


example


fiction


opens


with


following


paragraph







For whom
Ambrose i


come


holiday, the
Day, the most


States


the manu


seas
*


funhouse
place of
hore with


occasion o
important


America.


cript mark


fear


their
ecular


ingle s
italic


Perhaps
d confu


is family
visit is


holiday


straight


type,


lovers.


Independence
of the United


underline


which


in turn


nted


the pri
phrases
complete


employed,
intrusive


ments,
cetera


originally


repeating
Italics


equivalent


as well


as the


work


oral


customer


to mention.


in fiction


torine


or artificial


texts


They


should


in roman


g them,
mine.46


emphasis
y type
Itali


especially,


voices


telegrams
be used


type


customary


word
title


"outside


announce-


as radio


ana newspaper
sparingly. If
italicized by


acknowl edge


articles
passages
someone


fact.


Even


compr


hensible


an English


peaking


audience,


inculcated


with


Jamesian


theory whether


they


know


or not,


novel


French


writers


such


as Alain


Robbe-Gri llet


Nathalie


Sarraute,


which


appear


reject


notion


plot


character.


Recent


examples


fictional


narrative


then


, apparently


invalidate


what


we have


come


to understand


as the Jamesian


poetic


Can


Jame


been


wrong


other


hand,


perhaps


reading


James


been


torted


commentators.


James


Miller


believes


such


case.


difficult


how much


appalling


distortion


on fir


thand


acquaintance


with


Jame


how much


on mere


perpetu-


action


earlier


rigidified


widely


circulated


opinion


Miller


continues:


course


himself
novelist


them on


Jame
olely


t must
se myth


never, 1
to method


create


theory


never


absolute


circulate,


as received


confused


oracti ce


question
thnrv -


truth


even


their


practice,


illu


informed


center


relation,


J


rt and exnerience.-


devoted


that


reality
critics


seems


ames
nf


novel







reading


Jamesian


theory


within


frame


traditional


Western


metaphy


tradition


presence


those


critic


have


in effect


closed


James


oeuvre


other


poss


ibiliti


Miller


assert


that


fact


James


theory


relating


fiction


reality was


inclu


rather


than


excl u


sive


could


easily


extended


to embrace


contemporary '


new


reality


' and


the '


novel


",,49


This


1976


essay


exempi fi


through


an undercurrent


event e


in James


Scholars


criticism


became


that


concerned


gathered


with


strength


tradi


tional


chol early


endeavor


establi


copy


text


example


or to


identify


sources


and more


concerned


with


broader


function


language,


an interest


presaged


Laurence


Holland'


exemplary


volume,


Expense


slon


(1964)


changing


interest


perhaps


manifes


station


changing


critical


assumption


regarding


nature


language


and meaning,


assumption


directly


affected


philosophi-


emphases.


trong


tradition


stern


thought


held


sacred


intimate


connection


between


lingui


and meaning,


between


word


truth,


until


recently,


literary


critic


, like


Biblical


scholar


, searched


text


patterns


purportedly


there


writers.


recoverabl e


philosophical


occas


ioned


belief


that


literary


origins

realm,


and meaning

traditional


were

exegetical


exerci


ses:


explication


of meaning,


location


influences


identify


cation


position


theme.


concerning


decade,


however,


undecidability


new philosophical


textual


meaning


prop-


lack


an authoritative


origin


have


called


revi


sion


scholarly


enterpri


underlying


assumptions.


we might


expect,







readings


that


evolve


from


these


new


critical


hypotheses


radically


different


from


those


offered


criti


ascribe


Western


tradition


sence


"tradition


presence"


mean


Western


metaphy


ical


tradi-


tion


rooted


Chri


tian-


Platonic


philosophy


encap


ulated


Carte


slan


cogi to.


think


therefore


itself,


which


takes


that


knowledge


as fundamental


proof


tence.


Consciousness


becomes


-perception


presence.


Upon


that


consciousness


that


immediate


presence,


philosophers


as Plato,


totle,


Augu


tine


construct


their


ideologies.


According


stern


embodied


question

presence


tradition


language.


being


from which


consciousness


presence


God,


now and


other


, language


(synonomous


example,


forever

category


cons


with


becomes


present


consc


iousnes


Word,


becomes


derived.


idered


authentic


which


original


Developing


regi


from


ster


reality,


spoken


word


the written
1 Jonathan


word


Culler


thought


comments


imply


on the


as the


record


implications


metaphysical


tradition


Derridean


definition


language:


a meta-


presence


"longs


truth


behind


every


sign:


moment


original


plenitude when


form and meaning


were


imul taneously


present


consc


lousness


distingui


concept


tory,


too,


determined


a metaphysi


presence,


which


sees


temporality,


or future,


as the


once


or to be


present.


Derri da


explain


further:


"The


word


tory


' has


doubtless


always


been


2Ce lP 2+01 l.~h n#~nmnal14 e raar


1 .


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n~t+a~n


rrn Cn 1 rlinn


n via r a a fr a






Challenging


tradition


presence


iSa


tradition


absence


difference,


associated


with


philosophers,


as Marx,


Freud


Nietz


, interested


"deconstruction


metaphy


Though


internecine


opposition


differences


probl emati c


absence


(and


posited


the o

as the


occasion

denial


certain

the


primacy


sence.


Absence


becomes


nonconsciousness


, once


consciousness


temati c


is recognized


interplay


as being


lingui


"generated


elements


as one


which


element


ground


mind,


rather


than


other way


around.


1-iii


Miller explains


or "me"


Cogito may


peculiar s
and as Nie


prop
man


0


which


seems


no more


ort, as Emile
tzsche in a s


1885.


constitutes


Benveni


himself


"because


reality which


concept


says


Niet


zsche


grammatical
condition,


thinking


than


Benveni
somewhat


within


as a


language


that
"We


prove


own exi


a grammatical
ste has sugge
different way


subject
alone i
f being


used


we believed


subject
'think'


an activity


we used


e predicate
for which a


stence


term of


language


comee


reality


recently
already
that


ujet],


found


'&tre],


believe
grammar


that
that


subject


was the


'soul,


conditioned, and
had to be thought


sistence
perhaps
thing co
created


durch


cause.


guile,


true.


nditioned


thinking


Deken


then


'Thin
henc


we tried,


see whether
k' was now


e


['ich'


selbst


with


the
the


' only a
also erst


gemacht


admirable e


reverse might'
condition, 'I


ynthesi s


elne


which


Synthese


per-
t not
' the
was
welche


wird].


metaphysics


absence,


then


, meaning


does


exis


autonomously,


not ultimately


present;


rather,


language


rates


concept


language


changes,


so does


concept


history


longer


con-


tinuou


unfolding


presence,


history,


tradition


absence,


becomes


tionary


probl emati


quotation marks


Derrida


since


choose


very


enclose


concept


word with


word


precau-


includes







philosophical


criticism of


presence


initiated


by Marx,


Nietz


sche,and


Freud


and more


recently


argued


Derrida


dictable


implications


literary


criticism.


A tradition


presence


assumes


consciousness


on the


part


the writer


audience,


writer


language


understood


as a


systemm of


natural


that


represent meaningful


reality


Consider


, for


example,


Abrams


ssic


opening


chapter


The Mirror


Lamp


(1953)


which


four


category e


criticism


are identified


the mimetic


, pragmatic,


express


ive,and


objective.


four


category


seems


clear


deri ve


from a


aesthetic


metaphysics


criticism


sence,


they


define


along


with


four


In making


coordinates


"work"


focus


model, Abrams fail


recogni


the ways


which


individual


works


are necessarily


implicated


in a


network


text


prior


tence


which


fact


necessary


condition


their


tence.


scuss


"univer


se" h


further


regard


the ways


which


external


reality


already


textualized,


thus


requiring


author


correction


or rearrangement.


explanation


reader


the writer


fail


account


requi


linguistic


competence


which


result


from


intertextual


exposure


enable


texts


to be written


read.


these ways,


Abrams


' coordinate


blind


recogni


intervention


al ready-written


lingui


structures,


implying


that


language


direct


tran


cription


or repre


entation


reality,


ideali


tically


or material


tically


conceived.


review


Abram


' Natural


Supernaturalism,


Hilli


Miller


identify


flaw


in the model


"his


own theory


language


implicitly mimetic.






Language


taken


granted


as the


straightforward mirror


interchange


between mind


Abrams,


however,


nature,


challenges


or between mind,


Miller


nature,


accusations


Critical


Inquiry forum:


know how


"theory of language
forward mirror" of


assumption


seems
age w
views
large


or written,
to accompli


one of
a state


not mirror,
aspects of


S


which
. My


gave Miller


the
eems


me obviously mi


are not in the


view of


tional


is the


se many
affair


but
that


impre


ssion


implicitly mimetic,


reality


reflects,


hare with


taken
decon


language


great


that


that my
"straight-


except


Derrida,


view


tructive mode


as i


pragmatic:
e of a great
diversity o


purposes


such


serves
state


t happens,
language,


variety
human


is to assert


linguistic


direct
affairs


on
which


s of langu-
are mimetic


whether


spoken


peech-act


purposes


something


assertion


attention


only
about


elected


defending


theory


language,


Abrams


proves


Miller


point.


Language,


feel


does


represent


some


pre-existing


meaning


other word


presumes


assumes


mimetic


function.


leads


presence


though


present.


Perhaps


best


example


critical


method


assuming


presence,


aspects


logo


consciousness


that


developed


by what


become


known


as the


Geneva


hool.


. Hilli


Miller


traces


roots


back


from


critic


Nouvelle


Revue


Frangai


Prou


-nineteenth


century


critics


like


Pater


Ruskin


romantic


historical


criticism


Geneva


School


broadly


defines


criticism


as conscious


sness


consciousness


literature


about


literature,


defines


critics


literature


Albert


as a


Beguin,


form of


the word


consciousness.


"presence"


least


central


don't







purposes,


however,


best


example


Geneva


School


criticism of


consc


iousness


is George


Poulet


only written


on Jame


Metamorphoses


Circle


recently


critical


become


analysis


object


Poulet


subject)


critical


Huhl


strategy


Miller


involve


meta-


identifying


parti


ular


cogito


each writer


examines


Cogito


define


"the


primary moment


revelation


self


to i


an act


-consciousness


eparating


the mind


from


everything


which


enter


from


outside


,,62 S


ubjecti vity


critical


tance,


results


when


consciousness


critic


coincides


with


cons


ciou


sness


thinking


or feeling


person


located


heart


Si terry


text


that


double


consciousness


appears


multiplicity


sensuous


relation


with


thing


than


prior


separate


from any


obje


as self


-consciousness


pure


conscious


sness


Presence, then,


fundamental


to Poulet'


criticism.


result


Poulet


tendency,


Hilli


Miller


notes


take


literary


language


granted


since


take


as given


authen-


ticity


IS S


the word


scarcely


which


writer


an exaggeration


that


regi


experience.


Poulet


language


works


scusses


seen


as a


perfectly


tran


parent medium


through


which


the mind of


Because


sees


author


consciousness


passes


as the


into


the mind


source


critic


of literary


language


Poulet


uses


words


like


express


" "refl ect,


" and


"imitated"


tyli


scussions


demon


treating


that


acceptance


Western


liter-


c fr v v^nvC~ :a


re


fr~Ai finn


nC


r n~n t 1 ~ r\l


nPPbC~llnll







essay


on James,


Poulet


casts


the Master


as a


sort


Geneva


hool


time


ympathi


form


discussing


character


James


as revealed


conceptions


Prefaces


consciousness,


autobiogra-


, and


reviews.


Poulet


begins


describing


event


Jamesian


el f-consci ousn


ess:


The moment


zance
chara


eve
him
tha


cter


rything
self to


t


nothing


that
itself


Henry


is to be


refl


James


' thought
world, it


cons1


represented.
he ob.iects c


excluded


from


begins
recogni


take
the


cogni-
infinite


representing.


experience


expert ence


applies
, perceives


Experience


, for


Jame


, comprises


totality


consciousness


Poulet


explain


Continuing


, he


offers


Geneva-styl


explanation


James


sense


time


history


Far
redi


cons


from
scove
, wit
tantI.


being,


red
h J


consciousness


great
the c
But i


swarms


ames


as with


enlarging
s: so muc


problem
contrary,


cons


Prou


working
always


Jame
clear


ciou


itse


sness


so that


fortuitou


time


involuntary memory,


esent


like


rarely
the


goes


in the


thought


, images


remember
by forg


anal
but


quite


etfulness


past


come


Because


consciousness


James


, according


Poulet


define


time


as a


success


sents


nove


success


localizations


ballast


argument


, Poulet


cites


James


meta-


phor


Preface


Portrait


Lady


"the


house


fiction


(which)


hort


not one window


million.


James


notion


"central


consc


iousness


govern


tional


form as


well


ince


"central"


consciousness


impli


kind


circular


dispos


ition


nvironing


world


Poulet


compares


the mind







he explains,


radiates


concentrically


from


central


source


light.


Within


James


works


earch-light


becomes


central


consciousness,


universe


the world


novel


Geneva


understanding


author'


position


that


world


evidenced


Poulet


reading


James


place


novel


behind


till,


centrality


with


can so phrase


elf.


perceiving


cons
ciou


which


cons
ness


Henry


Every


things


creature


ciou


sness


principal


James


another


, even more withdrawn;


central


character


according


of hi


sness


consciousness.


choice


character,


centrality,


that


angle


give


the character,
novelist. It


Occult,


there


like


Jame


ssimulated


there
one
author


a means


incidence
t the back
therefore


conscious-


into


background,
center of t


reigns
center.


no les


everywhere


.1


Given


''Geneva11


associations,


Poulet


evaluation


the Jamesian


novel


surpri


objective


novel i


find


center


what


which


predi


established


posed


"the


find


implicit


unique


object


contemplated


unique


consc


iousness.


Maurice


Blanchot


usually


identified


with


Geneva


criti


as Georges


Poulet


because


hares


view that


literature


consciousness.


seems


anticipate


the methodological


as well


as geographical


introducing


hift


notion


n literary


absence


theory


into


from Geneva


critical


arena


Sarah


. Lawall


notes,


"the '


presence


or 'immanent


being


that


Geneva


critic


see i


literature


Blanchot


an 'absence


form-


characterless


'antipresence


underlying


language


litera-


ture.


This


absence


result


from


nature


language,


because


Pari


.


A L







since


language


Blanchot


is a


system


absence


nothings,


literature

literary


paradoxically


theory whi


own ruin


that


reading


tening


SBlanchot


the work,


become


an act


interpretive


understanding,


based


on th


German


aesthetic


philosophy


Heidegger


sser


especially


Hegel


three


philosophers


also


interest


Derrida.


while


Derrida


econstructs


them


Blanchot


imitates


them


, proceeding


by way


dia-


ectical


method


from


paradox


resolution.


While


tran


sition


from


Blanchot


Jacques


Derrida


seems


ffortl


survey


this


sort


once we


arrive


on the


other


Jura


we see t


irreconcilability


of Poul


Geneva


hool


sees


language


as reflecting


or embodying


an immediate


presence


, as a matter


mimetic


representation


Derrida


Roland


Barthes


Hilli


Miller


riti


with


important


reserva-


tions


rive


lingui


stic


theory


from


Ferdinand


ssure,


language


as a


palpabi


mediation


between


author


expression,


between


work


representation.


these


structuralist and


post-


stru


turali


or decon


tructi ve


criti


, language


does


not transmit


meaning


as telephones


peech


rather


, meaning


becomes


process,


sort


we have


chain


lost


reaction


sight


whose


whose


never


path


arrives


whos


we can trace.


beginning


Miller


explains,


"Meaning


from


reference


ignifier or


phoneme


another,


interpl ay


their


difference


Meaning


language


always


ferred


alwa


in movement


away


from


present


toward


no longer or


yet.


Both


tructuralists


post-structurali sts


Pari







agree


instability


of meaning,


but most


their


imilarities


there.


difficult


neverthel


draw


boundary e


sepa-


rating


faction


since


varying


individual


stances


blur


tinctions.


Harari


t-structurali


observes


thrust


imple


, "It


as only


easy


an extension


view


tructurali


thinking


or as only


anti


tructurali


or as altogether


non-s


truc-


turali


aims),


three


6 I


general,


however,


tructural


analysis


focuses


on the


text


as a


ssue of


al ready-wri tten


lingui


attempts


to define


gramnar


system ,


upon


which

terms


the

from


text


cons


lingui


tructed. Po

to question


-structuralism


language;


likewi


aim,


borrows


however,


to generate


narrative model


Instead,


post-


tructuralism


seeks


undermine


integrity


thus


to decenter


text.


Their critical


trategies


differ


structural


describe


systems


cultural


textual


codes,


intertextuality,


self-reflexivity


post-structurali


find


sedimentation


language


entry


into


never-


ending


linguistic


labyrinth.


Nonethel


both


tructuralism


t-structuralism


denounce


1ogocentrism


empirical


representation


as critical


dreams.


critical


hift


from


sence


absence,


logos


to difference,


exempl i fi ed


Roland


Barthe


essay


"From Work


Text.


"Work"


defined


various


as that


which


can be


held


hand,


which


closes


on a


dignified,


which


functions


as a general


ign.


Barthes


elaborates:


Thp wnrk i


rawinht


nmrnrs


fil iatinn


Iri


" .I


FI.






tDy race,
themselves


then
. and


History),
conformity


consecution


work


works


among


author


author


literary
script a
society
work. 77


other words


is reputed


science


asserts


Barthes


therefore


author'


legality


impli


father a
teaches


lared


respect


owner


intentions,
he relation


the work


of hi


work


the manu-


while


author


demonstration


presence,


nineteenth-century


novel


a fin


example.


have


tried


Jame


slan


novel


almost


invariably


read


as a


work


James


father


genius.


While


borrow


images


characters


scenes


phrases


from


others


, they


become


work


thoroughly


"Jamesian


source


analogue


tudi


claim.


text,


on the


other


hand


hel d


language


can be


approach


experienced,


practices


infi


nite


ferment


signified


dilatory


. The


text


, rejec


ting


presence,


practi


difference.


is easy


criti


ism devoted


to difference


appro-


private


a "text"


as a


nouveau


roman


whos


purpose


ubvert


econstruct


conventions


reali


novel.


can such


critical


strategy


relevant


more


traditional


writer writers


like


Henry


Jame


to their


produ


which


traditionally


read


"works"'


instead


here


sources


read


intertexts


Jamesian


Indeed


novel


apparent


as text,


discovering


difference


between


source


" and


'i mt


rtext"


minimal


assumption


implications


diverge.


text


we view


cture


Austen


James


Eliot,


changes.


Emerson


longer


Hawthorn


father


inter-


becomes


bricol eur


handyman


assembling


"mosai c


stations.


text


becomes


an orphan.


"Meaning"


somewhere







play


differences


between


language


intertexts


Jame


more


immediate


as well


as between


ignifier


dignified,


between


reader


text


Under


i influence


nouveau


roman,


but more


important,


under


influence


appropriate


poetic


case


of Henry


Jame


reopened,


as I


propose


demon


trate.


Jefferson


explains


apropo


reading


using


nouvelle


po6tique


nouveau


a society
language.


read


is then


as a


roman


is inextricably


Each


depends


metaphor


coloured


cons


determined


tructed,
by the


large


richer,


Jonathan


more


Culler


part


and
kind


us reali


bound


on the


view or
our view


thank


interesting


Jefferson


Balzac


mentor,


that
with


other,
other:


revelation
revelation


so that


each


our view of


language


that


tory which


nouveau


become


believes


through


language is
it elaborate


roman that
e available


that


tory
which
equally
s.


precisely
written
e critic


one which


drama


whose


which make


the t
today,


m which


attend


actors


text


traditionall


work,


that may most
h encounters


trangeness


those


work


the work


benefit


great


from
est


awakening


assumption


another


that


could


criticism,


success


operations


period


tran


ition


from


work


text,


movement


paralleled


hift


critical


interest


from con


sciousness


textuali ty


provide


model


changing


reading


of Henry


James.


Several


upstart


theoreticians


renegade


Jamesians,


doubting


James


the myth


, the Aristotelian,


father/author


have


already


begun


revi


sense


re-see


as well


as re-write)


Jamesian


text.


Tzvetan


Todorov,


1969


essay


collected


Poetique


prose


(1971)


first to


apply


tructuralist methodology






explain


always


cause.


. The


is present
origin and


sence


absent


on the


senc


text--


reason


, brings the
the absence


quest
e of


for
the


indeed,


r being.
text into


essenti


an absolute


cause


The
bein
al.8


or o


cause i
a. The


f the
text'


absent
truth
logical


what, by
essential


demonstrate


thesi


Todorov


read


several


Jame


hort


tori


focu


on "The


Figure


Carpet


" whi


cons


ider


Jame


metaliterary


These


exemplify what


Todorov


read


as "the


impo


fundamental


ssibility


Jame


ignifying


precept,


truth.


" which


order


affirms


sence


justify


truc-


turali


reading


Todorov


concludes


iscusslon


the Jamesian


poetic


with


biography:


Henry
Eunope


Jame
after


was born


1875,


n 184


first


Pari


New York
then in


He
Londo


lived


After
became


event


books
life,


several


Briti


brief


citi


characterizes


some


twenty


in other word


prese


nce): his
1 the more


novel


work


to the


died


life


tale


United


Chel


he spent
, plays,


perfectly ins
an essential


states


1916.


it writing
essays. H


significant


sence,


(like
asserts


powerfully.8


With


publication


Jonathan


Culler


Structural


Poetics


(1975)


with


translation


early


seventi


work


French


theory


(not


to mention


tran


lation


of Todorov


collection


1977),


American


criti


became more


comfortable with


tructurali


post


tructurali


approaches.


years


following


produced


book-length


structural


reading


texts.


example


Concept


Ambiguity:


Example


James


(1977)


hlomith


Rimmon


cribe


Jame


ambiguity


applying


cultural


codes


named


A-


a


I,/


nfl ~~~~ fl ,:n cr7~~~~~~~ I I ar ta A- fl -n J -5Af a Man --M a r. n an4


C 17


nl,, i


n,,,rL,,


q


Inr


I )~ UA L rl I LI nIlI UI r I*rYI







describe James


middle


period:


"James


experimental


dealings


with


nove


. mark


passage


from


presence


absence


from


full


picture


total


void


, from


olidity


solution


to d


solution


from


realism


abstraction.


conclusion


Perosa


predicts


massive


revi


James


scholar


hip:


in an age
premises


tneory
much c


Structuralism


nd quite a
narrative.


contemporary


provides a
ch to build


olid


theory


ground


test


i


S
11


ing,


Jame
ustr


s provides


a


from


tons
sence


most


behind


Todorov


convincing


exempl i fy


tructural
or inside


anipi


tructural


Genette.


theory e


practi


Bradbury makes


camp


on that


ground


Henry


James


Later


Novel


(1979)


that


tudy


William


Veeder


notes


"distress-


quality


of much


recent


work


on James


. [which


substitute


methodologi


trendines


for genuine


interpretive


innovation.


radicalness


Veeder


believes


only


terminal ogical


Indeed


times


Bradbury


seems


juggling with


jargon


tacit


understanding


between


trether


Maria


Gostrey


becomes


an "un


poken


ubtext,


Osmond


hitting with Madame Merle


"sign"


tran


lated


cultural


code


Reference


sure


sgul


conservative


reading


concl u


sion


What Mai


Knew


Bradbury


note


part


novel


James


hows


achieving


maturity


beyond


that


her companion


Hardly


original


When


Bradbury


does


ight


something


, however


, especially


scuss


ions


later


novel


quickly


fire


then


retreats.


instance


reads


Kate


Croy


of Th


Wings


Dove


as a


tructurali


sorts


uses


tfh m2otnhnv


1 nnllIlna


r, nnlflll


fnrn,


Prt -n -


Sii no


'1c ho


hirln


w .


r i


.


.


I


I f






with


sort


meaning.


discu


ssion


of The


Golden


Bowl


Bradbury


sappointingly


seems


against


tructurali


sts,


raising


traditionalist


objection:


Golden


themselves


comment
mediate


their


elements


rest


toward


novel


upon t
between


tory;


as a
the b


invent


Jame


Bowl


abound


language, in p
novel process
sicl author an


extract


word


hrases
. inc


which


character


reader


paranarrative working


ook


rpretation


Ignore
within


an emasculated


offers


the
the


draw
seem


in relation


interpret these
independently o


cohesive
framework


structure which


attention


offer
inter-
to


impulse
of the whole


can see


that


Henry


James


: The


Later


Novel


somewhat


uneven


methodologically


tudy


however


close


readings


(Bradbury


forte


tyli


analysis


attempt


employ-


trategi


reading.


Others


have


used


struc


turalist


principle


establi


James


an intertext


American


post-modern


novel


nouveau


roman


despite


obvious


difference


appearance


hnique


. Although


rgio


Perosa


sees


"anti-novel"


as practiced


Nathalie


Sarraute,


Alain


Robbe-Grill


Butor


as representing


complete


ubversion


nineteenth


-century


(Jamesian)


novel


Strother


Purdy


sees


influ


James


as i


nced


spiritual


likes


of Kurt


precur


Vonnegut


. Purdy


John


perceive


Barth,


Jame


Vladimir


as having


Nabokov


Samuel


Beckett


John


Fowl


Arthur


Clark


, Eugene


Ionesco


Gunter


Grass


Jorg


Borges


that


Dicken


, Kafka


Prou


not.


Purdy


claims:


that


he marked


several


areas


within


novel


that


have


become


central


Those


areas


provide


. S S


Ir 1


*


i


m -


I







novel


disoriented


time,


psychological


novel


erotic


theme,


and,


most


important


purposes


the matter


nothingness


assertion


nothing.


John


both


Carlos


using


influence


Rowe


structural


on the


post-modern


charge


theory


novel


revi


on Jame


early


James


claiming


1973


scholarship


Jamesian


redefi ned


novel


Jamesians


tructural i


terms


delimited


lingui


world"


which


"the


ssue


word


which


cons


titute


text


only


reality


work.


Meaning,


explain


closed


free


play


those


words


signs.


Without


resorting


jargon,


Rowe


introduces


reader


to the


concepts


difference


undecidability:


"If
Wing


novel


determine
aesthetic


novel


dramatic


Dove


final


integrity


as a literary
s structure i


repeated
1 mean


.1


form


essential
dly does,
ng is a v


that


olutely


fictional ity,


then


attem


violation


very


nature


y governing
evasive.91


as The
pt to


the work


principle


Objective


literary


presence,


text.


explain


Rather,


does


inhere


reader who


language


an "active


engagement


language


work


creative


tran


spos


ition


that


language


into
2 T


form


own understanding,


" makes


meaning


himself.


further


justify


reading


Rowe


points


to James'


Prefaces:


Prefaces


cancer
forms


of the
which


apprehen


the c
rhkin


ible


relative
n^f acC


express


faith


imagination,


projects


that


"signi ficance


imagination


nri ti n


is a


,ak4rk


in the


only
ever


The
vast


central


assumes


potential
fluidity,


actr~


ignifi


shapes and
any kind of
energy of
an infinite
Amlim4 t-oA 4n






Symbolization


of Milly


Theale"


Rowe


becomes


first


James


scholar


Jacques


impossibility


Derrida


tran


apply


cendental


notions


ignified


Jame


absence


work


extens


revi


sion


that


essay


became


Chapter


Rowe


Henry


Adams


Henry


James:


Emergence


Modern


Consciousness


(1976)


first


book-


length


tructurali


reading


James.


Rowe


bibliography


testified


critical


commitment


reads


like


structural

Foucault, G


Macksey


sts' social


ieoffrey


Eugenio


list:


Hartman


Donate


Roland


Roman


, Paul


Barthes,


Jakobson


de Man,


Jacques


Claude


Hilli


Derrida,


Levi-Strauss


Miller


Michel

. Richard


Ferdinand


aussure


addition


scuss


Wing


Dove,


Rowe


includes


chapters


on The


American


Golden


Bowl


which


offers


ome of


the most


enlightening


creative


reading


date.


most


recent


contribution


to James


scholar


hip,


Rowe


takes


James


part


critical


debate


over


form and


purpose


fiction


, setting


Gerald


Graff


as the


antagonist


critical


what


thinks


James


over


-refined


aestheticism,


like


Well


before


him.


Graff


Literature


Again


Itself,


ites


James


crippling


postmodern


wri ti ng


with


self


-consciousness.


Because


devotion


technique


Graff


, claims,


James


does


allow u


make


moral


ethical


judgment


concerning


character


value.


absence


moral


meaning


modern


tion


Graff


blames


on James.


Rowe


then


again


names


st the


Donald


Graffs


Barthelme,


(and


parodic


implication


defender of


Wellses


aesthetici ci sm"


Besants)


literature


, as heir


to James


poetics


offering


"Presents"


demon-


"The







"Present
figures


order to


as i


remind


stereotyped
appearance


pornographic


Briti


Jame


in thi


movie


Columbi a


tereotyped


ques


poking


direct


tingui


us all


If w
story


, walking
then it i


onception


the more


e are


emphati


enry


Graff,


Henry
call


scandalized


"Iron


between


Boy Overall


two naked


own overly


James


that


Jame


Barthelme


how we
Henry


women


have
James


reverent


been


tioned.95


James


ruin


postmodern


literature


iy raping


value.


Rather


atta


king


literary


conventions


propounded


Well


Besant


set the


tage


Barthelme


convention


ting


Rowe


puts


build


concluding


monument


sentence:


to memorial i


"We must


ster


hoose


or to ride


whether we


whoop


warparty


Henry


James


Chief.


Veneration


or participation


only


real


choices.


Even


repudi -


ation


Maxwell


Geismar


only


vers


f the


former


both


locate meaning


worth


lack


them)


James


text


ince


worship may


litany


requi r


for my


only


repetition


purposes


an already


mention my


too familiar


temperament


unsuitabi


however


denied


that meaning


inheres


word


SO 1


"works


part


ipation


only


option.


do we


tify


cons


ider-


able


time


invested


reading


James


paint


faces


whoop


along-


Chief


both


us unprivileged


renegades


riding


engage


text


so doing


, tracking meanings


our own


read


James


using


process-


rather


that


tel eologi cal ly-ori ented


critic


my mind


more


interesting


more


product v


propo-


ition


several


reasons.


Firs t


part


ipatory


cess


-geared


reading


seems


more


valid


post-ex


istentialist


, nuclear


age where






also


deferred


James,


specificity


of theme.,


time


place,


neutralized


narrative


made more


relevant


contemporary


reader.


Moreover


parti


cipating


a reading


Jamesian


text


we are


rewriting


enlarging


possibility


(and


ecidability)


chasing


meaning,


further


deferring


James


himself


, as my


next


chapter


examines


celebrated


revi si oni


rereading


rewriting


work


ribner


York


Edition


writing


Preface


that


edition


, rewriting


again.


Through-


life


as hi


notebook


entri


demon


state


intensely


interested


narrative


processes:


, why


what


happen


when


James,


Jamesian


figures


we readers


engage


in our


textual


activi


ties.


Somehow


, although


us apparently


expect


meaning


manif


inevitably


evades


various


tudy


attempts


to apply


recent


critical


theory


Jamesian


oeuvre


James.


hopes


Until


answering


themati


some


questions


critics


concerning th


whose work


cons


fate


titute


of meaning


bulk


commentary


Jame


have


umed


that meaning i


"there"


novel


even


amouflaged


ense


texture


uncolloquial


syntax


much


f the


prose


Jame


s writing


only


seems


refuse


erpretation


, they


ubmit


Such


assumptions


make


diligent


readers


their


own worst


enemi


for when


they


confounded


seemingly


impenetrable


surface


James


novel


, they


give


accus


themselves


impati


ence


, unpreparedness


or even


dim-wittedn


ess.


hanging


assumptions


concerning meaning


however


we reinstate


access


to th


Jamesian


text.


longer


cting


meaning


reveal


itself,


we accept







responsibility


chasing


through


dense


though


hardly


impene-


trable


textual


labyrinth


What


we had


once


thought


flawl


poli


surface,


we now


marked


hole


breache


those


textual


moments


that


cal


unity


text,


organic


form


into


question.


Throughout my


ride with


Jame


Chief,


have


deployed


Roland


Barthes,


Jonathan


Culler,


Hilli


Miller,


Jacques


Derrida


as the


avant-garde.


Some may


argue


that


frequent


incompatibility


their


phil osophie


undermine


fault


-finding


ion.


Derrida,


especially


been


presents


appropriated


a problem


by Miller


since


using


work


Poulet


so intertextual


Ameri can


, having


accommodation


Culler


Barthe


American


critical


theory.


For example,


although


Miller


tries


make


Derrida


proponent


absence


Frank


Lentricchia


notes


that


"Derrida


not ontologi


neant


because


no ontologi


Moreover


, Derrida


denounces


system-


zing


philosophical


explicate


literary


text,


would


denounce


Miller'


reading


tevens


' poetry


as an application


system


following


chapter


pick


choose


among


criticisms


interpretive


technique


they


afford


depending


upon


text


question.


theory


are,


after


all,


tool


rule


remain


uncommitted


to all


their


final


philosophical


implications.


criti


hare,


however,


assumpti ons


concerning


ultimate


undecidability


of meaning,


textual


edimentation,


free


play,


differ-


ance.


fact,


Derrida


himself


tified my


use,


almo


freestyle,


r nntmnnrza r\


rri "i 4rcm Aiv'i nn


orQnr+


ra. c rNcT


mnnl ir n inn


;1


Irlrl Ilr I







hybrid


tructurali1


method


theory


combining


predisposes


aspects


both


me to find


structural i


abysses


gaps


post-


underlying


textual


fabric


three


James


novel


treat.


They


are indi


putably


there,


however


meaning


ess


letter


American,


a fire


Spoil


Wings


Poynton,


Dove.


literal


Meaning


abyss


consistently


heroine


deferred.


death


James


Prefaces


poeti


insist


that


reading


writing


can do


no less


First


then


will


take


poetics


as expre


ssed


Novel


then


novel


from


each


James


s periods


early


international


middle


dramatic


mandarin


demon


state


Jamesian


text


unrave


reveal


mises


en abvme.


Notes


Percy


Howard
Lubbock


turgi
(New


York:


November
Scribner


Letter


Henry


James


Percy


Lubbock


Craft


Fiction


(1921


York


Viking,


"Lubbock,

Richard


. Blackmur


Introd


Novel


Critical


Prefaces


y Henry


Jame


York


cribner


5Bl ackmur,


XVi.


ress


Great


"F. R. Leavi
, 1963), p.


Tradition


(New


York:


York


Univ


'Leavi


eavi


Pres


9Wayne
, 1961)


. Booth


Rhetoric


Fiction


(Chicago


Univ


Chicago


. 165







lPhilip
London:


work


Henry


arrangement
tender "


Guedalla,


Putnam'


James


into


" Some


, 1924),
has always


three


reigns


Criti


Supers


Guedalla


seemed
James


divi


upermen


s exact


ible


words
imple


James


(New


York


are "The
dynastic
Id Pre-


lErich


Auerbach


Mimesi


Repre


sentation


Reality


in We


stern


Literature,


trans.


Wi lard


(Princeton,


Princeton


Univ.


Pres


reali
using


lacked


human


, 195


431.


dedicated
scientific
Although h


taste:


faculty we


Jame


to mirroring
exactness t


e prals
"Taste,


ssess


, however,


empirical


hat


ola'


tended


was not


reality,
to focus


s descriptive
intellectual


as the


novel


natural i


to portraying


ability,


seemy
James


applications,
be said to be


an extreme


life
immoral


thought


is the most


the most


human f
conceit


able.


James
134).

12The


continental


Early
Press


station


orm


of each


is a


other.


Henry
Miller


variety


writing


Development


, 1965);


(Pari


Natural ist


Philip


(New


Bruce


Plon,


Movement


Grover


York:


ion:


Kenni kat


to French,


, Henry


Barne


Poetic


Press


Jame


poor


Calling
, "Nana


[Lincoln:


book


on Jame
Henry
Lowery,


1964)


length


peculation to put
t naturalism will


n Theory
Univ. o


tudie


include


James


Marcel


Lyall


Lansing:


(East
Jame


Noble,


Realism


, 1975).


Engli


(1930


the two thing
never make it


Fiction:


Nebra


Henry


Press


examining


Corneli
; rpt.


Prou


Power


Michigan


French


1973)


in Turgenev
Innumerable


Russ


and
and


Ja


out of
profit t-
mes.


, 1972],


influence


sifer


Urbana:


Henry
, Henry
State


Novel:


Dale
James


article


Un


James:
James
Univ.


Kelley,
iv. of


ress


A Study
Peterson


(Port
trace


novel i


Washington,


James
award


Illinois
Confron-


, 1971);
inspiration
Clement


N.Y.


spiration
prodigiou


thorough
analogues


siasm warranted
bibliographical


Hardt,


"Jame


enry


James


scholars
in over


a separate
essay on J
studies 1978
Review, 2,


goes t
hundred


o Adeline


piece


-pag


ames
-79:


Tintner,


on Jame


recognition
e Richard A


n Analytic
[1981], 13


named


unflagging


f her work


Hock


Bibliographical


n a
John
Essa


sources
enthu-
recent
S.


y,


Rudyard


Rudvard


Kipling,


KiD1 in


"The


Randall


Janeites
Jarrell


Best


(Garden


hort


City


tori e


Hanover







16Besant


Henry
tion,


cited


James


David


in John


Goode


Tradition


Howard


John


"The


Tolerance


ucas


iction:


Walter


in Nineteenth


John


Goode


(New


Besant


-Century
York:


Barnes


Nobl


Good


'0Walter
Story (1899;
p. 176.


Besant


rpt.


orts


. Clair


Conditions


hores


chigan:


of Men


holarly


Imposs


Press


, 1971)


19Walter


Besant


Alabaster


(New


York


Dodd


Mead


1899)


esan


esan


cited


cited


Goode


Goode


enry


James


James


letters


. Leon


ert Loui


Stev


enson


(Cambridge:


Bel knap


1884
ss,


, in Henry
1980), III


Henry
. London
24ames
James


James


"The


York


action


" in


Partial


Portraits


(1888;


Macmillan


Fiction


"James

James


"The

"The


Fiction

Fiction


James


James

James

OJames

IHenry


Well


tion


Fiction


, "Th


"The


tion


. 404-405.


tion


Jame


record


"The


Younger


their


generation


their


in Henry


bate


James


on th


Fiction


sport,
ted as E


their


Conn.:


Quarrel,
Greenwood
Ray)


Press


eon Edel
, 1979),


Gordon


. Ray


(195


rpt.


ereafter


Introd.


Art,


Literature


of Mr


Henry


James







35
James


to Well


, July


1915,


Edel


265.


. Well


"The


Contemporary


Novel


Edel


154-


155.


Contemporary


Novel


"James

James


s, July


Well


, July


1915


1915


James


, July


Edel


Ray,


41Charle
(Durham: Duk


44Blac


Ande
Univ


kmur,

kmur,

kmur.


rson


erson


Place


Thing


Henry


James


Novels


. Pres


. viii

. xxxi


xxxvlII


45Donald


hort


Barthe


tion


"Th
. V.


Glass
assill


Mountain
(New Yo


r


" in
k and


Norton


London


Anthology
Norton. 1978


46John


(Garden


Barth


City


"Lost


Doubl


Funhouse


Lost


Funhouse


eday


James
(1976)


Miller


enry


ames


lity


" Cr


Inquiry


James


49James E

50Jacques


usser


s Th


Miller,


Miller


rrida


eory


586.

604.


peecn a
s. tran


enomena


David


Other


Allison


says


(Evan


North-


western


Univ.


ress


Pres


51Jonathan
s, 1975),


Culler


tructural i


Poeti


(Ithaca


Cornell


Univ


Cull


er, p.


53jacques


Derrida


Grammatol ogy


trans


Gayatri


*


Chakravorty


pivak


(Baltimor


Derrida


Position


London:
trans.


Johns


Alan


Hopkin


Univ


(Chicago:


.. an-


. Press
Univ.


, 1974)


ited


Chicago


. 154







54j
Poulet,


. Hillis


Miller,


" University


"Geneva


of Toronto


or Pari


Recent


Quarterly


Work


(1970),


f Georges
219-220.


55
Jacques
absence that


difference


concept
station


language


way we


Derrida, h
I construct
"Differance


'sign,


'which


presence


determined
question th


however


renounces


as a logical


can no


has
has
on th


longer


always
been c
e basic


authority


impo
be


been


:ons


t


titu


the diale
ssibility
understood
aken to m
ted in a


nd in
sence


C


d


tic of pre
within a s
according


ean
sys


view


or its


tern


sence a
system o
to the


represen-
of thought


presence.


simple


symmetri


contrary,


sence


iSa


contradiction


logical,


further
language


tion


denies
since


ships:


sence


or lack"


contradiction


bound


and
Mil


a sy


"The


(Speech


sence


to logocentric


eschatological


len


assertion


stem


system


hori


tnat


difference


*15


Phenomena,


Derrida


metaphysics,
on" (Position


cons


ciousness


renounces


kind


that


138-39) .


believe
to "its


, p.


cause-


even


s the concept
speculative,


75).


is an effect


and-effect


to de


rela-


signate


consciousness


as an effect


or determination


S. is to continue


operate
(Speech


according to t
and Phenomena,


Derr


s decoders


vocabulary
. 147).
J. Hillis


that


Miller


very


thing


Jonathan


limited"


Culler


choose


largely
fiction


to ionore Derrida


difference.


entreati e


Their


recognize


reading


s" (as


the manifold


Harold


rami-


Bloom might


call


them)


have


structuralism
and compagnie
or along the


fermented


development


currently


become
Finger


product


popular


like
Lakes:
splays


French
grown


on American


grapes
in and


surprisingly


an American


unlvers


planted
hed on


trans
crus


strain
y campu
in the


American


ses.


Napa
soil


Derrida
Valley
. the


character


. Hilli

. Hilli


Miller,

Miller,


"Geneva

"Geneva


or Pari

or Pari


Abrams


Mirror


Lamp


rpt.


York


Oxford


Univ


ress


, 1976)


Hilli


upernaturali


Miller


"Tradition


Abrams


Difference,


Diacritic


v. of Natural
(Winter 1972)


Abrams


"The


Decon


tructive


Angel


" Critical


Inquiry,


spring


1977)


6l5.


From


Hilli


Prou


Miller
Valery


"The


to S


Geneva


school


tructuralism


Modern


John


French


Simon


Criticism:


(Chicago


London:


Univ


f Chicago


Press


Hilli


Miller,


"The


Geneva


school


290.


595.






65
Georges


Dawson


Poulet,


and Elliott


Metamorphoses


Col eman(Bal timore:


Johns


Circle,


Hopkin


Univ


trans.
. Press


Carl ey
, 1966),


Poul et,

67Poul et,.


. 308.


Poul et


69Poulet,


OPoul

1Poul


Univ


arah
ress


. Lawall


Criti


Consciou


sness


(Cambridge:


Harvard


73Maurice


Fren


State


Univ


Blanchot


Criti


Part


cism


(University


, excerpted


Park


in Laurent


London


enns


LeSage,
ylvania


ress


74Paul


"Mauri c


Blanchot


Modern


French


Criti


ism:


From


Prou


to S


London:


Univ.


truck


Chicago


turali
Press.


John


imon


(Chicago


755*


Hilli


Miller


"Geneva


or Pari


Josu


trategi


Harari


. Harari


, "Critical


Perspectives


(Ithaca


Cornell


tion


ost-Stru


Univ


ress


s/Critical


turali


action


Criticism


extual


, ed


Josu


, 1979)


Roland


Barthes


tephen


"From


York:


Work


Hill


to Tex


Wang


t," in Image
, 1977), p.


--Mu
160.


c--Text


trans.


Bri col eur


Levi
pp.
nifi
Kris


trauss


ers.
teva


1969),


as d


in The


istingui


avage


to describe on
Intertextuality
n Semiotike: R


Mind


cher


from


(Chicago:


engage
fined
hes po


as


ur


used


engineer


Univ.


differential


the mosaic
une semanal


Claude


Press


play


citation
(Paris:


, 1966)
f sig-
y Julia
euil,


. 146.


79Ann


Jefferson


Nouveau


Roman


Poetic


Fiction


(Cambridge:


Cambridge


Univ


Press


, 1980)


80Culler


zvetan


Todorov


Poeti c


Prose


tran


. Richard


Howard


, p.


1


1 U


.


I I ..-







vill


ergio
Univ


Perosa
rsity


, Henry
Press o


James


Virginia


Experimental


1978


203.


Novel


(Charlottes-


erosa


85William


eeder


ntit


logy


enry


James


tion


Later


enry


Novel


James


Modern


Love
Philo-


109.


Univ


86Ni
. Pr


cola


Bradbury


Henry


James


Later


Nove


(Oxford:


Oxford


Bradbury

Bradbury


. 78.

. 145


trother


erature


Purdy


enry


Hole


Jame


(Pitt


Fabric


burgh:


Univ


ence
Pitt


, Contemporary


burgh


ress


90John


Carlo


Rowe


Symbolization


of Milly


Theal


" ELH


91
"Rowe


"The


Symbol i


zation


Milly


Theal


" 134


Rowe


"The


Symboli


zation


of Milly


Theal


Rowe


Symboli


zation


of Milly


Theale


94John


a Modern


Carlos
nsciou


Rowe
sness


enry


Ada


(Ithaca:


ms and
Cornell


Henry
Univ


James


. Press


Emergence


, 1976)


. 24


95John


ster


" The


Carlos


enry


Rowe


James


"Who


se H


enry


Jame


Revi


s? Further
(1980), 8.


Lessons


96Rowe


"Who


se H


enry


James


Frank


cago


Press


entricch
, 1980),


After


Criticism


(Chicago:


Univ


. of


171.


Gaines


Jacques
ville,


Derrida


Florida


seminar


given


at the


University


Florida,


, April


, p.













CHAPTER


SHAKING


HACKLE


THEORY


UNATTENDED"


operation


can


be dragged


out in laboriousness


and impatience


whenever


he who,


having


writ,


stops


writing


, and forces


himself


to adequately


rejoin


fact
proc


of his


edure


boredom
prefaces


past


text


so as to unveil


or its fundamental


experienced


H


to his complete


enry
work


truth.
James


its underlying


Witness


while


writing


at the end of


the
life


Jacques


Derrida,


Dissemination


James


wrote


eighteen


Prefaces


accompany


York


Edition


4-volume


Novels


Henry


James


ssued


cribner


beginning


1907


ending


1909.


presumed


purpose


Prefaces


was to elucidate


summari


theory


fiction


James


offered


letters


except


piecemeal


trangely


over


years


quiet


announce


on the


ennul


as he


in reviews


peci fi c


neared


, essay


subject


notebook


prefac


project'


entries


e-writing


conclu


ion,


James

sionar


apparently

y effort e


considered


xacted


Preface


edition.


part


With


parcel


revi


exceptions


criti


have


seized


upon


Prefaces


as fac


tual


account


elegant


prescriptions


Fiction.


Prefaces


should


read


neither


as formulaic


studies


origin


each


text


as summary


Jamesian


technique,


however


Prefaces


nothing:


on the


contrary,


rereading


novel


S






on James


work,


subvert


what


is commonly


understood


as the


Jamesian


poetic


"central


consciousness


" "solidity


peci fi cation


"organic


signaling


form


both


" and


fres


so on.


hness


naming


unori ginal


perspective


quality


("original"


of the metaphy


concept


origin)


character of hi


own work,


James


himself


sets


precedent


for my


reading


novel


y beginning


with


Prefac


we can see how


Jamesian


method


offers


parallel


with


contemporary


criti-


theory


thus


opening


novel


decon


structive


reading.


Reinterpretation


rol e


status of


preface


like


Jacques


Derrida


suggests


that


a rereading


James


project


most


extensive


prefatory


undertaking


in the


canon


tern


literature,


order


Derrida


approached


preface


as a


primary,


autonomous


structure,


neither


inside


nor outs


text.


unable


either


open


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close


text


since


text


can have


stable


identity


no s


table


origin,


no s


table


end.


3 While


tradi


tionali


view


post-written


preface


as a "recuperative


gesture


mastery,


the Preface


cannot


, in fact,


perform


in such


a manner


since


"each


act of


reading


the '


text


preface


next.


5 A preface,


then,


even


a self


-prof


essed


, acts


like


other


piece


writing


does


subject


to di


ssemination.


semination


, according


Barbara


John


son,


"what


foils


attempt


progress


in an orderly


toward


meaning


or knowledge


what


break


circuit


intention


expectation


through


some


ungovernable


excess


or 1


." T


propose,


as I


then


that


James


s Prefaces


hort


-circuit


rather


than


assert


intention


or cancel


rather


than


expectation


radical







Derrida


thought


on prefacing


is applicable


to Jame


ought


sugge


sted


Maitre


s reference


to the


Master,


cited


as the


epi-


graph


chapter


Even


Derrida,


however


seems


to short-change


Jame


choosing


to comment


on hi


boredom


rather


than


on the


texture


Prefaces


metal i terary


text


great


import.


Let us begin


>y examining


more


carefully


Derrida


understanding


prefatory


tion


project.


preface


Near


into


beginning


semination,


prefatory


an essay


decon


translated


truc-


Hors


Livre:


Outwork


Hors


oeuvre,


xtratext,


Foreplay


Bookend,


Facing,


Prefacing,


" Derrida


offers


definition


introduce


probl em


post-written


preface:


A preface


would


retrace


presage


here


general


theory
without
only in
effect


preface


practice


which


fragmentary


f deconstruction,


possibility
y, empirici


non-equivocal


would


announce


that


critique


surges


confi rmati on


in the


future


that


strategy


could
amount


exis
in


metaphysics


tense


what


are


significance
he debility


eschaton
general


going
(here,


read")


that


or failure


, which
economy)


rein


ufficientl


tenor


fore


-word,


fact,
under
author


reader


and what
which yo
preface
though,


propose
which


text


full


as hi


conceptual


strange


that


scribes


what w
y read


ill


strategy


organizes
restricted


already


to b


in advance.


recreates


exists


content


without


telos


economy


have


gathered
From the


an intention-


as something


appearance
mastery of
s future.


am writing


will


which
once


everything


spense


future


reduces


again


a pre


Here


that


able


in sum you
having read


that


with


and
the


have
it,,


written


sent


product)
is what
are going


to take
not yet
you will


follows


reading


present,
in going
future


repre
ahead


rest.
sents


form


been


finality,
or the


within


written.
its semantic


viewpoint


-say


--a pa


a hidden


after


t--which


omnipotent


is presenting


wrote,
to read.


session


begun t
already
might ju


The pre
it, draws
puts it


read
have


then


read


After


this


, even
anticipated


as well
preface makes


ser,


ahe


of manifest


breathe


ad. The pre
Dresence.7


"thh







Given


in a


definition,


system


("an


difference),


essential


preface


ludicrous


self


operation"


-subverting


; caught


because


writing


longs


none


these


time


frame


, present,


past


, or


future


since


they


are all


modified


presents.


Moreover,


because


operation


preface


would d


"confine


itself


to the


scursive


effects


an intention


to mean"


point


single


thematic


nucleu


or a


ingle


guiding


thes


" the


preface


would


negate


textual


place-


ment


at work


within


Yet,


disseminating


character


render


preface


resi


stant


to reducing


text


effects


meaning


content,


thesi


or theme.


The

annotated


structure of a


summary


preface


prominent


not that


ignifieds


table,


or an index


code


f key words


proper


names


Derrida


presents


instead


the metaphor


magic


slate,


a child


s writing


composed


dark


waxed


surface


covered


first


thin,


light-


colored


opaque


sheet


then


a transparent


piece


opaque


cellophane.


layer


registers


When


child


image


writes


however


on the


when


cellophane,


two layers


separated


from


wax,


image


appears


on the


opaque


layer


retai ned


underlying


wax


surface.


Derrida


decon


structs


metaphor:


Prefaces


ludes
have
self-


, along


, prel iminari


always


been


effacement.


presents


tive
eyes
and


cancel


with


forewords


, preambles,


written,


Upon


precedes


production,


what


and,


V


is not yet


predicate),


itself


out.


seems


reaching
or rather


in order
isible.


route
But t


which


his


, introductions


prologues,


view


fore


to put


tall


, pre-


prolegomena,
their own


pIS-


before


is obliged


been


subtraction


to speak,


(which


presenta-
reader's


predict,


covered must


leaves


mark


/



















which


Such
same


cannot


an operation
is true of t


completely


appears


interest


ummed


up within


contradictory,


one take


it.lO


preface


exterior


to the


"residue


writing


development


" which


content


"remain


announces.


anterior


Preceding


what


ought


able


to present


itself


on its


own,


preface


fall


like


an empty


husk


, a piece


formal


refuse,


a moment


f dryness


loquacity


sometimes


both


once


Neither


inside


nor outs


ide,


preface


upplementary


thi rd


term


whose


status


is called


into


question


What


is the


status


term


without le
completely


that


a


is never


ving a
empty,


production


meaning


since


subl ated


remainder?


since


That


announces


concept,


remains


external


dialectical


neither
the path
content,
the logo


pure


method


form,
seman-


moment
f which


indefinitely


between
history


oppo


feed


ratiocination


ition


intelligible
preface.12


conceptual hi
form/content,
. one cannot


critique, if
rationality,


story? If
signifier/
comprehend


only


between


one sets


signified,
the writing


through


empirical
t from th
sensible/


That


is preci


sely


Hegel'


problem as


Derrida


sees


Tel eologically


motivated


to make


preface


a pos


tface,


Hegel


remain


mired


formal i


, logocentric metaphys


close


foreign


as possible


'modern


conception


text


or o


writing.


3Derrida


comments:


Absolute


philo


knowledge


ophical


the preface
enology of


duction


expo


as a
spirit


to the


ontotel eological


after


-effect


negativitie


is present
ition. It


stface,


as a


Phenomen


slon


to mere
.14


at the


zero


teleology


1


foreword,
ology of
reduces


appearances


ast
the
Spir
both


chapter
Logic a
it. Thi


or to


point of the
as determined


f the


Phenom-


s an Intro-


point


precipitation


sublatable


*







cannot


and i
tense


turned


nto


between


in which


back


into


oothing order
prefaces are


the empty


tructurally


"form,


irremediable


teleological
f the future


normally


" and


anticipation


perfect


written];


fullness


formalism


[that
gap


meaning"
. as well


as any


structure.


thematicism,


will


impotent


to dominate


that


process


dissemination


interrupts


cycle


that


reads


preface,


an after


-effect


meaning,


as origin.


ssemination


differential


decentering,


delimitation


, and


nscription


of binary


logic:


subverts


intentions


unity.


introduction


to Derrida


Grammatol ogy


Gayatri


pivak


defines


semination


as a


version


textuality:


A sewing t
infinitely
tion but d


sslon


h


at does n
repeated.


lot produce


plan


emination


ssemination,


that


an exact


always


different,


cannot


return


controlled


always


ts,
that


pilled


to its origin
polysemy, but


tponed


simply
insemina-


vain,


father


a prol iferation
ings.16


mean


According


Derrida


preface


seminating


operation


dissemination,


preface


comes


longer


the p
other


for e
reins


necessary ana
be described


no longer merely


ure


empiricity


structure,


effect


cribing


inclusion


a more


meaning,


structurally
in terms of


an empty


form,


interminable,
speculative


vacant


non-concept,


powerful


one,


experience,


them without


ideal


capable


concept,


operation


"begreifen.


dialecti


significance,


a completely


accounting
reality,
the


being


preface


s finally


an other


text


an assisting


course,


double


what


it exceed


Derri


remarks:


According
the truth


fact)
lute


logic


both


sublation,


preface


entire


knowledge).


therefore


consist


alwaysy


discourse
imulacrum


feigning


tface


tated


(produced ou
f a postface


final


provides


after


abso-


would


revel ation


v







Producing


simulacrum


postface,


preface,


can be


thank-


less


Derrida


sugge


sts:


operation


impatience
and forces


text


can b


whenever


so as to unv


fundamental


by H
work


enry


James


truth.


while


at the


dragged out
who having


adequately
eil its un
Witness


writing
is life.


laboriou


writ,
rejoin


derlying


boredom


prefaces


sness


s writing,
fact of hi


procedure


experienced
his complete


After


citing


Theophile


Gautier


ustave


Flaubert


on the


irritation


preface


writing,


Derrida


continues:


imulacrum


pretending


fact


to turn


starting


plicating the
supplementary


can a


around


over


scene,
digres


S


labyrinth'


that


endl


again,
opening


;io
s


n


look


adding


play-acted


backward,
an extra


within


which


infinity


while


one is also


text,


com-


labyrinth,


a fal


back


peculation.


forever


is the


mirror


that


in mimed--


textual


restance


an operation,
the so-called


supposed
semantic
theory--
ancient


which


can be


"principal''


referent


tenor.


neither


body


ostface,


ssemination


followed,
form--of


digre


would


as a
ssion.


oppos
book
even


propose


marching
. .20


nor reduced


certain


order


quite


distinction


between


"real"


"pl ay-acted"


simulacrum


completely


clear


since


writing


first


necess


states


action


second


ssemination


prefaces


Derrida


rushes


past


James


much


quickly


Although


preface-writing


may well


have


James


ennui


Derrida


does


give


enough


play.


tiff


though


Prefaces


seem


, there


is play


joints


that


Derrida


cons


ider


SI


we play with


problem


preface


(and


thus


play


into


Derrida


hands)


we too


can start


over


, alert


, as we have


become,


the many manife


stations


play within


prefatory


1 ahvrinf-h






Given

prefatory


Derrida

play, Ri


s analy


chard


ubversive,


- Blackmur


s formal,


problematic c


empirical


nature


reading


James


become


suspect.


introduction


Fiction,


B1 ackmur


describe


formal


components


a typical


James


Preface.


paradigmatic


Preface


Blackmur


ugge


sts,


contains


five


element


section


autobiography


illuminating


conditions


under which


fictional


text


was composed


a statement


anecdote


relating


evolution


story


germ


"I the


tingui


thing


features


germ;


evolution


germ


a technical


expos tion


narrative


James


prefatory


remark


Blackmur


find


a demon


stra-


tion


an arti


s consciousness,


dedication


empirical


represen-


station.


Most


critics


subsc


ribe


to Blackmur


reading


essay


"Henry


Jame


Reality,


" James


Miller,


agrees,


however,


presenting


persuasive


case


revi


Jame


poeti


Jame


revealed


in the


theory,


argues


not at all


ti ff


prescriptivi


tead,


"one


of the most


ingeniously


ible


fictional


theori


like


Whitman,


contains


multitudes


Miller


attributes


our cartoon


fat-headed


James


wrong


-headed


criti


have


reason


or another


perpetrated


James


s theory


itself


seems


warn


again


logical


fallacy


card


-stacking,


that


, choosing


only


detail


from


Prefaces


that


reinforce


precon-


ceptions


because


, again


like


Whitman,


Jame


contradicts


self


Miller


notes


earlier


Theory


tion:


Henry


James,


James


believed


both


that


a moral


sense


was primary


reading


interpreta-


tion


that


moral


sense


was unnecessary


that


intellectual


, logi-







Novel"


Jame


asserts


freedom


accruing


to both


novel


novel


ist:


novel


"moves


luxurious


independence


restri


tions.


Think


as we may,


there


is nothing we


can mention


as a consid-


eration


outs


itself


with


which


square


nothing


we can name


as one


peculiar


obligation


or interdictions.


ability


provided


Jame


poetics


James


own recognition


complexity


using


language


cast


needed


light


on the


myth


Jamesian


method


Mill


believes.


Jefferson


also


taken


exception


largely


totelian


interpretation


champion


Jame


consciousu


theoretical


sness


" and


course,


"form.


whereby


While


James


admits


becomes


to James


concern


with


finding


appropriate


narrators


fiction


claim


that


Prefaces


suggest


answers.


"For


James


himself


narrative


strategies


cons


titute


dogmatic


proposal


concerning


real


m of


fiction


Jefferson


them


compares


James


to Andre


Gide,


great


admirer


James


a noveli


innovator


own right.


Gide,


too,


propo


a narrative


strategy


presenting


audience


with


a reflector:


"'An


angry man


tell


a story


there


subject


book.


A man


telling


tory


not enough;


must


an angry man


, and


there mu


cons


tant


connection


between


anger


story


tell


Jefferson


purpose


in drawing


parallel


demon


state


that


both


writers


use the


narrative


tactic


formal


efficiency


rather


than


increased


"realism


"Neither


James


Gide,


concludes


was respond


ible


for what


Wayne


Booth


since


r.WI1~~~A -r -i-~~ I, flfl ~~~ 1 ta. i~I n rlf lttf ~k4..L -it n~k~


. c;, pn4, nf


rllllh~


~nCk


n nn nul~ 1


uiil nF


FnH


~ 1, nlr


I Y
"
W% FB


1







Along with Derrida' s exemplary questioning of the preface,


both


Miller and Jefferson set a precedent by challenging the Blackmurian


Preface readers. By raising inconsi

course itself and thus poking holes


tencies in the theoretical


in the received view,


age further reevaluation of James's theory.


We will


dis-


they encour-


follow their cues


by examining the Prefaces as a descriptive rather than a prescriptive


narrative,


whose threads include extended discussions of language,


text,


(in general


and,


collapsing Barthes


distinction, more specific-


ally the novelistic genre)

In "Structure, Sign,


and the roles of writer and reader.


and Play in the Discourse of the Human


iences"


Derrida di


scusses


the impossibility of totalization in a


system of difference:


If totalization no long
because the infiniteness


r has any meaning,


it is not


of a field cannot be covered by


a finite glance or a finite discourse,


nature of the field--that is


language--excludes totalization.


that of play,


that


is to


but because the


, language and a finite


This


field i


in effect


say, a field of infinite sub-


stitutions only because it i


s finite,


that is to say,


because


instead of being an inexhaustible field, as


the classical


there i
arrests


hypothesis,


instead of being too


something missing from it:


and grounds the play of


large,


a center which


ubstitutions


His field or universe of infinite substitution is


language, as


it is for


other post-structuralists.


Since


language i


the writer's donnee,


must not, as James declares in "The Art of Fiction,"


language does not become intelligible via a


tionship between signifier and signified,


deny him it.29


imple one-to-one rela-


with signifier understood as


the one-way ticket to ultimate meaning, consciousness,


n -,- n 1 n -.- ,r .- &.- I


or presence,


I .4.-a 1C 42 -








definition


difference


attributed


to Ferdinand


aussure


proponents


. Derrida,


however,


rejects


sure


s def-


ignition which


derives


from


Cartesian


metaphy


from


binary


oppo


ition


cites


between


langue


parole,


an oppo


ition


between


origi n


manife


station


that


Derrida


would


recogni


S~I


ting,


instead


that


difference


neither word


concept


juncture


forces,


Derri da


chooses


to spell


form


"di ffdrance"


with


an a


to emphasis


imul taneous


properties


differing


deferring


Roland


Barthes


uses


concept


define,


part,


what


sees


to be


post-structural i


project


: "to


postulate


that


each


text


in other


words


must


treated


difference,


'difference


'being


understood


here


preci


Nietzschean


or a


Derri dean


sense.


. the


text


. S


parole


a narrative


langue.


James


seems


anticipate


post-s


tructurali


notions


lin-


field


remarks


he makes


theoretical


discourse.


Acknowledging


donnee


assessing


field,


James


notes


letter


Hugh


Walpole:


"Form


alone


takes


holds


serves,


ubstan


ce--saves


from


the welter


helpless


verbiage


that


we swim


as in a


sea o


tasteless


tepid


pudding.


Although


James


conscious


intent


to ridicule


wri ters


"large


loose


baggy


mons


ters,


" the


producers


"the


perfect


paradise


loose


end,


language


betray


deeper


eight.


Very


early


career


written


"All


writing


narration.


Conversely,


narration,


peech,


tory-telling,


writing,


language


, helpless


verbiage,


form







fact,


demonstrated


throughout


Prefaces


novels


example


Preface


Roderi ck


Hudson


, James


says:


"Really,


universally,


relations


stop


nowhere


, and


exquisite


problem of


arti


eternally


draw,


geometry


circle within


which


they


shall


happily


appear


novel


that


follows


that


Preface


dramatizes


circle.


extravagance


Roderick


goes


fate


young


Europe


arti


American

develop


cannot


cul ptor


plot


given


talent,


effectively


nature


instead


working


studio


, he


spends


patron


money


on debauchery.


When


he meets


equally


extravagant


femme-fatal e


Chri


stina


Light


fate


sealed.


Roderick


either


fall


or jumps


to h


death


from


Alpine


cliff


lured


freedom


abyss


as Derrida


trans


lator


"intoxi


cated


with


prospect


never


hitting


bottom.


Recognizing


that


difference


unarrestable,


writer must


force


closure


arbitrarily


stop


deferment


chosen


point


or points.


passage


in the


Preface


Awkward


describing


evol uti on


project


that


novel


hints


that


knowledge:


remember


that


periodical


poss


ibly


with


over me, that e
attenuated--the


number
central
subject


as I


would


mal


object.


small


liked


in sketching


have


my project


named


drew


an effect


ven an
neat
round
The


elf,
round


call


be to light
divided it,


little


X1oUS
figure


conductors


on a s


heet


cabalistic,


amplification
of a circle


disposed


central
which


s repre
them, t


with
didn


term might


e


object


the
mted


they


sound


equal
was


thing


ma
con


my s


would


so many


function
e intense
see? i


(though


n


ity
nto
ot


y


have


sisting
stance


paper--
w comes
t vainly
fa


around


situation, my
owe its title,


tinct


each


one of


lamp
which


its aspects


aspects--uncanny
or a moment did


suggest
we would


we s


should


conquer.


use
36


public),


that


sign







plan


James


prototype.


central


object


is that


situation


Jamesian


unstable


consc


iousness


constituted


the metaphy


S1CS


difference)


tion


language.


lighting


small


aspects


distinct


James


lamp


hims


urround


notes


itua-


uncanny


that


term,


suggesting


inappropriateness


as general


lingui


currency


A close


cons


ideration


reveal


point:


word


aspect"


carri es


with


notion


"mental


looking,


" rai


questions


cons


ciou


sness


which


James


always


filtered


through


language.


Another major meaning


word


, moreover,


regards


appearance:


expression,


object,


circumstance,


especially


to the


consciousness.


While


James


appears


to be


describing


a method


representing


lighted


reality


, truth,


impo


really


ssibility


ting


purpo


on its


eful


(and


use o


own)

word


artificial


aspect


which


decenter


that


apparently


clear meaning.


ketch


draws


public


hers


houl d


appear


cabali


tic,


indeed


"intriguing"


both


eliciting


fasc


nation


involved


secret


entanglements.


strategy makes


text


seaml


surface


covering


ambiguity.


Throughout


Prefaces


Jame s


refers


to those


consequences


working


with


language.


instance


Preface


Ameri can


, he


writes


"Nothing


here


truth


'offered


--everything


evaded,


effect


recognise,


f the


oddest.


noting


that


"everything,


" which


take


to mean


"meaning


always,


evaded,


in other word


deferred


James


on the


differential


production


meaning.


Preface


Princess


Casamassima


James


fI irt hov


ciinnaCe


fl.. itiivtr r II


iln nrrv3r


rlA- a#4n;+4x mman n nn


Thz+


nl -


Tn







in a revolutionary


plot.


James


comments:


listens


anxiously


to the


charge-


-nothing


can exceed


own solicitud


an economy


interest


feel


himself


in presence


an abyss


ambigui-


Hyacinth,


cons


ciou


sness


bookbinder


purveyor


revolu-


tionary


text


rhetoric


concerns


, given


experience


lingui


which


being


James


can do


define


nothing


ess.


our apprehen


sion


our measure


what


happen


us as s


social


creatures


--an intelli


gent


report


which


to be


based


on that


apprehension


report


experience


language


subje


difference.


surface


story


most


readers


recognize.


discourse


James


novel


however


, though


esse


ntial


almost


always


ignored.


James


remarks


Preface


to The


Prin


cess


asamass


ima:


"Poss


ible


tori e


, pre


sentable


figures


like


from


startled


thick


game


jungle


before


as the


knows


server moves


indeed


, fluttering


fairly


guard


himse


against


brush


importunate


wing


goes


on as


with


head


loud


humming


presence


Hyacinth


Jame


con-


tinues


, sprang


from


pavement--


universe


language


from which


consciousness


springs


other


Prefaces


James


relates


similar


tori


poil


Poynton


glimmered


fore


in the


space


ten word


"Pandora"


developed


from


"one


scantiest


of memoranda


, twenty


word


sugge


jotted


stion


down


York


wandering


word


2 I


, the


these


vague


few word


echo


lurked


germ


"the


opening


tray


into


lingui


Following


pattern


other


novel


, Poynton,


James


explain


, grew


from


ingle


mall


seed


seed


as minute


wind-


blown


-. drooned


unwi tti nal v


bv mv


neiahbour


a mere


I


floating








"Seed"


crucial


term


here,


suggesting


as s


several


critics


have


noted


James


romantic c


intertext


support


their


Coleridgean


notion


Jamesian


form,


they


further


light


on a


ssage


in the


Preface


Tragi c


Muse


where


James


conf


esses


delight


deep-breathing


economy


an organic


form.


James


s references


germs


eeds,


however


on the


, can also


seminating


read


as anticipating


nature


textuality


post-structural ist


meaning


commentary


itself


Seed


can be


planted,


example,


in a


garden,


according


plan


can be


result


plant


"gone


seed,


esjj ke


seed


of The


Spoil


Poynton--ripe


dissemination


wind.


Derrida,


too,


treats


organic


image


seed


or germ,


most


thoroughly


Dissemination.


First


there


was


retros


pectively


lated


"' primitive


mythical


unity,


" he


explains


result


hot/throw/blow


[le coup]


destroying


unity,


parted


pro-


jected,


nscribing


difference


in the


heart


life.


7 From


that


time


thing


complete


can only


completed


what


lack


Derrida


continues


empl oying


character


sexual


agricultural


image


Germination,


tion.


semen


insemination


traces
called


some


and each
engender


seed
own


have


b


ssemination


is already


is disserr
een lost.


"language"
"real" se


germ a


and
term,


by
not
fin


as its


There


no first


swarming.


nination.
Whether


course,


-sowing,


term.


division,
an absolut


d


its term


own internal


A trace,


text,


each


The term,
grafting,
e term.


term


insemina-


"primal"


a graft


case


or in
indeed


atomic


whose


what


case


germ,


element,


proliferation.


each


not outside


limit,


germ


itself


making


within


an angle


with


death







What


this


means


indeed,


as Derrida


were


intended


mean


something,


is that


nothing


prior


divi


simple


orn ginary


unit


prior


this


divi


sion


through


which


life


comes


tsel


seed


multiplied


from


start;


nothing


comes


before


addition


which


begins


taking


self


away.


Later


in the


essay,


Derrida


comments


on hi


own attending


discourse


Phillipe


Soll


ers' Number


on attending


course


in general


narrative


"that


voice


both


discourse


part


like


spectacle


Jame


part


Prefaces


of the


an "I


audience


functions


as a "pure


passageway


operation


ubstitution.


term


germ,


term


that


sseminate


itself,


germ


that


carries


own term within


strengthening


its breath


with


death.


seed


sealed


sperm,


firm.


Returning


again


to the


prefa-


tory


problematic,


we can conclude


that


preface


sort


proto-


seed


semen


"just


to b


left


to well


a seminal


difference


as i


is to be


reappropriated


into


ublimity


father


" L


semi nal


differentiation/dissemination


word


father


assis


ti ng


admiring


work


oses


its breath


Read


in a decon


structive


light,


James


many


"organic"


references


germs


seeds


grains


also


probl emati ze


notion


fatherhood


James


as the


nseminator


since


James


prefatory


eeds


(both


those


named


in the


Prefaces


those


provided


Prefaces


them-


ves)


seminate


ubverting


organic


plan


denying


him a


origin


seed.


term/germ


"strengthening


breath


with


death


" effaces


itself


Jame


novel


becoming


a mere


trace.


. The









hers


always


our
tion


e, presenting


in s


before


guidance,


us the


busine


we can stop


what


we know wh


germ,


ss, gives


what


laws
where


primary
en and


left


case


are the


merely


away,


almost


sign


for a saving
to intervene


selec-
where


do we place
deviation?
upon which,


here


beginnings
would be


asten


say,


tne wrong
elements


quite


or the


right


an enquiry
forbidden m


embark.


Answers


inquiry


are


unl ocatabl


within


labyrinth


recoverable


only


within


, centered


tem.


James


could


provide


them


would


, as many


read


him,


totle


a fi


tional


(not


dra-


mati


poeti


James


, however,


admits:


"The


answer may


after


that


mystery


here


elude


that


general


considerations


fail


or mi


that


even


fondest


arti


need


no wider


range


than


logic


particular


case.


signs


along


with


germs


are d


sseminated


, leading


nowhere


reconstructive


reading


James


use o


germs


also


alters


"historical"


Henry


James


once


we recognize


own renouncement


creation


ex nihilo


we must


credit


him with


more mod


esty


than we


previous


Although


does


jargon


like


"deja


" he


point


repeatedly


to the


al ready-written


character


novel i


eas.


already-written


disseminating


germ


grows


into


text,


asses


through


author'


consciousness


further


diffused


flow


language.


James


recogni


Preface


to Th


esson


Master


can surely


account


nothing


in the


novelist


work


that


through


crucible


imagination


that


perpetually


immersing


cauldron


intellectual


-au-feu


been


reduced


ai a -1 *


* I


Ir


I II r


.I errl







center


that


inevitable y


becomes


decentered


in deconstructive


criti-


cism.


Critics


like


Richard


B1 ackmur ascribing


to the metaphysics


sence


see the


writer


as an inviolable


consciousness


intelligence


as generating


language


art.


system


difference,


however,


rereads


writer'


consciousness


as a


determination


effe


within


tern which


longer


that


presence


that


difference.


Paul


comments


trend


Continental


methodologically motivated


literary


leged co
escape,


sion


use of


or p


oeti c


nsciousness


some
untrut


language.


criticism


attack


consciousness


whose


degree,
h that


use o


from


we take


on the


. repre


notion


language c
duplicity,
r granted


that


way a prvi-
an pretend to
the confu-
in the everyday


only


literary


consciousness


not privileged,


non-


existent


without


text.


Michel


Foucaul t


states


"What


Author?":


author


which


fill


not an indefinite


work


is a certain


culture


which


nation,
sition


author


functional


limit


impede
e free


f fiction.


senting t
invention


function


that
repre


exclude


free


compo


author


source


ignification


not precede


principle


by whi


chooses


circulation,


ition,


n fact,


as a


because


in exactly
author is


ent him a


function.
sented in a


(When a
figure


production.) T
figure by which
proliferation o


opp


decompos
f we are


genius
, in r
osite


an ideological


opposite o
historically


that


author


one marks
f meaning.


inverts


ition


accuse


as a


reality,
fashion


product,


work


n, in our
in short, by
free manipu-


recompo-


tomed


perpetual
we make
. One ca


since


historically


given
it, o


is therefore
the manner


function


ne has


surging
him


in say


we
real


is repre-


an ideological


e ideological
which we fear


other


word


, recent


literary


theory


redefines


cogito,


the motto


of logocentric metaphysi


as a function of


discourse


rather


than








Hillis


Miller


explain


, "rather


than


being


given


, the


rock


solid


point de


depart.


James


seems


reflect


a sy


stem


difference


position


Man,


Foucault


Miller


regarding


wri ter


place


text.


Indeed,


Jame


seems


to anticipate


Foucaul t


description


author


certain


excl udes


chooses"


functional


with


principal e


metaphor


which


novelist


one limit


as window.


a window


fact


a functional


principle


house:


opened


or do


limit


or exclude


now and


rain.


A favorite


figure,


window


appears


James


critical


course more


often


than


one occasion


everyone


remembers-


-in the


Preface


to The


Portrait


Lady


where


house


fiction


to have


a million.


example,


in an


1890


letter


to W.


Howell


James


writes:


"The


novel


particular window


absolutely--and


worth


so far


as he


one.


Again


metaphor


appears


in a


1905


essay


on Balzac:


thus


walk


with


great


glazed


gallery


thought


long,


lighted


pictured


ambulatory where


endl


series


window


on one


ide,


hangs


over


revolutionized


S. garden


France.


Even


the most


perceptive


criti


use such


citations


ballast


tradi


tional


scuss


James


point


view.


example,


James


Miller


, Jr.


says


James:


novel i


always


ness-


through


-that


in process


relation
the cons


never
h the


really
frame


consciousness


tran


with


each


ciousness


looked
created


on "reality


haped


figuration,
other, by


places


boundaries


their


in


unique
tored i
obscure


magi nation.
on reality,


con


mpre


" but
scious-


ssions


catalytic
Moreover,
like a


h;r rrr







consciousness


(unique)
interest


point


to frame


fiction.


view--


reality


with


ultimate


an individual


source


A window,


these


criti


claim


, suggest


an ordered


limited


perspective,


a circumscription


reader


view


writer.


contrary,


we recall


window


that


window


meaning


function


house


house:


defines


the window.


without


Further


window,


we forget,


composed


major


part


glass


pane


frame.


glass


is transparent:


we can believe


it does


exist


as those


have


walked


into


plate window


will


testify


. A clear


window


limits


reader


view


lightest:


bring


outside


vice


-versa,


nullifying


boundary


between


them


recall-


nside/out


problematic c


f the


preface


scussed


Derrida


"Hor


livre.


What


limits


James


ndow,


window


frame


Derrida


terms


, a parergon.


essay


"The


Parergon


" Derrida


cite


Immanuel


Kant'


definition


frame


as stated


in the


Critique


Judgment:


what


ornamentation,


adjunc
repres
taste


called


adornment]


ornamentation


(parerga),


not an intrins


entation


so sol


does


an object,
ly by mean


[Zierathen:


i.e.


constituent
in augmenting
of its form.


what


decoration


is only an
e complete
delight of


Thus


with


on statue


frame [E
s or the


infa


ssungen]


olonnade


of picture
of palaces.


s or
"G3


drapery


After


citing


Kant,


Derrida


offers


own definition


parergon


again


above


ergon


, the


work


accomplii


hed,


accomplii


hment


work


. But


not incidental


connected


cooperate


in its


operation


from


outside.


attain


rnnrl irlpc


h cta-l-tic


7a nhi lnrnnhi ril


cnncP nf


nnatinn


"Even


n


||-


.







intact


or consi


stently


deformed,


reformed,


to other


fields,


where


contents


submitted


"The


Parergon


insc


ribes


something


extra,


exterior


to the


specific


field


scuss


Derrida


illustrates


ition(


using


drapery


on Greek


statues


columns


supporting


buildings


as parergonal


exampi e


each


case


parergon


violently


separates


the work


from


"other"


however,


wrenching


two,


parergon


becomes


-effacing.


Derrida


explains:


(the


The
work


arer


is d


stingui


from


the milieu


both


tinguishe


the er
d as a


figure
in the


from
from
disa


against


same


a ground.


ppear


ground.


as the


grounds,
s into th
function


then,


which


wall


relation
work.


neverthe


mined


sinking
expends
in the


marginal


Always


work


parergonal


which


frame


in relation


other.
as its


by degr
general


form


not distinguished
s also distinguish
is distinguished


to each


relation


ground,


'ees,


into


context


on a


a form which


tingui


h


obliterating


greatest e
he context


thicknes


ing
it


these


work,
into


context.
s into
on is
deter-


appears
general


appear
parerg


been


ground,


traditionally
itself, but by


self,


energy.
or the


form


The
work


issolving
frame is
may be,


disappearing,


just
never
but n


as i


ground


either


does


figure.67


way,


we can understand


James


s intertexts


as h


parerga,


frame


invi


ibly mediating


between


window


house


James


fiction.


Each


intertext


house


fiction,


Eliot


Emerson


, sit


against


ide,


above


Jame


transparent


window,


ergon.


From


that


rather


ambiguous


ition,


intertexts


connected


operate


on both


James


text


is not clear


whether


frame


properly


"belong


to the


architectural


structure


glass


window.


Indeed,


intertext


function


as a


frame,


"the


n~nP r1


fnrmal


nrp dirtti vp


truirtii r


" whi rh


ic rnn'ic


tpntb ,


de~fn rmsc


new


gon


s







context.


James


is the window,


intertexts


parerga,


frames


then


that


house


fiction


million


windows


assert


1000


x1000


points


view;


rather


to admi t


intertex-


tual ity


transparency


writer


language.


virtue


text


a metonymic


ext/preface


slide


problematic


from window/frame


author/inter-


perspective.


Preface,


York


Edition


before


Blackmur'


reassembling


them,


parergon


framing


text,


dividing


text


from


outs


ide.


Obviou


extrins


, the


parergonal


Preface


nonethel


appears


into


textual


fabric


"Hors


livre"


"dans


livre


" preface yet postface


James


Preface


gives


entry


to the


linguistic


labyrinth,


creates


aporla--an


ultimate


ad-end


undecidability.


parergon


"warp


as i


work


"warp"


meaning


only


to twi


or d


tort,


in th


weaving


f textile


arrange.


Given


ambiguous


nature


preface


arrangement


created


as Derrida


comments,


fragile


fragile,


tenuou


character


Prefaces


as we now


under


tand


them


ubverts


reading


received


B1 ackmur


supports


some


James


Miller


s efforts


encourage


continued


revi


we slide


text/preface


backward


relation


a moment


to that


on the


between


metonymi


author


from


intertext,


James


tory


self


parergon


efi ned


artificially


frame


arrange


limit


, imposes


window


restraints


prefa-


upon


discourse


which


continuous


threaten


exceed


boundaries


intert


exts--


both


precursor


text


critical


readings


itself-


-dPfine.P


a fundamental wav


author.


They write


him.


" the


* ...1 L .


I I


4.








imposes


ible


usel


ess.


can only


know


hakespeare


as h


was read/


written


progr


essive


centuries.


Likewi


James


is read


written


each


generation


houl d


revi


academic c


heir


assumption


laim


that


suggest


i stori cal


that


"James"


instead


their


reading


that


creates


that


James.


Confe


ssing


self


as "written


" rather


than


as "writer


" James


heralds


contemporary


critical


theory


example


Preface


Tragic


Muse


says


that


writer'


romance


romance


himself


projects


thus


escribing


himself


textual


terms.


Reinforce


suggest


tion


repudiates


custody


fiction


a later


comment:


can but


look


on the


present


fiction


as a


poor


father


motherless


sort


unregi


stered


unacknowledged


birth.


Given


nial


parenthood,


Henry


Jame


we would


know


via that


text


would


a writer we


intertexts


ol 1 aborted


on to


produce.


James


suggestion


text


s orphaned


state


recall


Barthes


concept


father


text


"The


Death


Author


concept


chall


enge


on small


point


upheld


larger


ones


cault


"What


an Author?"


way we


know


an author


Jame


continues


through


function


to h


existence


. As


Jame


says


"The


taste


poet


bottom


so far


as the


poet


prevail


over


every-


thing


active


sense


life


Jame


deliberate


indi


cated


quotation


marks)


choice


here


word


taste"


telling


since


gauging


a writer


taste


is somewhat


ambiguous


aste


suggest


S~~~~~~I S SSI.s


T


II


I,


II r


I ) I


II







name


immediately


cast


into


the maze


language.


James


naming


writer'


taste


we "hold


silver


clue


the whole


labyrinth


consciousness


written,


then,


we find


only


author


so, by


cerni ng


taste,


we gain


entry


into


lingui


labyrinth


difference.


passage


in the


Preface


to The


Spoil


Poynton


both


elaborates


sums


up Jame


position


on the


author


-a-vi


subject


That
from


source
srong


[James
plot]


's habit
points,


f creating
think, to


interest


[sic


to borrow


battle


foundation.
builds and
in the deep
premises.72


piles


from


a large


artist:


consciousness


his mo
motive
after


high


tive


is his


that


, lays


imagination


which


character


part o
reside


seeing all fo
is certainly


ground,


only
ether
and


lend


the
on hi


rather


than


tne very
in the
r himself


half
and


give


blocks


the
his


, only


quarried


personal


novel i


bricoleur,


constructing


text


from


intertexts,


those


ocks,


though


quarried


imagination,


lingui


conscious


sness


which


are part and


parcel


already-written.


altered


primary


view


product,


writer


James


necess


case,


itate


novel


revi


definition


traditional


criti


cisms


novel


fictional


narrative


life


or experience.


real i


novel


as S


tendhal


mirror walking


along


main


road


3 James


, too,


adopts


the mirror


image


"The


Future


Novel"


"Till


world


an unpeopled


void


there


will


an image


the mirror.


1 ogocentric


metaphy


ical


universe,


that


image


accurate


representation


world


inhabited


reader.


system


difference,


however,


image


is created


reader


in hi







refl ecti ng


kind:


rather


mirror


that


lures


into


abyss


in Alice


Through


Looking-Glass


or i


Derrida


Dissemination.


Derrida


cites


Al ice


early


"Di ssemi nation"


essay


as an


example e


that


phenomenon:


Beca


at first


place
last.
(that
any t
here.


use it
takes


several


begins
he form


times


Numerous
is, (k)not
hing), this
no longer


complicity
culture, o


"there'


that


what


and
any


Of w
plural


first


belonging


simple


subject,
time a
here an


that


roots.


only


foreign


would


repeating
a story.


rhich,


one,


in every


(k)not
already


now;


tie


"In
time
have


IS US
our


II


self, su
ts first


among
trand


other


any object,
s not from


break


an event


time


take


s, is the
s (k)nots
(k)not
around
the


habitat


country,


Hence
reside


" says
would


, our
Alice,


seem


in repetition


text


born


seminating


seed


repetition


through


mirror,


"chimera


sting


between


so-called


primary


text


miming


text,


"the


presentation,


commentary


, interpretation,


review


account


or inventory"


--the


attending


discourse.


fate


f the mirror,


which


present


presence


present,


to be


broken,


will


reflect


that


breaking


fiction


that


remains


intact


unln-


terrupted.


Both


primary


attending


discourse


calculate


feign


self


-presentation


inscribe


presence,


the mirror


reflects


neither:


exit,


offering


only


ight


own tain


own thick


reflective


foil


The


tain,


however,


transparent


rather


trans


formative


what


lets


show


through


Derrida


explains


tain


in thi


--imperfectly--


what


ing to


mirror


. and


reflects,
figure of


reflects


lets


hadow


what


--imperfectly--what


through--presently--the


deformed


is called


reformed


present:


comes
ghost


accord-


upright


* i r nva yTYIa


e+2nirlt


'"4-h


4ner'tnin4-4nne


"but


rlrk~+


nT







The mirror


becomes


screening


device


whereby


image


persons


transformed


permuted,


no writing


escapes


effect


statement


invested


with


can b


value


sheltered


, even


like


potentially


feti


, a commodity


"scientific"


value


from
quote


through
derived


respe
low,
oppos
place


these mirror


itself


sets


a generalized


from


table
inside
itions


excludes


deader
itself
mirror


effect


through


itself


graph
ition


ectable,
, whole
out of w


oppo


nonresp
outside
thrown


mirror.


itself


from


than


from what


capture


which


motion


that


undoe


between


value


true


and
hack


term


If; each
element


nvelops
it and


vice


part.


takes
germ


text


quotes,


own accord,
certainty
nd nonvalue,
se, high and
1 these


simple


over the
becomes


envelops
e world


versa.


oth


"taking-
er and


teadier


deducts


comprehend
9


virtu


mirror


another


version


difference,


then


, writing


does


, cannot


reflect


image


mirror,


language


text


transformed


as i


written


read


written


again


another


sense,


too,


the mirror,


novel


window


in the


house


fiction


can act


, depending


as a mirror.


on the


Thus


direction


, again,


light


the mirror--the


source


novel


window


window--


author


writer


written


Recent


theorists


have


chosen


other metaphors


as well


to account


textuality.


Roland


Barthes


n The


Pleasure


Text


comments


are now


emphasizing


ssue


generative


idea


that


text


made


worked


perpetual


interweaving


Derrida


, too,


insists


upon


woven


nature


texts.


trans


lator


Alan


Bass


notes


introduction


Writing


Difference:


"these


essays


always


affirm


that


the '


texture


text


makes


assemblage


them


asted


' one,


i.e.


, permits


only


kind


fore


-sewing


that


empha-


n~4~


n L







contains


other


texts.


Theorists


cal I


this


"intertextuality.


John


Carlos


Rowe


explain


that


"intertextuality


does


indicate merely


strategy


reading


text


with


another,


fact


that


every


text


already


an intertextual


event.


. the


text


is not


itself


Julia


isteva


provide


another metaphor


calling


text


mosaic


citation


, a fitting


rather


than


a weaving


together of


parate


element


whether we


figure


author


as mos


aici


architect


tailor


or bricoleur


text


tructurali


post-


tructural i


till


play


assembled


character.


James


s metaphors


text


as house


as mirror


are celebrated


compare son


text


a painting


refers


a novel


as an


"admirably


treacherou


picture


actual


manners.


description


like


others


been


seized


upon


traditional i


support


their


contentions


that


James


supreme


real


painting


faithful


portrait


life.


A decon


structi ve


approach,


however,


would


note


that


treacherousu


" designates


deceptive,


untrus


tworthy,


unreliable


picture,


only


one possible


given


nature


paint


Another


Jamesian metaphor


textuality, onewhich


receives


con-


iderably


attention


than


architectural


or arti


image


further


suggests


appropriateness


decon


struc


tive


reading


novel


example,


Barthes


would


have


approved


James


project


as he


describes


using


fabric metaphor


Essays


in London


where:


are weaving


ever


grows ana
our darkne


s all


grows,


our stupidities


our work


one mighty
d we weave


together


loom
into


quarrel


.. .


ur 5;


trivinas


on for


. And


it all our light
reconciliations,


a i tlt


friction


issue


IJ I


We


,


!







passage


in the


Preface


to Roderick


Hudson


employs


fabric


metaphor,


figuring


text


as "the


canvas


life"


writer


spec


ifically


young


James


generally


anyone


as the


embroiderer


work


terror


, fairly,


vast


expanse


that


surface,


bound


number


distinct


perforations


needle


tendency


inherent


many


-coloured


flowers


figures


cover


consume


as many


as poss


ible


f the


little


hol e


James


continues


iy suggesting


differing


deferring,


disseminating


quality


text:


devel opment


immense


counting


he flower,
of holes a


the figure
a careful s


involved


election


among


them.


That


would


have


been


seemed


him,


brave


enough


process


to invite,
a thousand
sustained
and on.87


to
lur


, were
solicit
es and


a system


it not the


very


, to persuade,
deceits. The


so prepared


nature


to pra
prime e
surface,


ictise
effect


hole


positively


to lead


Derrida


verit6


en pointure"


offers


itself


as a


tailor-made


intertext


Jame


scuss


Preface


to Roderick


Hudson.


Derrida,


, notes


ubversive


nature


tinct


perforations


process


call


"poi nture.


Pointure


both


printer


s term,


denoting


both


a pointed


iron


plate


that


heet


to b


printed


tyipan


cobbler


hole


term


that


naming


plate makes


number


in the


titche


paper,


thus


glover


size


or a


pair


gloves.


These


definitive


hole


in every


text


create


probl emati


space,


a gap


which


attribution


takes


place.


pointing,


embroidery


already-woven


canvas


(language/


deja


-6crit)


indeed,


as James


ugge


treacherous


, misleading







characters


often


as catalysts,


foils


, interpreters,


case


Production


of The


Golden


Bowl,


narrator.


Literally


thread


ficelle


often


"bastes


" to


use Bass


s term,


Jamesian


texts


together.


attempting


to smooth


seams


reveal


gaps


that


have


necess


itated


tence.


like


lace


titu-


tion


" which


couple


Gogh


painted


hoes


feet


painter


usan


tringham


Maria


trey,


whose


names


ins


suggesting


"string"


"gossamer,


" imply


threading


metonymi cal ly


sewing,


act,


Derrida


s term


, as parerga


out-of-work


supplements,


as James


himse


admits


, part


text


proper.


"They


run beside


coach


" but


they may


not so much


as get


their


foot


on the


step


they


are destined


"tread


road.


Derrida


outline


movement


lace


traces


function


each


James


ficelle


cuts


also


sews


again.


With


an invi


able


lace which


perforate


canvas


pointure,


tympan


pur,


" "perforate


paper"),


middle,


passes


internal


then


canvas


world d


ficell


sew 1


as a


again


group


cons


idered


characteristically


Jamesian


conception


function


function


pointure


, they


attribute


text


Jame


Moreover


, they


serve


as a metonym


woven


texture


Jamesian


narrative


texture


we will


examine


as it manifests


itself


preceding


chapter


on The


American


Spoil


of Poynton,


Wings


Dove.


Throughout


theoretical


discourse,


James


continually


reasserts


differential


character


the woven


text.


he Preface







that:


"The


novel


is of


very


nature


ado,


an ado


about


some-


thing,


larger


form


takes


greater


course


novel


suggests


an exercise


deferment:


more


elaborate


upplementarity,


(the


longer


novel),


the more


dilatory


effect.


Because


dilatory


character


novel


decentered.


Regard


what


Blackmur


about


centrality


central


intelligence


James


himself


notes


decentered


nature


texts


Preface


Tragic


Muse:


urge myself


to the


candid


con-


fess


that


in very


production


my eye


organic


centre succeeded


mind


in getting


a consciousness


into


so t


proper


peak,


position


own.


1 The


James


language


continues


several


succeeded
appeared


turn
of f


upon
inal


my compos


at the


so fraught


them,


productions
specious and
the failure


crls


with


in s


ition


placement


in defying
probable di


pite


simulation


spurious


a rueful


centre


greater


resl


honour


isting
that


or less


wondering
so bold


altogether,


so
me, has
still


success


eye.
about


These


to make


true.


older


criticisms,


where


author


perceived


as generating


meaning


as a


through


assive


cons


sponge


ciou


soaking


use of


as muc


language


meaning


audience


as possible:


understood


better


more


"thorough"


reader


bigger,


more


orbant


sponge.


Once


we deny


the writer'


ability


create


ex nihilo


recognl


instead


as a function


reader


Reading


text,


can become


we must


broadly


, necessarily


economic


recast


event


role


with


reader


as investor


as S


eymour


Chatman


impli


Whether


or through


narrative


text.


is experienced


the member


V I II


through


audience


a performance


must


respond


.


.







transaction.


or likely
reasons h


event


ave


gone


They must
traits, a


fill


in gaps


objects


with


which


esse


ntial


vari ou


unmentioned.


Other


recent


critics


see the


project


reading


as more


far-


reaching


that


ingle


transaction


John


Carlos


Rowe


example


under


tands


event


epic


terms


"the


reader


voyage


uest


an active


engagement


language


work


creative


trans


position


that


language


into


forms


own understanding.


reader,


then


becomes


writer


. Because


reading


like


writing


filter


through


language,


interpretation


criticism


based


cannot


on a


determine


metaphysi


final


logo


meaning


Rather


frequent


, reading


a sys


f difference,


denies


such


closure


focu


instead


on the


"differences


between


texts,


relations


proximity


stance,


citation,


negation


, irony


parody


Such


relation


are infinite


work


defer


final


meaning.


school


criticism


focusing


on the


primary


role


reader


production


meaning


grown


in the


decade.


Labeled


"reader


response


criti


" theori


like


tanley


Fish


Wolfgang


believe


that


literary work


exists


in the


convergence


text


reader


text


dynamic,


reader


cess


recrea-


tion,


causes


text


reveal


"its


potential


multiplicity


connec-


tion


Like


tructuralists


post-


tructurali


reader


response


criticism


recogni


intertextual ity


as a


component


recreation


process.


"The


product


creative


activity


what


we might


call


virtual


vi rtiia


dimension


ri impn


text,


*i nnt


which


1-


endows


itc1 f


with


nnr i


reality.


it thh imaninatinn


ser


I l


1 1 11


.







More


radical


in their


ideologies,


tructuralists


t-structurali


would


claim


instead


that


it i


free-play


language


text


imagination


that meaning


deferred.


James,


along


with


tructural i


, post


tructurali


reader-


response


criti


affirms


productive


role


reader


responsibility


reader


to accept


that


role.


was not referring


only


to those


work


produced


George


Eliot


when


wrote


in h


review


Partial


Portraits


every


novel


work


is divided


between


the writer


reader


James


insists,


Walter


Benn


Michael


believe


, on the


response


ibility


readers


as writers


Preface


to The


Golden


Bowl


.1I


"Writer


Reading:


James


Eliot,


chael


under


tands


James


as implying


that


definition


reading


form


-projection


hence


we are


responsible


imply


texts


them


since


, at the


crudest


level


, they


are us


Accord-


to Michael


James


model


reading


that


Preface


that


presages


reader


-response


paradigm:


"James


' account,


its most


extreme


form


SiC.


that


text


is a


blank


page


nscribed


with


reader


s own de


sires.


Hence


locate


meaning


not i


texts


readers


whose


activity


creative.


,,100


a reciprocal


James


event,


Preface


writer


to The


reads


Princess


becomes


asamassima


audi


"The


ence.


teller


story


primarily,


none


, the


stener


to it,


reader


too.


11l0l


fact


James


most


character


tand


Prefaces


is taken


on the


role


f the


writer,


especially


revisionist,


as reader


serious


concern


with


revi


sing


own work


began


when








accepting,


works


James


James


forced


sober master


often


, many


then


reread,


overhauled


detriment


first


time,


novels


those


young


works.


earl iest


Henry


several


cases


, especially


that


Roderick


Hudson


American


James


might


have


well


to have


accepted


as impli


advi


Little


Bilham


comment


on Chad


Newsome


altered


state


n The


Ambassadors:


like


edition


an old


book


that


one has


been


fond


of--revi


amended


, brought


date,


quite


thing


one knew


loved


Preface


to the


first


nove


reread


Roderick


Hudson


James


discu


sses


s first


revi


sing


experience:


ve felt myself
painter making


sponge.


doubt,
tions,


would


however


refu


are buried
d appear,
. when the


then


looking


use again
nk surface


respond:
too deep
not much w
moistened


over


again
s here
buried


rl


north


ast production
the tentative


ere,


secret


se again,
the buryin


canvas


does


and were i
g. No [si
surely fl


beyond
e inten-


ndeed,


when


resort


indicate
present
is to s
varnish


array


bottle.


varnish-bottl


implest
earlier


I have
104


figure
later


is thereby


for my
, larger


achieve


immediat


revision


smaller,


canvases


very


James


econstructs


revi


ionary


effort


here


implying


contempo-


rary


language


which


empha


sizes


sedimentation


prudent


use of


ponge


varnl


bottl e


James


sugg


ests


that


reveal


meaning


concealed


in the


language


text.


revi


impli


not so much


independent


rewriting


as re-seeing


or recovering


hidden


linguistic


Layers.


James


employs


another


structural


t/post-structuralis


strategy i


w








revision.


Here


empl oys


a tactic


associated most


closely


with


Hills


Miller


Jacques


Derrida


via Heidegger


approach


etymology


last


Prefaces,


James


finally


deal


directly


with


concept


revi


sion:


the w
which
nor 1


sion


from my


ord.
means


brooding


was to
almost


tha


somehow,
frivolous


to my


failure


revi


in the
n to r


spirit,


have


in the


nothing


as so difficult,


--having
reading


imagination,


analyse t
or to look


see,


case


a written


e-read


idea


event,


in common.


indeed


in the


same


even
for


light


thing
attache


re-writing


for my


carried


elf--


content


over, again--
neither more
d to it. in


--with


conscious


thought


so absurd,


that


matter


as t


play


which


mind,


re-writing
e impossible


, thought


felicity


under


test w
effort


remain--


as that


there


it


other


again,


where
proved


first
has r


ruefully pre-figured two


to be


remained


one--


What
for me


hand


caused


whatever


re-writing
to this h


revision,
looked at


this


might
our--a


on any


an effort


mystery


seeing
to


flower


expr


before


esse


me as into
105


only


terms


that


honourabl


differences


between


first


public


shed


drafts


York


vision


topped


throws


into


taking


lead


matter


snow


Jame


reli


quite


for me


hand


there


track

very


earlier


sens


S I


being
pread


application
and found i


till


over


itself


even


plain, my
had quite


naturally


"Thi


different


production


ibly,
as a


exploring
unlearned


falling


into


as if


shining


truth,

dance
was to


said,


that


clear


expanse


tread,


another


pace
. .


vocabulary,


James


might


have


noted


that


revision


process


recogn


differential


character


language,


free-


play


signifier


says,


again


in that


seminal


Preface


Golden


Bowl


"The


deviation


differences


might


course


Revi








York


Edition


James


also


added


series


front


pieces,


photographs


Alvin


Langdon


Coburn,


whose


purpose


"largely


consists


'rendering


certain


inanimate


character


London


streets


(1lO8


Indeed,


project


illustrations


was to


parallel


novel


to render.


differential


play,


that


very


term


"render"


ubverts


itself


since


it mean


both


forth


bring


"rendering"


can mean


ambiguou


both


a trans


lation


or an interpretation


suggest


ting


collecting


function


reproduction


or repre


entation


suggesting


persing


function


Prefaces


render,


in both


senses.


While


gathering


James


body


seemingly


prescri pti ve


poetic


, they


while


"shaking


hackle


theory


.1lO9


Like

ing.


Derrida


Rereading


notion

the t


prefacing,


heoreti cal


James


course


"rendering"


new light


sel f-s

leads


ubvert-


"rendering"


loose


end.


Upon


pulling


on it,


James'


s literary


discours


e--the


differential


field


language


that


comprises


writer


text


reader within


it--


unravel








Notes


Univ.


1Jacques
of Chic


a


Derrida,
ao Press


-I


Dissemination,
, 1981), p. 27,


trans.


Barbara


Johnson


(Chicago


27.


notable


Autobiography
(1979), 333-3


in James


exceptions


s Prefaces


William


" American


Goetz,


"Criticism


Literature,


3
Derrid


Gayatri


Chakravorty


Bal timore


pivak


London:


, Introd


John


Hopkin


Grammatol ogy


Univ


Press


by Jacques
, 1976),


4Barbara


(Chicago:


Johnson


Univ


Introd.


Chicago


ssemination,


, 1981),


Jacques


Derri da


xxxii


pivak


6Johnson,

Derrida,


uDerrida,

9Derrida,

1Derrida,

lDerrida,


Derrida

Derrida


14
Derrida

1 5Derrida


xxxii.

semination


semination,


ssemination,


Dissemination

Dissemination

Dissemination

Dissemination

Dissemination

Dissemination


, p.

, p.

, pp

, p.


pivak,


17Derrida,
18Derrida,

19Derrida,

2Derrida,


lxv.


semination,


semination,


Dissemination,

Dissemination,


n. 2







Jame


Miller


"Henry


James


in Reality,


" Critical


Inquiry


(1976),


600.


Jame


Mill


eory


Fiction:


Henry


James


(Lincoln


Univ


Nebra


ress


, 197


24Henry
Fiction:


Jame


Henry


James


Futur


Nove


James


. Mill


. Theory


340.


25Ann J
(Cambridge:


efferson


Cambridge


fferson,


citing


Nouveau


Univ

Gid


Roman


ress


Poeti


Fiction


. 110


110.


fferson


cques


Derrida


ture


Play


course


Human


sciences


Writing


Diff


erence


trans


Alan


Bass


cago: Univ.


cago


ress


, 197


9Henry


James


"The


action


" in


Partial


Portraits


888;


York


Macmillan


, 1905)


3
(Evan


-uacque
ston:


Derrida


Northw


western


peecn
Univ.


Phenomena


tran


David


Allison


Press


1Roland
imes (C
turalis


Barthes,
ambridge:
t Poetics


"A Conv
Ganta.


(Ithaca:


ersation


with


Roland


Barthes


Jonathan


Come


Univ


Culler


. Press


Jame


Jame


to Walpole


James


Mill


s, pp.


, Jr


., Theory


action:


Henry


'James

4James


pivak


6ames


-'James

38james

39James

40James


The Art of the Novel

The Art of the Novel

p. lxxvii.

The Art of the Novel

The Art of the Novel

The Art of the Novel

The Art of the Novel

The Art of the Novel


, p.

, p.



, pp

, p.

, p.

, pp

, p.


114.


109-


64.

. 64


110.


-65.


60


. New


T








James,

44James,

45James,

46James,

47Derrida

48Derrida


49Derri


50Derri da
51Derrida


Derrida


The Art of the Novel

The Art of the Novel

The Art of the Novel

The Art of the Novel


Dissemination,

Dissemination,

Dissemination,


Dissem nation,

Dissemination,

Dissemination,


. 119.

. 119.


304


. 44.


James


54James

55James


56Derrida


The Art of the Novel

The Art of the Novel

The Art of the Novel


peech


, pp

, p.

, p.


Phenomena


57Paul
1971), pp.


Blindness


eight


(New


York:


Oxford


Univ


Press


chel


Josue


Harari


cault, "
(Ithaca:


'Wh


at is a
Cornell


In Author?"


Univ


mnT


Press


extual


, 1979)


Strategic
. 159.


59J
Georgia


Hillis


Mill


tevens


' Rock


Critic


as Cure


60James

61James


Miller,

Miller,


"Henry

"Henry


James

James


Reality

Reality


citing


" citing


James

James


594.

594.


James


Miller


"Henry


Jame


Reality,


" 595.


Jacques


Derrida,


"The


Parergon


" October


(1979),


64Derrida

65Derrida


, "The

, "The


Parergon,

Parergon,


121


23


147


II,








68Derrida,


"The


Parergon


" 34


James

James
71James


Jame


The Art of the Novel

The Art of the Novel

The Art of the Novel

The Art of the Novel


. 79.

. 340

. 340


tendhal


Rouge


et le


noir


361.


(Pari


Garnier-Flammarion


, 1964)


Jame


"The


Future


f th


Novel


" in


James


Miller,


Jr.,


Theory


errida


Fiction:

5Derrida


77
Derrida
78Deri da
79Derrida

80Derridand
^Roland


(New


York:


Henry


Jame


Dissemination

Dissemination


, Dissemination


314


Dissemination

Dissemination


Barthe


Hill


Wang


measure


f the


Text,


tran


Richard


Miller


, 1975)


81Alan
Chicago:


Bass
Univ


, Introd.
. of Chic


, W
:ago


ritin


Difference


Press


xiii


, by


acques


Derrida


'-xiv


John


ntric


chia,


Carlo


Rowe


After


, unpublished
New Criticism


manus


cript


(Chicago:


cited
Univ.


Frank


Chicago


Press


175.


Julia


steva


Semiotik


Rech


rches


pour une


semanalyse


(Pari


, 1969)


84Jame


Fiction:

85Henry


Carley
1966),


, "The
Henry


Jame


cited
Dawson


Future
James


Lssays
Georges
Elliott


Novel


. 341


London


Poulet,
Coleman


James


nd Elsewhere
Metamorphose


(Baltimore:


Mill


(New


John


, Theory


York


Circle


Hopkin


trans.


Press


I '15- La r1


F i r+"inn


86







88a
Jacques


pointure,


(1978)


, 1-44


errida


" tran


John


titution


Leavey


of Truth


Research


Size,


v'eri t'


Phenomenology


89
James
90
91James
91
James


James


The Art of Fiction,

The Art of Fiction,

The Art of Fiction,

The Art of Fiction,


. 55

. 48

. 85


9
Press


-eymour
, 1978),


Chatman


tory


course


(Ithaca:


Cornell


Univ


9John
Modern C


Carl os


onsc


Rowe
sness


, Henry
(Ithaca


Adams


enry


London


Jame


Corn


Univ


e Emergence of
. Press, 1976),


Culler


96Wo1 fgang


Hopkin


Univ


. Press


, The Implied Reader
, 1974). p. 278.


(Baltimore


London


John


enry


Jame


"Georg


Eliot


James


Miller


., Theory


tion:


Henry


James


, p.


99Wal ter


Language


Benn


chae


Note


, "Writers
(1976), 83


Reading:


James


Eliot,


" Modern


hael


847.


101Jae


Novel,


new Norton


Tuttl


eton


tneory o
English
for choo


Critical


exampi


r copy t
edition.


choosing
s notes


Engli


Edition


with


Tuttleton


edition


of Th


American


neral


York


present


as the


practice
Edition
s a pers


best


. by James W.
of Gregg's
but the first


uasive


available


case


copy


text.


103Henry
177.


James,


Ambassadors


, (New


York:


ribner's


, 1909)


J104ames
105.Thm


Novel


11-


Tho Art nf theo Nnaol


.


PP


100Fli


18ea







107James

108James

109James


The Art of the Novel

The Art of the Novel

The Art of the Novel













CHAPTER


DECONSTRUCTING


THREE


AMERICAN


"What


s the water


Fren


sir?"


eau,


" repl i


Nicholas


"Ah '."


"I t
that


thought


Lillyvi


, shaking


as muc


language-


think


-nothing


ead mournfully
anything of


at all.


Charl


Dickens


holas


Nicklebyl


From


beginning


critical


debate


American


seized


upon


issue


vrai


emblance


example


a review


public


Nation


, May


. Perry


complain


unbelievability


ewman


passion


Madame


Cintr6:


"Now


impossible


suppose


that


ewman


whole


heart


matter


SI


was the


one love


mothers


brother


Chri


stendom


would


been


no more


guard


Madame


Cintr


than


half


dozen


cobwebs


Another


reviewer


Catholic


World


, December


takes


James


to task


implau


ibility


Newman


proj


American


no matter


quickly


money


never


thinks


going


away


from


own country


wife


others


, mainly


French


ritic


faul ted


James


pres


entation


Bellegardes


their mili


as patently


unreal i


Even


when


reface


to t


York


Edition


of Th


ern can


James


explained


that


narrative


romance


" and


not a realistic


"novel


" critics


abandon


their


'II I








juxtaposing


analysis


the mores


an aristocrat c


French


society


with


comparative


manner essness


Ameri can


traveler


pecifical ly


come


a We


abroad


stern


businessman


to cultivate


aesthetic


amassed


interests


udden


it turn


fortune


out,


find


wife


Almost


invariably


those


asserted


narrative


credibility


deemed


success


an improbable


plot


ful,


those


gave


novel


thought


failing


their


marks.


credulity


similarly,


affronted


those


found


story


consonant


with


their


view


reality


found


to be


unified


which


curious


since


real


life


we d


experience


events


as organic


whole


those


found


text


unbelievable


faulted


lack


unity


That


vrai


emblance


unity


should


hand


hand


is not


surpr


rising


one assumes


that


primary


aim of


the

mold


nineteenth

that expe


-century


rlence


novel


into


faithfully


an aesthetically


sati


enting


flying


life,


organic


whole.


What


these


iveness


vers


that


assume


critic


language


undermines


that


efforts


language


neglect


that


toward


strictly


cons


constitute


"realism"


ider,


however,


text,


"unity


representative,


subversiveness


They


referential


function.


Whether


they


judge


text


a boom


or a bust


depends


on how willing


they


are to accommodate


various


discordant


element


narrative


order


to demon


state


esive,


comprehen


sive


unity


which


does


exis


except


as a product


reading


that


naturalize


text.


degree


which


these


critic


naturalize


text,


that


, bring


Pari








tead


reading


to naturalize


text,


however,


we may


actively


engage


text


as an example


criture


"writing.


I'


reading


a text


as ecriture,


we recognize


that,


as Roland


Barthes


remarks


"writing


still


remains


full


recolle


tion


previous


usage,


language


never


innocent:


words


have


a second


-order memory


which mysterious


persists


new meaning


These


second-


order meanings


stubborn


after


-images


resulting


from


earlier mode


writing,


superse


immediate


text.


Barthes


compare


activity


6cri ture


chemical


experiment:


"Any written


trace


precipitates,


as i


chemical


first


transparent,


innocent


neutral


mere


duration


gradual ly


reveal


suspension


a whole


past


increa


sing


sity


like


a cryptogram


y accepting


that


texts


are


function


ecriture,


we reject


notion


that


language


serves


representative


function


admit


that


language


ubver


sive:


that


second


-order meanings


will


revealed


suspen


ion.


reading


then


we abandon


our search


"meaning


since


is bound


undercut


other


forms


criture.


Jonathan


Culler


defines


activity


reading


required


ecriture:


zones


read


resistance


to participate


transparency


play


isolate


text,


forms


locate


determine


their


content


then


to treat


that


content


in turn


as a form with


own content


fol 1 ow


in s


hort


interplay


surface


envelope.


Barthes


first


defined


ecriture


n 1953,


since


then


Jacques


Derrida


altered


expanded


definition


so that


today


scrip-








linguistic


corruption


previous


usage


also


ssemination.


Writing


, asa


seminating


activity,


defined


Derrida


as "the


impossibility


chain


stop


dignified


ignifi


which


does


not restart


chain


as a


result


term


already


having


been


placed


a pos


ition


ignifying


ubstitution


Writing


, then,


instead


fixing


meaning ensures it


deferment.


an effect


ssemination


process,


as ecriture


American


hardly


innocent


although


traditional


thematic


paradigm


imply


as muc


Loose


threads


, snags


hole


exist


seams


calling


attention


fabrication


"real i


tic"


surface


pulled


apart


at the most


crucial


point


to reveal


underlying


layers


text.


These


uppl ementary


layers


in turn


reveal


their


lacunae.


moving


from one


layer


another


searching


origin


for meaning,


we get


somewhat


like


Newman


in the


convention


French


society


like


deferred,


i detracked


again


again


finally


real


that


meaning


, which


we expect


reside


origin


is unattainable


because


unreachable.


Originality


ulti


mate meaning


declared


void


both


in the


presentation


of The


Ameri can


as text


novel,


presentation

climactic pre


lost meaning.


recoverabl e


Newman


sentation


ast readers


at a fixed


largely mimetic


reading


origin,


of The


have


an assumption


American.


himself


murder


assumed

n that


text,


note,


palpable

colored


however,


metaphor


meaning

their


defies


such


an assumption


demon


states


itself


to be


neither


realistic,








intertextuality


in the


abymes


architecture,


in the


translation


language.


Although


assert


that


origins-


terms


both


origi nary


ites


original


idea


--are


sent


American, and that


sence


sets


motion


seminating


chain


ignification


those


early


criti


liked


novel


commended


novel ty


(Originality,


course,


along


with


vraisemblance


organic


unity,


another


standard


criter-


work


post-


Romanti


c logo


entric


criticisms.


example,


reviewer


n The


Galaxy


July


1877


wrote


"The


plot


'The


Ameri


great merit


originality


well


cons


tructed.


review


Literary


World,


also


July


1877


echoes


evaluation


American


is a


very modern


novel;


with


no flavor


past


prophecy


future


Twentieth-century


critic


note


James


debt


earlier


work


however,


they


have


maintained


their


nsistance


originality


text


on James


authority


scar


Cargill


instance,


cited


L'Etrangere


play


Al exandre


Dumas


, running


Theatre


Turgenev


Frangai s


novel


during


A Nest


James


s 1876


Gentlefolk,


Pari


as the


stay


1858


origin


James


product


Although


denie


novelty


imagery


subject


matter


, naming


racial


images


archetypal 1


pattern


cultural


fabl


permeating


text,


George


Knox


nonetheless


makes


Ameri can


out to


original


announces


romance


, an original


cultural


effort


parable,


Great American


novel


novel


source


tudi


, however,


while


assuming


arti


stic


creation


"The








scussions


influence


deriving


from,


among


others,


Harold


Bloom'


work


, have


proven


be more


feasible e


explanations


textual


evolu-


tion.


theories


have


that


literary


history


account


willful


reading.


"Influence,


as I


conceive


Bloom


comment


s. "


means


that


there


no texts


, but


only


relation


hips


between


text


Hilli


Miller


reiterates


Bloom


basic


idea


nullifying


Criti


cs' i


stence


on textual


i ntegri ty


literary


text


not a thing


itself


'organically


unified,


' but


relation


to other


texts


which


relations


their r


turn.


study


literature


is therefore


a study


intertextuality


concept


intertextuality


defi e


artificial


bound-


arie


establi


traditional


notions


source,


allusion


influence.


voiding


integrity


ting


upon


permeability,


inter-


textual ity,


fact


, render


source,


allusion,


influence


dead


since


they


seek


aS


varied


complex


intertextual


field


of The


American,


that


suggests


itself


as the


chief


feature


text. I

folklore


including

, myth,


artistic a

and maxims,


nd mus

the v


ical

ast


as well


intertextual


literary


field


intertexts,


ubverts


expectations


of The


American


originality.


Moreover,


intertext


reveal


spaces


fabric


into


which


meaning,


to the


absence


origin,


sseminated.


many


intertext


work


myriad


reveal


First


and most


imply,


insi


tently


naming


other


texts


thus


implicating


them


in the


text


production,


American


elf-con


ciou


announces








rambi


in the


Louvre


linguistic


intertexts


although


they


writ


specific


narratives


include


painting


Murillo


, Raphael,


Titian


, and


Veronese.


narrate


fiction


introdu


cing


underlying


layers


painted


meaning


which


surface


act like


Renai


preliminary


ssance


canvas


ketches


sometimes


lurking


ketch


precursor


altogether.


fini


case


work


in point


sometimes


second


different


sentence


subject


novel


ewman


studying


"Murillo


beautiful


moon


-borne


Madonna,


certainly


arti


elaborate


celebrated


figure


"The


Virgin


Immaculate


surrounded


Conception,


tens


" which


cherub


portrays


gazing


every


which


admiration


as wel


as in


private


thought.


Although


painting


provides


narrative


intertext,


relationship


text


of The


American


deferred


, offering


ilence


almost


even


before


novel


begins


Several


ical


intertexts


similarly


present


other


narratives


which


rmeate


American


no other


apparent


reason


than


to i


on i


tual


nature.


Offenbach


s light


operas,


pomme


Gazza


Ladra


are mentioned,


example


in connection


with


opera-loving


Lord


Deepmere'


Pari


always


went


to Ireland


thing,


came


to Pari


Offenbach


things


They


always


brought


them out


in Dublin,


could


wait"


Significantly


, though


, these


intertexts


are ignored


"natural i


ing"


critic


they


have


little


import


American.


instead


sounding


a reinforcing


note


, they


offer


only


i ence.


Pari








intertextual


warehouse


of The


American


well-stocked


with


example,


layer


as her


guidebook


meaning


name when


(like


Baedeker'


underlying


takes


hagiographie


Mademe


veil


Cintr6'


her mother


cover


choice


comment


these


of Veronica


that


would


rather


see her


daughter


as S


ster


Catherine


than


as Mrs.


Newman),


Books


Beauty,


feui iletons


Figaro


(not


to mention


innumerable


newspaper


accounts


narrated


byM


Nioche


effort


teach


Newman


French)


on logic,


, legend


a police


Newman


e-detective


perceived


s report


as a character


Debrett


in one)


Peerage.


a treati


Moreover


Newman


perigrination


resembi


an intertextual


tour


guide


covering


many


centuries


Engl i


literature:


watched


from


Richmond


deer
Hill:


in Windsor


Forest


whitebait


admired


Thames


brown-bread


butter


Greenwich,


cathedral


London


Madame


would
up.


trolled


Canterbury.
Tussaud's


heffiel d


should


and
to S


in the


He also visited
exhibition. One


then, thinking
heffield? (o.


the
day


hadow
Tower


thought


again,
95)


gave


Newman


s route


implicates


Pope,


reference


Windsor


Forest,


Thomson


reference


to Richmond


Hill


, Dryden,


reference


Greenwich


Chaucer


in the


reference


Canterbury,


hakespeare,


reference


Tower


London


. But


does


Newman


make


trip when


confe


sses


to reading


nothing


an occasional


newspaper


These


"all u


ions


are intertext


remarking


novel


as written,


created


from


mosaic


preceding


textual


citation


Other


intertexts


American


function


"-referentially


mises


en abyme,


representations


or quotations


text


within








small

with


image


ever


f the


smaller


same


hield


smaller


, and

hield


so, by


receding


implication,


toward


infinitum,


central


point.


Such


uences


, repeated


phrase


sentence


structures


are also


mises en abyme


as are


lines


successive


literary


influ-


ence


interpretation


an item


to qualify


as a mi


must


fulfill


several


requirements


must


first


have


points


analogy with


ontol ogically


speaking


text


as a whole,


embedded


(emboit


, secondly


in the


it must,


spati o-temporal


world d


text


existing


both


as an object


with n


as a


repre-


sentation


or mirror


Three


different


orts


narrative


i ntertexts,


painting,


opera


a fairy


tale,


serve


as a


mise en abyme


"the


tructural


revolt


fragment


narrative


against


overall


narrative


which


contain


revol t


lead


sel f-revel ati on


Jean


Ricardou


notes


soon


as the


narrative


contest


itself


immediately


presents


as narrative


And,


presenting


self


as narra-


tive


affirming


artifice


reali


sti c"


presence


fall


away


are revealed.


mise en abyme


occurs


in the


presentation


Paul


Veronese


s depiction


the marriage


feast


at Cana


which


open


Chapter


Two.


left


with
is b


yellow
ending


charmi n
Newman


perceived
man with


-hand
tres


corner


ses


forward


woman


detected


confined


picture i
a golden


listening,


dinner-
in the


party,
crowd,


that


hair


with


admired


votice


standing


s a


head


young


woman


-dress


smile


neighbour.
her, and


copyl


--a young


on end.


a bym e








the marriage


wife


splendid


as an obj


banquet,


collector


wifely


charm at


mania--all


a dinner


hese


take


party,


on full


form


as the


plot


unfolds,


" James


. Tuttleton


explains.


type


mise


en abyme


called


internal


intertextuality


reference


text


acti vi ty


implications


meaning


same,


despite


terminology:


meaning


ssed


abyme


folded


textuality


into


similar


text


textual


thus


fol d


deferred


reveal


blank


internal


space


inter-


scene


at the

Mozart


opera.


Several

Giovanni


criti

as the


have


program


commented

at which


on Jame


Valentin


s selection


is challenged


duel


that


eventually


prove


fatal


James


Tuttleton


remarks


conversations


serl


Juan


whose


obstructed


reversal
Elvira.


irony


that


among


parallel


novel,
pursuit


that


Urbain
Newman


Tuttleton


pri ncipal


among


which,
' Claire


as the


will


notes


above


about


character


all,


as Donna


man
the


results


opera


of the


Newman


Elvira


tone,


from


opera
Don


will


with
aken,


ironic
Donna


intertextual ity,


for we must


read


scene


between


Newman


Valenti n


through


fi ter


of Don


Giovanni


imilarly,


intertextuality


open


an abyme


text


of Newman


romance


with


Madame


Cintre


turn


suggesting


ultimate


deferral


their


relationship.


Madame


Cintr~


narrates


tory


beau-


tiful


Florabel la


who,


after


starving


six months,


is taken


lover


to the


Land


Pink


plum


cakes.


Madame


Cintr6


insists


on the


intertextuality


story when


tell


Newman








138)


some


critics


have


further


insisted


on the mise


en abyme


quality


embedded


narrative


identifying


Land


Pink


as Newman


s California.


addition


to remarking


as artifice


offering


mises


en abyme


intertextual


field


American


sents


model


metaphors


text


in the


images


tatuette,


fan,


chant.


st. "I


grotesque


little


statuette


ivory,


ixteenth


century


S a


gaunt


ascetic-


looking monk,


in a


tattered


gown


cowl,


kneeling


with


clasped


hand


pulling


a portentou


long


face


serves


as Newman


hedonism.


s response


was a


Reverend


wonderfully


Babcock


delicate


letter


piece


accusing


carving,


moment


, through


one o


rents


gown,


espied


capon


hung


round


monk


St" (


Tuttl eton


notes


that


James


"intends


us to


see a latent


meaning


gift


because


ques


tion


osed


immediately


following


Newman


intention


what


figure


ymbol i


mean


that


was going


to be


'high-


toned


no better


as the monk


than


looked


friar,


at first,


on a


that


inspection


feared


should


proved


have


succeed


done


textual


moment


verifi


Barthes


' contention


that


what


interest


most


is the


space


where


the folds separate.


Pleasure


not the most


eroti c


portion


a body where


garment


gape


5 In


senting


statuette


with


important


opening


offers


revealing


model


itself,


capon,


ubverts


ubverting


convention,


realism


text


originality








"What


figure


symbol i


"Was


going


'high-


toned


as the monk


looked


st?"


model


textual ity,


statuette


insi


that


are there


urges


reader


toward


reading


text


as a


voyeur


Another


objet


story with


similar


facility


open-


sing


serves


as another


textual


model


second


example,


Madame


Bellegarde opens in


scene


where


Newman


ugges


throwing


an engagement


party


depi


fete


champetre--a


lady


with


guitar


, singing,


group


dancers


round


a garlanded


Hermes"


171)


After


examining


Madame


Bellegarde


decides


again


allow-


Newman


to pre-empt


opportunity


to b


first


party


-giver


fan,


course


offered


Newman


scenario


fiction


within


fiction


reads


potentiality


text


family matriarch


as a narrative


would d


joyou


like


avert.


celebration


which


singing


lady with


guitar


Madame


Cintre,


dancers


Herme


science


commerce


patron


travelers--


center


f attention--i


Newman


himself.


vehicle


remarking


text


within


text


, the


offer


a mise


en abyme.


Moreover


both


as a


so the


serves


deferment


as a


device


which


they


insi


are s


upon


subject.


textuality


Derrida


commentary


on the movement


the Mallarmean


text


is apropos


here:


remark


doubt


know


esignate


under


(analogy,


that


name,


metaphor,


that


re-mark


empirical
ut then,


metonymy),


object
through
turns


itself:


one think
a tropic
toward all


twist
the




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