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The relationships between teacher morale, teacher perceived efficacy, and student achievement

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Title:
The relationships between teacher morale, teacher perceived efficacy, and student achievement
Creator:
Passe, Jeffrey
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
ix, 106 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Academic achievement ( jstor )
Language teachers ( jstor )
Mathematics ( jstor )
Mathematics teachers ( jstor )
Morality ( jstor )
Motivation ( jstor )
Self immolation ( jstor )
Students ( jstor )
Teacher morale ( jstor )
Teachers ( jstor )
Academic achievement ( lcsh )
Curriculum and Instruction thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Curriculum and Instruction -- UF
Teacher morale ( lcsh )
Teacher-student relationships ( lcsh )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1982.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 99-105.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jeffrey Passe.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
000334832 ( ALEPH )
09537511 ( OCLC )
ABW4475 ( NOTIS )

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THE


RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TEACHER
TEACHER PERCEIVED EFFICACY,
AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT


MORALE,


JEFFREY


PASSE


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO T
OF THE UNIVERSITY O0
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR


HE GRADUATE COUN
F FLORIDA
THE REQUIREMENTS
OF PHILOSOPHY


CIL










































Copyright


Jeffrey


1982


Passe



























For


my family,


my friends,


colleagues,


and


teachers


And


to Mindy,


who


all


those


things














ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


I would


like


thank


parents


for


all


they


have


done


for


me.


The


rest


family,


including


in-laws,


brothers


nieces


and


nephew, has


provided


a great


deal


love


and


support.


I'm


very


appreciative.


Special


thank


to Dr.


J.C.


Rawl


and


faculty


and


staff


at Idylwild


Elementary


School


educational


leadership


they


provided


me.


learned


from


the


best.


doctoral


committee


is composed


educational


giants.


can


achieve


just


a portion


what


they


done,


be a lucky


man


Dr. George


Schuncke


taught


among


other


things,


how


teach


elementary


students,


how


teach


college


students,


how


to be


a success


ful


grad-


uate


student,


and


how


to be


leader


education.


can


imagine


having


gone


through


experience


without


constant


guidance.


. William


pushing


Drummond


thinker


deserves


and


a great


deal


a researcher,


credit


beyond


sat-


isfactory


level


William


Hedges


iSa


teacher


extra-










chairman,


Gordon


Lawrence, has


served


me as a


teacher


every


sense


the


word


His


patient


guidance


evident


throughout


this


dissertation.


To him


owe


great


deal.


I'm


indebted,


general


, to


the


faculty


the


Uni


versity


Florida' s


College


Education.


Their


program


is outstanding.


A great


deal


thanks


goes


to Dr.


Steve


Olejnik


and


Alicia


Schmitt


teaching


so effectively


about


methods


educational


research.


Patricia


Ashton


s sharp


mind


and


excellent


suggestions


have


made


an enormous


difference


in my


work


A special


thank


-you


goes


the


gang


at General


Teacher


Education


all


their


love.


Finally,


owe


all


wife


Mindy.


Thi


our


dissertation.















TABLE


OF CONTENTS


Page


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


S a *


viii


ABSTRACT


CHAPTER


PROBLEM
Problem


OF THE


STUDY


Statement


Significance.
Definition of


Term


* a a *
* a a *
s a a *


Hypothe
Summary


ses


* *
* a *


REVIEW


OF THE


Theories


Moral


and


RESEARCH


Motivation
Productivity


* a a a a a 12
* a a a a a 12


Teac


Per


her


ceived


Morale


Effic


and
acy,


Productivity


Locus


Control,


and


Performance


Perce


ived


Effica


and


Satis


faction


DESIGN


AND


PROCEDURES


. 28


Subjects .
Instrumentation


Data
Data


Collection


Analy


SS


Assumptions


and


Limitation


RESULTS
Reports
Summary


Sa 36


Hypothes


Tests


-r nm n -m mi a n, a~ -rer, n mr't nI t


srrns







Page


Socio-Economic
Grade Level .
Demographic Cha
Conclusions .
Recommendations


Status


r


acteristics. .


APPENDIX


TEACHER
CACY,


MORALE, TEACHER PERCEIVED
AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT .


EFFI-
.


TEACHER MORALE,
ACHIEVEMENT .


TEACHER


AGE,


AND


STUDENT


TEACHER MORALE, TEACHER
STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT .


TEACHER
DENTS,


EXPERIENCE,


MORALE, PERCENT OF LOW-SES
AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT


TEACHER MORALE
GROUND, AND


TEACHER EDUCATIONAL
STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT .


AND


Sn)-


BACK-


TEACHER MORALE,
ACHIEVEMENT .


GRADE
. .


LEVEL,


AND


STUDENT


TEACHER MORALE, TEACHER MARITAL
AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT .


TEACHER MORALE, TEACHER VALUE
AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT .


TEACHER
TION,


STATUS,
. .


OF INCOME,


MORALE, TEACHER PROCESS-ORIENTA-
AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT .


TEACHER MORALE, TEACHER PROCESS-ORIENTA-
TION, TEACHER PERCEIVED EFFICACY, AND
STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT .


93


SURVEY


AND


COVER


LETTER


TO SUBJECTS


PROCESS-PRODUCT


QUESTIONNAIRE


96


REFERENCES


99















Abstract


ssertation


he University
Requirements


Presented


Florida


Degree


Graduate


Partial


of Doctor


Council


Fulfillment


Philo


sophy


RELATIONSHIPS


TEACHER
AND


BETWEEN


PERCEIVED


STUDENT


TEACHER
EFFICACY,


MORALE,


ACHIEVEMENT


Jeffrey

August,


Passe

1982


Chairman:


Gordon


Lawrence


Major


Department


Curriculum


and


Instruction


This


study


s task


was


to describe


stati


stical


rela-


tionships


which


exist


between


among


measures


teacher


moral


teacher


perceived


efficacy,


student


achievement.


an attempt


to identify


modifiers


relationship


tween


teacher


morale


student


achievement,


a number


variable

teacher


were


process


tested,


including


-orientation,


teacher


student


soci


perceived

o-economic


efficacy,

status


(SES),


grade-


level,


various


teacher


demographic


variables.


teacher


perceived


efficacy


had


been


proposed


Deci


as a necessary


condition


intrinsic


motivation.


Results


study


- -


indicated


that


tPilflhsr


nsrr0 li rvt










student


achievement,


but


not


across


all


aspects


achievement


or all


factors


moral


test


Deci


s theory,


variabi


teacher


process-


orientation


was


hypothesized


a moderator


relation-


ship


between


teacher


morale,


perceived


efficacy,


and


student


achievement.


Results


indicated


that


no significant


relation-


ships


exi


sted


between


these


variables.


However,


a modest


but


non-significant


interaction


within


the


area


intrinsic


sat-


isfaction


suggested


a possible


relationship


was


recom-


mended


that


any


conclusions


concerning


Deci'


theory


be post-


poned


until


further


research


done.














CHAPTER


PROBLEM


OF THE


STUDY


Problem


Statement


The


task


research


to describe


the


statisti


cal


relationships


which


exist


between


and


among


measures


cher


moral


teacher


perceived


efficacy,


and


student


achievement.


This


study


should


lead


increased


under


tand-


nature


teacher


motivation.


The


topic


vocational


motivation


has


been


studied


ex-


tensively


Since


1930


(Steers


Porter,


1979)


How-


ever,


much


the


theory


and


research


this


area


has


been


centered


the


industrial


sphere,


with


emphasis


on pay


primary


source


satisfaction


(Porter


Lawl


1968).


Recent


works


Staw


(1976)


and


Deci


1975)


called


for


a re-


examination


role


intrinsic


factors


in motivation,


which


they


felt


had


been


overlooked


that


point.


Their


argument


is especially


important


when


dealing


with


a profes-


slon


, such


teaching,


in which


the


strong


attraction


intrinsic


rewards


sets


it apart


from


other


less


-skilled


pro-


fessions


(Centers


Bugental,


1966)


Lortie


suggested


that











in willing


thought
fits.


service


to economic


and


to children


other


extrinsic


little
bene-


1969,


Arguments


over


relationship


between


morale


and


pro-


ductivity


have


yet


to be


settled


(Greene


Craft,


1979;


Or-


gan,


1976;


Vroom,


1964).


Much


the


debate


has


concentrated


identification


causal


factors


the


two


variables.


Recent


reviews


research


moral


e/productivity


have


concluded


that


other


variab 1


that


moderate


relationship


should


be studied


(Beckman,


Smith,


Slessinger,


1966


Greene


Craft,


1979;


Lawler,


1973)


Already,


research


been


done


using


such


moderating


variables


task


structure,


self-


esteem,


and


ability


(Lawler,


1973).


In his


seminal


work


subject,


Deci


(1975)


concep-


tualized


intrinsic


motivation


the


seeking


feelings


competence


and


self


-determination


In order


achieve


that


state,


they


Dece


can


theory


affect


their


that


people


environment.


must


Thus,


st believe


internal


that


locus


control


was


proposed


as a necessary


condition


intrinsic


motivation.


efficacy,


This


a more


study


specific


examines


form


whether


locus


teacher


control,


perceive


does


deed


play


such


a role.


Locus


control


a generalized


expectancy


rela-











teacher


will


have


both


a general


ideology


concerning


teach-


ers


' effects


on students


and


specific


beliefs


about


one


personal


ence


ability


teacher


to motivate


s behavior


students.


the


Together,


classroom.


they


was


influ-


hypoth-


esized


this


study


that


teachers' perceived


efficacy


will


moderate


relationship


between


their


morale


and


their


students


' achievement.


teacher


experiencing


success


the


classroom,


feeling


a sense


competence


and


self


-determination,


he/


should


also


feel


satisfaction.


Whether


the


success


comes


from


the


satis


faction


or the


satisfaction


from


suc-


cess


topic


much


debate.


Either


way,


however,


the


teacher


sense


efficacy


will


contribute


to both


satis-


faction


and


classroom


performance


an attempt


to satisfy


the


proponents


both


schools


thought,


reasoning


behind


the


hypotheses


will


pre-


sented


each


point


view.


First,


those


who


believe


that


performance


predicts


satisfaction


When


their


students


are


successful,


teacher


will


feel


more


satisfied


they


at-


tribute


student


achievement


their


teaching;


they


will


eel


ess


satisfied


they


attribute


success


to other


factor s


When


their


students


are


unsuccess


ful,


the


teach-


- ....2 11


C,,


.-t -t nn-ti -.t n


;FF


4-harT


nr'i4


rd~


nrrr~n


*n


rnl


~rd








competence


are


determined


an interaction


their


sense


efficacy


with


their


students


' achievement.


For


those


who


believe


that


satisfaction


predicts


per-


formance,


reasoning


follows


Sense


efficacy


been


shown


to correlate


with


effort


to attain


goals


helping


professions


(Seeman,


1963)


Teacher


effort


has


been


linked


with


student


achievement


(Blair,


1975).


Teacher


enthusiasm


has


also


been


correlated


with


student


achievement


(Rosenshine


Furst,


1973)


Thus


, satisfied


teachers


would


more


motivated


to work


harder


and


with


more


enthusiasm


only


they


believe


they


can


make


a difference


their


students


' achievement.


they


feel


less


efficacious,


their


effort


would


be reduced


and,


therefore,


so would


their


stu-


dents


' achievement.


Dissatisfied


teachers


would


ess


likely


to work


hard


and


enthusia


stically


Their


effective-


ness wo

because


U


Id be

they


even

would


lower


even


their

ess m


sense


motivated


efficacy


to put


was


forth


low

ef-


fort.


Dissatisfi


teachers


with


a high


sense


efficacy


would


put


forth


a somewhat


higher


level


effort


than


their


low-efficacy,


dissati


sfied


counterparts.


Thus


, their


stu-


dents


' achievement


scores


would


somewhat


higher


Efficacy


been


shown,


at separate


times,


to be


p05-


itively


correlated


with


both


productivity


and


sati


sfac-


tion


(Armor,


Conry-Osequera,


, Kin,


McDonnel,


Pascal,


Paul,


w











whether


a relationship


exists


between


and


other


fac-


tors


when


applie


teachers


In operationaliz


Deci


s theory,


a problem


was


en-


countered


definition


student


achievement.


For


most


researchers,


the


use


standardized


achievement


tests


accepted


as a satisfactory,


somewhat


flawed, measure-


ment


student


achievement.


However,


because


we are


deal


with


teacher


perceptions,


that


assumption


may


not


held.


The


relation


ship


between


teacher


' morale


and


their


students


' achievement


must


also


be moderated


teachers


' orientation


; that


whether


they


are


proc


ess-


oriented


or product


-oriented.


teachers


are


process


-oriented,


they


look


student


autonomy,


inquiry,


active


learning,


cre


activity,


and


positive


interaction


evidence


their


pupil'


achieve-


ment


then


student


achievement


tests


would


not


measure


kind


growth


which


the


teachers


are


looking.


Therefore,


achievement


tests


would


not


a gauge


growth


presumed


to be


most


related


those


teachers


morale.


teachers


are


product


-oriented,


they


tend


evaluate


student


growth


using


tests


and


other


measures


U S ----------





1 I


r


.I .


* 1










This


question


was


tested


this


study


using


teacher


scores


on a process/product


orientation


questionnaire


as a


moderating


variable


between


teacher


moral


and


student


achievement.


Figure


1 illustrates


the


expected


relation-


ships.


There


are


additional


teacher


characteristics


that


may


affect


the


relationship


between


teacher


morale


and


student


achievement.


There


are


a number


studi


relating


teacher


moral


suC


h variables


student


socio-economic


level


(Johnson,


1968) ,


experience


(Miskel,


1979;


Mitchell,


1974),


teachers


educational


(Holdaway,


background


1978;


(Miskel,


Huszczo,


1979;


1968) ,


land,


and


1968).


teacher


There


are


also


reports


correlations


between


locus


control


efficacy


and


experience


(Guskey,


1981;


Leming,


1981),


and


grade-


level


(Guskey,


1981).


Thi


study


also


investigated


whether


teachers


' marital


status


and


type


income


(primary


secondary


family),


addition


the


above


char-


acteris


tics


,are


moderating


variables.


Significance


Thi


study


meets


five


important


needs.


First,


pro-


vides


some


new


data


a non-industrial


perspective


the







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productivity.


Fourth,


it adds


to professional


understanding


relationship


between


teacher


characters


tics


and


stu-


dent


performance.


Finally,


offers


data


consideration


with


regard


in-service


needs


teachers.


Definition


Terms


Morale


seen


as a


g o
rom


feeling
ming f
tivity
tasks


satis


vidual


participants
a combination


or progress


organic


faction


needs


participant


and


total


toward
zation,


or the


through


the


role


in an organization


(a)
the
and


satis


erce


ived


achievement


stem-


produc-
of


perceived


faction


interaction


within


organization.


the


(Lon


work


sdale,


indi
the


group
1964,


. 165)


study,


moral


will


refer


scores


on the


Purdue


Teacher


Opinionaire.


Perceived


Efficacy


refers


"the


conviction


that


one


can


successfully


execute


behavior


required


to produce


[certain]


outcomes"


(Bandura,


1977,


193)


this


study,


will


seen


sum


scores


Rand


Corporation


questionnaire


( Berman,


McLaughlin,


Bass,


Parly


Zellman,


1977).


Student


Achievement


may


seen


attainment


desired


aims


set by


teachers


Though


there


are


varl










educational


organizations,


may


viewed


edu-


national


equivalent


industrial


productivity.


Process-Orientation


refers


the


belief


that


"learning


is an act


intelligent


inquiry,


not


merely


the


acquisition


and


possession


knowledge.


Acquiring


always


secondary


and


instrumental


inquiring"


(Brown,


1968,


46) .


teacher


with


such


an orientation


would


emphasize


student


autonomy,


inquiry,


creativity,


positive


interaction,


and


ac-


tive


earning


as primary


classroom


goals.


Product-Orientation


refers


belief


that


"learning


sum


impressions


made


the


mind


result


presentation


of material


to be known"


(Brown,


1968,


46) .


teacher


with


such


an orientation


would


em-


pha


mastery


subject


matter


as a primary


classroom


goal.


Hypotheses


teacher


perceived


efficacy


increases,


the


re-


lationship


between


teacher


morale


and


student


achievement


will


not


change


significantly.


teacher


age


Increases,


relationship


between


teacher


morale


and


student


achievement


will


not


change


sig-










percent


students


class


low


SOC10-


economic


level


increases,


relationship


between


teacher


morale


and


student


achievement


will


not


change


sig-


nificantly.


teacher


educational


background


increases


relationship


between


teacher


morale


and


student


achievement


will


not


change


significantly.


As grade


level


Increases


, the


relationship


between


cher


morale


and


student


achievement


will


not


change


sig-


nificantly.


teacher


marital


status


changes,


the


relation-


ship


between


teacher


morale


and


student


achievement


will


not


change


significantly.


teacher


s value


income


primary


. secondary


family)


changes,


relationship


between


teacher


mo-


and


student


achi


evement


will


not


change


significantly.


teacher


process


orientation


increases,


re-


lationship


between


teacher


morale


and


student


achievement


will


not


change


significantly.


teacher


process


orientation


increases


the


rela-


tionship


between


teacher


morale


, teacher


perc


eive


d efficacy,


and


student


achievement


will


not


change


significantly







II


The


been


papers


relationship


a controversial


have


between


topic


called


moral


and


close


presence


productivity


years.


moderating


Recent


variables


future


research


concerning


that


issue.


One


such


variable


teacher


efficacy


which


been


shown


to correlate


with


each


the


aforementioned


factors


In hi


work


on intrinsi


motivation,


Dec:


i th


eoriz


that


locus


of control


a neces-


sary


condition


feelings


self-determination


and


compe-


tence.


locus


Since


personal


control,


thi


effica

study


a more


investigates


specific

whether


form


teachers'


perceived


efficacy


influences


the


relationship


between


teacher


moral


and


achievement


their


students.


Be-


cause


morale


may


influenced


achievement


some


goals


and


not


others


, the


factor


teacher


process


orienta-


tion


also


tested


as a mod


rating


variable.


Additional


teacher


character


stics


are


investigated


their


role


moderating


major


relationships.


The


remainder


this


study


assumes


the


following


for-


mat


review


theory


and


research


related


above


problem


is presented


Chapter


The


design


and


proce-


dures


study


are


cribed


Chapter


III.


Chapter














CHAPTER


REVIEW


OF THE


RESEARCH


This


chapter


offers


a review


research


that


per-


tains


the


problem


study.


Five


sections


are


pre-


sented.


First,


theory


motivation


relating


teachers


are


described.


After


that


comes


a review


worker


moral


and


productivity


research


followed


a review


teacher


moral


and


productivity


research.


Then,


two


specific


areas


teacher


research


are


examined


Teacher


perceived


effi


cacy,


locus


control,


and


performance;


and


teacher


per-


ceived


efficacy


and


satisfaction.


Theories


Motivation


A comprehensive,


unifying


theory


motivation


does


not


exist.


There


are


two


ma or


model


, though,


that


shed


light


issue


teacher


morale,


perceived


efficacy,


and


pro-


ductivity:


The


Motivation


-Hygiene


Theory


and


Expectancy


Theory.


Deci


theory


intrinsic


motivation


derived


from


those


models


1975).


In his


Motivation-Hygiene


Theory,


Herzberg


(1966)











upper


levels


Maslow'


hierarchy


needs


(1954)


are


said


to satisfy


individuals


' needs


self-actualization


their


work.


They


can


viewed


intrinsic


rewards


such


achievement


and


recognition.


These


motivators


would


contrib-


ute


to employee


satisfaction,


but


the


lack


them


would


not


necessarily


result


dissati


faction.


The


hygiene


factors


are


extrinsic


rewards.


They


con-


form


to Maslow


lower-order


needs,


such


safety


and


be-


longingness.


Such


factors


as pay


and


supervisory


interac-


tions


contribute


to worker


satisfaction,


but


don't


affect


worker


satisfaction.


Herzberg'


theory


has


been


criticized


for


reliance


on one


particular


test.


seems


that


only


studies


that


validated


Motivation-Hygiene


Theory


relied


on Herzberg


interview


process.


Other


measures


did


not


usually


confirm


theory


(Gurin


et al.,


1960;


Walker


& Guest,


1952).


Other


criticisms


include


a lack


objectivity


rating


re-


sponses,


lack


reliability


data,


and


problems


with


opera-


tional


definitions


(House


Wigdor,


1967) .


Also,


trying


use


theory


to explain


worker


motivation,


one


struck


lack


data


connection


between


intrin-


rewards


and


performance


(Friedlander,


1963).


Exnectancv


Theory


- we -


only


mai or


model


motivation


.


_











Outcome


times


value


that


placed


the


projected


out-


homess

'ill


Expectancy


lead


includes


increased


belief


performance


that


(E+P) ,


increased


and


that


effort


increased


performance


will


lead


a given


outcome


(PO) .


Effort


combines


with


ability


to produce


a certain


level


performance.


As a result


that


performance,


indi


vidual

rewards


attains

, both


various

intrinsic


outcomes.


and


Among


extrinsic,


those


and


outcomes


feelings


are

sat-


isfaction.


The


receipt


outcomes


will


then


feed


back


influ-


ence


perception


expectancy.


the


results


are


more


less


than


expected,


the


individual


s behavior


will


change


accordingly.


rewards


and


satis


faction


are


more


less


than


expected,


the


per


ceived


value


the


reward


will


also


tween


be adjusted.


performance


Thus,


and


hypothesis


satisfaction


zed relationship


is a circular


be-


one.


The


validity


this


model


has


been


tested


dozens


times


, with


almost


constant


support


predictions


(Mitchell,


1974).


However


, problems


in measuring


all


variable


once


prevent


general


acceptance


the-


ory


validity


(Nadler


Lawler


, 1977).


A simplified


model


shown


Figure




























AL,


tz~ I


'9 --2


r











and


self-determination


that


such


actions


bring.


too,


theorized


a circular


relationship


between


satisfaction


and


performance.


In using


refined


forms


Herzberg


s motivators


and


hy-


giene


factors,


Deci


departed


from


previous


expectancy


theo-


rules.


recognized


a distinction


between


intrinsic


and


ex-


trinsic


outcomes.


Citing


previous


work


Irwin


(1971),


Deci


reasoned


that


with


an extrinsic


motivation


mod


(such


one


above),


satisfaction


follows


rece


ipt


re-


ward.


But,


with


intrinsic


motivation,


satis


faction


the


reward;


terms


are


synonymous.


Going


a step


beyond


"expectancy"


earlier


motiva-


tion


models,


Deci


proposed


the


inclusion


Rotter


"locus


control"


as a necessary


condition


intrinsic


motiva-


tion.


People


mus t


believe


that


they


can


affect


their


envi-


ronment


they


are


to get


feelings


competence


that


come


from


conquering


challenges.


Morale


and


Productivity


The


issue


relationship


between


worker


morale


and


productivity


tions"


goes


movement


back


began


1930


in industry.


s when


Mayo


(1933) ,


"human


rela-


citing











raising


then


worker


morale


enhanced.


The


hope


assumption


that


was,


performance


clearly,


would


that


sati


faction


influenced


performance.


wasn


relationship


t until


were


1950


collected


that


and


empirical


compared.


data


landmark


that


re-


view


Brayfield


and


Crockett


(1955)


found


only


two


studies


(out


that


reached


even


a low


statistical


significance.


A later


review


Vroom


(1964)


determined


that


the


median


correlation


between


sati


sfaction


and


performance


among


studies


was


.14.


Vroom


were


noted,


positive.


however,


This


that


confirmed


the


a previous


correlations


observation


Herzberg


(1959)


that


a consistently


positive


(though


fre-


quently


insignificant)


relationship


existed.


The


new


theory


that


evolved


predicted


satisfaction


the


result,


rather


than


cause


performance


(Porter


Lawler,


1968).


Siegel


and


Bowen


(1971)


found


support


the


Porter-


Lawler


theory


with


use


a cross-lagged


statistical


model.


Using


a sample


non-teachers,


satisfaction


was


shown


to follow


performance.


Wanous


(1974)


offered


partial


support


for


the


Porter-


Lawler
-_^ *1-_ I


theory


found


only


slight


positive


- I r i. 2 r -- -- -


relation-


1L..


a w -" -*I -


,., ~,,,,,,


,L,,,,.,










effect.


The


researcher


regarded


conclusions


tenta-


due


to major


limitations


in subj


ect


and


sample.


But


results


offer


a promising


direction


research


topic.


Sales


(1966)


a research


review,


also


looked


spe-


cific


aspects


sati


faction.


He reports


wide


support


relationship


between


satisfaction


with


one


superiors


and


productivity.


One


must


cautious


applying


these


findings


toward


teaching


since


none


the


studi


cited


above


reviewed


workers


helping


professions


Since


focus


the


human


relations


movement


was


on industrial


productivity,


teaching


and


other


people-


oriented


profe


sslons


were


over-


looked.


of reports


To build


a model


on industrial


worker


workers


may


motivation


result


on the


theory


basis


sus-


pect


generalizability.


With


study


ways


increase


morale


and


produc-


tivity

tempted


caine


a number


to explain


theori


relationships


motivation


that


in question.


But


when


caine


validation


model


, the


helping


profes-


sions w

rewards


ere


ignored.


weakened


Extensive


concentration


generalizability


those


on extrinsic

e theories


since,


those


helping


profe


ssions


, the


work


itself


--- ----


_--










professional


and


managerial)


were


significantly


more


moti-


vated


intrinsic


factors


than


unskilled


and


semi


-skilled


workers.


study


and


motivation


entrepreneurs


was


1960


finally


(McCelland,


applied


1961;


managers


Porter


Lawler,


1968).


Though


one


would


not


ordinarily


think


teachers


as belonging


to either


those


occupations,


there


are


striking


similariti


es.


McClelland


(1961)


and


Cummin


(1967)


each


defined


entrepreneurial


occupations


those


which


individual


more


responsibility


making


de-


cisions,


gathering


feedback,


taking


risks


. With


possible


exception


last


item,


the


teaching


profes-


sion


meets


their


criteria.


same


token,


teachers


may


considered


manager-


too.


They


fulfill


many


same


functions


their


counterparts

couraging pr


in industry


oductivity,


organizing,


evaluating,


etc


assigning


tasks,


teachers,


en-

entre-


preneurs,


and


managers


can


viewed


sharing


important


as-


pects


their


jobs,


would


possible


apply


current


theory


of motivation


teaching


profession.


1970


a new


position


was


added


the


debate


over


productivity


morale.


Cherrington,


Reitz,&


Scott


(1979)


success


fully


introduced


rewards


s a moderating


variable


Sa ak


r










were


cum,


discovered


1975) ,


task


self-esteem


structure


(Greenhaus


(Downey,


Badin,


Sheridan,


1974)


Slo-


, ability


Carlson,


1969),


values


(Locke


, 1970).


Thus


, although


arguments


over


issue


continue


Organ,


1976;


Steers


& Porter,


1979),


reasonable


consider


other


variables


relation


to morale


and


produc-


tivity.


Teacher


Moral


and


Productivity


The


story


teacher


morale


research


filled


with


unvalidated


assessment


devices,


collection


systems,


and


eval-


uation


techniques


(Blocker


Richardson,


1963;


Barr,


1948).


Because


tive


those


teacher


weakne


morale


sses


, a review


limited,


the


the


research


most


part,


rela-


the


past


decade.


Oddly


enough,


one


the


most


respected


studi


teacher


morale


was


one


the


first.


Hoppock


(1935)


found


that


satis


teachers


had


better


relationships


with


supe-


riors


and


less


evidence


emotional


maladj ustment.


findings


were


based


on self


-estimated


attitude


scal


that


teachers


completed.


He did


not


look


student


data


all.










good


teaching


(less


teacher


talk,


more


pupil-pupil


talk,


and


more


acceptance


student


ideas)


However


, they


did


not


examine


actual


student


gains


those


high-morale


teachers


' classrooms.


A study


Peck


(1977)


indicated


that


"teachers


with


highly


positive


attitude


(toward


teaching)


produced


a greater


Increase


student


self


-esteem


than


medium


low


teachers,


that


ordeI'


14).


Edeburn


and


Landy


(1974)


also


found


a significant


relationship


between


student


and


teacher


self-


concept.


The


issues


student


achievement


and


connec-


tion


between


self


-esteem


and


morale


were


not


dealt


with


either


study.


study


Cooper


(1976)


found


that


satisfaction


with


teaching


related


positively


to evaluations


effectiveness


those


teachers


' students


Cooper


did


not


consider


stu-


dent


achi


evement


though.


research


was


done


jun-


nior


college.


seems


reasonable


to hypothesize


that


teacher


morale


wou ld


an even


more


important


variable


elementary


school


eve


1 when


the


teacher


with


his/her


more


innocent


students


practically


entire


day


Curtis


(1979),


a longitudinal


study,


found


a signif-


icant


correlation


between


headmaster


ratings


teacher


abil


ity


and


teacher


satisfaction.


-J


Here


too,


student


data


--- --


- -











satisfaction,


instrumentality


(anticipation


reward),


and


performance


strong


correlation


secondary


.57)


school


between


teachers


They


instrumentality


and


found a

satis-


faction,


but


none


between


the


other


factors


However,


they


measured the

ings. Actual


teacher'

student


performance


performance,


their


the


principals


Curti


rat-


study,


was


only


assumed


admini


strators.


The


reliability


admini


strator


ratings


may


perhaps


influenced


the


teach-


ers


prior


titude,


and


reputations,


clerical


rapport


efficiency


with


The


faculty


job


and


staff,


satisfaction


meas-


ure


that


was


used


may


also


suspect


due


to its


unitary


na-


ture


and


brevity.


The


nature


the


secondary


school


may


confound


results


Teacher


influence


upon


stu-


dents


likely


to be


modifi


ed by


the


departmental


organiza-


tion


most


secondary


schools


The


concurrent


effects


other


teachers


students


and


the


other


students


teacher


may


tend


to affect


relationships.


Knoop


and


O'Reilly


(1978)


confined


their


study


to el


mentary


teachers


They


found


only


a moderate


relationship


between


satisfaction


measured


Job


Descriptive


Index,

teacher


a general

perceived


occupational

effectiveness


satisfaction

s. Their fi


instrument)


ndings


and


indicated


4-i-n4- a ,". '.-' a ,,,4-l~aneal rac n nFlar+-4iraYaT r


C k am a a 1 t ir a a


L~Lld~


c~t~,c


CrrIA~h~~


t.tl~ A


trld r~











teacher


performance


subjective


since


some


teachers


would


likely


to miscalculate


or misrepresent


their


effective-


ness.


Effectiveness


subjective


term


anyhow,


use


may


not


have


been


consistent


with


other


means


charac-


terizing


an investigation


career


stage


the


relation-


ship


between


satisfaction


and


performance


university


faculty,

relation


Stumpf

between


and


Rabinowitz


scores


the


(1981)


Job


found


Descriptive


a negative


Index


cor-


and


performance


index


(including


peer


rating


, publications,


salary,


etc.)


the


very


early


stage


a career.


There


were


no relationships


at other


stages.


The


value


their


study


research


is questionable


since


their


perfor-


mance


measure


quite


unlike


that


elementary


teachers.


intere


sting


as many


the


above


studies


may


can


seen


that


none


them


specifically


deal


with


unique


their


relationship


students


between


' achievement


elementary


The


topic


teacher


morale


teacher


and


morale/


productivity


remains


a virgin


researchers.


Perceived


Efficacy,


Locus


Control,


and


Performance


Locus


control


a construct


first


proposed


Rot-


1


--


--


V


Ir










based


on his/her


own


behavior.


opposite


external


con-


trol


view


that


outside


forces,


such


luck,


fate,


or powerful


others


determine


reinforcement.


In 1979,


Rotter


urged


researchers


use


situation-spe-


cific


measures


test


locus


control


more


accurately.


Rose


and


Medway


(1981) ,


in a criticism


the


use


locus


control


measures


educational


research,


pointed


out


that


Rotter


measure


such


"Internal-External


specific


expectancy


scale


was


those


never


designed


associated


with


class


room


teaching,


nor


was


scale


intended


to be


highly


predict


tive


classroom


process


variables


and


teaching


out-


comes.


Bandura

differences


study


(1977),


between


comparing


a study


self-efficacy


effects


snake


and


teacher


phobia,


locus


general


reported


control.


ideology


personal


control


beliefs


supports


Bandura


s di


stinction


be-


tween


was


locus

found


control


that


and


internal


efficacy

control


(Porter

teachers


& Cohen,


low-SE


1977).

S stu-


dents

nal c


higher


control


student


teachers


when


achievement

general id


gains


eology


than

was


did

taken


exter-


variable.


No relationships


were


found


personal


efficacy


beliefs.


Because


teaching


low-SES


students


probably


alters


teacher


s efficacy


beli


efs,


one


must


use


caution


in apply-











Research


that


studied


workers


in ho


spitals


and


reforma-


stories


(Seeman,


1963


Seeman


Evans,


whose


jobs


bear


some


similarities


with


teaching,


reports


that


internally-con-


trolled


individuals


show


more


initiative


their


goal


attain-


ment


efforts


than


externally


controlled


individuals


However,


neither


study


investigated


actual


effects


on clients.


re-


view


ternal


Keller,


exert


Kelly,


more


effort


Dodge


(1978)


to master


also


their


concluded


environments


that


than


external


However,


found


no clear


pattern


relation-


ships


between


locus


control


and


academic


performance.


Keller


did


note,


though,


that


highly


specific


achievement


stronger


relationships


with


locus


control.


When


cacy


is used


specific

to explain


variable


teacher


teacher


performance


perceived


the


effi


relation-


ship

the


have


Rand


been


study


quite


the


strong.


When


Angeles


first


School


conceptual


Preferre


d Reading


Program


(Armor


et al.,


1977)


teacher


efficacy


was


identified


as a major


factor


in improving


reading


performance


minority


students.


In a second


Rand


study


(Berman


et al.,


1977),


teacher


efficacy


was


cited


for


significant


fects


and


on organize


student


national


achievement.


change,


organize


However,


national


the


Berman


achievement,


study,


ma~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ mn a ~ am an 4-r -,Aa -si 1rTC


moa cur


Cr Cll~~n~


rnn 1~ Ir~r nmnn C


ellrTTP11


TIT 0:


nr


or










efficacy


and


student


performance


in secondary


schools


Teacher


general


efficacy


and


student


math


achievement


had


significant


relationship


but


was


smaller


(.71)


and


significant


reading


highly


language


achievement.


correlated


with


achievement,


Teacher


student


and


personal


language


negative


efficacy


achievement


.14)


was

(.83)


but

and


no relationship


a negative


was


found


relationship


with


was


math


found


achievement


for


reading


(.01)


achieve-


ment


.40)


Why


different


subjects


would


show


diverse


re-


lationship


and


why


different


types


efficacy


would


differ


among


subject


areas


was


cons


idered


quite


perplexing


researchers


(Soar


& Soar,


1982).


One


may


conclude,


from


preceding


review,


that


per-


ceived


efficacy


an important


variable


the


teacher


-stu-


dent


learning


process.


But,


exact


nature


that


rela-


tionship


still


very


unclear.


Perceived


Efficacy


and


Sati


faction


Sarason


isfaction


(1978),


comprised


there

many f


tical

actors


work,

, and


wrote,


one


"Job

the


sat-

most


important


the


sense


that


what


one


does


COUNTS"


But


Sarason'


premise


has


rarely


been


tested.











those


with


an internal


locus


control


were


more


satis-


field


with


their


work.


However,


research


reports


are


mixed


these


variables


(Kovenkliogu


Greenhaus,


1978)


only


study


that


focused


link


between


teacher


perceived


efficacy


and


satisfaction,


Ashton


and


Webb


(1982)


found


that


teacher


sense


efficacy


meas-


ured


Rand


questions)


generally


not


significantly


related


teacher


over-all


job


satisfaction.


Unfortunately,


they


used


a unitary


index


measure


test


job


satis


faction.


Van


Meaner


and


Katz


(1976)


note


that


measure


such


a com-


plex


phenomenon


through


the


use


of a simplified


broad


index


may


well


mask


more


than


reveal


s" (p.


214)


Their


view


has


been


supported


Bentley


and


Rempel


(1981).


remains


to be


seen


whether


a relationship


exists


be-


tween


teacher


perceived


efficacy


and


different


dimen-


sons


satisfaction.














CHAPTER


DESIGN


AND


PROCEDURES


Thi


chapter


describes


procedures


followed


test-


hypotheses.


The


study


s subjects,


instrumentation,


data


collection


procedures,


data


analy


SI


procedures


and


as-


sumptions


and


limitations


will


reported


Subjects


Sixty


non-teamed


teachers


grades


one


through


five


two


Florida


counties


originally


agreed


to participate


study.


The


subjects


were


acquired


in a variety


ways


Some


eagerly


volunteered,


some


were


persuaded


the


re-


searcher,


some


were


instructed


take


part


their


supe-


riors.


Due


voluntary


nature


educational


res


earch


under


principle


informed


consent,


random


participa-


tion


was


impos


sible.


Over


month


duration


the


proj


ect


, 21 of


subjects

illness,


The


dropped


and


out


failure


final


due


to reassignment


to respond


subjects


bear


some


duti


researcher


, leave,


inquiries.


similarities











Tabi


Comparison


Samples


This Study Florida Teachers

Median years of expe- 11 years 9.4 years
rlence

Percent with Bachelors 59% 61%
Degree

Percent with Degree 41% 39%
Higher than Bachelor's
Degree


Source


FEA/United,


1981.


Instrumentation


Morale


Much


confusion


over


teacher


moral


described


Chapter


was


ended


with


development


Purdue


Teacher


Opinionaire


Based


organizational


theory


worker


moral


(Lonsdale


, 1964),


a multi-dimensional


view


morale.


Thi


view


conforms


conclusive


re-


sults


overall


job

moral


satis


faction


index.


studi

ten


that


there


categories


are


is no reliable


Teacher


rar~~ort


with


principal,


Satisfaction


with


teaching,


w












support


of education,


School


facilities


and


services,


(10)


Community


pressures.


The


instrument


was


validated


against


peer


judgements


colleagues


and


was


shown


to significantly


differentiate


between


high,


medium,


and


low-morale


teachers


(Bentley


Rempel,


1963).


In other


studies


that


used


the


instrument,


was


shown


to discriminate


sharply


among


schools


and


among


individual


teachers


(Bentley


Rempel,


1963;


1975).


The


Purdue


Teacher


Opinionaire


has


been


referred


to by


some


re-


searchers


"established


measure


teacher


morale"


(Coughlan


Froeme,


1971;


Rayder


Body,


1976)


The


total


test-retest


reliability


was


.87.


The


inter-factor


median


correlation


was


.38,


with


a range


from


.61.


Perceived


Efficacy


Perceived


efficacy


scores


were


obtained


same


two-item


questionnaire


that


was


validated


in the


Rand


Cor-


portion


studi


(Armor


et al.,


1975;


Berman


et al.,


1976)


and


University


Florida


s Efficacy


studies


(Ashton


Webb,


1982)


Rand


questions,


which


measure


specific


teaching


efficacy


were


chosen


over


Rotter


(1966)


Internal-


External


Test


since


the


Rotter


test


only


measured


a general


r era 2~ -I -a .1- 1 a -


I q


r


__,r 1


r











Student


Achievement


Predicted


student


achievement


was


measured


calculat-


ing


regres


sion


gain


scores


students


whose


teachers


were


participating


Metropolitan


study


Achievement


Scores


Test


from


(County


the


and


April,


Science


1981


Research


Associates


test


(County


were


used


to predict


scores


the


April,


1982


exams.


Gain


scores


were


calculated


sub-


tracting


predicted


scores


from


actual


scores.


Scores


were


normalized


purpose


integrating


different


scores


Subtopi


to be


analyzed


were


total


reading,


total


math,


and


total


language


scores.


Teacher


Demographic


Data


A questionnaire


was


used


to gather


data


from


the


teach-


ers


concerning


age,


year


experience,


level


teacher


education,


value


teacher


income


(primary


or secondary),


grade


level,


and


socio-economic


status


students


(measured


percent


students


free


and


reduced


lunch


pro-


grams)


Teacher


Process


-Product


Orientation


A Teacher


developed


a


Process-Product


researcher


Orientation


purpose


instrument


was


was


gauge










The


test


developer


consulted


a cross-


section


teacher


educator


, curriculum


special


sts,


classroom


teach-


ers


and


advanced-level


education


students


their


percep-


tions


what


topics


such


test


would


include.


An informal


survey


teacher


philos


ophy


instru-


ments


was


undertaken


with


aim


finding


items


dealing


with


those


topics.


Forty


relevant


items


were


found.


They


were


re-


vised


fit


the


sample


elementary


school


teachers


The


items


were


submitted


a group


teacher


educators


for


their


suggestions


concerning


the


instrument


face


-validity


and


reliability.


Further


revis


ions


were


made


as a result


their


observations.


The


instrument


was


field-tested


on a sample


elementary


teachers


in one


the


counties


whose


teachers


participated


study.


An item


analy


sIs


30 of


the


responses


resulted


elimination


items


whose


correlations


were


or negative


or whose


variance


was


low.


test


internal-consis


tency


resulted


alpha


score


which


within


the


range


suggested


educational


measurement


authorities.


After


a period


two


months


, half


the


field











Data


Collection


The


Purdue


Teacher


Opinionaire


was


administered


all


subjects


April,


1981.


The


reason


early


adminis-


traction


date


was


because


repeated


testing


morale


over


long


period,


especially


including


two


different


groups


students


teachers


' classes,


would


ascertain


a more


general


sense


morale.


was


felt


that


single


ting


date


may


too


heavily


influenced


temporary


conditions


each


teacher


situation.


Further


admini


stations


all


instruments


took


place


November,


1981


and


April,


1982


At each


admini


station


a self


-addressed,


stamped


enve-


lope


was


sent


along


with


the


forms


to each


subject


that


they


may


send


their


information


directly


the


res


earcher.


Copi


the


forms


are


included


the


Appendix


this


study.


Student


data


were


gathered


from


Testing


Department


each


county


school


board.


Class


means


were


calculated


their


computer


services.


Data


Analy


Class


means


were


calculated


for


student


scores.


m ~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ *U -. ----- A4 %Tl


C--


4-,-. r.1nr


AAntc


i.


'I


n~ldr


ruA










third


and


fourth


variables,


respectively


All


scores


were


treated


as continuous.


A multiple


regression


analysis


was


performed


each


hypothesis


The


subprogram


GLM


General


Linear


Measure-


ment)


was


utilized


compare


regression


lines.


The


compu-


station


data


was


done


computer


analyst


Univer-


sity


Florida


Computing


Center.


Significant


interactions


indicated


relationships


that


were


altered


covariate


each


problem.


The


third-order


interaction,


testing


relationship


between


teacher


morale,


student


achievement,


teacher


proc-


ess


-orientation,


and


perceived


efficacy


was


analyzed


with


formula:


(Full


Model)


- R


- R


(Full


(Reduced


Model)


Model)


N-K-1


K-P


Full


Model


Bx,


5x2x3


Reduced


Model


81xl


83 x


Ho: 4,


Assumptions


and


Limitations


83X3


+ E


+ E


BQX1X3











is recognized


that


standardized


achievement


tests


only


measure


certain


aspects


student


performance.


Generalizability


across


other


measures


student


perfor-


mance


not


inferred.


It is


recognized


that


the


study


correlational.


cause


inferred.


It is recognized


that


thi


study


only


an ex-


ploratory


step


in validating


any


theories


motivation.


Exp


erimental


conditions


are


needed


to further


test


any


sig-


nificant


correlations.


recognized


that


non-randomized


acquis


tion


subjects


may


influence


any


results.


It i


assumed


that


any


second


and


third-order


teractions


are


linear


relationships.


It is recognized


that,


in a study


with


over


regression


tests,


some


relationships


may


appear


significant


chance.














CHAPTER I
RESULTS


this


chapter,


results


this


study


will


pre-


sented.


For


each


hypothesis


, a report


will


given


degree


support,


a list


and


scription


significant


teractions


will


be reported


, and


a chart


illustrating


each


significant


interaction


will


presented.


Reference


tables


Appendix,


reporting


the


actual


numerical


re-


suits,


will


included.


summary


the


results


will


con-


clude


chapter


Reports


Hypothesis


Tests


Hypothesis


teacher


perceived


efficacy


increases,


the


relation-


ship


between


teacher


morale


and


student


achievement


will


not


change


significantly.


A set


tion


regression


null


tests


hypothesis.


yielded


Figures


only


partial


through


illus


ec-


trate


interaction.


Appendix


A reports


actual


numerical


results.















15
10
5
-0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30


Less


Satisfaction


with


More


Status


Figure


Reading


Gain


erceived


Efficacy,


and


Satisfac-


tion


with


Status


20
10
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50


Less


More


Satisfaction


with


Community


Support


Figure


Math
with


Gain,


Perceived


Community


Efficacy,


and


Satisfaction


Support.

















10
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50


Hi fff -----

^^^^Lo Eff


Less


Satisfaction


More


with


Community


Support


Figure


Language


Gain,


Perceived


Efficacy,


and


Satisfac-


tion


with


Community


Support


Lo Eff


^:+
S


Less More


Satisfaction


with


Facilities


and


Services


Figure


Language


tion


with


Gain,


Perceived


Facilities


and


Efficacy,
Services.


and


Satisfac-


L4.,


~F*CC*C*U~-*YC


Tips)










reading


gain,


teacher


perceived


efficacy,


and


sat-


isfaction


with


teacher


status;


math


gain,


teacher


perceived


efficacy,


and


sati


faction


with


community


support;


and


language


gain,


teacher


perceived


efficacy,


and


sat-


faction


with


facilities


and


services


All


four


significant


interactions


followed


the


same


pat-


tern


Among


high


perceived


efficacy


teachers,


those


who


were


more


satisfied


had


higher


student


achievement


gains


than


those


who


were


less


satisfied.


Among


perceived


efficacy


teachers,


there


was


an opposite


trend


those


who


were


more


satisfied


had


lower


achievement


gains


than


those


teachers


who


were


less


sati


sfied.


These


results


may


only


considered


partial


rejection


the


null


hypothe


S1S


because


other


test


results


variable


pattern


the


were


insignificant.


interactions


suggest


However,

s that t


the


:hey


consis


may


tent

mean-


ingful.


Hypothesis


teacher


increases


, the


relation


ship


between


teacher


morale


and


student


achievement


will


not


change


sig-


nificantly











Hypothesis


teacher


experience


increases,


relationship


be-


tween


teacher


morale


and


student


achievement


will


not


change


significantly


A set


regression


tests


failed


reject


null


hy-


pothesis


numerical


results.


level.


Appendix


No significant


C reports


interactions


the


were


actual


found.


Hypothesis


percent


students


class


low


SOC10-


economic


status


(SES)


increases,


relationship


between


teacher


morale


and


student


achievement


will


not


change


sig-


nificantly.


A set


null


regression


hypothesis


tests


the


yielded


level.


seven


Appendix


rejections


E reports


actual


numerical


res


ults.


Seven


significant


interactions


were


found.


They


were


between:


math


gain,


class


, and


sati


faction


with


prin-


cipal


rapport;


math


gain,


ass


SES,


and


satisfaction


with


colle-


gial


rapport;


nin4-h


rrn i n


nA a a


afl~i- cfarin


oi -h


n11"r-


-t


~FIS


;In rl


I











math


gain,


class


SES,


and


satisfaction


with


facil-


ities


and


services;


math


gain,


class


SES,


and


satisfaction


with


commu-


nity


pressures;


and


language


gain,


class


SES,


and


satisfaction


with


teacher


load.


All


seven


significant


interactions


followed


the


same


pattern.


Among


teachers


high-SES


classes,


those


who


were


more


satisfied


had


higher


student


achievement


gains


than


those


who


were


ess


satisfied.


Among


teachers


low-SES


classes,


there


was


a reverse


trend:


those


who


were


more


sat-


isfied


had


lower


student


achievement


gains


than


those


who


were


ess


satisfied.


Figures


through


illustrate


the


above


interactions


These


results


may


only


considered


partial


rejection


the


null


hypothesis


because


other


test


results


for


this


variable


were


insignificant.


However,


the


consis


tent


pattern


the


interactions


and


strong


tendency


toward


math


gain


indicates


trend.


Hypothesis


teacher


educational


background


increases,


the


rela-


tionship


between


teacher


moral


and


student


achievement


will












20
15
10
5
-10
-15
-20
-15
-20


_Hi SES .--

^ ^ ^ LO SES


Less More


Satisfaction


with


Principal


Rapport


Figure


Math


Gain,


Class


SES,


and


Sati


sfaction


with


Principal


Rapport


fl-mv


Lo SES


Less


Sati


sfaction


with


Collegial


More


Rapport


Figure


Math


Gain,


Class


SES,


and


Sati


faction


with


Collegial


Rapport


















Ls~


- -


-----C-


---
-' ~


Less


More


Satisfaction


with


Curriculum


Issues


Figure


Math


Gain,


Class


SES,


and


Satisfaction


with


Cur-


riculum


10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-20


Issues


Hi


aES~-.


Lo SES
La SES


Less


More


Satisfaction


TTI- rfr ^^^-/^


with


Community


Support


$ =r f; cft n


rnm-


SES


_~U----~


wi th


inr3


r_3; n


~oe


eFC


M~Ck












Lo SES


-
- -


----KISS


Less


Satisfaction


with


More


Facilities


Figure


Math


Gain,


Class


SES,


and


Satisfaction


with


Fa-


cilities


and


Services


-aP


- -- r-


5
0
-5
-10
-15
-20


'b-u---


Less


''**^*4M _,- r- ^
^ H^S---^_ _--"'
OJ.J&7~~~~ -^^^^ ^^^


Hi^^E -^"' ^ ~~^~~^~ -- ^


More


Satisfaction


with


Community


Pressures


Figure


. Math


Gain,


Class


SES,


and


Satisfaction


with


Com-


munity


Pressures


^ -Hi SES

Lo SES


Less


Satisfaction


with


More


Teacher


Load


Figure


Language
Teacher


Gain,


Class


SES,


and


Satisfaction


with


Load


- --


__


i


,-p~


t~--











Hypothesi


As grade


level


increases,


relationship


between


teacher


moral


and


student


achievement


will


not


change


sig-


nificantly.


A set


regression


tests


yielded


six


rejections


the


null


hypothesis


level.


Appendix


G reports


the


actual


reports.


Figures


through


illustrate


the


inter-


actions


Six


significant


interactions


were


found.


They


were


be-


tween:


language


gain,


grade


level,


and


satisfaction


with


collegial


rapport;


language


gain,


grade


level,


and


satisfaction


with


community


support;


language


gain,


grade


level,


and


satisfaction


with


salary;


reading


gain,


grade


level,


and


satisfaction


with


teacher


load;


math


gain,


grade


level,


and


satisfaction


with


teacher


load;


and


math


gain,


grade


level,


and


satisfaction


with


com-


munity


pressures.









Gr. 2 Gr. 6
+-


Less


Sati


faction


with


Collegial


More


Rapport


Figure


Language
Collegial


Gain,


Grade


Level,


and


Satisfaction


with


Rapport


* .urY


r-

Less


Satisfaction


More


with


Community


Support


Figure


Language
Community


Gain,


Grade


Level,


and


Satisfaction


with


Support


- -~ ~


Gr. 6
^^- -


- -


- I


I













Gr. G --


iess More


Sati


sfaction


with


Teaching


Load


Figure


Reading
Teaching


Gain,
Load


Grade


Level,


and


Satisfaction


with


-
-
--


-I


Less


More


Satisfaction


with


Teaching


Load


Figure


. Math


Gain,


Grade


Level,


and


Satis


faction


with


Teaching


30
20
10
0
-10
-20
-30
-40


Less


Sati


Load


^- ~Gr. 6


'_^G. 1 .. --

.. -

r1


More


Pressures


faction


with


Community


Figure


. Math


Gain,


Grade


Level,


and


Satisfaction


with


*











grade


teachers


there


was


a reverse


trend:


those


who


were


more


sati


sfied


had


lower


achievement


gains


than


those


who


were


less


satisfied.


Figures


through


illustrate


the


above


interactions.


For


final


three


interactions


sted


above,


grade


level


were


reversed


from


the


first


three


interactions


Amon

had


upper


lower


isfied


grade


teachers


achievement


Among

had h


lower


higher


gains


grade


those

than


teachers


achievement


gains


who

those


were

who


those

than


more

were


who w

those


er

w


sati

less

e mo

ho w


sfied

satis-

re sat-

ere less


satis


fied.


Figures


through


illustrate


the


above


inter-


actions.


These


results


may


considered


partial


rejection


be-


cause


other


test results


for


this


variable


were


insignif-


icant.


However,


despite


the


conflicting


trends,


consis-


tent


pattern


interactions


suggest


a possible


relation-


ship,


which


discussed


next


chapter


Hypothesis


teacher


marital


status


changes


, the


relationship


be-


tween


teacher


morale


and


student


achievement


will


not


change


significantly.


A set


regression


tests


failed


to reject


null


hy-











Hypothesis


teachers


' value


income


changes


relationship


between


teacher


morale


and


student


achievement


will


not


change


significantly.


A set


regress


ion


tests


failed


to reject


the


null


hy-


pothe


S'S


the


leve i.


Appendix


I reports


the


actual


numerical


results.


No significant


interactions


were


found.


Hypothesis


teacher


process


orientation


increases,


the


relation-


ship


between


teacher


morale


and


student


achievement


will


not


change


significantly


A set


regression


tests


yie


Ided


only


partial


rejec-


tion


null


hypothesis


the


level


Figures


through


22 illustrate


interactions.


Appendix


J reports


actual


numerical


results.


Three


significant


interactions


were


found.


They


were


between:


language


gain,


process


orientation,


and


satisfac-


tion


with


teaching


language


gain,


process


orientation,


and


satisfac-


tion


with


salary;


and


- a a L. ..L -


~J.4 Cn-


,,d


r


I


I


I


If












30
20
10
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50


-'- Process-Oriented




-e n
"--

.^ ,, *

.^^Eodu~t'Or'ihentd ^-


Less More


Sati


faction


with


Teaching


Figure


Language


Gain,


Process-Orientation,


and


Satisfac-


tion


with


Teaching


Process


-Oriented


Less


Sati


Product-Oriented


0g"


sfaction


with


More


Salary


Figure


Language


Gain,


Process


-Orientation,


and


Satisfac-


tion


with


Salary


Product


-Ori


ented


- ProCeS ~- C


-r $n t p -*
ir-- -i^- eh ^^^^ ted- ,w -


Less


Sati


faction


More


with


Community


Support


a--nr on4-=, in


r_ in


-sf a fsan-


Ji*nl,~


bn~~: nrr


brnFca~


b: rrr~~n










teachers,


those


who were more


satisfied


with


teaching


had


higher


student


language


gains


than


those


who


were


ess


sat-


isfied


with


teaching


For


the


process


oriented


teachers


reverse


was


true,


but


to a greater


degree.


Those


who


were


more


sati


sfied


with


teaching


had


considerably


less


stu-


dent


language


gain


than


those


who


were


more


sati


sfied


with


teaching.


Figure


illustrates


the


above


interaction.


The


gain,

For r


second


process


process


interaction

orientation,


oriented


cited

and s


teachers,


t


above


ati

her


deal


faction

e was pr


with


with


language

salary.


actically


no dif-


ference


in language


gain


between


those


with


high


and


low


satisfactions


with


salary.


But


for


product


oriented


teach-


ers


, those


who


were


more


satisfied


with


salary


had


lower


stu-


dent


language


gains


than


those


who


were


less


satisfied


with


salary.


Figure


21 illustrates


the


above


interaction.


The


third


interaction


cit


ed above


deals


with


reading


gain,


process


orientation,


and


satisfaction


with


community


support.


process


oriented


teachers,


those


who


were


more


satis


ed with


community


support


had


slightly


higher


student


reading


gains


than


those


who


were


ess


satisfied


with


community


support.


For


product


oriented


teachers


reverse


was


true.


Those


who


were


more


satisfied


with


commu-


nitv s


uDDort


had


sliahtlv


lower


student


reading


gain


scores











These


results


may


only


considered


partial


section


null


hypothesis


because


other


test


results


variabi


were


insignificant.


Though


these


data


may


interesting,


they


offer


little


evidence


rejecting


the


null


hypothesis.


Hypothesis


teacher


process


orientation


increases,


the


relation-


ship


between


teacher


morale


, teacher


perce


ived


efficacy,


and


student


achievement


will


not


change


significantly.


A set

hypothesis


numerical


of regres

at the .


results.


sion


tests


level.


failed to disprove

Appendix K reports


No significant


interactions


the

the


were


null

actual


found.


Summary


Evidence


to disprove


null


hypothesis


was


found


for


four


ten


hypotheses.


The


four


areas


were


teacher


perceived


efficacy,


percent


low


socio


-economic


status


students,


grade


level,


and


teacher


process-orientation.


The


factor


with


strongest


credentials


as a moderat-


variable


was


student


SES,


which


had


seven


out


significant


interactions,


each


having


a similar


pattern.











interactions,


but


they


were


remarkably


similar.


Teacher


process-orientation


was


a weak


moderating


variable,


with


three


similar


interactions.


The


variables


teacher


, experience,


educational


background,

nificant in


marital


Lteraction


status,

s at all


and i

with


income


value


teacher


showed


morale


and


no sig-

student


achievement.


For


major


question


this


study,


whether


changes


teacher


process


orientation


alters


the


relationship


be-


tween


teacher


morale,


teacher


perceived


efficacy,


and


stu-


dent


achievement,


no evidence


was


found


to support















CHAPTER


INTERPRETATION,
AND RECOMM


IMPLICATIONS,


IENDATIONS


In thi


chapter,


the


results


the


study


are


inter-


preted


and


implications


are


scussed.


The


chapter


divided


into


eight


sections.


The


first


section


presents


summary


the


study.


The


second


section


examines


the


hy-


potheses


dealing


with


process


orientation.


Following


that


are


sections


dealing


with


perceived


efficacy,


student


SOC10-


economic


status


(SES) ,


grade


level,


and


presage


character-


istics


Each


those


sections


includes


interpretations


significant


icance


expect


interactions, ex

ed interactions,


plantationss


and


for


the


a summative


insignif-


discus


sion


that


section


findings


The


final


two


sections


pre


sent


conclusions


and


recommendations


Due


the


unexpected


na-


ture


and


complexity


results,


much


the


interpreta-


tion


and


discussion


will


have


a high


degree


speculation


within


parameters


data


and


beyond


them.


Summary


Study


- 1.---t an4C- S -- A r a4'%n. rc4 ~ +


~C~C; eC; I


dAnnr;l~n


~ I~~U CI1*


m


-I


LA


L


nn


D











Deci


s (1975)


proposition


self-efficacy


a necessary


condition


intrinsic


motivation


was


supported


empirl-


cal


data


taken


teachers.


Operationalization


the


proposition


demanded


the


de-


velopment


an instrument


measure


teacher


process-prod-


uct


orientation.


was


hypothe


sized


that


teachers


process


product-orientation


scores


would


indicate


whether


they


would


influenced


standardized


type


achievement


student


tests.


growth


measured


Process-orientation


was


veiwed


teacher


emphasis


on inquiry


rather


than


acquis


tion


knowledge.


Product-orientation


was


viewed


teacher


emphasis


on acquisition


knowledge


rather


than


quiry.


A review


research


related


teacher


morale


, per-


ceived


efficacy,


and


productivity


indicated


that


two


theo-


, the


Motivation-Hygiene


Theory


and


Expectancy


Theory,


are


particularly


relevant.


Deci'


Intrinsic


Motivation


Theory


is derived


from


those


models.


The


relationship


between


moral


and


productivity


has


been


debated


for


many


year


Recently,


idea


studying


moderating


variables


that


relations


hip


been


proposed.


In addition


to perceived


efficacy


and


process-product


orlen-


Lai a J .-~ a a~ l 9 ar r


atrnar an no


aiitr'm


nanS~ar


L~L: AY


3n6


i


L


I


nn










A non-random


sample


teachers


from


two


Florida


counties


was


obtained


a variety


methods


Each


teacher


completed


four


instruments


a perceived


efficiency


question-


naire


identical


the


Rand


Corporation


studi


' questions


(Armor


et al.,


1977;


Berman


et al.,


1977),


the


researcher's


Process-Product


Orientation


Questionnaire,


a demographic


data


questionnaire,


and


the


Purdue


Teacher


Opinionaire


(Bentley


Rempel,


1975).


The


Purdue


Teacher


Opinionaire


was


completed


three


times


over


a course


two


school


terms


each


subject


That


provision


allowed


a more


general


sense


morale


than


would


provided


a single


test


date.


That


100-


item


in-


strument


was


divided


into


ten


morale


factor


Sati


faction


with


teacher


principal


load,


rapport,

curriculum


teaching,

issues,


collegial

status, co


rapport,


mmuni ty


salary,


support,


facilities


and


services


,and


community


pressures


The


data


were


analyzed


using


the


SAS


subprogram


GLM


(General


Linear


Measurement)


University


Flor-


Computing


Center.


For


each


second


-order


interaction,


interaction


statement


was


examined


significance


level.


For


third


order


interaction,


differ-


ences


between


full


model


(with


interactions)


and


reduced


model


(without


interactions)


were


tested


----


w --


w











perceived


efficacy,


percent


-SES


status


students,


grade


level,


and


teacher


process-


orientation.


The


variables


teacher


age,


experience,


educational


background


, marital


status

at all


and

with


income v

teacher


alue


showed


morale


and


no significant


student


interactions


achievement.


No evidence


was


found


to reject


the


major


hypothesis


the


study.


Teacher


process-orientation


was


not: a


modify-


variable


relationship


between


teacher


morale


teacher


perceived


efficacy,


and


student


achievement.


Process


Significant


-Orientation


Interactions


As discussed


Chapter


there


were


three


signif-


icant,


though


dissimilar


interactions


for


the


variable,


pro-


cess


-orientation.


Figures


illustrate


those


interac-


tions.


Figure


shows


important


difference


between


process-


oriented


and


product-orie


nted


teachers


relation


their


morale


and


their


students


' language


gain.


The


product-ori


ented


teachers


' satisfaction


with


teaching


was


high


when


their


students


' achievement


was


high.


This


finding


line


with


general


worker


expectancy


theory.


Being


product-










The n

satisfi


negative


process


student


achievement gains


-oriented


teachers


for


offers


classes


evidence


for


validation


res


archer


s process


-product


instrument.


process


-oriented


educator


who


enjoys


teaching


would


ex-


pected


to promote


student


gain


in areas


addition


those


measured


standardized


achievement


tests.


That


process


emphasis


may


serve


to flatten


the


slope


those


teachers


achievement


gains.


This


would


especially


true


language


arts


area.


A process-oriented


language


teacher


would


expected


spend


more


classroom


time


on such


language


operations


creative


writing,


oral


express ion,


and


vocabulary


develop-


ment


than


a product


-oriented


teacher


The


latter


would


prob-


ably


emphasize


operations


like


spelling,


punctuation,


and


grammar


Thus,


it could


hypothesis


zed


that


the


process-


oriented


teacher


who


sati


sfied


with


teaching


will


have


students


making


achievement


gains


in process


-type


areas,


which


are


not


measured


standardized


tests.


It is


interesting


to note


that


dissatisfie


pro-


cess


-oriented


teachers


had


such


large


achievement


gains


That


finding


may


indicate


that


these


teachers


can


effec-


tively


teach


product-oriented


curriculum


that


is cur-


rentlv


in voque,


but


price


the


loss of


their


intrin-


cc--











Figure


shows


another


important


difference


between


process-


and


product-oriented


teachers


related


to language


gain


and


satisfaction


with


salary.


The


product


-oriented


teachers


who


felt


more


satisfied


with


their


salaries


had


students


achievement


declines.


Since


they


are


possibly


more


extrinsically-motivated


than


process


-oriented


teachers


, they


would


likely


to view


salary


as a reward.


Thus,


prod-


uct-oriented


teachers


probably


felt


undeserving


a better


salary


unless


their


students


showed


some


achievement


gains.


There


was


little


change


relationship


between


salary,


satisfaction


and


achievement


in process


-oriented


teachers.


connect


It is


their


likely


students


that


' growth


process

h with


-oriented


their


teachers


salary


don


entitle-


ments.


may


that


they


feel


the


same


their


prod-


uct-oriented


counterparts,


but


the


standardized


tests


don


represent


kind


growth


they


value


most.


Perhaps


test


student


process


growth


would


yield


different


results.


Figure


shows


a very


slight,


barely


significant


(PR>


.0499)


difference


in relationship


between


process-


and


product


-oriented


achievement


port


gains


product


teachers


when


-oriented


Once


sati


teachers


again,


faction


there


with


is high.


are


poor


community


One


may


sup-


inter-


-- -U .- 1 -A- C *- .3..-- p 0 r l 0 m mii iie -Th fl


LkA


nr att; ru 1 c 1 ~rlmLln L


t-%. -


l


I-- .. A


a


LL-


L











The


opposite


trend


ocess


-oriented


teachers


may


also


related


salary


issue.


Perhaps


they


don


re-


late


community


support


to student


achievement


or the


gains


shown


their


the


standard


perceptions


their


achievement


students


tests


' actual


don


match


process-


type


gains.


Expected


Interactions


Not


Shown


the


Findings


One


would


expect


direct


relationships


between


teacher


proc

with


ess


-orientation,


teaching,


sati


faction


salary,


with


student

and c


teaching


achievement,


curriculum


factor


and


issues.


was


satis

The


expected


faction


nature


to relate


process


-oriented


teachers


' preference


for


intrinsic


growth.


Similarly,


the


satisfaction


with


salary


factor


was


expected


to relate


product-oriented


teachers


' pref-


erences


measurable


outputs


and


rewards


The


study


s res


ults


confirmed


those


expectations,


but


only


area


language


gains.


There


are


two


related


explanations


that


may


account


that


finding.


may


argued


that


language


arts


most


process


-oriented


basic


skill


Though


specific


language


skills


are


tested


standardized


achievement


tests


the


essential


na-


ture


communication


does


not


lend


itself


well


to multiple-










language


arts


teaching


effective


communication,


which


also


includes


creativity,


logic,


and


personal


expression.


Measurement


these


skill


quite


subjective,


even


when


test


requires


the


student


to write,


which


most


achieve-


ment


tests


not.


Therefore,


the


differences


in process-


orientation


would


likely


to result


differences


language


arts


area


results.


Another

accountability


explanation


in math


may


and


that


reading


the


has


recent


influence


emphasis

d teacher


satisfaction.


With


advent


basal


teams


these


areas,


there


less


teacher


autonomy


than


formerly


All


teachers


this


study


are


required


use


the


basal


series


as prescribed


county


staff


The


opportunities


for


indi


vidual


teachers


to modify


the


curriculum


are


rare.


Crite-


rlon


and


mastery


tests


are


required


both


county


study


student


advancement


in reading


and


math.


Thi


phenomenon


has


yet


occur


language


arts


instruc-


tion.


Thus,


language


arts


where


differences


process-orientation


will


appear.


The


expected


relationship


that


was


not


confirmed


dealt


with


process


orientation,


achievement,


and


sati


faction


with


curriculum


issues.


Strong


but


insignificant


interactions


were


found


language


gain


(PR>


.1484)


and


math


gain


(PR>










well-defined


their


feelings


concerning


satisfaction


with


teaching


and


satisfaction


with


salary


Implications


Process-Orientation


as a Moderating


Variable


In general,


teacher


process


-orientation


does


not


ap-


pear


to be


teacher


a strong


morale


and


moderator

student ac


the


hievement.


.lationship

However,


between

in se-


elected


areas,


isfaction


with


it does

salary,


play

with


a rol


Where


teaching,


and


expected,


with


sat-


curriculum


issues


either


significant


interactions


or positive,


non-


significant


relationships


were


found.


The


results


indicate


that,


within


those


areas,


there


are


important


differences


between


process-


and


product-


oriented


dent


teachers


achievement.


that

One


affect

cannot


both t

assume


teacher

that


morale


all


and


teachers


stu-

are


motivated


same


things.


For


instance


, merit


pay


based


on achievement


gains


may


assuage


dissatisfaction


prod-


uct-oriented


teachers,


but


not


appear


to be


relevant


satisfaction


process-oriented


teachers.


Another


place


where


accommodations


might


made


in curriculum


revi


sion.


The


relationship


with


language


arts


gain


may


dicate


that


the


types


teachers


react


differently


restrictions


on classroom


autonomy.


Further


study


is needed










Perceived


Significant


Efficacy


Interactions


As presented


Chapter


there


were


four


similar


significant


interactions


for


thi


variable.


Figure


states


general


tendency


the


relationship.


The


slope


for


high


efficacy


conforms


to Deci


theory,


as outlined


earlier


High-e


fficacy


teachers


who


see


their


students


achieving


will


eel


more


satisfied,


probably


be-


cause


they


attribute


changes


their


teaching


effec-


tiveness.


the


interactions


for


this


variable,


perceived


efficacy


was


shown


to be


a contributing


influence


teacher


satisfaction.


Also


conforming


theory,


the


high-


efficacy


teachers


with


low-


student


achievement


felt


less


satisfied.


Though


Deci


interpretation


expectancy


theory


was


not


intended


to explain


low-efficacy


teachers


sati


sfaction,


can


useful


explaining


the


slope


for


low-efficacy


teachers


on Figure


For


those


teachers,


when


their


stu-


dents


gain


scores


were


low,


their


satisfaction


was


high.


Thus,


their


student


' poor


achievement


confirmed


their


view


teachers


ineffectual.


From


their


perspective,


teach-


ers


not


deserve


sati


factory


community


support,


high



















o Efficacy


Efficacy~
j~ -L Lca~


-


Less


Sati


sfaction


More


Figure


. An


Illu


station


General


Relationship


Be-


tween


Teacher


Morale,


Student


Achievement,


and


Teacher


Perceived


Efficacy










It is


more


difficult


to explain


the


dissatisfied


low-


efficacy


teachers


whose


stude


achieved


high


gain


scores


They


appear


to be


very


effective


educators,


with


achi


eve-


ment


gains,


in some


cases


, greater


than


even


the


high


-effi


cacy


teachers


Though


these


teachers


not


believe


their


abilities


to promote


learning,


they


apparently


work


quite


hard


to provide


educational


programs


that


would


lead


to such


exceptional


gains.


that


the


case,


their


satisfaction

community su


makes


pport,


sense.

status,


They

and


would e

facility


expect


and


satisfactory


services


reward


their


hard


work.


Unlike


their


high


-efficacy,


high-achievement


counterparts,


they


cannot


accept


the


trinsic


upon


reward


community


their


students


rewards.


When


' gains,


those


they


rewards


are


are


reli


unsat-


isfactory,


result


is a dissati


field


but


high


-achieving,


low-efficacy


teacher.


Expected


Interactions


Not


Shown


the


Findings


It i


important


to note


the


fairly


secure


factors


teacher


morale


that


were


found


to be


significantly


related


teacher


perceived


efficacy


and


student


achievement.


Though


community


support,


teacher


status,


and


facilities


and


services


are


justifiable


aspects


teacher


morale,


one











Motivation


Theory


since


satisfaction


with


teaching


factor


most


intrinsically-oriented


the


morale


strument.

significant


Appendix


interaction


indicates

n between


a modest

language


(PR>.07)

gain, pe


but


non-


receivedd


ef-


ficacy,


that


and


satisfaction


above


interaction


with


teaching.


might


show


It is conceivable


significance


study


with


a larger


number


subjects.


It i


also


noteworthy


that


when


process


-orientation


was


added


model,


the


interaction


between


process


-ori-


entation,


perceived


efficacy,


language


achievement,


and


sat-


isfaction


with


teaching


was


evident,


though


marginally


non-


significant.


However,


no other


four


-way


model


showed


rela-


tionships


that


were


as potent.


Implications


Perceived


Efficacy


as a Moderating


Variable


Perceived


efficacy


appears


to be


a moderator


re-


lationship


between


teacher


moral


and


student


achievement.


However,


since


there


seem


to be


important


differences


tween


teachers


their


process


-orientations,


makes


sense


include


that


variable


model.


that


case


, there


no support


Deci


s hypothesis


Perceived


efficacy


doe s


not


change


relationship


between


teacher


morale


and


student


achievement


when


process


-orientation


considered.


-- ._..


w











to consider


studying


same


problem


with


a larger


sample


that


there


a significant


relationship


it would


found


more


easily.


The


results


this


small


study


are


tentative


propose


revising


Deci


theory.


Socio-Economic


Significant


Status


Interactions


As presented


icant


interactions


Chapter


there


variable,


were


SES.


seven


Figure


signif-


illus-


trates


general


tendency


those


relationships.


The


curve


for


teacher


of high-SES


classes


conforms


to expectancy


theory.


High-SES


students


are


expected


achieve.


When


teacher


see


gains,


they


feel


more


satisfied.


This


would


especially


true


mathematics


gain,


since


that


type


gain


is measured


so easily


The


teachers


who


did


not


see


achievement


felt


dissati


sfied,


since


their


efforts


were


falling


short


of expectations.


low-SES


are


a number


slope

plausib


appears


perplexing


explanations


However,


there


tendency


teachers


low-SES


classes


to be


dissatisfied


despite


their


students


' high


achievement


gains.


The


key


to understanding


interaction


the


trend



















SES


Less


More


Satisfaction


Figure


. An


Illu


Between


station
Teacher


General


Moral


Stud


ent


Relationship
Achievement,


and


Cla


ssroom


zLo











low-SES


students


will


find


math


easier


than


reading


and


lan-


guage


arts


With


an effective


teacher,


low-SES


students


can


achieve


gains


in math


that


rival


gains


high


-SES


students.


utes


The


that


sequential


phenomenon.


nature


many


math


cases,


instruction


students


contrib-


need


only


to correct


one


or two


basic


skills


before


they


begin


to comprehend


any


further


lessons.


Once


that


happens,


math


becomes


easy


them.


Examples


include


the


memorization


multiplication


facts


before


students


can


master


more


com-


plicated


multiplication


and


division


problems,


the


develop-


ment


a sys


temr


for


solving


word


problems


before


applying


those

value


skills

before


more


difficult


subtraction


with


problems,

regrouping


and

can


mastering


make


place-


sense.


However,


that


type


breakthrough


rarely


happen


language

Thus, te


arts


achers


and

who


reading,


are


which


promoting


are

math


more


comprehensive


achievement


among


their


low-SES


students


may


well


frustrated


when


similar


gains


not


appear


in other


subjects.


That


fru


station


may


express


sed


the


form


general


ssati


faction.


Another


explanation


uses


satis


faction


as an indicator


problem-recognition


ability


Generally,


teaching


low-


children


hard


work


. It


requires


different


techniques


than


igh-SES


instruction


(Medley,


1977)


Teachers


low-


T ----


.


II


v m











who


are


making


instructional


adjustments


their


low-SES


students


would


the


dissati


sfied


teachers


low


-SES


classes


that


show


the


highest


achievement


gains.


A related


explanation


that


the


teachers


whose


low-


students


achieved


high


gains


have


probably


worked


extra-


ordinarily


hard.


As a result,


they


may


dissatisfied


due


their


lack


recognition


and


reward.


They


feel


they


de-


serve


more


than


they


re getting


the


superior


achievement


they


promoted


their


classrooms.


Finally,


there


possibility


dissonance.


When


students


who


should


achieve


the


case


the


high


-SES


students


with


low


gains,


something


is wrong.


makes


the

sam


teacher u

e manner,


uncomfortable


when


and


teachers


probably

low-SES


dissatisfied.

students who


should


not


achieve


that


may


also


sturbing.


That


dissonance


whose


may


low-SES


account

classes


for

are


the


dissati


showing


high


faction

gains.


teachers


Qualitative


research


Webb


(personal


communication,


1982)


supports


that


explanation.


Expe c ted


Interactions


Not


Shown


Findings


Clas


room


SES


type


variable


that


should


fluence


all


aspects


teacher


moral


From


relations


don' t,


w











therefore,


not


surprising


see


seven


differ-


ent


interactions


this


variabi


However,


inter-


testing


to note


that


one


morale


factor


without


even


hint


an interaction


was


salary


satisfaction.


Apparently,


the


one'


students


does


not


influence


the


relation-


ship


between


salary


satisfaction


and


student


achievement.


Perhap


teachers


accept


salary


as a separate


problem,


unre-


lated


to classroom


situations.


Or el


, the


level


salary


satisfaction


cuts


across


all


types


assrooms.


More


study


is needed


to clarify


that


issue.


Implications


Classroom


as a Moderating


Variable


It is


clear


that


cla


ssroom


SES


moderates


the


relation-


ship


between


teacher


morale


and


math


achievement.


For


other


academic


areas,


connection


is more


tenuous.


The


findings


indicate


that


teacher


morale


and


student


achievement


have


a complicated


relationship.


Principals


and


superintendents


need


to consider


the


repercussions


as-


signing


teachers


to low-SES


classes


and


school


Though


high


math


achievement


may


result,


the


long


term


effect


such


assignments


may


strong


dissatisfaction


leading


to early


retirement


or burnout.


the


other


hand,


assigning


teachers


low-SES


asses


because


they


are


sat-


w


v











teachers


have


taught


low-SES


cla


sses


in the


past,


whether


consecutive


years


such


experience


a cumulative


fect,


and


how


effectively


teacher


with


differing


expert


ence


teaching


low


-SES


kids


their


jobs.


The


strong


role


as a moderating


variable


sug-


gets


morale


inclu


and


sion


student


four-way


achievement.


models


Those


investigating


variables


teacher


combined


with

cess


perceived

-orientatio


efficacy

n could


teacher


possibly


age,


eld


grade

some


leave l,

important


or pro-

t clues


under


standing


teacher


motivation.


There


is also


a pos-


sibility


that


the


results


for


the


variable,


SES,


may


school-wide,


rather


than


class


-wide.


Further


research


question


needed.


Grade


Significant


Level


Interactions


As described


Chapter


there


were


six


significant


interactions


this


variable.


Figures


and


illus-


trate


two


different


pattern s


that


were


found.


The


two


patterns


show


that


the


three


language


gain


interactions


, upper-grade


teachers


' sati


faction


was


high


when


their


students


had


achievement


gains.


Also,


teacher





































Less


More


Satisfaction


Figure


An Illus
Between


tration
Teacher


the


Morale


General


, Student


Relationship


Language


Gain,


and


Grade


Level




















20






0






-20


tGr. 6

,









/V9
-A'
Vt


Less More


Satisfaction


Figure


. An


Illustration


tween
Tains,


Teacher
and Gr


Morale,


ade


General
Student


Relationship


Reading


and


Math


-Level











lower-grade


teachers


there


an opposite


trend.


It is


lower-grade


teachers


who


are


less


-satisfied


that


have


high


language


gains


Knowledge


the


lower


-grade


curriculum


helps


to clarify


this


interaction.


Essentially,


language

academic


arts is a m

instruction


minor


deal


matter


with


in the

reading


lower grades

and math.


Most


Usually,


handwriting


instruction


comprises


the


major


part


the


lower


-grade


language


arts


curriculum.


It is


not


until


upper


-grades


that


language


arts


instruction


becomes


least


important


teachers


as reading


and


math


instruc-


tion.


master


Thi


basic


development


reading


is due


skill


before


the


need


grammar


for


and


students


punctuation


can


become


meaningful.


The


accountability


components


basal


reading


and


math


textbook


series


also


serve


to reduce


language


instruction


because


criterion


and


mastery


tests


are


not


used


with


language


arts


textbooks


Thus,


lower


-grade


teachers


, reading


and


math


are


all


-important.


Ther


before,


one


would


not


expect


language


gain


pro-


mote


sati


sfaction


lower


-grade


teachers


That


change


would


come


from


math


and


reading


gains.


may


even


that


lower


-grade


teachers


who


promote


language


gain


so at


the


expense


reading


and


math


gain.


The


resultant


lack


nI


.. -. ---------t -I Jtr, A 4Ia nIn 4o r


,,,~:A


in ~rJ


~.lh~~l


Cknn


..


L











teachers


in accordance


with


expectancy


theory


are


more


satis


field


when


their


students


grow


reading


and


math


areas


that


they


emphasis


ze.


For


upper


-grade


teachers,


there


an opposite


trend.


The


upper


-grade


teachers


with


the


highest


reading


and


math


achievement


are


the


least


satisfied.


Two


out


this


group


three


interactions


deal


with


the


factor


teacher


load;


other


with


community


pressure.


Apparently,


ssa


tisfaction


with


teacher


load


and


com-


munity


pre


assures


doe s


not


hurt


teaching


eff


ectiveness


upper-grade


teacher


There


may


a phenomena


similar


Her zberg


s Motivation-Hygiene


Theory


operating


here.


The


upper-grade


teachers


have


higher


gains


when


they're


pleased


their


positive


rewards


(collegial


rapport,


salary,


commu-


nity


support)


but


they


have


lower


gains


when


they're


dis-


pleased


negative


inconveniences


(teacher


load,


community


pressures)


The


differ


ences


between


the


two


levels


teach-


ers


suggest


totally


different


orientations


toward


goals


and


rewards.


Expected


Interactions


Not


Shown


the


Findings


As with


variable


, one


could


have


expected


teractions


between


any


combinations


variables


with











between


the


primary


and


intermediate


grad


es.


Once


there


were


only


minor


differences


in age,


maturity,


and


curricu-


between


third


and


fourth


grades.


Now


the


two


grades


are


two


different


worlds.


The


primary


program


abounds


with


PREP


aides,


regulations,


accountability,


reports,


confer-


ences


that


are


required,


and


other


standards


that


are


ab-


sent


intermediate


grades


Thi


study


only


suggests


some


contrast


between


level


more


comprehen-


sive


study


needed,


especially


Florida


Implications


Grade


Level


as a Moderating


Variable


As discussed


above,


grade-


level


does


play


a modifying


role


relationship


between


teacher


morale


and


student


achievement.


The


exact


nature


that


role


is difficult


establish


appears


that


subject


matter


influential,


essence


rewards


and


irritations.


School


principals


, in assigning


teac


hers


to specific


grade


levels


, need


to consider


factors


moral


as part


their


decision-making.


appears


that


some


grades


teachers


require


more


support


from


their


colleagues,


from


community,


and


from


salary


At other


grade


leve


teachers


are


more


concerned


with


time


constraints


(load)


community


pressures.


Principal


can


help a


alleviate


- L --










in grade-level


and


their


interactions


with


teacher


moral


and


student


achievement


is needed


clarify


this


issue


Demographic


Characters


tics


Significant


Interactions


As described


Chapter


the


variables


teacher


age,


experience,


national


marital


background


did


status


not


value


interact


income,


significantly


and edu-

with any


apsects


Expected


teacher


morale


Interactions


Not


and s


Shown


student


the


achievement.


Findings


The


was


tests


essentially


interactions


exploratory.


with


There


demographic


were


variables


no expectations


interactions


between


teacher


age


or experience


with


morale


and


student


achievement.


But,


presence


any


signif


icant


relationships


would


have


helped


understanding


teacher


motivation


Apparently,


we have


learned


that


the


or experience


teacher


does


not


affect


morale-


achievement


relationship.


examining


marital


status


and


value


teacher


income,


one


would


expect


interactions


between


those


variables,


stu-


dent


achievement,


and


satisfaction


with


salary.


was


an-











Surprisingly,


there


were


no relationships


between


those


vari-


ables.


any


classroom


differences


between


the


primary


secondary


family


wage


-earners


or between


single


and


mar-


tried


teachers


did


not


relate


their


satisfactions


with


salary.


Perhaps,


the


growth


dual


-income


families


com-


bined


with


United


States


' recent


economic


woes


has


re-


suited


level


salary


sati


faction


that


cut


across


fam-


situations


In examining


teacher


educational


background,


the


p0551


ability


an interaction


between


teachers


with


higher


de-


grees


, student


achievement,


and


satisfaction


with


either


the


principal


or curriculum


issues


was


considered.


None


those


relationships


were


found


to be


significant.


Apparently,


there


are


few


differences


between


two


groups


teachers


that


alter


relationship


between


teacher


morale


and


stu-


dent


achievement.


Whether


that


reflects


badly


quality


local


graduate


programs


is not


discernible


from


this


study


s data.


Further


study


is needed


to clarify


matter.


Implication


Demographi


Characteristic


as Modifying


Variables


There


graphic


is no evidence


characteristics


to support


as modifying


notion


variables


demo-


between


A- -- a s n ra r..A-q A -L ..


- -


I 4 nrana r


rv Cen 1 4


Crn-


r~k~C


,L


,,,, 1


u










relationship


between


teacher


morale


and


student


achieve-


ment


is rather


comol


ex.


remains


possible


that


a demo-


graphic


character


stic


may


combine


with


other


variables


influence


that


relationship,


despite


their


individual


non-


significance.


A larger


sample


would


facilitate


the


study


that


hypothesis


Conclusions


suggest


ted


Lawler


(1973) ,


the


relationship


between


morale


and


productivity


a complex


one.


In examining


morale


and


productivity


teachers


thi


study,


that


ob-


servation


becomes


obvious.


That


relation


ship


can


altered,


though


not


across


subject


areas


or sati


faction


factors.


Where


moderating


variables


interact


with


inde-


pendent


and


dependent


variab 1


, the


relationships


follow


specific


patterns


. With


the


moderator,


there


strong


tween


influence


teachers


on math


high


gain.


and


The di


low-SES


stinct


classes


differences


emphasis


be-


zes


need


school


admini


strators


take


individual


teachers


situations


into


consideration


when


making


class


ass


ignments


With


grade


level


moderator,


there


are


stinct


differences


between


upper


and


lower


grade


teachers


for


dif-











assignment


teachers


may


play


a crucial


role


both


teacher


morale


and


student


achievement.


Process-


and


product-orientation


appears


to play


a mod-


rating


role


relationship


between


teacher


morale


and


language


achievement.


is clear


that


all


teachers


are


not


same;


their


different


curricular


goals


and


rewards


influence


their


morale


and


their


students


' achievement.


Plans


improve


quality


curriculum


and


instruction


should


not


assume


a singular


teacher


reaction


and


effect.


Perceived


efficacy


did


not


modify


the


relationship


be-


tween


teacher


morale


and


student


achievement


when


consid-


eration


was


given


teacher


process


-orientation.


Thus,


Deci


theory


was


not


supported


the


study


s results.


However,


there


was


tendency


toward


a significant


relation-


ship


with


intrinsic


satisfaction


and


student


achievement.


It would


be wi


to postpone


any


conclusions


concerning


Deci


s proposed


relationship


until


further


research


done.


Recommendations


Further i

is needed


investigation


to strengthen


the

its


variable


findings


this


A larger


study

sample


may


also


provide


additional


power


uncover


some











Whethe r


satisfied


process


-oriented&


teachers


will


demonstrate


significant


gains


on a process-orn


ented


language


arts


test.


Why


sati


faction


with


salary


doesn


t moderate


student


Whether


achievement


classroom


process


autonomy


s-oriented


moderates


teachers.


relation-


ship


between


teacher


morale


and


student


achieve-


ment


Why


dissati


field,


low-effi


cacy


teachers


appear


effective


raising


achievement


scores.


Why

pear


dissatisfied


to be


teachers


effective


low-SES


in raising


classes


achievement


ap-

scores.


What


differing


effects


there


are


upon


teachers


and


students


when


teachers


low-SES


classes


have


been


teaching


that


type


class


varying


lengths


time.


Whether


teacher s


at different


grade


levels


are


mo-


tivated


differently


various


subject


areas


achievement


gains.


teachers


with


higher


degrees


differ


from


their


counterparts


with


bachelor


degrees.


School


improvement


projects


related


to curriculum


revi


- ~ ~ ~ 5 --i .--A14, -tb,*h i r


1:1,,1,,


kn


,,1


UACIU C~


..


tnnrn


rrn


p











Principals


fully


and


monitoring


superintendents


effects


could


teacher


benefit


morale


from


and


care-


stu-


dent


achievement


that


result


from


assigning


specific


teachers


low-SES


classrooms.


Principals


effects


could b

teacher


benefit

morale


from

and


carefully

student a


monitoring


achievement


the

that


result


from


varying


grade- level


assignments.


The


possibility


school-wide,


rather


than


class-wide;


results


modifying


effect


SES


should


vestigated.


variables


thi


study


should


combined


larger


study


to better


assess


their


collective


impact


teacher


morale


and


student


achievement.






























H

ACD









z
H
A H C) tO 0 N t 0 CO tO N
N en N 0 to o o en H
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ZS

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