An assessment of student affairs preparation programs in relation to professional competencies

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An assessment of student affairs preparation programs in relation to professional competencies
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Hyman, Randy E., 1952-
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Student affairs administrators -- Training of -- United States   ( lcsh )
Professional education -- United States   ( lcsh )
Competency-based education -- United States   ( lcsh )
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Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1983.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 151-162).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Randy E. Hyman.
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Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

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AN ASSESSMENT


OF STUDENT


AFFAIRS


PREPARATION


PROGRAMS


IN RELATION


PROFESSIONAL


RANDY


COMPETENCIES


HYMAN


A DISSERTATION


PRESENTED


TO THE


GRADUATE


COUNCIL


---~ ---


v


















Dad,


Richard


Hyman,


who first


said


to me


"Hitch


your


wagon


to a


star"


. and


to Jesus


Christ,


the star who


controlled


my wagon


provided


me with


the direction.














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


completion


doctoral


program


would


have


been


possible


were


for a few


wonderful


people


who


deserve


special


recognition


for their


roles.


To Dr.


San deen,


chairman


mentor,


offer


heartfelt


thanks.


His unending


patience,


support,


encouragement


provided


me with


motivation


which


enabled


me


make


dream


become


reality.


To the members of


committee,


Dr. James


Wattenbarger


Smith,


extend


sincere


thanks


time,


support,


suggestions


they


gave me


during


the course of


study.


Special


assistance


thanks


Jester


in the analysis


data


John


to Donna


Dixon


Ornowski


their


for her


work in


the typing


manuscript


final


drafts.


Sincere


notes


recognition


are extended


a couple


of special


colleagues.


Jack


Worley


express


my gratitude


always


being


there


when


needed


a listening


ear.


Grimm


express


appreciation


constant


support


consideration


throughout


doctoral


program.


Finally,


Robi,


would


son


give


, Drew


Their


very


love,


special


patience,


recognition


faith


wife


me were















TABLE OF CONTENTS



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS............ .. .. .. .. . i i


CHAPTER


I. DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY.......................


Introduction..


Purpose . ...
Questions for Investigation
Justification for the Study.
Conceptual Framework........
Assumptions. . ....
Limitations ................
Definitions.................
Overview of the Study.......


* 4 *t .
* 4


..4... .. S.....
* 4*

* . 40
..*. ..4* t ..
**..*.**.*....0.
*..*. ..*.........


II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.......................


Student Personnel as an Emerging
Profession..............................
Development of Student Personnel
Preparation Programs.....................
Chapter Summary............................


III. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY................


Research Objectives..............
Research Population...............
Development of the Instrument.....
Endorsement of the Study..........
Administration of the Instrument..
Treatment of the Data.............
Research Questions................
Chapter Summary...................


........
.....,..
..e.....

0.......
....0...
........*


IV. PRESENTATION OF THE DATA.......................


Demographic Profile of Respondents.
Data on Possession of Competencies.
Data on Importance of Competencies.
C'hantp -r irrrv .............. ..


.......
.......

.......


ABSTRACT.










SUMMARY


, CONCLUSION


, AND


FUTURE


CONSIDERATIONS..


A Summary
Findings.


Con c


Impl i
for


lusions


the Deve


....


cat ions
Further


* *4*
..O..
0.....
* Cons
Cons


lopment of
.e.o..o...

iderations


Study


Study


APPENDIX


RESEARCH


INSTRUMENT


FOR


FACULTY.....


RESEARCH


AND


INSTRUMENT


CHIEF


FOR


STUDENT


DIRECTORS


AFFAIRS


OF HOUSING


OFFICERS..


LETTER


OF ENDORSEMENT


FROM


VICE


PRESIDENT


STUDENT


AFFAIRS.


LETTER


OF ENDORSEMENT


FROM


RESEARCH


AND


INFOR-


NATION


COMMITTEE


FOLLOW-UP


POST


CARD 00**S*** S SOt*


TABLE


LISTING


MEAN


COMPETENCY


SCORES


FOR


POSSESSION


EACH


AND


BY CATEGORY........


GROUP


IMPORTANCE


S. 130


TABLES


TABLES


LISTING
R GROUPS


LISTING


RANGE


TEST


MULTIVARIATE
BY CATEGORY


RESULTS


ANALYST I
........


OF DUNCAN'


POSSESSION


AND


OF VARIANCE


MULTIPLE
IMPORTANCE


BY CATEGORY


REFEREBCE


*0 5SCCOC* **055 055 ** 5*140


NOTES


REFERENCES......


.... ... .... .. ... .* tees .


BIOGRAPHICAL


SKETCH


. ...... ... .. .... *t* S 0


150













Abstract of


Dissertation


of the University
Requirements fo


Presented


of Florida in


the Degree of


to the Graduate


C


Partial Fulfillment of


council
the


Doctor of Philosophy


AN ASSESSMENT


IN RELATION


STUDENT


AFFAIRS


TO PROFESSIONAL


SEPARATION PROGRAMS
COMPETENCIES


RANDY


December


E. HYMAN


1983


Chairman:


Major


Arthur


Department:


Sandeen


Educational


Administration


Supervision


primary


whether


purposes


preparation


study


programs


were


student


determine


personnel


administration

competencies


educated


for the development


determine


of entry


relative


level


importance


professional


those


competencies


for assuming


an entry


level


staff


position


in the field


student


affairs.


Perceptions


three


groups


of professionals


field


student


affairs:


(faculty


in preparation


programs,


directors


housing,


chief


student


affairs


officers)


were


assessed


to determine


whether


they


believed


recent


master' s


graduates


preparation


programs


actually


possessed


the professional


competencies


whether


they


believed


the competencies


were


important


for assuming


an entry


level


position


in student


affairs.


three


groups


were


compared


determine

possession


whether

of the


or not


differences


competencies


existed


recent


graduate


their

s and


perceptions


of importance


PE










developed


Je


Miller


. Prince


in The


Future


Stu dent


Affairs


served


conceptual


framework


study.


modified


model


identified


categories


of development


which


included


goal


setting,


consultation,


communication,


assessment


evaluation,


environmental


organizational


management.


From


a review


literature


related


research,


a two-part


research


instrument


was


developed


which


included


competencies


recommended


faculty,


practitioners,


professional


associations


entry


level


stu dent


affairs


staff.


instrument


was


administered


faculty,


directors


housing


chief


student


affairs


officers.


sponse


rate


46.3%


faculty,


66.7%


directors


of housing,


60.7% of


chief


student


affairs officers


was


achieved


results


study


indicated


T.H.E.


model


was


appropriate framework

the important learning


outcome s


identification

of professional


concept aliz ation


preparation


programs in


student personnel administration.


Chief


doubt as

possessed


student


affairs


recent


to whether


competencies


officers


master's


in any


directors


graduates


of the five


of housing


of preparation


conceptual


indicated


programs


categories.


Each


three


groups


believed


that


competencies


categories


were important


assuming


an entry


level


position in


student


affairs.


three


groups


did not have


similar


perceptions


of the training


recent


graduates


received


competencies.


Faculty


perceived


significantly


greater


possession


competencies


recent


grad-


. I-i -1'-1 1 -*1nt


re-


II


!1


r


.


*


*

















CHAPTER


DESCRIPTION


OF THE


STUDY


Introduction


Professional


preparation


for individuals


seeking


a career


student


among


affairs


professional


administration


associations,


been


faculty


a subject


trainers,


much


student


concern


affairs


practitioners.


Traditionally


was


assumed


that


people


became


personnel administrators


came


from


the teaching


ranks


(Hill and


Green,


1960)


training.


Counseling


Recent


was


studies


primary


on the issue


not only,


component


preparation


have


of formal

concluded


that


professional,


administration


was


academic

critically


preparation


important


student


career


personnel


student


affairs


1977


field

Miller


(Rhatigan,


1968;


Carpenter,


Newton

1980;


Richardson


Delworth


, 1976;

Hanson,


Minetti,


1980


Stamatakos,


1980)


need


been


acknowledged


broad-based


foundation


of academic


preparation


in particular


core


areas


including


study


psychology,


culture


change;


philosophy,


nance,


planning


curriculum


higher


education:


counselling;


ethics;


a supervised


work


experience


(Trueblood


, 1966,


82-83


as cited in


Minetti,


1977


n~~~~~~~ r a A I-.. -----


i' i..


_I.. _I!


*r I


P










population.


demand


for graduates


of student


affairs


preparation


programs


was


greater


than


supply


produced


relatively


preparation


programs.


response


demand


for trained,


stu-


dent


affairs


professionals,


number


preparation


programs


ex-


panded


during


the 1960's


early


1970


Preparation


profession


derives


from


an operational


field,


for which


there


a taxonomically


ordered


set of roles


functions


be performed,


which


through


is appropriately


the utilization


grounded


a substantive


in theory


knowledge


philosophy.


base


Selection


a matter


of identification


of individuals


presumed


to be capable


mastering


such


knowledge


in order


to perform


specific


roles


within


existing


operational


field


(Dewey,


1977).


Designing


educational


programs


which


result


students'


possessing


requisite


knowledge


skills


is the charge


of the


person


engaged


in the preparation


of student


affairs


professionals.


Educators


of professionals


field


must


help


students


understand


appre-


ciate


current


state


practice


gain


perspective


future


development


(Knock,


1977).


Although


the need


for professional


preparation


been


recognized


accepted


area


of student


affairs,


what


constitutes


quality


preparation


field


matter where questions


can


be raised


(Knock,


1977).


Delworth


Hanson


(1980)


have


identified


major,


interrelat-


components


which


they


view


as fixed,


essential,


core


categories


student


affairs


profession.


They


believed


that


history


, 1 1


. 1 -- -A


rl-


~~1~1~


A I


-~~~ p --^-


f


k I










Professional


preparation


the master's


level


must


provide


back-


ground


or history,


philosophy,


theory


in building


foundations


effective


professional


education


a broad


context


(Trueblood,


1966;


O'Banion,


1969;


Delworth


Hanson,


1980).


Such


preparation


must


provide


opportunity


competencies


acquisition


necessary


effective


application


functioning


of skills


time,


professional


student


affairs


positions


(Domeier,


1977,


Minetti,


1977


Delworth


Hanson,


1980;


Stamatakos,


1981).


These


opportunities


generally


provided


through


practicums,


internships,


assistantships.


A model


core


curriculum


master


degree,


entry


level


student


affairs


practitioners


was


developed


Delworth


Hanson


(1980).


This


core


curriculum


was


developed


consideration


the need


reexamine


the variety


of roles


student


affairs


professionals


assume


allow


introduction


new


ideas,


concepts,


models


practice.


Such


a curriculum


would


permit


a continuous


evolution


consistent


with


changing


needs


profession


current


models


practice.


Delworth


Hanson' s


curriculum


components


included


models


following


practice


history


orientation,


philosophy,


core


theory,


competencies,


specialized


competencies,


administration


management,


practicum


or field


work,


additional


theory


courses.


Council


Student


Personnel


Administrators


(COSPA)


iden-


tified


purpose


of professional


preparation


the following


state-


-I nfIL


are










They


must


be able


use


competencies


assessment,


goal setting,
implementing


change
roles o


processes
Sconsultan


as appropriate in
t, administrator,


and
group


instructor
s. and or


relationships


ganizations.


(Cooper


with individuals,
, 1972, p. 6)


acquisition


professional


competencies


underscores


importance


of preparation


programs.


Such


programs,


through


their


course


work


field


experience,


have


sought


provide


graduate


students


with


the competencies


necessary


to function


adequately


in the


field.


Purpose


primary


professional


tration


purpose


preparation


educated


study


programs


development


was


to determine


stu dent


entry


personnel


level


whether


adminis-


professional


competencies.


Perceptions of


three


groups


of professionals in


the field


student


affairs


were


compared


determine


whether


differences


existed


in their


perception


training


graduates


with


master' s


degrees


received


in their


preparation


programs


for the


entry


level


competencies.


perceptions


three


groups


were


compared


determine


differences


relative


importance


competencies


assuming


entry


level


professional


position


student


affairs.


Questions


for Investigation


This


study


was


designed


answer


the following


questions:


recent


student


graduates


personnel


master's


administration


leve.


enter


I preparation
the field of s


programs


;tu dent


affairs


wri'h


trsnin an


on rir


1 p~r~m


rnmn i on anni a c


J p


rocrll+


+loF


f


%


* Ir










student


personnel


administration


receive


for the identified


entry


level


competencies?


Is it important


personnel


for recent


preparation


prior to


master' s


programs


time


entry


degree


to have


into


graduates


acquired


the student


from


these
affairs


student


competen-
field?


Do CSAOs,
importance of


DOHs, and
these entry


have


level


similar


perceptions


competencies?


Justification


the Study


need


competently


trained


staff


been


a concern


student


personnel


profe


ssionals


over


thirty


years.


LaBarre


(1948)


observed


that


despite


increased


needs


personnel


workers


assurances


trained


could


persons


be given


unless


that


some


the work


measures


would


their


be done


proficiency


competently


were


signed


meet


minimum


qualifications.


LaBarre


indicated


that


there


was


a need


basic


work


standards


field.


called


professional


student


personnel


associations


to undertake


research


study


to establish


minimum


performance


standards


on a national


scale.


believed


preparation


programs


offered


the logical


place


to identify


criteria


upon


which


professional


standards


might


be based.


literature


excellence


of the field


professional


identified


preparation


concern


programs.


for quality


study


professional


preparation


college


student


personnel


administrators


observed


that


professional preparation


assumed


increased importance


a function


of trends


toward


professionalization


increased


demands


from


another

(1&'79'


professionally


study


I;Aani-4^ flnAf Ir


trained


workers


*eparation p:

a~ amL nanA^ an^^k +^h e^^ ^h ^^ ^t_


(Hoyt


programs


r%1*


-r'(i


Rhatigan,


student p

Q4-... A^^*


1968).


personnel ,
flasnnwn a


Rockey










resources,


a well-conceived


curriculum,


opportunity


for practical


work


experiences.


more


student


recent


affairs


study


officers


sought


(CSAOs)


determine


about


the attitudes


quality


chief


professional


preparation


programs


(Sandeen,


1982).


results


indicated


that


although


graduate


training


in student


personnel


work


was


found


to be


considerable


importance,


only


three


percent


CSAOs


study


rated


overall


program


quality


as excellent


only


six percent


rated


faculty


excellent.


Sandeen's


(1982)


study


identified


major


problems


much


with


oriented


current


toward


preparation


counseling


programs:


quality


programs


students


uneven;


lack


and the lack

respect when


of academic


they


rigor


are compared


some


to other


programs

graduate


generates a

programs.


Canon


(1982)


noted


that


marginal


students


coexisted


with


those


generally


conceded


to be of


high


quality


concluded


that


student


affairs


divisions


reflected


these


extremes


in both


the quality


effectiveness of


their programs


services.


Issues


standards,


quality,


excellence


have


been


significant


that


they


represented


outcomes


which


most


professionals


believed


the field


of student


affairs


needed in


the preparation


of those about


enter


the field.


Penn


(1973)


described


the key


to excellence


terms


quality


adequate


programs


learning


related


resources,


appropriate


defined


curriculum


standards


offerings,


acceptable


performance.


He urged


the development


of curriculum


guidelines


are


--













closer


recognition


student


personnel


administration


"profession.


performances


indicated


competencies


need


for graduates


generally


standards


of preparation


programs.


Penn


(1973)


supported


viewpoint


observing


that


professional


competence


in the field


student


affairs was


related


to knowledge and


specific


skills


learned in


preparation


programs.


Curriculum


guidelines


have


been


addressed


American


College


Personnel


Associations


Many


ACPA's

Personnel


Association


(COSPA),


programs


Directory


provided


(ACPA),


others


listed


Graduate

course


Council


(O'Banion,


most


Preparation


offerings


Student


1966;


recent


Programs


well


Rhatig an,


issue


Personnel


1965).


(1980)


in College


other


Student


developmental


experiences


consistent


with


curricular


recommendations.


To date,


credentials


or standards


are required


states


, regional


accrediting


agencies,


or professional


associations


entry


into


the field


stu-


dent


affairs.


Rhatigan


(1968)


noted


that


the issue


of professional


preparation


was


extremely


complex.


Such


complexity


was


to multiple


areas


specialization,


many


levels of


training,


different


sizes


types of


institutions


to be served.


In his study


of professional


preparation


concluded


there


was


an urgent


need


for research


that


related


training


experiences


examination


to professional


skills


effectiveness.


, attitudes,


Such


knowledge


research


that


must


effective


involve


adminis-


trators p


possess


(Rhatigan,


1968).









(Domeier,


1977


Minetti,


1977


Hanson,


Note


have


provided


means


which


productivity


graduate


training


programs


student


personnel


can


be measured.


In the development


a program


evaluating


outcomes


educational


program,


certain


basic


sumptions


must


be considered:


The
whick


kinds
i the


changes


program


in behavior


seeks


to bring


patterns
about a


in human


beings


re its educational


objectives.


An educational
the objectives


program
of the pr


is appraised


ograms


are actually


finding
y being


out how
realized.


Previous


studies


have


indicated


that


the acquisition


of profession-


competencies


represents


a primary


objective


preparation


programs


(Williamson,


1952;


Newton


Hellenga,


1974).


study


administrators


recommended


that


examined


specified


examination


training g


competency


the purposes


tasks,


quality


student


Domeier


of student


affairs


(1977)


affairs


training


programs


in relation


to specified


competencies.


indicated


that,


with


some


modification,


questionnaire


could


be utilized


as an


assessment


instrument


a guide


competency


development


student


affairs


preparation


programs.


similar


study


Minetti


(1977)

training


sought

and


determine


assistantship


relationship


experiences


between


preparation


academic


programs


identifying


locus


preparation


entry


level


competencies


necessary


work


in the field


of student


affairs.


He indicated


that


study


addressed


"should


ideal


professional


preparation


156).


He recommended


further


study


to investigate


as-










Stamatakos


(1981)


extensive


examination


professional


preparation,


done


part


a review


student


affairs


progress


toward professionalism


, identified


critical


concerns.


quality


programs
lacking i


A review of
glaring lack
learned and


of students


inconceivably


a reasonable


existing


admitted


broad,


standards


preparation


specificity


the skills


to professional


loose,
201).


program


regarding


students


are expected


preparation


inconsistent,


literature reveals
2 knowledge to I


acquire


202).


Within
grams


and
there


emphasis or


between


little


duration


actual


proposed


to consistency
202).


preparation


nature,


pro-


content


In general,
program of
be assured


prepared
lar to job
potential ;
mobility


after


study
that


> carry
entry


students


in a typical
they will be


out the
positions


depth
203).


have


successfully


program,
adequately


variety
or that


completed


the profession c;
y or reasonably


of responsibilities


they


of understandings


have


necessal


annot
well


particu-


the leadership
ry for upward


If it is


determined


sense


that


truly


some preparation


prepanng


student


programs
affairs p


are not in
professionals


are bootlegging
or educational


them


through


psychology


counsel


programs,


lor, pupil
should su


person-


ch


insti-


tutions


professional


programs


Extensive


listed


preparation


with


review


a sense of


of the


association
programs?
undeserve


literature


sponsored


Such


directories


listings


legitimacy


on professional


do provide
p. 203).


preparation


Stamatakos


(1981)


conclude


that


there


published


research


evidence


to support


the notion


that


those


hired


for student


affairs


positions


, do,


in fact,


possess


the general skills


competencies


that


characterize


positions


sought


filled


professional


preparation


programs


educate


specifically


adequately


development


agreed


upon


skills


competencies


(Brown,


1972;


Council


of Student







-10-


specific


recommendations


of Domeier,


Minetti,


Rhatig an;


supported


the conclusions


of Stamatakos,


have


led this


researcher


pursue


the study


of professional


competencies


entry


level


pro-


fessionals in


manner


outlined in


purpose


statement.


Conceptual Framework


Professional


preparation


purpose


training


development


student


affairs


professionals,


equipping


them


with


expertise


the integrated


development


college


students.


Profes-


sionally


prepared


student


affairs


staff


must


share


a common


concern


for the


these


nature


institutions


effectiveness


affect


are


of institutions


affected


of higher


students


education


(Delworth


Hanson,


1980).


Professional


training


should


enable


student


affairs


staff


assume


a variety


of roles


including


consultant


, administrator,


counselor,


instructor,


researcher


(Cooper,


1972;


Delworth,


Hanson,


1980).


Preparation


programs


prepare


persons


competencies


categories


such


assessment,


goal


setting,


change


processes to effectively implement


the afore


named


roles


literature


preparation


work


field


student


affairs


reflects


concern


many


professionals


about


lack


quality


scope


training


(Knott,


should


1977).


placed


According


upon


one


practical


study,


the emphasis


acquisition


skills


(Newton


broader


Richardson,


set of


1976).


competencies


There


student


an increased


affairs


emphasis


professionals.


on a


Knott


/ I nnr,\


. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ,, L.2 :- ---- --- --- A.l


use


,I


~1


_


-


1






-11-


many


graduate


training


programs


require


some


revamping


in order


to become


solid


programs


preparing


generalists


with


these


compe-


tencies.


Miller


Carpenter


(1980)


believed


that


optimal


professional


preparation


combines


a mastery


a body


of knowledge


a cluster


skills


competencies


within


context


of personal


development.


They


noted


that


professional


credibility


excellence


of practice were


directly


dependent


upon


the quality


of professional


preparation


(1980).


They


postulated


that


there


were


identifiable


skills


competencies


essential


to the growth


of student


affairs


professionals,


the learning


which


could


be systematically


facilitat


through


programs


of profes-


sional preparation.


number


support


models


the development


philosophies


of quality


have


professional


been


preparation


advanced


(Spooner,


1979;


Rentz,


1976;


Meabon


, Bailey,


Witten,


1975;


Dewey,


1977).


A thorough

modification


review


the literature


of the Tomorrow' s


Higher


led the researcher


Education


model


to select


as the conceptu-


al framework


Tomorrow' s


for this


Higher


study.


Education,


T.H.E.,


was


acronym


coined


which


American


stands


College


Personnel


Association


(ACPA)


1968


purpose


of developing


strategy


(Miller


for examining


Prince,


1976).


future


college


essence


student


T.H.E.


personnel


project


work


was


reconceptualize

the fundamental


through


systematic


conceptions


about


review,


reconstruction,


the specific


roles,


functions


change,

. meth-


nfl"~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~k~~~r nrr 1iaanr -aa ii un rnannnt+ -


~n rl


nm~E3~11rfl~


(I~~tlra


na*ann n nt


nr4 ~~4 m


rnn






-12-


based


staffing


approach


toward


competency-based


approach


(American


College


Personnel


Association


, 1975).


T.H.E.


model


extended


ideas


advanced


American


Council


Education


Student


Personnel


Point


of View


(1937,


1949).


This


statement


identified


the commitment


of the profession


services


to and


development


the "whole


student.


This


commitment


was


based


recognition


needed


competencies


student


affairs


staff


service


agents


, control


agents,


developmental


educators.


Council


Student


Personnel


Associations


Higher


Education


advanced


essentially


same


philosophy


their


work


Student


Development


Point


of of


View


of Education


(1970).


T.H.E.


eclectic


emphasizes


that


student


stresses


development.


a combination


theoretical


cognitive


base


affective


development.


incorporates


competency


categories


develop-


ment:


Goal-Settin


esire


tives)
provide


that


--the
then
guide


evidence


process
defining 1
the steps


stating
more


specific


in achieving


of accomplishment


general
results


the goals


(Miller


Prince,


outcome
(objec-
nd that


1976,


Assessment--the
and organizations


variety


sources


process


through


systematically


describe,


which


acquire


appraise,


students,


I use
and


data:
modify


groups,


from a
their


own


development


Instruction--a


knowledge


to integrate affec
tion of individual


change s
practice


:tive


learning


strategyy wh
applying
id cognitive


styles


ich
vhat


seeks


to provide


is learned.


learning
d needs.


both


It seeks


through recogni-


Consultation--the


with


activity


another


4. ~ ,, 1. a -nf


pers


St fl I-


process


;on, group, o


which


one


r agency in c
4.1 t .4 -- -


person
order to


engage:
S







-13-


Environmental


Management--a


positive,


collaborative


effort


all
mizE


community


their


living


member
g and


organize


learning


their


resources


maxI-


experiences.


Evaluation--a


continuous


process


delineating,


obtaining,


and
choice


providing info:
es (Stufflebeam,


rmation
1971).


with


which


judge


various


Delworth


Hanson


(1980)


identified


four


critical


basic


compe-


tency


areas:


assessment


evaluation,


teaching


or training,


consultation,


counseling.


These


areas


were


consistent


with


components


of T.H


ACPA


taxonomy


purpose


sponsored


competencies


of the project


project


using


was


T.H.E.


review


, Hanson


(Note


a conceptual


developed


framework.


the competency-based


educa-


movement


to determine


its potential


application


to professional


preparation


programs


student


personnel


work.


Han son


developed


195 competencies


of which


only


twenty


were


rated


a panel


perts


in the field


of student


personnel


work


as lower


than


very


impor-


tant.


purpose


study,


the researcher


selected


T.H.E.


purpose


model


a conceptual


of the study


is to


framework


examine


with


the training


minor


revision.


graduates


receive


entry


level


professional


competencies.


Consistent


with


recommen-


dation


Knott


(1977)


category


communication


been


substituted


instruction


in the original


T.H.E.


format.


Assessment


evaluation


Delworth


have

Hanson


been


combined


(1980)


model.


as one

The


category coi

competencies


insistent


use


with


in this


O+~ ~ Vt -nfl ~afln .1 ar..4.. a A 4- a nfl ~ a d. L


UlI -n n I


/NTa.n


ex-


1.


1


e


,~,,


n


F,,~


rirtn


I 1







-14-


communication,


assessment


evaluation,


environmental


orga-


nizational


management.


Assumptions


This


study


assumed


that


perceptions


respondents


completing


instrument


were


honestly


accurately


given.


professional


competencies


identified


from


literature


reflected


actual,


expe


cted


competencies


entry


level


student


affairs staff.


Respondents


a knowledge


background


of the


competencies


needed


staff hired


for entry


level


positions in


student


affairs.


Respondents


a knowledge


competencies


taught


preparation


programs in


student


personnel.


Limitations


This


study


was


limited


to the examination


entry


level


profes-


sional


competencies


because


this investigator


believed


they


repre-


sented


most


immediate


measurable


product


a master's


q*


-. S


LA- _


I ^ -


.f






-15-


Findings


were


limited


to measurements


competencies


perceived


practitioners


faculty


trainers.


results


can


gener-


alized


to preparation


programs


generally


as all


programs


listed


the ACPA


directory were


surveyed.


Results


cannot


populations


tencies


generalized


used


held


study.


recent


beyond


Their


graduates


specific


perceptions


practitioner


compe-


importance


those


competencies


cannot


be generalized


to the total


practitioner


popu-


lation


in student


affairs.


This


study


was


limited


perception


practitioners


faculty

bachelor


affairs


trainers


degree.


practitioner


four


year


result


population


institutions,


cannot


employed


awarding


be generalized


at community


least


a student


colleges


proprietary institutions.


Definitions


Student personnel--work


concerned


students


with


both


in primarily


services


which


within


a post


the education


non


classroom


support


secondary
nal and


education institution


personal


activities
compliment


development of
the administra-


the formal academic


process.


Student


affairs--the
Concerned


division
with th


within


a post


.e provision


secondary
services


education


institu-


programs


students


which


complement


supplement


the academic


mission


higher


education institutions.


(Domeier,


1977







-16-


Practitioners--professional


student


personnel


administrators,


educators


in a division


counselors,


engaged in
of student


program


time


affairs.


facilitators,


employment in
They may be
* consultants.


(Minetti,


1977


Chief


student affairs officer--the


who
of th
sion.


is immediately
le programs,


responsib
staff, and


college or university
le for the direction


services


the student


administrator


coordination


affairs


divi-


Director of


Housing--the


immediately
programs,
housing de
Division of


response
staff, an


apartment
Student


college or university
ble for the direction


services


is one
Affairs.


administrator who is


of the housing
the departments


coordination
department.


that


comprn


of the
The
se the


Entry


level


competencies--abilities,


skills,


knowledge,


and activities


which


permit


professional


an individual


position


stu


to carry out
dent affairs


expectations
a minimally


in a first
acceptable


manner.


Faculty


trainers--professional


ment


as faculty,


educators


teaching


engaged in


advising


graduate


11 time en
students


nploy-
enrolled


in preparation


programs in


student personnel administration.


Professional


aration--the
competencies


in the student


generally
degree


acquired


awarding


acquisition
necessary


affairs
within


program


profession.


of background,


assuming
Such ni


context


a graduate


knowledge,


a full


time


reparation


a formal,
institution


p051-


is most


academic,
)f higher


education.


Overview


of the Study


Chapter


study


. presented

, conceptual


introduction,


framework,


purpose


assumptions,


justification


limitations,


definitions.


Relevant


literature


research


pertaining


to the profes-


of student


Chapter


described


study


are


personnel and


professional


methodology


Chapter


presented


design


data


Chapter


preparation


used


collected


are presented in


study


are


analyzed


discussion


results,
















CHAPTER


REVIEW


OF THE


LITERATURE


This


chapter


provide


overview


literature


pertains


to professional


preparation


for student


affairs


administration.


Three

emerging


general

g profe


areas

ssion,


reviewed:


development


student


student


personnel


personnel


preparation


programs


development


competencies


student


affairs


pro-


fessionals.


Student


Personnel


as an Emerging


Profession


Historical


Role in


Higher


Education


development


student


personnel


work


been


well


docu-


mented


in the literature


(Leonard,


1956;


Cowley


, 1949;


Mueller,


1961;


Ayers,


Tripp,


Russel


, 1966;


Shaffer


Martinson,


1966;


Apple-


ton,


Briggs,


Rhatigan,


1978)


Dating


back


founding


Harvard


College


1636


a similar


theme


was


observed;


higher


educa-


was


privately


Until


about


controlled


1862


maintained


presidents


a strong


faculty


religious


engaged


empha-


exag-


gerated


type


of student


services,


concerning


themselves


primarily


with


deportment


students


assuring


pious


attitudes


A~l~aanra innirifaEo rn+ n ea'rd ent -ja .,nA ne


~i ii rr Lln r a


nllr arri~c!


n rac a; n n


nna~


car~n na


T^T~ a






-18-


construction


of dormitories


was


supervise


the lives


studies


students.


Discipline


was


primary


reason


staff


interaction


with


students


outside


confines


classroom.


Generally,


emphasis


was


on control


with


the president


the faculty


acting


the role


of guardians


to provide


direction


the students,


often


the form


sanctions


for unacceptable


behavior.


Explosive


enrollments


spurred


Land


Grant


1862


brought


about


an abrupt


change


in emphasis


in higher


education


with


a need


to deal


with


large


numbers


of heterogeneous


students


(Shaffer


Martinson,


1966).


These


developments


brought


with


them


a different


set of student


needs


that


required


staff


attention


more


diverse


ways.


appointments


of the first


deans


women


men


around


turn


century


signaled


emergency


student


personnel


work.


Appleton


, Briggs,


Rhatigan


(1978)


identified


factors which


contributed


to the origins


of student


personnel


work:


The d
public


Development
colleges a]


land


grant


institutions


the rise


universities.


Increasing
geneity


enrollments


accompanying


increase


in hetero-


of student populations.


Social,


political,


and intellectual


ferment in


the nation.


Rise


of coeducation


increase


in numbers


women


enter-


institutions.


Introduction


of elective


systems in


higher


education.


Emphasis c

Impact of


vocationalism


science and


over


the scient


traditional liberal arts.

:ific method.


Emerging


signs


fundamental


struggle


between


empiricism


flfl A hiirnnnicn,


"g






-19-


view


of higher


education


as a


social


status


phenomenon.


Establishment

Impact of libel


a true


university


iral immigration


laws in


system.

U.S.


Changing


roles of


students in


higher


education.


needs


of individual


students


were


identified


primary


focus


student


personnel


staff.


building


a sound


student


personnel


program


called


dedication


both


administration


faculty


a philosophy


based


needs


individual


student


Student


(Blaesser,


Personnel


1945)


Point


Such


View "


a philosophy


was


according


grounded


"The


support


higher


education's


basic


purposes:


the preservation


, transmission,


enrichment


culture--the


product


scholarship,


research,


human


experience


(American


Council


Education,


1937).


task


was


assist


student


developing


limits


his/her


potential.


order


this,


institution


consider


student


awareness


a "whole


student


of the significance


student


personnel


from


was


both


express


individual


group


perspectives.


work


became


an individualized


application


research


clinical


findings


psychology,


sociology,


anthropology,


a college


education


environment


to the task


(American


of aiding


Council


students


Education,


to develop


1949).


Cowley


(1964)


observed


the three


functions


of higher


education


to be


core,


complementary,


continuity.


concluded


that


student


personnel


work


was


complementary


that


mission


was


nrnvi siin


of nnnarmuiernmr n-rnornm


cPru1 riS


fnrirqidn






-20-


Definitions


Criteria


for a Profession


issue


of what


constitutes


a profession


been


examined


discussed


throughout


literature


higher


education.


Characteristics


a profession


have


been


identified,


definitions


have


been


provided,


criteria


have


been


produced.


Among


the criteria


which


characterized


profession


were


development


special


discipline,


development


special


training


programs,


delineation


specific


areas


operation,


a strong,


central


organization


which


standards


professional


membership,


established


(Feder,


a code


1948).


of ethics,


term


policed


"professional"


the activities


generally


of practitioners


referred


individual


who performed


tasks


that


were of


more


than


usual


difficulty,


required


a long


period


of preparation


education,


resulting


attainment


higher


degree


skill


knowledge


(John son,


1959).


Flexner


(1915)


observed


that


a person


was


a professional


he/she


indicated


devoted


that


his/her


such


entire


activities


time


a particular


to be intellectual


activity.


in nature


have


a definite

distinguishing


purpose.


mark


Lloyd-Jones


profession


(1949)


was


remarked


"the


that


possession


intellectual


technique


acquired


ecial


training


which


could


applied


some


sphere


everyday


life"


260).


good


deal


emphasis


was


placed


upon


acquisition


special


knowledge


special


training


American


Personnel


Guidance


Association


(AGPA)


+Aa+ mt-rlrc nif r


n rn Srr c c; an


sc


rlal; nal~a~






-21-


This


body


derived


specialized


through


knowledge,


scientific inquiry


skills, an
scholarly


I attitudes
learning.


This


body


acquired
graduate
continuou


specialized


through
level, i


knowledge,


professional


n a college


in-service


skills,


preparation,


or university


training


attitudes


preferably


as well


personal


gri


on the


as through
owth after


completion


of formal


education.


This


body


constantly


if specialized
tested and


knowledge
extended


, skills,
through


attitudes


research


scholarly inquiry.


profession


may,
other


indeed


a literature


must,


draw


portions


even


though


content


from


areas of knowledge.


profession


above


personal


exalts
gain.


service


sesses


individual


a philosophy


and
and


society
a code


of ethics.


profession


members coi
professional
society.


Membership


through


instantly


examines


preparation


in the professional


of the profession


must


voluntary


improves


services


organization


persons


be limited


association of
Sthe quality c
the individual


the practice


meeting


stated


standards of preparation


competency.


profession


membership


as long


affords


as services


life
meet


career


permanent


professional standards.


The public
compensate


recognizes,
the members


confidence


of the profession


is willing


for their


services


(AGPA,


1971,


327-330).


difficulties


identifying


student


personnel


admini-


station as

boundaries


a profession


around


been


the larger


the problem


function


of establishing


of student


personnel


clear


adminis-


tration


(Wrenn


Darley


, 1949).


Lack


of cohesion


coordination


of the separate


personnel


functions


contributed


to the problem


identity


as a profession.


Traditionally


when


a body


of knowledge






-22-


philosophy,


management and


psychology,


sociology,


administration


(Crane,


humanities


1965).


Useem

occupation


skills


(1964)


a professic


is backed


observed

on lies il


a consistent


that


1 the degree


body


difference

to which


theories


between

its cluster


principles.


believed


that


student


personnel


administration


was a


professionalizingg"


occupation


sense


there


was


increasing


attention


theoretical


principles


out of which


should


flow


the skilled


performance.


This


servation


professionalizingg"


occupations


was


observed


Wilensky


(1964)


who


noted


that


label


was


loosely


applied


increasing


special


nation


transferability


skill;


proliferation

arrangements,


objective


licensing


standards


certification;


work;

and


the

the


spread

growth


tenure

service


occupations.


Concern


for the recognition


of student


personnel


administration


a profession


been


widely


expressed


literature


(Cowley,


1936;


Wrenn


Darley,


1949;


American


Council


Education


, 1949;


Lloyd-Jones,


1974


1949;


; Stamatakos,


Feder,

1981).


1959


Wrenn


Mueller,


1959;


Darley


Penny,


have


1969


provided


Penn,


perhaps


best


most


widely


accepted


criteria


determine


whether


student personnel


work


deserves identity


as a profession.


The application


of standards of


selection


training.


definition


of job


titles


functions.


possession


of specialized


knowledge


skills.


5 -- -- -


mrn


f ~


--Y--;~IYI~I


--






-23-


Legal recognition


development of


of the vocation.


a code of ethics.


The performance


of a socially


needed


function


(1949).


In their


study


Wrenn


Darley


concluded


that


student


personnel


work


was


profession


(1949).


eight


criteria


established


measure


professionalism


they


concluded


that


the greatest


barrier


to student


personnel


work


was


the application


of standards


selection


training.


Too many


staff in


student


affairs


were


selected


because


they


were already


employ


ed by


an institution


in some


capacity.


They


observed


problems


with


specific


selection


criteria


unclear


training


expectations


inconsistent


with


demands


work.


Stamatakos


(1981)


used


Wrenn


Darley' s


(1949)


criteria


assess


progress


student


personnel


made


toward


acquiring


identity


as a profession.


Although


he believed


the field


does


qualify,


noted


continued


difficulties


with


selection,


standards


, quality,


competency


of professional


preparation


programs


their


graduates.


He urged


continued


research


examine


whether


the training


received


in preparation


programs


provides


graduates


with


sufficient


skills


competencies


to function


effectively


in the field


of student


affairs.


Professional


Status


professional


needs


student


personnel


work


are


best


represented


attention


competencies


skills


necessary


practitioners


to effectively


deliver


quality


services


programs.


n--fin n~~~~~~n Crirne ei nn ctini~anthi


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ahnlif


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r~n


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I






-24-


Among


the primary


needs


identified


Williamson


(1952)


was


establishment


high


standards


selection


professional


competence


increased


recognition


student


personnel


of the need


staff.


more


There


attention


been


to organizational


management


skills,


both


training


application


(Borland


Thomas,


1976;


Appleton,


Briggs,


Rhatigan


, 1978;


McDaniel,


1972).


Cross


(1973)


supported


Brown


(1972)


urging


increased


attention


the integration


student


personnel


function


within


academic


areas.


This


posture


received


stron g


support


from


Crookston


(1972).


status


student


personnel


a profession


varied


according


perceptions


field


addressed


mission


purpose.


Knock


(1977)


observed


lack


progress


toward


achievement


of professional


status


which


been


cited


in the


literature


(Feder,


1959;


Koile,


1966


Shoeben


1967


Ny green,


1968;


Penny,


1972).


further


supported


importance


defining


operational


purposes


then


developing


skills


procedures


fulfilling


such


purposes


(Cowley


, 1964;


Berdie,


1966


Parker


, 1971;


Crookston,


1972


Crookston,


1976;


Miller


Prince,


1976).


Saddlemire


noted


that


student


personnel


practitioners


must


be convinc-


ed of


their


status


as educators


should


display


confidence


in their


legitimacy


in higher


education


as visible


contributors


to the attainment


of the educational


goals


of the institution


(Note


Confusion


about


identity


, role,


purpose


been


-.rn


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A~ nnYlrn~


h


r


r


*nA


I Inntnr I I UI


A


/ 1


r






-25-


problems


stemming


from


the nomenclature


of the field


implied


that


withholding


faculty


status


student


personnel


practitioners


relegated


them


to second


class


status


A study


Astmann


(1975)


ascertain


faculty


perceptions


toward


student


personnel


services


found


that


faculty


didn't


fully


accept


colleagues


student


personnel


equals.


Student affairs


was


perceived


as a large


complex


operations


with


vague,


ill-defined


purpose,


being


only


remotely


necessary


to the


realization


institutional


goals


impractical


budget


terms.


According


Prior


(1973)


planlesss


gerry


building"


student


personnel


services


over


several


decades


resulted


in conflicting


illogical


mixtures


functions


responsibilities


202).


result


student


personnel


been


susceptible


variety


misperceptions


its role


false


expectations


of this


competence.


Wrenn


Darley


(1949)


believed


that


the status


of student


personnel


not been


enhanced


because


a lack


of well


accepted


standards


academic


preparation.


field


failed


to notify


higher


education


what


those,


established in


the field,


considered


to be job


function


adequate


qualifications.


been


recommended


that


student


personnel


practitioners


clarify


traditional roles


and aggressively


pursue


new

1975


profes


relationship s


Berry,


sional


with


1976).


training


institutions


More


programs


(Penn,


attention


(Berry,


Manspeaker


should


1976).


directed


professional


Millette,

toward


future


of student


personnel


depends


on present


leadership


training


programs


(Brumfield,


1979).






-26-


Student


Development


literature


offered


evidence


perceived


need


student


personnel


to direct


attention


more


academic


curricular


concerns


(Wise,


1951;


Nash,


Saurman


Sousa,


1975;


Miller


Prince,


1976;


Jones,


1978).


This


need


been


included


as part


overall


move


away


from


emphasis


services


increased


attention


on the development


students.


This


transition


assumed


a prevailing


"service


status"


view


of student


personnel


administration


that


must


move


more


direction


a preventive,


proactive,


collaborative


consistent


with


the student


development


philosophy


Hanson and


Lenning


(1979)


acknowledged


that


student


development


concept


for higher


education


received


strong


historical


support


from


the "Student


Personnel


Point


View "


(American


Council


Education,


1937,


1949)


which


urged


attention


development


"whole"


student.


development


Hanson


focused


more


Lennin g


issues


(1979)


believed


attitude,


that


moral,


student


value


development


assisting


students


acquisition


of developmental


skills.


Brown


(1972)


viewed


a role


change


student


development


staff


diagnosticians,


consultants,


programmers,


instructors,


behavioral


student


scientists,


personnel


and researchers.


historically


Crookston


defined


was


(1976)


believed


longer


that


a viable


concept


that


student


development


should


be used


to describe


more


accurately


underlying


philosophy


the field.


Crookston


(1972)


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-27-


progress


gain


respect


of students


academic


colleagues


would


have


begin


educate


new


generation


student


development


specialists.


Some


practitioners


field


have


regarded


student


development


thrust


as a passing


phenomenon,


have


now


begun


view it


as a model


to justify


the presence of


student personnel


workers


on campuses


(Humphries,


1977)


Hanson


Lenning


(1979)


observed


that


Carnegie


whole


student


Commission


was


(1973)


realistic;


claimed


that


that


the development


totalism


campus


approach


students


was


inconsistent


with


mission


higher


education.


Student


development


been


hampered


obstacles


deep


rooted


work


habit


routines,


beliefs,


attitudes


perceptions


practitioners


have


been


traditionally


trained


(Stamatakos,


1980)


Others


claimed


that


little


recognition


been


given


that


student


development


must


implemented


areas


where


students


student


have


conduct,


unwilling


contact


registrars


with


office


institution,


, admissions


office


areas


(Trow,


such


1978).


Although


acknowledged


datedness


service


concept,


Rhatigan


(1975)


raised


issue


with


assumption


that


much


more


become


possible


we move


organizationally,


directly


into


the academic


hierarchy.


Rhatigan


(1975)


advocated


a broadening


service


concept


increased


use


classroom


vehicle


as a tool


program


delivery.


Shaffer


(1973)


concluded


that


order


remain


a significant


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-28-


Development


of Student


Personnel


Preparation


Programs


Background


Training


for student


personnel


administration


prior


to World


II consisted


Many


largely


professionals


experience


in student


received


personnel


on the job


as well


(LaBarre,


as in higher


1948).


education


generally


did not support


the notion


that


profe


ssional


preparation


was


a necessary


prerequisite


entry


into


field


(Turner,


1936;


Hullfish,


1941


Nygreen,


1965)


. Hullfish


(1941)


spoke


in support


the contention


some


that


good


deans


I'


born


not made,


a concept


generally


referred


as the


" chromosome


theory.


Others


supported


the notion


that


a better


background


for a position


in student


personnel


would


be in


an academic


discipline


(Nygreen,


1965).


A study


done


determine


perceptions


chief


student


affairs


administrators


revealed


that


there


was


little


connection


between


a chief


student


affairs


officer


(CSAO)


was


trained


which


CSAO perceived


his/her role


(Up craft,


1971)


A study


to determine if


differences


existed


chief


student


affairs


officers'


perception


student personnel


programs


based


upon


whether


they


were


academically


trained


field


revealed


mixed


results


(Blackburn,


1969).


Academic


preparation


contributed


toward


emphasis


counseling


educational


experience


reform,


contributed


models


emphasis


behavioral


upon


learning


research


Practical


needs


students.


earlier


study


Saddlemire


(1950)


male


student


narcrnn f P1


Im nni Qtrn tr n- 1


nniversitie


showed


mltppp~


S IJ I


A


Z


I1


i


- n


Jif






-29-


held


teaching


appointments.


Only


no academic


rank.


later


study


(1969)


career


patterns


student


personnel


administrators


revealed


that


those


working


student


affairs


graduate


degree


training


guidance,


counseling,


student


personnel.


training


Eighty-six


new


percent


student


of the respondents


personnel


believed


administrators


was


that


formal


great


importance.


Historically


, the first


formal


training


program


began


at Teachers'


College,


Columbia


University


(LaBarre,


1948;


Barry


Wolf,


1957


Lloyd-Jones,


1962;


Klopf,


1963)


in 1913.


Early


concepts


of educational


personnel


work


were


confined


to vocational


guidance.


Parallel


to this


was


the emphasis


on counseling


guidance.


1926


, a prospective


vocational


guidance


worker


could


find


coursework


schools;


neophyte


dean


(Barry


Wolf,


1957).


contributions


training


were


improved


practice,


advanced


theory,


production


trained


workers


promotion


field


of student


personnel.


primary


issues


related


to training


identified


then


relevant


today included


content,


methodology,


selection,


evaluation


(Barry


Wolf,


1957).


Selection


Standards


Wrenn


(1952)


considered 'the


issues


of selection


standards


major


unresolved


problems


preparation


student


personnel


practitioners.


believed


graduate


institutions


should


accept


responsibility


admitting


into


training


programs


only


ii I---~- 2 a n *-1~ ~*. 4k fl. ~ 1 ~4 St. 9,-


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ct, ,,,


'IAt~trl


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,,_: 1,,,,


Am A





rl 1_






-30-


graduate

socially


trainees.

sensitive,


was


emotionally


believed


that


matu re,


the best


applicants


intellectually


abl<


should be

e (Wrenn,


1952).


They


must


show


evidence


of sufficient


motivation


toward


roles


function


of the field.


Woolf


Woolf


(1953)


believed


that


the most


important


consideration


in the selection


of trainees


should


the philosophy


attitude


of the candidate.


A study


of the


selection


of students


preparation


in college


student


personnel


work


revealed


inadequacy


existing


instruments


measure


characteristics


believed


to be


related


Success


ful performance


in the field


(Wellman,


1952).


selection


study


(Wellman,


revealed


1955).


a lack


later


valid


study


, objective


preparation


criteria


program


admission


policies indicated


a heavy


emphasis


on predictors


academic


success


as initial


screening


criteria;


standardized


tests,


grade


point


averages,


recommendation


letters


(Gimmestad


Goldsmith,


1973)


issue


of standards


most


recently


been


addressed


within


context


what


should


considered


acceptable


training


preparation


programs


this


training


acceptability


could


measured.


Stamatakos


(1981)


analyzed


Wrenn


Darley 's


(1949)


traditional


criteria


or professionalism.


Stamatakos


examined


standards


of admission


performance


addressing


skills


competencies


student


affairs


professionals


are expected


to have


or actually


possess


at the time


they


enter the


practice


of the profession


. 106).


reviewing


previous s


studies


(Minetti,


1977;


Ostroth,


1979;






-31-


(Brown,


1972;


Council


of Student


Personnel


Associations,


1975;


Newton


Hellenger,


1974;


Newton


Richardson,


1976;


Parker,


1971;


Rentz,


1976),


Stamatakos


(1981)


could


find


evidence


that


employers


consciously


attempt


to determine


if applicants


for positions


actually


possess


the expected


competencies,


those


hired


for student


affairs


positions


possess


the expected


competencies,


professional


preparation


programs


educate


specifically


adequately


development of


agreed


upon


skills


competencies


. 106).


Content


Content


preparation


programs


student


personnel


been


field.


source


of considerable


Initial programs


sought


controversy


to provide


among


strong


professionals


grounding


in the


in counsel-


guidance


as it


was


the belief


that


such


was


the primary


back-


ground


necessary


to adequately


prepare


student


personnel


practition-


(Williamson,


1949;


Wrenn,


1949;


Mueller,


1959;


Parker,


1971).


Parker


(1966)


took


the position


that


education


as a counselor,


based


upon


adequate


philosophy


individual


development


within


guidelines


that


benefit


entire


society


, was


crucial


to adequate


functioning


as an effective


student


personnel


administrator


256)


value


overall


generalist


approach


to preparation


been


acknowledged


supported,


primarily


through


the efforts


of the


professional


associations


(Council


Student


Personnel


Associations,


1965,


1969;


American


Personnel


Guidance


Association,


1971


-~ t. a,


ers


r t


m A


i


..






-32-


responsibility


curriculum


characteristics.


authority,


training


In the first


purposes


experiences,


category


goals,


proposed


emphasis


of responsibility


unique


authority,


Robinson


found


APGA


statement


to be


most


comprehensive;


the second


most


category


comprehensive.


purpose


Robinson


goals,


found


COSPA


general


statement


agreement


was


among


statements


third


category


. 255).


concluded


that


three


statements


represented


general


agreement


on what


ought


to be


included


preparation


programs


recommended


seeking


consensus


on one


statement


for the field.


Such


consensus


was


both


sought


achieved


subsequent


statement


revisions


ACPA


(1967)


COSPA


(1969)


which


reflected


cooperative


agreement


recommended


Robinson


(1966)


Association


statements


addition


other


studies


(Rhatigan


1965;


O'Banion,


1966)


earlier


writing


Williamson


(1952)


supported


the claim


a common


core


of knowledge


that


all student


personnel


staff


should


possess.


O' Banion


(1966,


1969)


devised


curriculum


theory


which


stated


that


"program


is derived


from


purpose


function


experiences


(1969,


that


249)


should


study


common


determine


student


core


personnel


practitioners in


higher


education included


psychology,


counseling


principles

overview


techniques,


of student


personnel


practicum

work in


in student


higher


personnel


education,


work,

study


college


student,


sociology/ anthropology,


higher


A TT I r1 TII tU A i. r t i


--


1 i,..


1


It


It






-33-


Numerous


studies


(Howtz,


1967


Davis,


1956;


William son,


1961;


Rhatigan


, 1965;


Rockey,


1972;


Yates,


1977


Minetti,


1977)


support


value


internship /practicum


experience


a student


personnel


preparation


program.


Howtz


(1967)


a study


determine


internships


contributed


significantly


development


student


personnel


practitioners


found


that


practical


experience


content


courses


should


be concurrent.


More


an increased


recent work


concern


in the content of


emphasis


preparation


on the end


programs


result


revealed


preparation;


competencies


COSPA,


skills


(Cooper,


1971,


have


been


COSPA,


acquired


1974)


Two


statements


incorporated


student


development


philosophy


education


support


preparation


programs


which


were


competency


based.


competency


objectives


were


incorporated


within


roles


administrator,


instructor,


consultant.

preparation


goal


of people


who in


professional

addition to


preparation


having


attained


become


a high level of


development,


skills


collaborate


with


others


their


development.


goal


setting,


They


were


change


to be able


processes


use


competencies of


implementing


assessment,


roles


consultant,


administrator,


instruction


relationship


with


individuals


, groups,


organizations


COSPA


, 1974,


Models


Rodgers


(1977)


identified


four


major


types


preparation


n1.ntfl.~ C in 0+11 Ann+ I I t'rhlln Cohn Cr I


n-cnnrcnal


31


E~ll~ nn~


II


nmn*~me


I I


1 T-


*^






-34-


Preparation


Programs


College


Student


Personnel


(1980)


classified in


one of


Rodgers'


four types.


student


personnel


education


process-outcome


mode


, referred


Sped


Pom,


based


upon


student


development


principles.


synthesized


elements


learner


centered


competency-based


education


(Arner,


Peterson


, Arner,


Hawkins,


Spooner,


1976;


Peterson,


1977;


Spooner,


1979).


Sped


model


was


built


three


components;


substantive


knowledge,


acquisition


skills


techniques,


personal


development


integration


Spooner


(1979)


recognized


that


objective


assessment


tools


were


needed.


benefits


of the model


were


its wide


array


courses


learning


experiences


the emphasis


on training


a person


strengths.


Brown


(1977)


believed


greatest


strength


model


was


breakdown


education


content areas into


the three


aforementioned


components.


Rentz

interrelated


(1976)

cores


proposed


learning


a triadic


model


(classroom,


emphasizing


internship


three


selfhood)


a sharing


task


force


integrating


agent


of learning).


model


was


proposed


as a result


of perceived


weaknesses


in entry


level


employment


positions


, related


responsibilities,


expectation


graduate


students.


Rentz


(1976)


supports


Howtz


(1967)


strong


recommendation


for a field


based


internship


concurrent


with


classroom


work.


Other


models


observed


literature


included


a student


activities


model


(Meabon,


Bailey


, Witten


, 1975),


a cooperation


model


ITT1~ -. -~ ~ -I *gI-' 2 t ~ a tn4 a 1


'n/fl'


In-.-'-.


-.4* -


I ~n-"


can


C,,,,:,l


** q


11~


*


I ll'/ J


k 1






-35-


competencies


consultation,


areas


milieu


goal


management,


setting,


evaluation.


assessment,


Delworth


instruction,


Hanson


(1980)


indicated


that


acquisition


critical


competencies


similar


areas


assessment


evaluation,


instruction,


counseling,


consultation


should


be the


primary


focus of


preparation


programs.


Preparation


Program


Assessments


Cowley


personnel


(1957)


positions


noted


reasons


tendency


having


make


little


appointments


to do with


to key


preparation


such


duties


(Hill


Green,


1960).


Stamatakos


(1981)


made


reference


1200


"crossovers"


entering


over


field


every


year


from


other


faculty


little


positions,


business


or no previous


, industry,


training


the military,


or experience


the clergy;


student


affairs


all with


work.


Upcraft


(1971)


concluded


that


formal


preparation


little


effect


the student affairs


practitioners'


perception


of their work.


present


departments


preparation


counseling


programs


are


guidance,


administered


psychology,


through


educational


psychology

separate


y, higher

program


education,


exists


or educational

interdisciplinar


administration.


nature,


When


involving


course


offerings


from


wide


range


departments


with


direct


affiliation


to counseling


or higher


education


(Greenleaf,


1977).


Cosby


(1965)


perceived


the heavy


emphasis


on counseling


as a source


conflict


administration.


student

A study


affairs


practitioners


Commission


V of the


heavilyy

National


engaged


Association


i miT ca n rnavl


ECliirl nn+


Pae cnn no11


(M CP ~ ~


i++4+ i rac


#'%T


/.J


nT


/^lT






-36-


behavioral


scientists


believed


stu dent


affairs


practitioners


were


very


inadequately


trained


that


they


lacked


a thorough


understanding


the problems


with


which


they


dealt


the effects


of their


work


students


faculty


(Smith,


Note


Peterson


(1977)


offered


a thorough


summary


assessed


criticisms of


student personnel


preparation


programs.


Student personnel
grounded in theory


education


been


sufficiently


and research.


Graduate


programs


have


been


too eclectic.


Quality


programs


is inconsistent.


student


personnel


educators


have


been


trained


for their


roles.


Student
preach.


personnel


educators


practice


what


they


Graduate
residence


students


have


been


used


cheap


labor


(e.g.,


halls).


Ratio of


students


to faculty


is often inexcusable


Quality o
standards.


theses


dissertations


below


minimum


A number of


studies


have


been


done,


assessing


graduate


prepara-


programs


at particular


institutions


(Davis


, 1956;


Broertjes


, 1965;


Bolton,


1974


Marler,


1977).


assessing


opinions


recent


graduates


quality


effectiveness


of these


programs


findings


revealed


general


sfaction


with


programs


with


recom-


mendation


for increased


focu s


experiential


components


(practicums


internships).


general


profile


study


Kuh,


Greenlee,






-37-


A longitudinal


study


of the graduate


assistantship


work


training


experience


highlighted


importance


experiential


learning


preparation


programs


(McGovern


Tinsley,


1976).


Various


trends


preparation


have


been


observed.


There


been


increased


emphasis


training


generalist


rather


than


specialists


(Emmet,


1963).


There


is a trend


away


from


counseling


guidance


courses


as a prerequisite


for student


personnel


work


(Emmet,


1963).


Riker


(1977)


observed


that


professional


preparation


programs


are placing


skill


more


responsibility


attainment


on students


utilizing


faculty


for demonstrating


more


learning


supervisors,


resource


persons.


believed


that


concept


competency-based


curriculum


receives


greater


attention,


carefully


planned


learning


modules


would


replace


content


courses.


Needs / Recommendations


Practicums


components


internships


of preparation


have


programs.


been


Kirkbride


recognized


(1972)


valuable


recommended


that


practicums


offered


formal


training


program,


greater


emphasis


placed


exposure


generalists


than


specialists,


a team


supervisors


rather


than


individuals


utilized


84).


Increased


recognition


was


made


need


analyze


training


content


terms


actual


function


expectations


effort


lessen


disparity


between


training


performance


-'j--- .. ._ -- *'


rnr*\


Ini


r


_ -


i






-38-


Rhatigan,


1978).


There


been


a strong


endorsement


a sharper


focus


on organizational


development


(Blaesser,


1978;


McDaniel,


1972).


A study


Yates


(1977)


of the perceptions


of chief


student


personnel


administrators


coordinates


preparation


programs


regarding


intended


learning


outcomes


of doctoral


programs


supports


this.


Yates


(1977)


found


that


respondents


believe


there


a need


greater


emphasis


development


management


skills


preparation


programs.


Trueblood


(1966)


recommended


that


preparation


programs


open


preparation

preparation


modification

programs

programs


based

select q

develop


upon va

Qualified p

learning


rying

peoplee


training


needs,


for training,


expectations


which


reflect


that

that

the


demands


of professional


positions.


results


a study


Tracey


(1971)


showed


that


a higher


priority


must


given


to the evaluation


of and improvement of existing


preparation


programs.


Professional


Competency


Competency


results


when


individual


exhibits


behavior


that


enables

desirable


im to perform a

manner (Southern


Administration,


1955).


particular

States C


A competency


administrative


cooperative


must


task


Program


be judged


most


Educational


in reference


purpose


and must


be concerned


with


quality


. 45).


group


can


claim


professional


standing


without


explicit


statements


about


what


constitutes


competence


field


*1 I


A.


I- --


1I


Jr1


II


1_- ~.


--






-39-


Developing


basic


competencies


successful


professional


been


seen


purpose


professional


education


(Wolfe,


1980).


Williamson


(1958)


noting


diversity


needed


professional


competencies


as a problem


dimension


of professional


training


indicated


that


the development


competency


in one's


own


specialty


as well


as in


their role


with


working


with


colleagues


(faculty


and staff)


was


critical.


Studies

necessary f


have


or the


been

adequate


done


function


determine


specific


professional


competencies


higher


education


(Lynam,


1970;


competency


Davies,


tasks


used


1970).


student


A study


affairs


Domeier


(1977)


administrators


developed

examined


training


administrators


tasks.


results


indicated


that


student


affairs


administrators


agree


on the applicability


frequency


of using


tasks


their


present


positions.


They


agree


sources


training


they


each


competency


task.


Minetti


(1977)


developed


a list


entry


level


competencies


to determine


whether


locus


preparation


for each


competency


was


formal


student


personnel


preparation


program


an assistantship


Ostroth


(1979)


utilized


Minetti'


s (1977)


competencies


determine


what


criteria


employers


used


evaluating


candidates


seeking


entry


level


positions


student


affairs.


Hanson


(Note


generated


a list of


competencies


using


Delphi


technique


classifying


competencies


according


dimensions


T.H.E.


model


(Miller


Prince,


1976).


study


Newton


Hellenga


(1974)
I .


to determim


appropriate


goals,


A.


objectives,
I 1 .


and~


a direction


..A -1






-40-


move


toward


a competency


based,


module


model


in lieu


more


tradi-


tional


offerings.


Competency


assessment


represented


approach


that


eval-


uates


performances,


judges


ability


, and


measures


what


demonstrated


(Goldsmith,


1979).


New


ways


identifying


measuring


competencies


are


needed


assure


that


ability


perform


competently


is the ultimate


goal.


primary


concern


should


given


to the assessment


evaluation


of professional


performance


outcomes


(Pottinger


, 1979).


Delworth


Yarris


(1978)


observed


that


more


skills


competencies


are required


in the student


services


profession


that


must


be addressed


those


who aspire


as trainers.


Practitioners


preparation


program


faculty


through


direct


long


term


co-sponsorship


the profession's


major


specialty


associations,


need


to conduct


joint


research


to determine


needed


desired skills


competencies


at all


levels


in the profession


(Domeier,


1977).


Once


agreed


through


the medium


of association-sponsored


conferences,


a vigorous


sustained


dissemination


promulgation


campaign


should


be undertaken


to effect


their


acceptance


exercise


hiring


practicing


performance


objectives,


instructional


objectives


in professional


preparation


programs


(Knock,


1979;


as cited


in Stamatakos,


1981).


Chapter


Summary


rrL ir~nS. a- n ..4.4 A S..


S.. nn- -. a.


can


I~~C~:~A~


~t


,t.,,r,,


I PF


*
.


I


m






-41-


preparation


programs,


identification


measurement


competencies identified in


the literature.


next


chapter


describes


the methodology


design


developed


utilized in implementing


study.
















CHAPTER


RESEARCH


DESIGN


AND


METHODOLOGY


This


study


was


designed


determine


student


personnel


professional


preparation


programs


educated


specifically


the devel-


opment


entry


level


competencies.


Three


groups


of professionals


field


perception


student


of the training


affairs


were


graduates


compared


with


master


determine


degrees


their


received


their


preparation


programs


entry


level


competencies


determine


their


perception


the importance


competencies


entry


level


staff.


This


chapter identifies


describes


the following


aspects


of the


study:


research


objectives,


research


populations


, development


of the


instrument,


endorsement


study,


administration


instru-


ment,


treatment


of the data,


a chapter


summary.


Research


Objectives


purpose


of this


study


was


to determine


if student


personnel


professional


preparation


programs


educated


development


entry


level


competencies.


objective


of the study


was


to provide


answers


to the follow-


research


questions:


Do recent


a radiizatesP


*II


ma ~pl


lp'tpl


nrmpnnratir


n nrnor~mQ






-43-


chief


housing (
the trainix
programs
identified


student


DOE


in student


entry


level


affairs
faculty
master'


officers
(FTs) h
degree


personnel


(CSAOs),


rave


graduates


administration


competencies?


important


recent


master


s degree


graduates


from


student


have
into


personnel


acquired
the student


Do CSAOs
importance


administration


these c
affairs


:ompetencies
field?


FTs,


entry


level


have


preparation
prior to f


similar


programs


time


entry


of the


Research


Population


The

chief


research

student


population


affairs


for this


officers


study


(CSAOs)


included


selected


directors


samples

housing


(DOHs)


four


year


public


private


post


secondary


educational


institutions


faculty


(FTs)


employed


institutions


with


depart-


ments


offering


graduate


programs


student


personnel


administration


leading


a Master's


degree.


random


sample


CSAOs


was


selected


from


voting


delegate


directory


the National


Association


Student


Personnel


Administrators


SPA).


hundred


forty-one


DOHs


at institutions


which


house


3000


or more


students


university-operate d


directory


residential


facilities


of College


were


University


selected


Housing


from


Officers


International


(ACUHO-I).


hundred


sixty-two


were


selected


from


Directory


Graduate


Preparation


Programs


College


Student


Personnel


(American


College


Personnel


Association


1980).


No studies


have


been


reported in


the literature which investigated


the nercentions


of both


student


affairs


practitioners


sa. -


faculty


train-


0) and
recent


directors


similar perceptions of


preparation


receive


for the


, DOHs,
of these


competencies?


perceptions


of the Association






-44-


support


notion


that


those


hired


student


affairs


positions


possess


specified


competencies


whether


preparation


programs


have


prepared


their


graduates


with


these


competencies.


These


three


samples


of student


affairs


professionals


were


selected


a number


reasons.


Chief


Student


Affairs


Officers


maintain


overall


student


ultimate


affairs


responsibility


departments.


for the hiring


quality


professional


of the student


staff


affairs


in all


staff


frequently


reflects


level


of involvement


CSAO


with


staff.


CSAO


approves


supports


the expected


minimal


profes-


sional


educational


requirements


for all professional


staff


positions


in the student


affairs


division.


Directors


Housing


were


selected


because


they


represent


student


affairs


department


which


frequently


maintains


a large


number


professional


staff.


Housing


departments,


providing


residence


facilities


3000


students


more


, hire


provide


a larger


number


of professional


staff


than


do housing


department


which


provide


facilities


than


3000


students.


Departments


that


size


more


likely


to maintain


annual


operating


budget,


large


enough


support


a professionally


trained


residence


staff.


study


Ostroth


(1979)


supports


the observation


that,


more entry


level


professional


positions


are


available


housing/residence


department


than


within


the other


departments


of student


affairs.


Faculty


were


selected


primarily


because


they


assume


responsibility


providing


formal


academic


applied


nrenaration ni


graduate n


rocrramsr


student


personnel


work


Their


are


J J


.






-45-


represent


prospective


entry


level


professionals


into


the student


affairs


field.


Development of


the Instrument


Extensive


review


the literature


previous


studies


compe-


tencies


necessary


Richardson,


1976


for student


Minetti,


affairs


1977,


staff


Domeier,


(Yates,


1977


1977


Newton


Ostroth,


1979;


Hanson,


Note


resulted


development


a selected


expected


entry


level


professional


competencies


student


personnel


work.


Tomorrow's


Higher


Education


H.E.)


model


(Miller


Prince


, 1976)


was


used


as the foundation


for a conceptual


framework,


providing


categories


competencies


which


were


identified.


slight


Hanson's


modification


(American


competencies,


model


College


Delworth


was


Personnel

Hanson's


accomplished


Association,

(1980) re


consistent


1977)


with


taxonomy


commendations,


consistent


with


the need


to provide


a framework


adequate


for specific,


entry


level


competencies


Hanson's


(Note


ACPA


sponsored


study


used


T.H.E.


model


identifying


student


affairs


staff


competencies.


Twenty-eight


leaders


in ACPA


responded


a Delphi


survey


which


eventually


Hanson' s


identification


competencies


areas


goal


setting,


assessment,


consultation,


instruction,


milieu


management,


eval-


uation.


garding


Hanson' s


which


study


competencies


requested


were


response


considered


from


most


ACPA


leaders


important


re-


Those


competencies


were


identified


, categorized,


accumulated


- a~ en~ f f toal nwnnrf -t nnt r m 1h


~n ntt~r~ll


frnm


nrk~Fk


Fnmn ~~nn ~~t


~ c~ vnn nmtr


at






-46-


Domeier


(1977)


deductively


generated


58 administrative


competency


tasks


under


the following


categories:


budget


management,


cooperative


relationships,


professional


communication,


development,


leadership,


research


personnel


evaluation,


management,


student


contact.


This


researcher


added


these


competencies


taxonomy


developed


entry


level


competency


deviation.


Competency


tasks


from


Domeier' s


study


, which


overlapped


with


Hanson's


study


were


eliminated.


Minetti


important


(1977)


entry


derived

level


entry


student


level


affairs


competencies


staff.


judged


identified


to be

these


competencies


under


following


categories:


counseling,


human


relations


interpersonal


skills;


theory


practice


of administration


management;


research,


testing,


measurement;


historical,


philosophical,


social


foundations;


meeting


student


needs;


professional


purpose


identity.


This


researcher


added


compe-


tencies


developing


competency


taxonomy,


eliminating


those


competencies


which


were


duplicated in


the other


studies.


competency


taxonomy


developed


the researcher


from


previous


studies


numbered


Overlap


duplication,


evidence


common


themes


enabled


researcher


derive


entry


level


competencies.


With


assistance,


support


approval


of faculty


University


Florida,


entry


level


competencies


were


analyzed;


some


were


eliminated ;


balance


were


categorized


within


the modified


conceptual


framework.


rr


nsa ~!1tnnric 4Ant414c~d frm ts md id nrnl


mn~i f;p~


rnn rpn fll ~1


; rl on ~~ Ci P~


~ s +o nnri o C


I


Inu






-47-


Goal


Setting


Write


behavioral objectives


Identify
students


articulate institution's


goals


policies


Teach


students


the consequences of


their


behavior


Engage in


systematic planning


Consultation


Recognize


use


expertise of others


Facilitate


group


problem


solving


group


decision


making


Facilitate


staff


development


through in-service


training


Work


effectively with


a diversity


individual students and


faculty

Communication


Analyze


write


memos


reports


Make effective
presentations


use of


verbal and


nonverbal


skills in


group


Perceive and


accurately interpret


attitudes,


beliefs,


needs of others


Represent


student


concerns


to other


campus


groups


Recognize and
procedures


define


confidentiality


practices


Determine
secretarial


non


print


usage


services,
media)


office
business


management
machine


procedures


operation,


print


(i.e.
and


IV. Assessment and


Evaluation


Assess


student


needs


Analyze


and interpret program


needs


requests


Design


student


programs


3 based oi


n student 3


needs






-48-


Revise


programs on


the basis of


evaluation


data


Recognize


and analyze


interpersonal


problems


Environmental and


Develop


Organizational


administer


Management


a budget


Organize resources
activities


(people,


material)


carry


out program


Understand institutional mission,


objectives,


expectations


Know


utilize


effective


decision


making


strategies


Accept


authority


and responsibility


delegate


appropriate


Identify


utilize


available


financial resources


Mediate
groups


conflict


among


students,


campus,


and/or


community


Recognize


accept


the ethical


consequences


of personal


professional


behavior


Select,


train,


supervise


staff


Manage


physical resources


facilities


Adjudicate


student


conduct


matters


effectively


instrument


developed


use


including


in this


these


study


competencies


Part


categories


of the instrument


was


requested


common


demographic


information


from


respondents;


age,


highest


earned


degree,


length


of time


in current


position,


length


of time


in the field


student


affairs,


type


institution


where


employed,


institutional


enrollment,


fields)


in which


advanced


degrees


were


earned,


membership


professional


associations.


Those


responding


practitioner


instrument


were


asked


indicate


number


their






-49-


entry


level


staff


earned


a Master'


degree in


a field


related


to student


affairs.


Those


responding


faculty


instrument


were


asked


indicate


many


students


graduated


from


respondent's


academic


program


with


a master' s


degree,


if the respondents


ever


(currently


one


time )


served


administrative


capacity


student affairs,


and if


in what


capacity.


Part


II of the instrument


requested


that


recipients


each sample


respond


each


competency


indicating


recent


master' s


degree


graduates


preparation


programs


in student


personnel


administration


have


possessed


the competency


the importance of


the competen-


for assuming


an entry


level


staff


position.


recipients


instrument


were


asked


to respond


twice


each competency


circling


number


which


best


reflected


their


perception


based


following


key:


Indicate


the extent of your


Indicate


extent


agreement with


statement


the following


each


competency.


which


believe


competency is


assurmng


level


"Recent master's degree graduates
in student personnel administration


possess


each


important
an entry


staff position


competency.


Possession


of Competency


Importance of


the Competency


Disagree
Disagree
Agree (0


strongly (DS)


Not important


(NI)


Of little importance.
Important (I)


Agree


strongly


(AS)


Not important


(NI)


instrument


was


pilot


tested


at the University


of Florida


using


student


department


affairs


administrative


associated


with


staff


preparation


faculty


program


members


student






-50-


Feedback


from


a 100%


return


on the


pilot


enabled


the researcher


make


necessary


revisions


alterations


instrument.


competencies


were


evaluated


to be appropriate


use


in the


study.


a result


of the pilot


test


extensive


evaluation


critique


members


faculty


student


affairs


staff,


face


validity


was


assumed


for the instrument.


Although


have


been


possible


generate


similar


data


means


other


instrumentation


example,


structured


interviews)


three


considerations


qualified


use


instrument:


extensive


nature


of the information


to be gathered


the consequent


data


analysis,


financial


time


constraints,


the need


avoid


possible


bias


subjectivity


part


both


researcher


respondents


(Borg


, Hillway


, 1969


, Macoby


Macoby


, 1954;


as cited in


Domeier


, 1977,


Endorsement


of the Study


That


need


exists


to conduct


additional


research


area


received


strong


support


literature


(Sandeen,


1982;


Stamatakos,


Richardson,


1981


1976;


Domeier


Rhatigan,


1977


1965).


Minetti,


results


1977;


of this


Newton


study


of significant


interest


value


to all professionals


practice


teach


the student


personnel


profession.


results


provide


information


useful


to those


who


plan


develop


preparation


programs


as well


as provide


information


about


the kind


of training


entry


level


professionals


have


received.


letter


endorsement


for the


study


-S..fl -fl -


IT; *


Vs,.0 e4 aan


^-s C+nrlnn+


A Un Ira


ml+ thal TTnriiror-


,~ rr


kr






-51-


obtained


a letter


of support


endorsement


from


Research


Information


Housing


Officers


Committee of the Association

International (ACUHO-I).


of College


Both


endorseme


University

nt letters


expressed


respondents


recognition


to promptly


support


complete


study


return


encouraged


the questionnaire.


ACUHO-I


endorsement


letter


accompanied


only


instruments


sent


to the


sample of


DOHs.


Administration


of the Instrument


Initial


distribution


of the


instrument


was


accomplished


through


mailout.


Each


of the 453 potential


respondents,


representing


CSAOs,


DOHs


, and


FTs,


received


a cover


letter


indicating


purpose


of the


study,


endorsement


letters


appropriate


the respective


sample,


two-part


stationery


questionnaire.


the University


cover


of Florida


letter


was


student


reproduced


affairs


division


on official


in order


to lend


letter

terms


additional


outlined


used


credibility


primary


to the study


(See


purpose


investigation,


Appendix).


study,


requested


defined


that


cover


specific

recipient


complete


return


the questionnaire


via the self


addressed,


prepaid


postage


envelope included


in each


mailout.


cover


letter


requested


return


of the


questionnaire


within


weeks


provided


assurances


confidentiality


in all aspects


of the investigation.


Feedback


received


from


the pilot


enabled


the researcher


to design


an instrument


package


to enhance


recipient


understanding


well


encourage


high


response


rate.


instruments


were


-' q.- ~ -~. A L .. 1.. A C2CTCi1n.. 1 1 e r


~..~tr nYCI Cf


ct,,,,, ,t,


n ~ r un n n n ~


I






-52-


recipients


failed


respond


initial


request


(See


Appendix).


This


request


asked


that


instrument


returned


within


weeks.


Treatment


of the


Data


Responses


obtained


on each


of the


33 competencies


in Part


II of


instrument


yielded


individual


score


each


competency


possession


and importance.


Responses


question


possession


provided


a measure


extent


to which


respondents


in each


sample


perceived


entry


level


staff


to possess


or not possess


each


competency.


Responses


question


on importance


provided


a measure


extent


to which


respondents


in each


sample


perceived


each


compe-


tency


important


or not important


for the assumption


an entry


level


staff position.


Statistical


Analysis


System


(SAS)


computer


program


was


primary


used


in analyzing


the data.


This


program


system


enabled


the researcher


to perform


various


types


data


analysis


relevant


the design


study.


All instruments

appropriate sa


were


simple.


number

The


coded

results


to allow

from


for identification


useable,


with


returned


instruments


were


transferred


on to data


coding


sheets


subsequently


punched


on to IBM


cards.


Procedures were


selected


from


the SAS


program


which


enabled


researcher


answer


research


questions


asked


study.


Tkhkc


i- iiP ctinn C


niP rs


tc fnllnun


r:


J>






-53-


with


training


entry


level


competencies


result


their


training


programs?


CSAOS,


training


recent


student


DOHs,


master' s


personnel


have


degree gradu
administration


similar


Plates
rec


perceptions


of preparation
eive for the


programs
identified


entry


level


competencies?


Is it important
personnel pr
competencies
field?


for recent


separation
prior to


master'


program
full time


Degree
s to
entry i


graduates


have


nto


from


acquired
student


student
these
affairs


Do CSAOs,
importance of


DOHs,
these


have


entry


level


similar


perceptions


competencies?


Frequencies

instrument


procedure

providing


were


applied


percentage


to the questions


responses


each


in Part


item


respondents.


An analysis


variance


for repeated


measures


was


applied


to the


data


from


Part


to provide


measures


central


tendency


for each


respondent


group


on the possession


and importance


variables.


A multivariate


analysis


variance


was


conducted


categories


competencies


each


group


variables


possession


importance


of their


to determine


perceptions


similarity / differences


possession


among


importance


each


three


groups


category


competency.

significance


differences


were


category


observed


competency


level


possession


importance


Duncan


s multiple


range


was


performed


determine


between


what


groups


a significant


difference


existed.


Chapter


Summary


design


methodology


incorporated


the study


been


n..4l~~narl +1-d rpQpnr


nhi ertives .


rpnp~rrh


C~;E


nlr Cl;n a rl






-54-


endorsement of


the study,


administration


of the instrument,


treatment


data.


Chapter


IV presented


a detailed


review


description


of the


data obtained in


study.
















CHAPTER


PRESENTATION


OF THE


DATA


data


presented


chapter


were


collected


from


a re-


search


instrument


professionals;


faculty


administered


(FTs)


three


institutions


groups


offering


student

master's


affairs

degree


programs


student


personnel


administration,


directors


housing


(DOHs)


chief


student


affairs


officers


(CSAOs)


at four year public


private


post


secondary


educational


institutions.


instrument


was


developed


from


extensive


review


literature


including


previous


studies


competencies


determined


to be


necessary


entry


level


student


affairs


staff.


instrument


included


entry


level,


professional


competencies,


organized into


categories.


primary


purpose


study


was


determine


professional


preparation


programs


student


personnel


administration


educated


development


these


competencies.


Specifically,


the study


sought


provide


answers


to the following


questions


for investigation:


Do recent
student
affairs w


graduates


personnel


ith


training


master


administration


in entry


level i
enter


level


)reparation
the field


competencies


programs in
of student


as a result


their preparation


programs?


Do chief
(DOHs)
training


student


affairs


faculty


recent


officers


(FTs)


master's


have


degree


(CSAOs),


similar


graduate
4-4t-4n4--4.4


directors


perceptions
es of nr'


housing


separation


---a -- n na 1 nf tI,..flr


r-


nn


,L.. fl~L


mnnnrrn






-56-


Is it important


personnel


recent


preparation


master's


programs


degree
> have


graduates
acquired


from
these


student
compe-


tencies prior to full


time


entry


into


the student


affairs


field?


CSAOs,


DOHs,


have


similar


perceptions


importance of these entry


level


competencies?


Of the 453 CSAOs,


DOHs


, and


were


mailed


a copy


instrument,


useable


instruments


were


returned


A break-


down


the rate of


return


indicated


that


91 of


150 (60.67%)


CSAOs,


of 141


(66.67%)


DOHs


75 of


(46.30%)


of FTs representing


of the 81 preparation


programs


returned


usable instruments.


data


included


chapter


are presented


to address


four


questions


for investigation


in this


study


be organized


to the following


sections:


demographic


profile


of respondents;


data


on possession


tencies;


statistical


competencies;


comparisons


data


among


on importance


groups;


compe-


a chapter


summary


copy


of the research


instrument


appears in


Appendix


Demographic


Profile of


Respondents


summary


demographic


information


respondents


three


groups


is provided


in Table


Total


respondents


to the study


were


including


DOHs,


CSAOs.


Responses


the item


pertaining


to institutional


type


revealed


that


the majority


all respondents


are currently


employed


at public


institutions.


There


were


some


differences


item


between


groups.


over-


n'a i4 W~4-'.. ., (o *9 Is flcnf fflIla I l~I I l7~O n flntnr


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-58-


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C
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-60-


population


in this


study


reported


much


variation


in the size


respective


employing


institutions.


clear


majority


pop-


ulation

meant a


worked


Although,


enrollments


ove


a particular


the largest

r 20,000


number


students.


institution


31.9%)


Again


with


worked

, there


respect


to enroll-


in institutions


were


with


differences


among


groups


with


respect


to enrollment


at employing


institutions.


majority


reported


employment


institutions


with


over


20,000


enrolled


students.


More


DOHs


.2%)


worked


large


institutions


over


20,000


students,


their


numbers


were


more


equally


spread


among


the other


size


ranges


with


the exception


under


5000


category.


No DOHs


reported


employment


in institutions


that


size


not surprising


given


the fact


that


all DOHs


in the population


directed


programs


which


housed


3000


more


students


campus.


largest


number


CSAOs


(38.5%)


reported


employment


at institu-


tions with


enrollment


under


5000.


largest


number


of the


total


population


37.8%)


reported


that


they


been


employed


their


current


position


level


for less


than


years.


of FTs


Variations


(33.3%)


among


worked


groups


their


revealed


current


level


that


a large


over


number


years


with


the next


largest


group


of FTs


(29.3%)


reporting


employment


their


current


level


for 11-15


years.


Both


practitioner


groups


differed


with


FTs.


majority


of DOHs


reported


employment at


their


current level


for less


than


years.


greatest


number


CSAOs






-61-


majority


the population


respondents


reported


employ-


ment


student


affairs/higher


education


more


than


years


(49.4%).


This


was


consistent


among


all three


groups


with


the largest


number


of each


group


reporting


such


an employment


commitment


over


years.


largest


portion


the population


reported


their


ages


between


36-45


years


(45.4%).


This


was


consistent


among


each


three


groups


with


largest


percentage


of each


group


reporting


range.


majority


of the population


indicated


that


a doctorate


was


highest


earned


degree


(65.4%).


Some


differences


among


groups reveal-


ed that


reported


the highest


number


of earned


doctorates


(96%)


followed


CSAOs


DOHs


Differences


among


three


group s


were


noted


among


respon-


dents


with


advanced


rees


a field


related


higher


education.


reported


the largest


percentage


of doctorates


(93.3%)


followed


CSAOS


tage


(60.4%)


master


DOHs


degrees


(35.1%)


earned


DOHs


a field


reported


related


the largest


to higher


percen-


education


(75.5%)


followed


CSAOs


(65.9


7%).


respondents


were


asked


to indicate


institution (


where


advanced


degrees were earned.


summary


responses


indicated


that


particular


institutions


were


choice


many


respon-


dents.


Among


the 42 institutions identified


as those


where


earned


master'


degrees,


Teacher' s


College


Columbia


University


- -1 r--. ~1! -i'r -- -


.4


tda n4 C A A


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rru.


rr


A


m


..-ur


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-62-


University


Michigan


State


Ohio


State


, Teacher's


College,


Columbia


Florida


State


University


Iowa


named


most often.


CSAOs identified


51 different institutions


where


group


earned


master's


degrees.


Southern


Illinois


University


, Michigan


State


Syracuse


University


Indiana


University


were


named most often.


CSAOs


identified


different institutions


where


group


reported


earnin g


doctoral


degrees.


Indiana


University


Michigan


State


Ohio


State


, and


Florida


State


were


named


most


often.


DOHs


identified


different


institutions


where


group


reported

Michigan


earning


State


master' s

were th


rees.


e only


Indiana


institutions


University


named


more


(10)

than


DOHs.


DOHs


a group


, reported


smallest


number


having


earned


a doctorate


34).


that


number,


22 institutions


were


identi-


group


degree


granting


institution.


Indiana


University


Michigan


State


were


the only


institutions


named


by more than


DOHs.


Membership


population.


in professional


indicated


associations


Table


was


that


reviewed


largest


for the total


number


respondents


reported


membership


in the National


Association


Student


Personnel


Administrators


(NASPA)


, followed


membership


American


College


Personnel


Association


(ACPA)


9%).


large


number


respondents


(43.5%)


reported


membership


professional


associations


other than


those identified


on the research


instrument.








-63-










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-64-


these


items


are


summarized


Table


Each


group


was


asked


report


fessional


the number


student


affairs


time


staff


since


they


being


hired


employed


a first


their


pro-


current


position


level.


largest


percentages


both


DOHs


CSAOs


reported


hiring


more


than


20 such


staff


(DOH


- 31.9%,


CSAO


- 33.5%).


DOHs


hired


CSAOs


student


were each


affairs


staff


asked


to indicate


earned


many


a master's


degree


these


newly


a field


related


to higher education.


results


revealed


a smaller


percentage


of each


group


hired more


than


20 staff trained in


higher


education


(DOH


- 26%,


CSAO


- 22.4%).


were


asked


respond


three


items


research


strument


specific


their


group


shown. in


Table


that


largest


percentage


of FTs


(76.8%)


reported


that


in the time


they


served


a faculty


member


their


respective


institution,


over


students


received


a master's


degree


from


that


particular


pre-


paration


program.


Most


(57.3%)


were


not currently


serving


administrative


capacity


in either


academic


or student


affairs


many


(50.7%)


have


never


served


administrative


capacity


either


student


or academic


affairs.


Among


those


currently


serve


have


served


administrative


capacity


student


academic


affairs


largest


percentages


reported


service


residence


hall/housing


(41.3%)


, counseling


center


(40%),


dean


students


office


(42.7%)


Data on


Possession


of Competencies


S~r *


i


.







-65-









-66-


'I
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4)

C)
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5" 0..
a)
.1-I bO
C C
dl






-67-


training


competencies


necessary


function


effectively


entry


level


position


student


affairs.


This


objective


was


stated


research question


one.


recent


student
with tr


graduates


personnel


gaining


master


administration


in entry


level


s level
enter 1


competencies


preparation
e field of s
as result


programs
student aff


thei:


airs


r pre-


paration


programs?


instrument


used


study


contained


competency


items


organize


ed in


conceptual


categories.


Those


categories


were:


Goal


Setting


Consultation

Communication


Assessment


Evaluation


Environmental


Organizational


Management


extent


to which


each


the three


research


groups


perceived


that


recent


master's


graduates


preparation


programs


enter


the field


of student


affairs


with


training


in the


competencies


was


determined


asking


each


group


of participants


assess


the extent


to which


they


perceived


group


recent


graduates


participants


was


to have


asked


possess


assess


d each


competency.


possession


through


Each

their


response


following


statement


each


competency:


"Recent


master' s


degree


graduates


possess


competency.


Each


participant


study


responded


statement


on the following


four-point


scale.


Possession


of the Compe


tency


Agree st


:rongly






-68-


extent


which


each


group


agreed


with


statement


each


category


competency


provided


measure


to determine


the extent


which


each


group


perceived


recent


master' s


graduates


possession


each


of the

category


competencies.


Mean


competency


scores


were


reported


standard

and e


deviations


examined


determine


the extent


which


each


group


agreed


with


possession


competencies


recent


graduates.


Differences


between


groups


regarding


the extent


their


agreement


with


possession


ex-


amined later in


the study


Goal


Setting


Mean


scores


standard


deviations


of faculty


(FTs)


director' s


of housing


(DOHs)


chief


student


affairs


officers


(CSAOs)


for extent


agreement


with


possession


of the competencies


category


goal


setting


are


reported


Table


groups,


the highest


mean


scores


extent


agreement


on possession


were


competency


quences


their


"teach


behavior.


student


lowest


to deal


mean


with


score


conse-


extent


agreement


on possession


was


competency


"write


goals


objectives


(2.867).


lowest


mean


scores


for both


DOHs


532)


CSAOs


(2.648)


were


extent


agreement


on possession


compe-


tency


"engage


in systematic


planning.


Mean


scores


extent


of agreement


with


possession


for the


category


of Goal


Setting


were


than


3.0 for


DOHs


750)


CSAOs


782)


indicating


a tendency


direction


toward


"disagree"


response


range


on possession


competencies


in this


category.


mean


score


for FTs


extent


*


- 'v t. an .%%a~ 4- nnfl a ee 9 rn. ra ,,-+an wr a; t r 2 1 7


12


hF


a a~~; Y n


4 I*YAAm An C


n~~a~ Arvr*


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n,


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-69-


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o
"-I C
C,
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Li


*-






-70-


range


on possession


competencies


in his


category.


Standard


devia-


tions


for all


groups on


all competencies


were


than


II Consultation.


Mean


scores


standard


deviations


each


three


groups


extent


agreement


with


possession


compe-


tencies


category


of Consultation


are reported


in Table


groups


highest


mean


scores


were


competency


"recognize


use


expertise


of others.


lowest


mean


score


was


competency


"facilitate


staff


development


through


service


training


competency


No. 6


080).


"facilitat<


DOHs r

e group


reported


lowest


problem solving


mean

group


score


decision-


making"


872)


lowest


CSAO


mean


score


was


competency


, facilitate


staff


development


through


in-service


training"


(2.644).


Mean


scores


for FTs


every


competency


in this


category


the category


itself


303)


were


greater


than


, indicating


tendency in


the direction


toward


the "agree"


response range


or posses-


for this


category


competencies.


Mean


scores


of DOHs


for all


competencies


category


were


than


Mean


scores


DOHs


(2.921)


CSAOs


846)


possession


for the


category


Consultation


were


than


3.0, indicating


a tendency


in the direction


of the


' isare


response


range


category


competencies.


Standard


deviations


for each


respondent


group


were


than


1.0 for


competencies.


III Communication.


Mean


scores


standard


deviations


for each


of the


three


groups


extent


agreement


with


possession


S .4S r -, Sj 1


m I I


1 ,


r 1


11 1






-71-






-72-


U) U)
E-4Lz~


Hor~
0.4

cc~o
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0
~za-4~


U,






-73-


presentations.


DOHs


(2.946)


CSAOs


(3.044)


each


indicated


highest


mean


score


possession


competency


"recognize


define


confidentiality


practices


procedures


All three


groups


reported


lowest


mean


scores


possession


competency


"determining


use


of office


management


procedures.


mean


score


category


Communication


(3.0


was


above


Mean


scores


DOHs


692)


CSAOs


(2.744)


for the category


Communication


were


than


, indicating


a tendency


in the direc-


toward


tencies


the "disagree"


in the this


range


category.


with


Standard


respect


deviations


possession


for each


compe-


respondent


group


were less


than


1.0 for


all competencies in


category.


Assessment


Evaluation.


Mean


scores


standard


devia-


tions


each


three


groups


extent


agreement


with


possession


competencies


category


Assessment


Evaluation


scores


are reported


were


in Table


competency


groups


recognizez e


the highest


analyze


mean


inter-


personal

different


problems.


competency.


Each

Mean


group r

scores


reported

for CS


A


a lowest

Os, were


mean

less


score

than :


every


competency


category.


Mean


scores


each


group


category


eating a

possession


Assessment


tendency


competencies


Evaluation


direction

in this


toward


category.


were


than


"disagree"


Standard


indi-


range


deviations


each


group


were


than


for all competencies in


category.


Environmental


Organizational


Management.


Mean


scores


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highest


mean


scores


(3.562)


CSAOs


(3.011)


were


competency


"recognize


accept


the ethical


consequences


personal


professional


behavior.


highest


mean


score


DOHs


022)


was


competency


"select,


train,


super-


vise


staff.


lowest


mean


scores


for all


groups


were


compe-


tency


"develop


administer


a budget.


mean


scores


for all three


groups


category


Environmental


Organiza-


tional


Management


were


under


3.0, indicating


a tendency


each


group


direction


toward


"disagree"


range


with


respect


possession


competencies


category.


Standard


deviations


each


group


were


than


all competencies in


category.


Summary


Data


Possession


Competencies.


Each


group


reported its


highest


mean


score


on possession


for the


same


competency


categories


Goal


Setting,


Consultation,


Assessment


Evaluation.


Each


group


reported


its lowest


mean


score


on possession


for the


same


competency


in the categories of


Communication


Environ-


mental


Organizational


Management.


Mean


scores


DOHs


were


than


competencies


in categories


of Goal


Setting,


Con-


sultation,


Communication,


CSAOs


category


Assessment


3.0 for all


Evaluation.


competencies


Mean


in the


scores


category


were


of Consultation.


greater


Mean


than


scores


for DOHs


CSAOs


were


below


every


category


indicating


tendency


possession


direction


toward


of competencies


disagree


study.


Mean


range


with


scores


respect


for FTs


were


2r rnl f r i a a(


(2


2


r.nlt


CCC;n n


rhn Lr IrtC rl C; nill


nT


F






-78-


direction


toward


"agree"


range


on possession


competencies


these


categories.


Mean


scores


for FTs


were


below


for the cate-


gories


Assessment


Evaluation


930)


Environmental


Organizational


"disagree"


Management


range on


(2.934)


possession


indicating


of competencies


a tenden

in these


toward


categories.


Data on


Importance


of Competencies


Another


four


primary


objectives


study


was


determine


whether


these


competencies


were


important


recent


master's


level


degree


position


recipients


in the student


to have

t affairs


acquired

field.


prior


assuming


This objective


was


an entry


stated


research


question


important


recent


master' s


degree


graduates


student


personnel


preparation


programs


have


acquired


these
affairs


competencies
field?


prior


to full


time


entry


into


the student


extent


to which


each


of the three


groups


perceived


impor-


tant


recent


master' s


graduates


preparation


programs


have


acquired


indicate


these


competencies


the extent


to which


was


they


determined


believed


asking


each


each


competency


group


was


Im-


portant


assuming


entry


level


staff


position.


Participants


each


of the


three


groups


assessed


extent


of importance


for each


competency


according


to the following


four-point


scale:


Importance


of the Competency


- essential

- important


- of little importance







-79-


were


reported


examined


determine


extent


which


each


group


found


competencies


important


assumption


entry


level


positions


in student


affairs.


Differences


between


groups


the extent


their


perception


of the importance


these


competencies


be examined


later in


the study.


Goal


Setting.


Mean


scores


standard


deviations


of faculty


(FTs


directors


of housing


(DOHs)


chief


student


affairs


officers


SAOs


extent


importance


the competencies


in the


category


of Goal


Setting


are reported in


Table


DOHs


(3.777)


CSAOs


(3.725)


highest


mean


scores


were


competency


, "teach


students


to deal


with


consequences


of their


behavior.


ported


highest


mean


score


competency


No. 2


, "identify


articulate


institutions


goals


policies


students"


(3.613).


three


groups


reported


a lowest


mean


score


competency


"write


behavioral


than


every


objectives.


competency


Mean

in the


scores


category


DOHs


of goal


were

setting


greater

Mean


scores


for the


category


of Goal


Setting


were


greater


than


3.0 for FTs


(3.378),


DOHs


(3.415),


CSAOs


410)


indicating


a tendency


direction


toward


importance


competencies


category


assuming


an entry


level


staff


position.


Standard


devia-


tions


each


group


were


than


for all competencies


category.


Consultation.


Mean


scores


standard


deviations


three


groups


extent


importance


competencies


-A- r r. lt ~.-I --- S i i I


re-


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L1


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-82-


reported


the lowest


mean


scores


for competency


11a iltt


staff


development


through


in-service


training.


Mean


scores


for DOHs


CSAOs


were


greater


than


for all


competencies


except


competency


Mean


scores


were


greater


than


compe-


tencies


in this


category.


Mean


scores


category


of consultation


were


above


(3.573),


DOHs


476)


CSAOs


(3.431),


indicating


a tendency


in the direction


of the importance


of the


compe-


tencies


category


assuming


entry


level


staff


position.


Standard


deviations


for each


group


were


than


1.0 for all


compe-


tencies in


category.


Communication.


Mean


scores


standard


deviations


of the


three


research


groups


extent


of importance


of the


competencies


the category


of Communication


are reported


in Table


highest


mean


score


was


competency


"make


effective


use


verbal


mean


scores


non-verbal


skills


DOHs


group


CSAOs


presentations.


were


highest


competency


"perceive


accurately


interpret


attitudes,


beliefs,


needs


others.


groups


"determining


reported

usage c


the lowest


>f office


mean


management


scores


competency


procedures.


Mean


scores


category


Communication


were


above


341)


, DOHs


3.287)


, and


CSAOs


(3.411)


, indicating


a tendency


the direction


of the importance


of these


competencies


assuming


entry


level


staff


position.


Standard


deviations


for each


group


were


than


for all competencies.


-- --4*at f


r r


~ 1 .I


I,


,Ir


1







-83-







-84-






-85-


tencies


the category


Assessment


Evaluation


are reported


Table


groups


reported


the highest


mean


scores


for competency


"assess


greater

for the


than


category


student


needs.


every


Mean


competency


of Assessment


scores


in this


Evaluation


for FTs


category.


were


DOHs


Mean


greater


were


scores


than


(3.330),


tendency


DOHs


in the direction


250)


CSAOs


the importance


of the


263),


indicating


competencies


in this


category


assuming


entry


level


staff


position.


Standard


deviations


for each


group


were


than


for all competencies


category.


Environmental


Organizational


Management.


Mean


scores


standard


deviations


three


research


groups


extent


importance


the competencies


category


of Environmental


Organizational


Management


are reported


Table


CSAOs


reported


highest


mean


scores


competency


"recognize


accept


the ethical


consequences


of personal


professional


behavior.


DOHs


reported


highest


mean


scores


competency


" select,


train,


supervise


staff.


CSAOs


reported


lowest

and f;


mean


facilities.


scores


DOHs


competenc

reported


"manage


the lowest


mean


physical


score


resources

:ompetency


"develop


administer


a budget.


Mean


scores


for FTs


DOHs


were


greater


than


every


competency


category


Mean


scores


category


Environmental


Organizational


Management


were


greater than


3.0 for FTs


340)


DOHs


(3.342)


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-88-


all competencies in


category.


Summary


of Data


on Importance.


Each


group


reported its


highest


mean


score


on importance


for the


same


competency


in the categories


Consultation


Assessment


Evaluation.


Each


group


reported


lowest


mean


score


importance


same


competency


categories


Goal


Setting,


Consultation


, and


Communication.


Mean


scores


were


greater


than


competencies


categories


Consultation;


Assessment


Evaluation;


Environmental


Organizational


Management.


Mean


scores


for DOHs


were


greater


than


for all


competencies


categories


of Goal


Setting


Assessment


Evaluation.


Mean


scores


CSAOs


were


greater


than


3.0 for all


competencies


in the


category


of Environmental


Organizational


Management.


Mean


scores


DOHs


CSAOs


were


greater


than


3.0 for each


of the five


categories


indicating


a tendency


toward


importance


of all


competencies


in every


category


assuming


an entry


level


staff position.


Statistical


Comparison


Among


Groups


issue


dependent


differences


variables


among


possession


three


entry-level


groups


competencies


recent


master


graduates of


preparation


programs in


student


personnel


administration


of importance


of those


competencies


assuming


entry


level staff position


been


identified


as a primary


objective


study


as stated in


research


questions


chief


student


affairs


officers


(CSAOs),


directors


housing


(DOHs)


faculty


(FTs)


have


similar


perceptions






-89-


data


in this


section


have


been


presented


in order


to satisfy


requirements


these


research


questions


determining


whether


differences exist


among


three


group


the extent of each


group's


agreement


that


recent


master's


graduates


actually


possess


competencies


to determine


whether


differences


exist


among


three


research


groups


the extent


to which


each


group


perceives


each


competency


important


assuming


entry


level


staff


position.


total


respondents


from


three


groups


provided


data


base


study.


purposes


analyzin g


data


determine


if significant


differences


existed


among


the three


groups


each


categories


the research


instrument


General


Linear


Model


(GLM)


Procedure of


the Statistical


Analysis


System


(SAS)


Multivariate


Analysis


Variance


(MANOVA)


was


used.


Significance


was


determined


in this


study


at alpha


= .05


the 260


useable


instruments


study,


27 had


at least


one


missing


value,


meaning


that


they


a blank


a response


possession


importance


on a given


competency.


analysis


category,


the GLM


procedure


for MANOVA


takes


mean


the other


competencies


category


with


the missing


value


substitutes


that


mean


for the


missing


value


purposes


computing


overall


mean


that


category


differences


that


among


respondent.


groups


GLM


for possession


-MANOVA


analyzing


importance


category


could


done


using


respon


ses.


GLM-MANOVA


test


d atoarrn n a


avri ac ra


rl(f1yon r f 1C


rnmn


t anr ir


rntii'I


r 1i


nnltr


Il EP


HI






-90-


means


each


group


possession


importance


competencies


used


in the GLM-MANOVA


analysis


are included


in Table


29 in


Appendix


Pair


were


wise


indicated.


comparison s


Duncan's


were


multiple


made


where


range


significant


was


used


differences


to determine


between


which


group s


significant


differences


were


indicated


possession


importance.


post


comparison


category,


responses


were


used.


Post


comparisons


competency


used


233 responses which


contained


no missing


values.


I. Goal


Setting.


Write


behavioral


objectives


Identify


articulate


institution's


goals


policies


students


Teach


students


to deal


with


consequences


of their


behavior.


Engage in


thematic planning


Mean


scores


importance


each


for the


of the three


category


of Goal


research


Setting


groups


on possession


are provided


in Table


TABLE


MEAN


SCORES


FOR


RESEARCH


GROUPS


ON POSSESSION


AND


IMPORTANCE


OF GOAL


SETTING


Group


Possession


Importance


, IL


II


1






-91-



TABLE


MULTIVARIATE


ANALYSIS


GOAL


SETTING


DF=2,257


F-Value


ALPHA=. 05


Implication


Possession
Importance


17.6


.0001
.7691


Significant
Not Significant


significant


difference


among


three


groups


extent


agreement


that


recent


master's


graduates


preparation


programs


possess


competencies


category


goal


setting


is indicated


Table


differed


significantly


with


both


DOHs


CSAOs


extent


which


they


agree


recent


graduates


preparation


programs


possess


competencies


category


Goal


Setting


shown


Duncan' s


multiple


range


test in


Table


TABLE


DUNCAN'S


MULTIPLE


RANGE


TEST


FOR


POSSESSION


OF GOAL


SETTING


Group

FT


Mean


Duncan


Grouping


CSAO
DOH


Note.


Means


with


same


letter


are not


significantly


different.


Analysis


of individual


competencies


in the


category


of Goal


Setting






-92-


category.


significant


difference


was


found


extent


importance


competency


results


Duncan's


multiple


range


test,


summarized


Table


Appendix


H indicate


that


differed


significantly


with


DOHs


CSAOs


on posse


ssion


competencies


significant


difference


existed


between


FTs and DOHs on


extent


of perceived importance of


competency


Consultation


Recognize and
decision making


facilitate


group


problem


solving


group


Facilitate


group


problem


solving


group


decision


making


Facilitate


staff


development


through in-service


training


Work


effectively


with


a diversity


of individual


students


faculty


Mean


scores


for each


three


research


groups


on possession


importance


for the


category


of Consultation


are provided


in Table


These


means


were


used


in the analysis


summarized in


Table


MEAN


SCORES


FOR


TABLE
GROUPS


ON POSSESSION


AND


IMPORTANCE


OF CONSULTATION


Group


Possession


Importance


DOHs
CSAOs


.846


.431


TABLE


MULTIVARIATE


ANALYSIS,


CONSULTATION


DF = 2,257


ALPHA


= .05






-93-


significant


difference


among


three


groups


extent


agreement


that


recent


master


s graduates


preparation


programs


possess


competencies


category


goal


setting


indicated


Table


differ


significantly


with


both


DOHs


CSAOs


in the


extent


to which


they


agree


recent


graduates


preparation


programs


possess


competencies


category


Consultation


shown


Duncan's


multiple


range


test in


Table


TABLE


DUNCAN' S


MULTIPLE


RANGE


TEST


FOR


POSSESSION


OF CONSULTATION


Group


Mean


Duncan


Grouping


DOH


.303

.921

.846


CSAO


Note.


Means


with


same


letter


are not significantly


different.


Analysis of individual


competencies in


category


of Consultation


been


summarized


Table


Appendix


Significant


differences


existed


among


groups


extent


agreement


possession


four


competencies


category.


Significant


differences


were


found


on extent


of importance


competencies


results


of Appendix


of Duncan's


indicate


multiple


that


range


test,


differed


summarized


significantly


Table


with


DOHs


CSAOs


on pos


session


competencies


Significant


differences


existed


between


every


possible


pair


groups


C; rCYr ; 1 ,"4+1",r


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Full Text
Implications .......................
Conclusions .......................
REFERENCES .......................
APPENDIX A ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA ............
B PARENT PERMISSION SLIPS ...........
C SAMPLE TESTSTANDARD............
D SAMPLE TESTMODIFIED............
E MEAN PERFORMANCE SCORES BY CATEGORY, RACE, AND SEX.....................
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ...................


35
2. Flexible setting
The student may be administered a test individually or in small
group setting by a proctor rather than in a classroom or auditorium setting.
3. Recording of answers
The student may mark answers in a test booklet, type the answer by machine, or indicate the selected answers to a test proctor. The proctor may then transcribe the student's responses onto a machine-scoreable answer sheet.
4. Mechanical aids
The student may use a magnifying device, a pointer, a non-calibrated rule or template, or other similar devices to assist in maintaining visual attention to the test booklet.
5. Revised format
The test may be presented to the student using one or more of the following techniques.
(a) visual readingregular or enlarged print.
(b) tactile readingbraille code or technology to allow optical/ tactile transformation; test items which have no real world applications for the blind person will be deleted from the test form provided by the Department.
(c) the mathematics and writing portions may be presented in sign language; all directions may also be presented in sign language and the reading portion of the test must be read by visual or tactile means.
(d) auditory presentationan audio-taped version of the mathematics and writing portions of the test, in a form provided by the


32
Characteristic Needs of Handicapped Individuals
The diagnosis of a mildly handicapping condition evolves from the basic premise that the child does not learn as other children do. He frequently demonstrates certain behaviors that prohibit him from acquiring knowledge in a traditional manner. These behaviors or characteristics necessitate modifications in teaching style and/or presentation of materials. Given the opportunity to learn, however, the mildly handicapped child is capable of learning. His "needs" to accomplish this task are simply different than his nonhandicapped peers.
Sumnarizing the findings of noted authorities, Morsink (1977) listed some characteristics of mildly handicapped children that may
impede learning. These include
(a) Attention difficulties. Some children may have problems concentrating on a specific task, may be unable to use attention selectively, or may be overselective in its use. This inability may
i
result in limited task behavior or impulsive guessing.
(b) Perceptual problems (auditory/visual/motor). Children with these problems tend to have difficulty discriminating differences between similar items. They may also focus on the irrelevant details of a task or concept.
(c) Social-emotional problems. Frequently, mildly handicapped children demonstrate poor attitudes towards school and appear to be unmotivated to learn. It becomes increasingly difficult for these children to attempt academic tasks with enthusiasm when they have


I
82
Donohue v. Copiague Union Free School District, 407 N.Y.S. 2d 874
(App. Div. 1978).
Erdmann, R. L., & Neal, A. S. Word legibility as a function of
letter legibility, with word size, word familiarity, and resolution as parameters. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1968, 52, 403-409.
Ewing, N. J. Minimum competency testing and the handicapped: Major
issues. High School Journal, 1979, 6k3, 114-119.
Ferguson, G. A. Statistical analysis in psychology and education
(3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971.
Flaugher, R. L., Melton, R. S., & Myers, C. T. Item rearrangement
under typical test conditions. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1968, 28, 813-824.
Florida Department of Education. A resource manual for the development
and evaluation of special programs for exceptional students (Vol.
I-A) Exceptional student programs: An overview^ Tallahassee, FL: State of Florida, 1979.
Florida Department of Education. Statistical Report: 1980-81.
State and district report of results, Series 81-05. Tallahssee, FL: Division of Public Schools, February 1981.
Fonda, G. An evaluation of large type. New Outlook for the Blind,
1968, 62, 233-239.
Gaffney, R. F., & Maguire, T. 0. Use of optically scored test answer
sheets with young children. Journal of Educational Measurement,
1971, 8, 103-106.
Gearheart, B. R., & Willenberg, E. P. Application of pupil assessment
information for the special education teacher [Znd ed.). Denver: Love, 1974.
Greenberg, L. Test development procedures for including handicapped
students in New Jersey's state assessment program. Trenton, NJ: State Department of Education, 1980.
Grise", P. J. Florida's minimum competency testing program for handicapped students. Exceptional Chi 1dren, 1980, 47, 186-193.
Grise", P. J. Personal communication, October 11, 1981.
Hartley, J., Davies, L., & Burnhill, P. Alternatives in the typographic design of questionnaires. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 1977, 50, 299-304.


(b) individualized determinations, (c) differential diplomas and standards, and (d) differential assessment procedures.
Exemptions for handicapped students. The extent to which handicapped students should be required to pass (or be held exempt from) a competency test as a prerequisite to a high school diploma is an important concern in the area of MCT. The National Association of State Directors of Special Education (1979) indicated that of the 17 states currently requiring competency testing prior to high school graduation, 6 require all or selected categories of handicapped students to take the competency test. The remaining 11 states have not specified any policies regarding the handicapped student. These results are congruent with the survey findings of Smith and Jenkins (1980) that the majority of states have not "established or finalized11 their positions regarding the inclusion or exclusion of handicapped students from the MCT programs.
Ewing (1979) refers to 11 classifications of handicapped individuals (speech impaired, mentally retarded, deaf, hard of hearing, visually handicapped, seriously emotionally disturbed, ortho-pedically impaired, other health impaired, deaf-blind, multi-handicapped,
and learning disabled) and indicates that the "heterogeneity of the handicapped population prohibits any reasonable expectation that handicapped students be either systematically included or excluded from competency test requirements" (p. 115). For example, it would be difficult to legally justify the exclusion of an academically competent handicapped child from MCT on the basis of physical


34
Georgia, Kansas, and Louisiana) have indicated the formal provision of special testing procedures for categorical groups of handicapped students.
The state surveys also indicate that current modifications tend to concentrate on the severely handicapped populations. For example, the MCT for visually and hearing impaired individuals has been modified by using braille, large size print, audio supplement, or sign language (McClung, 1979; McClung & Pullin, 1978; Smith & Jenkins, 1980). On the other hand, some handicapping conditions (educable mental retardation) have received no testing modifications (McClung & Pullin, 1978), and the mildly handicapped students have received minimal attention.
Education specialists in the state of Florida are apparently well
aware of the problems involved with testing handicapped learners.
McCarthy (1980) stated that Florida has the most elaborate legislative
regulations to date. The statutes provide for
appropriate modification of testing instruments and procedures for students with identified handicaps or disabilities in order to ensure that the results of the testing represent the student's achievement, rather than reflecting the student's impaired sensory, manual, speaking, or psychological process skills, except where such skills are the factors the test purports to measure. (Florida Statutes, Chapter 232, Section 246)
According to the Florida Administrative Code, the following test modifications have been proposed for handicapped students:
1. Flexible scheduling
The student may be administered a test during several brief sessions so long as all testing is completed by the final allowed test date specified by the Commissioner.


38
a. Transferring answers from the test booklet to the answer sheet caused confusion and anxiety, and the students lost their places. Suggestions were made to have the students mark the answers in the test booklets or respond orally.
b. The wording of directions should be simplified. Administrators should be able to paraphrase instructions. Directions should be repeated or examples re-explained if the student does not understand.
c. Directions should be read aloud to ensure each student understands the task.
d. Markers would help alleviate the problem of students losing their places.
It was also recommended that several variables be considered when determining a student's eligibility for inclusion in the minimum competency testing program. Handicapped students who had previous experience in taking standardized tests appeared to perform better than those who had not. Elementary and secondary special education students who had been staffed into resource rooms performed better than those special education students who had been staffed into self-contained classrooms. It was also recommended that any student functioning at a level two or more years below the content level of the test should be excluded from the test.
Florida. Another study was conducted in the state of Florida by
-
JoEllen Perez (1980). Based on the New Jersey study, a review of the literature, and opinions of teachers and consultants throughout the state of Florida, Perez concluded there were five major areas that


79
what, where, not, end, first, last apparently do require any additional emphasis to aid in comprehension.
Learning disabled students appeared to benefit (10% gain) from alterations in line length. Other students performed similarly on passages set in justified and unjustified manner.
It appears that the order of item presentation does not make a difference in the performance of any category of student. If the student is proficient with a task, he appears to be able to demonatrate his ability regardless of placement within the test. Similarly, answer bubble placement does not appear to affect performance of any type of student.
As a result of observations made throughout the study, it appears that teachers may wish to give consideration to the importance of test taking skills. The performance of mildly handicapped students may be enhanced from direct instruction of such skills as recognizing basic direction words (above, different, choose, other), learning how to follow written directions, and using short cuts for answering reading comprehension questions. Teachers may also wish to familiarize students with the physical layout of the test.
Conclusions
There was a significant difference between modified and standard tests on the total test scores and for the example subtest in favor of the modified test. Emotionally handicapped and LD students performed most similarly in all instances, as did normal and EH students. Educable mentally retarded students consistently performed lower than any other category. There were no interactions


95
allow your child to participate in this study, please sign and date this form. There will always be the option available to withdraw your consent for your child's participation in this study at any time without prejudice. Thank you for your time and consideration.
Sincerely,
Susan Beattie
************************^ Signatures:
Subject Date Witness Date
Relationship if other than Date Principal Investiga- Date
subject tor's name and address


OF FLORIDA
3 1262
C31262085568276C


50
Setting
ft
The subjects were removed from their regular classrooms and taken to one room where the standard and modified tests were administered to a group of approximately 2-7 students. Before beginning the test the following statement was read to the subjects.
Today you are going to take a special test. You probably have seen questions like these in your classroom work. I want you to take your time and answer as many questions as you can. Raise your hand if you have any questions. Are there any questions now? Good luck!
The tests were administered on two consecutive days. The students were given items #1-60 of their respective test during the first session which lasted approximately 60-75 minutes. Items #61-100 were administered on the next day with that session lasting approximately 45-60 minutes. Upon completion of the test, the subjects returned to their regular classroom setting.
Variables
The effects of the experimental procedure on students1 test performance scores was measured. Four groups of students were evaluated using two different test formats; performance scores on the total test and comparable subtests were analyzed.
The independent variables in this study were type of student and test type. Students were characterized as normal, learning disabled, emotionally handicapped, or educable mentally retarded. Tests


94
Dear Parent,
I am currently a doctoral candidate in the Department of Special Education at the University of Florida. I am in the process of conducting a study regarding the effect of physical test item modifications on the performance of third grade students. This form is asking parents for their written consent to have their son or daughter participate in the study.
The study will be conducted within the Alachua County School System. We will be asking each child to take a 100 item test, which should take approximately 90 minutes. There will be two tests utilized; a standard form and a modified version. There are no discomforts or risks anticipated for any of the students. Additionally, there will be no monetary compensation offered. The test scores obtained in this study will remain confidential and will not be recorded in any of the student's permanent records. The scores will be merely used to compare the achievement of different groups, based on individual test modifications.
As educators, we are continually striving to discover the most appropriate way of assessing individual children's cognitive abilities. It is hoped that the results of this study will provide valuable information regarding the test taking abilities of elementary aged children under different circumstances.
I would be most willing to answer any questions you may have regarding the goals or procedures of this effort. If you agree to


29
the task and are not attempting any task that is unclear. In an attempt to measure skills and not the ability to read, procedures in New York (CIift, 1979), Virginia, New Jersey, and North Carolina (Grise", 1981) allow the math and reading sections of the minimum competency test to be read to some handicapped students, while Florida allows only the math and writing portions to be read to the handicapped students (Florida Statutes 232.246, 1979).
In addition to problems of decoding directions, some handicapped students also exhibit problems of attention. In a study by Margolis, Brannigan, and Penner (1978) directions were modified for 16 children who were labeled as impulsive. Test administrators read the examples orally, and presented the logic behind choosing the correct answer. The investigators were successful in teaching the children how to examine tasks deliberately and logically. Instead of reacting to a new and uncertain situation in their traditionally habitual and impulsive manner, the children began to solve tasks systematically and rationally.
Answer Format
Within test booklet response. Several studies support the procedure of having students answer directly in their answer booklet as opposed to transferring answers to a separate answer sheet. Muller, Calhoun, and Orling (1972) suggested that the transfer of answers to separate answer sheets required ability in (a) encoding, (b) short term memory, and (c) motor coordination. Their study found that normal third, fourth, and sixth graders answered more items correctly


39
required modification. They consisted of (a) clear presentation of directions and addition of supplemental directions and sample items, (b) various alternatives for indicating responses (i.e., marking answers in the test booklet or giving answers orally); (c) access to an audio presentation of some items; (d) clear print format and print size; and (e) adequate spacing that would facilitate processing of the task.
On the basis of this information, Perez (1980) placed the major emphasis of Florida's modified test on the stimulus/response mode. Using 48 learning disabled (LD) eleventh graders from the Dade County area, Perez administered a modified assessment test with the following changes:
1. One group of students took the test augmented with audio support.
2. Another group of students took a large print (18 pt.) version of the test.
3. A third group took the standard sized print test.
4. All students had unlimited time for responding to test items.
5. Templates or markers (5" x 8" white) were available for all students to use.
6. All students had the option of responding to a test item by
-
circling or underlining (a) the entire item or (b) the corresponding letter in the test booklet.
Results of the study indicated that the large print presentation was superior to the regular print format in five of eight skills


CHAPTER V DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS
Tests can be useful tools. If adequately designed and used properly, they can direct teachers to the specific strengths and weaknesses of any child. Tests can be used to determine degrees of deficits, facilitate appropriate placement, and be of assistance in the development of instructional strategies. The information obtained from tests is also useful in evaluating skills, planning lessons and curriculum, and determining amounts of progress that have been made. In essence, tests can be used to constructively analyze problems and serve as a basis for remediation.
Unfortunately, tests are not always designed and implemented sensibly or in the best interest of the child. Often test items do not measure what they purport to measure and a child's true ability is not adequately assessed. Although a child may cognitively know a skill, the manner in which the skill is tested may frequently affect his ability to demonstrate proficiency. The same skill presented in a different manner/mode may elicit a totally different response. Possibly, the greatest inequities of testing may be occurring with the handicapped population at the elementary level.
Salvia and Ysseldyke (1978) denote the fact that test items often measure the student's ability to "receive a stimulus and then
70


sense of humor. When life becomes difficult we will remember the "pulled hamstrings", smile, and forge on.
Sincere thanks are also extended to those individuals who provided access to the population of special students and assisted in data collection. Without the help of Maryellen Maher, Rosalie Boone, Jam's Wilson, and Maureen Gale this study would have never come to full fruition. Thank you from the bottom of my heart. And to two very wonderful friends, Gayle McBride and Chip Voorneveld, I could never express how much your caring and concern have meant to me. You are so special and I appreciate all the times that you were there for me. An enormous amount of thanks go to my friend and world's best typist, Leila Cantara. I will always respect and admire
her ability and high standards.
And to my family, "thank you" seems hardly enough for all you've
done. To my parents, I will always be grateful for your instilling the philosophy of "you can do anything you put your mind to." It gave me the strength to endure many difficult times. To my son, Matthew, thank you for being such a wonderful baby. You never fussed at staying with grandparents, babysitters, neighbors, and friends so that I could study and write. I appreciate it and love you so much.
Unfortunately, there are no expressions of thanks and love great enough to extend to my best friend, my love, and husband, John. Without him I would fail to exist. Thank you for tolerating the moods, understanding the frustration, minimizing the chaos, and always being

ill


modifications included alterations in line lengths, inclusion of examples, the use of boldface type for emphasis, placement of answer bubbles, and the arrangement of items in a hierarchy of progressive difficulty. Eighty students were randomly selected from four populations; i.e., normal, learning disabled (LD), emotionally handicapped (EH), and educable mentally retarded (EMR) students. The students were matched within each category according to reading ability and then randomly assigned to either the modified or the standard test group. Data were analyzed at a level of significance of a = .05.
The results indicated that overall total test scores were significantly higher on the modified test than on the standard test. There were no significant differences between test form scores for four out of five modification subtests. Performance scores on the example subtest however, were significantly higher on the modified version than on the standard test version. Performance scores for emotion-ally handicapped and LD students were statistically similar as were the scores for normal and EH students. EMR students consistently scored lower than other categories of students.
Results of a post hoc analysis indicated that modifications of physical test format may have some merit in mastery level situations. Mean performance scores on the modified test surpassed mastery criteria for 32 percent of the subskill sections failed by the students taking the standard test.
It appears that simple modifications can be made in minimum competency tests that affect the performance of students. These
ix


there. Your professional expertise was invaluable and certainly made my road easier to travel. Thank you for coming into my life and bringing a happiness very few people are fortunate enough to experience.
And last, but definitely not least, a special thank you to Joshua who was responsible for my initially undertaking this degree. I'll never forget you.

i v


Sample 1 Well Balanced Page
i
Sample 2 Imbalanced Page
Figure 1


30
in their booklets (on a ratio of 3:1) than on a separate answer sheet. Gaffney and Maguire (1971) stated that separate answer sheets were invalid for use with normal children below fifth grade. Other results supporting the use of direct response in the test booklet were stated by Cashen and Ramseyer (1969) for normal children in grades 1-2, Beck (1974) with normal children in grades 3-4, Majors and Michael (1975) for normal seventh and eighth graders, Clark (1968) for slow learners, and Greenberg (1980) for handicapped (EH, LD, EMR) fourth graders.
Placement of answer bubbles. Since the literature appeared to support the procedure of marking answers within individual test booklets, studies that pertained to the most effective placement of the answer bubbles were of interest. Only one report was available on the physical arrangement of answers. Hartley, Davies, and Burnhill (1977) compared four answer forms that varied in the placement of the bubbles to the left or right of the answers. The results indicated that normal 11-12 year old children demonstrated no significant preference for any particular placement. No studies were found that investigated a handicapped population.
Theoretically, when answer bubbles are positioned on the left, the following perceptual errors may occur within an elementary handicapped (EMR, EH, LD) population: (a) reversals; when the child moves (right to left) across the number to fill in the bubble, he may reverse the foil "ol2" to read "21 answer bubble", or (b) visual mismatching; when a child attempts to shade in one of the four answer


APPENDIX D SAMPLE TESTMODIFIED
DIRECTIONS: The list of words in each box is in alphabetical order. (Remember, that means A,B,C order.) Choose the word to go in the blank that will keep each list in alphabetical order.
ear
light
101


18
talking, writing, spelling, or arithmetic. They do not include learning problems which are primarily due to visual, hearing, or motor handicaps, to mental retardation, to emotional disturbance, or to an environmental deprivation (Florida Department of Education, 1979).
The normal student is one who appears to be functioning within normal limits in the classroom and is not eligible for additional educational services.
Unjustified lines are created by the arrangement of type and uniform spacing so that lines are set according to their natural length. This is opposed to justified line lengths where alterations in spacing cause every line to end at the same distance from the right-hand edge of the paper. Justified lines are traditionally found in textbooks, newspapers, and magazines.
Summary
Testing appears to be an inescapable phenomenon in today's educa tional system. Each year over 250 million standardized tests are administered to America's 44 million school children (Ysseldyke & Algozzine, 1982). The positive benefits to be gained from testing include provision of additional educational support services, appropriate educational placement, and curriculum modifications. Unfortunately, tests can also have negative implications. Inaccurate assessments or interpretations can result in misdiagnosis, inappropriate placement, and inefficient instructional goals and techniques.
Some of these negative results may be due to the unintentional measurement of a child's inability to respond to the stimulus-


36
Department, may be presented; the test administrator may read a script version of the test to the student; however, the reading portion of the test must be read by visual or tactile means. (Proposed State Board Rule 6A-1.943, State of Florida, 1980)
As progressive as the Florida modifications may be in compari-son with those of other states, they may be somewhat misleading. The current emphasis appears to be on the more general "procedural11 modifications (i.e., where and when of testing) than on the actual construction of the test. Although these modifications may be beneficial, it would appear that mildly handicapped populations may require additional test modifications involving test design and physical formatting (i.e., issues dealing with print, color, spacing, consistency, or realism).
There is little research data available in the area of specific test modifications on test performance of handicapped learners. Although many educators espouse the legal and educational need for such modifications (Denninger, 1979; Kaluzny, 1979; McCarthy, 1980; McClung & Pullin, 1978; Smith & Jenkins, 1980) there have been only three known studies using modified formats for state assessment tests.
State Research Studies
New Jersey. A project in New Jersey under the direction of Lydia Greenberg, Coordinator of State Testing Program, New Jersey State Department of Education (1980), compared group performances of special children on modified state assessment tests. The New Jersey Minimum Basic Skills Test was field tested with fourth, seventh, tenth, and


33
continually failed in the past. Poor self-concepts and extremely low frustration levels only complicate an already difficult task.
(d) Memory problems. These children often demonstrate deficiencies in the ability to store and retrieve auditory and/or visual stimulus. Although they may be able to learn the task initially, they become plagued with the inability to recall the information after a period of time.
(e) Language deficits. Mildly handicapped individuals frequently demonstrate weak oral and written language skills. Complex linguistic passages become difficult to understand and the child simply does
not know what is being asked of him let alone do_ it.
(f) Transfer difficulties. These children tend to have problems structuring, generalizing, and seeing relationships. They appear to be unable to integrate smaller parts into a whole.
These deficits make it difficult for the handicapped child to learn or respond by traditional means. Ideally, a learning environment will control for these variables. It is this control that then allows optimum learning and assessment to occur.
Current Research in MCT Modifications for
Handicapped Individuals
According to the National Association of State Directors of Special Education (1979) only seven states have already made or are in the process of making special accommodations in MCT procedures for handicapped children. This is supported by the finding of Smith and Jenkins (1980) that five of the reporting states (Colorado, Florida,


52
6. There is no difference in the performance of various groups of students on selected test items as a function of unjustified line lengths.
Data Analysis
The data analysis was conducted in the following manner. There was a comparison of test scores on the standard and modified test form for each of the handicapped (LD, EH, EMR) and normal groups. Two factor analyses of variance (ANOVA) were completed for the total test performance score and performance on each set of similar items. Main effects and interactions were analyzed and subsequent follow-up analyses were completed as necessary; the 5 percent level of confidence was used for all tests. Tables were prepared for the total test scores and each set of test modification items. Additionally, a post hoc comparison of student performance on certain skill cluster of items was completed; differences between modified and standard test performance were evaluated using criteria developed by the Florida State Department of Education.
Summary
The purpose of this study was to compare total test performance scores of two tests between four groups of students. Performances of each group of students on selected test item modifications were also investigated as were differences in skill mastery levels.
Eighty third grade students from Alachua County and metropolitan Orlando, Florida, participated in the study. Twenty students were


CHAPTER III METHODS AND PROCEDURES
Chapter III includes a description of the methods and procedures used in this study. There are two major sections in this chapter; the first is a description of subjects, and the second is a descrip-tion of the experimental procedures including materials, setting, variables, hypotheses, and data analysis.
Method
The research was conducted in Alachua County and in the city of Orlando, which is comprised of three counties (Orange, Seminole, and

Osceola). Alachua County is located in north central Florida, encompasses an area of approximately 965 square miles, and has a population of 133,817. Metropolitan Orlando is located in cental Florida, is approximately 2600 square miles, and has a population of 723,903.
Four categories of students from the third grade participated in the study. These included normal students and those students with such mildly handicapping conditions as learning disabilities (LD), emotional handicaps (EH), and educable mental retardation (EMR). Criteria used in the determination of these mildly handicapping
45


40
tested. Large print also showed improved scores when compared to audio support in four of eight skills. There was no skill where
regular print or audio support was preferred to large print. To accommodate the large print, however, the size of the booklets was also enlarged. Grise' (1980) noted that the older students expressed
their dislike, as the booklet size was awkward to handle and it tended to draw attention to the disability.
Some students reported confusion with the audio support presentation of the test. They found it difficult to cope with the combined auditory and visual stimuli:.- The markers provided in the study were not used by any of the secondary students, although some were seen using their pencils to mark their place. Finally, it did not appear to be possible to use the psychological and IEP data of individual LD students to predict maximum performance on tests with specific modifications.
University of Florida Research
The most current study was conducted by Beattie and Algozzine (1981) at the University of Florida. An analysis of the State Student Assessment Test-Part I (SSAT-I) (grade 3 and 5) and a review of the literature indicated that several general physical format modifications could be implemented as potential aids to mildly handicapped students. Specifically, the following changes were made in the standard format to create a modified test.
1. The order of selected items was changed to reflect a hier-
archial progression of skills whenever possible.


CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
America spends $70 billion annually on education, and administers over 250 million tests. As a result of such enormous expenditures of time and money, one may assume that America is a fully literate society. Unfortunately, this appears to be untrue. A congressional survey revealed that 13 percent of our 17-year-old youths are functional illiterates (Pabian, 1979). Another survey published in 1973 by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) supported these data and stated that an estimated one million American youths, between the ages of 12 and 17, can not read at a fourth grade level and can therefore be labeled as illiterate (cited in McClung, 1977). Ysseldyke and Algozzine (1982) cited Copperman's report that America's academic performance and standards have shown a marked decline since the mid-1960's.
Today's eighth grader reads approximately as well as the average seventh grader just ten years ago and computes about as well as the average sixth grader of that period. On college admissions tests only about a quarter of our current high-school graduates attain the level recorded by the average high school graduate in the early 1960's. (Copperman, 1978, p. 15)
Several explanations have been offered in regard to America's
educational plight. The National Academy of Education panel has
1


6
4. There has been a reorganization and greater utilization of human resources throughout the state based on the needs of the student. Specificity in purpose has contributed to greater efficiency in the performance of teaching personnel. Program planning and education procedures established by administrators have also shown marked improvements.
5. Standardized tests measure students against students. In contrast, MCT measures the mastery of skills. This characteristic can be used to regroup students by skill levels rather than by age, permit report cards to be based on continuums, and allow each student to learn at his/her own pace. If executed with caution, these changes could lessen a student's feeling of failure and enhance the chance of success.
Pabian (1979) noted that in the early 60's, the quality of teaching in the urban ghetto was relatively low, with 40 percent of the high school graduates being classified as functional illiterates. The Pygmalion effect dominated as teachers, observing students having difficulty learning academics, attributed the difficulty to socioeconomic factors and stopped trying to teach the impossible. Pinkney (1979) feels the MCT program in Florida has counteracted this Pygmalion effect. He maintains that the teachers' expectation level for students has increased and that the students are working harder to learn.
Negative effects. On the other hand, there are educators who express a concern that MCT will have negative effects on our educational system (Madaus, 1981). Pinkney (1979) addressed the


42
10. Arrows were placed in the lower right-hand corner of pages to indicate continuing sections of the test. Stop signs were positioned similarly, denoting an end to each skill section.
A total of 679 third and fifth grade learning disabled (LD) students from seven counties in Florida participated in the study. Results indicated that the third and fifth grade LD students' performance on the modified SSAT-I was comparable to or better than that on the regular SSAT-I for approximately 75 percent of the test items evaluated. Detailed analysis of specific modifications revealed that (a) both third and fifth grade LD students performed consistently higher on modified test items presenting coins face up; (b) third grade LD students performed better on the modified sequencing section (the skill was not presented in the fifth grade test); and (c) there was no significant difference between the LD students' performance on tests printed in standard type and their performance on tests printed in enlarged print.
Summary
The review of the literature revealed very few studies that applied to physical test modifications designed for mildly handicapped elementary aged children. Due to current legal and educational issues involved in non-discriminatory testing, there is a definite need for additional research.
Print authorities appear to support the use of boldface lowercase print as an effective means for emphasizing important words or concepts.


97
DIRECTIONS: Read the story in each box. Choose the best answer for each question.
The bee bit the puppy on his nose. The puppy ran to the dish of water. He put his nose in the water.
In the Fall, witches fly through the sky on brooms. Once a witch bumped into a cloud Her broom broke and she fell to the ground.
29. Who bit the puppy?
the man the cat the bee the dog
31. What did the witch do?
bump into a cloud sing a song scare people
c
) win the race
30. Where did the puppy run?
CD to his mother
CD to his dish of water
CD to the lake
O to a tree
32. When do witches fly in
the sky?
CD in the clouds r-> in the Fall
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ a
CD on a broom CD over the moon


12
and not the handicapping condition (Gearheart & Willenberg, 1974; Marsh, Gearheart, & Gearheart, 1978; McCarthy, 1980; Salvia & Ysseldyke, 1978). For example, traditionally most competency testing programs have been restricted to paper and pencil tests.
Educators must be able to verify that this type of assessment accurately measures the competencies being taught and fulfills
standards of test reliability and validity. Otherwise, it becomes the legal responsibility of policy makers to eliminate potential discrimination against handicapped individuals and devise differential assessment procedures.
Test Modifications and Competency Testing
Research concerning test modifications appears to be relatively limited in nature. In addition to a paucity of data based studies, there has also been a tendency to narrowly restrict the target populations to adults, the visually impaired, and the physically handicapped. Traditional test modifications for these students have been braille or enlarged print, the use of a head pointer, or an aide to transcribe answers.
Test modifications for the mildly handicapped student have typically been "procedural" or environmental in nature. Examples of
such modifications include a reduction in group size, a change in administrative setting, or a waiver of time limits. Researchers are now, however, becoming aware of the possible need to modify the
actual test itself. This has been demonstrated through the modifications of the minimum competency tests administered in New Jersey and


CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
The following literature review examines the nature and extent of current knowledge concerning physical test modifications for normal and mildly handicapped (LD, EMR, EH) populations. It specifically addresses (a) print, (b) line length, (c) the arrangement of similar items in a hierarchy of progressive difficulty, (d) physical layout (workspace, cells per page), (e) administration (directions, increased ratio of example per skill change), and (f) answer format (separate answer sheet, answer bubble placement). A review of current research in the area of minimum competency test modifications and characteristic needs of handicapped individuals is also included.
Background

Information in this review was obtained from several sources.
These included (a) an ERIC search, (b) examination of the Current Index of Journals in Education (CUE), and (c) examination of the Educational Index. The descriptor utilized for the ERIC search was "test construction modifications.11 The descriptors used for the second and third sources were "test construction," "test modifications,11
20


Physical Layout ..................... 26
Administration ..................... 28
Answer Format ..................... 29
Unverified Modification; Increased Example/Skill Ratio 31
Characteristic Needs of Handicapped Individuals ...... 32
Current Research in MCT Modifications for Handicapped
Individuals ...................... 33
State Research Studies ................. 36
University of Florida Research ............. 40
Summary .......................... 42
CHAPTER III METHODS AND PROCEDURES ............ 45
Method .......................... 45
Experimental Procedures .................. 48
Materials........................ 48
Setting......................... 50
Variables........................ 50
Hypotheses ....................... 51
Data Analysis...................... 52
Summary .......................... 52
CHAPTER IV RESULTS .................... 54
CHAPTER V DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS ........... 70
Discussion of Findings ................... 72
Test Form Analyses ................... 72
Category Analyses ................... 73
Post Hoc Analyses ................... 73
Observations ....................... 75
vi


THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL TEST FORMAT MODIFICATIONS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THIRD GRADE MILDLY HANDICAPPED
AND NORMAL STUDENTS
BY
SUSAN BEATTIE
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1982


0
37
twelfth grade handicapped students, assessing reading and math skills. The areas of handicapping conditions included communication impaired, mentally retarded, emotionally disturbed, ortho-pedically handicapped, chronically ill, perceptually impaired, neurologically impaired, multiply handicapped, and socially maladjusted. In contrast with their performance on the standard test, the students in grades 7, 10, and 12 had higher scores on the revised reading test. There was no significant difference between student performance on the revised and standard math subtests at any grade level. Even with the noted reading score improvement, however, the handicapped population still scored below the normal group of students.
Based on the analysis of the field test, the following modifications appeared to have the greatest impact in the study according to Greenberg (1980):
1. The print was enlarged.
2. Time limits were extended (approximately twice the normal amount of time allotted). The teacher was asked not to mention any time limit.
3. Practice tests were developed for the handicapped students at the four grade levels. The purpose of this was to acquaint the students with test taking techniques. It was administered one to two weeks before the actual testing.
4. Students could be tested alone or in small groups.
At the conclusion of the field testing, administrators made the following recommendations:


93
Please have your child return this form to school as soon as possible. Thank you for your time and consideration.
Sincerely,
Susan Beattie
******************^^
Parent of
(child's name)
Parent signature
Date


modifications appeared to have a greater effect on the performance of handicapped students than on that of normal students. Continued research in the area of minimum competency test modifications appears warranted.

x


78
answering questions to another passage (upper right quadrant). This posed potential problems in this study along with affecting the math hierarchy. It was corrected by repeatedly demonstrating the correct order to each student individually and monitoring activity closely.
Implications
In an instance when mastery criteria are of utmost importance, it appears that the modifications made in this study, alterations in physical formatting, have some merit. Students taking the modified test achieved mastery level criteria in eight of 25 sub-skills that were not mastered on the standard version. Mastery achievement on the modified subtests may contribute to the self-concept and positive attitude of the mildly handicapped learner and possibly facilitate his acquisition of a standard diploma in some states.
As indicated in the post hoc analysis of EMR students1 performance on the example subtest, these students may indeed know how to perform a skill but demonstrate proficiency more readily when examples are provided. The test scores of emotionally handicapped students also appeared to be affected (10% gain) by the inclusion of examples.
Learning Disabled and emotionally handicapped students1 scores improved 10% with the use of boldface type. Other students however did not appear to benefit from the additional attention created by boldface type. Basically students who know such clue words as who,


TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...................... 11
ABSTRACT ......................... viii
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION .................. 1
Current Interest in Minimum Competency Programs ...... 2
Minimum Competency Testing Within a Competency Based
Education Framework ................. 3
Reactions to Minimum Competency Testing ........ 5
Impact of MCT on Handicapped Individuals ....... 8
Test Modifications and Competency Testing ....... 12
Statement of the Problem ................. 13
Purpose ....................... 13
Related Questions ................... 14
Limitations ...................... 15
Delimitations ..................... 16
Definition of Terms ................... 17
Summary ......................... 18
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ........... 20
Background ........................ 20
Verified Test Modifications ................ 22
Print ........................ 22
Line Length ...................... 23
Item Grouping ..................... 25
v


48
Experimental Procedures
Each of the 80 randomly selected subjects was asked to complete a 100 item test. All testing occurred in a designated classroom in the school; students took the test in small groups of 2-7. The effects of various test modifications on the performance of four groups of students were evaluated using appropriate inferential statistics.
Materials
The students were randomly assigned to take one of two tests,
either a standard or modified version. Each test contained 100 items
with multiple choice answers; answers were marked within the test
booklet. The test items were identical in content, differing only in
physical format. Internal consistency estimates for standard and
modified total tests ranged from .85 to .96. Reliability measures
for the five modification subtests generally ranged from .61 to .94,
with three subtests scores falling below .60. Refer to Table 2 for
the reliability of the total test and each subtest by category.
The standard test consisted of five groups of 20 items. These items were characterized by exclusion of examples in transition from
skill to skill (#1-20), an inconsistent method of denoting emphasis (#21-40), placement of answer bubbles to the left of the foils (#41-60), a presentation of skills in a mixed hierarchy of difficulty (#61-80), and justified line lengths (#81-100). A sample test in standard format is included in Appendix C.


100
DIRECTIONS: Read the story and answer the question.
93.
Bob and J im were football team, points. Jim sco Altogether, how Bob and Jim scor
on the same Bob scored 21 d 7 points, many points did e?
95.
There are 15 boys in Miss Smith's class. There are also 13 girls in the class. How many children are in the class altogether?
10 points
28 points
26 points
17 points
28 children 10 children 2 children 46 children
94.
John caught 32 fish. Mike caught 24 fish. How many fish did they catch in all?
96.
Sally went on a trip and drove 56 miles. Her husband drove 33 miles. How many miles did Sally and her husband drive
fish fish fish
23 miles 90 miles 17 miles
fish
89 miles


19
response format. In such instances the test results may not accurately represent the child's cognitive proficiency in the various skill areas. Instead, they may represent the inability to handle the "standard" stimulus-response testing format.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical test format modifications on the performance of mildly handicapped (LD, EH, EMR) and normal students in the third grade. The modifications included alterations in line length, grouping of similar items in a hierarchy of progressive difficulty, an increased ratio of examples per skill change, placement of answer bubbles, and the use of boldface type for emphasis. It was anticipated that these test modifications would result in differential performance
scores.


68
I Table 12
Frequency Count of Students Achieving Mastery
by Subtest by Category
N LD EH EMR
Subtest Subskill s M S M S M S M
Examples Dollar 8 10 8 9 9 8 1 5
Fractions 10 10 9 7 9 7 3 6
Measurement 10 10 10 9 10 10 8 5
Sequencing 8 10 8 10 7 9 1 5
ABC Order 10 9 5 7 6 8 1 2
Math Word Problems 10 9 7 9 8 10 1 5
Total 56 58 47 51 49 52 15 28
Boldface Not 9 9 7 8 8 7 1 3
End 10 8 7 8 7 9 3 2
Pronouns 9 10 5 6 6 7 2 3
Opposites 9 10 5 9 7 8 3 2
Following Direction s 8 9 8 7 7 9 1 0
Total 45 46 32 38 35 40 10 10
Answer 2-digit Addition 10 10 9 10 8 10 6 7
Bubble Math Word Problems 10 10 7 7 9 10 2 4
Reading Comprehension 9 7 2 5 6 6 2 0
Reading Comprehension 9 10 7 6 7 8 2 1
Spelling 9 10 6 6 8 7 2 1
Total 47 47 31 34 38 41 14 13
Line Reading Comprehension 8 9 7 7 5 9 3 6
Length Reading Comprehension 9 10 6 7 8 10 1 "5
$ Word Problems 8 6 2 7 6 5 1 3
# Word Problems 9 9 7 8 8 9 4 4
Reading Comp. Not 8 9 3 7 3 7 1 3
Total 42 43 25 36 30 40 10 21
Hierarchy + Vertical 8 10 10 10 9 10 4 0
+ Horizontal 9 10 9 9 9 9 0 2
Vertical 9 7 6 3 7 4 0 3
Horizontal 9 10 7 7 8 7 1 1
Total 35 37 32 29 33 30 5 6



90
Educable Mentally Retarded Educable mentally retardedone who is mildly impaired in intellectual and adaptive behavior and whose development reflects a reduced rate of learning. The measured intelligence of an educable mentally retarded student generally falls between two (2) and three (3) standard deviations below the mean, and the assessed adaptive behavior falls below age and cultural expectations. 1. Criteria for Eligibility
a. The measured level of intellectual functioning, as determined by performance on an individual test of intelligence, is between two (2) and three (3) standard deviations below the mean. The standard error of measurement may be considered in individual cases. The profile of intellectual functioning shows consistent sub-average performance in a majority of areas evaluated.
b. The assessed level of adaptive behavior is below age and cultural expectations.
c. Sub-average performance on a standardized measure of academic achievement is demonstrated.
Emotionally Handicapped Emotionally handicappedone who after receiving supportive educational assistance and counseling services available to all students, still exhibits a persistent and consistent severe emotional handicap which consequently disrupts the student's own learning process. This is the student whose inability to achieve adequate


13
Florida. Examples of such modifications include print size, audio support, grouping of test items in a progressive hierarchy, methods for recording answers, adaptations in line length, inclusion of examples, and realistic representations.
Statement of the Problem
There is much controversy regarding the educational practice of minimum competency testing. Frequently debated issues for the normal students include legal ramifications, minority rights, comparability of curricula, and implementation procedures. For handicapped learners,
9
however, there are additional problems that may take precedence over these basic issues. The performance of handicapped and non-handicapped students will likely be different; it is assumed that the difference is due to the students1 handicaps and not the circumstances of testing. However, failure to consider possible sources of performance differences (other than student abilities) may be a major source of bias in assessment. Such factors as inappropriate test construction or item selection, as well as problems in the general testing procedures, may contribute to poor performance of the exceptional child and the inaccurate assessment of his/her fundamental content knowledge.
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of physical test construction modifications on the performance of third grade mildly handicapped (learning disabled, educable mentally retarded,


77
children were taken aside and asked to redo 3-5 items from this section. In each instance the child read the problem aloud. At the end of each sentence that included a directional clue, the examiners said, "Do it!" The confusion was all but eliminated and the students performed with little difficulty.
Another consistent problem for students was those test items measuring the child's ability to locate two particular items out of four and then correctly mark only one of those two. For example, "Look at these pictures. Find the apple. Find the other thing that is good to eat. Mark the one you found last." "Find the animals. Mark the large animal." Many children consistently marked two answers for each question, both things to eat and both animals.
Two final observations are noted. It appeared that for some children the best method for obtaining an accurate assessment of ability would only be in a one to one test situation. Independent test performance scores obtained within a group did not seem equivalent to those that could be obtained on a one to one, examiner to student, basis. Finally, there were those students who did not pay attention to the test item numbers. Instead of progressing vertically down each side of the page as the test was numbered, most children proceeded to answer the items presented horizontally across the top of each page and then across the bottom. One curriculum resource teacher noted, "It makes me so angry. The minimum competency tests are laid out in a different order than the Ginn reading workbooks and tests. The kids frequently get so confused." This confusion results from reading one passage (upper left quadrant) and


47
The subjects were evenly distributed (x = 0.21, 0.005, p > .05) across test types with regard to sex and race; 49 males (23 standard, 26 modified), 31 females (17 standard, 14 modified), 40 black (19 standard, 21 modified), and 40 white (21 standard, 19 modified). Consistent with past findings in special education literature, however, sex and race were not evenly distributed across, categories. Specific examples of relationships between race/sex and special education placement are three times as many white children in LD as black and almost six times as many boys in EH as girls. A breakdown of the four categories by race and sex is presented in Table 1.
Table 1
Category Membership by Race and Sex
Race Sex Category Black White Male Female
Normal 14(17.5%) 6( 7.5%) 8(10.0%) 12(15.0%)
LD 5( 6.3%) 15(18.8%) 12(15.0%) 8(10.0%)
EH 11(13.8%) 9(11.3%) 17(21.3%) 3( 3.7%)
EMR 10(12.5%) 10(12.5%) 12(15.0%) 8(10.0%)
x2 = 8.40 x2 = 8.58
< .05 < .05


87
processes, and sensory integrated processes. In cases where the standard deviation is not available, a score of 70 percent or less of the student's expectancy age in one process area of 80 percent or less in three or more process areas may be used.
(2) Evidence of a process strength at or above the student's expected level of functioning.
(3) If more than one process test instrument is used to document a deficit or strength, the results must consistently show deficits or strengths in the same process area. If more than one level of functioning' is obtained, the mean level of functioning will be used to establish a deficit or strength.
(4) Only subtests appropriate for the student's expectancy age should be used for placement purposes.
(5) A student does not qualify for eligibility if the following subtests are the only ones that indicate a process strength or deficit.
(a) Detroit Test of Learning Abilities
Free Association Social Adjustment A Social Adjustment B Number Ability
(b) Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities
Manual Expression Grammatic Closure Sound Blending
In order for these subtests to be considered, they must
be viewed in conjunction with other subtests.


51
comprised of standard and modified formats were used; the modifications included (a) the grouping of similar items in a hierarchy of progressive difficulty, (b) the arrangement of line lengths in an unjustified manner, (c) the introduction of examples and directions
?
for each new skill change, (d) the placement of answer bubbles to
the right of each foil, and (e) the use of boldface type for emphasis.
The dependent variable in this study was the raw score indicating the student's performance on the total test or group of selected test items. Equal numbers of test items were included for each test modi fication.
Hypotheses
A series of related hypotheses were addressed. These included:
1. There is no difference in total test performance of various groups of students as a function of the nature of the test (i.e., modified vs. standard form).
2. There is no difference in the performance of various groups of students on selected items as a function of an increased ratio
of examples to skill changes.
3. There is no difference in the performance of various groups of students on selected test items as a function of boldface type.
4. There is no difference in the performance of various groups of students on selected test items as a function of answer bubble placement.
5. There is no difference in the performance of various groups of students on selected test items as a function of item grouping.


76
For example, it became apparent early in the pilot study that test performance was closely related to reading ability. Those students who read well performed well, and those students who had poor reading skills had great difficulty taking the test and achieved low test scores. Another effect reading ability appeared to have on test performance was the ability of some children to understand passages read silently. Several mildly handicapped children appeared to demonstrate comprehension problems when reading to themselves and less confusion when reading aloud.
Many mildly handicapped students also appeared to be lacking in test taking skills. They did not recognize such basic direction words as "above," "below," "same," "different," "find," or "choose." Some students went directly from the reading passage to the test answer choices without reading the question of interest. Two groups of LD students, however, demonstrated outstanding test taking skills in reading. They read the question to be answered first and then continued to find the solution in the passage. For example, in response to "How did the story end?" these students immediately went to the last sentence (without reading the entire passage) and marked the corresponding answer.
Some students also demonstrated particular difficulties with the subskill of following directions. There was a tendency for a great many to follow the alphabet sequence of labeled dots rather than following the written sequence of directions. Frequently students would also read the directions completely and then declare "I don't know what I'm supposed to do." After the test was completed, several


23
There appears to be a general consensus among experts regarding the use of upper and lower case letters, italics, and boldface type. Tinker (1963a) and Craig (1971) recommended the use of boldface type as an effective means for emphasizing an important concept or word, or for drawing attention to a critical element. The use of lower case letters is preferred to upper case or italics since lower case can be read more quickly (Tinker & Patterson, 1928; Tinker, 1963a) and more easily (Craig, 1971). Craig (1971) contended that lowercase letters facilitate the process of reading due to a presence of greater visual cues. This can be seen by splitting a word horizontally. The reader receives more decoding clues from lowercase chair than uppercase CHAIR. Sawyer (1975) suggested that words not be typed in all capital (uppercase) letters and Tinker (1963a) reported that capitals and italics retarded the speed of reading.
Line Length
According to Tinker (1963b) the normal line width is 39 characters, although this may vary up to 65 depending on different sizes of type (Craig, 1971). Line length has an important effect on reading. Lines that are too short can break up phrases and logical thought units (Craig, 1971). On the other hand, there are also disadvantages to lines that are too long. Excessively long lines make it difficult to find the beginning of the next line (Tinker, 1963a) and long lines can also cause fatigue (Craig, 1971).
Lines of print are usually set by printers to give a "justified" or even appearance. Justified lines have even left and right margins


APPENDIX C
SAMPLE TESTSTANDARD
DIRECTIONS: The list of words in each box is in alphabetical order. (Remember, that means A,B,C order.) Choose the word to go in the blank that will keep each list in alphabetical order
1. bag
4. wide
light depart
96


APPENDIX A ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA
Specific Learning Disabilities Specific learning disabilitiesone who exhibits a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using spoken and written language. These may be manifested in disorders of listening, thinking, reading, talking, writing, spelling, or arithmetic. They do not include learning problems which are due primarily to visual, hearing, or motor handicaps, to mental retardation, emotional disturbance, or to an environmental deprivation.
1. Criteria for Eligibility
a. The student must be of school age.
b. Evidence of a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes.
(1) Based on a student's expected level of functioning a score of two standard deviations or less below the mean in one process area or a score of one and one-half standard deviations or less below the mean in three or more process areas. Process areas are defined as: visual channel processes, auditory channel processes, haptic channel processes, language
86


60
Table 7
Means and Standard Dev iations for Students1 Performance
on Subtest for Hierarchial Modification
Hierarchy
Category Test Form Mean Standard Deviation
Standard 18.5 2.2
Normal
Modified 19.2 1.3
Standard 16.3 2.8
LD
Modified 17.0 2.5
Standard 16.9 4.7
EH
Modified 17.6 2.1
Standard 9.6 3.8
EMR
Modified 11.1 6.0

Analysis of Variance Summary
Sums of Mean Degrees of
Source Square(SS) Square(MS) Freedom(df) F
Category 836.55 278.85 3 22.74*
Test Form 16.20 16.20 1 1.32
Category X 2.40 .80 3 .06
Test Form
Error 882.79 12.26 72
* p<.05


7
negative issues which surround MCT; he included the following in his discussion:
1. There is a fear that minimum competencies may become maximum competencies. Critics infer that such advanced courses
as Calculus, Chemistry, Literature, and World History may eventually be eliminated from the school curriculum.
2. There is a concern that a concentrated emphasis on basic academic skills may reduce interest in other disciplines, such as music, art, and physical education.
3. There also may be a negative stigma associated with those students requiring remedial classes. As a consequence, some opponents of MCT fear students may become discouraged at the prospect of failing the MCT, and choose to drop out of school.
4. Some educators fear there will be an abusive use of the test results. Improper use of scores can segregate groups of students, contribute to poor self-concepts, and act as a barrier for future employment.
Other individuals are concerned that the MCT movement has been implemented too quickly and without necessary precautions. McClung (1977), an education law consultant and staff attorney for the Center of Law and Education, Inc., has listed several legal and educational issues that may be hazardous to both students and schools. These issues include (a) potential racial discrimination, (b) remediation component (tracking of minorities), (c) technical adequacy of test (instructional and curricular validity), (d) adequate phasing-in


55
Means, standard deviations, and analysis of variance summary table for total test performance are presented in Table 3. Significant main effects are indicated for both category and test form. Similar information relative to student performance on the five modification subtests (i.e., examples, boldface type, answer bubble placement, progressive hierarchy, and unjustified line length), is presented in Tables 4 to 8.
Total performance on the modified test (x = 75.20) was approximately six points higher than on the standard test form (x = 68.95). As revealed in the follow-up analyses, performance of EH and LD students was similar as were normal and EH students. The scores of
the mentally retarded students and LD students, however, were significantly lower than normal students.
With regards to subtest scores, there were no differences in test form for four out of five modification subtests; the one exception was the example subtest. On the example subtest, students achieved higher scores on the modified version (x~ = 15.67) than on the standard version (x* = 14.02). As indicated in follow-up analyses, performance of EH and LD students was consistently similar on all subtests; this was also true of normal and EH students. Learning disabled and normal students performed similarly on only 33 percent of the tests; EMR children always performed lower than other categories of students. Results of all follow-up analyses are presented in Table 9; similar means are denoted by an underline.


5
According to Popham (1981) nearly 40 states have established minimum competency testing programs covering the basic skills of reading, writing, and mathematics. Seventeen of those states have also established competency testing as a requirement for high school graduation (Neill, 1979).
Reactions to Minimum Competency Testing
Positive effects. According to Popham (1981) there are several positive attributes to the MCT program. Pinkney (1979) has identified the positive characteristics specific to Floridafs program;
1. Both students and teachers have been provided with a list of exactly which skills are to be mastered by the students and a timetable for accomplishing these objectives. Ideally, the basic skills criteria are decided upon by a diverse group of individuals including teachers, administrators, professors, parents, employers, and other professionals.
2. There has been a renewed interest in learning in school. Cognitive.development has returned as the primary justification for the existence of schools. The supplementary frills have been minimized and educating/ children has become the highest priority.
3. The MCT program has created a new awareness among parents in regard to their children's education. The realization that their children will be required to demonstrate mastery of basic skills at the 3rd, 5th, 8th, and 11th grade has stimulated parents to monitor continual progress.


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Robert F. Algozzine. Professor of Special
nan ducation
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Cecil D. Mercer Professor of Special Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Catherine V. Morsink Professor of Special Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Assistant Professor of Foundations of Education


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Department of Special Education in the College of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
August 1982
Rex EJ Schmia
Associate Professor of Special Education
Dean, Graduate School


49
Table 2
Internal Consistency Estimates for Standard and Modified Tests
Test Category Total Example Version
Standard Normal .92 .74
LD .94 .65
EH .96 .78
EMR .88 .63
Modified Normal .85 .55
LD .90 .61
EH .93 .68
EMR .91 .79
_Subtests
------- | |
Boldface Answer Hierarchy Line
Bubbles Length
.62 .62 .75 .93
.87 .91 .71 .79
.91 82:< .94 .83
.71 .64 .72 .84
.69 .19 .66 .80
.83 .85 .76 .30
.90 .58 .67 .86
.62 .78 .90 .61
The modified test also consisted of five groups of 20 items. These items, however, were characterized by the inclusion of examples and teacher explanation at the beginning of each new skill section (#1-20), the use of boldface type to denote emphasis (#21-40), placement of answer bubbles to the right of the answer foils (#41-60), grouping of similar items in a hierarchy of progressive difficulty (#61-80), and unjustified line length (#81-100). A sample modified test is included in Appendix D


67
criteria were substantially higher when using the modification of unjustified line lengths. Likewise, differences in favor of the boldface type and example modifications were noted for LD, EH students and EMR students respectively. Data supporting these conclusions are contained in Table 12. ]
In summary, total test performance differences were indicated for both category and test form. As a result of follow-up analyses, no significant differences between EH and LD students1 scores nor between those of normal and EH students were indicated. Learning disabled and normal students1 performance was significantly different and EMR students1 scores were consistently lower than those for any other category of students. A comparison of test forms indicated total performance on the modified test was approximately an average of six points higher than on the standard test form.
Analysis of subtest scores revealed consistent main effects for all categories. The performance of EH and LD students was
#
similar on all subtests; as was that of normal and EH students. Learning disabled and normal students performed similarly on 33 percent of the subtests and EMR children consistently performed lower than other categories of students. The only significant difference in test form was on the example subtest, with higher scores being achieved on the modified form than on the standard version of the test.
Percentage of subskill items within each subtest was compared to Florida's current mastery criteria. Mean performance scores on the modified test were 1-16 percentage points higher than those on
i
m
*


64
Table 10
Criteria Used to Determine and Report Mastery of Skills
When the number of questions to measure a skill is as follows:
The minimum number of questions required to be answered correctly
shall be as follows:
2 1 of 2
3 2 of 3
4 3 of 4
5 4 of 5
6 5 of 6
7 5 of 7
8 6 of 8
9 7 of 9
10 7 of 10
11 8 of 11
12 9 of 12
13 S io of 13
14 10 of 14
15 11 of 15
16 12 of 16
Source:
Florida Department of Education. Statistical Report: 1980 81. State and district report of results. Tallahassee, FL


57
Table 4
Means and Standard Deviations for Students1 Performance
on Subtest for Example Modification
Examples
Category Test Form Mean Standard Deviation
Normal Standard Modified 18.1 18.8 2.4 1.5
LD Standard Modified 15.5 16.0 2.9 2.7
EH Standard Modified 15.4 16.9 3.7 2.6
EMR Standard Modified 7.1 11.0 3.2 4.4

Analysi s of Variance Summary
Source Sums of Squares(SS) Mean Square(MS) Degrees of Freedom(df) F
Category 982.00 327. 33 3 35.22*
Test Form 54.45 54. 45 1 5.86*
Category X Test Form 36.55 12.18 3 1.31
Error 669.19 9. 29 72


APPENDIX B PARENT PERMISSION SLIPS
Dear Parent,
I am currently a doctoral candidate in the Department of Special Education at the University of Florida. I am in the process of conducting a study to find out if differences in the way test questions are worded, placed, or marked will affect how third grade students do on the test.
Children in this study will be asked to take a 100 item test, which should take about 90 minutes. The test will be much like the State Student Assessment Test which third graders in Florida take
Mf
each October. The test scores will remain confidential and will not be recorded in any of the students1 permanent records. The scores merely will be used to compare the achievement of different groups, based on individual test changes.
The study will be conducted under the supervision of Special Education staff members of the Orange County Public Schools.
I would be most willing to answer any questions you may have regarding the goals or procedures of this study. If you agree to allow your child to participate in this study, please sign and date this form. You can always withdraw your consent for your child's participation at any time without prejudice.
92


15
3. What effect do unjustified line lengths have on the test performance of mildly handicapped children and the performance of normal children?
4. What effect does the introduction of examples and directions for each new skill change have on the test performance of mildly handicapped children and the performance of normal children?
5. What effect does placement of answer bubbles to the right side of foils have on the test performance of mildly handicapped children and the performance of normal children?
6. What effect does the use of boldface type have on test performance of mildly handicapped children and the performance of normal children?
Limitations
This study included third grade mildly handicapped and regular classroom students from Alachua County and Orange County School Systems in north-central and central Florida, respectively. The handicapped students were identified as learning disabled (LD), educable mentally retarded (EMR), and emotionally handicapped (EH) according to the regulations of the Florida State Department of Education (see Appendix A). As a result of variations in identification criteria between states, the handicapped students in this study may not be representative of other handicapped students throughout the United States. Likewise, educational and cultural differences due to geographic factors may also affect the representativeness of both handicapped and regular classroom students in this study.


24
and are usually found in newspapers, magazines, and books. Paragraphs with justified line lengths approximate a box with parallel sides. The printers are able to create this even appearance by altering the spacing between individual letters and words.
Craig (1971), however, suggested that equal spacing between words creates greater legibility. The equal spacing creates uneven or "unjustified11 line lengths and lines take on a jagged effect. The jagged effect has texture, adds visual interest to the page, contributes to the ease of reading, and reduces the difficulty of locating the beginning of the next line (Craig, 1971). Results of a study by Reichard and Reid (1970) indicated that retarded children demonstrated increased reading rates and improved reading comprehension scores on reading passages that were set in unjustified lines with double spaced leading (i.e., space between lines of print).
Leading is the amount of white space between lines of print. It is another factor that can alter the effectiveness of line lengths. Too little or too much spacing can be distracting. Craig (1971) stated that too much leading can cause a. drifting effect and the type takes on a grayish cast (as opposed to true black). He recommended that leading between lines be greater than the spacing between the individual words. Appropriate leading is also responsible for increasing visibility
on a page when the paper is low in brightness or the reading light is poor (Tinker, 1963b).
Although Craig (1971) stated that proper leading is more a matter of visual judgment than specific mathematical determinations of space,


80
present between category of student and test form. As can be seen
from data presented in Appendix E, it was not possible to determine
significance of either sex or race on test scores due to the limited sample size.
Results of post hoc analysis however indicated that the modifications would be beneficial in instances where mastery was an issue. Students needing to demonstrate mastery of a skill could do so on 32 percent more sections within the modified test than on the standard test. Gains of 1-16 percentage points could be seen on 80 percent of the subskills tested with the modified test in contrast to the

standard test. Also, certain modifications appeared to facilitate acquisition of mastery by specific categories of handicapped students.
Modifications in physical formatting do not appear to improve test scores across all categories. The inclusion of examples appears to facilitate the demonstration of proficiency for EMR students only. Scores for hierarchial arrangement of items, answer bubble placement, unjustified line lengths, and boldface type did not reach levels of significance. Trends for higher test scores (10-15% gains) were noticed however in the use of examples and boldface type for emotionally disturbed students and with boldface type and unjustified line
lengths for learning disabled students. Due to the limited amount of research that has been previously done, and because the results of this study have been favorable, further research on this topic appears justified.


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
mso-application progid Word.Document
w:wordDocument xmlns:w http:schemas.microsoft.comofficeword2003wordml xmlns:v urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml xmlns:wx http:schemas.microsoft.comofficeword2003auxHint xmlns:o urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office xmlns:w10 urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:word xmlns:aml http:schemas.microsoft.comaml2001core xml:space preserve w:docPr w:footnotePr w:footnote w:type separator w:p w:r w:separator continuation-separator w:continuationSeparator w:body wx:sect w:pPr w:rPr w:lang w:val 0409 w:fareast w:t The U.S. military has had a host of successful experiences in counterguerrilla war, including some distinct successes with certain aspects of the Vietnam War. However, the paradox stemw:softHyphen ming from America's unsuccessful crusade in the jungles of Vietnam is thisbecause the experience was perceived as anathema to the mainstream American military, hard lessons learned there about fighting guerrillas were neither embedded nor preserved in the U.S. Army's institutional memory. The American military culture's efforts to expunge the specter of Vietnam, embodied in the mantra "No More Vietnams," also prevented the U.S. Army as an institution from really learning from those lessons. In fact, even the term counterinsurgency seemed to become a reviled and unwelcome word, one that the doctrinal cognoscenti of the 1980s conveniently transmogrified into "foreign internal defense." Even though many lessons exist in the U.S. military's historical experience writh small wars, the lessons from the Vietnam War were the most voluminous. Yet these lessons were most likely the least read, because the Army's intellectual rebirth after Vietnam focused almost exclusively on a big conventional war in Europethe scenario preferred by the U.S. military culture.3Since the U.S. Army and its coalition partners are currently prosecuting counterguerrilla wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, it is useful to revisit the lessons from Vietnam and other counterinsur-gencies because they are germane to the wars of today and tomorrow. Capturing all or many of these lessons is beyond the scope of this article and is most likely beyond the scope of a single-volume book. However, this article aims to distill some of the more relevant counterinsurgency lessons from the American military's experiences during Vietnam and before. A bigger goal of this article, however, is to highlight some salient studies for professional reading as the U.S. Army starts to inculcate a mindset that embraces the challenges of counterinsurgency and to develop a culture that learns from past lessons in counterinsurgency. This analysis also offers a brief explanation of U.S. military culture and the hitherto embedded cultural obstacles to learning how to fight guerrillas. To simplify and clarify at the outset, the terms counterinsurgency, counterguerrilla warfare, small war, and asymmetric conflict are used interchangeably. It is a form of warfare in which enemies of the regime or occupying force aim to undermine the regime by employing classical guerrilla tactics.4The U.S. Army and the broader American military are only now, well into the second decade after the end of the Cold War, wholeheartedly trying to transform their culture, or mindset. Senior civilian and military leaders of the defense establishment realize that military cultural change is a precondition for innovative and adaptive approaches to meet the exigencies of a more complex security landscape, one in which our adversaries will most likely adopt unorthodox strategies and tactics to undermine our technological overmatch in the Western, orthodox, way of war. Military culture can generally be defined as the embedded beliefs and attitudes within a military organization that shape that organization's preference on when and 'how the military instrument should be used. Because these institutional beliefs sometimes tend to value certain roles and marginalize others, military culture can impede innovation in ways of warfare that lie outside that organization's valued, or core, roles.5For most of the 20th century, the U.S. military culture (notwithstanding the Marines' work in small wars) generally embraced the big conventional war paradigm and fundamentally eschewed small wars and insurgencies. Thus, instead of learning from our experiences in Vietnam, the Philippines, the Marine Corps' experience in the Banana Wars, and the Indian campaigns, the U.S. Army for most of the last 100 years has viewed these experiences as ephemeral anomalies and aberrationsdistractions from preparing to win big wars against other big powers. As a result of marginalizing the counterinsurgencies and small wars that it has spent most of its existence prosecuting, the U.S. military's big-war cultural preferences have impeded it from fully benefitingstudying, distilling, and incorporating into doctrinefrom our somewhat extensive lessons in small wars and insurgencies. This article starts by briefly14w:sectPr continuous w:pgSz w:w 12240 w:h 15840 w:pgMar w:left 1440 w:top w:right w:bottom w:titlePg off


65
Table 11
Comparison of Mean Test Scores for Standard and Modified Subtests with Mastery Criteria
Mastery Criteria
Standard Test Modified Test
Example Dollar
Fractions
Measurement
Sequencing (lst-last) ABC order
Math Word Problems
Boldface
66%
66%
66%
75%
75%
66%
x percentage score
62.5
75.8
85.0
76.2
55.6
63.3
x percentage score
78.3
74.2
86.7
83.7
67.5
81.7
Not
End
Pronoun
Opposites
Following directions Answer Bubble
75%
75%
75%
75%
75%
72.5
68.7
60.6
65.6
65.6
75.0
69.4
75.6
75.0
71.2
2-digit addition Math Word Problems
75%
75%
75%
75%
75%
85.0
71.2
56.9
70.0
66.9
90.0
85.0
61.2
68.7
Reading Comprehension Reading Comprehension
Spelling 1
Based on data in Florida Department of Education. Statistical report 1980-81. State and district report results. Tallahassee, FL: Division of Public Schools, Series 81-05, February 1981.
65.6


59
Table 6
Means and Standard Deviations for Students' Performance
on Subtest for Answer Bubble Modification
Answer Bubbles
Category Test Form Mean Standard Deviation
Standard 18.5 1.8
Normal
Modified 18.8 1.1
Standard 13.7 5.5
LD
Modified 14.8 4.4
Standard 15.5 4.0
EH
Modified 17.4 2.1
Standard 8.3 3.4
EMR
Modified 8.3 4.1
Analysis of Variance Summary
Source Sums of Square(SS) Mean Square(MS) Degrees of Freedom(df) F
Category 1189.94 396.64 3 30.68*
Test Form 13.61 13.61 1 1.05
Category X Test Form 10.94 3.65 3 .28
Error 930.89 12.93 72
* p < .05


83
Hoi 1iday, W. G., & Partridge, L. A. Differential sequencing effects
of test items on children. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 1979, 16, 407-411.
Kaluzny, B. A. Competency testing and the handicapped student.
Education Unlimited, 1979, 1, 72-73.
Madaus, G. F. NIE clarification hearing: The negative team's case.
Phi Delta Kappan, 1981, 63, 92-94.
Majors, G. W., & Michael, J. J. The relationship of achievement on a
teacher-made mathematics test of computational skills to two ways of recording answers and to two workspace arrangements. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1975, 35, 1005-1009.
Margolis, H., Brannigan, G. G., & Penner, W. J. Modification of
impulsive visual discrimination performance. Journal of Special Education, 1978, 12, 29-35.
Marsh, G. E. II, Gearheart, G. K., & Gearheart, B. R. The learning
disabled adolescent: Program alternatives in the secondary school. St. Louis: The C. V. Mosby Company, 1978.
Marso, R. N. Test item arrangement, testing time, and performance.
Journal of Educational Measurement, 1970, 7^, 113-118.
McCarthy, M. M. Minimum competency testing and handicapped students.
Exceptional Children, 1980, 47, 166-175.
McClung, M. S. Competency testing: Potential for discrimination.
Clearing House Review, 1977, 1J_, 439-448.
McClung, M. S. Competency testing programs: Legal and educational
issues. Fordham Law Review, 1979, 47, 651-712.
McClung, M. S., & Pullin, D. Competency testing and handicapped students.
Clearinghouse Review, 1978, 1J_, 922-927.
Morsink, C. (Ed.). DELTA: A design for word attack growth. Tulsa, OK:
Educational Development Corporation, 1977.
Muller, D., Calhoun, E., & Orling, R. Test reliability as a function
of answer sheet mode. Journal of Educational Measurement, 1972, 9, 321-324.
National Association of State Directors of Special Education and the
North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, Division of Exceptional Children. Competency testing, special education and the awarding of diplomas. Washington, DC: National Association
of State Directors of Special Education, 1979.


104


26
Ordering the items from easiest to most difficult would also appear to help the handicapped student. When items are scrambled, there is no assurance an EMR or EH child will continue past the difficult item until he reaches another item he knows. Educationally handicapped students may become frustrated with a difficult problem and abandon the rest of the items. By combining these two features, grouping and ordering, a test could be logical and reinforcing to a handicapped child. The discouragement a child may feel as he reaches the limit of his ability on one skill could be counter-balanced by successful accomplishment on the easier tasks of the next skill.
Physical Layout
Cells per page. Since educationally handicapped children often demonstrate visual perception problems, educational materials should optimally be characterized by limited and well organized stimulus. In order to create a clean and uncluttered page, test problems may be enclosed within a cell or box. Cells can be created by extending horizontal lines across the page and by placing one vertical line down the center of each page. These lines create a well balanced page that resembles Sample 1 (Figure 1). Cells in other tests are inconsistent in size due to randomly placed horizontal lines. For example, some test pages may resemble Sample 2 (Figure 1). Such an imbalanced page may be distracting and promote confusion for a handicapped child. In Greenberg's (1980) study with handicapped students, it was recommended that each page consist of a maximum of six cells; however, the results of her study did not prove that this number was critical. Research in this area is obviously limited.


students. Although the overall analysis indicated that differences between these test scores were not significant at the a = .05 level, the issue of mastery of individual subskills was of interest. The percentage of items correct for each subskill on both test versions was calculated. These scores were then compared with the current state mastery criteria. This comparison revealed that the performance scores on the modified test were higher than those on the standard test for 80 percent (20/25) of the subskills tested. The increase between mean scores ranged from 1 to 16 percentage points. These increases in performance scores for the modified test subsequently became the difference between mastery and failure for 32 percent (8/25) of the subskill sections. Students taking the modified test achieved mastery level criteria for one-third of the sub-skills that were not mastered on the standard version. This analysis also revealed that specific modifications appeared to facilitate acquisition of mastery by certain categories of handicapped students. Frequency of mastery was substantially higher for LD, EH, EMR students on the unjustified line length subtest, LD and EH students on the boldface type subtest, and EMR students on the example subtest.
Another issue of interest was the presence of any trend in performance scores between categories on total test. Some professionals may argue that physical format modifications may simply raise the test scores across all categories. Results of the post hoc analysis indicated that this was apparently not true in this study. While the differences between mean performance scores


2
reported that "there is growing evidence that shifts in policy, expectations, and behavior within schools themselves have contributed to the documented decline in writing skills and aptitude test scores" (Berry, 1979, p. 167). The low performance level in our schools has also been attributed to the amount of on task learning time. According to Berry (1979), students tend to be on task for approximately only 30 percent of the instructional day. The impact of this statistic is magnified when one realizes that only 60-70 percent of the total school day is actually devoted to learning. In addition, there appears to be a decline in the number of students enrolled in core academic subjects and an increase in the number of optional courses available (Berry, 1979; Copperman, 1978).
Public criticism and rigid surveillance of our schools would appear to be justified if students who graduate after 12 years of education are truly unable to read and write. Even with the acknowledgement that there are other variables (such as home, family, and community influences) that do contribute to an individual's achievement potential, it would appear that our schools must still assume the primary responsibility for graduating illiterates (Pinkney, 1979).
Current Interest in Minimum Competency Programs
Educators, administrators, legal consultants, parents, and employers have become increasingly concerned about the mastery of skills demonstrated by graduating high school students. This concern has been fostered not only by the previously cited statistics, but also


14
and emotionally handicapped) and normal students. The effects of five modifications were measured within the three groups of mildly handicapped students and one group of nonhandicapped learners.
The independent variables in this study were type of student and test type. Students were characterized as normal, learning disabled (LD), emotionally handicapped (EH), or educable mentally retarded (EMR); criteria used for determination of such mildly handicapping conditions as LD, EH, and EMR are listed in Appendix A. Tests comprised of standard and modified formats were used; the modifications included: (a) the grouping of similar items in a hierarchy of progressive difficulty, (b) the arrangement of line lengths in an unjustified manner, (c) the introduction of examples and directions for each new skill change, (d) the placement of answer bubbles to the right of each foil, and (e) the use of boldface type for emphasis. The dependent variable in this study was the raw score indicating the student's performance on the total test or selected items.
Related Questions
This study was designed to investigate the effects of physical test construction modifications on the performance of selected elementary school aged children. Specifically, the following questions were addressed:
1. What effect does test item modification have on the total test performance of mildly handicapped and normal children?
2. What effect does the grouping of similar items in a hierarchy of progressive difficulty have on the test performance of mildly handicapped children and the performance of normal children?


90
DIRECTIONS: Read these problems.
Figure out the right answer
45.
There were 33 boys and 22
girls at a lake swimming. How many children were swimming
together?
47.
Jennifer won 24 games. Tom won 35 games. How many games did they win in all?
64 children
55 children
11 children
10 children
11 games
51 games
14 games
59 games
46. The library had The library bought How many books are library now?
76 books.
22 more books
in the
48.
Fred many
Sally made 32 cookies, made 15 cookies. How cookies did Sally and make altogether?
98 books
17 books
54 books
58 books
61 cookies
47 cookies
23 cookies
11 cookies


63
Current practice in reporting the results of minimum competency testing in Florida is to present scores that are indicative of mastery of basic skills. The state has established minimum perfor- mance standards for each subskill; the number of items correct relative to the total number of subskill items attempted is the basis for decision making relative to "mastery." The mastery criteria currently being used in Florida are presented in Table 10. Within the five different subtests presented in this study, different sub-skills were included. A post hoc analysis of the student's test performance on specific subskills was completed. Individual scores were calculated for percentage of subskill items correct; these were compared to current state mastery criteria. Results of this analysis are presented in Table 11. On 32 percent of the subskill sections, the difference between performance on the standard and modified tests was the difference between achieving mastery criteria and failing. Overall, the performance scores on the modified test were one to 16 percentage points higher than on the standard test for 80 percent of the individual subskill sections.
Further analysis of the data was completed regarding the number of students achieving mastery by subtest by category. It appeared there were no substantial differences in mastery level for normal students on either standard or modified test versions. Certain test modifications did appear, however, to facilitate mastery levels for various mildly handicapping conditions. For example, numbers of LD, EH, and EMR students achieving mastery


108
She enrolled at the University of Florida to pursue an advanced degree in learning disabilities. Her minor areas included early assessment and administration/supervision. She hopes to gain employment as an educational diagnostician in a children's hospital or special education administrator in a large urban school system.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The Blizzard of '76 in Buffalo, New York, inflicted much hardship on many of the area citizens. Fortunately, it had a more positive effect on our family. It became the fundamental impetus for our moving to a warm and sunny climate. This move to Gainesville, Florida, brought several wonderful people into our lives, for which we will always be thankful. These individuals have made our five years at the university memorable, and some will have an everlasting effect on our future. My deepest thanks go to so many, especially to my chairman, Bob Algozzine. To know him is to love him. His naivete'and optimism are refreshing, his talent awe inspiring, and his personality enviable. Thank you for personifying the professional expertise and standards toward which we all should strive. Your friendship, understanding, and kindness will always be remembered by our family. You are the best! And to Kate, thanks for sharing him with us for so long.
To my committee members, thank you for your support, encouragement, and tolerance. A special thank you is extended to Cathy Morsink She is a wonderful example of how a competent and talented woman can make an impact in the profession of special education. I am so glad you came to U of F. And, to Rex Schmid, thank you for your editorial thoroughness, your "effectiveness", and your incredible
n


62
Table 9
Results of Follow-Up Analyses Using Tukey's
Honestly Significant Differences
Category
Normal EH LD EMR
x~ score x score x score x~ score
Total Test 91.10 79.80 74.90 42.50
Subtests
Example 18.45 16.15 15.75 9.05
Boldface 18.10 15.70 14.45 7.70
Answer Bubble 18.65 16.45 14.25 8.30
Hierarchy 18.85 17.25 16.65 10.35

Line Length 17.05 14.30 13.70 7.70


10
confinement to a wheelchair, and yet realistic and fair to exempt a profoundly retarded individual.
Individualized determinations. It would appear that no uniform approach for all handicapped children would be equitable when types and severity of handicapping condition are considered (Denninger, 1979; Ewing, 1979; McClung & Pullin, 1978). For example, any attempt to establish a general policy that would be equitable to both a mildly speech impaired student and a seriously emotionally disturbed individual would appear impossible. As a consequence, it would seem most appropriate that decisions regarding student participation in MCT programs be made on an individual basis. All handicapped students, however, should have the opportunity to participate in the MCT program if they desire, and any school district that fails to provide that option may be in violation of P.L. 93-112 (McClung, 1979). The process of individualized determinations also provides educators with an opportunity to become more aware of the wide range of ability and achievement levels within the handicapped population.
Differential diplomas and standards. Another issue affecting the handicapped population is the awarding of differential diplomas and the establishment of differential standards. McClung (1979) characterizes a differential diploma as being distinguishable in color, shape, or wording from a standard diploma. Differential standards are usually less stringent than the standards required for nonhandi-capped students.
McClung and Pullin (1978) again emphasize the need for individualized determinations. School personnel, policy makers, and parents need


99
li
9 11 46
20
19


84
Nei11, S. B. A summary of issues in the minimum competency movement.
Phi Delta Kappan, 1979, 60, 452-453.
Pabian, J. M. Education malpractice and minimal competency testing:
Is there a legal remedy at last? New England Law Review, 1979, 15, 101-127.
Perez, J. Procedural adaptations and format modifications in minimum
competency testing of learning disabled students: A clinical investigation. Unpublished manuscript, University of South Florida, 1980.
Peter, W. v. San Francisco Unified School District, 131 Cal. Rptr. 854
(1976).
Pinkney, H. B. The minimum competency movement in education. Clearing
House, 1979, 52, 413-416.
Popham, W. J. The case for minimum competency testing. Phi Delta
Kappan, 1981, 63, 89-92.
Reichard, C. L., & Reid, W. R. An investigation of format for reading
material for the educable mentally retarded. Journal of Reading, 1970, 13, 363-366.
Safer, N. D. Implications of minimum competency standards and testing
for handicapped students. Exceptional Children, 1980, 46^, 288-292.
Salvia, J., & Ysseldyke, J. Assessment in special and remedial
education. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1978.
Sawyer, H. G. When ad budgets require compromise, impact is most
strategic choice. Industrial Marketing, 1975, 6CU 66/.
Shaw, A. Print for partial sight. London: The Library Association,
1969.
Sirotnik, K., & Wellington, R. Scrambling content in achievement testing:
Application of multiple matrix sampling in experimental design. Journal of Educational Measurement, 1974, H, 179-188.
Smith, L. D., & Jenkins, D. S. Minimum competency testing and handicapped students. Exceptional Children, 1980, 46, 440-443.
State of Florida. Florida Statutes, Chapter 232, Section 246.
Tallahassee, FL: Florida Department of Education, 1979.
State of Florida. Proposed State Board of Education Rule 6A-1.943,
revised. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Department of Education, 1980.


for normal students was 3.6 (in favor of the modified test) the differences between standard and modified test scores for LD, EH, and EMR students were 6.8-7.6. These differences on the modified test were consistently three to four points higher for mildly handicapped students than they were for normal students.
Although no interaction between test form and category resulted from analysis of the inferential statistics, data were then analyzed to ascertain if specific categories obtained higher performance scores on any particular subtests for either test version. Emotionally handicapped students consistently scored an average of two points (10 percent) higher on the modified subtests for examples, boldface type, and answer bubble placement. Learning disabled students achieved an average of two points higher on the boldface

type subtest and three points (15 percent) higher on the unjustified line length subtest, both modified versions. Normal and educable mentally retarded students' average scores did not appear to be affected by subtest modifications. One exception to this was EMR mean scores on the example subtest. In this one instance the differences between mean scores reached statistical significance,
a difference of 20 percent.
Observations
Several observations were made regarding certain irregularities in children's performances and any behaviors that occurred frequently.


43
They also agree that words written in capital letters or italics slow down the rate of reading. In spite of this agreement, however, there were no studies available that establish the effectiveness of these printing procedures with various handicapped populations.
There appear to be conflicting data regarding the effectiveness of enlarged print with handicapped populations. Additional research with various handicapped individuals may be warranted in order to measure the effect of enlarged print on the type of handicap and the different ages of the subjects.
Typographers recommend the use of unjustified lines for greater legibility and ease of reading. The presence of only one empirical study to date with ahndicapped children also suggests the need for continued research in the area.
There appears to be much controversy in the literature regarding the benefits of grouping similar items in a hierarchy from easy to hard for normal children. There are no known studies measuring the abilities of handicapped children with scattered items or groups of items in no order of difficulty.
The literature contains sufficient evidence to warrant the conclusion that elementary handicapped children do perform better when required to respond directly in their answer booklets as opposed to transferring answers to a separate answer sheet. On the other hand, research appears limited in regard to the effects of physical formatting of answer bubbles. The literature does not address the issue of increased accuracy of handicapped children's response when answer bubbles are placed before, after, above, or below the answer foil.


22
can be categorized as verified are (a) print (boldface), (b) line length, (c) item grouping, (d) physical layout, (e) administration (directions), and (f) answer format (in booklet response, answer bubble placement). The one modification that must be classified as unverified is the increased ratio of examples per skill change.

Verified Test Modifications
Print
In relationship to the process of reading, print is regarded as a crucial element (Fonda, 1968; Sykes, 1971; Tinker, 1963a). Fonda

(1968) stated that such factors as style of print, blackness of the ink, contrast of white non-glossy paper to the ink, and appropriate illumination facilitate reading. Tinker (1963b) used these same features to define visibility. He stated that visibility was affected by the combination of the brightness of the paper, the darkness of the ink, and the thickness of the strokes in the letter. He also noted that an increase in the visibility can make the type appear larger.
According to Shaw (1969) and Sykes (1971) legibility of print is controlled by such characteristics as quality, size, weight, and spacing. Erdmann and Neal (1968) stated that legibility increases with the height and resolution of the character. The presence of serifs (the horizontal and vertical strokes that are attached to the
end points of basic letters) and simplicity also contribute to this legibility of print (Tinker, 1963a).


REFERENCES
Abeson, A., & Zettel, J. The end of the quiet revolution: The
Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, Exceptional Children, 1977, 44, 115-128.
Beattie, S., & Algozzine, B. Assessment of minimum competency in
grades three and five: An analysis of modifications to Florida's State Student Assessment Test-I. Final Report: Contract #080-187. Gainesville, FL: Department of Education, 1981.
Beck, M. D. Achievement test reliability as a function of pupil-
response procedures. Journal of Educational Measurement, 1974, 11, 109-113.
Berry, M. F. Student competency testing. High School Journal, 1979,
62, 166-172.
Brenner, M. H. Test difficulty, reliability, and discrimination as
functions of item difficulty order. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1964, 48, 98-100.
Cashen, V. M., & Ramseyer, G. The use of separate answer sheets by
primary age children. Journal of Educational Measurement, 1969, 6, 155-157.
Clark, C. A. The use of separate answer sheets in testing slow-learning
pupils. Journal of Educational Measurement, 1968, 5^, 61-64.
CI ift, T. The regents competency testing program: Competency testing,
remedial instruction and high school credentials. New York: The University of the State of New York, The State Education Department, 1979.
Copperman, P. The literacy hoax: The decline of reading, writing,
and learning in the public schools and what we can do about it. New York: Morrow, 1978.
Craig, J. Designing with type: A basic course in typography. New
York: Watson-Guptill, 1971.
Denninger, M. L. Minimum competency testing: Benefits and dangers
for the handicapped student. NASSP Bulletin, 1979, 63, 43-48.
CI


71
express a response" (p. 25). As a result, handicapped students may possibly be unable to demonstrate their true level of content knowledge; instead, their responses may be a measure of their ability to decode the directions, read all the words in the passage, and transfer answers. Gearheart and Willenberg (1974) emphasize the need for testing examiners to be aware of any confounding factors inherent to some handicapping conditions. They stress the need to "remember the primary handicap and make certain you are testing what you intend to test, not the reflection or outcome of the disability" (p. 85). Individuals involved in the design and administration of tests must be extremely careful to recognize the possible interaction between the student's ability, his disability, and the behavior sampled by the test items.
Consideration of appropriate test modification appears warranted.
Salvia and Ysseldyke (1978) state that "common sense tells us that if a student cannot read the directions or write the responses, a test requiring these abilities is inappropriate" (p. 26). In support of this issue, Marsh, Gearheart, and Gearheart (1978) contend that students with poor reading and writing skills should not have to take tests under traditional circumstances. Tests need not be eliminated. As such, standard test forms may simply need to be modified according to individual differences. Optimally, tests could be designed for the handicapped population to adequately assess their skills and understanding of particular concepts. Variations in test design could compensate for visual-motor problems, auditory memory


73
significant main effects for test form existed only for total test scores and those for the example subtest. On the average, students taking the modified test performed approximately six points higher on the 100 item test than those students taking the standard version. On the example subtest, students achieved higher scores (approximately two points or a gain of 10 percent) on the modified version than on the standard test. These findings would suggest that students' performance varies with the type of test administered, in favor of the modified version.
Category Analyses

Significant main effects for category of student were further evaluated using Tukey's Honestly Significant Differences procedure. Consistent for all tests (total and subtests) was similar performance between EH and LD students and between normal and EH students. On two subtests (those modified by hierarchial arrangement of items and unjustified line lengths) LD and normal students performed similarly. In all other instances, EMR and LD students performed significantly lower than other categories of students. These results support differences in student performance consistent with assigned category.
Post Hoc Analyses
Additional analyses were completed to address the specific effects of the test modifications relative to individual groups of


21
"testing the handicapped," "learning disabilities (LD)," "emotionally handicapped (EH)," "educable mentally retarded (EMR)," "minimum competency testing," "reading achievement," and "print/type." Additional sources included Dissertation Abstracts International and the card catalog system in the University of Florida library (for textbooks on print and typography).
The review of the literature revealed that the area of physical test format modifications, specifically designed for elementary mildly handicapped children, has received little attention by researchers. The sample populations of studies varied in age of students (elementary, secondary, college, and adult), handicap (normal individuals, visually impaired, LD, EH, EMR), and degree of handicap (severe, moderate, and mild). Due to this paucity of research material specific to age and type of educational handicap, the selection criterion for inclusion in the literature review was very broad. A decision was made to include all accessible information regarding test construction principles and their application. This information, restricted to neither age nor handicap, was collected from data based research, survey studies, authority based good practices, and expert opinion.
Therefore, the 1 iterature for each test modification does not always address the targeted population of the current study. In fact the test modification of increased ratio of examples per skill change was not even addressed in the literature. Consequently, the studies will be reported as either "verified" (substantiated by expert opinion or data based research) or "unverified" (not specifically addressed by research but suggested by professionals). Those modificationds that


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Susan Beattie was born in Geneva, New York, on December 28, 1949. Upon completion of high school, she entered the State University College at Buffalo, New York, At the end of her junior year (1969), she went to Europe, studied at the University of Maryland (West Germany), and traveled extensively before returning in 1973. She completed her undergraduate program at State University College at Buffalo and in 1973 was awarded a B.S. degree in speech pathology and audiology. She then continued her studies at SUCB to receive an M.S.Ed, in communication disorders in 1975.
Susan worked at the Buffalo Hearing and Speech Center as a speech pathologist for four years. Her primary responsibilities were assessment and remediation of preschool handicapped populations and the hearing impaired.
She and her husband, John, moved to Gainesville, Florida, in 1977 to enable John to pursue an advanced degree in special education. For three years she was employed with the Alachua County School System as a learning disabilities teacher, speech therapist, and self-contained language clinician.
107


28
Workspace. There is also limited research available on this topic. Provision of workspace (for math and reading word problems) was investigated in a study by Majors and Michael (1975). Their research indicated that children in seventh grade scored higher on tests that provided workspace. Handicapped learners provided with workspace may systematically and logically work math and reading word problems out rather than guessing the answer. The success of the workspace modification would be closely associated with the teacher's
effectiveness in encouraging and persuading the students to utilize the workspace.
Administration
Directions and procedures. Tests often require the children to read and comprehend written directions independently. This assumes that all children have the ability to do the initial task and can then proceed to the individual test items. Unfortunately, this may be an erroneous assumption for many handicapped individuals. How can poor readers demonstrate their cognitive proficiency on other tasks when they are unable to decode the information provided in the directions? Consequently, test directions and general administration procedures become critical elements of the assessment process. It is essential that tests are an accurate measurement of a child's cognitive ability and not of his ability to respond to the test format.
ft
In New Jersey, Basic Skill Tests administrators are permitted to repeat, reword, and clarify directions and examples for handicapped children (Greenberg, 1980). This assures that the children understand


105
DIRECTIONS: Read the story and answer the question.
93
Bob and Jim were on the same football team. Bob scored 21 points. Jim scored 7 points.
Altogether, how many points did Bob and Jim score?
10 points
28 points
26 points
17 points
94.
John caught 32 fish. Mike caught 24 fish.
How many fish did they catch in all?
95
74 fish 56 fish 8 fish 11 fish
There are 15 boys in Miss Smith's class.
There are also 13 girls in the class.
How many children are in the class altogether?
28 children
10 children
2 children
46 children
96
Sally went on a trip and drove 56 miles. Her husband drove 3 3 miles.
How many miles did Sally and her husband drive altogether?
23 miles 90 miles 17 miles 89 miles


69
the standard test for 80 percent of the individual subskill sections. An analysis of these differences indicated a number of instances (i.e., 32 percent) when mastery was achieved on the modified test but not the standard. Further analysis also indicated that specific test modifications produced substantial differences in numbers of students attaining mastery criteria by category. These differences were seen for LD, EH, and EMR students using unjustified line lengths, LD and EH students using boldface type, and EMR students using examples.


41
2. All multiple choice answer options were placed in a vertical format with scoring "bubbles" placed to the right of each choice. The shape of individual answer bubbles was a horizontal oval.
3. Third grade tests were available in either standard print (12 pt = 2.0 mm) or enlarged print (18 pt = 3.3 mm). Fifth grade tests were printed in enlarged 16 pt (2.9 mm) type and standard size print.
4. Sentences for reading comprehension items were arranged in an unjustified format when possible; that is, complete sentences were left intact creating uneven right hand margins. In contrast, the traditional tests maintained the justified formatting which is characterized by equal left and right hand margins.
5. Reading comprehension passages were placed in shaded boxes immediately above the test items related to them.
6. Examples were provided for each skill grouping within the individual test sections. All examples were set apart from the test items by boxes.
7. Specific words that required additional emphasis were printed in boldface type as opposed to uppercase (capital letters), italics, or underlining.
8. Pictorial representations of coins were displayed with the head or face side up. This was in contrast to the traditional tail side up format.
9. Test items that required a logical sequencing of events were placed in a horizontal row of boxes as opposed to positions within the four quadrants of a square.


4
system. Possibly, competency based education could facilitate America's effort to reestablish the priority and high esteem of its educational system.
The curriculum objectives and instructional process within CBE are measured by competency testing scores. The competency tests are criterion-referenced and measure a student's performance relative to a specified set of behaviors. They differ from norm-referenced tests in that they do not compare student performance to an established standard. Norm referenced tests discriminate between individuals, whereas criterion referenced tests can be regarded as the best indication of what is being taught in the classroom (Denninger, 1979). The testing distinguishes those students who need additional remedial instruction. It also provides teachers and administrators with feedback on the effectiveness of the teaching methods being employed
and the appropriateness of the program.
The goal of competency testing is to improve programs, not to fail students, point an accusing finger at students or teachers, or withhold diplomas. Instead, MCT allows school personnel to document how well a student is prepared to move from grade to grade, and to ascertain those specific skills any high school graduate brings to our working society. This is in contrast to a current trend where the only requirement for graduation is time spent in school and the completion of an established number of courses.
The minimum competency testing movement has received strong support from numerous legislators and state boards of education.


3
by the gradual decline in Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores (Copperman, 1978) and recent litigation in the courts (Donohue v. Copiague Union Free School District, 1978; Peter W. v. San Francisco Unified School District, 1976).
In an effort to reduce illiteracy statistics and eliminate the possibility of future litigation, many educators and concerned members of the community have focused their attention on minimum competency programs. Although the minimum competency testing (MCT) component has drawn the most attention recently, it is but one component of the more global concept of competency based education (CBE).
Minimum Competency Testing Within A Competency Based Education Framework
Competency based education (CBE) is comprised of five major components. They include (a) establishment of educational objectives, (b) development of instructional process, (c) competency testing, (d) provision for remedial instruction, and (e) program evaluation and reconceptualization (Watts, 1979). It is suggested that the five components are interdependent and the incorporation of just one or two components would.be punitive to any student.
Educators who advocate competency based education foresee a process that will ensure the acquisition of fundamental knowledge. They contend that the attainment of a standard set of skills and abilities can enhance a student's chances for leading a happy and productive life. They argue that if used properly, CBE can also assist in the identification and correction of weaknesses in our educational


72
deficiencies, or poor decoding skills. When a test compensates for these weaknesses, there is a greater assurance that the child's true ability has been accurately measured. Diagnosticians and educators
9
can then proceed to take full advantage of the benefits that testing has to offer.
There has been little research associated with physical test modifications. Further, investigations appear to be warranted for those modifications that are specifically designed for the mild educationally handicapped (LD, EH, EMR) student (Salvia & Ysseldyke, 1978). Any information gathered, relative to the effects of test modifications, can serve as a basis for all future planning relative to designing and implementing tests of minimum abilities for handicapped students.
Discussion of Findings
Eighty third grade students (normal, LD, EH, and EMR) from Alachua and Orange Counties were administered one of two versions of a minimum competency test. One group of 40 students, comprised of 10 students from each category, received the standard test. The other group of 40 students was administered a modified version of the standard test.
Although the content of the test item remained constant, the physical formatting was altered by examples, boldface print, answer bubble placement, hierarchial arrangement, and line length.
Test Form Analyses
Results of a statistical analysis using ANOVA indicated that although students consistently performed better on the modified test,


66
Table 11-Continued
Ma s te ry Criteria
Standard Test x percentage
score
Modified Test x percentage score
Line Length Reading Comp.-end Reading Comp. $ Word Problems
75%
75%
75%
68.1
67.5
51.9
66.2
74.4
58.7
# Word Problems
75%
74.4
81.2
Reading Comp.-not Hierarchy
+ vertical
75%
80%
53.1
87.5
63.7
92.0
+ horizontal
80%
77.0
86.0
- vertical
80%
70.5
70.5
- horizontal
80%
71.5
76.0
* Indicates those subtests in which mastery criteria was achieved on the modified version but not on the standard version. i


88
c. Evidence of academic deficits.
(1) Based on the student's expected level of functioning, a score of: 85 percent expectancy age or below for third through sixth grade; 75 percent expectancy age or below for seventh through ninth grade; or 65 percent expectancy age or below for tenth through twelfth grade is required in one or more of the following academic areas: reading, writing, arithmetic, or spelling. For students in kindergarten and first grade, evidence must be presented that achievement is 95 percent expectancy age or below on preacademic tasks which require listening, thinking, or speaking skills. For students in second grade, evidence must be presented that achievement is 90 percent expectancy age or below on preacademic tasks which require listening, thinking, or speaking skills. A student may not be placed for a deficit in either writing or spelling or both.
(2) If more than one academic instrument is used to document a weakness, the results must consistently show deficits in the same academic area. If more than one level of functioning is obtained, the mean level of functioning will be used to establish weakness.
d. Evidence that learning problems are not due primarily to other handicapping conditions.
(1) A score of not less than two standard deviations below the mean on an individual test of intellectual functioning


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL TEST FORMAT MODIFICATIONS ON THE
PERFORMANCE OF THIRD GRADE MILDLY HANDICAPPED
AND NORMAL STUDENTS
By
Susan Beattie
August, 1982
Chairman: Robert F. Algozzine Major Department: Special Education
Tests are an integral part of our educational process. In view of Public Law 94-142, The Education for All Handicapped Children Act, it becomes crucial that diagnostic instruments are valid, culturally fair, and unbiased. Caution must be exercised to insure that the targeted behaviors are the ones actually being assessed. Test results should reflect cognitive ability and not the individual's disability.
In an effort to make tests fair to handicapped populations, such modifications as head pointers, braille type, and alterations in administration and setting have been instituted. Little systematic study, however, has been directed towards mildly handicapped students
or physical test item format modifications. The current study investigated the effect of five physical format modifications on the performance of mildly handicapped and normal third grade students. The

v1n


102
DIRECTIONS: Read the story in each box. Choose the best answer for each question. |
The
his nose. The dish of water, in the water.
the puppy on puppy ran to the He put his nose
29. Who bit the puppy?
the man the cat the bee the dog
In the Fall, witches fly through the sky on brooms. Once a witch bumped into a cloud Her broom broke and she fell to the ground.
31. What did the witch do?
bump into a cloud
sing a song scare people
win the race
30. Where did the puppy run?
t) to his mother c=D to his dish of water cz> to the lake
oto a tree
32. When do witches fly in
the sky?
CZD in the clouds CZD in the Fall

103
DIRECTIONS: Read these problems.
Figure out the right answer
45.
There were 33 boys and 22
girls at a lake swimming. How many children were swimming together?
47.
Jennifer won 24 games. Tom won 35 games. How many games did they win in all?
64 children
55 children
11 children
10 children
11 games
51 games
14 games
59 games
46. The library had The library bought How many books are library now?
76 books.
22 more books
in the
48.
Sally made 32 cookies. Fred made 15 cookies. How many cookies did Sally and Fred make altogether?
98 books
17 books 54 books 58 books
61 cookies
47 cookies
23 cookies
11 cookies


53
randomly selected for each of the four categories; half taking the modified test items and half taking the standard version of the test. The 100 item tests were administered to small groups of students, two to seven students per group. The test was given on two consecutive days; approximately 60 minutes and 45 minutes sessions respectively each day, A standard statement was read to all students prior to beginning the test.
Two factor analyses of variance were completed for the total test performance score and performance on each set of similar items. Main effects and interactions were analyzed and susequent follow-up analyses were completed as necessary using a 5 percent level of confidence.


58
Table 5
Means and Standard Deviations for Students1 Performance
on Subtest for Boldface Type Modification
Boldface
Category Test Form Mean Standard Deviation
Standard 17.7 2.2
Normal
Modified 18.5 2.0
Standard 13.6 5.0
LD
Modified | 15.3 4.1
Standard 14.9 5.4
EH
Modified 16.5 4.7
Standard 7.1 3.8
EMR
Modified 8.3 3.5

Analysis of Variance Summary
Sums of Mean Degrees of
Source Squares(SS) j Square(MS) Freedom(df) F
Category 1191.84 397.28 3 24.79*
Test Form 35.11 35.11 1 2.19
Category X 2.54 .85 3 .053
Test Form
Error 1153.49 16.02 72
* P < .05 j


11
to decide which of three general approaches would be best for each handicapped student. Some handicapped students will have no problems complying with standard procedures and obtaining a standard diploma. Other students may need differential standards in order to earn a standard diploma. This could be accomplished by using the student's Individualized Education Plan (IEP) and designing a modified competency program that would meet the special needs and capabilities of the student. Other students may be so severely handicapped that differential diplomas and differential standards would be the most appropriate alternative.
These three options assure handicapped individuals the property right of obtaining the most appropriate diploma. This becomes critical in light of Smith and Jenkins' (1980) warning that issuance
of a differential diploma or certificate of attendance could become a source of stigma to a handicapped individual. According to a U.S.
Department of Labor report, a high school diploma is required for entry into virtually all jobs (Safer, 1980).
Differential assessment procedures. This final issue has far reaching implications not only for the success of the minimum competency testing movement, but for basic educational principles and legal equality. Many mildly handicapped individuals have, almost by definition, difficulty taking standardized tests (Smith & Jenkins, 1980). How can school personnel effectively measure levels of knowledge when the student's responses may be adversely affected by the instrument used? It is essential that each student's achievement be measured


44
Research is also limited in regard to physical formatting of individual test items. Although one study recommended the maximum of six cells per page be used, the results of the study did not prove that this number was critical. There appear to be no data that measure the confusion handicapped children may experience from random placement of test items.
Finally, no relevant data could be found on the recommended number of examples per skill change for either normal or handicapped populations. For the purpose of this study, the inclusion of this modification was based on logic and the current knowledge available regarding the learning characteristics of handicapped and normal children.
Based on this review, the following physical test format modifications appear to be warranted for continued research. They include the effectiveness of boldface type for emphasis, unjustified formatting of sentences, grouping of similar tasks in a progressive hierarchy, inclusion of examples to facilitate task transition, and the placement of answer bubbles in relation to foil.
The effect of these modifications on the performance of students with such mildly handicapping conditions as LD, EMR, and EH is of primary interest. The inclusion of a normal group of individuals may reveal that specific modifications are simply "good" test construction formatting principles, applicable and beneficial to the majority of average individuals.


16
Del imitations
The delimitations of this study included (a) the use of third grade students and (b) the county regulations and criteria that were used to identify and classify the randomly selected sample of normal and handicapped (LD, EH, EMR) students. Additional delimitations were that the participants were enrolled in selected elementary public schools from the cities of Gainesville and Orlando, Florida. The Gainesville schools included Duval, Stephen Foster, Lake Forest, Prairie View, M.K. Rawlings, Archer, Shell,and Metcalfe elementary schools. Participating schools from the city of Orlando were Pine Hills, Ridgewood Park, Hiawassee, Blankner, Cherokee, Fern Creek, Lake Como, Chickasaw, Eccleston, and Lake Weston.
The cities of Gainesville and Orlando are located in Alachua County and Orange County, respectively. The sample population was representative of the southeastern region of the United States, specifically north-central and central Florida. A final delimitation of this study was that the test was a paper and pencil task measuring a limited sample of behaviors. These behaviors included the knowledge of fractions, measurement, coin value, picture sequencing, alphabetical ordering, and math word problems in the example subtest; reading comprehension (not, end, pronouns), word opposites, and following directions in the boldface type subtest; two digit addition, math word problems, reading comprehension, and spelling in the answer bubble subtest; vertical and horizontal addition and


91
academic progress or satisfactory interpersonal relationships cannot be attributed primarily to physical, sensory, or intellectual deficits. 1. Criteria for Eligibility
a. Evidence that the student has received supportive educational assistance counseling.
b. Evidence that the student exhibits a persistent and consistent severe emotional handicap as determined by documented observations and psychological evaluation.
c. Evidence that the behavior disrupts the student's ability to achieve adequate academic progress or develop satisfactory interpersonal relationships.
d. Evidence that the primary problem of the student cannot be attributed primarily to physical, sensory, or intellectual deficits.


85
Sykes, K. C. A comparison of the effectiveness of standard print
and large print in facilitating the reading skills of visually impaired students. Education of the Visually Handicapped, 1971, 3, 97-105.
Tinker, M. Legibility of print. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University
Press, 1963. (a
Tinker, M. Typography and design (training series). Washington, DC:
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1963. (b)
Tinker, M. A., & Patterson, D. G. Influence of type form on speed of
reading. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1928, 12_, 359-368.
Watts, D. Is competency testing the answer? Clearing House, 1979,
52_, 243-245.
Ysseldyke, J., & Algozzine, B. Critical issues in special and
remedial education. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982.


CHAPTER IV RESULTS
This study was conducted to investigate the possible effects of five physical test format modifications on the performance of mildly handicapped and normal third grade students. The modifications included an increased ratio of examples per skill change, the use of boldface type for emphasis, the placement of answer bubbles, the grouping of similar items in a hierarchy of progressive difficulty, and unjustified line lengths.

Eighty students from Alachua County and metropolitan Orlando schools participated in the study. There were 20 students in each of four categories (LD, EH, EMR, normal). The students within each category were randomly matched according to reading ability and randomly assigned to either standard or modified test forms.
Data were analyzed using two factor analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the total test performance score and the performance on each set of similar items (subtests 1-5). Significant main effects for category were further evaluated using follow-up analyses according to Tukeyfs Honestly Significant Differences (cited in Ferguson, 1971) procedure; main effects for differences in test forms were interpreted as ratios due to the presence of only two levels of that independent variable. Level of significance of all tests was set at a .05.
54


17
and subtraction of single and two digit numbers in the hierarchy subtest; and reading comprehension, money word problems, and number word problems in the altered line length subtest.
Definition of Terms
Boldface type is darkened print that draws attention to itself and can be used for items requiring additional emphasis.
The educable mentally retarded (EMR) student is one who is mildly impaired in intellectual and adaptive behavior and whose development reflects a reduced rate of learning. The measured intelligence of an educable mentally retarded student generally falls between two and three standard deviations below the mean, and the assessed adaptive behavior falls below age and cultural expectations (Florida Department of Education, 1979).
The emotionally handicapped (EH) student is one who, after receiving supportive educational assistance and counseling services available to all students, still exhibits persistent and consistent severe behavioral disabilities which consequently disrupt the student's own learning process. This is the student whose inability to achieve adequate academic progress or satisfactory interpersonal relationships cannot be attributed primarily to physical, sensory, or intellectual deficits (Florida Department of Education, 1979).
The learning disabled (LD) student is one who exhibits a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in the understanding or in using spoken and written language. These may be manifested in disorders of listening, thinking, reading,


61
Table 8
Means and Standard Devr iations for Students ;' Performance
on Subtest for Line Length Modification
I .ine Length
Category Test Form Mean Standard Deviation
Standard 16.5 4.9
Normal
Modified 17.6 2.9
Standard 12.4 4.1
LD
Modified 15.0 2.2
Standard 13.7 4.5
EH
Modified 14.9 4.6
Standard 7.8 5.0
EMR
Modified 7.6 3.2

Analysi is of Variance Summary
Sums of Mean Degrees of
Source Squares(SS) Square(MS) Freedom(df) F
Category 930.64 310.21 3 18.89*
Test Form 27.61 27.61 1 1.68
Category X 19.64 6.55 3 .39
Test Form
Error 1182.29 16.42 72
* p<.05


APPENDIX E
RACE
(n) x Total Score Total Standard Modified Example Std. Moc 1. (n) x Subtest Score Boldface Answer Bubble Hierarchy Std. Mod. Std. Mod. Std. Mod. Line Length Std. Mod.
Normal M B (2) 90 .5 (4) 92. .5 19 .0 18. 7 17. .0 18 .7 18. 0 18 .7 19. 0 18 .7 17 .5 17 .5
1 1 W (1) 79 .0 (1) 94. .0 14 .0 20. 0 15. .0 20 .0 16. 0 18 .0 15. 0 20 .0 19 .0 15 .0
C B (5) 91 .4 (3) 89. .6 18 .0 18. 0 18. .6 17 .3 19. 0 18 .3 19. 6 19 .0 16 .2 17 .0
1 W (2) 88 .0 (2) 98. .0 19 .5 19. 5 17, .5 19 .0 19. 0 20 .0 17. 0 20 .0 15 .0 20 .0
LD M B (2) 63 .5 (2) 65. .0 16 .0 16. 0 9. .5 10 .0 12. 5 11 .0 12. 0 15 .0 13 .5 13 .0
11 W (3) 69 .6 (5) 81. .6 14 .7 17. 0 14. .6 16 .0 11. 3 15 .0 17. 0 17 .4 12 .0 15 .8
r B (1) 76 .0 (0) 19 .0 16. ,0 mm 16. 0 mm 17. 0 mm 8 .0
* r W (4) 75 .7 (3) 81. .6 15 .0 14. 3 14. .2 17 .6 15. 5 17 .0 17. 7 17 .6 13 .2 15 .0
EH M B (4) 65 .7 (6) 81. .0 13 .0 16. 0 12. .2 16 .3 14. 5 17 .1 15. 0 17 .6 11 .0 13 .8
M W (5) 88 .0 (2) 79. .0 17 .6 17. 0 18. .4 13 .5 17. 2 16 .5 18. 0 16 .0 16 .6 16 .0
B (1) 60 .0 (0) 14 .0 8. .0 11. 0 19. 0 10 .0
r W (0) (2) 94. .5 19. 5 20 .0 19 .0 19 .0 17 .0
EMR M B (2) 35 .5 (5) 55. .6 8 .0 13. 4 6. .5 9 .0 7. 5 4 .4 8. 0 14 .8 5 .5 9 .6
W (4) 40 .0 (1) 35. .0 6 .0 5. 0 8. ,2 9 .0 8. 5 0 .0 9. 7 3 .0 7 .5 6 .0
p B (2) 26 .5 (1) 36. .0 6 .0 11. 0 3. .0 .0 7. 0 0 .0 7. 5 5 .0 13 .0 5. .0
r W (2) 51 .5 (3) 38. .0 9 .5 9. 0 9. .5 8 .3 10. 0 3 .2 13. 0 9 .6 5 .5 5 .6
CT
#


46
conditions are listed in Appendix A,
Each group of subjects (LD, EH, EMR, normal) contained 20 students, for a total population of 80 subjects. Permission to participate in the study was obtained from each student's parent/ guardian. Parent permission slips are in Appendix B.
Selection of students was done randomly. In Alachua County, there was a limited number (9) of diagnosed third grade EMR students. As a result, principals of those schools were contacted for permission to test. In addition to selecting those particular EMR students, the third grade LD and EH children and a proportionate number of normal third grade children in those schools were also selected for participation in the study. Orange County Special Education Coordinators randomly selected 10 schools and obtained principal permission for the LD, EH, EMR children in those schools to participate in the study.
In each county the children were randomly matched within each category according to reading levels obtained from a Ginn reading series test or Woodcock Reading Mastery Test. Students reading on the same level were then randomly assigned to take either a modified or standard version of a test. The mean reading level for the entire population was 2.4 (fourth month of second grade). The average reading levels by category were (a) normal subjects-grade 3.2, (b) learning disabled grade 2.1, (c) emotionally handicapped grade 2.5, and (d) educable mentally retarded grade 1.8. Analysis of these differences indicated that LD and EMR students performed similarly, as did EH and LD students. Normal students consistently performed higher than all other groups.


31
bubbles presented, his fist/fingers may be covering the answers. Moving the bubbles to the right side of the answer may promote a left to right reading sequence and avoid the accidental mistakes that occur while filling in the bubbles.
Unverified Modification; Increased Example/Skill Ratio
There appeared to be no studies available that discussed the value of examples or their effect on children's test performance. What is the purpose of examples? Do they facilitate comprehension of directions and completion of a task?
Hypothetically, it would seem that the difficulty of a test would increase as the number of examples decreased. Tests with few examples (2-4 examples for 120 questions or 25 skill changes) may be measuring a handicapped child's ability to read directions and respond to skill changes independently, rather than assessing his true cognitive abilities on those particular skills. It would appear that a modified test which increased the ratio of examples, relative to the introduction of each new skill change, may be a positive change. Implementation of this theory would provide the educationally handicapped child with directions and a sample problem prior to each new series of tasks.


89
or evidence indicator of the student's intellectual potential.
(2) For students with visual processing deficits, visual acuity of at least 20/70 in the better eye with best possible correction or evidence that the student's inability to perform adequately on tasks which require visual processing is not due to poor visual acuity.
(3) For students with auditory processing or language deficits, auditory acuity of not more than a 30 decibel loss in the better ear unaided or evidence that the student's inability to perform adequately on tasks which require auditory processing or language is due to poor auditory acuity.
(4) For student with a motor handicap, evidence that the inability to perform adequately on tasks which assess the basic psychological processes is not due to the motor handicap.
(5) For students who exhibit persistent and consistent severe emotional disturbance evidence that their inability to perform adequately on tasks which assess the basic psychological processes is not due to the emotional disturbance.
e. Documented evidence which indicates that viable general educational alternatives have been attempted and found to be ineffective in meeting the student's educational needs.


56
Table 3
Means and Standard Deviations for Students1 Performance
on Standard/Modified Test
Total Score
Category Test Form Mean Standard Deviation
Normal Standard Modified 89.3 92.9 10.6 6.2
LD Standard Modified 71.5 78.3 16.8 12.4
EH Standard Modified 76.3 83.3 20.1 12.9
EMR Standard Modified 38.7 46.3 13.0 15.5

Analysis of Variance Summary
Source Sums of Squares(SS) Mean Square(MS) Degrees of Freedom(df F
Category 26085.75 8695.25 -3 44.32*
Test Form 781.25 781.25 1 3.98*
Category X Test Form 48.55 16.18 3 .08
Error 14125.89 196.19 72
* p < 05


8
period, (e) MCT as a requirement for graduation, and (f) negligence issues. McClung stresses the fact that these issues are merely potential problems that warrant further inspection and consideration by policy makers.
Impact of MCT on Handicapped Individuals
The handicapped individual is protected from unfair and discriminatory practices by the Federal Constitution, various statutes,
and regulations. The Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution guarantees all individuals the equal protection of the law. Section 504 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (P.L. 93-112) prohibits discrimination, denial of benefits, or the exclusion of
a handicapped person from an educational program or opportunity solely on the basis of a handicap. The handicapped individual is also protected from unfair educational practices, especially with regard to assessment, by the provisions of Public Law (P.L.) 94-142, The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (Abeson & Zettel, 1977). These laws provide a fundamental basis that ensures the right of the handicapped student to participate to his/her maximum ability in any and all educational programs. Any approach a state may adopt to accommodate the handicapped students in MCT must fulfill the requirements of existing legislation.
McClung and Pull in (1978) state there are four areas of legal concern for the handicapped population in the implementation of a minimum competency testing program. These include (a) exemptions,


25
there are certain characteristics that do regulate the amount of leading necessary. He felt that more leading was needed with (a) letters of large X heights, (b) letters of strong vertical stress, (c) sans serif type as opposed to serif type, (d) longer lines, and (e) very small type.
*
Item Grouping
There is some controversy in the literature (involving normal individuals) with regard to the grouping of like items and the presentation of such items in a hierarchy of progressive difficulty. Brenner (1964), Sirotnik and Wellington (1974), and Marso (1970) suggested that scrambling test items had no effect on the test scores for normal individuals (8th grade to college). Holliday and Partridge (1979) and Flaugher, Melton, and Meyers (1968), however, suggested that hierarchies of items progressing from easy to hard (rather than
a random or descending order) did improve test scores for normal second graders and high school students. A study of 5,000 normal high school students by Flaugher, Melton, and Meyers (1968) supported the idea that reordering test items does not create a new test.
There appeared to be no empirical data available concerning the effect of item grouping on handicapped students. It seemed, however,
that handicapped children would benefit from the grouping of similar items. Grouping similar items would tap all items within one particular skill and create task consistency. This could eliminate the confusion and/or carelessness that often results from requiring a student to cognitively jump from one skill to another and back again.