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Psychological profiles and institution effects pertaining to inmates incarcerated under the insanity defense

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Title:
Psychological profiles and institution effects pertaining to inmates incarcerated under the insanity defense
Creator:
Boehnert, Caryl Elizabeth, 1954-
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
viii, 205 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
College students ( jstor )
Criminals ( jstor )
Defendants ( jstor )
Employee skills ( jstor )
Graduates ( jstor )
Higher education ( jstor )
Housing ( jstor )
Human resources management ( jstor )
Insanity ( jstor )
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory ( jstor )
Clinical Psychology thesis Ph. D
Crime ( lcsh )
Criminals ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Clinical Psychology -- UF
Forensic psychiatry ( lcsh )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1983.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: 192-204.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Caryl E. Boehnert.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
000447028 ( ALEPH )
11386779 ( OCLC )
ACK8316 ( NOTIS )

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PSYCHOLOGICAL


EFFECTS


PERTAINING


PROFILES


INMATES


INSTITUTION
INCARCERATED


UNDER


INSANITY


DEFENSE


Caryl


Boehnert


A DISSERTATION
THE UNIVERSITY
REQUIREMENTS


PRESENTED


FLORIDA


GRADUATE


PARTIAL


DEGREE


DOCTOR


COUNCIL


FULFILLMENT


PHILOSOPHY


I INITI tDC TTV


] nDTlA
































Copyright


Caryl


1983


Boehnert













ACKNOWLEDGMENT


would


first


like


thank


members


committee


hairperson


Jacquelin


Goldman,


supporting members


Richard


wanson


Loui


Cohen


Walter


Cunningham


Michael


Radelet.


Throughout


coordinating


ssertation


long


stance,


they


remained


patient


supportive


extra


effort


that


might


meet


graduate


school


deadlines


. Deep


thank


extended


. Eli


abeth


McMahon


conceived


idea


research


served


as an


informal


advisor


during


project


various


tages


private


forensic


psychol ogi


always


availabi


with


time


support


project.


would d


like


thank


research


committee


Department


Health


Correction


Rehabilit


approving


ative Se

research


rvices

and f


Department


paving


for my work


at the


various


institutions


that


ited.


Those


Florida


State


pital


at Chattahoochee


went


their way


supportive,


helpful


ndly


special


thank


Julian


Davi


Franci


acock,


usan


Parson


am Cunningham.


Jerry


Smith


was tire]


efforts


to facilitate


many


sons


around


stat


There


literally


dozen


admini









Correctional


Institution


without


whose


assistance


this


would


have


been


possible


advi


, background material


support


numerous


psy-


hiatri


attorney


were


freely


giving


time;


among


other


John


Middle


Proj


George


Barnard


, M.D.,


Erni


Miller


Rufu


Vaughn


M.D.


Brooten


John


Kearns,


Bill


almon


Bill


Shepphard,


Minn


esota


, special


warmth


, support


"sounding


board"


servi


were


provided


Deni


hmutte


Linda


Steve


Bonfilio


McRob


John


Brantner


John


Hung.


Finally


thank


consented


subjects.


Ther


would


no project


them.















TABLE


CONTENT


CHAPTER


PAGE


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


ABSTRACT


S S S S S S S S S S S


INTRODUCTION


S S S S S S S S S 5 1


REVIEW


OF THE


LITERATURE


ssue


Workings
Criticism


Propo
Philo


ed
oph


Moral


spons


nsanity


Alternative


i


nsanity
es to t


ibility
defense
Defense


he


ideration


Defense


twice


ychological
Violent


Chara


teri


Individual


ychological


Violent


ychologic
NGRI


Current


THREE


Offenders
Character


s with

tics of


tudy


METHODOLOGY


Subjects
Materials
Procedure


Method


FOUR


* S S S S S S S S S S S S
* S S S S S S S S S S
* S S S S S S S S S S S


Analy


RESULTS


Hypothes
Hypothes
Hypothes
Hypothes
Hypothes
W~nnhHoc









CHAPTER


PAGE


FIVE


CUSSION


Pilot
Hypoth


tudy


Hypothesis
Hypothesis
Hypothesis
Hypothesis
Hypothesis


Hypoth
Other


* a a a a a
* a a. a, a a a a a a
* S a a a a a a a a a a
* S a a S S S S S S
* a a S S S S S S a
* a S S S S S S S a
* S a a a a a a a a a
* S a S 4 a a a a a a


Trend


CONCLUSION


APPENDIX


APPENDIX


CORING


DETAIL


CRITERIA


INDIVIDUAL


DRAWINGS


CRIME


Group
Group
Group
Group


* a a a a a a a a *S


APPENDIX


HUMAN


SUBJECTS


FORM


a S 4 a S 5 1


APPENDIX


DEMOGRAPHIC


DATA


FORM


APPENDIX


STATISTICAL ANALY


LIST


REFERENCE


S a a .


BIOGRAPHICAL


SKETCH














stract


ssertation


the University
Requirements f


Florida


ented


Dear


Partial


f Do


e Graduate
Fulfillment


tor of


Coun


Philosophy


PSYCHOLOGICAL
EFFECTS PERTAIN


I


UNDER


PROFILE
NG TO


INMATES


INSANITY


INSTITUTION
INCARCERATED


DEFEN


Caryl

Augu


Boehnert

1983


Chairperson:


Major


Department


Jacquelin
Clinical


Goldman


ychol ogy


Four


groups


violent


offenders


were


compared


on a


variety


demographic


psychological


test


variabi


thirty men


been


found


guilty


reason


insanity


(NGRI);


thirty men


attempted


plea


were


found guil ty;


thirty men


estion


anity


ychologica


evaluation,


never


used


plea


thirty men matched


on crime


for whom


question


mental


tatu


been


raised


. Chi


-square,


mul tivariat


anal


yses


di scriminant


function


statistic


were


applied


to the


data.


ects


were


grouped


according


ir mental


f#.i ins-


Inr2iflrlif+i a ; ama


F~r; Mb


Tkarr


P+3tllr


YILIP; r(bH~ b


^j n








sens


itive


instrument


detecting


subtle


differences


between


viol


individual


A high


degree


personal ity


pathology was


present


across


groups


picture


extremely


Only


control


other


groups


uncontrolled


group


showed


, explo


presented


features


acting


sive


clear-cut


both


potential


ychopathic


ychosi


Prediction


equation


were


generated


on the


basic


criminating


accurately


distinguish


between


groups


Data


support


hypothesis


that


there may


some


crimes


so heinou


that


community will


action


an NGRI


plea,


matter


turbed


perpetrator


estion


future


search,


involving


development


more


sensitive


crime


severity


scale


usion


non-violent


offender


in a


replication


study,


were


scussed.


vari













CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


nsanity


ense


been


controve


rsial


feature


Anglo-American


ince


before


formulation


M' Naughten


Rule


"Criticism of


defense


been


constant


, starting


with


Queen


Victoria


reaction


original


M'Naughten


deci


sion


much


deriving


seems


from


an impression


that


however


'right'


it may


theory


many '


wrong


' results


practice"


(Wright


NYDMH


1978


that


time


Dani


McNaughten,


while


laboring


under


del u


ion, attempted


hoot


England'


Prime


Mini


ster


Robert


Peel


instead


ntally


killed


secretary


Publ i


outcry


naturally


ensued


McNaughten


indicted


murder


. Three


doctors


examined


mndi


ated


that


delu


ional


system


(involving


personal


section


Tori


govern-


ment)


been


present


over


year


acquitted


ground


verdict


insanity


stating


. Queen

"The l


Victoria


aw may


report

perfect


responded


to thi


that


whenever


a case


application


prove


avail


? ,C


ited


Becker,


1973


.44)


judges


involved


case


were


called


answer


their


before


House


Lords


course


questioning


came


formulate


what









future


comment


observing


that


difficult


reconcile


'with


what


took


plac


late


unfortunate


trial


(cited


Becker,


. 44)


Today


there


till


appear


problems


existing


trans-


lation


legal


theory


into


practi


John


Hinckley


attempted


assass


nation


ident


Reagan


given


renewed


force


arguments


that


favor


abolition


insanity


defense


" Now


that


Hinckley


been


found


Guilty


Reason


Insanity


crime


millions


citi


zens


witness


on tel


ion,


king


tice


survive


humiliation?"


(Lykken,


13A)


Emotional


reasoned


other


treat


things)


have


allowing


appeared


guilty


critic


free


defense


(Yochelson


(among


amenow,


1976),


criminating


again


poor


minority


groups


(Matthews,


1970)


aiding


mental


health


prof


essional


usurping


role


judg


jury


streets


(Dix,


after


relea


hort


time


dangerous


pital


criminal


, 1976)


treati


often


examine


philosophy


issues


, relying


on a


well


-publicized


cases


which


insanity


defense


figured


pro-


minently


. However,


basing major


policy


deci


sons


as th


abolition


defense


on consideration


an advantageou


defense


functioning


hand


approach


the majority


careful


cases


tudy


often


ense


used


uses


such


peopi


criminal


example


-picked,


notorious









tematic,


well-conducted


research


which


addresses


these


questions


quite


scarce


literature.


current


tudy


examines


psychological


demographic


character


group


ninety


were


involved


with


defense


between


1974


1978


. The


author


three


major


questions


beginning


research


. The


first


concerned


those


trying


defense


peared


on p


ychological


tests


they


resemble


criminal


popu-


lation


as a whole,


or were


their


test


data


more


compatible with


data


seen


population


mentally


ill?


Another


question


lated


those


used


insanity


defense


through


trial


were


found


guilty


sent


son:


all,


this


group


differ


from


those


were


found


nsane"


third


area


concern


focu


on the


functioning


indeed


examination


which


criminate


could


variable


affect


against


other


insanity


poor,


or were


than


verdict


other


psychological


: did


defense


factor


detail


Before


of the


these


individual


current


crime


research


affecting


question


adjudication


addressed,


necessary


review


literature


pertaining


to the


insanity


defense.


Consideration


philosophical


legal


aspects


various


tests


insanity


the mechanic


defense


, previous


demographic


search


tudie


in the


area,


psychological


tests


with


violent


offenders


provides


background


material


on what


known


unknown


about


functioning


insanity


defense


United


CZt~rta













CHAPTER


REVIEW


Issue


LITERATURE


Moral


tori call


defense


, the


been


ssued


moral


involved


blameworthiness


insanity


there


reluctance


assign


full


means


ure of


blame


an action


against


society


accompanying


intent


or awareness


were


present


. The


legal


term


mens


translated


as guilty mind


criminal


intent


(John


son,


1975)


addressed


issue


whether


accuse


poss


essed


requi


intent


perpetrate


offense.


st as


many


crime


people would


child


on the


avoid


ground


assigning


that


moral


were


responsibility


"below


reason,


" there


legal


mechanism


allow


society


avoid


placing


"guilt"


or "blame"


upon


an adult


lack


the mental


capa-


city


morally


aware


/her


action


consequences.


Even


time of


totle,


"capacity


choice [was


deemed]


critical


question


moral


blameworthiness


capacity


lacking


animal


, children,


insane


persons"


(Becker


.44)


Thus


label


11no


guilty


reason


insanity"


nifi


that


person


respond


ible


/her


actions


at the


time of


crime;


hence


cannot


assigned


blame


or guilt


, 197


Re s no ns i b i i i ty









Legal


Tests


Moral


Responsibility


Translating


theory


into


practice


proved


extremely


difficult


. There


have


been


problem


wording


legal


defini


tion


ts")


insanity


only


M'Naughten


standard,


later


test


Durham


irres


tible


impul


American


institute


(ALI)


rul e


Model


Penal


Code


. Tab


presents


cepts


four


"mental


legal


tests


capacity,


insanity


" "product


mental


Operationally


disease


defining


or defect,


con-


" and


"moral


awareness


vers


test


" (among


seek


others)


correct


proved


problems


controver


encountered


Each


pred-


ecessor,


similar


difficulties


found


M'Naughten


rule.


M'Naughten


rul e


states


that


"the


accused


have


been


laboring


under


defect


reason,


from


disease


mind,


doing;


as not


or i


know


know


nature


, that


quality


know


he was


that


what


doing


was wrong


" (common


law)


frequently


called


"right-


wrong


test,


been


criticized


narrowness


other


definitional


problem


is urged


by many


that


the word


'know


used


formula a


given


wider


definition


so that


it means


that


kind


knowing


that


relevant


realization


or appreciation


wrongfulness


seriously


harming


a human


being"


(Hall


cited


John


son,


1975,


484)


. Partially


as a


result


criticism


Durham


rule


introduced


as the


standard


District


r C r flrvr a+ nif m 2i


loA mn A ,


' as


nC


13 P


ml rl








Table
"Tests" of


M'Naughten


Insanity


(_1843)


from


that


used


disease


must


have


f the
doing


what


been


mind,
; or i


doing


laboring
as not to


under


know


know


wrong


the
it,


defect


nature


that


reason


quality
not know


Irres


istibi


impul


test


M'Naughten
To acquit


mental
to do
that i


seas


so even


instruction


reason
e which


they


kept


anity if
him from


conclude


wrong.


that


they


find


controlling h
he knew what


defendant


conduct


. They


doing


Durham


(19541


cuse


product


criminally


mental


sease


respon


ible


unlawful


or defect.


American


institute


(AtIl


Model


Penal


Code


(Original


Draft


1962)


person


such


response


conduct,
tantial c


conduct


or to


as a


ible


result


capacity
conform


criminal


mental


either


conduct


sease


appreciate


conduct


to the


time of


or defect, he
e criminality


requirement


lack


law.








Durham


rule


Unfortunately,


Durham


rule


wording


that


accused


not criminally


respon


ible


unlawful


product


mental


sease


or defect"


(Durham


. US


. 1954)


proved


to be


broad.


Almost


nervous


mental


condition


could


used


attorney


as relieving


an indivi


dual


respon


ibility


("trial


label"),


long


as mental


health


terminology


diagno


criteria


ignated


pathology


as a


sease.


successful


aquittal


rose


from


1954


(Johnson,


1975)


before


McDonal d


deci


defined


mental


disease


or defect


affects


as "any


mental


abnormal


or emotional


condition


proce


sses


mind


which


substantially


substantially


impair


havioral


control


lowin


1982,


The


percentage


successful


additional


acquittals

stringency


then


dropped


to Durham


to 5


excluding


Overholser


ychopathy


provided


or "anti-


social


personal ity"


as a


mental


sease,


thereby


loophole


which


resulted


acquittal


great


number


habitual


criminal


Bazelon


review


Durham experiment


replaced


conclude


"The


Durham


formulation


gave


false


impre


sslon


that


question


cause


ality


act]


required


medical


or scientific


answer


language


could


fare


better


flat


since


seemingly


does


invite


scientific


expert


answer


that


witnesses


impairment


offer


or did


cause


act.


clear


that


Durham


focused


jury


tention


on the


wrong question--on


relationship


between








rule


. The


optimism


present at


inception


Durham


rule


recur


Rather


, although


many


legal


experts


felt


that


American


Institute


(ALI)


rule


avoided


major


problems


found


M'Naughten


Durham


(Johnson


, 1975)


, they


admitted


that


operational


difficulties


till


remained


rule


states,


person


respo n


ible


criminal


conduct


time


such


conduct,


as a


result


of mental


ease


or defect,


lacks


substantial


capacity


either r


appre-


ciate


the criminality


conduct


or t


conform


conduct


requirement


law"


(ALI


Model


Penal


Code


4.01


--Proposed


Original


Draft


Many


effect


that


tate


also


habitual


include


criminal


"caveat


conduct


paragraph"


cannot


used


clause


as the


sole


riterion


cons


titute


mental


disease.


Becker


offers


criticism


that


rule


still


lend


itself


conclusory


testimony


psychiatric


experts,


that


the moral


issue


inherent


deci


-making


"The


like


process


till


those


Durham,


obsc


contain


magic


provide


ured


word


imple


the wording


usceptibl


answers


of the


being


hard


test


used,


questions


obscure


underlying


issues.


'test


question


' aspect


remains:


cases


will


till


found


terms


doctor


answers


question


whether


particular


state


mind


or i


'mental


sease


or even


whether


defendant


'sub


tantial


capacity


(Becker,


1973,


insanity


tests


Given


concerns


tated


above


that


~- -~~-~~--









individual


test


on the


adjudication


guilt


judge


jury


However


most


authors


(Becker,


1973


John


son,


1975)


rely


results


tudy


cited


Morri


Hawkin


(1970


The practical
insanity and


difference


modern


revi


between


traditional


recently


tests


empiri


ally


ted.


on the
lowing


Variou


M'Naughten


simple


defendant


which


defendant


failed


instruction


half


jurie


and u
was i


were


rule


uncluttered


nsane


is accused,


guilty


see any


. Do


produce


given


Durham


instructions


test


formula:


time


then


reason


operative


we need


mouse
(cited


If you believe
committed the


must


nsanity


difference


labor


another


incons


Johnson


find
.' Th
the


century


e juries
three


sequence?


1975


,p.


Except


period


District


Columbia


during


which


sociopath


"antisocial


personality")


could


record


habitual


criminal


conduct


as evidence


mental


sease


or defect


under


Durham,


insanity


acquittal


have


been


successful


roughly


criminal


cases


, regard


test


applied


(Johnson,


1975).


Table


presents


tate-by


-state


anal


which


tests


used


across


jurisdictions


as o


spring


seen


from


table,


there


no s


ingle


test


insanity


that


being


applied


throughout


United


states


M'Naughten,


Durham


Hamp


hire)


the ALI


rule,


combination


of M


Naughten


irre


ti bl e


impul


doctrine


used


depending


upon


preference


legi


lature


particular


state.


federal


courts


have








Tabl


Insanity
(as


Tests


spring


Across
1982)


states


tate


Test


Federal


Alabama


M'Naughten


irres


plus


istibi


impul


M'Naughten
ALlI


Arkansas
California


Colorado


Connect
Del aware


Florida
Georgia
Hawaii


Idaho


Illinoi
Indiana


Iowa


dimini


M' Naughten


irres


capac


istibi


'Naughten
'Naughten p1
irresistible


impul


impul


Columbia


M' Naughten
M' Naughten


none


M'Naughte
irresis


Kansas
Kentuc


Loui
Main


GBMI
GBMI
n plus
tible


impul


M'Naughten
ALI
M'Naughten


iana


Maryland
Massachu


higan


setts


GBMI


esota
issippi


Missouri
Montana
New Hamp
Nevada


M'Naughten
M'Naughten


means


hire


New Jersey
New Mexico


New Y
Nnrth


Durham


M'Naughten
M'Naughten
M'Naughten


ork


Ca;rrnl man~


M' Naiiaht-pn


zona


Minn


,










Table


2--continued


State


Test


Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina


South
Tenne


Dakota


ssee


Texa


Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin


Wyoming


M'Naughten
ALI
M'Naughten
M'Naughten
ALI
M'Naughten
ALI
ALI
M'Naughten
M'Naughten
ALI
ALI
ALI


(taken


in part
. 524,


from
note


Slowinski
65)


, 1982,








mentally


clients


lowinski,


1982)


(See


Proposed Alternatives


Defense


Most


below


research


consideration

on the mechanic


GBMI


rule.)


insanity


defense


conducted


standard


York


time.


Wyoming,


current


both


research


which


took


were


place


under


Florida,


which


reli


on the


M'Naughten


standard.


Before examining


defense


working


these


three


states


first


necessary


understand


proc


by which


defendant


found


insane,


criticisms


process


currently


operating.


Workings


Insanity


ense


Evaluation


When


court


requests


an evaluation


assess


mental


status


defendant,


there


usually


question


being


asked


mental


health


professional


One


concerns


whether


defendant


insane


time


crime


(whether


he meets


test


criteria


as set forth


individual


state


Rule


Criminal


Procedure)


second


ques


tion


about


which


court


an expert


opinion


whether


defendant


competent


tand


trial


Supreme


Court,


mandated


specific


involved


ssue


f competency


tand


trial.


enough


trict


judge


find


that


'the


defendant


oriented


to time


place


some


recollection


event


I but


that


test


must


their


efficient


present


ability


consult


with


lawyer with


reasonable


degree


-.


rational


under


tanding-


-and


whether he


`I








Before


tion


anity


can be


brought


before


court,


individual


must


first


found competent


tand


trial


legal


safeguard


defendant,


insuring


that


he/she


state


mind


which


allows


him/her


to play


as appropriate


alert


role


in the


proceeding


as possible.


Howe ve r,


competency


tage


problematic


terms


operational i


legal


theory


. Dif-


ficulties


briefly


reviewed


below.


detailed


cons


ideration


issue


referred


involved


to Henry


competency


Steadman


tand


Beating


trial,


(1979),


reader


longitudinal


study


those


found


incompetent


tand


trial


York


State.


There


exist


problems


both


defining


implementing


procedure


handle


those


individual


found


incompetent


tand


trial


Roesch


(1979)


asserts


that


criteria


incompetency


poorly


defined


that


some


profess


ionals


rely


on clinical


kill


personal


definition


incompetency


rather


than


explicit


criteria


decide


competent.


There


have


been


frequent


interpretations


as to


type


dec i


court


seeking


profe


ssional


render


opinion


as to


dangerousness


sanity


or whether


defendant


psychiatric


disorder while


never


address


sing


issue


whether


he can


under-


tand


legal


proceeding


determining


Many


competency


states


in the


court


are currently

t order which


including


sent


criteria


to the


profess


ional


an attempt


provide


structure


expert


opinion


it appears


that


true


incompetency


tand


trial


a comparatively









Bridgewater


found


that


only


observational


admi


4


ssions


incompetent


tand


trial


Thi


an accurate


frequency


based


on our


experiences


courts


" (1974


65)


. They


tress


that


more


people


labeled


incompetent


tand


trial


than


actually


lack


capacity


assi


their


attorney


in th


defense


point


view


echoed


Yochel


amenow,


maintain


that


incompetency


plea


used


provide


defendant


with


"training"


feigning


mental


illness


that


people


legitimately


competent


(1976)


Boehnert


submitted


publication


estion


that


court may


erring


on the


aution,


finding


many


incompetent


in fact


capable


participation


court


interest


protecting


their


legal


cess


rights


After


defendant


found


incompetent


tand


trial


felony


remanded


secure mental


health


facility


treat-


ment


which


often


involves


antip


ychotic


medication


taff


treatment


facility


also


hold


competency


asses


" which


teach


basic


as to


uated


principles


"pas


courtroom


" future


competency


procedure.


competency


than


Patient


examination


every


month


then


Patient


, usually


coached


eval -


by means


an oral


or written


When


they


able


demon


state


accep-


table


under


standing


legal


process


court


so informed


they


returned


their


original


juri


diction


tand


trial


cess


of "coaching


ompetency"


come


under


from


some


. Thi










Incompetency


insanity


issues


part


same


foren-


evaluation


they


synonymous


legal


concepts


poss


ible


defendant


to be


first


found


incompetent


to stand


trial


water


found


sane


time


crime,


or visa


versa.


There


does


appear


trend


some


juri


diction


, however,


those


deemed


incompetent


tand


trial


to be more


likely


deemed


nsane


than


those


lacking


finding


incompetency


(Boehnert


sub-


mitted


publication


Fosdal,


1979b)


. Fos


(1979b)


cautions


that


there


incompetent


f mental


strategic


tand


advantage


trial


incompetency


should


tand


trial


having


"the


remembered


often


a major


ndant


that


found


finding


factor


success


plea


mental


non-respon


ibility"


. 46)


urpri


sing


that


practice


ques


tion


nsanity/incompetency


is usually


defense


attorney


(NYDMH,


,1978)


.The


court


informed


that


an evaluation


ncom-


petency/insanity


at the


time


crime


deemed


advi


able


Coun-


defense may


provide


court with


information


as to


lack


expert


respond


to perform


ibility


is suspected,


an evaluation


as t


court


whether


appoint an


defendant


assi


/her


criteria


. If


attorney


defendant


whether


indigent


meets


, the


insanity


court may


defense


also


fees


this


expert.


Alternative


report


supports


use o


defense










labeled


mental


as "insane,


hospital


" stigmatized


as "mad


an indeterminate


time


bad,


period


or placed


specially


rime
.rime


system


relatively


seem


minor


suggest


and

quick


chances

parole


within


from


the

ison


criminal


inger


twice


, 1980)


case,


an attorney


attempt


plea


bargain


with


pro-


sector


, or may


use mental


illness


as a


mitigating


factor


case


goes


trial


Filing


"Motion


Intent


certain


cases


, however,


defense


attorney


does


proceed


with


the defense


"motion


intent


to rely


upon


ense


insanity


" Other


perts


then


called


evaluate


ndant.


relatively minor


cases


prosecution may


agree


plea


"not


guilty


reason


insanity"


(NGRI)


case


then


goes


before


judge,


both


tipulate


(agree)


defendant may


found


NGRI


rather


quickly


However,


when


crime


notorious


or heinou


one,


.and


ecution


actively


oppo


idea


defendant


being


found


"insane,


battle of


expert


offur,


with


reputable mental


health


profess


ional


aligned


on opposing


ides


. It


type


case


with


which


insanity


defense


closely


associated


the mind


public


"minor


crime"


mentioned


above


(NYDMH


, 1978


teadman


Cocozza


, 1974)


Judge


or Jury


Trier


Fact


. The


insanity


case may


presented


before


judge


or jury


Simon


(1967)


suggest


that


juri


fre-










"guilty


but mentally


ill"


needs


to accept


both


treatment


consequences


/her


actions


appear


that


opposition


that


jurie


too lenient


an erroneous


one


Rather,


they


much


more


reluctant


than


judge


to render


verdict


NGRI


supported


Boehnert


submitted


publication,


1982)


found


that


success


pleas


were


before


judge;


unsuccessful


NGRI


attempts


were


presented


jury.


Consequences


Plea


. If


an NGRI


plea


fail


defendant


found


guilty


sentencing,


judge may


take


evidence of


men-


illness


into


cons


ideration


mitigation


severity


of the


sentence;


he may


impose


sentence


based


solely


legal


tatute


detail


crime


without


heeding


ychiatric


input


. In


most


cases,


defendant


then


remanded


to th


custody


Department


Correction


placed


on probation.


Florida,


sentence may


involve


impo


ition


death


penalty;


indeed,


many


Florida


ample were


to be


found


on Death


Row.


however,


insanity,


a defendant


is remanded


found


treatment


guilty


institutions


reason


usually


maximum


ecuri ty)


run by


tate mental


health


agency.


It must


tressed


that


legally


NGRI'


are


cons


idered


to be


"mentally


ill,


respond


ible


their


offense,


in need


placement


treatment


institution,


prison


. The maximum


security


units


which


NGRI


usually


sent


under


control


cor-


Thi








"maximum


benefit


from


treatment,


informs


sentencing court


effect.


A hearing


then


held


(often


sentencing


judge)


as to whether


NGRI


still


fits


dangerousness


criteria


whether


likely


danger


himself


or others)


judge


opinion


that


NGRI


cons


titute


danger


the community,


will


remand


defendant


continued


custody


treatment


facility


on the


basi


dan-


gerousness


even


though


facility


labelled


as being no


longer


in need


treatment.


should


be noted


that


judges


far more


willing


err on


safety,


especially


regarding


an NGRI


accused


violent


crime


(Boehnert,


submitted


publication,


1982;


Stone


, 1975)


Goldstein


conceptualizes


issues


inherent


final


stage


process


as follows


"The critical


issue


so much


that


commitment


that


release.


manner


which


handled


determines


whether


commitment t


entirely


thera-


peutic,


whether


an elaborate


preventive


detention,


or whether


an awkward


accommodation


objectives"


(Gold


tein,


1967,


. 143)


Criticisms


Insanity


Defense


Definitions


. As


can be


seen


previous


sections


which


examined


various


tests


insanity


there


have


been


many


difficulties


from


attempt


to operationalize


ambi


guou


language


found


statutes.


Chief


tice


Burger


argues


rule


law can


possibly


sound or workable


which


is dependent


__


_









disagreement


about


what


those


terms


mean"


NYDMH


, 1978,


Other


definitional


problem


those


in the


mental


health


profess


First,


term


"insane"


no counterpart


in p


hiatric


nomenclature.


not equatabl e


with


"psychotic,


1 I"


schizo-


phrenic,


or any


other


diagnostic


label


Each


case must


exa-


mined


individually,


expert must


attempt


to conceptualize


mental


ability


pathological


behavior


into


standard


framed


language


another


scipline


. Thi


translation


often


extremely


difficult


process


Role of


expert.


Many


criticisms


concern


various


aspects


rol e


the mental


health


profess


ional


in the proceeding


(1981)


gi ve


voice


careful


concern


cons


that


ideration


finder


to the


fact


legal


often


complexity


appear


involved


nsanity


case


seems


clear


that


major


factor


in thi


state


affair


continued


domination


litigation


mental


health


professionals.


often,


e matter


resolved


uncritical


acceptance


conclusory


opinions


rendered


by mental


health


pro-


fess


ional


" (1981,


opinion


other


(Hal


pern,


1977


NYDMH,


1978)


that


there


trend


expert


witness


usurp


role


f the


trier


fact


determining


defendant


knowledge


right


from wrong.


performance


anity


evaluation


problematic.


part


evaluation,


expert


asked


extrapolate


back-


1.12U02 C nr fly II* I I t II


tfn *h


nrfmfnca


nfl-an


timo


rl~ ~rl


firn


\IP~ rC


nrlnr


E l l


riu


I ll









court


/her


hypothesis


event


surrounding


crime


there


no s


scientific method


extrapol action


which


would


allow


even


the most


killed


practitioner


inform


court


what


actually


happened


during


period


estion


. Furthermore


, conducting


examination


around


sues


legal


tests


insanity


once


removed


from


ychiatric


training which


signed


con-


centrate on


mental


illness


on giving


treatment


patient


litigant.


Abrams


(1979)


goes


so far


as to


assert


that


"given


present


called

. i


definitions


imposs


mental


ible


illness


causa


based


on behavioral


connection


between


pattern


men-


illness


" and


crime"


(1979


441)


reasons


that


no s


peci-


cause


been


found


for most


the major


psychiatric


illne


sses


(hence


label


"functional


therefore


classification


diagnosis


rest


on description


behavioral


pattern


common


each


illness


opinion,


isa


personal


scientific


opinion


which


used


in determining


which


"pattern


are more


patho-


logical


than


others,


which


relieves


ndant


res-


ibility


argue


that


given


tate


f the


ychia-


tric


diagno


"cause


mental


illness


hence


there


a noncontingentt


relation


between


insanity


or mental


illness


non-repon


ibility"


(1979,


450)


Hal pern,


ychiatri


similar


concern


that


ychia-


I~ ~~~ U It S U


* I


* i


1


I


I I


I 1 I I


"I










basi


select


mental


sease


or defect


as a


justification


excul pabi lity

as heredity,


while e

poverty,


Including

family


other


behavioral


environment,


determinants, such

cultural deprivation"


(1977,


400)


. In


fact,


these


issues


often


presented


in com-


prehen


reports


to the


court


concerning


mental


condition


defendant,


serve


inform


reader


about


individual


before


court:


accused


crime


thinks


(Hoffman,


came


1981)


Other


voice


profes


concern


ional


that


, especially


battlel e


those


expert


ychiatry


" degrade


ychology,


image


profess


. Thi


assertion


certainly


new one,


as Smith

ceeding.


points


"Thi


out

trial


quote


present


from

d the


1855


insanity


painful


defense


humiliating


pro-

spec-


tacle


(Buckni


f mental

ll, 1855


pathol ogi


mith,


differing


1980,


entirely


Thi


their


ssue


judgment"


linked


to the


notion


"expert


hire"


--a profess


ional


suspected


changing


/her


will


testimony


. "The


profess


opinion


ional


support


ture


whichever


specialty


deba


as the


public


reali


conflicting


testimony


several


members


have


been


perverted


through


promi


service


rendered"


(Kolb,


NYDMH


. 103)


Others


admit


that within


specialty


which


currently


lacks


scientific


pre-


example,


ball


sties


difference


opinion










Cli ent


rights.


Such


concerns


involving


role


profess


ional


for moral


insanity


response


ability


defense


involve


client


Other


criticisms


rights


A profess


the

ional


tests

con-


ideration


linked


to the


public


image


mental


patients


general


expressed


when


publicity


surrounding


notorious


insanity


case


cons


idered


cul pation


from


. "Mental


criminal


illness


respon


violent


ibility


criminal


behavior,


predominantly


linked


conscious


sness


public


as a


result


such


an unfortunate


case"


(Cavanaugh


Rogers,


. 538)


Another


concern


involve


concept of


"equality


under


considering


possibility


that


defense


discriminates


again


t the


poor,


Matthew


(1970)


argue


that


often


the mo


qualified


profess


ional


from


either


or p


ychiatry


involved


anity


cases,


reasons


f ethic


finance


.He


ugge


that


indigent


defendant


unable


private


attorney


or a


team


fully


fender


credentialled


expert


experts


court may


second-rate,


appoint


giving


only


public


cursory


examination


having


narrow


definition


mental


illness


which


biases


them


section


. The more wealthy,


on the


other


hand,


bring


private


attorneys


well


-versed


tacti


well


respected


experts


have


taken


time


understand


legal


concepts


impres


jurne


with


their


vitaes


, opinion


delivery


Steadman


(1978),


while


acknowledging


that


such


crimination









demographic


involved


defense.


Pasewark


(1979)


critic


suspicion


held


by many


attorney


that


state


hospital


evaluation


than


comply et


or are


biased


toward


prosecution,


instead


prai


compete


ence


comprehen


siveness


court-


Ordered


examination


appears


that


later


tudi


have


supported


Matthews


' allegations


widespread


operating


appli


ation


nsanity


defense.


Gold


tein


Katz


(cited


Abrams


, 1979)


question


whether


defense


signed


to author


holding


person


have


omrnitted


no crime"


. 451)


Al though


found


guilty


defendant


asked


an alternate


facilitate


community


detainment


. Thi


instead


position


assified


some-


what


similar


more


extreme


point


zasz


asserts


that


society will


freedom of


always


those


able


for whom


invent


harbors


to d


fear


tain


trust


abridge


ited


NYDMH,


1978)


Protection


society


. The


final


criticism


defense


sur-


round


ssue


protection


. There


sense


outrage


on the


part of


some


that


label


"not


guilty"


(for what-


ever

law.


reason)

Some op


conveys


Iponents


to the


so far


publ i


as to


that c

state


certain


people


that


are

ense


above


damages


national


or s


tate


cons


science


or s


uperego"


(Kolb


NY DM1-


exacerbates


"breakdown


or contempt


among


votinG


intPrnrP


hvnnrri


in thn s


~kw rn


tn imhnl i


q4L


.


m i J


1


7 -


. I


. .i.


I -










trying


defense.


support


this


view


that


insanity


fense


devi


e whereby


"guilty"


escape


their


deserved


puni


hment


viewpoint


nted


authors


Criminal


Personality


. Yochel


Samenow


(1976)


defense


as a


strategic


maneuver


on the


part


very


aware


criminal


conclude


'Why


serve


year


term when


hospital


much


shorter


time


empha


that


hospital


record


contain


valid


account


what


really


occurred


institution


record


. all


contain


self-serving


stories


that


criminal


have


their


examiners


attempting


judged mentally


i'Il"


. 225


-235)


. This


concern


echoed


Hal pern,


as he


focuses


on the


careers


those


"made


Florida,


point of


Texa


trying


to fool


, Maryland,


ychiatri


York,


psychology


California,


Canada


(1977,


only


opinion


involve


anger


idea


tice


being


thwarted


more


indirectly


they


concerned with


eeming


incapacity


f the


pital


or receiving


facility


manage


ade-


quately


'endant,


viewpoint


echoed


other


extreme


their


opinions


(Cavanaugh


Rogers,


Dix,


1981


teadman


NYDMH,


1978)


Legi


lators


(Pasewark


, 1979a) and


public


alike


fear


that


after


years


"treatment"


institution


with


estionable


success


rates,


NGRI


will


return


streets


, uncured,


We








3 longer
isfits,


ternatives t
are enjoined


plans for
treatment


concomitant


have
state


open


the remote
deviants an


sons


asylums f
vagabond


na poor
provide


patients who
The advent


changing


in dra


resulted


psychiatric


atmo


centers


phere


today


containment


time


containing


houses
highly


found


longer
state


spec


need


ychotropi


nature
tically


centers


rather


are no
social


defendant


appropriate


-patient


c


ific


grab-bag
defacto
hospitals


today


treatment


in-patient


medication


f psychiatric
reducing the


. Increa


than


longer
deviant


ingly


locked ward
appropriate
s. (Prevos


competent


care


tand


taff


care


pitalization


length of
haracteri


stay


, psychiatric
facilities f


NYDMH,


trial,


inform


1978


longer


court


this


effect,


the court


well


recommend


continued


residence


pital


on grounds


dangerousness


other


stage,


several


probi


are present.


many


hospital


facilities


are not


signed


are staff


trained


with


security


as a


primary


focu


second,


"apart


from


taff]


perceiving


themsel ve


as being


forced


hold


people,


without


treatment


the need


are more


properly


response


ibility


other


agencies


society,

contrary


1978,


more


cogent


to all


116).


difficulty


tenets


Third


that


profess


central


these

ional


difficulty


patient


this


inherent


must


managed


" (Wright


NYDMH,


the u


f the


term


dangerousu


sness


as a


guide


relea


Research


consistent and


definite


that


mental


health


prof


essional


cannot


accurately


predict a


base


rate


, complex


behavior


as dangerous


sness


(Monahan


Cummings


1974


Monahan,


1978,


1982


NYDMH


1978


teadman


Cocozza


, 1974)


m


-















committing


profess


ional


perjury"


(Wright,


NYDMH


1978


, p.


116)


inability


predi


dangerous


sness


means


that


final


step


NGRI


degree


process,


assurance


release


that


impossible


defendant


implement


longer


with


to h


community.


Proposed


Alternative


to the


Defense


Given


large


number


criti


insanity


defense


tand


now,


urprl


that many


alternatives


have


been


proposed


It


also


urpri


that


alternatives


these


appear


have


eriou


problem


when


into


practice.


Abolition


ense


Some


states


(notably


Idaho)


have


expert -


mented


with


abolishing


defense


altogether


(Lykken,


ince


there


no constitutional


mandate


that a


state must


utilize


a test


criminal


responsibility


. In


that


state,


judge


permitted


consider


testimony


as to


mental


illness


recommendations


treatment


deciding


on sentencing


after


defendant


been


found


guilty


Aside


from


theoretical


debate


over


the merits


totally


removing


defense


as an option


there


exists


some


question


whether


judge


defendant


would


recipients


quality


psychiatric


opinion


evaluation


respectively,


there


formal


mechani


ensure


profe


ssional


competency


(Lykken,


1982)


Bifurcated


trial


Other


states


(Florida


California


, among


them)


have


experimented


with


system


bifurcated


trial


.The









an adversarial


1982


cess


Criti


before


range


from


same


jury


concern


stage


with


two" (Lykken


duplication


effort


involve


presenting


much


same


information


separate


times


in the


same


trial


asse


rtion


that


issues


guilt


mental


condition


separabi


therefore


should


not b


cons


idered


separate


trial


procedures


(Carnahan,


in NYDMH,


1978)


Furthermore,


"what


sometimes


happen


that


jury


hear


part


an insanity


trial


what


they


should


heard


part


.But


then


late


degree


homi


already


been


determined"


dal,


1979a,


Dimini


capacity


In


1978,


government


York


tate


appointed


panel


legal


mental


health


professional


tudy


defense wa


working


practice


in that


state


offer


to the


governor


alternatives


to the


nsanity


defense


necessary


. The


panel


recommendation


that


York


adopt


dimini


capacity,


admi


ible


convicted


which


"evidence of


degree


Specifically


those


abnormal


crime


offenses


mental


condition


for which


requiring


would


accused


intent


could


or know-


ledge


could


reduced


esser


included


offenses


requiring


only


reckle


ssness


or criminal


negligence"


(Carnahan


NYDMH


1978


. 140).


Under


mental


health


profess


ional'


testimony


limited


defendant


capacity


culpabi


conduct.


result


that


defendant


mental


state


taken


into


account


in the


judge


. 17)









prisons


include


in the


evaluation


United

, group


States"

therapy


(NY DM1-,


1978,


10).


pital


Facilities


regular


out-pa-


tient


services


chronic


the more


illness


.The


traditional


corrections


-pati


system model


pital ization


presented


having


intention


providing


same


quality


care


as a


com-


muni ty


-based


mental


health


center


Al though


flaw


not mentioned


York


panel


commendation


dimini


capacity model,


they


mental


health


professional


trained


determination


"culpability"


(another


legal


term)


any more


than


they


trained


assessment


f moral


response


ibil ity


likely


that


adoption


dimini


capacity


rule will


lead


dramatic


increase

capacity


the

some


system


number

form,


time


defendants


invoking


an already


offense


, only


question


over


small


-crowded


minority


mental


judicial


offender


in my


opinion


are mentally


as compared


large


number


offender


who demon


trate


some


degree of


mental


impairment of


dimini


capacity"


dal,


1979a,


A variety


"mental


impairment


" and


psychiatric


diagnoses


used


negate


capacity


intent


more


than


qualify


as completely


solving


someone


moral


res-


ponsibility


unenviable


/her


role


action


the mental


. Third


health


much


profess


>been written on


ional


(Bazelon,


1977a;,Reid


Allegation


frequently made


that


the









institution


organization


social


: namely


control


fellow


to assist


employees


in the


keep


goal


order


Given


diffi


ulty


philosophy


ally


integrating


treatment


pro-


gram


with


institutions


punishment


cons


ring


such


as the


riots


over


conditions


York


system


more


recent


accuse


action


Abbott


(1981),


there


ustifi


ation


questioning


whether


York


tate


been


able


into


practi


"mod


mental


health


care


sons


within


space


year


"Guilty


Mentally


" One


the most


publ i


alterna-


Michigan


"Guilty


Mentally


I1l"


rule


1974


higan


ease


xty-


four


inmates


been


prevlou


commi tted


under


NGRI


statute,


on the


basis


that


they


were


currently


sane


than


year


later


two of


them


committed


addi tional


viol


crimes


(1976)


ectly


attribute


formulation


f Michi-


"Guilty


Mentally


Ill"


(GBMI)


hese


crimes


.Thi


important


in that


serving


as a


model


other


states


unhappy with


performance


standard


insanity


ense.


GBMI


statute


states


, "A defendant


found


GBMI


determines


beyond


reasonable


doubt


that


defen-


dant


guilty


mitted


an offense


offense


mentally


gally


at the


nsane


at the


time


time


com-


com-









or is


temporarily


transferred


treatment


facility,


to be


returned


following


treatment


serve


remainder


sentence.


Criticisms


rule


broad


varied


First,


conse-


quences


defendant


convicted


under


GBMI


rule


or a


guilty


plea


esse


ntially


same


.The


rule


seek


insure


that


convicted


GBMI


defendants


observers


agree


receive


that


necessary


treatment


treatment.


non-existent


Unfortunately,


prison,


most


that


in sentencing


defendant


treatment,


court


sen-


tencing


them


condition


that


does


t (Steadman,


1980)


addition,


singles


offenders


tigmatization


within


confines


system


. Many


defendants


dread


entering


with


label


"crazy,


" due


to their


expectation


differ-


ential


treatment


from


both


fell ow


i nmf tes


taff


(Singer,


1980)


"legal


hollowness"


GBMI


plea


some


lawyers


assert


that


"the


defense


counsel


advi


client


plead


GBMI


would


constitute


ineffective


assistance,


breach


canonized


ethical


duty"


chwartz,


1975,


cited


Carnahan,


NYDMH,


1978,


139)


Furthermore


some


legal


expert


(Gro


tic,


1978)


argue


that


jury


confu


caused


imilarity


GBMI


NGRI


rules


will


result


GBMI


privately


verdicts


deemed


some


legally


defendants


insane,


actually


depriving


are more


those


appro-


individual


their


right


use o


nsanity


defense









defense


entirely


favor


above


alternati v


without


adequate


appreciation


their


defi


ienci


full


comprehension


mechanic


current


system.


Philosophical


i deration


Practice


Current


tudi


assified


into


two type


those


examining


broad


persons


class


ified


as both mentally


violent


those


examining


ubset


above


group who


were


found


guilty


reason


insanity


Example


former


estigations


which


examine


dangerous


sness


f mental


patient


as a


whole


(Rabkin,


1979)


which


attempt


cover


relation


between


ychiatric


diagnosis


criminality


(Guze


1976


Piotrowski


1978


iomopoul o


owsky


, 1980)


. Example


latter


ncl ude


recent


esti


gation


York


Wyoming


centering


around


tati


cription


f NGRI


defendant


course


their


pital i


ation


they


(Pasewark,


compare


1979,


with


1980


ndant


singer


found


NGRI


teadman,


early


1974


, 1980)


1970


Finding


reviewed


here


provide


background


description


current


tudy


NGRI


Florida.


Arrest


rates


mental


patient


general


compo


ition


pati


group.


to the


increased


use of


the mental


health


as an alternative


to the


criminal


justice


avenue,


far more


indivi-


dual


with


prior


arrest


records


being


hospitaliz


. Thi


process


termed


"the medicalization


havior"


involves


fining


*~~~~l S Sn -


a S


q


*


I I


*


r


*


*


*









records"


wider


(Rabkin,


group


1979,


mental


26).


health


inclusion


patients


this


partially


subgroup


responsible


tati


which


indicate


that


patients


as a


group


are more


likely


arrested,


especially


crime


violence


Other


con-


tributing


ychiatric


factors


patients


increased


concern


arrest


changing


rate

admi


being


ssion


quoted


pol icie


patient


. There


have been


decrease


in the


admi


ssion


geriatric


patients


tate


persons


mitment


psychiatric


found


patients


centers


incompetent


. those


tand


admitted


increase


trial


being


admi


emergency


danger


ssion


com-


to self


other


(Melick,


1979)


Rabkin


inve


tigation


poses


an increase


ingly


frequent


question


what


association


between


arrest


diagno


category


asserts,


"When


patients


with


arrest


stories,


primary


diagnose


substance


abuse,


personality


order


cons


idered


separ-


ately,


remainder


patient


group


appears


dangerous


than


those


members


f the


general


public


not mentally


" (1979


Relation


between


arrest


rate


diagnosis


: high


risk


groups


Most


researchers


agree


that


personality


disorders


as a class


ification


group


have


proportionately


high


arrest


rates


(Binn


1969


Guze,


1976


Henn,


1977


Rabkin,


1979


iomopoulo


, 1978;


itrin,


1976)


Another


population


intere


emerge


that


compri


those









rather


pessimistic


results


as to the


prognos1


aggr


essive


young


sters,


there


been


demand


more


long


-term


follow-


tudi


Far


result


on an eighteen-


year


follow


ychiatrically


turbed


viol


adole


scene


admit


children


unit


Creedmoo r


pital


n 1960.


tudy


suggests


following


trends


. First,


although


anti


social


subjects


con-


tinued


response


ible


for multiple


crimes


throughout


eighteen


year


f the


tudy


there


no cons


relation


between


acts


for which


they


were


originally


hospital ized


subsequent


acts


second,


earlier


which


antisocial


behavior


begins


child


greater


likelihood


exists that


pattern


will


continue


group,


e with


enduring


anti


social


behavior


"were


almo


long


preadmi


i story


hood p

havior


problems

in the


showed


hospital


the most

, with a


unstable,


ntisocial


variable, and

and behavioral


aggressive


turbances


predominating


as chief


complaints,


rather


than


ychiatric


symptoma-


tology


. Their


family


background


contained more


anti


social


historic


one-


parent


there


homes


lose


" (Faretra,


relationship


1981,


between


Third


reason


ect's


original


hospitalization


ubsequ


life


course


. Those


admitted


with


ychiatri c


symptoms


continued


to have


mainly


mental


hygiene


contacts


throughout


their


lives


Those


admitted


with


predominantly


antisocial


behavior were mainly


associated


with


courts


Sid








-















Fourth,


most


children


with


longest


duration


problems


prior


admis


(over


two years)


showed


life


course


anti


social


psychiatric


problems


" (Faretra,


448)


Faretra


conclusion


support


those


Robin


(1966)


suggest


rather


cons


tent


relation


between


early


acting


conduct


order)


later


criminality


. Data


from


England


lightly more


encouraging


West


(1980)


assert


that


the majority


young


delin-


quents


treatable


Those


eventually


continue


umed


anti


social


into


careers,


ordinary


appear


society


to match


chronic


aggres


recidivi


found


Faretra


sample.


most


important


features


poor


control


hedoni


aggressive


impul


station


tolerance,


primitive


conscience


, instability


personal


relationship


poor


performance


education


work


career


, usually


traceable


back


an undi


ciplined


socially


prived


childhood"


(West,


1980


Relation


between


arrest


rate


diagnosis


schizophrenia


Evidence


becomes


less


consistent


regarding


criminal


activity


chizophreni


tudie


which


feature


schizophrenics


than


half


patient


sample,


their


arrests


proportionately


high


(Rabkin,


1979


Zitrin,


1976)


itrin


(1976)


found


ophreni


over-


over-repr


represented


nted


among


those


in overall


committed


arrest


rates


violent


. Sosowsky


crimes


(1980)


ampl e


include


greater


concentration


young


schizophrenic


"The


d





..


A


1, I .


.. I


.. 1









Giovannoni


Gurel


(1967)


found


with


sampl e


diagnosed


chronic


schizophrenic


that


subjects


' arrest


rates


were


higher


than


control


population


with


respect


to violent


crimes


. With


change


composition


state


mental


hospital


reality


Steadman


concludes


seems


time


to acknowledge


that


there may


kernel


accuracy


public


perception


the mentally


threatening


dangerous


arrest


rate


greater


than


those


general


population


assumed


indicate


dangerous


behavior"


(1981,


314).


preceding


tudie


offer


broad


overview


what


categories


are contributing


image


the mental


patient


as a


dangerous


individual


There


much


smaller


body


knowledge


as to


character


tics


those


evaluated


upon


being


accuse


crimes


even


fewer


tudi


pertaining


specifically


those


using


insanity


defense.


Character


those


referred


pretrial


evaluation


: the


referral


process


After


defendant


charged


with


a crime,


there


ample


opportunities


pretrial


ychiatric


or psychological


evaluation


requested


. The


defense


tate


attorneys


those


most


frequently


involved


in s


request


ually


some


basi


must


provided


court


raising


question


mental


illness.


can range


from


bizarre


detail


crime


elf,


reports


"peculiar"


behavior


on the


part


defendant


from


jailers









it may


move


appointment


experts


defendant.


(There


also


experts


called


tate


defense.


When


pattern


referral


over


years


examined,


Henn


(1976)


Binns


(1969)


note


that


insanity


ense


more


likely


to be


cons


idered


cases


involving


serious


crimes


common


finding


throughout


literature


addition,


their


sample


court


seemed


eval uation


erring


, making


on the


autiou


probable


reque


that most


those


pretrial


accused


rime


examined


offering


. (Their


tudi


from a

were c


serious


conducted


hiatric


major


illness


urban


areas


would


however


onclu


apply


to small


rural


county


teadman


Cocozza


(1978)


also


note


a tendency


some


referral


sources


believe


that


must


crazy


repetitive


violent


or to


commi t


crime


as murder


. This


attitude


undoubtedly


accounts


some


referral


evaluation,


especially when more


serious


crimes


involves.


Character


rral


demographic


data


Much


data


have


been


Health


generated


Center


Foren


Louis


Division


(Guze


f the


Henn


Malcolm


Mental


Piotrowski


, 1978)


researchers


cite


trend


an increasing


number


mal e


defendants


between


twenty


twenty


-four


being


referred


sanity


competency


evaluations


there


have been


teady


increase


in the


number


those


charged


with


homi-


--












Foren


Divi


sion


note


following


pattern


First,


pro-


portion


defendants


being


labeled


antisocial


personality


double


next


most


common


diagno


second,


there


been


rlse


number


referred


cases


which


no mental


disorder was


found


which


past


would


have


been


labeled


as homo


sexual


or pa


ive-aggressive


personality


. Third,


ixteen


percent


defendants


diagnosed


as having


schizophrenia


some


type


(Henn,


1976).


Piotrowski


(1978)


assert


that


major


determinant


rral


eval uation


story


prior


pitalization


tory


defendant.


Eighty


-two


percent


those


seen


Center


an incident


their


record


examined


diagnoses


those


deemed


psychotic


sample


concluded


that


"schizophrenia


or bipolar


affective


disorder


uncomplicated


[secondary
dependence]


diagnoses


appear


f antisocial


infrequent


personality,


among


alcoholism,


criminal


more


or drug


than


percent]


(1978,


, including


311)


those


ample,


suspected


eighty


ychiatric


percent


illness


defendants


were


found


to manif


antisocial


personality


alcoholism,


or drug


addiction.


found


no relationship


between


index


crime


diagnosis


extremely


estimate


(two


percent)


those


criminal


population


uffer


from


major


ychoti c


order


puted


other


researcher


iomopoulos


(1976)


examined


Cook


County


, IllinoiS, who


been


found


unfit


tand


trial









crime


related


to diagnosis.


acknowledges


that


differences


finding


research


setting


(hospital


post


-hearing


pretrial


detention)


However


Binn


(1969)


examined


sample


pretrial


referral


found


one-third


offering


from a


major


ychosi


one-tenth


to be


personality


order


=96)


thirty


-seven


seen


as psychotic,


thirty-


three


percent


played


florid


symptoms


disappeared


following


administration


course


medication


obvious


from


these


discrepancy


across


tudi


that


there


eriou


agreement


as to


representation


schizophrenic


or bipolar


affective


order


within


criminal


population.


tati


tical


descriptions


NGRI


Unfortunately


there


very


little


research


existing


which


explore


nsanity


defense


been


literature,


functioning


asserts


Pasewark


that


(1981),


hocking


review


determine


existing


extreme


paucity


information


regarding


legal


mechanism


that


been


operative


century


. Thi


situation


seems


particularly


plorable


criticism


during


period


persons


which


seeking


plea


either


subject


tantially


intense


alter


or abol i


plea"


(1981,


. No


national


data


have


been


collected.


There


exlis


no record


containing


basi


tati


as how many


peopi


across


country


attempt


defense


each


year


. Fundamental


information


(how


often


defense


attempted


percentage





-


*


-- a









most


what


known


about


the working


defense


comes


from


hese


tudi


the work


teadman


Pasewark


inger


hese


research


proje


provide


basi


demographic


information


on the


opera-


tion


ense


those


states


specific


year


. They


begin


estimate more


ompl ex


issues


such


as p


hologi


ha n-


acteri


defendants,


relationship


crime


char-


acteri


acquittal


. Pasewark


summary


tating


"the


situation


more


deplorabi


because


at thi


tage


game,


search


designed


generate


basi


useful


information


this


area


generally


costs


little


. Needed


data


available


ting


or i


not, require


only


ystemati


, relatively


simple


means


collection,


organization,


analy


" (1981


. 394).


following


tudi


were


conducted


in states


relying


on the


rule


at th


time


research


previous


light


difference


wording


among


tests


not likely


alter


significant


degree


found


insane


ecker,


1973)


Therefore,


regard


version


insanity


test


used


results


research


cited


here


assumed


some-


what


escriptive


other


ndant


other


jurisdictions.


Frequency


use of


ense


. Pasewark


(1979a) and


tead-


(1980)


compared


insanity


acquittal


York


tate


from


1965


through


. Probably


strong


finding


dramatic


increase


number


acquittal


ince


1971


Between


1965


1971


there










examining


tati


stics


on frequency


insanity


acquittal


Wyoming


between


1975


1977,


ewark


(1980)


discovered


that


only


percent


original


ninety-two


preliminary


insanity


pleas


were


actually


adjudicated


NGRI


. This


correspond


well


Johnson


estimate


percent


plea


which


were


successful


(1975)


eventy-


four


percent


Pasewark


sampl e


dropped


tention


pled


esser


harge,


or were


found


guilty


. Thi


lends


further


support


evidence


that


insanity


case


carried


through


trial


quite


rare


phenomenon.


insanity


acquittal


demographic


data


With


respect


to type


crime


character


defendants,


demographic


have

York


not c

sample


:hanged


. Eighty-


significantly


seven


over


percent


last


are men


years


thirteen


percent


women


whites


over-


represented


compare son


state


prison


population,


with


ixty


percent


white


compared


to thirty


-one


percent


black


Fifty


percent


acquittees


previous


ychiatri


pi tal i


ation


forty-


four


percent


prior


arrest


record


examining


tribution


crimes


authors


note


that


fifty-three


percent


those


found


NGRI


were


charged


with


murder


or attempted


murder:


till


than


is assumed


public


assault


some


about


form was


fifteen


second mo


percent of


t frequent


defendants


having


crime

such


represented,


charge


with


teadman


(1980)


found


wide


variations


number


acquittal


across









urban,


some


rural,


some


quite


populated,


others


not.


author


concluded


that


"the


application


insanity


statutes


depend


more


on the


idio


yncraci


attorneys


sector


judge


than


on the


number


people


in the


county"


teadman,


1980,


Another


factor whi


linked


frequency


use of


insanity


defense


rate


arrest


dictment


within


certain n


county


ewark


(1979b


asserts


that


more


"bri


operation


tice


system


county,


likely


plea


insanity


low-moving


process)


to be


entered.


Attorney


perception


defense


another


tudy


condu


Wyomi ng


ewark


Craig


(1980)


examined


attorney


receptions


f the


defense,


when


these


profess


ional


used


with


their


clients


. They


discovered


that


attorney


have


some


same mi


conception


as do


people


about


use of


defense


. They


tend


over


-estimate


often


actually


used,


suspect


that


chological


evaluation


occurring


tate


hospital


than


thorough,


.and


to believe


that


individual


commit


violent


or sexual


crime mu


mentally


abnormal


Al though


attorneys


admi tted


occas


ionally


using


defense


as a


delaying


tactic


to allow


com-


munity


furor


over


crime


to die


down,


most


tated


that


tered


plea


reasons


their


client


mental


health


to obtai n


treatment


client,


current


bizarre


behavior,


De-









ychiatric


diagnose


acquittees


. In


examining


ychiatric


diagnoses


given


acquittees,


Pasewark


found


that


ixty


-nine


per-


cent


entered


hospital


with


predominantly


ychoti


diagnoses


eleven


percent were


seen


as personality


orders.


person


categorized


psychotic,


were


schizophrenic


those


were


paranoid


type"


( 1979a


658)


Length


pitali


ation


acquittee


. Once within


hos-


pital,


length


However,


stay


recent


seem


acquittees


related


eemed


to severity


held


offense


longer


period


time


1978


than


group who


earlier


remained


group


."The


pitali


acquittees


been


from


retained


almo


long


as the


average


length


released


patient


from


1965-


1976


group


teadman,


1980


concluded


that


today,


NGRI


expect


in the


hospital


least


four


year


However,


cautions


that


misleading


compare


length


hospitalization


with


time


served


those


charged


with


bargaining

processed


same


which

through


takes

the


crime


care


criminal


as thi


about


ustic


ignores


ninety pe

e system.


process


mrcent


After


plea


cases


comparing


hospital i


those


ation


convi


time


(through


acquittees


plea


with


bargaining


prison


time


accrual


served


gain


time)


teadma n


asser


that


group


quite


similar


amount


incarceration


time which


they


actually


serve.


U~~~~ ~ ,n- ..Ih.. A


L m


|


*^


r


II r


* t


A


1El


I









criminal


actions


arise


as a


result


f their mental


disorder


.The


second


group,


containing


many


individual


with


prior


arrest


cord,

which,


is more

"like


repre

any ot


tentative


her


occupational


criminal

group, c


population


containss


as a


certain


whole

number


mentally


individual


" (1979a,p


. 658)


. Steadman


NYDMH


, 1978)


four


ubgroups


NGRI


acquittees


asserts


neither


ychoti c


nor


legally


insane:


former


police


offi


cers


mother


charged


with


infanticide,


"persons


respectability,


" and


those


label


as "I-can-feel-sorry-for-


subjects.


stence


these


groups


leads


teadman


ques


tion


whether more


"humane"


variables


than


language


a given


statute


deciding


factors


insanity


acquittal


(NY DMH,


1978)


Recidivi


mestudi


. Recidivism


tudi


which


focu


exclu


ively


on NGRI


comparatively


rare.


(Morrow


Peterson


, 1966)


examines


NGRI


recidivism


criminal


rates


recidivism


California


rate


NGRI


thirty-seven


percent


finds


that


almost


identical with


rate"


(1966,


34)


subjects


were more


likely


fail


they


or more


previous


offenses,


if their


criminal


record


included


property


crimes.


authors


conclude


that


NGRI


great


similarity


charged


prison


inmates


with


res-


pect


property


nearly

crime


identical


criminal


common


recidivism


prognosti


rates


variables.


dominance


corollary


to this,


they


suggest


imilarity


between


NGRI


ychia-


"the











foren


psychiatric


facility


(hou


sing


NGRI


, among


others)


reach


different


onclu


from Morrow


Peterson


(1966)


. Mullen


Reinehr


suggest


that


forensic


patients


resembi


general


;ychia


tric


patient


more


than


they


prisoner


on I


demo-


graphic


variable


(Thi


not a


recidivism


tudy,


however,


as it


conducted


during


confinement


period


each


f the


three


groups.)


Psychological


Characteristic


Violent


Individual s


previous


sections


have


cons


i dered


those


individual


meet


criteria


being


both


mentally


violent.


tudi


have


centered


around


diagnostic


demographic


criptions


those


being


evaluated


foren


setting


, hospital


mental


health


center


However


hese


tudie


focu


on psychology


descriptions


those


are violent


or who


habitually


antisocial


manner


Instead,


they


focus


on inve


tigating


small


group


entire


population


acting


individual


as a


whole.


main


reason


pecificity


that


"the


criminal


personality"


exist


as a


ingle


entity


there


no s


ingle


description


or diagnosis


which


encompa


sses


individual


again


society


addition,


here


no biological,


ical


or p


.ychiatric


quality


which con


tently


indentifie


individual


sets


them apart


as being


qualitatively


"di fferent


from other


peopi


criminal


nersonalitv


ii a


lack


u I


an identifvina


trait


I. Il









untreatable


Other


titutional


unalterabl e


maintained


priority,


(Lombroso


that


" which


criminal


in Yochelson


ssesse


result


dreg


nd Samenow,

"general con-


every


population


draught


pure


or mixed


[being]


poured


into


prison


" (Hooten


ited


Yochel son


Samenow,


58)


More


scientific


investigations


have


ited


ical


body


type


genetic


predi


spos


ition


hromosomal


anomal ie


certain


autonomic


responses,


specific


as d


head


trauma,


scriminating


abnormal


criminal


from


l ectri


fellow


activity


(Blackburn


brain


S 975


1979


Cloninger,


Cochrane,


1975


Cour


sey,


1979


Curran


1978


hagoury


1971


Yochel


amenow,


1976).


none


biologi


theories


have


reliably


consistently


discriminated


hroni


ally


antisocial


individual


from other


, though


estigations


genetic


autonomy


factors


continuing


There

describe


have


these


been


individual


attempt


. Th


ychiatri


term


literature


constitutional


sycho-


pathi


rior)


similar


label


ychopath


have


frequently


been


used


identify


"the


criminal


rsonality


" Described


Cleckl


Mask


Sanity


(1954)


ychopath


or s


ociopath


conce


ptuali


as a


person


outwardly


appear much


other


(hence


title


reality


quit


different


quite


psychologically


turbed.


pite


change


in official


rminology


there


been


con-









characteristic


which


psychopath


hare


Such


individual


des-


cribed


as immature,


irrespon


ible


sens


ation


seekers


profit


from


experience


or learn


from


their mi


takes


. They


sincere,


manipulative


, skilled


liars


appear


unable


exper-


ence


guilt


. Chronically


self-centered,


they


adept


using


other


their


seem


incapable


maintaining


more


than


uperficial


relation


with


other


people


. They


lack


control


over


their


impul


often


chronically


trouble with


Unfortunately,


people


are often


charming,


socially


poised,


lacking


anxiety


initially


can make


quit


good


impress


socially


. They


capable


being


extremely


tructive


, violent,


vengeful


create


great


deal


physical


psychic


damage


to other


people


with


little


or no regret


their


action


eckley


ceptual i


, 1954)


their


. Cleckley


inability


used


"moral


empathi


e with


insanity"


other


con-


, experience


guilt,


or respond


internal


ethi


standard


Diagno


tati


tical


Manual


(Third


Edition)


DSM-III


(the


1980 national


class


ification


nervous


and mental


disorders),


terms


ychopath"


"sociopath"


abandoned


the more


recent


label


"anti


social


personality


can be


seen


from


riteria


presented


Table


, many


Cleckley'


character


ychopath


have


been


incorporated


into


DSM-III


"anti


social


personal ity


-


--












Table


Diagnostic


Criteri a


Anti


social


rsonality


Disorder


Current


t eighteen.


B. Onset
more of
1
year for


before age
the following
) truancy (p


expul


behavior)
4) ru
parental


delinquency


inning


fifteen
a before


itive


as indicated


that


o years, not
or suspension


(arre


away


or parental


persi


tent


repeated
repeated
thefts


from


home


urrogate


lying
exual


age:
amounted
including


from


story


at 1
las


school


or referred

overnight


for mi


three


five


year or s
behavior


to juvenile


least


home


intercourse


drunkenness


or sub


tance


casual
abuse


school)


court b

e while


because

living


relation


vandalism


10)
estimated


than


school


or known


grades m
IQ (may


11) chronic
truancy)


initiation


arkedl
have


below


resulted


violation


expectations
in repeating


home


and/or


relation
year)
school


(other


fights.


t four of


following manifes


stations


disorder


since


eighteen:
1) inab


more


jobs


or seas
or more


f


onal


from work
month), d


(Note:


years or
by reason


ility to
following
ive years


fluctuation),


five


years w
average


walking


similar


school


sustain


cons


tent work


a) too frequent
not accounted fo


hen


exp


three
several


behavior


their


sub
age


significant unem
ected to work),
days or more of
jobs without o


an academic


titute


or c


i rcumstances


getting


behavior,


changes
nature


ployment (
c) serious


lateness


their


indicated


three


or economic


SIX


or ab


jobs


during


riterion


have


month


enteeism
sence De


ight.
ast f


individual


an opportunity


demon
2


denced
child'


state
) lack
y one
illnes


failure


dependence on


I


failure


ULt


occupational


ability


or more


resulting


to obtain


to
the
fro


medical


neighbors


arranae


adju


tment).


function
fo allowing


m


lack


care


or nonresident


.u '-


caretaker


as a


response
child's


minimal


eriou


relative


.I -


ible


parent


as evi


malnutrition,


hygiene


child under


standard


child,
food an


six when


child'


elter,
parent


1










Table


3--continued


partner
(whether
(ten or


ical


fend


inability to
as indicated


maintain


by two


legally married


more


exual


irritabi
fights


someone


enduring


or more divor


or not),


partner


within


lity and aggres
or assault (not


or one


failure


self)
honor


attachment


and/or s
f spouse


ertion


siveness
required


, including
financial


spou


year)
as indicated


se or


obl igation


one'


sexual


eparations
, promiscuity

by repeated


job or


hild


beating


ated


as indi


repeated
failure


traveling
goal for


would


defaulting
to support
failure to


from
the D


place
eriod


terminate,
) disregard


aliases
reckle


or recurrent


on debt


other
plan


failure


dependent


ahead,


place
travel


or lack


"conning"


ssness


on a


or impul
without a
or clear


fixed


truth
others


as indicated


provide child


support,


regular basis
ivity, as indicated


prearranged


idea


address


as indicated


Personal
y driving


about


job or clear


when
month


ly repeated
gain


while


travel


or more
lying,


intoxicated


speeding.


A pattern
others ar


five


year


time


tined


conti nuou


violated,


anti


when


without


(except
spital


anti social


with
social


or penal


behavior


no intervening


behavior


individual


which


period


between


was bedridden


right


at least


fifteen


or con-


institution .


Anti


tardation


social


behavior


hizophrenia,


either


or manic


episodes


Severe Mental


(from


Diagno


Thi rd


Edition,


id Stati
1980, p


tical


Manual,


320-3









antisocial


normal


individual


fall


ome may


resemble


classs


ical


ychopath,


" fulfilling


most


character


seen


enduring


pattern


their


behavior


Other


evidence


ychopathic


qual iti


, yet


extent


pictured


Cleckl


previously


till


other


resemble


chronically


anti


social


individual


least


instead appear more


ompati bl e


with


those mentally


individual


offering


from


major


ycho-


ses: schizophrenia


or major


affective


order


These


types


path-


ology may


result


turbance


person


emotional


thought


proce


sses


extent


that


longer


contact


with


rea i i ty


. The


patient may


hear


voices


believe


or an


agent


God,


or invent


believe


an entire


tem which


bears


no resemblance


ide world


. (For


full


review


symptoma-


tology


psychiatric


illn


esses


, the


reader


referred


DSM-III


textbook


abnormal


psychology)


individual


usually


criminal


no way


involved


anti


social


activity


during


their


lives


ome may


ommi t


violent


acts


while


ychotic


till


play


pattern


criminality


their


overall


behavior,


Finally,


disorders


superimpo


on a


basi


ally


anti-


social


onality


tyle


. These


order


include


substance


abuse


chronic


drug


ychosi


addition


chizophr


enia


the major


fective


order


. (For


more


complete


explanation


these


disorder


reader


referred


an abnormal


psychology


text


There









playing


psychotic


hearing


, forming


symptomatology


usions,


. Thi s

over-


form of


or mis-interpreting


timuli


environment


as being


threatening


or harmful


, believing


plots


against

above


him/her,


symptoms


Medication


not aff


may

ect


eradicate

the psycho


some


pathic


or all

personality


traits


scuss


previous


there


no known


treatment


work


well


ameliorating


habitual


criminal


behavior


eckley,


1954


Faretra,


1981


Yochel


amenow,


1976)


.The


second


problem


diagnostic


one:


an individual


easily


class


ified


with


either


label


mentally


or criminal


most


likely


both


. He/


he may


present


very


different


psychological


tures


depending


upon


time


evaluation,


anity


examination


focu


on a


event


life


such


an individual


quit


difficult.


Finally


ychotic


spos


can be


ition


compli


an anti


ated


social


individual


. Treatment


i ntermi ttently


hospital


indicated


during


period


when


acutely


del u


ional


once


antip


hotic medication


been


ffectiv


more


appropriate


ement


either


facility


individual


neither


fowl"


: in


need


structure


security


hospital


tigma-


tized


, feared,


and mistru


as "crazy"


son.


Theori


which


osit


biological


or psy


hological


abnormality


as the


root


riminality


have


been


briefly


scuss


above


. There


diff


rent


conc


eptuali


ation


antisocial


behavior which









an individual


criminal


behavior


Other


have


viewed


violent


behavior


as being


natural


product


society


that


violent


(Yochelson


amenow,


1976)


. These


theory


focu


flaws


individual,


instead


blame


society


vironment


cause


condition


breed


rime


. They


dress


great majority


persons


under


deprived


violent


condition


become


antisocial


Recent


research


asserts


that


persons


commit


violent


crimes


play


different


personality


character


from


person


commit


property


crimes


(Rose


Bitter,


1980


hagoury,


1971)


. Thi


tinction


between


violent


nonviolent


offender


maintained


through-


literature


(Edinger,


1979


teadman,


1980


Toch,


1980


Wagner,


1979)


ive,


Those


involved


immature,


violence


emotionally


cri bed


uncontrolled,


as being


overly


sens


more


itive,


tful


their


environment as


whole,


interpersonally


olated,


unable


express


anger


appropriately


(Rose


Bitter,


1980)


hagoury


(1971),


tudy


ompari ng


group


convicted


murder with


group


convicted


property


crimes


found


more


per-


onality


organic


ation,


impul


ivity,


remorse


empathy


homicide


group


tres


that


group


homogenou

study (Wo


one,


Ifgang


being

and F


compri sed


erracutti,


four


1967)


types


evaluated


murderer


personality


earlier


research


regarding


homicide


. They


concluded


that


there


no one


personality


a a *


a a


a 1 *


a


- .


I I


f


t








Violent


offender


general


appear


resemble


each


other morethan


they


non-violent


offender


scrimination


according


2!e


violent


rime


which


they


commit


been


achi


eved


(Rose


Bitter


, 1980)


. Thus,


murderer


are not


distingui


hable


from


assailants


or rapi


tspurely


on the


basi


their


personal ity


characteristics


This


is not


surpr


rising


given


that


violence


ychiatric


con-


complex


phenomenon


resulting


from


interaction


ituational


search


factor


investigating


personality


violence,


dynamic


related


individual


field


involved.


victimology


(the


tudy


those


become


victims)


been


poorly


condu


(Toch,


1980


addr


Wolfgang


esses


rracutti


difficulties


, 1967)


inherent


fairly


making


scarce.


progress


Toch


toward


(1980)


under-


standing


conceptual


violence


following


Offender
dividual


turbed


or under
psychotic
person's
a violent


ubpopulation


However,


mean


tood
and


even


that


contain


diagno


where


we hav


an unknown


number


as psychiatrically


diagnoses


either


schizophrenia


viol


ence


-prone


popularity,
psychotic.


Both


explained


ass
fac


defen
viol


ence


aultspeopl


t


combination


patient


obey


voices


dimini


make
that


him
tell


kill


fact


cognitive


standing
cases t
remote.


probl


increases


link


between


cons


idering


behavior


649)


reader


referred


the work


Monahan


(1978


1982)


Monahan


Cummings


(1974)


more


thorough


cons


ideration


issue


prediction


viol


ence


dangerousness.









ummary


. In


summary


appear


that


there


no s


ingle


chiatri


entity


known


as a


criminal


personality


or a


viol


nder


Violence


mul tifaceted


, partially


ituational


phenomenon


occurs


across


psychiatric


diagnoses


nder


class


ified


as being


violent


or nonviolent;


they


cannot


ychologi


ally


riminated


on the


basi


type


crime


which


have


com-


mitted


. Viol


offenders


general


have


been


character


immature,


emotionally


uncontrolled


individual


lack


appropriate


empathy


other


view


their


environment


with


ssed,


however,


that many


those


committing


violent


acts


fulfill


or even


most


these


criteria


nor could


termed


ychopathic"


or "antisocial


personal ity


research


in the


area


been


criti


ized


numerous


philosophical


jnd method-


logical


problem


illustrated


that


problem


violence


general


multidi


ci pl i nary


(not


just


ychological


one)


that


viol


offenders,


while


often


resembling


each


other


hiatrically


certain


homogenou


group.


Psycho logi cal


Tests


with


Violent


Offender


course


ychological


evaluation


lini


often


reviews


data


from


previous


pital


contacts


school re

defendant


C


ords

from


any medical


other


sources


social


which


tory


available


records


. The


ycholo-


also


conducts


a clinical


interview with


defendant


.. .















ychological


tests


provide


data


which


serve


trengthen


call


into


ques


tion


emerging


diagnostic


impression


some


cases,


tests


replicate material


already


covered


in int


erview;


however,


they


provide


valuable


information


as to how


client ap-


proache


tructured


unstructured


situation


functioning


intellectually


emotionally


Many


clients


sure


to make


"good


impress


ion"


on tests


than


in interview;


therefore

pulative


ychological


individual


useful


addition,


working


assessment


with


mani-


instruments


were


tandardi


on a


wide


range


normal


(and


some cases,


mentally


turbed)


individual


scores


provide


data


as to how the


defendant


performing


as compared


to the


performance


certain


pecified


erion


group


. The


current


research


employed


battery


tests


commonly


used


ychological


evaluation


Intellectual


. In


foren


evaluations,


both


intellectual


personality


ests


are administered


defendant


. The


intelli-


gence


test


sometime


known


as an I


test)


provide


information


client


level


general


cognitive


functioning


time


testing


purposes


current


to ascertain


tudy


whether


, IQ was


subjects


used


were


primarily


able


screening


to comprehend


item


on other


tests.


Personality measures


general


Per


onality mea


sures


generally


grouped


as objective


or projective


test


objective


test


struc-










projective


measure,


on th


other


hand


no right


or wrong


answers


present


lient


with


liberat


y ambiguous


timulus


to whi


respond


. Sco


ring


interpretation


responses


follow


basi


guid


lines


subject


dividual


diff


erences


across


examiner


test


battery


used


in the


current


nesota


proj


tudy


contained


Mul tiphasi


ecti v


ectiv


onal ity


rsonality


personality


ntory


Rorsc


or t


test


MMPI)


Inkblot


Mmn-


three


, the


Hand


Test


proj


active


drawings)


A bri


scription


each


test


resented


followed


review


use o


test with


vio-


offenders.


MMPI


(the


Minn


sota


M ul tipha


onal ity


ntory)


. Th


MMPI

pers


curre


onality


ntly


inventory


most

(Gre


wid

ene,


used


1980)


rese


It


cons


arch


ists


obj

550


active

declarative


statements


written


person


ingular,


to whi


person


taking


MMPI


answers


"Tru


or "Fal


ample


items


include


used


ohol


excess


vely,


" "Th


ersons


trying


teal


thought


eas,


II ~


school"


am afraid


losing


mind


responses


scored


grouped


ording


to ten


clinical


assessing


major


ategories


abnormal


behavior.


addition


there


"validity


scal


es" built


into


test


assess


respond


test-taking


MMPI


loped


1940


Univer


Minnesota


ti-n-- ~ ~ -3 35- lrIL


---


.....


II


EI


,,,,-~L~


II-


L ..


1








scriptions.


They


reduced


thou


about


five


hundred


items


which


they


arbitrarily


class


ified


into


twenty-


five


category


These


MMPI


Habit


category e


, Family


included Morale


Marital,


General


Phobias,


Health,


sess


stro-


-Compul


Intestinal


(Greene,


1980)


They


then con


tructed


series


scal


which


could


used


diagnose


deviant


behavior


electing


they


used


items


an empirical


differently


patient


as compare


a specific
approach.


criterion
ed with n


group
ormal


cale


items


group


. Hypochondriasis)
had to be answered


. hypochondriacal


Since


their


approach


trictly


ited


specific
particul


group
group
1980,


as the
scale,
ar item
Rather


were


empirical


basi


no theoretical


for accepting


is not always
tinguishes t


items


them


were


differently


rationale


or rejecting


poss


elected


from


ible


criterion


soley
other


items
scern


group
because
groups


from


on a
hy a
normal


e the criterion
. (Greene,


Each


criterion


group


cons


roughly


fifty


individual


meeting


diagno


criteria


particular


scale


question


(Scale


are as follows


Hypochondria


, Depres


teria


ychopathic


Deviate,


sculinity


-Femininity,


Paranoia


ycha


thenia,


hizophrenia,


Mania,


Introver


ion)


. The


normative


group


(that


group


serving


as the


reference


determining


standard MMPI


profile)


cons'


isted


1508 white


were


repre


entative


Minnesota


population


1930


-55),


sex,


and marital


status


. White


were


used


normative


ample


because


scarcity


minority


group


other


than


American


Indian









MMPI,


as the


test


frequently


admini


tered


individual


for whom

which in


no comparable


terpreted


original


profiles


normative


blacks


data


according


exist.

to both


Recent

white


research

and


(recent)


black


group


norms,


concludes


. although


black


-white


difference


on the


MMPI


tati


tically


ignifi


cant,


they


have


limited


clinical


implications


because


of the


small


mean


differences.


Inspections


sugge


sts that


standard


deviation


distribution


each


scale


scores


very


reported


similar


black


whites"


(Greene,


1980


addition


to the


ten clinical


scale


, Hathaway


McKinley


included


three


validity


scales


assess


hone


ty with


which


testee


responded


to the


MMPI


. There


exis


several


which


person


taking


test


deviate


from


total


frankness


answer


totally


randomly,


exaggerate


depth


/her


ycho-


pathology


("faking


bad"


deny


behavior


or abnormality


faking


good"),


or be


unable


some


reason


comprehend


items


. The


K scale


were


developed


indicate


when


response


tyle


were


operating,


"sub


sequent


research


indicated


that


both


validity


scale


pattern


clinical


scale


pattern


were


useful


kind


discrimination"


(Butcher


, 1969,


10).


Thus,


MMPI


provides


profile which


graphically


depict


frequency with which


estee


endorse


item


which


relat


various


dimen


ychopathology


. Elevations


depres









which


what


provide


behavior


interpretation


pattern


various


personality


code


traits


types


assoc


8


depi


iated


with


parti


ular


rtain


have


been


asse


rted


to be


haracteristi c


acting-


individual


general


One of


these


"4-9"


type


said


profile


achieved


assi


hopath


telma


hers


ited


1974


cribes


an individual


with


p ro f i i


follows


Per
irr


sons w
espons


hallow


They
plea


impre
free


ith


ible


profile 1
their b


uperfi


typically


sure-see


ssion
from


actually
Their ju


have


king


cial


easy


Many


because they
inhibiting anx


quite
dgment


defi


notably


generally


havior,
n their


moral


temporarily


impul
untru


elfi


relation


they


reate a


internally


ety,


worry


their


poor


tworthy,
to other


favorable


omfortabl


, and guilt
ole-taking
they do not


ability


seem


learn


from


stpone


diffi


effort.


experiences


gratification


ulty


their


enterpri


ires


requi ring


ability to
therefore
sustained


Another


profile


erted


found


frequently


popu-


lation


viol


nders


"4-8


" with


elevation


on Sc


chopathic


Deviate)


schizophrenia)


. Individual


with


such


pattern


characterized


following


manner


"These


individual


unpredi


ctabl


eculiar


action


thought.


traddl


fence


between


character


order


ychosi


zarre


-def


eating


crimes


noted


These


individual


often









There


have


been


other


MMPI


profiles


as well


which


have


been


vogue"


time


as being


character


criminal


popu-


nation


as a


whole


However,


profiles


are s


estive of


other


forms


pathology


as well


They


serve


as a


suggestion,


as a


predictor


behavior,


as many


individual


with


such


code


types


have


no criminal


background


what


soever.


Some


researchers,


as Megargee,


have


tried


construct


their


own scale


based


on MMPI


item


which


are more


sensitive


violent


individual


as a


whole


general,


however,


these


scale


uffer


Hundreds


from methodological


specialized


constructional,


scale


replication


conjunction


problems.


with


MMPI,


supported


in s


subsequent


research with


different


larger


amples


(Butcher


, 1978)


Another


approach


maintain


that


linear


combination


MMPI


variables


tinguishes


sociopathic,


psychotic,


neurotic


profiles


more


accurately


than


clinical


apprai


configuration


(Goldberg


, 1968,


Goldberg


asserts


"virtually


perfect


separation


group


profile


S. the


result


ranging


from


percent


correct


(psychotic


. neurotic)


to 99


percent


correct


ychiatric


ociopathic)"


(197


121)


Along


similar


lines


tudie


"summing"


different


scale


-scores


yield


valid


measure


aggress


(Huesmann


Lefkowitz,


1978)


. These


author


added


-scores


cales


found


that


"the


composite


an excellent








"combination


(1981,


106).


, Pd,


performed


tudy


no better


contradicts


than


findings


alone"


Heilbrun


(1979)


which


hown


that


differentiation


between


violent


non-


violent


offender


could


increase


combining


personality


intelligence


measures.


Holland


(1981)


found


relation


intelli-


gence


psychopath


linear


addi ti ve


, rather


than


inter-


active


concludes


that


"illegal


behavior,


especially


violent


aggre


ssion,


related


ituational,


sociocultural,


logical


determinants


as well


as the


enduring


characteristic


dividual


offend


type


ers.


under con


S S I


iderati


therefore

on contain


seems

the


unlikely

potential


that

for


measures

highly


accurate


discrimination


or prediction


criminal


violence


. .[and]


neither


Huseman


index


Heilbrun


(1979)


hypothesis


regarding


interaction


exception


intelligence


general ization


psychopath


" (1981,


Megargee


(1977)


gone


so far


as t


construct


an entire


prisoner


ification


based


on an MMPI


taxonomy


. He


argue


that


within


system,


those


to other p


having

svchol


oa


similar MMPI

ical and de


profile


mographic


are a


variable


research


generated


statistically


derived


differentiated


"type


" which


"differ


tantially


their


behavior,


social


tori e


life


tyle


personality


pattern


" (1977,


. 149)


importance


research


stems


from


use of


correctional


population


as a


base


generate


scription


criminal


manifest


certain


MMPI


pattern


appears


. 110)


respect


similar with


J


T








Problem


encountered


use o


MMPI


with


offenders


Becau


ease


administration


scoring,


MMPI


especially


popular


as an


instrument


with


institutionalized


populations


Howe ve r


as noted


above


designed


measure


broad


range


personality


haracteri


within


broad


range


individual


Although


felons


were


included


as the criterion


group


ycho-


pathi


Deviate


cale


test


was not developed


use with


diagnostic


ubgroup.


Butcher


Tellegen


(1978)


Reppuc i


(1978)


point


that


MMPI


standard zed


specifically


on criminal


sensitive


nuances


populations,


in violent


signed


individual


does


have


cale


or norms


which


correspond


directly


to the


correc-


tional


population


being


tudi


tion


continue


concerning


sens


itivity


validity


indicator


implica-


tion


failures


replication


tudie


attempting


find


"violent


profile


MMPI


(Holland,


1981)


Rorschach


Inkblot


Test.


Rorschach


Inkblot


Test


one of


most


widely


used


projective


.ychological


technique


A "projec-


tive


" offers


subject


nebulous


timulu


(one


lacking


clear


right


or wrong


answers)


theoretically


subject


"project


aspects


his/her


personality


onto


timul u


/her


responses


to the


test


Exner


hypothe


that


"the


test


response


reflects


basic


psychological


style


or response


tendency i


that


have


developed


within


w. .


personality


. -. -


representations


-


the more


private


world








achromatic


(black


white)


five


which


are colored.


They


presented


to the


subject


in a


standardized


order


responses


each


card


are noted


verbatim


on a


response


heet


examiner


subject


have


as many


responses


as he/


each


card


although


between


three


responses


per card


character


number


After


normal


initial


subject


average


presentation


intelligence


ten card


(the


(Ogdon


"free


, 1977)


association"


period)


examiner


them again


subject


in order,


time


asking


standardized


question


pertaining


detail


sub-


ject


perceptions.


termed


"inquiry,


" and


ques


tioning


often


yield


information


as to


which


qualitie


blot


(form,


location


, movement,


color


among


other


subject


responding.


These


qualities,


termed


determinant


are s


cored


according


rules


down


scoring


Through


development


Rorsc


hach


technique,


many


systems


have


been


devi


in order


increase


accuracy


breadth


information


provided


test:


original


blots


these


Lives


have


been


changed


Research


cons


stent


as to


relative


merit


one scoring


tem over


another


(Exner,


1980),


with


practitioner


often


incorporating


elements


or more


stems


into


their


analysis


determinant


lack


tandardi


action


coring


practice


across


examiners


been


major


criticism of


Rorschach


technique.


major


reasder is


determinants


referred


will


to Klopfer


briefly


and Davidson


reviewed


(1962) fo


here


a complete









Determinant


anal


. In


Klopfer


scoring


system


3


their


exist


several


determinant


which


seen


as being


significant


dictator


manner


which


structures


r world.


Location


refers


part


blot


being


used


cept


does


subject


focu


on the


whole,


or concentrate


on spaces


or on


large


or small


tail


? "Location


usage


appears


to be


relat


more


lligence


rather


than


emotional


or personality


factor


" (Ogden,


1977,


Human


movement


responses


ymbolized


"M")


believed


provide


pertinent


night


1977


information


attitudes


Animal


toward


movement


, especially


onese


regarding


others


responses


ymboli


strength


" (Ogdon,


"FM")


pothesi


to be


representative


more


primitive,


mature mode


behavior


. Impul


ivity


potential


acting


poth


corre


late


high


score


. Inanimate movement


responses


ymboli


typically


reflect


anxiety


or tens


with


res-


pect


to the


perception


environment.


ects


respond


coloring


blot


heading


responses


yield


information


as to how


copes


with


iety


produced


environment.


Chromati


responses


symboli


"C")


hypothes i


"reflect


individual


respon-


veness


emotional


timul i


environment


" (Ogden,


1977


emotional


reactivity may


controlled


seen


percept


. t


" and


llm(l)


" FC


..


..


,,


,,


..









"blood.


weighted


f color


responses


derived


from


formula


+ 3C


which


yields


ingle


score


quantifying


number


form


color


responses.


most


frequently


encountered


type


chach


response


pure


form


, or "F"


response


measure


"fit"


between


concept


inkblot


frequently


interpreted


as s


sting


degree


reality


contact


which


subject may


possess


tent


which


attention


environment


res-


ponses


positive


form


level


(the


percept


conforming


objective


features


blot)


or o


negative


form


level


(the


percept


poorly


relating


objective


character


tics


timu-


. Form


level


expressed


score,


with


higher


scores


ugge


ting


better


reality


testing


. The


tended


score measures


the form level


responses


, including


e which


pure


form"


the major


determinant.


Extended


score


another


indicator


reality


testing.


examiner


evaluates


Rorschach


perc


ption


through


deter-


minant


anal


(which


provides


quantitative


information


as t


tribution


qualitative


content


f various


perception


analysis


scores


linked


, percepts


tone,


analyzed


content


anal


interests,


according


(focusing


values


e psychodynamic


w v


.


v








blot.


Again,


reader


rred


Klopfer


Davidson


(196


more


detailed


introduction


content


analy


sis.


ummary


summary,


Rorschach


been


frequently


part


standard


psychological


battery


detect


underlying


hosi


provide


measure


development


emotional


control


S I


was de


provide


lini


description


pers


onal ity


character


including


those


facet


subject


unaware


person


outward


observable


behavior may


often


reveal


tnue


lings


attitudes.


Rorschach


situation


other


hand,


person


does


know


orrect


way,


or the


typi


respond.


react


parti


ular


fashion.


so responding,


unwittingly


or unconsc


reveal


himself"


(Klopfer


David


schach


with


viol


nders


. The


test


been


widely


used


with


correctional


population


hope


that


provide


more


subtle


lini


information


than


gained


from


MMPI


viol


1980


esea


from


ommer


rchers


maintain


nonviolent


ommer,


diagno


individual


1958


usefulness


(Finney,


torment


1955


Finn


Rose


, 1953


tingui


thing


Bitter


Towbin


1959)


addition


some


experts


have


devi


tructi ve


Content


using


e-category


tem,


combined


with


Color


Content


scores


(Rose


Bitter


, 1980)


which


they


assert


tingui


between


hospital


patient


will


reoffend


violent


upon


ease


those


will


not.


Scores


range


from


for no


violent


content


. 15)


" .


-- w


_ .


I









subject


Palo


Alto


tructive


Content


Scale


(PADS)


score


6


. This


scale


especially


relevant


current


research


since


pro-


vides


norms


patient


maximum


security


treatment


institution,


including


NGRI


data


which


presented


according


type


rime


committed


Thi


contra


with


other


studies


which


used


cale


with


non-criminal


hospital


patients


only


torment


Finney


Shagoury


(1971)


utilized


combination


psychological


variable


gleaned


from


MMPI


chach data


devi


formula


which


dif-


ferentiated


then


between


employed


"homicide


crimi nant


group


" and


function


"property


analy


crime"


yield


group


an optimum


utoff


score,


with


which


make


prediction


as to


group member


based


on an individual


score


achie ed


valid


itive


rate


concludes


that


psychological


variable


certain


weighted


combination


have


value


as d


criminators


between


those


vio-


lent


e who


logical


Content,


. The


, negative


Rorsc


form


hach


level,


variable


Path-


percentage


human


responses


were


most


sens


itive


to difference


between


group


another


tepwi


tudy,


scriminant


chach


Hand


Harami


function


scores


Wagner


procedure


(1980)


devi


differentiate


li kewi


used


formula


violent


from


based


nonviolent


alcohol


(The


Hand


Test


projective


test


descri bed


more


fully


below


scores,


the most


scriminating


which


ratio









Criti


isms


Rorschach


. The


Rorschach


been


criticized


for many


reasons


. (For


more


complete


review


, see Megargee,


1966.


major


concerns


with


reliability


test


general


: the


effect


memory


changes


subject


mood


on the


est-retest


reliability


aspect


contro-


versy


. "The


question


here


whether


blot


cons


tently


elicit


same


response


pattern


from


subject,


whether


given


protocol


cons


tently


similar


interpretations


from


clinician


" (Megargee


1966


. 469)


Other


argument


con-


cern


lack


an obj


ective


scoring


tem,


inability


predict


specific


behavior,


failure


specific


Rorschach


relate


ychiatri


diagnosis


progno


failure


technique


differentiate


better


among


normal


sample


When


used with


correctional


populations,


test


criticized


having


been


developed


spec


ifically with


violent


offenders,


being


easily


"faked,


" and


for making


many


clients


appear more


patho-


logical


than


they may


actuality.


Hand


Test


. The


Hand


Test


personality


mea-


sures


specifically


developed


with


violent


individual


early


1960'


Edwin


Wagner,


consi


card


nine


of which


rese


black


white


drawing


hand


making


motion


one of


which


blank


card.


card


presented


standardized


order


responses


noted


verbatim


. De-


-


i


















habitual"


(Wagner


1981


,p.


591).


Theoretically,


ways


in which


person


interacts


with


environment


symbol


through


types


actions


projects


onto


hand


.Thus


some


responses


active


("writing


letter"),


some


affectionate


saying


hi")


some


aggressive


punching


someone")


some


zarre


hand


turning


into


pider"


sponses


ummed


cording


type


action


category


which


they


corres


pond


. The


category


scores


then


compared


each


other


ratio


most


significant


of which


being


Acting


Ratio


(AOR)


cons


number


Dependency


-Affection


-Communication


responses


compared


Aggress


ion-


Direction


responses


hypothesized


suggest


acting


potential


subject


. Clients


whose


scores


heavily weighted


direction


of affectionate


responses


supposedly much


likely


to act


an aggressive manner


against


their


environment


than


those


produce


opposite


balance


many


viol


respon


ses.


Criticisms


Hand


est.


Major


criticism


Hand


concern


reliability


validity:


other word


accurately


does


Acting


Ratio


predict


actual


aggressiveness


subjects


scriminate


between


violent


nonviolent


individual


test


been


validation


tudie


fault


usually


being


performed


easily


those


"faked"


losely


using


associated


with


test


developer


(Harami


Wagner,


1980


Wagner,


1981)


Thi


--


-





- -









Projective


drawings


House-Tree-Person


drawings)


Another


projective


technique


that


measure


known


as projective


drawing


or Hou


quires


Tree-P


that


erson


drawings


subject


draw


(the


house


This


tree,


assessment


erson,


devi


person


opposite


sex on s


separate


heets


paper with


pencil


His/


conceptual i


information


ation


as to how


these


client


common


figure


perceive


provide


environment,


other


people e


sel f/herself


. The


test


easily


quickly


admin-


tered


requires


no s


specialized


material


other


than


paper,


pencil


topwatch


. There are no


set time


limit


on how


long


drawing


should


take


no s


special


area


paper whi


client must


choose


repr


esentations.


frequently


admini


tered


part of


psychological


test


battery,


hopes


that


in some


cases


drawing


confirm


diagnostic


impression


ready


created


other


instrument


interview.


olated


cases


rthe


test]


provide


an indication


. In


nature


lient


problem


result


would


that


clini


cian


on a random


partial


reward


schedule


hence


habit


admini


tearing


the [te


would


very


resistant


change"


(Megargee


1966,


Few


response


ible


clinician


rely


on drawing


on any


other


test


in and


themselves


providing


complete


clini


picture


patient.


Al though


there


exists


an intricate


scoring


system which


quantifie


a a -


i


..









length


strength


trokes


; placement


on page)


content


features


(animal


urinating


on the


tree,


presence


or absence


clothes


on figures


taken


into


account


assessment


mean ng


the drawing


Drawi ng


have


been


widely


used


with


correctional


population.


Jacks


(1969)


cites


ease


f admini


traction


"inability


faked"


individual


as reasons


. Appendix A


indicative


test


delineate


subject


popularity


use with


character


violent


tendencies


hypo the


. These


violent


ized


criteria


were


used


as the


cori ng


system


drawing


current


tudy


Criticisms


projective


drawings


Many


criticisms


projective


tests


general


have


been


leveled


House-


Tree-Person


technique


. These


include


questionable


reliability


validity,


lack


an objective


coring


tem,


lack


usefulnes


pre-


dicting


behavior,


tendency


"detect"


pathology


where


none


many


Others


admit


that while


olated


cases


drawi ng


provide


useful


information,


cases


they


not;


, they may


be over-


interpreted


their


significance


over


-em-


phasi


inexperienced


clinician


(Megargee,


1966)


Recent


assessment


device


chle


singer


Kuta


(1981)


have


devised


projective


technique which


they


call


Criminal


Fantasy


Technique


. It


consi


seri


twelve


black-and-white


cards


on which


depicted


various


crimes


about


occur,


presently









Rogers

sessment S


(1981)

cales,


devised

which in


Roger


evolved


Criminal


twenty-


three


Responsibility


ychological


As-

and


i tuational


variable


cons


idered


critical


making


forens


termination


insanity"


(1981,


. 684)


.The


ns trument


also


contains


"hierarchical


deci


model


applying


test


to the


specific


variable


. Thi


model


structures


linician


specific


process


/her


decision-making


addition,


author


asser


that


"tran


lates


psychology


variabi


into


element


insanity


standard"


(1981,


. 684)


Whether


imple


application


hierarchical


model


can bridge


centuries-old


between


legal


test


insanity


ychopathology


as defined


psychiatric


profe


ssion


widely


tested


researchers


uninvolved


with


development


RCRAS


.The


Roger


(1981)


tudy


data


correctly


identified


ninety


-two


percent


patients


previous


eval uated


as meeting


insanity


criteria,


ixty


-nine


cent


those


evaluated


as sane


. It


should


noted


that


these


correct


identifications


correlate with


judgment


other mental


health


pro-


fess


ionals


as to


sanity


no information


given


as to


ions


correlate


with


those


court.


ychological


Character


tics


of NGRI


hnert


Pilot


tudy


Previously


reviewed


performance of


tudi


violent


concerned


offender


with


general


ychological


. The


nsanity


fense


legal


used


by many


violent


individual


their


- 44- -. -l a ~ -- .- L 14- a-S--- -S-a 4 4. .I


- a, 4, n* a


ul: AIIAi


,,,, 1


rlCCA U*ICL)L


un*nA*r


rr


I


IL U









other words,


the way


those


through


people


trial


appear who


found


carry


guilty


insanity


morally


plea


res-


ponsible)


prison?


Florida


tudy


(Boehnert,


submitted


publication,


1982)


com-


pared


group


offender


attempted


insanity


ense


failed


group


success


fu l"


NGRI


matched


on length


incar-


ceration


crime


(murder,


aggravated


assault,


rape,


armed


rob-


bery)


. There


appeared


both


ignifi cant


imilariti


ferences


between


groups.


imilaritie


. The group


resembled


each


other with


respect


demographic


killed


data


or unskilled


public


laborers;


defender


essed


. Most


an average


subjects


were


educational


level


tenth


grade


significantly with


respect


prior


rest


record


racial


representations,


used


public


defender


their


legal


cases


Global


test


interpretation


characterized most


individual


groups


as di


turbed,


impul


ive men


who were


socially


tanced


prone


to act


violently,


with


poor


emotional


control


Most


were


deemed


author


need


ychological


treatment.


Differences


. The


group


were


found


differ


number


different way


.The


NGRI


were


significantly more


likely


have


waived


jury


trial


judge


as the trier


fact


. They were


more


likely


have


been


previously


adjudicated


as incompetent


-









guilty


displayed


more


elevated


group


profile


-9-7


chach


scores


suggested


that


NGRI


as a


group


were


charac-


intense


more modulated


reaction


environmental


timuli


greater


attention


to their


environment


their


interpersonal


relationship


contrast,


those


found


guilty


peared


to b


controlled


more


emotionally


labile


assaultive


The 1

data


979


tudy wa


on those


pilot


work


attempted


signed


nsanity


provide


defense


chological


information


that


extremely


author


ssed


parse


that


date


institution


public


effects


literature


hospital


. The


maximum


security


confounding


factor


that


should


taken


into


account


Those men


at the


pital


were


provided


with


antip


chotic


medication,


group


individual


ychotherapy


housing


an institution


which


at least


technically


purpose


treatment


rather


than


puni


hment


. Through


demon


treating


respon


behavior,


each


patient


could


gain


increa


amounts


freedom


movement


roam


within


hospital


outside


ground


Foren


unescorted


Unit,


Patients


some


also


being


took


able


part


national


alcohol


rehabilitation


programs


which


brought


them


into


contact with


regular


hospital


pati


nts--many


them women


lived


both


pital


sons


unanimous


endorsed


pital


environment


as being


the more


humane


facility


MMPI


in particular


been


asserted


sens


itive


immediate


- -i


teri


a


i I


i









environment


which


they


lived


.The


author


therefore


recommended


that


data


analyzed


according


type


facility


which


subject


resided,


so that


future


research


could


take


i tua-


tional


variables


as immediate


environment


into


account


Current


Study


From examining


latter


research


on the


insanity


defense


author


concluded


that


some


tati


tical


demographic


information


exists


on the


demographic


data


NGRI


that


there


data


pertaining


psychological


assessment


literature


Furthermore,


reviewing


Boehnert


pilot


tudy


ubmi tted


publication,


1982)


author wa


aware


that


more


i nformati on


could


gleaned


from


original


test


data


collected


on the


ixty


success


unsuc-


cess


NGRI


subjects


previous


ly mentioned,


that


more


focu


should


placed


on investigating


influence


institution


effect


also


apparent


NGRI


population


that


studies


differs


from


have


specifically


or resemble


addre


criminal


population


as a


whole


addition,


unclear


extent


to which


those


examined


pretrial


ychiatric


evaluation who


sanity


plea


resembled


NGRI


or the


criminal


population


as a


whole.


Finally,


deemed


advisable


tudy within


-group


differences


based


on the


type


crime


commi tted


Subjects


in each


group


been


convicted


battery


Stati


murder,


tical


rape,


analysis


armed


might


robbery


confi rm


or aggravated


previous


assault/


research









major


source


within-group


variability


would


need


taken


into


account


data


interpretation


ased


on her


review


literature


pilot


tudy


, the


author


hypoth


eses


were


follows.


degree


personality


hopathology


as measured


hologica


test


would


decrease


across


group


following


Those


on the


nsanity


ense


trial


(Group


would


appear


the most


hiatrically


turb


follow


those


completing


pretrial


sanity


evaluation


(Group


III)


with


those


sub-


jects


Group


for whom


question


mental


illness


was never


raised


appearing


east


turbed.


type


pathology manifes


subject


both


pre-


trial


control


groups


would


ychoti


other


word


ects


would


appear


to b


basi


contact


with


reality.


However


data


ese men


would


mndi


enduring


haracteri


tics


similar


those


antisocial


rsonality


DSM-


III,


such


as immaturity,


lack


emoti onal


control


lack


empathy


other


Viol


ence


indi


cators


as provided


Rorscha


Palo


Alto


destructive


Content


Hand


would d


consi


tent


across


group


four


as all


type


four


viol


group


cons


rime


individual


literature


asse


conv


that


icted


viol


dividual


tend


resembi


each


other


on psychology


ests


I ~ ~ S ~I n Si 9I* *


I~


1


*


Iir I


I









subjects


across


groups


would


differ


significantly with


respect


demographic


factors


race,


age,


education,


occu-


pation,


prior


arrest


record


keeping


with


pilot


tudy


data


(Boehnert,


submitted


publication


, 1982)


demographic


tudy


conducted


Wyoming


ewark


, 1980)


light


imon


(1967)


teadman


(1980)


contentions


that


factors


other


than


mental


tate of


defendant


play


role


determination


whom


found


insane,


hypothe


that


heinou


sness


detail


an individual


particular


crime would


affect


adjudication


following


. The


author


asserted


that


those


found


responsible


their


actions


would


have


committed


heinous


crimes


than


those


found


guilty,


as the


community would


demand


lasting


protection


through


prison


or a


death


sentence


from


perpetrator


most


severe


crimes


group,


those


subjects


used


nsanity


defense


suc-


cess


fully would


appear


different


enough


on certain


psychological


measures


so that


they


could


scriminated


accurately


from


subjects


other group


on the


combination


scores


subject


would d


identified


according


role


their mental


status


played


adjudication


means


prediction


equation


based


on combinations


psychological


test


scores


. Their


titutional


affiliation


type


crime


they


committed


would


identifiable


through


prediction


equations














CHAPTER


THREE


METHODOLOGY


subjects


Subjects


cons


isted


120 men


convicted


rape,


murder


armed


robbery,


or aggravated


assault


during


year


1974-


Thirty


hese


subjects


been


found


"not


guilty


reason


nsanity"


court


were


incarcerated


ensi


Unit


Florida


tate


pital,


Chattahoochee,


Florida


These


were


ignated


Group


They were matched


on type


crime


length


incarceration


with


thirty men


used


insanity


plea


as their


defense


through


trial


were


found


guilty


committed


prison


system


(Group


with


thirty men


completed


pretrial


evaluation


nsanity


defense


plea


bar-


gain


instead


were


sentenced


to the


prison


(Group


HzI)


Group


ignated


Al achua


County


control


Correction


group,

Center


cons


ting


(matched


thirty men


on type


crime


with


those


other


group


whom mental


illness


issue


at trial


Data


on all


ects


were


coll


ected


1978.


Through


use of


file


system


Florida


State


Hospital,


ssible


determine


Foren


Unit


incarcer-










examining


psychiatric


as well


as the


adjudi


cation


insanity


trial


judge


were


availabi


Florida


tate


pital


Group


Initial


screening


criteria


group


were


that


subject


been


found


guilty


reason


nsanity"


(NGRI)


ourt


committed


treatment


ility.


However,


the men


Group


III,


there


indication


Divi


Correction


record


past


legal


tory,


reliance


including


presence


on an insanity


plea


or absence


. For


psychiatric


reason,


more


evaluation


unstructured


means


ascertaining


appropriate


inclu


tudy


used


ychologi


ychiatri


across


tate


fre-


quently


erved


as court-appointed


expert


were


conta


. These


names


were


readily


availabi


reliance


circuit


court


on one


or two


expert


within


juri


diction


serve


-to-the-


court


on a


regular


. Within


limits


confidentiality,


they


suggest


names


their


recollection


been


eval


uated


insanity


defense


before


trial


those


carried


defense


through


trial


been


found


guilty


. The


same


procedure


used


with


attorney


state-wide


A total


approxi


mately


names


gathered.


names


then


divided


county


. Each


county


record


department


contacted,


sence


or absence


"Motion


Intent


to Rely


Upon


Plea


Insanity"


person


legal


file


ascertained


. Thi


possible









in the


legal


file,


individual


name


included


as a po-


tential


member


Group


III.


Roughly


three-quarters


names


sugge


profess


ional


carried


fense


through


trial


although


they


been


evaluated


incompetency


tand


trial


nsanity


at the


time


crime.


Only


forty-


five


names


meeting


criteria


Group


relying


on the


insanity


fense


mnt


year


1974-


being


found


guilty)


were


availab


after


tate-wide


search,


confirming


that


ense


rare


legal


number


phenomenon


both


those


(Pasewark,


succeed


1981)


terms


those


absolute


fail


defense.


research


Record


Departments


ntral


Off i


were


then


contacted


to find


where


hese


potential


were


cated


within


Many were


never


found,


appearing


anywhere


on DOC


register


, having


been


eased


other


states


face


pending


charge


or having


attained


Mandi tory


Conditional


lease


(MCR)


. Thirty-


fifty


potential


Group


ects,


forty-


hundred


Group


subjects


were


housed


some-


where


in DOC


ilities.


these


located


, only


thirteen


percent


were


housed


Union


Correctional


institution


(UCI)


or at Florida


tate


fact


Prison


that many


This


uneven


on Death


tribution


or at FSP


explained


because


severity


their


sentences


or violent


behavior within


prison


tem.


Many


those


at UCI


been


at FSP


through


good


behavior


worked


* I .


I


ri r


I


I ~.1


m









were


Death


inmates.


Only


from


list


were


available


both


interview


stories


y request


assaulting


corrections


female


official


itor


they


roughly


original


names


eligible


Group


inclusion,


approximately


forty-


five


were


located


found


prison


mentioned


above


Prior


final


subject


selection,


necessary


aminer


screen


men meeting


initial


criteria


tudy


. Those


were


unable


participate


in psy-


chological


testing,


actively


violent,


or with


an I


below


were


excl uded


. Some


ychological


assessment


been


done


Florida


tate


Hospital


sons


helped


screen


those


were


retarded,


illiterate,


or non-English-speaking.


sent


data


on those


subjects


Group


were


deemed


ineligible


examiner


or who


refu


to part


cipate


tudy


can be


seen


from


table,


three men


Group


Group


participate


were


research


acutely


project


which


psychotic


required


hence


informed


consent


.Five men


Group


Group


three


Group


were


retarded,


illiterate,


deaf,


mute,


or blind


were


excluded


from


tudy


could


security


were


reasons


seen


men meeting


request


criteria a


pri son


inclu


official


Group


addition,


-


..


A










Table 4


Potential


Subjects Excluded from Sample


(Groups


'-III


Reason for
Exclusion


Group


Group


Group


Psychotic

Illiterate, mute,
blind, deaf, or
retarded

Security risk

Refused









subjects


prison


refusing


par-


ticipate,


were


at FSP


six were


at UCI


. The


relative


y high


number


refusal


the men


at UCI


have


been


information


given


them


officer


escorting


them


to the


examiner.


Comment


were made


effect


that


their


test


data


were


con-


fidential


would


hared


with


offi


cers


later


date


though


examiner


attempted


correct


impr


session


efforts


always


have


been


successful.


There was


no s


tati


tically


significant


difference


var--


nabl


race


, ag


, number


arrests,


or occupation


between


those


Group


Group


sample


refu


e who


agreed


participate


. Those


excluded


from


Group


differed


igni-


antly


from


those


were


included


being


older


time


offense


y having


education


. Thi


easily


explained


examination


selection


criteria a


older


subject


with


diagnoses


organic


brain


yndrome


e who


were


retarded


(and


hence with


little


formal


education)


were


excluded


from


ample,


urpri


that


subjects


differed


with


respect


these


variab


The majority


inmates


tate


sons


have


psychiatric


problems


they


incarcerated


chronically


anti


social


behavior


(Pasewark,


1980)


. The


author


attempted


include


control


group


current


study which


would


representative


criminal


popu-









offenders


in the Division of Corrections


impossible.


An alternative,


that of using data from county jail


inmates matched with subjects


Groups


I-III on type of crime, was more feasibi


although it appeared


to include some important potential methodological


problems whi


ch are


discussed below.


Group


IV wa


designated a control


group, consisting of men


local


jail


(Alachua County Correction


Center)


for whom the


question of sanity had never been raised during the course of their


legal


case.


Group


IV subjects had received psychological


evaluations


during


1977-1978


their trial.


, as a matter of course in the disposition phase of


Such evaluations


were requested by the sentencing


judge to accompany the Confidential


Section of the Presentence


vestigation prepared by th


Probation and Parol


Office.


(The Intake


Unit'


policy of furnishing psychological


evaluations as friend-to-


the-court


ended in


late


1978.)


Most of th


testing was done by the


examiner in her rol


as an evaluation counselor with the Intake Unit.


A few protocols were administered by another graduate student who hac

been taught projectives by the same faculty member as the examiner

and who had two years of experience in test administration.


Although inmates had the right to refuse evaluations,


few did


Some hoped that such cooperation with standard procedure would weigh


favorably with the judge at sentencing,


ome were encouraged to


participate by their attorneys, and some hoped that psychological
i i I a C S 4 a V a a I









battery,


armed


robbery,


or murder)


detail


each


individual


crime


were


crutini


to obtai n


as c


match


as poss


ible


with


rimes


found


other


three


groups.


(Appendi


contain


detail


subject


crimes


group


obtained


from


attorney


cord


ychiatric


reports


or pri


face


heets


A compelling


tionale


matching


procedure


concern


that


crime


label


mask


very


important


differences


that


only


appear when


detail


individual


crimes


examined


. Choice


victim


(either


very


or very


young),


unus


method


perpetration


number


victim


zarre


detail


were


deemed


essential


rudimentary


rating


rime


seriousness


(Kern


Bale


1980


Roth,


Despite


matching


procedure,


certain


features


differentiated


Group


subjects


from


other men


tudy


raised


questions


usefulness


county


jail


inmates


as a


control


group


First,


ects


were


-conviction


pre-sentence


inmates


. That


they


been


adjudicated


guilty


f murder,


rape,


armed


robbery,


assault


received


sentence


their


crime.


sense


, they


received


no consequence


or pun


ishment


their


havior


some


been


on bail


until


adjudi


action


guilt.


Thus


ength


incarceration


stage


judi


cess


were


very


different


these


Group


inmates


as compared


other men


tudy


. They


could


till


deny


realities


state


prison


re-


-


- -









know edge


that


the middle


serving


a mandatory


twenty-


five


year


sentence.


addition


, some


Group


inmates


been


in jail


only


few month


time


ting


Other


been


rearrested


after


serving


state


terms


over


year


Those


Group


been


incarcerated


either


maximum


security


hospital


least


nine


month


with


most


serving


at least


three


year


some


form


incarceration.


Finally,


Group


inmates


were


living


very


different


envir-


onment


than


tate


prison


resident


Abbott


(1981)


written


brutality


dirt


, corruption,


violence,


over


rowding


present


tate


New


spaper


inves


tigatory


committee


report


after


time


data


collection


suggested


that


such


abuses


were


common


Florida


Divi


Corrections


as wel


In


con-


trast,


Group


Alachua


subject


County


Correction


built


Center


1970


facility which


at the


time


research


each


individual


cell


with


toilet


. Cell


televi


were


eating


grouped


area


around


central


Recreation


space


i' od


station


which


occurred


on a


regular


basi


each man


access


a tel


phone


thirty


minutes


. Each


inmate


assigned


an individual


counsel


with


background


in social


work


or p


ychology,


with


whom


could


discuss


personal


problem


ychiatri


on the


taff


local









two times


week


to provide medical


care.


time


search,


there


never


been


rape,


murder


, or serious


assault


ported


within


jail


Thus,


condi tion


within


Alachua


County


Correction


Center


were


quite


different


from


those


encountered


state


system


at the


county


facility may


have


been


under


less


environmental


tress


than


those


the maximum


ecuri ty


prison


. It


uncertain


extent


which


these


differences


would


affect


test


data


these men


general i


ability


results


subjects


as a


whole.


Material


Consent


Human


subjects


form


ee Appendi


signed


each


subject.


Demographic


Data


questionnaire


Appendi


completed


examiner


upon


review


each


subject


hospital


record


or face


heet.


Hand


Test,


projective


instrument


consisting


nine


cards


illu


trati ng


hands


process


making


certain


motion


blank


card.


cons


ting


chach

ten


Inkblot


card


Test


each


another


showing


projective

chromatic o


personality


r achromatic


test

ink-


blot


Minnesota


Multiphasic


Personality


Inventory


(MMPI),


the most


widely


used


objective


personality


tests,


cons


isting










Procedure


signed


consent


form


approved


Human


subject


Committee


was obtained


each


subject


Group


II,


(Group


"consent


tested"


form


their


records,


though


form


necessarily


obtained


author


it may


have


been


wit-


nessed


another


graduate


student.


subjects


Group


were


intro-


duced


to the


examiner


their


couns


elor


at the


pital,


usually


while


subject


research


option


explained


agreeing


them


participate


point,


research


or refu


refu


escorted


back


floor


Ninety


percent


agreed


participate.


Data


on those


refu


have


been


pre-


ented


previous


Potential


subject


Group


Group


were


contacted


letter


week


before


author


arrival


at the


prison.


letter


explained


only


examiner was


that


he wi


meet


with


potential


subject


discuss


participation


a research


project.


Upon


arrival


at the


son,


he met


each


subject


dividually


explained


procedure


him.


free


at the


time


comply


or refuse


Again,


most


inmates


agreed


participate


Pos-


ible


reasons


refusal


have


been


discussed


previous


Methodology


section.


After


brief


explanation


what


would


expected


during

which


he might


ting

have


period,

about


each

the p


subject


procedures


informed


would be


that


answered


ques


during


tions

the








each


subject.


Often,


between


fifteen


thirty


minutes


were


pent


answering


questions


pertaining


issue


confidentiality


most


subject


cons


Group


idered


battery


an extremely


consi


sting


case


important


appeal


area


Rorschach


pending,


concern.


MMPI


, drawing


Hand


Test


ected


tudy


. Intelligence


ting was


included


battery


as a


screening


device


MMPI


and becau


some


rese


archer


(Heilbrun,


1979)


have


ited


intelligence


as a


moderating


variabi


ychopathy


violence.


MMPI


included


as a


well


known


objective


admini


tered


cored


A large


body


literature


on the


instrument


with


populations


psychotic


individual


(Butcher


and T


ellegen


, 1978


Megargee


Dahl


strom,


schach


elected


as an


instrument


because


f the


great


amount


research


supporting


merit


1980

1953


valuation


Finney

Towbin


1955


choti


Sommer


, 1959)


because


Sommer

e many


violent


1958


recent


individual


torment


tudi


and

have


(Exner,


Finney

found


some


quantitative


scores


useful


variables


criminating


various


criminal


population


(Harami


Wagner


, 1980


Rose


Bitter


1980


hagoury,


.1


addition


special


Ror-


schach


rating


systemm de


signed


use with


violent


offender


Bitter,


1980)


applied


these


protocol


Palo


Alto


Des-


tructive


Content


seen


as b


especially


relevant


to the


tudy


since


mu


ch o


f th


tandardi nation


data


stem


had


been








individual


tyle


interaction


with


environment.


included


in the


present


battery


as the


only


developed


specific


ally


evaluating


acting-out


ntial


violent


individual


third


projective


-Person


Drawings


placed


in the


battery


after


review


literature


upholding


inability


"faked,


" and


hence


usefulness


with


court


population


(Jacks,


1969)


an entire


battery,


rather


than


reliance


on one


test


deemed


esse


ntial


obtaining


detailed


personality


cription


individual


tudy


minimi


likelihood


impress


personality


health/pathology


based


on over


-reliance


on a


ingle


Members


Groups


II,


intelligence


test


scores


from


prior


examination


-hou


ychology


taff


their


records.


These


were


only


scores


obtained


anyone


outs


research h


which


were


accepted,


except


approximately


five


control


group


test


batteries


which were


completed


coll


league


author.


intell igenc


served


as more


screening


function


than


other


capacity,


prior


data


Groups


II,


were


deemed


admi


sabi


Time


limitation


made


obtaining


an additional


subject


imposs


ible.


Rorschach,


Hand


Test,


projective


drawing


and MMPI


were


admini


tered


xerox


to each


face


in Groups


heet


subject


II,


author


Group


provided


Divi


Correction


demographic


information










examiner was


responsible


both


administering


coring


tests,


it was


poss


ible


achieve


truly


"blind"


tudy


other word


tudy


which


examiner


no way


knowing


which


data


were


generated


by which


subject)


Especially


regard


responses


on the


Rorschach


Hand


Test


certain


comment


or percepts


protocol


might


(and


unus


hence


enough


identify


cause


subject)


author


minimi


recogni


such


recognition,


certain


teps


were


taken


After


data


from


each


ject


were


collected,


protocol


were


turned


over


an ass


instant


removed


names


from data


assigned


each


packet a


number


drawn


from


Table


of Random


Number


data


were


cored


examiner


coded


form


month


three


years


after


data


collection


taken


place.


length


of time


which


expired


between


collection


scoring


instrumental


preventing


experimenter


identification


about


ninety-


five


percent


of the


subjects


. Even


after


three


year


four


subjects


were


recognized


response,


tyle,


lengthy


recounting


dream


during


free


association


on the


Rors


hach,


or numerous


threat


examiner


recorded


Rorsc


hach


protocol


Another


subject


identified


repetitive


theme 'of


drawings


which


went


contrary


test


instructions.


Al though


certainly


poss


ible


that


author


have


ubconsciou


remembered


more


than


five


protocol


factors









day,


from


eight


'clock


the morning


through


in the


a1


after


noon


subjects


were


lined


outside


testing


room waiting


called


evaluation,


as the


offi


cers


brought


few men


time


to the


area


. There was


rarely


an interval


over


one minute


between


subjects,


causing


face


"blend


together"


somewhat


mind


examiner


after


ful l


testing


. The


second


factor


relate


group


affiliation


Group


Group


subjects


were


same


facilities,


were.


tested


during


same


period


data


collection


. They were


brought


see the


author


on the


basi


location


their


unit


or work


assignment


in the


son,


tudy


viewing


on the


. Hence,


Group


basi


author


or a


their g

usually


Group


roup member


not know


subject


within


whether


. (Exception


sent

inter-


existed


cases


in which


familiar with


detail


subject


case


prior


evaluation,


taken


extra


security


precaution


accordingly


subjects


Group


were


seen


most


part


randomly


during


an extremely


intense


period


data


election,


after


which


large


part


data


was not examined


again


years


unlikely


that


the most


striking


subjects


would d


identified


at that


later


time.


Method


Analysis


Several


different method


analysis


were


performed


differences


types


measures


employed,


number


variables




Full Text
AN ASSESSMENT OF STUDENT AFFAIRS PREPARATION PROGRAMS
IN RELATION TO PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCIES
By
RANDY E. HYMAN
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1983


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Brumfield, S. H. "Does the student personnel profession have a
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preparation, and vocational background of student personnel
deans." NASPA Journal, 1964, 2, 13-14.
Canon, Harry. "Toward professionalism in student affairs: Another
point of view." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1982, 23, 468-473.
Caple, R. B. "Molar model for the training of student personnel
workers." Counselor Education and Supervision, 1972, 12, 31-46.
Carnegie Commission on Higher Education. The purposes and
performances of higher education in the United States. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973.
Cooper, A. C. "A proposal for professional preparation of the college
development educator." Report from the Commission of Professional Development, Council of Student Personnel Administrators in Higher Education, 1971.
Cooper, A.C. (Ed.) Student development services in higher education. Statement prepared by the Commission on Professional Development of the Council of Student Personnel Associations in Higher Education, 1972.
Cosby, B. "Professional preparation for student personnel work in
higher education." Journal of the National Association for Women
Deans and Counselors, 1965, 29, 14-18.
Council of Student Personnel Associations in Higher Education. "COSPA
proposal for college student personnel professional preparation." NASPA Journal, 1965, 3, 45-47.
Council of Student Personnel Associations in Higher Education.
"Guidelines for graduate programs in preparation of student personnel workers in higher education." Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1969, 47, 493-498.
Council of Student Personnel Associations in Higher Education. "A
student development point of view of education." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1970, 11, 474-475.
Council of Student Personnel Associations in Higher Education.
"Student development services in post secondary education." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1974, 15, 74-78.
^^^^^
' Council of Student Personnel Associations in Higher Education.
"Student development services in post secondary education." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1975, 16, 524-528.


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Rhatigan, J, J. "Student services vs. student development: Is there
a difference?" Journal of the National Association of Women Deans
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108
32. Manage physical resources, and facilities
33. Adjudicate student conduct matters effectively
The study received formal endorsement from the Vice President for Student Affairs at the University of Florida and from the Research and Information Committee of the Association of College and University Housing Officers International (ACUHO-I). A letter from the Vice President accompanied each copy of the instrument. A letter from the chair the Research and Information Committee at ACUHO-I accompanied those instruments sent to DOHs.
Initial distribution of the instrument was accomplished through the mail on May 17, 1983. A response deadline of May 30 was indicated in the cover letter.
A follow-up procedure was initiated on June 13, 1983 with FTs who had not responded to the initial distribution. A post card was sent to all previously non-responding FTs identifying a response deadline of June 23, 1983.
Upon conclusion of the second follow-up procedure a breakdown of the rate of return indicated that 75 of 162 (46.3%) FTs, representing 59% of the preparation programs; 94 of 141 (66.7%) DOHS; and 91 of 150 (60.7%) CSAOs returned usable instruments. The data obtained from the responses were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS), an integrated computer system for data analysis. In analyzing the data collected for this study, three SAS procedures were used. A frequencies procedure was used to determine percentage of responses to questions in Part I of the instrument. The BMDP program, analysis of variance for repeated


-40-
move toward a competency based, module model in lieu of more traditional offerings.
Competency assessment has represented an approach that evaluates performances, judges ability, and measures what can be demonstrated (Goldsmith, 1979), New ways of identifying and measuring competencies are needed to assure that the ability to perform competently is the ultimate goal. The primary concern should be given to the assessment and evaluation of professional performance outcomes (Pottinger, 1979).
Delworth and Yarris (1978) observed that more skills and competencies are required in the student services profession and that this must be addressed by those who aspire as trainers.
Practitioners and preparation program faculty through the direct and long term co-sponsorship of the profession's major and specialty associations, need to conduct joint research to determine needed and desired skills and competencies at all levels in the profession (Domeier, 1977). Once agreed on, through the medium of association-sponsored conferences, a vigorous and sustained dissemination and promulgation campaign should be undertaken to effect their acceptance and exercise in hiring, practicing performance objectives, and as instructional objectives in professional preparation programs (Knock, 1979; as cited in Stamatakos, 1981).
Chapter Summary This chapter contained a review of the literature related to the development of student personnel as a profession, the development of


TABLE 39 Continued
V. Environmental and Organizational
Management Competencies
Duncan Grouping
Mean
N
Group Duncan Grouping Mean
N
Group
31. Select, Train, and Supervise Staff
A A
3.000
85
DOH
A
3.741 85
DOH
32. Manage Physical Resources and Facilities
B
B
B
A
2.892
2.735
2.754
65
83
65
FT
CSAO
FT
B B
B
3.339 65
3.337 83
FT
CSAO
I
4^ i
A
B A
2.578
83
CSAO
B
2.412
85
DOH
33. Adjudicate Student Conduct Effectively
3.341 85
DOH
A
A
3.337 83
CSAO
B
3.123 65
FT


26-
Student Development
The literature has offered evidence of the perceived need for student personnel to direct attention to more academic and curricular concerns (Wise, 1951; Nash, Saurman and Sousa, 1975; Miller and Prince, 1976; Jones, 1978). This need has been included as part of an overall move away from an emphasis on services and increased attention on the development of students. This transition has assumed a prevailing "service status" view of student personnel administration that must move more in the direction of a preventive, proactive, collaborative role, consistent with the student development philosophy. Hanson and Lenning (1979) acknowledged that this student development concept for higher education received strong historical support from the "Student Personnel Point of View" (American Council of Education, 1937, 1949) which urged attention to the development of the "whole" student. Hanson and Lenning (1979) believed that student development focused more on issues of attitude, moral, and value development in assisting students in the acquisition of developmental skills. Brown (1972) viewed a role change for student development staff as diagnosticians, consultants, programmers, instructors, behavioral scientists, and researchers. Crookston (1976) believed that student personnel as historically defined was no longer a viable concept and that student development should be used to describe more accurately the underlying philosophy of the field. Crookston (1972) indicated that staff needed to adjust from a status-based relationship with students to a relationship based on competency and collaboration. Cross (Note 1) stressed that if the field was to make substantial


TABLE 33
GENERAL LINEAR MODELS PROCEDURE MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF COMPETENCIES IN CATEGORY OF ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
FOR FTs (n=65), AND DOHs (n=85) CSAOs (n=83) DF = 2,230 ALPHA = 0.05
POSSESSION
IMPORTANCE
IV. Assessment and Evaluation Competencies F-Value
P>F
Implication
F-Value
P>F
Implication
15. Assess Student Needs
13.10
.0001
Significant
.66
5175
N.S.
16. Analyze and Interpret Requests
8.31
.0003
Significant
1.21
3010
N.S.
17. Design Student Programs Needs
18. Interpret .
19. Identify .
Evaluation Strategies Evaluation Strategies
9.64
9.40
10.91
.0001
.0001
.0001
Significant Significant Significant
1.13
2.14
2.01
3260
1195
1361
N.S. N.S. N.S.
I
I
20. Design Program
Evaluate Staff
2.52
.0827
N.S.
3.22
0417
Significant
21. Revise Programs Evaluation Data
5.12
.0067
Significant
.23
7979
N.S.
22. Recognize Interpersonal Problems
9.08
.0002
Significant
.77
4643
N.S.
Note. DF = Degrees of Freedom
NS means not significant at .05 alpha level


TABLE 8 Continued
a b C
FT DOH CSAO
CATEGORY/COMPETENCY MEAN SD MEAN SD MEAN SD
30. Recognize and Accept the Ethical
Consequences of Personal and
Professional Behavior 3.562 .601 2.783 .708 3.011 .548
31. Select, Train, and Supervise
Staff 2.853 .692 3.022 .534 2.703 .691
32. Manage Physical Resources and
Facilities 2.733 .664 2.424 .667 2.549 .654
33. Adjudicate Student Conduct
Effectively 2.707 .610 2.804 .579 2.670 .597
a be n=75 n=94 n=91


TABLE 31
GENERAL LINEAR MODELS PROCEDURE MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF COMPETENCIES IN CATEGORY OF CONSULTATION
FOR FTs (n=65), AND DOHs (n=85) CSAOs (n=83) DF = 2,230 ALPHA = 0.05
POSSESSION
IMPORTANCE
II. Consultation Competencies
F-Value
Implication
F-Value
P>F
Implication
5. Recognize and Use Expertise of Others
15.89
0001
Significant
3.00
.0519
N.S.
6. Facilitate Group Problems Making
Decision
24.97
7. Facilitate Staff Development Training
8.80
0001
0002
Significant
Significant
1.18
6.15
.3079
0025
N.S.
Significant
i
LTl i
8. Work Effectively Faculty
. Students and
14.15
0001
Significant
4.75
0096
Significant
NOTE: DF = Degrees of Freedom
N.S. means not significant at .05 alpha level


TABLE 29
MEAN SCORES FOR GROUPS BY COMPETENCY FOR VARIABLES OF POSSESSION AND IMPORTANCE
FTs3
DOHsb CSAOs
COMPETENCY
POSSESSION IMPORTANCE POSSESSION IMPORTANCE POSSESSION IMPORTANCE
1. Write Behavioral Objectives
2.877
2.923
2.624
3.094
2.795
3.000
2. Identify and Articulate
Policies to Students
3.292
3.631
2.812
3.435
2.759
3.554
3. Teach Students Behavior
3.369
3.585
2.941
3.777
3.012
3.723
4. Engage in Systematic Planning
3.062
3.462
2.482
3.424
2.651
3.361

5. Recognize and Use Expertise of Others
6. Facilitate Group Problem .
Decision Making
3.462
3.415
3.600
3.539
2.941
2.835
3.424
3.447
3.096
2.831
3.423
3.398
7. Facilitate Staff Development
Training
3.123
3.446
2.894
3.494
2.663
3.193
8. Work Effectively Students and
Faculty
3.415
3.800
2.882
3.577
2.952
3.723
9. Analyze and Write Memos and Reports
2.892
3.292
2.424
3.377
2.602
3.518
10. Make effective Use Presentations 3.354
3.677
2.835
3.471
2.855
3.458
11. Perceive Interpret
. of Others
3.200
3.600
2.765
3.494
2.783
3.554
12. Represent Student Concerns to .
Groups
13. Recognize Confidentiality .
3.077
3.354
2.847
3.047
2.880
3.422
Procedures
3.354
3.523
2.929
3.459
3.024
3.482


TABLE 4
MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR FACULTY (FTs), DIRECTORS OF HOUSING (DOHs) AND CHIEF STUDENT AFFAIRS OFFICERS (CSAOs)
ON EXTENT OF AGREEMENT WITH POSSESSION OF COMPETENCIES IN THE
CATEGORY OF GOAL SETTING
FT
DOH
CSAO
CATEGORY/COMPETENCY
MEAN
SD
MEAN
SD
MEAN
SD
I Goal Setting
3.117
.460
2.750
424
2.782
.417
]. Write Goals and Objectives
2.867
.722
2.691
640
2.756
.641
2. Identify and Articulate
Institution's goals and policies
to students
3.253
680
2.830
580
2.733
667
3. Teach students to deal with the
consequences of their behavior
3.311
661
2.947
628
3.000
558
4. Engage in systematic planning
3.040
667
2.532
683
2.648
621
n=75 n=94
c
n=91


107
11. Perceive and accurately interpret attitudes, beliefs, and
needs of others.
12. Represent student concerns to other campus groups.
13. Recognize and define confidentiality practices and
procedures.
14. Determining usage of office management procedures
(i.e. secretarial services, business machine separation, print and non print media)
IV. Assessment and Evaluation
15. Assess student needs
16. Analyze and interpret program needs and requests.
17. Design student programs based on student needs.
18. Interpret and understand various evaluation
strategies.
19. Identify and understand various evaluation strategies.
20. Design and implement a program to evaluate staff.
21. Revise programs on the basis of evaluation data.
22. Recognize and analyze interpersonal problems. V. Environmental and Organizational Management
23. Develop and administer a budget
24. Organize resources (people, material) to carry out
program activities
25. Understand institutional mission, objectives, and
expectation
26. Know and utilize effective decision-making strategies
27. Accept authority and responsibility and delegate as
appropriate
28. Identify and utilize available financial resources
29. Mediate conflict among students, campus, and/or
community groups
30. Recognize and accept the ethical consequences of
personal and professional behavior
31. Select, train, and supervise staff


APPENDIX A RESEARCH INSTRUMENT FOR FACULTY


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
JS__
C. Arthur Sandeen, Chairman Professor of Educational Administration and Supervision
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Wattenbarger of Educational and Supervision
nistration
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Professor of Instructional Leadership
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Department of Educational Administration and Supervision in the College of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
December, 1983
Dean for Graduate Studies and Research


CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
This chapter will provide an overview of the literature as it pertains to professional preparation for student affairs administration. Three general areas will be reviewed: student personnel as an emerging profession, development of student personnel preparation programs, and development of competencies for student affairs professionals.
Student Personnel as an Emerging Profession Historical Role in Higher Education
The development of student personnel work has been well documented in the literature (Leonard, 1956; Cowley, 1949; Mueller, 1961; Ayers, Tripp, and Russel, 1966; Shaffer and Martinson, 1966; Apple-ton, Briggs, and Rhatigan, 1978). Dating back to the founding of Harvard College in 1636 a similar theme was observed; higher education was privately controlled and maintained a strong religious emphasis. Until about 1862 presidents and faculty engaged in an exaggerated type of student services, concerning themselves primarily with the deportment of the students, in assuring pious attitudes and diligence in academic pursuits. The most pressing service need was the provision of housing. One of the chief purposes in the
-17-


ASSOCIATION OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY HOUSING OFFICERS
INTERNATIONAL
EXECUTIVE BOARD 1982-83
PRESIDENT
WILLIAM P. PALEEN Director of Residence Life 2117 North Balch Hall Cornell University Ithaca. NY 14853 Ph (607) 256-5511
1st VICE-PRESIDENT
ANNETTE K. SMITH Assistant Director for Food Service G-18 Towers West Virginia University Morgantown. West Virginia 26506 Ph (304) 293-2096
2nd VICE-PRESIDENT
JAMES C. GRIMM Director of Housing Housing Office University of Florida Gainesville. Florida 32611 Ph (904)392-2173
SECRETARY:
JAMES J. GRUBS Oirector of Residence Halls 405 Student Services Building University of Tennessee Knoxviile, Tennessee 37916 Ph (615)974-2571
TREASURER:
CARMEN L VANCE
Director of Residential Lifeu-22 University of Connecticut Storrs. Connecticut 06266 Ph (203) 486-3030
PAST PRESIDENT:
GARY B. NORTH Assistant Vice Chancellor and Director of Housing University of Illinois 1203 South Fourth Street 200 Clerk Hall Champaign. Illinois 61820 Ph (217)333-0610
MEMBERS-AT-LARGE
JUOY E, SPAIN
Director of Residence Hails University of Wisconsin-Stout Menomonie. Wisconsin 54751 Ph (715) 232-2131
MICHAEL B. HOCTOR
Director. Housing and Residential Life
San Diego State University
5300 Campanile Drive
San Diego. California 92182
Ph (714) 265-5742
PUBLICATIONS COORDINATOR/ NEWSMAGAZINE EDITOR
ROBERT P. COOKE Director of Housing Box 7666
University of Texas Austin. Texas 78712 Ph (512)471-3136
INTERNATIONAL
May 2, 1983
Dear Colleague:
Accompanying this letter you will find a survey form which we
are requesting that you complete for the purpose of gathering information and sharing it with the ACUHO-I membership.
This survey is being conducted by Randy Hyman, a member of the
professional housing staff at the University of Florida. Randy
is doing his dissertation on a topic that we in the housing
profession have discussed many times: Are the student personnel programs preparing our entry level staff in the competencies we
need? As the discussion of standards for our profession progresses, it would be to our advantage to know how you feel about the competencies of our entry level staff.
We would appreciate your help in completing this survey for
Randy and for ACUHO-I. The results will be published, as well
as forwarded directly to those who participate. Also, Randy's finished dissertation will be on file with ACUHO-I's R & I Committee. Randy.
Any questions on the survey should be directed to
Thank you for your assistance in helping to ensure that this project will be part of ACUHO-I information resources.
Sincerely,
Paul K. Jahr, Chair Research and Information Committee
Asst. Director of Housing/Residence Life Southern Illinois University-Carbondale Carbondale, IL
62901
(678) 536-5504
THIRTY-FIFTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON JULY 17-21, 1983
126


The data in this section have been presented in order to satisfy the requirements of these research questions in determining 1) whether differences exist among the three group for the extent of each group's agreement that recent master's graduates actually possess the competencies and 2) to determine whether differences exist among the three research groups for the extent to which each group perceives each competency to be important for assuming an entry level staff position.
A total of 260 respondents from all three groups provided the data base for this study. For purposes of analyzing the data to determine if significant differences existed among the three groups by each of the five categories on the research instrument, the General Linear Model (GLM) Procedure of the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) for Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was used. Significance was determined in this study at alpha = .05. Of the 260 useable instruments in this study, 27 had at least one missing value, meaning that they left a blank for a response to possession or importance on a given competency. For analysis by category, the GLM procedure for MANOVA takes the mean of the other competencies in the category with the missing value and substitutes that mean for the missing value for purposes of computing the overall mean for that category for that respondent. The GLM-MANOVA for analyzing the differences among groups for possession and importance by category could be done using all 260 responses. The GLM-MANOVA test to determine existence of differences by competency could only use responses with no missing values. A total of 233 responses were used, diminishing the useable response sample for each group by approximately 10%.


TABLE 8
MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR FACULTY (FTs), DIRECTORS OF HOUSING (DOHs) AND CHIEF STUDENT AFFAIRS OFFICERS (CSAOs)
ON EXTENT OF AGREEMENT WITH POSSESSION OF COMPETENCIES IN THE CATEGORY OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT
a b C
FT DOH CSAO
CATEGORY/COMPETENCY
MEAN
SD
MEAN
SD
MEAN
SD
V. Environmental and Organizational
Management
2.934
.441
2.630
.431
2.667
.400
23. Develop and Administer a Budget
2.507
.742
1.925
.797
2.187
.698
24. Organize Resources (People,
Material) to carry out Program
Activities
3.120
569
2.787
602
2.824
i
I
589
25. Understand Institutional Mission,
Objectives, Expectations
3.013
668
2.500
684
2.615
628
26. Know and Utilize Effective
Decision-Making Strategies
3.095
528
2.649
617
2.670
633
27. Accept Authority and Responsibilities and Delegate as
Appropriate
3.014
712
2.670
753
2.802
6
til
28. Identify and Utilize Available
Financial Resources
2.712
754
2.393
736
2.495
721
29. Mediate Conflict Among Students,
Campus, and/or Community Groups
3.000
667
2.902
.575
2.813
536
a
n=75
b
n=94
n=91


CHAPTER I DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY
Introduction
Professional preparation for individuals seeking a career in student affairs administration has been a subject of much concern among professional associations, faculty trainers, and student affairs practitioners. Traditionally it was assumed that people who became personnel administrators came from the teaching ranks (Hill and Green, 1960). Counseling was the primary, if not only, component of formal training. Recent studies on the issue of preparation have concluded that professional, academic preparation in student personnel administration was critically important for a career in the student affairs field (Rhatigan, 1968; Newton and Richardson, 1976; Minetti, 1977; Miller and Carpenter, 1980; Delworth and Hanson, 1980; Stamatakos, 1980). The need has been acknowledged for a broad-based foundation of academic preparation in particular core areas including study in psychology, culture and change; philosophy, finance, planning, and curriculum in higher education; counselling; ethics; and a supervised work experience (Trueblood, 1966, pp. 82-83 as cited in Minetti, 1977, p. 5).
Expansion of the student population in higher education beginning in the early 1900's placed increased demands on student affairs administrators to address the multiple needs of this new


TABLE 36 Continued
IMPORTANCE
POSSESSION
II. Consultation Competencies
Duncan Grouping
Mean
N
Group
8. Work Effectively Students and Faculty
A
3.415
65
FT
Duncan Grouping
A
Mean N Group
3.800
65 FT
A
B
2.952
83
CSAO
A
3.723
83 CSAO
B
2.882
85
DOH
B
3.577
85 DOH
NOTE: Means with the same letter are not significantly different
DF = Degrees of Freedom


AN ASSESSMENT OF STUDENT AFFAIRS PREPARATION PROGRAMS IN RELATION TO SPECIFIED PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCIES
MAY 1983
The purpose of this study is to determine if student personnel preparation programs educate for the development of entry level professional competencies and to determine the relative importance of each competency in assuming an entry level staff position.
For the purpose of this study the following definitions have been provided.
Student personnel work within a post secondary education institution which is concerned with both the educational and personal development of students in primarily non-classroom activities and the administration of services which support and complement the formal academic process.
Student affairs the field identified by a division within a post secondary education institution concerned with the provision of services and programs which complement and supplement the academic mission of higher education institutions.
Entry position a position requiring a master's degree from a professional preparation program in student affairs. Staff in such positions assist in the development and administration of programs and services for students.
Competencies abilities, skills, knowledge, and attitudes which permit an individual to carry out jod expectations in an acceptable manner. PART I. EMPLOYMENT. ANO OLOGRAPHIC INFORMATION
Answer items i through 7 and items 10 through 14 by CIRCLING THE LETTER of the appropriate responseis)
1 .
TYPE OF INSTITUTION WHERE YOU ARE CURRENTLY EMPLOYED.
a. public
b. private
2.
NUMBER OF STUDENTS ENROLLED AT YOUR INSTITUTION. d. 15.000 20.000
a. under 5000 e over 20.i
b. 5000 9999 C. 10.000 14.999
tin
LENGTH OF TIME IN YOUR CURRENT POSITION
a. less than 5 years
b. 5 10 years c 11 15 years
d more than 15 years
LENGTH OF TIME PROFESSIONALLY EMPLOYED IN STUOENT AFFAIRS/HIGHER EDUCATION
a. less than 5 years
b. 5 10 years
c. 11 15 years
d. more than 15 years
YOUR CURRENT AGE
a 25 35 years
b. 36 45 years
c. 46 55 years
d over 55 years
YOUR HIGHEST EARNED DEGREE.
a. bachelor's
b. master's
c. specialist
d. doctorate
e. other_
7 Do you have an advanced degree (master's and/or doctorate) in a field related to higher education (eg educational administration, counseling, student personnel)7
MASTER'S
a. yes 0. no
0OCT0RATE
a. yes b. no
OTHER DEGREE
a. yes b. no
8. If you have an advanced degree (master's and /or doctorate) in a field unrelated to higher education, please indicate the fieid(s of your degree(s) MASTER'S_DOCTORATE_OTHER DEGREE_
9. From what mstitution(s) did you earn advanced degrees (if any)? MASTER'S__00CT0RATE _
OTHER DEGREE
10
Since you have been employed in your current pro
lessionai capacity how many students have graduated from your academic program with a
Master's degree? (CIRCLE YOUR RESPONSE).
a. less than 10 b 10 than 50
20 c 21 50 d more
11
Are you currently serving in an administrative capacity in student affairs or academic affairs? (CIRCLE YOUR RESPONSE)
a yes b. no
12
If you are not currently serving in an administrative capacity in student affairs or academic affairs have you ever served in an administrative capacity in student affairs or academic affairs? (CIRCLE YOUR RESPONSE).
a. yes b. no
13. >f you are currently serving or at one time served in an administrative capacity in student affairs or academic affairs please CIRCLE ALL areas in which you have worked
a. residence halls/housing
b. student activities/unions
c. financial aid
a. counseling center
e. career planning/placement
f. dean of students office
g. chief student affairs officer
h. college level academic officer
i. academic deoartment head
j. chief academic affairs officer
14. indicate the professional associations in which you hold membership (CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY)
a. American College Personnel Association (ACPA)
b. Association of College and University Housing Officers (ACUHO)
c. National Association of Studen; Personnel Administrators (NASPA)
d. National Association of Women Dears. Administrators, and Counselors (NAWDAC)
e. Other (please specify)_
Return by Mey 27. 1983 to Randy Hymn. P.O. Box 15208. Gainesville. FL 32604
-117-


AN ASSESSMENT OF STUOENT AFFAIRS PREPARATION PROGRAMS IN RELATION TO SPECIFIED PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCIES
MAY 1983
The purpose of this study is to determine if student personnel preparation programs educate for the development of entry level professional competencies and to determine the relative importance of each competency in assuming an entry level staff position.
For the purpose of this study the following definitions have Peon provided.
Student personnel work within a post secondary education institution which is concerned with both the educational and personal development of students in primarily non-classroom activities and the administration ot services wmch support and complement the formal academic process.
Student affairs the field identified by a division within a post secondary education institution concerned with the provision of services and programs which complement and supplement the academic mission of higher education institutions.
Entry level position a position requiring a master's degree from a professional preparation program in student affairs. Staff in such positions assist in the development and administration of programs and services for students.
Competencies abilities, skills, knowledge, and attitudes which permit an individual to carry out job expectations in an acceptable manner PART I. EMPLOYMENT. INSTITUTIONAL. ANO DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION
Answer items 1 through 7 and items 10 through 12 by CIRCLING THE LETTER ot the appropriate response(s).
1 .
TYPE OF INSTITUTION WHERE YOU ARE CURRENTLY EMPLOYED.
a. public
b. private
2.
NUMBER OF STUDENTS ENROLLED AT YOUR INSTITUTION.
a. under 5000 d. 15.000 20.000
b 5000 9999 e over 20.000
c. 10.000 14.999
LENGTH OF TIME AT YOUR CURRENT POSITION LEVEL
a. less than 5 years
b. 5 10 years
c. 11 15 years
d. more than 15 years
YOUR CURRENT AGE.
a. 25 35 years
b. 36 45 years
c. 46 55 years
d. over 55 years
4.
LENGTH OF TIME PROFESSIONALLY EMPLOYED IN STUOENT AFFAIRS/HIGHER EDUCATION.
a. less than 5 years
b. 5 10 years
c. 11 15 years
d. more than 15 years
YOUR HIGHEST EARNED DEGREE.
a. bachelor's
b. master's
c. specialist
d. doctorate
e. other_
7. Do you have an advanced degree (master's and/or doctorate) in a field related to higher education (e.g. educational administration, counseling, student personnel)9
MASTER'S
a. yes b. no
00CT0RATE
a. yes b. no
OTHER OEGREE
a. yes b. no
8. If you have an advanced degree (masters and/or doctorate) in a field unrelated to higher education, please indicate the field(s) of your degree(s)
MASTER'S
ICTORATE
OTHER OEGREE
9. From what mstitution(s) did you earn your advanceo degress (if any)
MASTER'S
DOCTORATE
OTHER OEGREE
10. Since you have boon employed at your current position level at a post secondary institution how many of your professional staff (master's or higher) have been nired in their first professional student affairs |0b7 .Note: your professional staff means not merely those staff who report directly to you but refers to all staff who ultimately fall under you' span of responsibility) CIRCLE YOUR RESPONSE
a. less than 5 b. 5 10 c. 11 20 d. more than 20
11. Of the number of your professional staff ifrom question 10) hired in their first professional student affairs joD. how many have had an advanced degree (master's) in a related field of higher education (educational administration, counseling, student personnel)7
(CIRCLE YOUR RESPONSE).
a. less than 5 b. 5 10 c. 11 20 d. more than 20 12. indicate which professional associations in which you hold membership. (CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY)
a. American College Personnel Association (ACPA)
b. Association of College and University Housing Officers (ACUHO)
c. National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA)
d. National Association of Women Deans. Administrators, and Counselors (NAWDAC)
e. Other (please spoafy)_
Please return by May 27. 1983 to Randy Hymen. P.O. Bos 15208. Gainesville. Fl 32604
-120-


APPENDIX B
RESEARCH INSTRUMENT FOR DIRECTORS OF HOUSING AND
CHIEF STUDENT AFFAIRS OFFICERS


TABLE 11
MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR FACULTY (FTs), DIRECTORS OF HOUSING (DOHs) AND CHIEF STUDENT AFFAIRS OFFICERS (CSAOs) ON EXTENT OF IMPORTANCE OF COMPETENCIES IN THE CATEGORY OF COMMUNICATION
a b C
FT DOH CSAO
CATEGORY/COMPETENCY MEAN SD MEAN SD MEAN SD
III. Communication 3.341 .389 3.287 .366 3.412 .339
9. Analyze and Write Memos
and Reports 3.270 .746 3.351 .599 3.538 .544
10. Make Effective Use of Verbal and Non-Verbal Skills in Group
Presentations 3.640 .510 3.479 .563 3.484 .503
11. Perceive and Accurately Interpret Attitudes, Beliefs and
Needs of Others 3.560 .526 3.489 .524 3.560 .499
12. Represent Student Concerns to
Other Campus Groups 3.284 .652 3.032 .613 3.396 .555
13. Recognize and Define Confidentiality Practices and
Procedures 3.507 .578 3.462 .563 3.467 .545
14. Determining Usage of Office
Management Procedures 2.795 .645 2.914 .620 2.977 .573
an=75 b n=94 c n=91


62
University (7), Michigan State (5), Ohio State (4), Teacher's College, Columbia (4), Florida State (3), and University of Iowa (3) named most often. CSAOs identified 51 different institutions where the group earned master's degrees. Southern Illinois University (6), Michigan State (6), Syracuse University (4), and Indiana University (4) were named most often. CSAOs identified 36 different institutions where the group reported earning doctoral degrees. Indiana University (8), Michigan State (6), Ohio State (3), and Florida State (3) were named most often. DOHs identified 63 different institutions where the group reported earning master's degrees. Indiana University -(10) and Michigan State (7) were the only institutions named by more than two DOHs. DOHs, as a group, reported the smallest number having earned a doctorate (34). Of that number, 22 institutions were identified by the group as the degree granting institution. Indiana University (5) and Michigan State (5) were the only institutions named by more than two DOHs.
Membership in professional associations was reviewed for the total population. It is indicated in Table 1 that the largest number of respondents (69.2%) reported membership in the National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA), followed by membership in
American College Personnel Association (ACPA) (56.9%). A large number of respondents (43.5%) reported membership in professional associations other than those identified on the research instrument.
The two practitioner groups in the population (DOHs and CSAOs) were asked to respond to two specific questions. Their responses to


-60-
The population in this study reported much variation in the size of respective employing institutions. No clear majority of the population worked in a particular size institution with respect to enrollment although, the largest number (31.9%) worked in institutions with enrollments over 20,000 students. Again, there were differences among the groups with respect to enrollment at employing institutions. A majority of FTs (45.3%) reported employment at institutions with over 20,000 enrolled students. More DOHs (37.2%) worked at large institutions of over 20,000 students, but their numbers were more equally spread among the other size ranges with the exception of the under 5000 category. No DOHs reported employment in institutions of that size, not surprising given the fact that all DOHs in the population directed programs which housed 3000 or more students on campus. The largest number of CSAOs (38.5%) reported employment at institutions with enrollment under 5000.
The largest number of the total population (37.8%) reported that they had been employed at their current position level for less than five years. Variations among the groups revealed that a large number of FTs (33.3%) had worked at their current level for over 15 years with the next largest group of FTs (29.3%) reporting employment at their current level for 11-15 years. Both practitioner groups differed with FTs. The majority of DOHs (54.3%) reported employment at their current level for less than five years. The greatest number of CSAOs have worked at their current level either for less than five years (37.8%) or from 5-10 years (32.2%).


-51-
and obtained a letter of support and endorsement from the Research and Information Committee of the Association of College and University Housing Officers International (ACUHO-I). Both endorsement letters expressed recognition and support of this study and encouraged the respondents to promptly complete and return the questionnaire. The ACUHO-I endorsement letter accompanied only instruments sent to the sample of DOHs.
Administration of the Instrument
Initial distribution of the instrument was accomplished through a mailout. Each of the 453 potential respondents, representing CSAOs, DOHs, and FTs, received a cover letter indicating the purpose of the study, endorsement letters apprppriate to the respective sample, and the two-part questionaire. The cover letter was reproduced on official stationery of the University of Florida student affairs division in order to lend additional credibility to the study (See Appendix). The cover letter outlined the primary purpose of the study, defined specific terms used in the investigation, and requested that the recipient complete and return the questionaire via the self addressed, prepaid postage envelope included in each mailout. The cover letter requested return of the questionaire within two weeks and provided assurances of confidentiality in all aspects of the investigation.
Feedback received from the pilot test had enabled the researcher to design an instrument package to enhance recipient understanding as well as encourage a high response rate. The instruments were numbered 1 through 453 for follow-up purposes.
A follow-up post card urging recipient participation in and support for the study was sent two weeks after the first mailout to


164
Mr. Hyman met his wife, Robi, while working at the University of South Florida in Tampa. They were married in June of 1978 and have a son, Drew, born in February, 1982. Mrs. Hyman has been employed, since 1979 as a special education teacher with the Alachua County School Board. The Hymans currently reside in Gainesville, Florida.


-68-
The extent to which each group agreed with the statement for each category and competency provided the measure to determine the extent to which each group perceived recent master's graduates to be in possession of the competencies. Mean scores and standard deviations for each category and competency were reported and examined to determine the extent to which each group agreed with possession of the competencies by recent graduates. Differences between groups regarding the extent of their agreement with possession will be examined later in the study.
I. Goal Setting. Mean scores and standard deviations of faculty (FTs), director's of housing (DOHs) and chief student affairs officers (CSAOs) for extent of agreement with possession of the competencies in the category of goal setting are reported in Table 4. For all groups, the highest mean scores for extent of agreement on possession were for competency No. 3, "teach student to deal with the consequences of their behavior." The lowest FT mean score for extent of agreement on possession was for competency No. 1, "write goals and objectives (2.867). The lowest mean scores for both DOHs (2.532) and CSAOs (2.648) were for extent of agreement on possession of competency No. 4, "engage in systematic planning." Mean scores for extent of agreement with possession for the category of Goal Setting were less than 3.0 for DOHs (2.750) and CSAOs (2.782) indicating a tendency in the direction toward the "disagree" response range on possession of competencies in this category. The mean score for FTs for extent of agreement with possession for the category of goal setting (3.117) indicated a tendency in the direction toward the "agree"


112
competencies. Notice should be taken though, of the fact that the mean scores for each group for every category on importance were over 3.0 on a scale that read 4-essential, 3-important, 2-of little importance, 1-not important. Notice should also be taken that for both practitioner groups (CSAOs and DOHs), mean scores for those groups for every category on possession were below 3.0 on a scale that read "Recent master's degree graduates possess this competency:" 4-agree strongly, 3-agree, 2-disagree, 1-disagree strongly. No significant differences were observed among the groups on extent of importance for any of the five categories. Significant differences were observed among the groups on extent of agreement with possession for all of the five categories.
Conclusion
The modified Tomorrow's High Education (T.H.E.) model used in this study provided a theoretical base upon which quality training expectations for careers in student affairs could be built. Miller and Prince (1976), Domeier (1977), Minetti (1977), Hanson (Note 2), and Delworth and Hanson (1980) identified competencies important for professionals in the student affairs field to possess in order to function effectively in entry level positions. Both possession of these competencies by recent graduates of preparation programs, and the importance of the competencies for effective function in entry level positions were tested in this study. Professionals responsible for the training of new student affairs staff as well as practitioners responsible for hiring, supervising, and evaluating new staff provided their perceptions on the variables of possession and


TABLE 1
DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE FOR FACULTY (FTs), DIRECTORS OF HOUSING (DOHs),
AND CHIEF STUDENT AFFAIRS OFFICER'S (CSAOs)
CHARACTERISTIC
FTs
DOHs
CSAOs
CUMULATIVE
Institutional Type
Institutional Enrollment
N
Percent
N
Percent
N
Percent
N
Percent
Public
Private
68
7
90.7
9.3
80
14
85.1
14.9
54
37
59.3
40.7
202
58
77.7
22.3
Under 5000
5000 9999
10000 14999
15000 20000
over 20000
4
13
12
12
34
5.3
17.3
16
16
45.3
0
23
21
15
35
24.5
22.3
16
37.2
35
19
12
9
14
38.5 20.9
15.4
9.9
15.4
39
55
47
36
83
15
21.2
18.1
13.9
31.9
Time at Current Position Level
Less than five years 5 10 years 11 15 years
13
15
22
17.3
20
29.3
51
22
16
54.3
23.4
17
34
29
14
37.8
32.2
15.6
98
66
52
37.8
25.5
20.1
more than 15 years
25
33.3
5
5.3
13
14.4
43
16.6


19
11. The view of higher education as a social status phenomenon.
12. Establishment of a true university system.
13. Impact of liberal immigration laws in U.S.
14. Changing roles of students in higher education.
The needs of individual students were identified as the primary focus of student personnel staff. The building of a sound student personnel program called for dedication by both administration and faculty to a philosophy based on all the needs of the individual student (Blaesser, 1945). Such a philosophy according to "The Student Personnel Point of View" was grounded in the support of higher educations basic purposes: the preservation, transmission, and enrichment of culturethe product of scholarship, research, and human experience (American Council of Education, 1937). The task was to assist the student in developing to the limits of his/her potential. In order to do this, the institution had to consider the student as a "whole." The student personnel role was to express awareness of the significance of student life from both individual and group perspectives. The work became an individualized application of the research and clinical findings of psychology, sociology, anthropology, and education to the task of aiding students to develop in a college environment (American Council of Education, 1949). Cowley (1964) observed the three functions of higher education to be core, complementary, and continuity. He concluded that student personnel work was complementary and that its mission was the provision of nonacademic programs and services for students.


-36-
behavioral scientists believed student affairs practitioners were very inadequately trained and that they lacked a thorough understanding of the problems with which they dealt and the effects of their work on students and faculty (Smith, Note 4).
Peterson (1977) offered a thorough summary of the assessed criticisms of student personnel preparation programs.
1. Student personnel education has not been sufficiently
grounded in theory and research.
2. Graduate programs have been too eclectic.
3. Quality of programs is inconsistent.
4. Few student personnel educators have been trained for their
roles.
5. Student personnel educators fail to practice what they
preach.
6. Graduate students have been used as cheap labor (e.g.,
residence halls).
7. Ratio of students to faculty is often inexcusable.
8. Quality of theses and dissertations is below minimum
standards.
A number of studies have been done, assessing graduate preparation programs at particular institutions (Davis, 1956; Broertjes, 1965; Bolton, 1974; Marler, 1977). In assessing the opinions of recent graduates as to the quality and effectiveness of these programs the findings revealed general satisfaction with the programs with recommendation for increased focus on experiential components (practicums and internships). A general profile study by Kuh, Greenlee, and Lardy (1978) supported these findings.


TABLE 39
DUNCAN'S MULTIPLE RANGE TEST FOR OF POSSESSION AND IMPORTANCE OF COMPETENCIES IN THE CATEGORY OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL MANAGEMENT
WHOSE SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES WERE IDENTIFIED
ALPHA = .05 DF = 230
Environmental and Organizational Possession Importance
V.
Management Competencies_Duncan Grouping
23. Develop and Administer a Budget A
B C
24. Organize Resources Program Activities A
B B
25. Understand Institutional Mission .
Expectation A
B B B
26. Know and Utilize Resources A
B B B
NOTE: Means with the same letter are not significantly different
DF Degree of freedom
Mean_N_Group_Duncan Grouping Mean_N Gro
I 2.539 65 FT A 3.277 83 CSAO
2.169 83 CSAO A 3.185 65 FT
1.894 85 DOH B 2.918 85 DOH
3.139 65 FT
2.819 83 CSAO
2.741 85 DOH
3.000 65 FT A A 3.631 65 FT
2.627 83 CSAO A 3.566 83 CSAO
2.459 85 DOH B 3.271 85 DOH
3.092 65 FT
2.651 83 CSAO
2.588 85 DOH


78
direction toward the "agree" range on possession of competencies in these categories. Mean scores for FTs were below 3.0 for the categories of Assessment and Evaluation (2.930) and Environmental and Organizational Management (2.934) indicating a tendency toward the "disagree" range on possession of competencies in these categories.
Data on Importance of Competencies Another of the four primary objectives of this study was to determine to whether these competencies were important for recent master1 s degree recipients to have acquired prior to assuming an entry level position in the student affairs field. This objective was stated as research question 3.
3. Is it important for recent master's degree graduates of
student personnel preparation programs to have acquired these competencies prior to full time entry into the student affairs field?
The extent to which each of the three groups perceived it important for recent master's graduates of preparation programs to have acquired these competencies was determined by asking each group to indicate the extent to which they believed each competency was important for assuming an entry level staff position. Participants in each of the three groups assessed the extent of importance for each competency according to the following four-point scale:
Importance of the Competency
4 essential (E)
3 important (I)
2 of little importance (LI)
1 not important (N) Mean scores and standard deviations for each category and competency


27
progress and gain the respect of students and academic colleagues it
would have to begin to educate a new generation of student
development specialists.
Some practitioners in the field have regarded the student
development thrust as a passing phenomenon, but have now begun to
view it as a model to justify the presence of student personnel workers
on campuses (Humphries, 1977). Hanson and Lenning (1979) observed
that the Carnegie Commission (1973) claimed that the development of
the whole student was not realistic; that totalism in the campus
approach to students was inconsistent with the mission of higher
education. Student development has been hampered by obstacles of
deep rooted work habits, routines, beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions
of practitioners who have been traditionally trained (Stamatakos,
1980). Others claimed that little recognition has been given to the
fact that student development must be implemented in areas where
students have unwilling contact with the institution, areas such as
student conduct, registrars office, admissions office (Trow, 1978).
Although he acknowledged the datedness of the service concept,
Rhatigan (1975) raised issue with the assumption that much more will
become possible if we move organizationally, directly into the academic
hierarchy. Rhatigan (1975) advocated a broadening of the service
concept and an increased use of the classroom vehicle as a tool for
program delivery.
Shaffer (1973) concluded that in order to remain a significant
force in higher education, the student personnel field must contribute
to the total organizational development of colleges and universities and
not focus exclusively on the development of the individual student.


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Randy E. Hyman was born on March 26, 1952, in Newark, New York. He was raised in Palmyra, New York, where he graduated from Palmyra-Macedon Central High School in 1970.
Mr. Hyman attended undergraduate school at Buffalo State College in the State University of New York system. He graduated in 1974 with a Bachelor of Science degree in speech pathology and audiology. Upon graduation Mr. Hyman entered graduate school at the University of Vermont where he was awarded a Master of Education degree in college student personnel administration in 1976.
In the summer of 1976, Mr. Hyman accepted a position as a Resident Instructor at the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida. In that capacity Mr. Hyman was responsible for the supervision of three men's residence halls. He also served as an instructor in the Communicology Department, teaching a course on speech and hearing disorders. Mr. Hyman was promoted to the position of Director of Housing and Food Service for the New College campus of the University of South Florida in 1977.
In 1979, Mr. Hyman accepted an appointment as an Assistant Director of Housing at the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida, a position he has held to the present time. He entered the doctoral program in educational administration and administration at the University of Florida as a part-time student in 1980.
163


-97-
A significant difference among the three groups on extent of agreement that recent master's graduates of preparation programs possess competencies in the category of Assessment and Evaluation is indicated in Table 24. FTs differed significantly with both DOHs and CSAOs in the extent to which they agree recent graduates of preparation programs possess competencies in the category of Assessment and Evaluation as shown by Duncan's multiple range test in Table 25.
TABLE 25
DUNCAN'S MULTIPLE RANGE TEST FOR POSSESSION OF ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
Group N Mean Duncan Grouping
FT 75 2.930 A
DOH 94 2.673 B
B
CSAO 91 2.611 B
Note. Means with the same letter are not significantly different.
Analysis of individual competencies in the category of Assessment and Evaluation has been summarized in Table 33 of Appendix G. Significant differences exist among groups on extent of agreement for possession of competencies 15, 16 17, 18, 19, 21, 22. Significant differences were found on extent of importance for competency 20. The results of Duncan's multiple range test, summarized in Table 38 of Appendix H, indicate that FTs differed significantly with DOHs and CSAOs on possession for all competencies in this category where a significant difference exists. DOHs differed significantly with FTs and DOHs on the extent of perceived importance of competency 20.


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Gainesville, 32611
VICE PRESIDENT FOR STUDENT AFFAIRS
1 23 Tl GERT 90 4, 39 2-
May 16, 1983
Dear Col league:
You are invited to participate in a study of professional graduate
preparation programs in student affairs administration. This study is being conducted by Randy Hyman, Assistant Director of Housing at the University of Florida for his Ph.D. degree in Higher Education. Specifically, the study examines the entry level professional competencies that are addressed in graduate training programs.
Your participation in this study is very important, as the results may be of value to those planning professional preparation programs, and to those who hire entry level staff. The results, of course, will not identify either individuals or specific institutions, and your responses will remain confidential.
The instrument is brief, and a recently conducted pilot test revealed an average completion time of 12 minutes. A self-addressed, stamped envelope is enclosed for your convenience.
Thank you for your participation and cooperation. Please complete the enclosed instrument and return it to Randy Hyman by May 30, 1983-
Sincerely.
Arthur Sandeen Vice President for Student Affai rs
Randy Hyman
Ass i stant Di rector
of Housing
EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNI TY / AFFIRMA Tl VE ACTION EMPLOYER
123


-64-
these items are summarized in Table 2. Each group was asked to report the number of full time staff they had hired in a first professional student affairs job since being employed at their current position level. The largest percentages of both DOHs and CSAOs reported hiring more than 20 such staff (DOH 31.9%, CSAO 33.5%). DOHs and CSAOs were each asked to indicate how many of these newly hired student affairs staff had earned a master's degree in a field related to higher education. The results revealed a smaller percentage of each group had hired more than 20 staff trained in higher education
(DOH 26%, CSAO 22.4%).
FTs were asked to respond to three items in the research instrument specific to their group. It is shown in Table 3 that the largest percentage of FTs (76.8%) reported that in the time they had served as a faculty member at their respective institution, over 50 students had received a master's degree from that particular preparation program. Most FTs (57.3%) were not currently serving in a administrative capacity in either academic or student affairs and many (50.7%) have never served in an administrative capacity in either student or academic affairs. Among those FTs who currently serve or have served in an administrative capacity in student or academic affairs the largest percentages reported service in residence hall/housing (41.3%), counseling center (40%), or dean of students office (42.7%).
Data on Possession of Competencies One of the four primary objectives of this study was to determine whether graduate training programs in student personnel administration were actually preparing recent master's degree recipients with


9
Stamatakos (1981) in an extensive examination of professional preparation, done as part of a review of student affairs progress toward professionalism, identified five critical concerns,
1. The quality of students admitted to professional preparation
programs is inconceivably broad, loose, inconsistent, and lacking in reasonable standards (p, 201).
2. A review of existing preparation program literature reveals a
glaring lack of specificity regarding the knowledge to be learned and the skills students are expected to acquire (p. 202).
3. Within and between actual and proposed preparation programs there is little or no consistency in nature, content emphasis or duration (p. 202).
4. In general, after students have successfully completed a
program of study in a typical program, the profession cannot be assured that they will be adequately or reasonably v/ell prepared to carry out the variety of responsibilities particular to job entry positions or that they have the leadership potential and depth of understandings necessary for upward mobility (p. 203).
5. If it is determined that some preparation programs are not in
any real sense truly preparing student affairs professionals but are bootlegging them through counselor, pupil personnel, or educational psychology programs, should such institutions be listed in association sponsored directories of professional preparation programs? Such listings do provide programs with a sense of undeserved legitimacy (p. 203).
Extensive review of the literature on professional preparation led
Stamatakos (1981) to conclude that there is no published research
evidence to support the notion that 1) those hired for student affairs
positions, do, in fact, possess the general skills and competencies that
characterize positions sought or filled or 2) professional preparation
programs educate specifically and adequately for the development of
agreed upon skills and competencies (Brown, 1972; Council of Student
Personnel Associations, 1975; Newton and Hellenga, 1974; Newton and
Richardson, 1976; Parker, 1971; Rentz, 1976; as cited in Stamatakos,
1981, p. 106).


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08556 8524
C31262085568524C


CHAPTER III RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
This study was designed to determine if student personnel professional preparation programs educated specifically for the development of entry level competencies. Three groups of professionals in the field of student affairs were compared to determine their perception of the training graduates with master's degrees received in their preparation programs for the entry level competencies and to determine their perception of the importance of the competencies for entry level staff.
This chapter identifies and describes the following aspects of the study: research objectives, research populations, development of the instrument, endorsement of the study, administration of the instrument, treatment of the data, and a chapter summary.
Research Objectives
The purpose of this study was to determine if student personnel professional preparation programs educated for the development of entry level competencies.
The objective of the study was to provide answers to the following research questions:
1. Do recent graduates of master's level preparation programs
in student personnel administration enter the field of student affairs with training in entry level competencies as a result of their preparation programs?
-42-


-45-
represent prospective entry level professionals into the student affairs field.
Development of the Instrument
Extensive review of the literature and previous studies of compe-tencies necessary for student affairs staff (Yates, 1977; Newton and Richardson, 1976; Minetti, 1977, Domeier, 1977; Ostroth, 1979; Hanson, Note 2) resulted in the development of a selected list of expected entry level professional competencies for student personnel work. The Tomorrow's Higher Education (T.H.E.) model (Miller and Prince, 1976) was used as the foundation for a conceptual framework, providing categories for the competencies which were identified. A slight modification to the model was accomplished consistent with Hanson's (American College Personnel Association, 1977) taxonomy of competencies, Delworth and Hanson's (1980) recommendations, and consistent with the need to provide a framework adequate for specific, entry level competencies.
Hanson's (Note 2) ACPA sponsored study used the T.H.E. model for identifying student affairs staff competencies. Twenty-eight leaders in ACPA responded to a Delphi survey which eventually led to Hanson's identification of 195 competencies in areas of goal setting, assessment, consultation, instruction, milieu management, and eval-uation. Hanson's study requested response from ACPA leaders regarding which competencies were considered most important. Those competencies were identified, categorized, and accumulated by this researcher as part of an overall competency taxonomy from which the final, entry level competency list was derived.


91
TABLE 15
MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS GOAL SETTING
DF=2,257 ALPHA=.05 F-Value P>F Implication
Possession 17.69 .0001 Significant
Importance .26 .7691 Not Significant
A significant difference among the three groups on extent of agreement that recent master's graduates of preparation programs possess competencies in the category of goal setting is indicated in Table 15. FTs differed significantly with both DOHs and CSAOs in the extent to which they agree recent graduates of preparation programs possess competencies in the category of Goal Setting as shown by Duncan's multiple range test in Table 16.
TABLE 16
DUNCAN'S MULTIPLE RANGE TEST FOR POSSESSION OF GOAL SETTING
Group N Mean DuncanTurouping
FT 75 3.117 A
CSAO 91 2.782 B
DOH 94 2.750 B
Note. Means with the same letter are not significantly different.
Analysis of individual competencies in the category of Goal Setting has been summarized in Table 30 of Appendix G. Significant differences existed among the groups on extent of possession of competencies 2,


They must be able to use competencies of assessment, goal setting, and change processes as appropriate in implementing the roles of consultant, administrator, and instructor in relationships with individuals, groups, and organizations. (Cooper, 1972, p. 6)
The acquisition of professional competencies underscores the
importance of preparation programs. Such programs, through their
course work and field experience, have sought to provide graduate
students with the competencies necessary to function adequately in the
field.
Purpose
The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether or not professional preparation programs in student personnel administration educated for the development of entry level professional competencies. Perceptions of three groups of professionals in the field of student affairs were compared to determine whether or not differences existed in their perception of the training graduates with master's degrees received in their preparation programs for the entry level competencies. The perceptions of the three groups were also compared to determine differences in the relative importance of the competencies for assuming an entry level professional position in student affairs.
Questions for Investigation This study was designed to answer the following questions:
1. Do recent graduates of master's level preparation programs in
student personnel administration enter the field of student affairs with training in entry level competencies as a result of their preparation programs?
2. Do chief student affairs officers (CSAOs) Directors of Housing
(DOHs), and faculty (FTs) have similar perceptions of the training recent master's degree graduates of preparation programs in


115
Further study is warranted to determine if there is an effect on perceptions of possession and importance based on respondent age, length of time employed in the field of student affairs, and/or whether an advanced degree has been earned in the area of higher education.
Future studies of professional competencies which would include professionals in other student affairs areas are warranted.


TABLE 13 Continued
FT
a
DOH
b
CSAO
CATEGORY/COMPETENCY -
MEAN
SD
MEAN
SD
MEAN
SD
29. Mediate Conflict Among Students,
Campus, and/or Community Groups
3.315
.664
3.315
.553
3.418
.559
30. Recognize and Accept the Ethical
Consequences of Personal and
Professional Behavior
31. Select, Train, and Supervise
3.753
.465
3.641
505
3.637
483
I
co
I
Staff
3.320
.640
3.728
447
3.308
726
32. Manage Physical Resources and
Facilities
3.040
.625
3.152
533
3.110
.657
33. Adjudicate Student Conduct
Effectively
3.093
.597
3.348
601
3.341
.654
n=75
n=94
n=91


TABLE 3
SPECIFIC FACULTY RESPONDENT (FT) DATA
CHARACTERISTIC
FT
Number of students graduating from your academic program with a master's degree since you have been employed in your current professional capacity.
Currently serving in administrative capacity in student affairs or
academic affairs.
If not currently, have ever served in administrative capacity in student affairs or academic affairs.
N
PERCENT
Less than 10
2
2.9
10 20
21 50
More than 50
3
11
53
4.4
15.9
76.8
I
I
Yes
32
42.7
No
43
57.3
Yes
37
49.3
No
38
50.7


APPENDIX F
TABLE LISTING MEAN SCORES FOR EACH GROUP BY COMPETENCY FOR POSSESSION AND IMPORTANCE


2. Findings were limited to measurements of competencies perceived
by practitioners and faculty trainers. The results can be generalized to preparation programs generally as all programs listed in the ACPA directory were surveyed.
3. Results cannot be generalized beyond the specific practitioner
populations used in this study. Their perceptions of competencies held by recent graduates and the importance of those competencies cannot be generalized to the total practitioner population in student affairs.
4. This study was limited to the perception of practitioners and
faculty trainers at four year institutions, awarding at least a bachelors degree. The result cannot be generalized to a student affairs practitioner population employed at community colleges or proprietary institutions.
Definitions
Student personnelwork within a post secondary education institution
concerned with both the educational and personal development of students in primarily non classroom activities and the administration of services which support and compliment the formal academic process.
Student affairsthe division within a post secondary education institution concerned with the provision of services and programs for students which complement and supplement the academic mission of higher education institutions. (Domeier, 1977, p. 12)
Entry level positiongenerally a position requiring a master's degree
from a professional preparation program and no full time experience in student affairs. Staff in such positions assist in the development and administration of programs and services for students.


161
Stamatakos, L. C. "Preprofessional and professional obstacles to
student development." In D. Creamer (Ed.), Student development in higher education. Cincinnati: American College Personnel Association, 1980.
Stamatakos, L. C. "Student affairs programs toward professionalism
recommendations for action." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1981, 22, 105-112.
Stroughton, Robert W. "The preparation of counselors and personnel
workers." Review of Educational Research, 1957, 27_, 174-185.
Stufflebeam, D. L. (Ed.). Educational evaluation and decision-making. Itasca, IllTl Peacock, 1971.
Tracey, J. L. "The current status of Master's programs in college
student personnel." NASPA Journal, 1971, 9, 106-110.
Trow, J. A. "From the field: The future of student affairs."
Journal of College Student Personnel, 1978, 19, 282-283.
Trueblood, D. L. "The educational preparation of the college student
personnel leader of the future." In G. Klopf (Ed.), College Student Personnel in the Years Ahead. Washington, D. CT: American College Personnel Association, 1966, 7, 77-84.
Turner, F. H. "Report of the committee on the preparation for the
work of a dean of men." Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Conference of the National Association of Deans and Advisors of MerT, Philadelphia, 1936, 17-49.
Upcraft, M. L. "Does training make a difference?" NASPA Journal,
1971, 9, 134-137.
Useem, R. H. "Professionalizing an academic occupation: The case
of student personnel work." Journal of the National Assocciation for Women Deans and Counselors"! 1964, 27, 94-lOT]
Wellman, F. E. "Selection of students for preparation in college
personnel work." Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1955, 34, 24-27.
Wilensky, H. C. "The professionalization of everyone?" American
Journal of Sociology, 1964, 70, 137-158.
Williamson, E. G. (Ed.). Trends in student personnel work.
Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1949.


-61-
The majority of the population of respondents reported employment in student affairs/higher education for more than 15 years (49.4%), This was consistent among all three groups with the largest number of each group reporting such an employment commitment for
over 15 years.
The largest portion of the population reported their ages between 36-45 years (45.4%). This was consistent among each of the three groups with the largest percentage of each group reporting this age range.
The majority of the population indicated that a doctorate was the highest earned degree (65.4%). Some differences among groups revealed that FTs reported the highest number of earned doctorates (96%) followed by CSAOs (70.3%) and DOHs (36.2%).
Differences among the three groups were noted among respondents with advanced degrees in a field related to higher education. FTs reported the largest percentage of doctorates (93.3%) followed by CSAOS (60.4%) and DOHs (35.1%). DOHs reported the largest percentage of master's degrees earned in a field related to higher education (75.5%) followed by CSAOs (65.9%) and FTs (62.7%).
All respondents were asked to indicate the institution (s) where any advanced degrees were earned. A summary of responses indicated that particular institutions were the choice of many of the respondents. Among the 42 institutions identified as those where FTs earned master's degrees, Teacher's College of Columbia University (5) and Indiana University (5) were named most. FTs identified 34 different institutions where their doctoral degrees were earned with Indiana


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The completion of my doctoral program would not have been possible were it not for a few wonderful people who deserve special recognition for their roles.
To Dr. Art Sandeen, my chairman and mentor, I offer heartfelt thanks. His unending patience, support, and encouragement provided me with the motivation which enabled me to make my dream become reality.
To the members of my committee, Dr. James Wattenbarger and Dr. Al Smith, I extend my sincere thanks for the time, support, and suggestions they gave me during the course of this study.
Special thanks go to Dr. Bob Jester and John Dixon for their assistance in the analysis of my data and to Donna Ornowski for her fine work in the typing of the manuscript and final drafts.
Sincere notes of recognition are extended to a couple of special colleagues. To Jack Worley I express my gratitude for always being there when I needed a listening ear. To Jim Grimm I express my appreciation for constant support and consideration throughout my
doctoral program.
Finally, I would like to give very special recognition to my wife, Robi, and my son, Drew. Their love, patience, and faith in me were the greatest sources of inspiration in the completion of this study. Robi's assistance through the duration of my doctoral program has come to exemplify for me the meaning of the word support.

ill


-100-
Analysis of individual competencies in the category of Environmental and Organizational Management has been summarized in Table 34 of Appendix G. Significant differences exist among groups on extent of agreement for possession of competencies 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 33. The results of Duncan's multiple range test, summarized on Table 39 of Appendix H, indicates that FTs differed significantly with DOHs and CSAOs on possession for competencies 24, 25, 26, 27, 28. A significant difference was identified for every possible pair of groups on possession for competencies 23 and 30. CSAOs and DOHs differed significantly on possession for competency
31. DOHs and FTs differed significantly on possession for competency
32. DOHs differed significantly from FTs and CSAOs on extent of importance on competencies 23, 25, 28, 31. FTs differed significantly from CSAOs and FTs on extent of importance of competency 33.
Chapter Summary
The research findings for this study have been presented in this chapter. The extent to which faculty (FTS), directors of housing (DOHs), and chief student affairs officers (CSAOs) agree that recent master's graduates of preparation programs possess professional competencies and the extent to which each of the groups agree on the importance of these competencies for assuming an entry level staff position in student affairs has been examined. Differences between groups regarding their respective perceptions of possession of the competencies by recent graduates and the importance of the compe-tencies have been identified and examined.
A summary of this study, findings, conclusions, and implications and considerations for further study are presented in Chapter V.


TABLE 9
MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR FACULTY (FTs), DIRECTORS OF HOUSING (DOHs) AND CHIEF STUDENT AFFAIRS OFFICERS (CSAOs)
ON EXTENT OF AGREEMENT WITH IMPORTANCE OF COMPETENCIES
IN THE CATEGORY OF GOAL SETTING
a b FT DOH
C
CSAO
CATEGORY/COMPETENCY MEAN SD MEAN SD MEAN SD
I. Goal Setting
3.378
380
3.415
323
3.410
362
1. Write Behavioral Objectives
2.893
798
3.064
601
2.989
l
oo
645
I
2. Identify and Articulate Institu-
tions Goals and Policies to
Students
3.613
.490
3.436
560
3.533
545
3. Teach Students to Deal with the
Consequences of their Behavior
3.568
.526
3.777
419
3.725
473
4. Engage in Systematic Planning
3.440
.575
3.383
624
3.385
553
n=75
b
n=94
a
n=91


TABLE 36
DUNCAN'S MULTIPLE RANGE TEST FOR POSSESSION AND IMPORTANCE OF COMPETENCIES IN THE CATEGORY OF CONSULTATION WHERE SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES WERE IDENTIFIED
ALPHA
.05
DF = 230
IMPORTANCE
POSSESSION
II. Consultation Competencies
Duncan Groupin
Mean
N
Group
Duncan Grouping
Mean N Group
5. Recognize and Use Expertise of Others
A
3.642
65
FT
B
3.096
83
CSAO
B
B
2.941
85
DOH
6. Facilitate Group Problems Making
. Decision
A
3.415
65
FT
i
I
B
2.835
85
DOH
B
B
2.831
83
CSAO
7. Facilitate Staff Development Training
A
3.123
65
FT
A
3.494 85
DOH
A
B
2.894
85
DOH
A
3.446 65
FT
C
2.663
83
CSAO
B
3.193 83
CSAO


Practitionersprofessional educators engaged in full time employment in
student personnel in a division of student affairs. They may be administrators, counselors, program facilitators, or consultants. (Minetti, 1977, p. 14)
Chief student affairs officerthe college or university administrator
who is immediately responsible for the direction and coordination of the programs, staff, and services of the student affairs division.
Director of Housingthe college or university administrator who is
immediately responsible for the direction and coordination of the programs, staff, and services of the housing department. The housing department is one of the departments that comprise the Division of Student Affairs.
Entry level competenciesabilities, skills, knowledge, and activities
which permit an individual to carry out job expectations in a first professional position in student affairs in a minimally acceptable manner.
Faculty trainersprofessional educators engaged in full time employ-
ment as faculty, teaching and advising graduate students enrolled in preparation programs in student personnel administration.
Professional preparationthe acquisition of background, knowledge,
skills, and competencies necessary for assuming a full time position in the student affairs profession. Such preparation is most generally acquired within the context of a formal, academic, degree awarding program at a graduate institution of higher education.
Overview of the Study Chapter 1 presented the introduction, purpose and justification for the study, conceptual framework, assumptions, limitations, and definitions. Relevant literature and research pertaining to the profession of student personnel and professional preparation are presented in Chapter II. The methodology and design used in this study are described in Chapter III. The data collected and analyzed in this study are presented in Chapter IV, A discussion of the results, conclusions, and recommendations is presented in Chapter V.


TABLE 12
MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR FACULTY (FTs), DIRECTORS OF HOUSING (DOHs) AND CHIEF STUDENT AFFAIRS OFFICERS (CSAOs)
ON EXTENT OF AGREEMENT WITH IMPORTANCE OF COMPETENCIES
IN THE CATEGORY OF ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
a b c
FT DOH CSAO
CATEGORY/COMPETENCY MEAN SD MEAN SD MEAN SD
IV. Asse ssment and Evaluation 3.330 .446 3.250 .380 3.263 .360
15. Assess Student Needs 3.573 .597 3.462 .501 3.511 .546
16. Analyze and Interpret Program
Needs and Requests 3.411 .573 3.277 .495 3.300 .550
17. Design Student Programs Based
on Student Needs 3.541 .554 3.404 .535 3.511 .546
18. Interpret and Understand Various
Evaluation Strategies 3.173 .645 3.011 .518 2.989 .508
19. Identify and Understand Various
Evaluation Strategies 3.176 .627 3.011 .558 3.011 .511
20. Design and Implement a Program
to Evaluate Staff 3.040 .706 3.223 .625 3.033 .605
21. Revise Programs on the Basis of
Evaluation Data 3.240 .612 3.191 .534 3.253 .589
22. Recognize and Analyze Inter-
personal Problems 3.493 .529 3.426 .539 3.484 .565
a be
n=75 n=94 n=91


-31-
(Brown, 1972; Council of Student Personnel Associations, 1975; Newton and Hellenger, 1974; Newton and Richardson, 1976; Parker, 1971; and Rentz, 1976), Stamatakos (1981) could find no evidence that a) employers consciously attempt to determine if applicants for positions actually possess the expected competencies, b) those hired for student affairs positions do possess the expected competencies, c) professional preparation programs educate specifically and adequately for the development of agreed upon skills and competencies (p. 106).
Content
Content for the preparation programs in student personnel has been the source of considerable controversy among professionals in the field. Initial programs sought to provide strong grounding in counseling and guidance as it was the belief that such was the primary back-ground necessary to adequately prepare student personnel practitioners (Williamson, 1949; Wrenn, 1949; Mueller, 1959; Parker, 1971). Parker (1966) took the position that education as a counselor, based upon an adequate philosophy of individual development within guidelines that will benefit the entire society, was crucial to adequate functioning as an effective student personnel administrator (p. 256).
The value of an overall generalist approach to preparation has been acknowledged and supported, primarily through the efforts of the professional associations (Council of Student Personnel Associations, 1965, 1969; American Personnel and Guidance Association, 1971; American College Personnel Association, 1967, 1975). Robinson (1966) analyzed statements about preparation generated by each of the three professional associations to determine substantive areas of 1)


APPENDIX C
LETTER OF ENDORSEMENT FROM VICE PRESIDENT FOR STUDENT AFFAIRS


-93-
A significant difference among the three groups on extent of agreement that recent master's graduates of preparation programs possess competencies in the category of goal setting is indicated in Table 18. FTs differ significantly with both DOHs and CSAOs in the extent to which they agree recent graduates of preparation programs possess competencies in the category of Consultation as shown by Duncan's multiple range test in Table 19.
TABLE 19
DUNCAN'S MULTIPLE RANGE TEST FOR POSSESSION OF CONSULTATION
Group N Mean Duncan Grouping
FT .75 3.303 A A
DOH 94 2.921 B B
B B CSAO 91 2.846 B B
Note. Means with the same letter are not significantly different.
Analysis of individual competencies in the category of Consultation has been summarized in Table 31 of Appendix G. Significant differences existed among groups on extent of agreement for possession of all four competencies in this category. Significant differences were found on extent of importance for competencies 7 and 8. The results of Duncan's multiple range test, summarized in Table 36 of Appendix H, indicate that FTs differed significantly with DOHs and CSAOs on possession for competencies 5, 6, and 8. Significant differences existed between every possible pair of groups on possession for competency 7. CSAOs differed significantly with both DOHs and FTs on extent of perceived importance of competency 7. DOHs diffed significantly with both FTs and CSAOs on extent of perceived importance of competency 8.


TABLE 10
MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR FACULTY (FTs), DIRECTORS OF HOUSING (DOHs) AND CHIEF STUDENT AFFAIRS OFFICERS (CSAOs) ON EXTENT OF IMPORTANCE OF COMPETENCIES IN THE CATEGORY OF CONSULTATION
FT
DOH
b
CSAO
C
CATEGORY/COMPETENCY
MEAN
SD
MEAN
SD
MEAN
SD
II. Consultation
3.573
.374
3.476
.368
3.431
.344
5. Recognize and Use the Expertise
of Others
3.627
.487
3.447
.500
3.429
.498
6. Facilitate Group Problem Solving
and Group Decision-Making
3.507
50332
3.415
629
3.396
7. Facilitate Staff Development
Through In-Service Training
3.080
634
2.935
582
2.644
.652
8. Work Effectively With a Diversity of Individual Students and
Faculty
3.773
421
3.581
.496
3.736
443
a
n=75
b
n=94
n=91


32
responsibility and authority, 2) purposes and goals, 3) proposed curriculum and training experiences, and 4) emphasis and unique characteristics. In the first category of responsibility and authority, Robinson found the APGA statement to be the most comprehensive; in the second category, purpose and goals, the COSPA statement was the most comprehensive. Robinson found general agreement among all statements on the third category (p. 255). He concluded that the three statements represented general agreement on what ought to be included in preparation programs and he recommended seeking consensus on one statement for the field. Such consensus was both sought and achieved via subsequent statement revisions by ACPA (1967) and COSPA (1969) which reflected the cooperative agreement recommended by Robinson (1966).
Association statements in addition to other studies (Rhatigan, 1965; O'Banion, 1966) and earlier writings of Williamson (1952) supported the claim for a common core of knowledge that all student personnel staff should possess. O'Banion (1966, 1969) devised a curriculum theory which stated that "program is derived from purpose and function (1969, p. 249)." His study to determine the core of experiences that should be common to all student personnel practitioners in higher education included 1) psychology, 2) counseling principles and techniques, 3) practicum in student personnel work, 4) overview of student personnel work in higher education, 5) study of the college student, 6) sociology/anthropology, and 7) higher education. He also found that the use of the curricular theory was effective in determining a core program of preparation.


To,
My Dad, Richard Hyman, who first said to me "Hitch your wagon to a star" and to Jesus Christ, the star who controlled my wagon anc provided me with the direction.


many graduate training programs may require some revamping in order to become solid programs for preparing generalists with these corape-tencies.
Miller and Carpenter (1980) believed that optimal professional preparation combines a mastery of a body of knowledge and a cluster of skills and competencies within the context of personal development. They noted that professional credibility and excellence of practice were directly dependent upon the quality of professional preparation (1980). They postulated that there were identifiable skills and competencies essential to the growth of student affairs professionals, the learning of which could be systematically facilitated through programs of professional preparation.
A number of models and philosophies have been advanced to support the development of quality professional preparation (Spooner,
1979; Rentz, 1976; Meabon, Bailey, and Witten, 1975; Dewey, 1977). A thorough review of the literature has led the researcher to select a modification of the Tomorrow's Higher Education model as the conceptual framework for this study. T.H.E., an acronym which stands for Tomorrow's Higher Education, was coined by the American College Personnel Association (ACPA) in 1968 for the purpose of developing a strategy for examining the future of college student personnel work (Miller and Prince, 1976). The essence of T.H.E. project was to reconceptualize through systematic review, reconstruction, and change, the fundamental conceptions about the specific roles, functions, methods, and procedures that characterize future personnel practice. T.H.E. emphasized student development in a move away from a status-


endorsement of the study, e) administration of the instrument, and f) treatment of the data. Chapter IV presented a detailed review and description of the data obtained in this study.


30
graduate trainees. It was believed that the best applicants should be socially sensitive, emotionally mature, and intellecturally able (Wrenn, 1952), They must show evidence of sufficient motivation toward the roles and function of the field. Woolf and Woolf (1953) believed that the most important consideration in the selection of trainees should be the philosophy and attitude of the candidate. A study of the selection of students for preparation in college student personnel work revealed an inadequacy of existing instruments to measure characteristics believed to be related to successful performance in the field (Wellman, 1952). The study also revealed a lack of valid, objective criteria for selection (Wellman, 1955). A later study of preparation program admission policies indicated a heavy emphasis on predictors of academic success as initial screening criteria; standardized tests, grade point averages, and recommendation letters (Gimmestad and Goldsmith, 1973).
The issue of standards has most recently been addressed within the context of what should be considered acceptable training in preparation programs and how this training acceptability could be measured. Stamatakos (1981) analyzed Wrenn and Darley's (1949) traditional criteria or professionalism. Stamatakos examined standards of admission and performance by addressing skills and competencies student affairs professionals are expected to have or actually possess at the time they enter the practice of the profession (p. 106).
In reviewing previous studies (Minetti, 1977; Ostroth, 1979; and Hanson, Note 2) Stamatakos (1981) indicated that competencies believed to be important for staff to possess had been identified. In a review of previous research on the issue of preparation standards


25
problems stemming from the nomenclature of the field and implied that the withholding of faculty status to student personnel practitioners relegated them to second class status. A study by Astmann (1975) to ascertain faculty perceptions toward student personnel services found that faculty didn't fully accept colleagues in student personnel as equals. Student affairs was perceived as a large complex of operations with vague, ill-defined purpose, being only remotely necessary to the realization of institutional goals and impractical in budget terms. According to Prior (1973) the "planless gerry building" of student personnel services over several decades has resulted in conflicting and illogical mixtures of functions and responsibilities (p. 202). As a result student personnel has been susceptible to a variety of misperceptions of its role and false expectations of this competence. Wrenn and Darley (1949) believed that the status of student personnel has not been enhanced because of a lack of well accepted standards of academic preparation. The field has failed to notify higher education what those, established in the field, considered to be job function and adequate qualifications. It has been recommended that student personnel practitioners clarify traditional roles and aggressively pursue new relationships with institutions (Penn, Manspeaker, and Millette, 1975; Berry, 1976). More attention should be directed toward professional training programs (Berry, 1976). The professional future of student personnel depends on present leadership and the training programs (Brumfield, 1979).


-77-
highest mean scores for FTs (3.562) and CSAOs (3.011) were for competency No. 30, "recognize and accept the ethical consequences of personal and professional behavior." The highest mean score for DOHs (3.022) was for competency No. 31, "select, train, and supervise staff." The lowest mean scores for all groups were for competency No. 23, "develop and administer a budget." The mean scores for all three groups for the category of Environmental and Organizational Management were under 3.0, indicating a tendency for each group in the direction toward the "disagree" range with respect to possession of competencies in this category. Standard deviations for each group were less than 1.0 for all competencies in this category.
Summary of Data on Possession of Competencies. Each group reported its highest mean score on possession for the same competency in the catagories of Goal Setting, Consultation, and Assessment and Evaluation. Each group reported its lowest mean score on possession for the same competency in the categories of Communication and Environmental and Organizational Management. Mean scores for DOHs were less than 3.0 for all competencies in categories of Goal Setting, Consultation, and Communication, and for CSAOs in the category of Assessment and Evaluation. Mean scores for FTs were greater than 3.0 for all competencies in the category of Consultation, Mean scores for DOHs and CSAOs were below 3.0 for every category indicating a tendency in the direction toward the disagree range with respect to possession of competencies in this study. Mean scores for FTs were above 3.0 for the categories of Goal Setting (3.117), Consultation (3.303), and Communication (3.020), indicating a tendency in the


152
Barry, R. and Wolf, B. Modern issues in guidance personnel work.
New York: Bureau of Publications, Teacher's College, 1957.
Berdie, R. F. "Student personnel work: Definition and redefinition."
Journal of College Student Personnel, 1966, 7, 405-409.
Berry, M. "The state of student affairs: A review of the literature."
NASPA Journal, 1976, 13, 2-4.
Blackburn, J. L. Perceived purposes of student personnel
programs by chief student personnel officers as a function of academic preparation and experience (Doctoral dissertation, Florida State University, 1969). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1970, 30, 3745A 3746A] (University Microfilm No. 70-3815)
Blaesser, W. W. (Ed.). Student personnel work in the post war
college. Washington"! D. C. : American Council on Education,
1945.
Blaesser, W. W. "Organizational change and student development."
Journal of College Student Personnel, 1978, 19, 109-117.
Blaesser, W. W. and Froehlich, C. "Major issues and trends in the
graduate training of college personnel workers." Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1950, 10, 588-595.
Bob, S. H., and Lee, R. J. "The development of a model
state training program for financial aid administrators in Virginia." Journal of Student Financial Aid, 1979, 9, 15-21.
Bolton, C. R. Recent graduates' perceptions of their doctoral training
programs in college student personnel (Doctoral dissertation, University oT Oklahoma, 1974). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1974, 35, 1456A. (University Microfilms No. 74-19248)
Borland, D. T. and Thomas, R. E. "Student development
implementation through expanded professional skills." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1976, 17, 145-149.
Broertjes, V. H. An appraisal of the doctoral program in higher
education at tHe school of education, Indiana University, based on a followup study of its graduates (Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 1965). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1965, 26, 5121. (University Microfilm No. 65-14032)
Brown, R.D. Student development in tomorrow's higher education-a
return to the academy. Student Personnel Series, no. 16. Washington, D.C.: American College Personnel Association, 1972.
Brown, R. D. "Reaction." In G. H. Knock (Ed.), Perspectives on
the preparation of student affairs professionals. Student Person-nel Series, no. 22] Washington, D. C. : American College Personnel Association, 1977.


14
communication, assessment and evaluation, and environmental and orga-
nizational management.
Assumptions
This study assumed that
1. The perceptions of the respondents completing the instrument
were honestly and accurately given.
2. The professional competencies identified from the literature
reflected actual, expected competencies for entry level student affairs staff.
3. Respondents had a knowledge of background of the competencies
needed by staff hired for entry level positions in student affairs.
4. Respondents had a knowledge of the competencies taught in
preparation programs in student personnel.
Limitations
1. This study was limited to the examination of entry level professional competencies because this investigator believed they represented the most immediate and measurable product of a master's level graduate program in terms of competencies acquired and expected.


Domeier (1977) deductively generated 58 administrative competency tasks under the following categories: budget management, cooperative relationships, communication, leadership, personnel management, professional development, research and evaluation, and student contact. This researcher added these competencies to the taxonomy developed for entry level competency deviation. Competency tasks from Domeier's study, which overlapped with Hanson's study were eliminated.
Minetti (1977) derived 47 entry level competencies judged to be important for entry level student affairs staff. He identified these competencies under the following categories: counseling, human relations and interpersonal skills; theory and practice of administration and management; research, testing, and measurement; historical, philosophical, and social foundations; meeting student needs; and professional purpose and role identity. This researcher added compe-tencies to the developing competency taxonomy, eliminating those competencies which were duplicated in the other studies.
The competency taxonomy developed by the researcher from the previous studies numbered 134. Overlap, duplication, and evidence of common themes enabled the researcher to derive 71 entry level competencies. With the assistance, support and approval of faculty at the University of Florida, the 71 entry level competencies were analyzed; some were eliminated; and the balance were categorized within the modified conceptual framework.
The categories identified from the modified T.H.E. conceptual model and the 33 entry level professional competencies utilized in the study included the following:


TABLE 37 Continued
POSSESSION
IMPORTANCE
III. Communication Competencies
Duncan Grouping
Mean
N
Group
Duncan Crouping
Mean
N Group
12. Represent Student Concerns to Groups
A
3.077
65
FT
A A
3.422 83 CSAO
B B
2.880
83
CSAO
A
3.354 65 FT
B
2.847
85
DOH
B
3.047 85 DOH
13. Recognize Confidentiality
Procedures A 3.354 65 FT
B 3.024 83 CSAO
B 2.929 85 DOH
B
Determining Usage of Office A 2.462 65 FT
Procedures B A 2.289 83 CSAO
B
B 2.141 85 DOH
NOTE: Means with the same letter are not significantly different
DF = Degrees of Freedom


39
Developing basic competencies of the successful professional has been seen as the purpose of professional education (Wolfe, 1980). Williamson (1958) in noting the diversity of needed professional competencies as a problem dimension of professional training indicated that the development of competency in one's own specialty as well as in their role with working with colleagues (faculty and staff) was critical.
Studies have been done to determine specific competencies necessary for the adequate function in professional higher education (Lynam, 1970; Davies, 1970). A study by Domeier (1977) developed competency tasks used by student affairs administrators and examined the training of administrators for the tasks. The results indicated that student affairs administrators did not agree on the applicability and frequency of using the tasks in their present positions. They also did not agree on the sources of training they had for each competency task. Minetti (1977) developed a list of entry level competencies to determine whether the locus of preparation for each competency was the formal student personnel preparation program or an assistantship. Ostroth (1979) utilized Minetti's (1977) competencies to determine what criteria employers used in evaluating candidates seeking entry level positions in student affairs. Hanson (Note 2) generated a list of 195 competencies using the Delphi technique and classifying the competencies according to dimensions of the T.H.E. model (Miller and Prince, 1976). A study by Newton and Hellenga (1974) to determine appropriate goals, objectives, and a direction for student personnel preparation programs established that a competency based approach was the preferred mode for training compared to traditional course-centered approaches. Riker (1977) also called for a


85
tencies in the category of Assessment and Evaluation are reported in Table 12. All groups reported the highest mean scores for competency No. 15, "assess student needs." Mean scores for FTs and DOHs were greater than 3.0 for every competency in this category. Mean scores for the category of Assessment and Evaluation were greater than 3.0 for FTs (3.330), DOHs (3.250) and CSAOs (3.263), indicating a tendency in the direction of the importance of the competencies in this category for assuming an entry level staff position. Standard deviations for each group were less than 1.0 for all competencies in this category.
V. Environmental and Organizational Management. Mean scores and standard deviations of the three research groups for extent of importance of the competencies in the category of Environmental and Organizational Management are reported in Table 13. FTs and CSAOs reported highest mean scores for competency No. 30, "recognize and accept the ethical consequences of personal and professional behavior." DOHs reported the highest mean scores for competency No. 31, "select, train, and supervise staff." FTs and CSAOs reported the lowest mean scores for competency No. 32, "manage physical resources and facilities." DOHs reported the lowest mean score for competency No. 23, "develop and administer a budget." Mean scores for FTs and DOHs were greater than 3.0 for every competency in this category. Mean scores for the category of Environmental and Organizational Management were greater than 3.0 for FTs (3.340), DOHs (3.342), and CSAOs (3.413), indicating a tendency in the direction of importance of the competencies in this category for assuming an entry level staff position. Standard deviations for each group were less than 1.0 for


70
range on possession of competencies in his category. Standard deviations for all groups on all competencies were less than 1.0.
II Consultation. Mean scores and standard deviations for each of the three groups for extent of agreement with possession of competencies in the category of Consultation are reported in Table 5. For all groups the highest mean scores were for competency No. 5, "recognize and use expertise of others." The lowest FT mean score was for competency No. 7, "facilitate staff development through in-service training (3.080). DOHs reported the lowest mean score for competency No. 6, "facilitate group problem solving and group decisionmaking" (2.872). The lowest CSAO mean score was for competency No. 7, "facilitate staff development through in-service training" (2.644). Mean scores for FTs for every competency in this category and for the category itself (3. 303) were greater than 3.0, indicating a tendency in the direction toward the "agree" response range or possession for this category of competencies. Mean scores of DOHs for all competencies in this category were less than 3.0. Mean scores of DOHs (2.921) and CSAOs (2.846) on possession for the category of Consultation were less than 3.0, indicating a tendency in the direction of the "disagree" response range for this category of competencies. Standard deviations for each respondent group were less than 1.0 for all competencies.
III Communication. Mean scores and standard deviations for each of the three groups for extent of agreement with possession of the competencies in the category of Communication are reported in Table 6. The highest mean score for FTs (3.320) was for competency No. 10, "make effective use of verbal and non-verbal skills in group


training in the competencies necessary to function effectively in an entry level position in student affairs. This objective was stated as research question one.
1. Do recent graduates of master's level preparation programs in
student personnel administration enter the field of student affairs with training in entry level competencies as result of their preparation programs?
The instrument used in this study contained 33 competency items
organized in five conceptual categories. Those categories were:
I Goal Setting
II Consultation
III Communication
IV Assessment and Evaluation
V Environmental and Organizational Management
The extent to which each of the three research groups perceived
that recent master's graduates of preparation programs enter the field
of student affairs with training in the competencies was determined by
asking each group of participants to assess the extent to which they
perceived recent graduates to have possessed each competency. Each
group of participants was asked to assess possession through their
response to the following statement for each competency: "Recent
master's degree graduates possess this competency." Each participant
in the study responded to the statement on the following four-point
scale.
Possession of the Competency
4 Agree strongly (AS)
3 Agree (A)
2 Disagree (D)
1 Disagree strongly (DS)


TABLE 7
MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR FACULTY (FTs), DIRECTORS OF HOUSING (DOHs) AND CHIEF STUDENT AFFAIRS OFFICERS (CSAOs)
ON EXTENT OF AGREEMENT WITH POSSESSION OF COMPETENCIES
IN THE CATEGORY OF ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
a b C
FT DOH CSAO
CATEGORY/COMPETENCY MEAN SD MEAN SD MEAN SD
IV. Assessment and Evaluation 2.930 .411 2.673 .428 2.611 .415
15. Assess Student Needs 3.160 .570 2.796 .543 2.744 .646
16. Analyze and Interpret Program
Needs and Requests 3.000 .601 2.723 .557 2.667 .519
17. Design Student Programs Based
on Student Needs 3.095 .601 2.798 .681 2.767 .582
18. Interpret and Understand Various
Evaluation Strategies 2.800 .593 2.489 .668 2.444 .602
19. Identify and Understand Various
Evaluative Strategies 2.797 .596 2.457 .650 2.449 .544
20. Design and Implement a Program
to Evaluate Staff 2.547 .599 2.553 .633 2.373 .661
21. Revise Programs on the Basis of
Evaluation Data 2.773 .727 2.553 .633 2.516 .584
22. Recognize and Analyze Interper-
sonal Problems 3.253 .572 3.000 .568 2.912 .590
a b c
n=75 n=94 n=91


-53-
with training in entry level competencies as a result of their training programs?
2. Do CSAOS, DOHs, and FTs have similar perceptions of the
training recent master's degree graduates of preparation programs in student personnel administration receive for the identified entry level competencies?
3. Is it important for recent master's degree graduates from student
personnel preparation programs to have acquired these competencies prior to full time entry into the student affairs field?
4. Do CSAOs, DOHs, and FTs have similar perceptions of the
importance of these entry level competencies?
Frequencies procedures were applied to the questions in Part I of the instrument providing percentage responses for each item on all respondents.
An analysis of variance for repeated measures was applied to the data from Part II to provide measures of central tendency for each respondent group on the possession and importance variables.
A multivariate analysis of variance was conducted on categories and competencies for each group for variables of possession and importance to determine similarity/differences among the three groups of their perceptions of possession and importance of each category and competency. If differences were observed at the .05 level of significance for any category or competency on possession or importance Duncan's multiple range test was performed to determine between what groups a significant difference existed.
Chapter Summary
The design and methodology encorporated in the study has been outlined in this chapter consisting of a) research objectives, b) research populations, c) development of the instrument, d)


49
entry level staff earned a Master's degree in a field related to student affairs. Those responding to the faculty instrument were asked to indicate how many students had graduated from the respondent's academic program with a master's degree, if the respondents had ever (currently or at one time) served in an administrative capacity in student affairs, and if so, in what capacity.
Part II of the instrument requested that recipients in each sample respond to each competency by indicating 1) if recent master's degree graduates of preparation programs in student personnel administration have possessed the competency and 2) the importance of the competency for assuming an entry level staff position. The recipients of the instrument were asked to respond twice to each competency by circling the number which best reflected their perception based on the
following key:
Indicate the extent of your agreement with the following statement for each competency.
"Recent master's degree graduates in student personnel administration possess this competency."
Possession of Competency
1. Disagree strongly(DS)
2. Disagree (D)
3. Agree (A)
4. Agree strongly (AS)
Indicate the extent to which you believe each competency is important for assuming an entry level staff position
Importance of the Competency
1 Not important (NI)
2. Of little importance. (LI)
3. Important (I)
4. Not important (NI)
The instrument was pilot tested at the University of Florida using five student affairs administrative staff and five faculty members in the department associated with the preparation program for student personnel administration. The pilot test requested: 1) respondents' evaluation of the competencies, 2) respondents' understanding of the intent of the study, and 3) any suggestions they could offer.


TABLE 5
MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR FACULTY (FTs), DIRECTORS OF HOUSING (DOHs) AND CHIEF STUDENT AFFAIRS OFFICERS (CSAOs)
ON EXTENT OF AGREEMENT WITH POSSESSION OF COMPETENCIES
IN THE CATEGORY OF CONSULTATION
FT
a
DOH
b
CSAO
CATEGORY/COMPETENCY
MEAN
SD
MEAN
SD
MEAN
SD
II Consultation
3.303
.478
2.921
.422
2,846
.387
5. Recognize and Use Expertise
of Others
3.413
639
2.979
604
3.022
577
6. Facilitate Group Problem Solving
and Group Decision-Making
3.347
581
2.872
609
2.824
529
7. Facilitate Staff Development
Through In-Service Training
3.080
731
2.935
656
2.644
641
8. Work Effectively With A Diversity
Individual Students
3.373
610
2.892
616
2.901
716
a
n=75
n=94
n=91


-82-
reported the lowest mean scores for competency No. 7, "facilitate staff development through in-service training." Mean scores for DOHs and CSAOs were greater than 3.0 for all competencies except competency No. 7. Mean scores for FTs were greater than 3.0 for all competencies in this category. Mean scores for the category of consultation
were above 3.0 for FTs (3.573), DOHs (3.476) and CSAOs (3.431), indicating a tendency in the direction of the importance of the competencies in this category for assuming an entry level staff position. Standard deviations for each group were less than 1.0 for all competencies in this category.
II. Communication. Mean scores and standard deviations of the three research groups for extent of importance of the competencies in the category of Communication are reported in Table 11. The highest FT mean score was for competency No. 10, "make effective use of verbal and non-verbal skills in group presentations." The highest mean scores for DOHs and CSAOs were for competency No. 11, "perceive and accurately interpret attitudes, beliefs, and needs of others." All groups reported the lowest mean scores for competency No. 14, "determining usage of office management procedures." Mean scores for the category of Communication were above 3.0 for FTs (3.341), DOHs (3.287), and CSAOs (3.411), indicating a tendency in the direction of the importance of these competencies for assuming an entry level staff position. Standard deviations for each group were less than 1.0 for all competencies.
IV. Assessment and Evaluation. Mean scores and standard deviations of the three groups for extent of importance of the compe-


-96-
IV Assessment and Evaluation
15. Assess student needs
16. Analyze and interpret program needs and requests
17. Design student programs based on student needs
18. Interpret and understand various evaluation strategies
19. Identify and understand various evaluation strategies
20. Design and implement a program to evaluate staff
21. Revise programs on the basis of evaluation data
22. Recognize and analyze interpersonal problems
Mean scores for each of the three research groups on possession and importance for the category of Assessment and Evaluation are provided in Table 23. These means were used in the analysis summarized in Table 24.
TABLE 23
MEAN SCORES FOR GROUPS ON POSSESSION AND IMPORTANCE OF ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
Group N Possession Importance
FTs 75 2.930 3.330
DOHs 94 2.673 3.250
CSAOs 91 2.611 3.263
TABLE 24
MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS, ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
DF = 2,257 ALPHA = .05
F-Value P>F Implication
Possession 13.05 .0001 Significant
Importance .96 .3836 Not Significant


105
Review of the Literature
The specific purpose of the literature review was to provide background on the field of student affairs work as it related to issues of standards, quality, and excellence in the profession. The emerging profession was reviewed through an examination of the historical role of student affairs in high education; identification of criteria as a profession, examination of professional status; and a review of the current focus on student development. The development of preparation programs was traced through a review of background, selection and standards, content, program models, program assessments, and recommendations. The issue of professional competency was examined in the light of expectations generally ascribed to the preparation programs.
The research population for this study included 150 chief student affairs officers (CSAOs), 141 director's of housing (DOHs), and 162 faculty (FTs). The CSAOs and DOHs were employed at four year public and private post secondary education institutions. The FTs were employed at institutions with departments offering graduate programs in student personnel administration leading to a master's degree.
A two-part research instrument was designed and developed for distribution to the 453 student affairs professionals included in this study. Part I of the instrument sought demographic information to 14 questions from FTs and 12 questions from CSAOs and DOHs. Part II of the instrument asked participants to respond on a four-point interval scale to 33 professional competencies. For each competency, participants were asked to indicate a) the extent to which


158
Miller, T. J., and Prince, J. S. The future of student affairs. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1976"!
Minetti, R. H. An analytical description of the relationship
between the academic training and assistantship experiences of master's degree programs in student personnel administration (Doctoral dissertation7 Michigan State University, 1977). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1978, 38, 5955A. (University Microfilms No. 7803534)
Mueller, K. H. "Criteria for evaluating professional status."
Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1959, 37, 410-417.
Mueller, K. H. Student personnel work in higher education. Boston:
Houghton-Miffin Co. 1961.
Nash, R. Saurman, K., and Sousa, G. "Student affairs personnel as
partners in the instructional venture." NASPA Journal, 1975, 13, 57-58.
Newton, F. B., and Hellenga, G. "Assessment of learning and process objectives in student personnel training programs." Journal of College Student Personnel 15, 1974, 15, 492-497.
Newton, F. B. and Richardson, R. C. "Expected entry level
competencies of student personnel workers." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1976, 17, 426-430.
Nygreen, G. T. "Professional preparation for student personnel
service." NASPA Proceedings of the Forty-Seventh Conference, Washington, D. C.: The Association, 1965.
Nygreen, G. T. "Professional status for student personnel administrators ." Journal of the Association of Deans and Administrators of Student Affairs, 1968, 5, 283-291.
O'Banion, T. A core program proposal for the professional preparation of college and university student personnel workers (Doctoral dissertation, Florida State University, 1966). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1967, 27, 2361A. (University Microfilms No. 67-305)
O'Banion, T. "Program proposal for preparing college student
personnel workers." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1969, 10, 249-253.
Ostroth, D. D. Procedures and criteria used in selecting entry-level
college student personnel professionals (Doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University, 1979). Dissertation Abstracts International 1977, 38, 1265A. (University Microfilms No. 77-10,214)


TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWL EDGMENTS
111
ABSTRACT
v 1
CHAPTER
I. DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY
1
1
4
Int roduc t i on..............................
Purpose ..................................
Questions for Investigation .............. 4
Justification for the Study.............. 5
.................... 10
.................... 14
.................... 14
.................... 15
.................... 16
Conceptua1 Framework.
Assumpt i ons..........
Limi t at i ons .........
De f ini t i ons..........
Overview of the Study
II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
17
Student Personnel as an Emerging
Profession.............................. 17
Development of Student Personnel
Preparation Programs..................... 28
Chapter Summary............................ 4 0
III. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY................ 42
Research Obj ect ives
42 42
Research Popu1 at ion.......................
Development of the Instrument............. 45
Endorsement of the Study.................. 50
Administration of the Instrument.......... 51
.................... 52
.................... 52
.................... 53
Treatment of the Data Research Questions... Chapter Summary......
IV. PRESENTATION OF THE DATA
55
Demographic Profile of Respondents........ 56
Data on Possession of Competencies........ 64
Data on Importance of Competencies........ 78
Chapter Summary........................... 100
iv


3, and 4 in this category. A significant difference was found on extent of importance for competency 3. The results of Duncan's multiple range test, summarized in Table 35 of Appendix H indicate that FTs differed significantly with DOHs and CSAOs on possession for competencies 2, 3, and 4. A significant difference existed between FTs and DOHs on extent of perceived importance of competency 3. II. Consultation
5. Recognize and facilitate group problem solving and group
decision making
6. Facilitate group problem solving and group decision making
7. Facilitate staff development through in-service training
8. Work effectively with a diversity of individual students and
faculty
Mean scores for each of the three research groups on possession and importance for the category of Consultation are provided in Table 17. These means were used in the analysis summarized in Table 18.
TABLE 17
MEAN SCORES FOR GROUPS ON POSSESSION AND
IMPORTANCE OF CONSULTATION
Group B Possession Importance
FTs 75 3.303 3.573
DOHs 94 2.921 3.476
CSAOs 91 2.846 3.431
TABLE 18
MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS, CONSULTATION DF = 2,257 ALPHA = .05
F-Value P>F Implication
Possession 26.35 .0001 Significant
Importance 3.26 .0399 Not Significant


-106-
they agreed that recent master's graduates possessed the competency and b) the extent to which they believed the competency was important for assuming an entry level staff position in student affairs. The 33 competencies were derived from previous studies on competencies necessary for student affairs staff (Domeier, 1977; Minetti, 1977; Hanson, Note 2,). A modification of the Tomorrow's Higher Education (T.H.E.) model (Miller and Prince, 1976) was used as the foundation for a conceptual framework, providing categories for which the competencies were identified. The categories from the modified T.H.E. conceptual model and the 33 competencies utilized in the study included the following:
I. Goal Setting
1. Write behavioral objectives
2. Identify and articulate institution's goals and policies
to students
3. Teach students the consequences of their behavior
4. Engage in systematic planning II. Consultation
5. Recognize and use expertise of others
6. Facilitate group problem solving and group decision
making.
7. Facilitate staff development through in-service
training.
8. Work effectively with a diversity of individual
students and faculty.
III. Communication
9. Analyze and write memos and reports
10. Make effective use of verbal and nonverbal skills in
group presentations


TABLE 37
DUNCAN'S MULTIPLE RANGE TEST FOR POSSESSION AND IMPORTANCE
OF COMPETENCIES IN THE CATEGORY OF COMMUNICATION WHERE SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES WERE IDENTIFIED
ALPHA = .05
DF = 230
POSSESSION
IMPORATANCE
III. Communication Competencies
Duncan Grouping
Mean
N
Group
Duncan Grouping
Mean
N
Group
9. Analyze and Write Memos and Reports A
B B
B
10. Make Effective Use Presentations A
B
B
11. Perceive Interpret ... of Others A
B B
B
NOTE: Means with the same letter are not significantly different
DF Degrees of Freedom
2.892 65 FT
2.6024 83 CSAO
2.424 85 DOH
3.354 65 FT A 3.677 65 FT
2.855 83 CSAO B 3.471 85 DOH
B
2.835 85 DOH B 3.458 83 CSAO
3.200 65 FT
2.783 83 CSAO
2.765 85 DOH


-110-
Question 2
Do chief student affairs officers (CSAOs), directors of housing (DOHs) and faculty (FTs) have similar perceptions of the training recent master's degree graduates of preparation programs in student personnel administration receive for the identified entry level
competencies?
This question was answered by determining if statistically significant differences existed among the mean scores of the three groups for possession of each category and competency. Statistical significance for this study was set at alpha = .05. Where significant differences were found additional testing was done to determine between which groups there were differences.
Statistically significant differences were found among the groups on possession of the competencies for all five categories in the study. For each category, FTs reported a significantly higher extent of agreement for possession of the competencies that DOHs and CSAOs. Statistically significant differences were obtained for the three groups on 29 of the 33 individual competencies. For most of these competencies FTs reported a significantly higher extent of agreement for possession by recent graduates than DOHs or CSAOs. Question 3
Is it important for recent master's degree graduates from preparation programs in student personnel administration to have acquired these competencies prior to full time entry into the student affairs field?


-37-
-
A longitudinal study of the graduate assistantship work training experience highlighted the importance of experiential learning in
preparation programs (McGovern and Tinsley, 1976).
Various trends in preparation have been observed. There has
been increased emphasis on training for the generalist rather than specialists (Emmet, 1963). There is a trend away from counseling and guidance courses as a prerequisite for student personnel work (Emmet, 1963). Riker (1977) observed that professional preparation programs are placing more responsibility on students for demonstrating learning and skill attainment and utilizing faculty more as supervisors, and resource persons. He believed that as the concept of competency-based curriculum receives greater attention, carefully planned learning modules would replace content courses.
Needs / Recommendations
Practicums and internships have been recognized as valuable components of preparation programs. Kirkbride (1972) recommended that 1) practicums be offered at the end of the formal training program, 2) greater emphasis be placed on exposure to generalists than specialists, 3) a team of supervisors rather than individuals be utilized (p. 84).
Increased recognition was made of the need to analyze training content in terms of actual job function and job expectations in an effort to lessen the disparity between training and job performance (Blaesser and Froelich, 1950; Stroughton, 1957).
Preparation programs must increase their attention to the administration and management of higher education (Appleton, Briggs,


TABLE 13
MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR FACULTY (FTs), DIRECTORS OF HOUSING (DOHs) AND CHIEF STUDENT AFFAIRS OFFICERS (CSAOs)
ON EXTENT OF IMPORTANCE OF COMPETENCIES IN THE CATEGORY OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL MANAGEMENT
FT3 DOHb CSAO
CATEGORY/COMPETENCY
MEAN
SD
MEAN
SD
MEAN
SD
V. Environmental and Organizational
Management
3.348
.369
3.342
.322
3.413
.344
23. Develop and Administer a Budget
24. Organize Resources (People,
Material) to carry out Program
3.133
.794
2.892
.729
3.253
.643
I
oo
I
Activities
3.440
575
3.415
557
3.615
511
25. Understand Institutional Mission,
Objectives, and Expectations
3.653
532
3.234
629
3.549
563
26. Know and Utilize Effective
Decision-Making Strategies
3.419
524
3.383
551
3.505
524
27. Accept Authority and Responsibility and Delegate as
Appropriate
3.432
551
3.564
499
3.582
.496
28. Identify and Utilize Available
Financial Resources
3.260
646
3.032
630
3.220
.533
n=75
b
n=94
n=91


TABLE 38 Continued
POSSESSION
IMPORTANCE
IV. Assessment and Evaluation Competencies Duncan Grouping Mean N Group Duncan Grouping Mean N Group
19. Identify Evaluation Strategies A 2.846 65 FT
B 2.470 83 CSAO
B
B 2.424 85 DOH
20. Design Program Evaluate Staff A 3.282 85 DOH
B 3.077 65 FT
B
B 3.072 83 CSAO
21. Revise Programs Evaluation Data A 2.815 65 FT
B 2.529 85 DOH
B
B 2.506 83 CSAO t
22. Recognize Interpersonal Problems A 3.292 65 FT
B 2.965 85 DOH
B
B 2.916 83 CSAO
NOTE: Means with the same letter are not significantly different
I
i
DF
Degrees of Freedom


-52-
recipients who had failed to respond to the initial request (See Appendix). This request asked that the instrument be returned within two weeks.
Treatment of the Data
Responses obtained on each of the 33 competencies in Part II of the instrument yielded an individual score for each competency on possession and importance.
Responses to the question on possession provided a measure of the extent to which respondents in each sample perceived entry level staff to possess or not possess each competency.
Responses to the question on importance provided a measure of the extent to which respondents in each sample perceived each competency important or not important for the assumption of an entry level staff position. ^
The Statistical Analysis System (SAS) computer program was the primary tool used in analyzing the data. This program system enabled the researcher to perform various types of data analysis relevant to the design of the study.
All instruments were number coded to allow for identification with the appropriate sample. The results from all useable, returned instruments were tranferred on to data coding sheets and subsequently punched on to IBM cards.
Procedures were selected from the SAS program which enabled the
researcher to answer the research questions asked in the study.
Those questions were as follows:
Research Questions
1. Do recent graduates of master's level preparation programs in
student personnel administration enter the field of student affairs


developed by T. J. Miller and J. S. Prince in The Future of Student Affairs served as the conceptual framework for this study. The modified model identified categories of development which included goal setting, consultation, communication, assessment and evaluation, and environmental and organizational management. From a review of the literature and related research, a two-part research instrument was developed which included 33 competencies recommended by faculty, practitioners, and professional associations for entry level student affairs staff. The instrument was administered to 162 faculty, 141 directors of housing and 150 chief student affairs officers. A response rate of 46.3% of faculty, 66.7% of directors of housing, and 60.7% of chief student affairs officers was achieved.
The results of the study indicated the T.H.E. model was an appropriate framework for the identification and conceptualization of the important learning outcomes of professional preparation programs in student personnel administration.
Chief student affairs officers and directors of housing indicated doubt as to whether recent master's graduates of preparation programs possessed competencies in any of the five conceptual categories. Each of the three groups believed that the competencies in all categories were important for assuming an entry level position in student affairs.
The three groups did not have similar perceptions of the training recent graduates received for the competencies. Faculty perceived significantly greater possession of the competencies by recent grad-uates in all conceptual categories. The three groups did have similar perceptions of the importance of the competencies in all five categories for assuming an entry level position in student affairs.
-vii-


closer to the recognition of student personnel administration as a "profession." He indicated the need for generally set standards of performances and competencies for graduates of preparation programs. Penn (1973) supported this viewpoint by observing that professional competence in the field of student affairs was related to knowledge and specific skills learned in preparation programs.
Curriculum guidelines have been addressed by the American College Personnel Association (ACPA), Council of Student Personnel Associations (COSPA), and others (O'Banion, 1966; Rhatigan, 1965). Many of the programs listed in the most recent issue (1980) of the ACPAfs Directory of Graduate Preparation Programs in College Student Personnel provided course offerings as well as other developmental experiences consistent with curricular recommendations. To date, no credentials or standards are required by states, regional accrediting agencies, or professional associations for entry into the field of student affairs.
Rhatigan (1968) noted that the issue of professional preparation was extremely complex. Such complexity was due to multiple areas of specialization, many levels of training, and different sizes and types of institutions to be served. In his study of professional preparation he concluded there was an urgent need for research that related training experiences to professional effectiveness. Such research must involve examination of skills, attitudes, and knowledge that effective administrators possess (Rhatigan, 1968).
The logical outcomes of preparation programs are the competencies which graduates of the programs should acquire prior to entry into the profession. Such competencies have been identified in several studies


student personnel administration receive for the identified entry-level competencies?
3. Is it important for recent master's degree graduates from student
personnel preparation programs to have acquired these competencies prior to the full time entry into the student affairs field?
4. Do CSAOs, DOHs, and FTs have similar perceptions of the
importance of these entry level competencies?
Justification for the Study
The need for competently trained staff has been a concern of student personnel professionals for over thirty years. LaBarre (1948) observed that despite increased needs for personnel workers no assurances could be given that the work would be done by competently trained persons unless some measures of their proficiency were designed to meet minimum qualifications. LaBarre indicated that there was a need for basic work standards in the field. She called for professional student personnel associations to undertake research and study to establish minimum performance standards on a national scale. She believed preparation programs offered the logical place to identify criteria upon which professional standards might be based.
The literature of the field has identified concern for quality and excellence in professional preparation programs. One study of the professional preparation of college student personnel administrators observed that professional preparation assumed increased importance as a function of trends toward professionalization and increased demands from professionally trained workers (Hoyt and Rhatigan, 1968). In another study of preparation programs in student personnel, Rockey (1972) identified key components of a College Student Personnel preparation program to be quality faculty and students, sufficient elaboration of the program, strong, supporting departments, institutional


99
TABLE 27
MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS, ENVIRONMENTAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL MANAGEMENT
DF = 2,257 ALPHA = .05
F-Value P>F Implication
Possession 12.35 .0001 Significant
Importance 1.16 .3139 Not Significant
A significant difference among the three groups on the extent of agreement that recent master's graduates of preparation programs possess competencies in the category of Environmental and Organizational Management is indicated in Table 27. FTs differed significantly with both DOHs and CSAOs in the extent to which they agree recent graduates of preparation programs possess competencies in the category of Environmental and Organizational Management as shown in Duncan's multiple range test in Table 28..
TABLE 28
DUNCAN'S MULTIPLE RANGE TEST FOR POSSESSION OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL MANAGEMENT
Group N Mean Duncan Grouping
FT 75 2.934
A
CSAO 91 2.667
DOH 94 2.630
B B B
Note. Means with the same letter are not significantly different.


Professional preparation at the master's level must provide background or history, philosophy, and theory in building foundations for effective professional education in a broad context (Trueblood, 1966; O'Banion, 1969; Delworth and Hanson, 1980). Such preparation must also provide opportunity for the acquisition and application of skills and competencies necessary for effective functioning in full time, professional student affairs positions (Domeier, 1977, Minetti, 1977; Delworth and Hanson, 1980; Stamatakos, 1981). These opportunities are generally provided through practicums, internships, and assistantships.
A model core curriculum for master's degree, entry level student affairs practitioners was developed by Delworth and Hanson (1980). This core curriculum was developed in consideration of the need to reexamine the variety of roles student affairs professionals assume and to allow for the introduction of new ideas, concepts, and models of practice. Such a curriculum would permit a continuous evolution consistent with the changing needs of the profession and current models of practice. Delworth and Hanson's curriculum components included the following: 1) history and philosophy, 2) theory, 3) models of practice and role orientation, 4) core competencies, 5) specialized competencies, 6) administration and management, 7) practicum or field work, 8) additional theory and tool courses.
The Council of Student Personnel Administrators (COSPA) identified the purpose of professional preparation in the following statement:
The goal of professional preparation programs is the preparation of persons who in addition to having obtained a high level of self development have skills in collaborating with others in their self development.


154
Cowley, W. H. "The nature of student personnel work." Educational
Record, 1936, 17, 198-226.
Cowley, W. H. "Some history and a venture in prophecy." In E. G.
Williamson (Ed.), Trends in student personnel work. Minneapolis:
University of Minnesota Press, 1949.
Cowley, W. H. "Student personnel services in retrospect and
prospect." School and Society, 1957, 5, 19-22.
Cowley, W. H. "Reflections of a troublesome but hopeful Rip Van
Winkle." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1964, 6, 66-73.
Crane, Robert M. "The raison d'etre of a college student personnel
administrator." Improving College and University Teaching, 1965, 13, 19-20.
Crookston, B. B. "An organizational model for student development."
NASPA Journal, 1972, 10, 3-13.
Crookston, B. B. "Student personnel ... all hail and farewell!"
Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1976, 5^5, 26-29,
Cross, K. P. "Student personnel work as a profession." Journal of
College Student Personnel, 1973, 14, 77-81.
Davies, T. G. Proposed behavioral competencies for members of the
junior college presidential cabinet (Doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University, 1970). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1971, 31, 5692A. (University Microfilms No. 71-11815)
Davis, I. C. Analysis of a graduate program for college student
personnel work based on determined criteria (Doctoral dissertation Indiana University, 1956). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1957, 17, 572. (University Microfilms No. 17-766)
Delworth, U., and Hanson, G. Student Services. San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass, 1980.
Delworth, U. and Yarris, E. "Concepts and process in the new
training roles." In U. Delworth (Ed.), New Directions for student services: Training competent staff no. 2. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1978.
Dewey, M. E. "The student personnel worker of 1980." Journal of
National Association of Women Deans and Counselors"! 1972, 35, 59-64.
Dewey, M. E. "Systems philosophy as professional preparation." In
G. H. Knock (Ed.), Perspective on the preparation of student affairs professionals. Student Personnel Series no. 22. Washington, D.C.: American College Personnel Association, 1977.


29
78% held teaching appointments. Only 10% had no academic rank. A later study by Foy (1969) of career patterns of student personnel administrators revealed that 41% of those working in student affairs had graduate degree training in guidance, counseling, or student personnel. Eighty-six percent of the respondents believed that formal training of new student personnel administrators was of great importance.
Historically, the first formal training program began at Teachers' College, Columbia University (LaBarre, 1948; Barry and Wolf, 1957; Lloyd-Jones, 1962; Klopf, 1963) in 1913. Early concepts of educational personnel work were confined to vocational guidance. Parallel to this was the emphasis on counseling and guidance. By 1926, a prospective vocational guidance worker could find coursework at 40 schools; the neophyte dean at 24 (Barry and Wolf, 1957). The contributions of training were felt to be improved practice, advanced theory, production of trained workers and promotion of the field of student personnel. The primary issues related to training identified then and relevant today included content, methodology, selection, and evaluation
(Barry and Wolf, 1957). Selection and Standards
Wrenn (1952) considered "the issues of selection and standards to be the major unresolved problems in the preparation of student personnel practitioners. He believed graduate institutions should accept the responsibility for admitting into training programs only those who demonstrated some evidence that they would succeed in the graduate program and on the job. Anderson (1948) urged the development of standards that would serve as criteria for selection of


V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS.. 101
A Summary of the Development of the Study.. 101
,............................... 109
................................ 112
Findings...................................
Conelus ions................................
Implications and Considerations
....................... 114
for Further Study
APPENDIX
A RESEARCH INSTRUMENT FOR FACULTY................. 117
B RESEARCH INSTRUMENT FOR DIRECTORS OF HOUSING
AND CHIEF STUDENT AFFAIRS OFFICERS......... 120
C LETTER OF ENDORSEMENT FROM VICE PRESIDENT FOR
STUDENT AFFAIRS.........................
D LETTER OF ENDORSEMENT FROM RESEARCH AND INFOR
MATION COMMITTEE .......................
E FOLLOW-UP POST CARD
F TABLE LISTING MEAN SCORES FOR EACH GROUP BY
COMPETENCY FOR POSSESSION AND IMPORTANCE BY CATEGORY.............................
G TABLES LISTING MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE
FOR GROUPS BY CATEGORY.....................
H TABLES LISTING RESULTS OF DUNCAN'S MULTIPLE
RANGE TEST FOR POSSESSION AND IMPORTANCE BY CATEGORY ............................
REFEREBCE NOTES
REFERENCES
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
v
123
126
128
130
134
140
150
151
163


103
A recent study to determine attitudes about the quality of professional preparation programs (Sandeen, 1982) indicated that the quality of students was too uneven and that lack of academic rigor in some programs promoted a lack of respect for programs generally.
Several studies have demonstrated that the logical outcomes of preparation programs are the competencies which graduates of the programs should acquire prior to entry into the profession (Hanson, 1977; Domeier, 1977, Minetti, 1977). Other studies have indicated that the acquisition of professional competencies represent a primary objective of preparation programs (Williamson, 1952; Newton and Hellenga, 1974). Such competencies have provided a means by which the productivity of graduate preparation programs for the student affairs field could be measured. Stamatakos (1981) concluded that there was no published research evidence to support the notion that those hired for student affairs positions possess the general skills and competencies that have been identified in the literature.
This study focused on three groups of professionals in the student affairs field. Faculty, chief student affairs officers, and directors of housing were surveyed to determine the extent to which they agreed that recent master's degree graduates of preparation programs actually possessed the professional competencies identified in
to
the literature. The three groups were also asked to assess the extent to which they believed these competencies were important for assuming entry level positions in student affairs.
The data collected from this study may provide relevant information for those responsible for training prospective student affairs


TABLE 3 Continued
CHARACTERISTIC
Current or previous administrative service
Residence Halls/Housing Student Activities/Unions Financial Aid Counseling Center Career Planning/Placement Dean of Students Office Chief Student Affairs Officer Academic Department Head Chief Academic Officer
PERCENT
31 41.3 22 29.3 10 13.3 30 40.0 10 13.3
32 42.7 10 13.3 16 21.3
1 1.3


TABLE 29 Continued
FTs
DOHs
b
CSAOs
COMPETENCY
POSSESSION
IMPORTANCE
POSSESSION
IMPORTANCE
POSSESSION
IMPORTANCE
14. Determinging Usage of Office
Procedures
2.462
2.815
2.141
2.941
2.289
2.9880
15. Assess Student Needs
3.185
3.585
2.741
3.482
2.783
3.518
16. Analyze and Interpret Requests
17. Design Student Programs Needs
3.015
3.139
3.415
3.554
2.694
2.777
3.294
3.424
2.675
2.735
3.313
3.506
18. Interpret Evaluation Strategies
2.831
3.185
2.447
3.024
2.446
3.036
19. Identify Evaluation Strategies
2.846
3.185
2.424
3.024
2.470
3.036
20. Design Program
. Evaluate Staff
2.615
3.077
2.518
3.282
2.386
3.072
21. Revise Programs Evaluation Data
2.815
3.277
2.529
3.235
2.506
3.289
22. Recognize Interpersonal Problems 3.292
23. Develop and Administer a Budget
2.539
3.554
3.185
2.965
1.894
3.447
2.918
2.916 2.169
3.482
3.277
24. Organize Resources Program
Acitivities
3.139
3.446
2.741
3.435
2.819
3.615
25. Understand Institutional Mission .
Expectations
3.000
3.631
2.459
3.271
2.627
3.566
26. Know and Utilize
Strategies
3.092
3.494
2.588
3.446
2.651
3.377
27. Accept Authority .
Appropriate
Delegate as
3.062
3.462
2.635
3.565
2.795
3.578
28. Identify and Utilize Resources
2.785
3.339
2.353
3.035
2.518
3.241


-109-
measures, and THE GLM program for multivariate analysis of variance were appropraitely utilized. Duncan's multiple range test was used to do post hoc, pair-wise comparisons between groups where significant differences were indicated.
Findings
The findings in this study are presented in response to each of the four questions for investigation. Question 1
Do recent graduates of master's level preparation programs in student personnel administration enter the field of student affairs with training in entry level competencies as a result of their preparation programs?
This question was answered by examining the mean scores generated by respondents in each of the three groups as they indicated the extent of their respective agreement for possession of each competency by recent master's degree graduates. Mean scores obtained for FTs were above 3.0 on categories of Goal Setting, Consultation, and Communication which indicated a tendency in the direction of agreement on possession of competencies in these categories by recent graduates. Mean scores for FTs were below 3.0 on categories of Assessment and Evaluation and Environmental Organizational Management which indicated a tendency in the direction of disagreement on possession of competencies in these categories by recent graduates.
Mean scores of DOHs and CSAOs were below 3.0 for all five categores in this study which indicated a tendency in the direction of disagreement on possession of competencies in all categories by recent graduates.


114
The results of the study support the conclusion that all three groups of student affairs professionals found competencies in the category of Consultation are most likely to be possessed by recent master's graduates of preparation programs in student personnel administration. The three groups also found competencies in the category of Consultation were most important for assuming an entry level position in the field of student affairs.
The results of the study support the conclusion that all three groups of student affairs professionals found competencies in the category of Assessment and Evaluation were least important for assuming an entry level position in student affairs.
Implications and Considerations for Further Study ; results of this study have raised a number of issues and s which merit additional consideration and further study, what has been identified in the literature regarding what
to be done" is supported by the results of this study.
Content analysis of preparation programs in terms of actual job function and job expectations is warranted in an effort to lessen the disparity between training and job performance (Blaesser and Froehlich 1950; Stroughton,
1957).
Increased attention to the development of skills in the administration and management of higher education on the part of preparation programs is warranted (Yates, 1977; Appleton, Briggs, Rhatigan, 1978).
Collaboration between faculty and practitioners is warranted in developing learning expectations and appropriate measures of the learning outcomes which would reflect the demands of professional positions in the field of student affairs.
Demonstration by students of competence in areas agreed to by faculty and practitioners as important in assuming entry level positions in student affairs is warranted.
Consideration might be given to an examination of recent graduates' perceptions of their own possession of competencies compared to perceptions of faculty.


(Domeier, 1977; Minetti, 1977; Hanson, Note 2), and have provided a means by which the productivity of graduate training programs in student personnel can be measured. In the development of a program for evaluating outcomes of an educational program, certain basic assumptions must be considered:
1. The kinds of changes in behavior patterns in human beings
which the program seeks to bring about are its educational objectives.
2. An educational program is appraised by finding out how far
the objectives of the programs are actually being realized.
Previous studies have indicated that the acquisition of professional competencies represents a primary objective of preparation programs (Williamson, 1952; Newton and Hellenga, 1974).
In a study that examined the training of student affairs administrators for specified competency tasks, Domeier (1977) recommended examination of the purposes and quality of student affairs training programs in relation to specified competencies. She indicated that, with some modification, her questionnaire could be utilized as an assessment instrument or as a guide to competency development in student affairs preparation programs. A similar study by Minetti (1977) sought to determine the relationship between the academic training and assistantship experiences in preparation programs by identifying the locus of preparation for entry level competencies necessary for work in the field of student affairs. He indicated that the study addressed the "should be" or ideal for professional preparation (p. 156). He recommended further study to investigate and compare with what in reality is occurring in training programs.


18
construction of dormitories was to supervise the lives and studies of students. Discipline was the primary reason for staff interaction with students outside the confines of the classroom. Generally, the emphasis was on control with the president and the faculty acting in the role of guardians to provide direction for the students, often in the form of sanctions for unacceptable behavior.
Explosive enrollments spurred by the Land Grant Act in 1862 brought about an abrupt change in emphasis in higher education and with it a need to deal with large numbers of heterogeneous students (Shaffer and Martinson, 1966). These developments brought with them a different set of student needs that required staff attention in more diverse ways. The appointments of the first deans of women and men around the turn of the century signaled the emergency of student personnel work. Appleton, Briggs, and Rhatigan (1978) identified factors which contributed to the origins of student personnel work:
1. The development of land grant institutions and the rise of public colleges and universities.
2. Increasing enrollments and accompanying increase in heterogeneity of student populations.
3. Social, political, and intellectual ferment in the nation.
4. Rise of coeducation and increase in numbers of women entering institutions.
5. Introduction of elective systems in higher education.
6. Emphasis on vocationalism over traditional liberal arts.
7. Impact of science and the scientific method.
8. Emerging signs of fundamental struggle between empiricism and humanism.
9. Correlation between intellectualism and impersonalism on the part of faculty educated in German institutions.
10. Expanding industrialism and urbanization.


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TABLE 2
SPECIFIC PRACTITIONER RESPONDENT (DOH AND CSAO) DATA
DOIl
CSAO
Characteristic
N
Percent
N
Percent
Number of your staff hired in first professional student affairs job since employed at current
position level
Less than 5
22
23.4
17
19.5
I
7
I
5-10
22
23.4
29
33.3
11 20
20
21.3
11
12.6
more than 20
30
31.9
30
33.5
Number of your staff hired in first professional student affairs job with master's degree in field
related to higher education
Less than 5
26
28.3
21
24.7
5-10
25
27.2
29
34.1
11 20
17
18.5
16
18.8
more than 20
24
26.1
19
22.4


Ill
This question was answered by examining the mean scores generated by respondents in each of the three groups as they indicated the extent to which they believed each competency to be important for assuming an entry level position in student affairs.
Mean scores obtained for the three groups were above 3.0 on importance for all categories in this study which indicated a tendency in the direction of the importance of all the competencies for assuming entry level positions as perceived by respondents in each of the three groups. Question 4
Do CSAOs, DOHs, and FTs have similar perceptions of the importance of these entry level competencies.
This question was answered by determining if statistically significant differences existed among the mean scores of the three groups for importance of each category and competency. Where significant differences were obtained additional testing was done to determine between which groups there were significant differences.
No significant differences were found among the three groups on importance of the competencies for any of the five categories in the study. Each group perceived the competencies in this study to be important to the same extent in assuming an entry level position in student affairs.
Differences between Possession and Importance
This study did not have as an objective the determination of the differences between possession and importance for the


-90-
The means for each group on possession and importance of the competencies used in the GLM-MANOVA analysis are included in Table 29 in Appendix F.
Pair wise comparisons were made where significant differences were indicated, Duncan's multiple range test was used to determine between which groups significant differences were indicated for possession and importance. For post hoc comparison by category, 260 responses were used. Post hoc comparisons by competency used the 233 responses which contained no missing values. I. Goal Setting.
1. Write behavioral objectives
2. Identify and articulate institution's goals and policies to
students
3. Teach students to deal with the consequences of their
behavior.
4. Engage in systematic planning
Mean scores for each of the three research groups on possession and importance for the category of Goal Setting are provided in Table
MEAN SCORES FOR RESEARCH GROUPS ON POSSESSION AND
14.
TABLE 14
IMPORTANCE OF GOAL SETTING
Group
N
Poss
ession
Importance
FTs
DOHs
CSAOs
75 94
91
3.117 2.750 2.782
3.378 3.415 3.410
These means were used in the analysis in Table 15.


TABLE 1 Continued
CHARACTERISTIC FTs DOHs
N Percent N
Advanced Degree in a Field Related to Higher Education
Master1s
Yes 47 62.7 71
NO 28 37.3 23
Doctorate
Yes 70 93.3 33
No 5 6.7 61
Membership in Professional Association
ACPA
ACUHO
NASPA
NANDAC
Other
CSAOs_CUMULATIVE
Percent N Percent N Percent
75.5
60
65.9
178
68.5
24.5
31
34.1
82
31.5
35.1
55
60.4
158
60.8
I
I
64.9
36
39.6
102
39.2
148
56.9
107
41.2
180
69.2
25
9.6
113
43.5


-98-
V. Environmental and Organizational Management
23. Develop and administer a budget
24. Organize resources (people, material) to carry out program
activities.
25. Understand institutional mission, objectives, and expectations
26. Know and utilize effective decision-making strategies
27. Accept authority and responsibility and delegate as
appropriate
28. Identify and utilize
29. Mediate conflict among students, campus, and/or community
groups
30. Recognize and accept the ethical consequences of personal
and professional behavior
31. Select, train, and supervise staff
32. Manage physical resources and facilities
33. Adjudicate student conduct effectively
Mean scores for each of the three research groups on possession and importance for the category of Environmental and Organizational Management are provided in Table 26. These means were used in the analysis summarized in Table 27.
TABLE 26
MEAN SCORES FOR GROUPS ON POSSESSION AND IMPORTANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL MANAGEMENT
Group N Possession Importance
FTs 75 2.934 3.348
DOHs 94 2.630 3.342
CSAOs 91 2.667 3.413


73
presentations." DOHs (2.946) and CSAOs (3.044) each indicated a highest mean score for possession of competency No. 13, "recognize and define confidentiality practices and procedures." All three groups reported lowest mean scores on possession for competency No. 14, "determining use of office management procedures." The mean score for FTs for the category of Communication (3.020) was above 3.0. Mean scores for DOHs (2.692) and CSAOs (2.744) for the category of Communication were less than 3.0, indicating a tendency in the direction toward the "disagree" range with respect to possession of competencies in the this category. Standard deviations for each respondent group were less than 1.0 for all competencies in this category.
IV Assessment and Evaluation. Mean scores and standard deviations for each of the three groups for extent of agreement with possession of the competencies in the category of Assessment and Evaluation are reported in Table 7. For all groups the highest mean scores were for competency No. 22, "recognize and analyze interpersonal problems." Each group reported a lowest mean score for a different competency. Mean scores for CSAOs, were less than 3.0 for every competency in the category. Mean scores for each group for the category of Assessment and Evaluation were less than 3.0, indicating a tendency in the direction toward the "disagree" range on possession for competencies in this category. Standard deviations for each group were less than 1.0 for all competencies in this category.
V Environmental and Organizational Management. Mean scores standard deviations of the three research groups for extent of agreement with possession of the competencies in the category of Environmental and Organizational Management are reported in Table 8. The


44
support the notion that those hired for student affairs positions possess the specified competencies or whether the preparation programs have prepared their graduates with these competencies.
These three samples of student affairs professionals were selected for a number of reasons. Chief Student Affairs Officers maintain overall ultimate responsibility for the hiring of professional staff in all
student affairs departments. The quality of the student affairs staff frequently reflects the level of involvement the CSAO has with the staff. The CSAO approves and supports the expected minimal professional and educational requirements for all professional staff positions in the student affairs division.
Directors of Housing were selected because they represent a student affairs department which frequently maintains a large number of professional staff. Housing departments, providing residence facilities for 3000 students or more, hire and provide for a larger number of professional staff than do housing department which provide facilities for few than 3000 students. Departments of that size are more likely to maintain an annual operating budget, large enough to support a professionally trained residence hall staff. A study by Ostroth (1979) supports the observation that, by far, more entry level professional positions are available in the housing/residence life department than within the other departments of student affairs.
Faculty were selected primarily because they assume the responsibility for providing the formal academic and applied preparation in graduate programs of student personnel work. Their responsibility is to direct the development of graduate students who


TABLE 1 Continued
CHARACTERISTICS
FTs
Time Employed in Student Affairs Higher Education
Age
Highest Earned Degree
N
Percent
N
Less than 5 years
2
2.7
4
5 10 years
6
8.2
27
11 15 years
22
30.1
31
more than 15 years
43
58.9
31
25 35 years
3
4
33
36 45 years
30
40
43
46 55 years
23
30.7
13
over 55 years
19
24.3
3
Bachelor1s
0
4
Master1s
3
4
56
Specialist
0
0
Doctorate
72
96
34
_CSAOs_CUMULATIVE
Percent N Percent N Percent
4.3 2 2.2 8 3.1
29 7 7.7 40 15.6
33.3 29 31.9 82 31.9
33.3 53 58.2 127 49.4
35.9 10 11 46 17.8
46.7 44 48.4 117 45.4
14.1 30 33 66 25.6
3.3 7 7.7 28 10.9
4.3 0 --- 4 1.5
59.2 26 28.6 85 32.7
1 1.1 1 .4
36.2 64 70.3 170 65.4
I
CO
I


-48-
21. Revise programs on the basis of evaluation data
22. Recognize and analyze interpersonal problems
V. Environmental and Organizational Management
23. Develop and administer a budget
24. Organize resources (people, material) to carry out program
activities
25. Understand institutional mission, objectives, and
expectations
26. Know and utilize effective decision making strategies
27. Accept authority and responsibility and delegate as
appropriate
28. Identify and utilize available financial resources
29. Mediate conflict among students, campus, and/or community
groups
30. Recognize and accept the ethical consequences of personal
and professional behavior
31. Select, train, and supervise staff
32. Manage physical resources and facilities
33. Adjudicate student conduct matters effectively
An instrument including these competencies and categories was
developed for use in this study. Part I of the instrument requested
common demographic information from respondents; age, highest earned
degree, length of time in current position, length of time in the field
of student affairs, type of institution where employed, institutional
enrollment, the field(s) in which advanced degrees were earned, and
membership in professional associations. Those responding to the
practitioner instrument were asked to indicate the number of their
professional staff who have been hired in a first professional student
job since they have served at their current position level (at their
current institution and any previous institutions) and how many such


102
Questions for Investigation
This study was designed to answer the following questions:
1. Do recent graduates of master's level preparation programs
in student personnel administration enter the field of student affairs with training in entry level competencies as a result of their preparation programs?
2. Do chief student affairs officers (CSAOs), director's of
housing (DOHs), and faculty (FTs) have similar perceptions of the training recent master's degree graduates of preparation programs in student personnel administration receive for the identified entry level competencies?
3. Is it important for recent master's degree graduates from
preparation programs in student personnel administration to have acquired these competencies prior to full time entry into the student affairs field?
4. Do CSAOs, DOHs, and FTs have similar perceptions of the
importance of these entry level competencies?
Justification for the Study
The literature in the field of student affairs has identified concern for issues of standards, quality, and excellence. These issues have been significant in that they represented outcomes which more professionals believed the field of student affairs needed in the preparation of those about to enter the field. LaBarre (1949) indicated that there was a need for basic work standards in the student affairs field. She believed preparation programs provided the logical place to identify criteria upon which professional standards might be based.
Penn (1973) described the key to excellence in terms of quality programs and defined standards of acceptable performance. He noted that professional competence in the field of student affairs was related to knowledge and specific skills, learned in preparation programs.


TABLE 29 (Continued)
FTsa
COMPETENCY_POSSESSION IMPORTANCE POSSESSION_IMPORTANCE POSSESSION IMPORTANCE
29. Mediate Conflict Community Groups 3.046 3.369 2.906 3.329 2.819 3.410
30. Recognize and Accept Consequences
. Behavior 3.600 3.754 2.777 3.635 3.036 3.627
31. Select, Train, and Supervise Staff 2.892 3.339 3.000 3.741 2.735 3.337
32. Manage Physical Resources and
Facilities 2.754 3.046 2.412 3.165 2.578 3.145

33. Adjudicate Student Conduct
Effectively 2.769 3.123 2.788 3.341 2.663 3.337
D0Hsb CSA0s
a
n=75
b
n=85
n=83


philosophy, psychology, sociology, and the humanities as well as in management and administration (Crane, 1965).
Useem (1964) has observed that the difference between an occupation and a profession lies in the degree to which its cluster of skills is backed by a consistent body of theories and principles. She believed that student personnel administration was a "professionalizing" occupation in the sense there was an increasing attention to the theoretical principles out of which should flow the skilled performance. This observation of "professionalizing" of occupations was also observed by Wilensky (1964) who noted that the label was loosely applied to increasing specialization and transferability of skill; the proliferation of objective standards of work; the spread of tenure arrangements, licensing or certification; and the growth of service occupations.
Concern for the recognition of student personnel administration as a profession has been widely expressed in the literature (Cowley, 1936; Wrenn and Darley, 1949; American Council on Education, 1949; Lloyd-Jones, 1949; Feder, 1959; Mueller, 1959; Penny, 1969; Penn, 1974; Stamatakos, 1981). Wrenn and Darley have provided perhaps the best and most widely accepted criteria to determine whether student personnel work deserves identity as a profession.
1. The application of standards of selection and training.
2. The definition of job titles and functions.
3. The possession of specialized knowledge and skills.
4. The development of a professional consciousness and
professional group.
5. The self imposition of standards of admission and
performance.


-38-
Rhatigan, 1978). There has been a strong endorsement for a sharper focus on organizational development (Blaesser, 1978; McDaniel, 1972). A study by Yates (1977) of the perceptions of chief student personnel administrators and coordinaters of preparation programs regarding intended learning outcomes of doctoral programs supports this. Yates (1977) found that respondents believe there is a need for greater emphasis on the development of management skills in preparation programs.
Trueblood (1966) recommended 1) that preparation programs be open to modification based upon varying training needs, 2) that preparation programs select qualified people for training, and 3) that preparation programs develop learning expectations which reflect the demands of professional positions. The results of a study by Tracey (1971) showed that a higher priority must be given to the evaluation of and improvement of existing preparation programs.
Professional Competency
Competency results when an individual exhibits behavior that enables him to perform a particular administrative task in the most desirable manner (Southern States Cooperative Program in Educational Administration, 1955). A competency must be judged in reference to purpose and must be concerned with quality (p. 45).
No group can claim professional standing without explicit statements about what constitutes competence in the field and the means by which competence has been the beginning step in a total competency based program (McCleary, 1973).


-94-
III Communication
9. Analyze and write memos and reports
10. Make effective use of verbal and nonverbal skills in group
presentations
11. Perceive and accurately interpret attitudes, beliefs, and
needs of others
12. Represent student concerns to other campus groups
13. Recognize and define confidentiality practices and procedures
14. Determining usage of office management procedures (i.e.
secretarial services, business machine operations, print and non-print media
Mean scores for each of the three research groups on possession and importance for the category of Communication are provided in Table 20. These means were used in the analysis summarized in Table
21.
TABLE 20
MEAN SCORES FOR GROUPS ON POSSESSION AND
IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION
Group N Possession Importance
FTs 75 3.020 3.341
DOHs 94 2.692 3.287
CSAOs 91 2.744 3.412
TABLE 21
MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS, COMMUNICATION DF = 2,257 ALPHA = .05
F-Value P>F Implication
Possession 18.77 .0001 Significant
Importance 2.74 .0662 Not Significant
A significant difference among the three groups on extent of agreement that recent master's graduates of preparation programs


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Gainesville, 326 11
VICE PRESIOENT FOR STUDENT AFFAIRS
1 23 Tl GERT H 90 4 392-126
May 16, 1983
Dear Col 1eague:
You
are invited to participate in a study of professional graduate
student affairs administration.
preparation programs in student affairs administration. This study is being conducted by Randy Hyman, Assistant Director of Housing at the University of Florida for his Ph.D. degree in Higher Education. Specifically, the study examines the entry level professional competencies that are addressed in graduate training programs.
Your participation in this study is very important, as the results may be of value to those planning professional preparation programs, and to those who hire entry level staff. The results, of course, will not identify either individuals or specific institutions, and your responses will remain confidential.
As the institutional contact for the professional preparation program in college student personnel at your institution (according to the Directory of Graduate Preparation Programs in College Student Personnel, ACPA, 1980) we are requesting that you complete one of the enclosed instruments and select another member of the preparation faculty to complete the other. The instrument is brief and a recently conducted pilot test, revealed an average completion time of 12 minutes. Two self-addressed envelopes have been enclosed for the convenience of yourself and your identified colleague.
Thank you for your participation and cooperation. We would request that the enclosed instruments be completed and returned to Randy Hyman by May 30, I983.
Sincerely,
Arthur Sandeen Vice President for Student Affairs and Professor, Educa-t i ona1 Adm i n i s t ra t i on
Randy Hyman Assistant Director of Housing
EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY / AFFIRMA T|VE ACTION EMPLOYER


43
2. Do chief student affairs officers (CSAOs), directors of
housing (DOH) and faculty (FTs) have similar perceptions of the training recent master's degree graduates of preparation programs in student personnel administration receive for the identified entry level competencies?
3. Is it important for recent master's degree graduates from
student personnel administration preparation programs to have acquired these competencies prior to full time entry into the student affairs field?
4. Do CSAOs, DOHs, and FTs, have similar perceptions of the
importance of these entry level competencies?
Research Population The research population for this study included selected samples of chief student affairs officers (CSAOs) and directors of housing (DOHs) at four year public and private post secondary educational institutions and faculty (FTs) employed at institutions with departments offering graduate programs in student personnel administration leading to a Master's degree. A random sample of 150 CSAOs was selected from the voting delegate directory of the National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA). One hundred and forty-one DOHs at institutions which house 3000 or more students in university-operated residential facilities were selected from the directory of the Association of College and University Housing Officers International (ACUHO-I). One hundred and sixty-two FTs were selected from the Directory of Graduate Preparation Programs in College Student Personnel (American College Personnel Association
1980).
No studies have been reported in the literature which investigated the perceptions of both student affairs practitioners and faculty trainers regarding training in preparation programs for specified professional competencies. Indeed, there is no published research to


competencies in areas of goal setting, assessment, instruction, consultation, milieu management, and evaluation. Delworth and Hanson (1980) indicated that acquisition of critical competencies in similar areas of assessment and evaluation, instruction, counseling, and consultation should be the primary focus of preparation programs.
Preparation Program Assessments
Cowley (1957) noted the tendency to make appointments to key personnel positions for reasons having little to do with preparation for such duties (Hill and Green, 1960). Stamatakos (1981) made reference to the 1200 "crossovers" entering over field every year from other faculty positions, business, industry, the military, the clergy; all with little or no previous training or experience in student affairs work. Upcraft (1971) concluded that formal preparation has little effect on the student affairs practitioners1 perception of their work.
At present preparation programs are administered through departments of counseling and guidance, psychology, educational psychology, higher education, or educational administration. When a separate program exists it is interdisciplinary in nature, involving
course offerings from a wide range of departments with direct affiliation to counseling or higher education (Greenleaf, 1977). Cosby (1965) perceived the heavy emphasis on counseling as a source of role conflict for student affairs practitioners heavily engaged in administration. A study by Commission V of the National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA) of the attitudes of behavioral scientists toward the training and responsibilities of student personnel administrators revealed that a significant number of


TABLE 34
GENERAL LINEAR MODELS PROCEDURE MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF COMPETENCIES IN CATEGORY
OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL MANAGEMENT
FOR FTs (n=65), AND DOHs (n=85) CSAOs (n=83) DF = 2,230 ALPHA = 0.05
POSSESSION IMPORTANCE
V. 1 Environmental and Organizational
Management Competencies F-Value P>F Implication F-Value P>F 0 Implication
23. Develop and Administer a Budget 13.98 .0001 Significant 5.91 .0031 Significant
24. Organize Resources Program
Activities 9.23 .0001 Significant 2.73 .0671 N.S.
25. Understand Institutional Mission
Expectations 12.37 .0001 Significant 9.80 .0001 Significant
26. Know and Utilize Strategies 15.15 .0001 Significant 1.04 .3548 N.S.
27. Accept Authority Delegate as
Appropriate 7.10 .0010 Significant 1.11 .3304 N.S.
28. Identify and Utilize Resources 6.54 .0017 Significant 5.99 .0029 Significant
29. Mediate Conflict Community Groups 2.91 .0562 N.S. .41 .6648 N.S.
30. Recognize and Accept Consequences
Behavior 33.59 .0001 Significant 1.48 .2293 N.S.
31. Select, Train, and Supervise Staff 3.78 .0241 Significant 12.41 .0001 Significant
32. Manage Physical Resources and Facilities 5.03 .0073 Significant .79 .4545 N.S.
33. Adjudicate Student Conduct Effectively 1.10 .3344 N.S. 3.12 .0459 Significant
Note. DF = Degrees of Freedom
N.S. means not significant at .05 alpha level


41
preparation programs, and the identification and measurement of competencies identified in the literature.
The next chapter describes the methodology and design developed and utilized in implementing this study.


TABLE 6
MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR FACULTY (FTs),
DIRECTORS OF HOUSING (DOH s) AND CHIEF STUDENT AFFAIRS OFFICERS (CSAOs)
ON EXTENT OF AGREEMENT WITH POSSESSION OF COMPETENCIES
IN THE CATEGORY OF COMMUNICATION
FT3 b DOH c CSAO
CATEGORY/COMPETENCY MEAN SD MEAN SD MEAN SD
III. Communication 3.020 .387 2.692 .371 2.744 .341
9. Analyze and Write Means and
Reports 2.838 .663 2.479 .699 2.604 .664
10. Make Effective Use of Verbal and Nonverbal Skills in Group
Presentations 3.320 .524 2.862 .541 2.846 .536
11. Perceive and Accurately Interpret Attitudes, Beliefs, and
Needs of Others 3.200 .615 2.798 .540 2.791 .483
12. Represent Student Concerns to
Other Campus Groups 3.054 .660 2.872 .533 2.868 .521
13. Recognize and Define Confidentiality Practices and
Procedures 3.307 .636 2.946 .697 3.044 .598
14. Determining Usage of Office
Management Procedures 2.411 .663 2.193 .612 2.279 .567
b c n=75 n=94 n=91


APPENDIX D
LETTER OF ENDORSEMENT FROM RESEARCH AND INFORMATION COMMITTEE


APPENDIX G
TABLES LISTING MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR GROUPS BY CATEGORY


CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION OF THE DATA
The data presented in this chapter were collected from a research instrument administered to three groups of student affairs professionals; faculty (FTs) at institutions offering master's degree programs in student personnel administration, directors of housing (DOHs), and chief student affairs officers (CSAOs) at four year public and private post secondary educational institutions. The instrument was developed from an extensive review of the literature including previous studies of competencies determined to be necessary for entry level student affairs staff. The instrument included 33 entry level, professional competencies, organized into five categories. The primary purpose of the study was to determine if professional preparation programs in student personnel administration educated for the

development of these competencies. Specifically, the study sought to provide answers to the following questions for investigation:
1. Do recent graduates of master's level preparation programs in
student personnel administration enter the field of student affairs with training in entry level competencies as a result of their preparation programs?
2. Do chief student affairs officers (CSAOs), directors of housing
(DOHs) and faculty (FTs) have similar perceptions of the training recent master's degree graduates of preparation programs in student personnel administration receive for the identified entry level competencies?
55



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APPENDIX E
FOLLOW-UP POST CARD


-13-
5. Environmental Managementa positive, collaborative effort by
all community members to organize their resources to maximize their living and learning experiences.
6. Evaluationa continuous process of delineating, obtaining,
and providing information with which to judge various choices (Stufflebeam, 1971).
Delworth and Hanson (1980) identified four critical basic competency areas: 1) assessment and evaluation, 2) teaching or training, 3) consultation, and 4) counseling. These areas were consistent with
the components of T.H.E.
In an ACPA sponsored project, Hanson (Note 2) developed a
taxonomy of competencies using T.H.E. as a conceptual framework. The purpose of the project was to review the competency-based education movement to determine its potential for application to professional preparation programs in student personnel work. Hanson developed 195 competencies of which only twenty were rated by a panel of experts in the field of student personnel work as lower than very important.
For the purpose of this study, the researcher has selected the T.H.E. model as a conceptual framework with minor revision. The

purpose of the study is to examine the training graduates receive for entry level professional competencies. Consistent with the recommendation of Knott (1977) the category of communication has been substituted for instruction in the original T.H.E. format. Assessment and evaluation have been combined as one category consistent with the Delworth and Hanson (1980) model. The competencies for use in this study have been derived from Hanson's (Note 2) taxonomy and the studies of Domeier (1977) and Minetti (1977) and have been identified with and assigned to categories of goal setting, consultation,


TABLE 32
GENERAL LINEAR MODELS PROCEDURE MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF COMPETENCIES IN CATEGORY OF COMMUNICATION
FOR FTs (n=65). AND DOHs (n=85) CSAOs (n=83) DF = 2,230 ALPHA = 0.05
III. Communication Competencies
F-Value
POSSESSION
P>F
IMPORTANCE
Implication
F-Value
P>F
Implication
9. Analyze and Write Memos and Reports
9.08
10. Make Effective Use Presentations 22.96
0002
0001
Significant Significant
2.74
3.82
.0668
.0223
N.S.
Significant
11. Perceive. Interpret ... of Others 14.91
0001
Significant
.82
.4413
N.S.
12. Represent Student Concerns to
Groups
3.29
039
Significant
10.11
0001
Significant
13. Recognize Confidentiality #
Procedures
8.79
0002
Significant
.25
7777
N.S.
14. Determining Usage of Office
Procedures
5.34
0054
Significant
1.52
2206
N.S.
NOTE: DF = Degrees of Freedom
N.S. means not significant at .05 alpha level


TABLE 39 Continued
V. Environmental and Organizational
Possession
Importance
Management Competencies
Duncan Grouping
Mean
N
Group
Duncan Grouping
Mean
N Group
27. Accept Authority
Appropriate
. Delegate as
A
3.062
65
FT
B B
2.795
83
CSAO
28. Identify and Utilize Resources
29. Mediate Conflict Community Groups
30. Recognize and Accept
. Behavior
. Consequences
B
A
B
B
B
B
B
B
C
A
A
2.635 85 DOH
2.785 65 FT
2.518 83 CSAO
2.353 85 DOH
3.046 65 FT
2.906 85 DOH
2.819 83 CSAO
2.819 83 CSAO
3.600 65 FT
3.036 83 CSAO
2.777 85 DOH
A A
B
3.339 65 FT
3.241 83 CSAO
3.035 85 DOH


-121-
PART II.
Your responses to this part of the study should be based upon your perceptions of ail applicants, recently graduated from master's level preparation programs in student personnel who have sougnt consioeration for entry level positions on your staff during the time frame in which you have been employed at your current position level.
Since this study hat a dual purpose you aro requested to respond to eecn competency by indicating 1) if recent mister's degree graduates ot preparation programs in student personnel have possessed the competency and 2) the importance ot the competency for assuming so entry level staff position.
YOU WILL NEED TO RESPOND TO EACH COMPETENCY TWICE BY CIRCLING YOUR ANSWERS ACCORDING TO THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS:
indicate the extent of your agreement with the following statement for each competency:
"Recent master's degree graduates possess this competency."
possession of the competency
4 agree strongly (AS)
3 agrse (A)
2 disagree (0)
1 disagree strongly (OS)
Indicate the extent to which you believe each competency is important for assuming an entry level staff position:
Importance of the competency
4 essential (E)
3 important (I)
2 of little importance (LI)
1 not important (NI)
I. GOAL SETTING
1 Write oehaviora1 obiectives............................................................................
2.Identify and articulate institution's goals and policies to students .................................
3. Teach students to deal with the consequences of their behavior....................................
4, Engage in systematic planning..........................................................................
II. CONSULTATION
5 Recognize and use expertise of others.................................................................
6.Facilitate group problem solving and group decision-making.......................................
7 Facilitate staff development through in-service training.............................................
8.Work effectively with a diversity of individual students and faculty.................................
III. COMMUNICATION
9 Analyze and write memos and reports..................................................................
10.Make effective use of verba' and nonverbal skills in group presentations..........................
11 Perceive and accurately interpret altitudes, beliefs, and needs ot others..........................
12 Represent student concerns to other campus groups ...............................................
13.Recognize and cetme confidentiality practices and procedures.....................................
14 Determining usage of office management procedures (i.e.. secretarial services, business
machine operation print and non print media)................................................................
IV. ASSESSMENT ANO EVALUATION
15. Assess student needs...................................................................................
16. Analyze and interpret program needs and requests..................................................
17. Design student programs based on student needs...................................................
18. interpret and understand various evaluation strategies.............................................
19.Identify and understand various evaluation strategies ...............................................
20 Design and implement a program to evaluate staff...................................................
21 Revise programs on the casis of evaluation rata......................................................
22. Recognize and analyze interpersonal problems ......................................................
V. ENVIRONMENTAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL MANAGEMENT
23. Develop and administer a budget.......................................................................
24.Organize resources-people, material) to carry cut program activities..............................
25.Understand institutional mission obiectives. and expectations.....................................
2n Krow and utilize effective oecision-makmg strategies..............................................
27 Accept authority and responsibility and delegate as aporoanaie....................................
23.Identify and utilize available financial resources......................................................
29 Msdiate conflict among students, campus, and/or community grouos............................
30.Rogniza and accept 'he ethical consequences of personal and professional behavior..........
3i Select, train, and supervise staff.......................................................................
32. Manage physical resources and facilities..............................................................
33. Adjudicate student conduct effectively.................................................................
POSSESSION AS A D OS
4 4 4 i
4 4 4 4
4 4
4 .
4
4
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
4 4
4
4
4
4 4
4 4
4 4
3 3 3 3
3 3 3 3
3 3 3 3 3
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
I i 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 I 1 1 i
3 2 1
I 1 1 I
1 1
1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 I
IMPORTANCE E I U NI
4 3 2 1
4 3
4 s 3 4 3
4 4 4 4
4 4 4
4
4
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
4 4 4
4
4
4 4
4
4 4 4
3 3
3 3
3 3 3 3 3
3 3 3 3
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
4 3 2
3 2
3 2
3 2
3 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1
I
1 1
1
I 1 i
1
I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Return by May 27. 1983 to Randy Hyman. P 0. Box 15208. Gainesville. Fl. 32604


resources, a well-conceived curriculum, and opportunity for practical
work experiences.
A more recent study sought to determine the attitudes of chief student affairs officers (CSAOs) about the quality of professional preparation programs (Sandeen, 1982). The results indicated that although graduate training in student personnel work was found to be of considerable importance, only three percent of the CSAOs in the study rated overall program quality as excellent and only six percent rated faculty as excellent. Sandeen's (1982) study identified major problems with current preparation programs: the programs are too much oriented toward counseling; the quality of students is too uneven; and the lack of academic rigor in some programs generates a lack of respect when they are compared to other graduate programs. Canon (1982) noted that marginal students coexisted with those generally conceded to be of high quality and concluded that student affairs divisions reflected these extremes in both the quality and the effectiveness of their programs and services.
Issues of standards, quality, and excellence have been significant in that they represented outcomes which most professionals believed the field of student affairs needed in the preparation of those about to enter the field. Penn (1973) described the key to excellence in terms of quality programs as related to appropriate curriculum offerings, adequate learning resources, and defined standards of acceptable performance. He urged the development of curriculum guidelines and an accreditation body to evaluate and accredit professional preparation programs in the field. Stamatakos (Note 5) promoted the standardization of training and accreditation, seeing this as a step


162
Williamson, E. G. "Essentials of professional training for student
personnel workers in the south," Southern College Personnel Association Work Conference. Swannanoa, North Carolina, 1952.
Williamson, E. G. "Professional preparation of student personnel
workers." School and Society, 1958, 86, 3-5.
Williamson, E. G. Student Personnel Services in Colleges and
Universities, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961.
Wise, W. M. "The implications of the student personnel philosophy."
Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1951, 11, 681-690.
Woolf, D. "Developing professional competence in the applied
behavioral sciences." New Directions for Experimental Learning, 1980, 8, 1-16.
Woolf, M. D., and Woolf, J. A. The student personnel program. New
York: McGraw-Hill, 1953.
Wrenn, C. G. "Selection and education of student personnel
workers." Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1952, 31, 9-14.
Wrenn, C. G., and Darley, J. "An appraisal of the profession of
personnel work." In E. G. Williamson (Ed.), Trends in student personnel work. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1949.
Yates, J. M. The perception of chief student personnel administrators and coordinators of preparation programs regarding tKe Intended learning outcomes of doctoral programs in student personnel administration (Doctoral dissertation, Memphis State University, 1977). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1977, 38, 1265A 1266A. (University Microfilms No. 77-19, 214)


24
Among the primary needs identified by Williamson (1952) was the establishment of high standards of selection and of professional competence for the student personnel staff. There has been an increased recognition of the need for more attention to organizational and management skills, both in training and in application (Borland and Thomas, 1976; Appleton, Briggs, and Rhatigan, 1978; McDaniel, 1972). Cross (1973) supported Brown (1972) in urging increased attention to the integration of student personnel function within the
academic areas. This posture received strong support as well from Crookston (1972).
The status of student personnel as a profession has varied according to perceptions of how well the field has addressed its mission and purpose. Knock (1977) observed the lack of progress toward achievement of professional status which has been cited in the literature (Feder, 1959; Koile, 1966; Shoeben, 1967; Nygreen, 1968; Penny, 1972). He further supported the importance of defining operational purposes and then developing skills and procedures for fulfilling such purposes (Cowley, 1964; Berdie, 1966; Parker, 1971; Crookston, 1972; Crookston, 1976; and Miller and Prince, 1976). Saddlemire noted that student personnel practitioners must be convinced of their status as educators and should display confidence in their legitimacy in higher education as visible contributors to the attainment of the educational goals of the institution (Note 3).
Confusion about identity, role, and purpose has been at the foundation of this issue of professionalism. Dewey (1972) observed too little pertinent discussion of the role and responsibility of professional preparation programs. Others (Holland and Kleinberg, 1974) noted


population. The demand for graduates of student affairs preparation programs was greater than the supply produced by relatively few preparation programs. In response to this demand for trained, student affairs professionals, the number of preparation programs expanded during the 1960's and early 1970's.
Preparation for any profession derives from an operational field, for which there is a taxonomically ordered set of roles and functions to be performed, through the utilization of a substantive knowledge base which is appropriately grounded in theory and philosophy. Selection is a matter of identification of individuals presumed to be capable of mastering such knowledge in order to perform specific roles within the existing operational field (Dewey, 1977).
Designing educational programs which will result in students1 possessing requisite knowledge and skills is the charge of the person engaged in the preparation of student affairs professionals. Educators of professionals in any field must help students understand and appreciate the current state of practice and also gain a perspective on future development (Knock, 1977). Although the need for professional preparation has been recognized and accepted in the area of student affairs, what constitutes quality preparation for the field is still a matter where questions can be raised (Knock, 1977).

Delworth and Hanson (1980) have identified five major, interrelated components which they view as fixed, essential, core categories of the student affairs profession. They believed that 1) history and philosophy, 2) relevant theories, 3) models of practice, 4) professional competencies, and 5) management and organizational competencies as components, defined the structure of the student affairs profession.


95
possess competencies in the category of Communication is indicated in
Table 21. FTs differed significantly with both DOHs and CSAOs in the extent to which they agree recent graduates of preparation programs possess competencies in the category of Communication as shown by Duncan's multiple range test in Table 22.
TABLE 22
DUNCAN'S MULTIPLE RANGE TEST FOR POSSESSION OF CONSULTATION
Group
N
Mean
Duncan Grouping
FT
75
3.020
A
CSAO
91
2.744
DOH
94
2.692
B B B
Note. Means with the same letter are not significantly different.
Analysis of individual competencies
in
the
category
of
Communication has been summarized in Table 32 of Appendix G. Significant differences exist among groups on extent of agreement for possession of all six competencies in this category. Significant differences were found on extent of importance for competencies 10 and 12. The results of Duncan's multiple range test, summarized in Table 37 of Appendix H indicate that FTs differed significantly with DOHs and CSAOs on possession for all competencies in this category. FTs differed significantly with DOHs and CSAOs on extent of perceived importance of competency 10. DOHs differed significantly from FTs
an
d CSAO on extent of perceived importance of competency 12.


APPENDIX H
TABLES LISTING RESULTS OF DUNCAN'S MULTIPLE RANGE TEST FOR
POSSESSION AND IMPORTANCE BY CATEGORY


12
based staffing approach toward a competency-based approach (American College Personnel Association, 1975).
The T.H.E. model extended ideas advanced by the American Council on Education in the Student Personnel Point of View (1937, 1949). This statement identified the commitment of the profession to services to and development of the "whole student." This commitment was based on the recognition of needed competencies for student affairs staff as service agents, control agents, and developmental educators. The Council of Student Personnel Associations in Higher Education advanced essentially the same philosophy in their work A Student Development Point of of View of Education (1970).
T.H.E. emphasizes student development. Its theoretical base is eclectic in that it stresses a combination of cognitive and affective development. It incorporates six competency categories of development:
1. Goal-Settingthe process of stating the general outcome
desired and then defining the more specific results (objectives) that guide the steps in achieving the goals and that provide evidence of accomplishment (Miller and Prince, 1976, p. 27).
2. Assessmentthe process through which students, groups,
and organizations systematically acquire and use data from a variety of sources to describe, appraise, and modify their own development (p. 27).
3. Instructiona change strategy which seeks to provide both
knowledge and practice applying what is learned. It seeks to integrate affective and cognitive learning through recognition of individual learning styles and needs.
4. Consultationthe activity or process in which one person
engages with another person, group, or agency in order to identify the needs and/or capabilities of that person, group, or agency and then to plan, initiate, implement, and evaluate action designed to meet and/or develop those needs and/or capabilities (p. 89).


-156-
Holland, E. E. and Kleinberg, R. K. "Student affairs personnel:
partners or second class citizens." Improving College and University Teaching, 1974, 22, 115-116.
Howtz, Patricia, "Internships in student personnel programs." Journal
of College Student Personnel, 1967, 8, 322-326
Hoyt, D. P., and Rhatigan, J. J. "Professional preparation of junior
and senior college student personnel administrators." Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1968, 47, 263-270.
Hullfish, J. G. "Advising a graduate student who wants to be a dean
of men." Paper reported in the Proceedings Twenty-third Annual Conference of the National Association of Deans and Advisors ~o? Men, Cincinnati, 1941, 80-91.
Humphries, J. W. "Student personnel professionals: Is there a
future?" Educational Record, 1977, 58, 39-65.
Johnson, Walter F. "The counselor and his professional education."
Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1959, 37, 694-695.
Jones, J. D. "Student personnel work: Current state and future
directions." NASPA Journal, 1978, 15, 2-11.
Keim, M. C. (Ed.). Directory of graduate preparation programs in
college student personnel. Falls Church, VA. : American College Personnel Association, 1980.
Kirkbride, V. "Practicum experience in the master's degree program
for personnel work." Journal of National Association for Women Deans and Counselors, 1972, 34, 80-84"!
Klopf, G. "Design for counselor preparation." Journal of National
Association of Women Deans and Counselors, 1963, 26, 5-9.
Knock, G. H. "Toward possession of a specialized body of knowledge
and skills." In G. H. Knock (Ed.), Perspectives on the prepa-ration of student affairs professionals. Student personnel series no. 22"! Washington, D. C. : American College Personnel Association, 1977.
Knott, E. J. "Some perspectives on carts and horses in student
development." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1977, 18, 434-444.
Koch, R. G. The professional education of student personnel
workers in higher education at Teacher's College, Columbia University 1913-1938 (Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 1966). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1967, 27, 2839A. (University Microfilms No. 67-02815)
Koile, E. A. "Student affairs: forever the bridesmaid." NASPA
Journal, 1966, 4, 65-72.


28
Development of Student Personnel Preparation Programs Background
Training for student personnel administration prior to World War II consisted largely of experience received on the job (LaBarre, 1948). Many professionals in student personnel as well as in higher education generally did not support the notion that professional preparation was a necessary prerequisite to entry into the field (Turner, 1936; Hullfish, 1941; Nygreen, 1965). Hullfish (1941) spoke in support of the contention of some that good deans "are born not made," a concept generally referred to as the "chromosome theory." Others supported the notion that a better background for a position in student personnel would be in an academic discipline (Nygreen, 1965). A study done to determine role perceptions of chief student affairs administrators revealed that there was little connection between the way a chief student affairs officer (CSAO) was trained and the way in which a CSAO perceived his/her role (Upcraft, 1971). A study to determine if differences existed in chief student affairs officers1 perception of student personnel programs based upon whether they were academically trained in the field revealed mixed results (Blackburn, 1969). Academic preparation contributed toward emphasis on counseling, educational reform, and models for behavioral learning. Practical experience contributed to emphasis upon research and needs of students. An earlier study by Saddlemire (1950) of male student personnel administrators in colleges and universities showed 61 different titles being used for the chief male student personnel administrator. Forty-four and a half percent were full professors and


CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS
Chapter V is comprised of the following sections: a) a summary of the development of the study, b) findings c) conclusions, d) implications and considerations for further study.
A Summary of the Development of the Study Purpose of the Study
The primary purposes of this study were to determine whether or not professional preparation programs in student personnel administration educated for the development of entry level professional competencies and to determine the relative importance of these competencies for assuming an entry level staff position in the field of student affairs. Three groups of professionals in the field of student affairs were compared to determine if differences existed in their perception of the training graduates with master's degrees received in their preparation programs for the entry level professional competencies. The perceptions of the three groups were also compared to determine if differences existed in the extent to which they perceived the competencies to be important for assuming an entry level professional position in student affairs.
-101-


-21-
2. This body of specialized knowledge, skills, and attitudes is derived through scientific inquiry and scholarly learning.
3. This body of specialized knowledge, skills, and attitudes is acquired through professional preparation, preferably on the graduate level, in a college or university as well as through continuous in-service training and personal growth after completion of formal education.
4. This body of specialized knowledge, skills, and attitudes is constantly tested and extended through research and scholarly inquiry.
5. A profession has a literature of its own, even though it may, and indeed must, draw portions of its content from other areas of knowledge.
6. A profession exalts service to the individual and society above personal gain. It possesses a philosophy and a code of ethics.
7. A profession through the voluntary association of its members constantly examines and improves the quality of its professional preparation and services to the individual and society.
8. Membership in the professional organization and the practice of the profession must be limited to persons meeting stated
standards of preparation and competency.
9. The profession affords a life career and permanent membership as long as services meet professional standards.
10. The public recognizes, has confidence in, and is willing to
compensate the members of the profession for their services (AGPA, 1971, pp. 327-330).
One of the difficulties in identifying student personnel administration as a profession has been the problem of establishing clear cut boundaries around the larger function of student personnel administration (Wrenn and Darley, 1949). Lack of cohesion and coordination of the separate personnel functions has contributed to the problem of identity as a profession. Traditionally, when a body of knowledge or literature exists and enough people are thoroughly based in it, practicing its principles, a profession is born. Basic principles for stu-dent personnel administration in higher education are still found in


88
all competencies in this category.
Summary of Data on Importance. Each group reported its highest mean score on importance for the same competency in the categories of Consultation and Assessment and Evaluation. Each group reported its lowest mean score on importance for the same competency in the categories of Goal Setting, Consultation, and Communication. Mean scores for FTs were greater than 3.0 for all competencies in the

categories of Consultation; Assessment and Evaluation; and
Environmental and Organizational Management. Mean scores for DOHs
were greater than 3.0 for all competencies in the categories of Goal
Setting and Assessment and Evaluation. Mean scores for CSAOs were
greater than 3.0 for all competencies in the category of Environmental
and Organizational Management. Mean scores for FTs, DOHs, and
CSAOs were greater than 3.0 for each of the five categories indicating
a tendency toward the importance of all competencies in every category
for assuming an entry level staff position.
Statistical Comparison Among Groups
The issue of differences among the three groups for the
dependent variables of possession of entry-level competencies by
recent master's graduates of preparation programs in student personnel
administration and of importance of those competencies for assuming an
entry level staff position has been identified as a primary objective for this study as stated in research questions 2 and 4.
2. Do chief student affairs officers (CSAOs), directors of
housing (DOHs) and faculty (FTs) have similar perceptions of the training recent master's degree graduates of preparation programs in student personnel administration for the identified entry level competencies?
4. Do CSAOs, DOH, and FTs have similar perceptions of the
importance of these competencies?


-20-
Definitions and Criteria for a Profession
The issue of what constitutes a profession has been examined and discussed throughout the literature of higher education. Characteristics of a profession have been identified, definitions have been provided, and criteria have been produced. Among the criteria which characterized a profession were the development of a special discipline, the development of special training programs, the delineation of specific areas of operation, and a strong, central organization which set standards for professional membership, established a code of ethics, and policed the activities of practitioners (Feder, 1948). The term "professional" generally referred to an individual who performed tasks that were of more than usual difficulty, and required a long period of preparation and education, resulting in the attainment of a higher degree of skill and knowledge (Johnson, 1959). Flexner (1915) observed that a person was a professional if he/she devoted his/her entire time to a particular activity. He indicated that such activities had to be intellectual in nature and have a definite purpose. Lloyd-Jones (1949) remarked that the distinguishing mark of a profession was "the possession of an intellectual technique acquired by special training which could be applied to some sphere of everyday life" (p. 260). A good deal of emphasis was placed upon the acquisition of special knowledge or special training.
The American Personnel and Guidance Association (AGPA)
delineated the marks of a profession as follows:
1. Possession of a body of specialized knowledge, skills, and attitudes known and practiced by its members.


Feedback from a 100% return on the pilot test enabled the researcher to make necessary revisions and alterations in the instrument. ( All competencies were evaluated to be appropriate for use in the study. As a result of the pilot test and extensive evaluation and critique by members of the faculty and student affairs staff, face validity was assumed for the instrument.
Although it may have been possible to generate similar data by means of other instrumentation (for example, structured interviews) three considerations qualified the use of the instrument: 1) the extensive nature of the information to be gathered and the consequent data analysis, 2) financial and time constraints, and 3) the need to avoid the possible bias and subjectivity on the part of both the researcher and respondents (Borg, 1963, Hillway, 1969, Macoby and Macoby, 1954; as cited in Domeier, 1977, p. 6).
Endorsement of the Study
That the need exists to conduct additional research in this area has received strong support in the literature (Sandeen, 1982; Stamatakos, 1981; Domeier, 1977; Minetti, 1977; Newton and Richardson, 1976; Rhatigan, 1965). The results of this study may be of significant interest and value to all professionals who practice and teach in the student personnel profession. The results may provide information useful to those who plan and develop preparation programs as well as provide information about the kind of training entry level professionals have received. A letter of endorsement for the study was provided by the Vice President of Student Affairs at the University of Florida, the Supervisor of the study, whose own interests in this area parallel those of the researcher. The researcher also sought


155
Domeier, P. E. A study to examine the training of student affairs
administrators for specified competency tasks (Doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University, 1977). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1977, 38, 2580A. (University Microfilms No. 77-25,234)
Emmet, T. A. A guide to programs of training for college and
university student personnel workers. University of Detroit,
19oT:
Feder, D. D. "Next step in the personnel profession." Occupations,
1948, 27, 5-10.
Feder, D. D. "The emerging role of the professional personnel
worker." In N. B. Henry (Ed.), Personnel sciences in education: The fifty-eighth yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part TH Chicago: University oT Chicago Press, 1959.
Flexner, A. Is social work a profession? School and Society, 1915, I,
901-911.
Foy, J. E. Career patterns of student personnel administrators
(Doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University, 1969). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1970, 31, 100A. (University Microfilms No. 70-9534)
Gimmestad, U. and Goldsmith, E. "Admissions policies for graduate
programs in counselor education." Counselor Education and Supervision, 1973, 12, 172-177.
Goldsmith, J. "Competence assessment within a professional training
program." New directions for experimental learning, 1979, 3f 53-63.
Greenleaf, E. A. "Preparation of student personnel staff to meet
flexibility and diversity in higher education." In G. H. Knock (Ed. ), Perspectives on the preparation of student affairs professionals. Student Personnel Series no. 22. Washington, D. C.: American College Personnel Association, 1977.
Hanson, G. R. and Lenning, D.T. "Evaluating student development
programs." In G. Kuh (Ed.), Evaluation in student affairs. Washington, D.C.: American College Personnel Association, 1979.
Hartley, D. "A cooperative graduate program in student personnel
work." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1969, 10, 174-176.
Hill, G. E. and Green, D. A. "The selection preparation, and
professionalization of guidance workers." Review of Educational Research, 1960, 30, 115-130.


-113-
importance with respect to these competencies. The three groups of professionals (FTs, DOHs, CSAOs) provided their perceptions of the extent to which they agreed recent graduates of preparation programs actually possessed each competency and their perceptions of the extent to which these competencies were important for assuming entry level positions in student affairs.
This study provided general support for the modified T.H.E. model as a conceptual framework for the identification of learning outcomes of preparation programs in student personnel administration. The modified T.H.E. model has shown to be effective in providing a theoretical context for the competencies, proven in this study to be important outcomes of training programs, designed to prepare young professionals to enter the field of student affairs.
The following represent conclusions of this study:
1. The results of the study support the conclusion that the
two practitioner groups (DOHs and CSAOs) perceived doubt as to whether recent master's graduates of preparation programs possessed the competencies in any of the categories.
2. The results of the study support the conclusion that the
three groups did not share similar perceptions of the training recent master's degree graduates of preparation programs received for the competencies in all categories. Specifically, faculty perceived a significantly greater possession of the competencies by recent graduats in all five categories.
3. The results of the study support the conclusion that all
three groups perceived that the competencies in all categories were important for assuming an entry level position in student affairs.
4. The results of the study support the conclusion that the
three groups did share similar perceptions of the
importance of the competencies in all categories for assuming an entry level position in student affairs.


-159-
Ostroth, D. D. "Competencies for entry level professionals: What do
employers look for when hiring new staff?" Journal of College Student Personnel, 1981, 22, 5-11.
Painter, E. G. "Communication is the key: Graduate programs for
student personnel." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1979, 20, 81-82.
Parker, C. A. "The place of counseling in the preparation of student
personnel workers." Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1966, 45, 254-261,
Parker, C. A. "Institutional self renewal in higher education."
Journal of College Student Personnel, 1971, 12, 405-409.
Penn, J. R. "Professional accreditation: A key to excellence."
Journal of College Student Personnel, 1974, 15, 257-259.
Penn, J. R., Manspeaker, J., and Millette, B. "The model merry-go-round." NASPA Journal, 1975, 12, 222-224.
Penny, J. F. "Student personnel work: A profession stillborn."
Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1969, 47, 958-962.
Penny, J. F. Perspective and Challenge in College Student Personnel
Work. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1972.
Peterson, W. J. "What the doctor prescribed: A process-outcome
approach to student personnel education." In G. H. Knock (Ed.), Perspectives on the preparation of student affairs professionals"! Student Personnel Series, no. 22"! Washington, D.C.: American College Personnel Association, 1977.
Pottinger, Paul S. "Competence assessment: Comments on
experimental learning." New Direction for Experimental Learning,
1979, 3, 25-39.
Prior, J. "The reorganization of student personnel services: Facing
reality." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1973, 14, 202-205.
Rentz, A. L. "A triadic model master's program in student
development." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1976, 17, 453-458.
Rhatigan, J. J. The professional preparation of student personnel
administrators as perceived by practitioners and faculty-trainers (Doctoral dissertation, The University ol Iowa, 1965). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1966, 26, 5830. (University Micro-films No. 66-03484)
Rhatigan, J. J. "Professional preparation of student personnel
administrators as perceived by practitioners and faculty." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1968, 9, 17-23.


-47-
I. Goal Setting
1. Write behavioral objectives
2. Identify and articulate institution's goals and policies to students
3. Teach students the consequences of their behavior
4. Engage in systematic planning II. Consultation
5. Recognize and use expertise of others
6. Facilitate group problem solving and group decision making
7. Facilitate staff development through in-service training
8. Work effectively with a diversity of individual students and faculty
III. Communication
9. Analyze and write memos and reports
10. Make effective use of verbal and nonverbal skills in group
presentations
11. Perceive and accurately interpret attitudes, beliefs, and
needs of others
12. Represent student concerns to other campus groups
13. Recognize and define confidentiality practices and
procedures
14. Determine usage of office management procedures (i.e.
secretarial services, business machine operation, print and non print media)
IV. Assessment and Evaluation
15. Assess student needs
16. Analyze and interpret program needs and requests
17. Design student programs based on student needs
18. Interpret and understand various evaluation strategies
19. Identify and understand various evaluation strategies
20. Design and implement a program to evaluate staff


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
AN ASSESSMENT OF STUDENT AFFAIRS PREPARATION PROGRAMS
IN RELATION TO PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCIES
By
RANDY E. HYMAN December, 1983
Chairman: C. Arthur Sandeen
Major Department: Educational Administration and Supervision
The primary purposes of this study were to determine whether or not preparation programs in student personnel administration educated for the development of entry level professional competencies and to determine the relative importance of those competencies for assuming an entry level staff position in the field of student affairs. Perceptions of three groups of professionals in the field of student affairs: (faculty in preparation programs, directors of housing, and chief student affairs officers) were assessed to determine whether they believed recent master's graduates of preparation programs actually possessed the professional competencies and whether they believed the competencies were important for assuming an entry level position in student affairs. The three groups were compared to determine whether or not differences existed in their perceptions of possession of the competencies by recent graduates and of importance of the competencies for entry level, student affairs positions.
A modification of the Tomorrow's Higher Education (T.H.E.) model, commissioned by the American College Personnel Association and
-vi-


REFERENCES NOTES
Cross, K.P. Assessment of student development. Paper presented at
the 50th annual meeting oT the American College Personnel Association, Atlanta, March, 1975.
Hanson, G.R. Stop the bandwagonACPA wants to get on. (Research Project for American College Personnel Association). Unpublished manuscript, University of Texas, 1977.
Saddlemire, G. Training concepts in the student personnel specialist.
Speech presented at Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio. 1972.
Smith, M. (Ed.) A study of the attitude of behavioral scientists
toward the training and responsibilities of student personnel administration and concerning the development of clear relationships between student personnel administration and tHe behavioral sciences. Unpublished manuscript, Commission VT National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, 1959.
Stamatakos, L.C. Facing the realities of practice in training. Paper
presented at Michigan State University, 1973.
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TABLE 30
GENERAL LINEAR MODELS PROCEDURE MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF COMPETENCIES IN CATEGORY OF GOAL SETTING
FOR FTs (n=65), DOHs (n=85) AND CSAOs (n=83) DF = 2,230 ALPHA = 0.05
POSSESSION
IMPORTANCE
I
I
I. Goal Setting Competencies F-Value P>F Implication F-Value P>F Implication
1. Write Behavior Objectives 3.00 .0517 N.S. 1.19 .3049 N.S.
2. Identify and Articulate Policies
to Students 14.92 .0001 Significant 2.70 .0691 N.S.
3. Teach Students Behavior 10.10 .0001 Significant 3.15 .0446 Significant
4. Engage in Systematic Planning 14.95 .0001 Significant .61 .5436 N.S.
NOTE: DF Degree of Freedom
N.S. means Not Significant at .05 alpha level


23
6. Legal recognition of the vocation.
7. The development of a code of ethics.
8. The performance of a socially needed function (1949).
In their study Wrenn and Darley concluded that student personnel
work was not yet a profession (1949). Of the eight criteria established to measure professionalism they concluded that the greatest barrier to student personnel work was the application of standards of selection and training. Too many staff in student affairs were selected because they were already employed by an institution in some capacity. They also observed problems with specific selection criteria and unclear training expectations inconsistent with the demands of the work. Stamatakos (1981) used Wrenn and Darley's (1949) criteria to assess the progress student personnel has made toward acquiring identity as a profession. Although he believed the field does qualify, the noted continued difficulties with selection, standards, quality, and competency of professional preparation programs and their graduates. He urged continued research to examine whether the training received in preparation programs provides graduates with sufficient skills and competencies to function effectively in the field of student affairs.
Professional Status
The professional needs of student personnel work are best represented by attention to competencies and skills necessary for practitioners to effectively deliver quality services and programs. No group can claim professional standing without explicit statements about what constitutes competence in that field and the means by which competence can be attained and assessed (McCleary, 1973).


The specific recommendations of Domeier, Minetti, and Rhatigan; supported by the conclusions of Stamatakos, have led this researcher to pursue the study of professional competencies for entry level professionals in the manner outlined in the purpose statement.
Conceptual Framework
Professional preparation has as its purpose the training and development of student affairs professionals, equipping them with expertise in the integrated development of college students. Professionally prepared student affairs staff must share a common concern for the nature and effectiveness of institutions of higher education as these institutions affect and are affected by students (Delworth and Hanson, 1980). Professional training should enable student affairs staff to assume a variety of roles including consultant, administrator, counselor, instructor, and researcher (Cooper, 1972; Delworth, and Hanson, 1980). Preparation programs prepare persons to use competencies in categories such as assessment, goal setting, and change processes to effectively implement the afore named roles.
The literature on preparation for work in the field of student affairs reflects the concern of many professionals about lack of quality and scope (Knott, 1977). According to one study, the emphasis in training should be placed upon the practical acquisition of skills (Newton and Richardson, 1976). There is an increased emphasis on a broader set of competencies for student affairs professionals. Knott (1977) identified such competencies in categories of administration, assessment, evaluation, and research; communication (written and verbal); goal setting; leadership; and organization. He observed that


June 13, 1983
Dear Colleague:
Recently you were mailed an instrument as part of a study of
professional graduate preparation programs in student affairs administration. As yet we have not received your completed instrument.
Since your participation in the study is very important we would request that you please complete the instrument and return it to Randy Hyman, P.O. Box 15208, Gainesville, FL 32604 by June 23. If you never received the instrument or misplaced it please contact me at (904) 392-6091 and I will be happy to send you another copy.
Sincerely,
Randy E. Hyman
Assistant Director of Housing University of Florida
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-79-
were reported and examined to determine the extent to which each group found the competencies important for the assumption of entry-level positions in student affairs. Differences between the groups on the extent of their perception of the importance of these competencies will be examined later in the study,
I. Goal Setting. Mean scores and standard deviations of faculty (FTs), directors of housing (DOHs), and chief student affairs officers (CSAOs) for extent of importance of the competencies in the category of Goal Setting are reported in Table 9. For DOHs (3.777) and CSAOs (3.725) the highest mean scores were for competency No. 3, "teach students to deal with the consequences of their behavior." FTs reported the highest mean score for competency No. 2, "identify and
articulate institutions goals and policies to students" (3.613).
All
three groups reported a lowest mean score for competency No. 1,
"write behavioral objectives." Mean scores for DOHs
w
than 3.0 for every competency in the category of goal setting. Mean scores for the category of Goal Setting were greater than 3.0 for FTs (3.378), DOHs (3.415), and CSAOs (3.410) indicating a tendency in the direction toward the importance of the competencies in this category for assuming an entry level staff position. Standard deviations for each group were less than 1.0 for all competencies in this
category.
II.
Consultation.
Mean scores and standard deviations of the
three groups for extent of importance of the competencies in the category of Consultation are reported in Table 10. All three groups reported the highest mean scores for competency No. 8, "work effectively with a diversity of individual students and faculty." All three


-34-
Preparation Programs in College Student Personnel (1980) can be classified in one of Rodgers' four types.
The student personnel education process-outcome mode, referred to as Sped Pom, is based upon student development principles. It synthesized elements of learner centered and competency-based education (Arner, Peterson, Arner, Hawkins, Spooner, 1976; Peterson, 1977; Spooner, 1979). The Sped Pom model was built on three components; substantive knowledge, acquisition of skills and techniques, and personal development and integration. Spooner (1979) recognized that objective assessment tools were needed. The benefits of the model were its wide array of courses and learning experiences and the emphasis on training to a person's strengths. Brown (1977) believed the greatest strength of the model was its breakdown of education and content areas into the three aforementioned components.
Rentz (1976) proposed a triadic model emphasizing a) three interrelated cores of learning (classroom, internship, and selfhood) and b) a sharing task force (an integrating agent of learning). The model was proposed as a result of perceived weaknesses in entry level employment positions, related job responsibilities, and expectation of
and by graduate students. Rentz (1976) supports Howtz (1967) strong recommendation for a field based internship concurrent with classroom
work.
Other models observed in the literature included a student activities model (Meabon, Bailey, Witten, 1975), a cooperation model (Hartley, 1969), a molar model (Caple, 1972), financial aid model (Bob, Lee, 1979) and communication model (Painter, 1979). Miller and Prince (1976) proposed an integrated model based upon the acquisition of


TABLE 35
DUNCAN'S MULTIPLE RANGE TEST FOR POSSESSION AND IMPORTANCE OF COMPETENCIES IN THE CATEGORY OF GOAL SETTING WHERE SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES WERE IDENTIFIED
ALPHA = .05
DF = 230
POSSESSION
IMPORTANCE
I. Goal Setting Competencies
Duncan Grouping
Mean
N
Group
Duncan Grouping
Mean N Group
2. Identify and Articulate
Policies to
Students
A
3.2923 65
FT
B
2.8118 85
DOH
B
B
2.7590 83
CSAO
3. Teach Students Behavior
A
3.3692 65
FT
A
3.7765
85 DOH
B
3.0120 83
CSAO
A
B
B
A
3.7229
83 CSAO
4. Engage in Systematic Planning
A B
3.0615 65
2.6506 83
FT
CSAO
B
B
2.4824 85
DOH
DF Degrees of Freedom
B
B
2.9412 85
DOH
B
3.5846
65 FT
NOTE: Means with the same letter are not significantly different


REFERENCES
American College Personnel Association. "The role and preparation of
student personnel members in institutions of higher learning." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1967, 8, 62-65.
American College Personnel Association. "A student development model
for student affairs in tomorrow's higher education." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1975, 16, 334-41.
American Council on Education. The student personnel point of view.
American Council on Education studies, series T~f no. 3. Washington D.C.: American Council on Education, 1937.
American Council on Education. Future needs in student personnel
work. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education and U.S. Office of Education, 1950.
American Council on Education Committee on Student Personnel Work
(E. G. Williamson, Chairman). The student personnel point of view. American Council on Education studies, series o~i no. 13. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education, 1949.
American Personnel and Guidance Association. "Ethical standards."
Personnel and Guidance Journal. 1971, 50, 327-330.
Anderson, G. V. "Professional standards and training for college
personnel workers." Educational and Psychological Measurement,
1948, 8, 451-459.
Appleton, J., Briggs, D., and Rhatigan, J. Pieces of eight.
Portland: NASPA Institute of Research and Development, 1978.
Arner, T. D., Peterson, W. D., Arner, C. A., Hawkins, L. T. and
Spooner, S. E. "Student personnel education: A process outcome model." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1976, 17, 334-341. _
Astman, S. K. "Faculty perception of the student personnel staff:
Implications for survival." Journal of the National Association for Women Deans and Counselors, 1975, 38, 65-70.
Ayers, A. R. Tripp, P., and Russell, J. Student services
administration in higher education. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Office oT Education, Department ol Health, Education, and Welfare, 1966.
-151-


-33-
Numerous studies (Howtz, 1967; Davis, 1956; Williamson, 1961; Rhatigan, 1965; Rockey, 1972; Yates, 1977; Minetti, 1977) support the value of the internship/practicum experience in a student personnel preparation program. Howtz (1967) in a study to determine if internships contributed significantly to the development of student personnel practitioners found that practical experience and content courses should be concurrent.
More recent work in the content of preparation programs revealed an increased concern and emphasis on the end result of preparation; competencies and skills to have been acquired. Two statements by COSPA, (Cooper, 1971, and COSPA, 1974) incorporated student development philosophy of education in support of preparation programs which were competency based. The competency objectives were incorporated within roles as administrator, instructor, and consultant. The goal of professional preparation has become the preparation of people who in addition to having attained a high level of self development, had skills to collaborate with others in their self development. They were to be able to use competencies of assessment, goal setting, and change processes in implementing the roles of consultant, administrator, and instruction in relationship with individuals, groups, and organizations (COSPA, 1974, p. 78).
Models
Rodgers (1977) identified four major types of preparation programs in student personnel: 1) counseling, 2) administrative, 3) practice oriented, and 4) social intervention. Most preparation programs identified in the most recent ACPA Directory of Graduate


-118-
PART II.
Your responses to this pari ot the study should be based upon your perceptions of ill applicants, recently graduated from master's level preparation programs in student personnel who have sought consideration for entry level positions in the field of student affairs during the time frame in which you have boon employed in your current professional capacity.
Since this study has a dual purpose you art rsqutsttd to respond to each competency by Indicating 1) M recent master's degree graduates of prepsrstlon programs In student personnel have possessed the competency and 2) the importance ot the competency for assuming an entry level staff position
YOU WILL NEED TO RESPOND TO EACH COMPETENCY TWICE BY CIRCLING YOUR ANSWERS ACCORDING TO THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS:
indicate the extent of your agreement with the following statement for each competency:
"Recent master's degree graduates possess this competency.
possession of the competency
4 agree strongly (AS)
3 agree (A)
2 disagree (0)
1 disagree strongly (OSr
indicate the extent to which you believe each competency is important for assuming an entry level staff position:
importance ot the competency
4 essential (E)
3 important (I)
2 of Iittl6 importance (LI)
1 not important (NI)
I. GOAL SETTING
1. Write behavioral ooiectives.............................................................................
2.Identify and articulate institution's goals and policies to students..................................
3.Teach students to deal with the consequences of their behavior....................................
4 Engage in systematic planning.........................................................................
II. CONSULTATION
5. Recognize and use expertise of others ................................................................
6. Facilitate group problem solving and group decision-making.......................................
/.Facilitate staff development through in-service training.............................................
8.Work effectively with a diversity of individual students and faculty.................................
III. COMMUNICATION
9 Analyze and write memos ard reports..................................................................
10.Make effective use of verbal and nonverbal skills in group preservations.........................
11 Perceive and accurately interpret aHitudes. beliefs, and needs of others..........................
'2.Represent student concerns to other campus groups...............................................
13.Recognize and define confidentiality practices and procedures...................................
14 Determining usage of office management procedures lie., secretarial services, business machine opeiation print and non print media)................................................................
IV. ASSESSMENT ANO EVALUATION
15 Assess student needs...................................................................................
16 Analyze and interpret program need > and requests..................................................
17.Design student programs based on student needs...................................................
18 Interpret and understand various evaluation strategies..............................................
19 Identify and understand various evaluation strategies................................................
20 Design and implement -i program to evaluate staff....................................................
21 Revise programs or the basis of evaluation oata......................................................
22 Recognize and analyze mterpersjna. problems ......................................................
V. ENVIRONMENTAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL MANAGEMENT
23.Develop and administer a budget...................................................................
24 Organize resources (people materia1) to carry out p'ogram activities ............................
25. Jnaers'anc institutional mission, ooiectives. and expectations...................................
26 Know and utilize effective decision-making strategies...............................................
27.Accept authority and -esponsiNity and delegate as appropriate....................................
28,.dentify and utilise avai'adie financia- resources......................................................
?9.Mediate conflict among students, campus, and/or community groups............................
30. Recognize and accept the ethical consequences of personal and professional behavior..........
31 Select, train, and supervise staff.......................................................................
32.Manage physical resources and facilities.............................................................
33 Abdicate student conduct effectively...............................................................
POSSESSION AS A D DS
4 4 4 4
4 4 4 4
4 4 4 4 4
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 I
3 3 3 3
3 3 3 3
j 3
3 3
3 3 3 3
3 3
3 3 3 3 3 3 3
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
3 2 3 2 3 2
2 2
3 2 3 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
3 2 3 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 I 1 1
I 1 1
I
I 1 1
3 2 1
I 1 1 1 I i
1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 I 1 I
IMPORTANCE E I LI NI
4 3 2 1
4
4 4
4 4 4 4
4 4 4 4 4
4 4 4
4
4 4 4
4
4 4 4 4 4 4 4
4 4 4 4
3 2 3 2 3 2
3 3 3 3
3 3 3 3 3
3 3 3 3 3 3
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
2 2 2
2
2 2
2 2 2
3 2 3 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 i
1 i
1 i 1 1 1
4 3 2 1
1 t I 1 1 I 1
1 1 1 1 I 1 I 1
Return by Mjy 27. 1983 to Rand* Hymen P.O. Box 15208 Gaineiv.lle. PI. 32604


56
3. Is it important for recent master's degree graduates from student
personnel preparation programs to have acquired these competencies prior to full time entry into the student affairs field?
4. Do CSAOs, DOHs, and FTs have similar perceptions of the
importance of these entry level competencies?
Of the 453 CSAOs, DOHs, and FTs who were mailed a copy of the instrument, 260 (57.4%) useable instruments were returned. A breakdown of the rate of return indicated that 91 of 150 (60.67%) CSAOs, 94 of 141 (66.67%) DOHs and 75 of 162 (46.30%) of FTs representing 48 (59%) of the 81 preparation programs returned usable instruments.
The data included in this chapter are presented to address the four questions for investigation in this study and will be organized in to the following sections: a) demographic profile of respondents; b) data on possession of competencies; c) data on importance of competencies; d) statistical comparisons among groups; and e) a chapter summary. A copy of the research instrument appears in Appendix A.
Demographic Profile of Respondents A summary of demographic information for respondents in all three groups is provided in Table 1. Total respondents to the study were 260 including 75 FTs, 94 DOHs, and 91 CSAOs. Responses to the item pertaining to institutional type revealed that the majority of all respondents (77.7%) are currently employed at public institutions. There were some differences on this item between groups. An overwhelming majority (90.7%) of FTs and DOHs (85.1%) were employed in the public sector while the CSAO group reported a somewhat smaller number working in public higher education (59.3%).


TABLE 38
DUNCAN'S MULTIPLE RANGE TEST FOR POSSESSION AND IMPORTANCE
OF COMPETENCIES IN THE CATEGORY OF ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION WHERE SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES WERE IDENTIFIED
ALPHA = .05 DF = 230
POSSESSION IMPORTANCE
IV. Assessment and Evaluation Competencies Duncan Grouping_Mean_N_Group_Duncan Grouping Mean N Group
15. Assess Student Needs
16. Analyze and Interpret Requests
17. Design Student Programs Needs
18. Interpret Evaluation Strategies
A 3.185 65 FT
B 2.783 83 CSAO
B
B 2.741 85 DOH
A 3.015 65 FT
B 2.694 85 DOH
B
B 2.675 83 CSAO
A 3.139 65 FT
B 2.777 85 DOH
B
B 2.735 83 CSAO
A 2.831 65 FT
B 2.447 85 DOH
B
B 2.446 83 CSAO
NOTE: Means with the same letters are not significantly different
DF = Degrees of Freedom


-104-
professionals regarding possible review of current training program standards, expectations, and practicum/internship opportunities. The results of this study may be of value to trainers and practitioners in examining potential differences in their perception of training recent graduates receive in preparation programs. Conceptual Framework
A modification of the Tommorow's Higher Education model (T.H.E.) was selected as the conceptual framework for this study. T.H.E. was coined by the American College Personnel Association (ACPA) in 1968 for the purpose of developing a strategy for examining the future of college student affairs. The T.H.E. model manifests a commitment to the development of the "whole student" through recognition of needed competencies for student affairs staff as service agents, control agents, and developmental educators. It incorporates six competency categories of development: a) goal setting, b) assessment, c) instruction, d) consultation, e) evaluation, and f) environmental management. Modifications to the model were incorporated through a substitution of communications for instructions consistent with recommendations of Knott (1977). Assessment and evaluation were combined as one category consistent with the Delworth and Hanson (1980) model. The 33 competencies used in this study were derived from Hanson's (Note 2) taxonomy and the studies of Domeier (1977) and Minetti (1977) and were assigned to categories of goal setting, consultation, communications, assessment and evaluation, and environmental and organizational management.


-157-
Kuh, G. D., Greenlee, E. and Lardy, B. W. "A profile of graduate
students in college student personnel." Journal of College Stu-dent Personnel, 1978, 19, 531-536.
LaBarre, C. Graduate training for educational personnel work.
Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education, 1948.
Leonard, E. A. Origins of personnel services in American
Higher Education. Minneapolis: University o? Minnesota
T955T:
Lloyd-Jones, E. "The beginnings of our profession." In E. G.
Williamson (Ed.), Trends in student personnel work. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1949.
Lloyd-Jones, E. "Implications of the Wrenn Report for counselor
education." Counselor Education and Supervision, 1962, 17-25.
2,
Lynam, W. J. A study of the administrative competencies needed b
the community college academic dean and a mo translation into behavioral
o
trainin^_
niversity, 1970). _
130A. (University Microfilms No. 71-18242)
statements related to administrative (Doctoral dissertation,
Michigan State
Dissertation Abstracts International, 1971, 32,
Marler, J. D. An appraisal of the doctoral preparation of college
student personnel administrators in the department of administration and higher education at Michigan State University, 1965-1977 (Doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University, 1977). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1978, 39, 1233A-1234A. (University Microfilms No. 7815148)
Meabon, D. D. Bailey, W. R. and Witten, C. H.
student activities administrator."
Journal
Personnel, 1975, 16, 100-106.
"The competent
of College Student
McCleary, L. E. Competency based educational administration and
application to_
Health, Education, and
_ Washington, D. C.: U. S. Office of
Welfare, Office of Education, 1973. (ERIC
Document Reproduction Service No. ED 077 136)
McDaniel, R. R. "Organization theory and the preparation of student
personnel workers." NASPA Journal, 1972, 10, 101-105.
McGovern, T. V. and Tinsley, H. "A longitudinal investigation of the
graduate assistant work-trining experience." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1976, 17, 130-133.
Miller, T. K., and Carpenter, D. S. "Professional preparation
for today and tomorrow." In D. Creamer (Ed.), Student development in higher education, Cincinnati, American College Personnel Association, 1980.