Ethnic distribution among U.S. Navy occupation specialties and ranks

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Title:
Ethnic distribution among U.S. Navy occupation specialties and ranks organizational implications
Physical Description:
ix, 148 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Zucca, Gary J., 1938-
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Minorities -- United States   ( lcsh )
Sociology thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Sociology -- UF
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1984.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 143-147.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Gary J. Zucca.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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aleph - 000496935
oclc - 12059724
notis - ACR6162
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Full Text









ETHNIC


DISTRIBUTION


AMONG


NAVY


OCCUPATION


SPECIALTIES


AND R
ORGANIZATIONAL


GARY


ANKS:


IMPLICATION


ZUCCA


A DISSERTATION


THE


PRESENTED T
UNIVERSITY


GRADUATE


SCHOOL


FLORIDA


PARTIAL


FULFILLMENT


DEGREE


THE


DOCTOR


REQUIREMENTS
F PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY 0


FLORIDA














Carol


Your


e and


understanding


through


these


years


mean


mor


me than


can


Matt


and


Tony


You


e done


super


job


being


kids


and


growing


both


been


tremendous


source


strength


me.














ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


This


change


dissertation is


course


symbolic


professional


completion


life and personal


philosophy.


This


change


began in


Viet Nam


1966


and,


over


these


many


years,


been


strongly


influenced


a few


people.


Some


these


people e


had an


influence


over


long


period


time


under


stressful


conditions.


With


others


encounter was


brief,


but,


in its timing


and impact,


nonetheless resulted


in a


change


in my


direction.


While


several


still


like


these


people will


thank them


see


and acknowledge


work,


their r


I would


contribution


to it.


Dien Liem


Dick McGonigal


Earl

Joe

Gene


Fedge

Feagin

Davis


Ben Gorman


would also


his additional


like


support a


thank my ch

nd guidance


airman,


throughout


Ben Gorman,


this


project,


especially


s sensitivity


demands


family







Members of


committee,


James Button,


Cynthia Rexroat,


Joseph Vandiver,


and Charles Wood,


several previous drafts of this


read and critiqued this

work. Their comments


and assistance are greatly appreciated.


Finally,


this


study


could not


have been


completed


without the data provided by the U.S.


of the Commander Naval Military


Navy.


Personnel


The assistance


Command Office


of Equal


Opportunity (NMPC N-61D1) and the Commander Naval


Recruit


Command


(COMNAVCRUITCOM)


are


particularly


appreciated.














TABLE


OF CONTENTS


PAGE


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


ABSTRACT


S a a a a a a a a viii


CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION

Purpo


Background


) I I II I


. a . a
d a a a a a a a a .


Study


Limitation


S


Summary
Overview


THEORETICAL


Research


Objectiv


. a a a a a 7


a a a a a a a a a a 8


CONSIDERATIONS


Organizational


Goal


ectiv


ene


and Organi


national


a a a a a a a a a a a a 10


Affirmative


Action


a a a a a .a 1


Background
Affirmative


Military


. a a a a a 1


Action


upational


ceme


Navy .
nt and Advan


cement


Research


Sa a a a a a a a 17


Analytical
Cohort


Models
Model


a . 22
a a a a 23


Self-interest


Model


. . 26


Core


Technology


Model


S. a a a a a 29


Summary


. a a a a a a a a a 31


III.


METHODS


a a a a a a a a 33


Data


Source


. a a a a a a a a 33


Identification o
Specification of
Qualification
Technology .


the Population


Variables


a a a a a a a a 35


* a a a a a a a 36


*. . a a a 36
* . 39


e~n 4 E4-44%r1 Dv. nn IA


AA1


DH A rr n rl((n







Difference


Change
Analytical
Cohort


Indicator


Indice
Model
Model


. 40


* a S S 5 13


Self-interest


Model


a a S S S S S S S 5 17


Core


Technology


Model


S S S S S S S 5 119


Model


and Test


S S S S S S S S S S S S 5 50


FINDINGS


S S S S S S S S SS S S S S 5 51


General


Description


Petty


Officer


Population


. 56


Cohort


Model


. . . 69


Self-interest


Technology


Model


Model


a S S S S a a S S 5 77~


DISCUSSION


CONCLU


SIONS


Summary of
General


Cohort


Results


Model


Self-interest


Model


Core


Technology


Model


Conclusions


General


Core


Technology


Model


Suggestions for
Improvements
Propositions


Further


ese


on the Curr


Furth


arch


ent
Inv


esearc


Design


estigation


Concluding


Comment


. .* 1


APPENDIX


EXPECTED


PERCENTAGES


RANKS


E4-E9


DIFFERENCE


INDICATORS


AND N


'S FOR BLACK


COHORT


MODEL


DIFFERENCE


INDICATORS


AND N


'S FOR


PANIC


COHORT


MODEL


DIFFERENCE


INDICATORS


S FOR


BLACK


SELF


INTEREST


MODEL


DIFFERENCE


INDICATORS


S FOR


HISPANIC


SELF-


INTEREST


MODEL


DIFFERENCE


INDICATORS


S FOR BLACK


CORE


TECHNOLOGY MODEL


. . . ^51








DIFFERENCE


INDICATORS


'S FOR


SPANIC


CORE


TECHNOLOGY


LIST


MODEL


REFERENCES


BIOGRAPHICAL


S S S S1~4


SKETCH













Abstr act


sertation


the University o
Requirements for


Presented


Florida


Degree


to the Graduate School


Partial


of Doctor


Fulfillment


Phil osophy


ETHNIC


DISTRIBUTION


AMONG


NAVY


OCCUPATION


SPECIALTIES


AND RANKS:


ORGAN IZATION AL


By


Gary


December


Chairman :
Major De


IMPLICATIONS


Zucca


1984


Benjamin Gorman


apartment:


Sociology


This


study


examines the


effectiveness of


Navy'


achieve ement


goal


occupa ti onal


placement


advancement


minority


ethnic c


groups


through


affirmative


action.


Data


study


are


e aggregated


number


white,


black,


Hispanic enlisted


Navy


occupation


specialties


1976,


1979,


1982.


Co ntr ol


three


levels of


occupational


qualification are included.


study


tests three models which


attempt


to account


distribution of


black,


white.


C


and Hispanic ethnic


groups







assess


degree


to which


cohort of


available


candidates or minorities with


discretionary


power


affect


occupational


rank


distribution.


third


model


determine s


degree


to which


minorities are excluded from


those


occupations which


represent


core


technology


Navy.


Findings


from


first


models


suggest


that


both


cohort of


minorities available


promotion and minorities


discretionary


placement


positions


of minorities,


positively


with


affect


minorities in


occupational

discretionary


positions having the


stronger


effect.


Findings


from


third model


strongly


suggest


that,


when


skill


levels of


occupations are


controlled,


blacks


and Hispanics


are


overrepresented in


support


occupations and


underrepresented


core


technol ogy


occupations of


the Navy.













CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION



PurDO s2


purpose


effectiveness of


the U.


this


study


examine


Navy's achievement


goal


occupational


placement


and advancement


minority


ethnic


groups


through


affirmative


action.


study


will


descri be


change


distribution


black,


white


and Hispanic


enlisted mal


in Navy


occupation


specialties


and ranks


between


1976,


1979


1982.


will


also


test


three models


which


attempt


to account


distribution


black,


white


and Hispanic ethnic


groups


in occupation specialties


and ranks.


current


politi cal


societal


emphasis


increa


sed military


readiness and


vol untary


military


service


make


it increasingly


important


that


the Navy


make maximum


use


personnel.


National


population


projections of


draft-age


youth


through


the year


2000


indicate


that,


while


the military


popul ation


(18-


declining,


percentage


blacks


and Hispani


this


population is


incr easing.


therefore


critical


that any


analysis of







A major


problem with


research


on goal


accompl ishment


an organization is


that organizational


goals are


not always


clearly


identified


organize ati onal


are


structure


communi ca ted


those


through


responsible for


their


achieve ement.

specifically


Since

identified


affirmative

in writing


action


goals

action


are

programs


designed


to achieve


goals


are


promulgated,


evaluation


achieve ement


affirmative


action


goals in


an organization makes an excellent


subject


research.


Research


the


accomplishment


affirmative


action


goal


compel


organizations has also


been hamper


availability


data .


Data


on occupational


special ti


private


sector


organizations


are


usually


reported


imprecise


category


such


as management,


clerical,


production.


Data


on hierarchies are


also


vague.


Lev el s


such


as management,


supervisory


and non-supervisory,


"salaried"


"hourly"


are


usual


categories


encountered.


often


impossible


hierarchical


the mixing


to separate


placement


in an


these


occupation

organization.


categories,


special ti e


Ca tegori


it is

from


such


as line management,


examples of


staff,


confounded


The military,


as


production,


specialty

a complex


clerical


and hierarchy

organization,


are


categories.

closely


approximates


an ideal


type


organization


in having


explicitly


labeling


discrete


divisions of


labor


both


rank







enlisted occupation


specialties


levels of


hierarchical


ranks


within each


occupation


specialty.


specificity


these


occupational


and hierarchical


categorizations and


availability


excellent


administrative


organization


data make


study


the Navy


organizational


behavior.


Background


The Navy


has established


broa d


occupational


fields


called Navy


occupation


specialties


which


encompass


similar


duties and functions and which


aptitudes and qualifications.


require related


occupation


patterns of


specialties


provide


path s


advancement


career


development


and are


primary


means


identifying personnel


requirements.


Applicants


the Navy


are


offered


certain


occupation


special ti


based on


the


Navy


evaluation of


their


potential.


Education and score


battery


aptitude


tests


(Armed Services


Vocational


Aptitude


Battery,


ASVAB)


are


primary


measures


util ized.


Based


on a


combination


ASVAB


score and


education,


applicants are


given a


list


occupation


special ti


for which


they


qualify.


Based on the


applicant


s eligibility


occupation


specialty


the


needs


most


the Navy


enlistees are


persons of


guaranteed a


that


particular


particular


specialty


specialty,


and are


-- -, A- -.~ I- n ~ toS., U -. I


r


_ _,I J


I i


* 'I I


AL


t.








successful


are


comply eti on


then assigned


recruit


duties


training


within their


school,


occupation


specialty


in fleet


units.


While most


enlistees


Navy


gain


their


occupation


specialty


through


school,


in some


cases a


specialty


gained


through


correspondence


on-the-job


courses.


A few


training and c

enlistees also


ompl eti on


are assigned


to fleet


units


directly


from


recruit


training


and then,


through


on-th


demonstrate


e-job training


that


they


and


hav e


correspondent


potential


courses


particular


occupation specialty


these


cases,


enlistee


assigned


back to


school


to qualify


specialty


then rea


gned


fleet.


Enlistees


ranks


with


occupation


specialties are referred


to as


"designated strikers"


Fifty


fiv e


percent


personnel


these


ranks


are


without


specialty


and


are referred


"non-designated


personnel"


personnel


ranks


to E-9


have


occupation


specialties and are referred


Rank


Rank title


Petty


officer


to as follows:

Abbreviation


PO-3


Third

Petty

Second


Class

Officer


ass


Petty


Of'f iEsr


P0-I








Chief Petty


Officer


E-8


Senior Chief


SCPO


Petty Officer


Master Chief


MCPO


Petty Officer


Criteria


for advancement


in all


petty


officer


ranks


include


demonstrated


Navy-wide


competitive


proficiency


written


assigned


duties


examinations,


within


occupation specialty,


evaluation


and a


and recommendation


written periodic


the commanding


performance

g officer.


eligible


per sonnel


compete for


advancement


fill


existing vacancies in


the total Navy allowance.


In other


words,


advancement in a


particular occupation specialty


contingent upon the Navy's requirement for personnel in that


specialty


well


demonstrated


performance


candidate.


Selection to CPO,


SCPO and MCPO is


accomplished by a


selection


board convened


annually by


Chief


Naval


Personnel.


Candidates who have successfully


competed in the


Navy-wide examinations have their


records placed before the


board for consideration.


Again,


the total number selected


in each rank and occupation specialty


is based on total Navy


vacancies.


.0-2.. -.-. --2-


---------------------------------. __------ J


A-. -- -


A --








Rank


Time- in- serv ice


E-9

E-8


years


years


years


years


years


years


months


months


Study


Time-in-rank


years

years

years

years


year

months

months

months


Limitations


This

Hispanic


study

ethnic


compares


groups


the d

ranks


distribution


and occupation


black and

specialties


with


that


whites.


Accurate


data


on Hispanics


the Navy


hav e


been available


only


since


1976.


Prior


that


time,


they


were


classified


a portion


other


ethnic


groups


Most


recent


data


available


are


1982.


This


study


will


use


1976


1982


data.


Additionally,


data


from


the year


1979


will


also


included in


order


prov ide


a midpoint


reference.


Black and Hispanic ethnic


groups


were


selected for


study


because


they


represent


the largest


minority


ethnic


groups


the United States.


White


ethnics


were


selected


basis for


comparison of


treatment.


Together,


males of


these


three


ethnic a


ur nuns


nomnri ss


nv er


nsrnPnt








Hispanics


Filipinos


the Navy


(14,114


are


as of


slightly


outnumbered


September


1982).


Filipino nationals,


how ev er,


are


differentiated from


Fil ipino-Americans.


confounding factor,


relatively


small


number


Fil ipino-Americans,


this


ethnic


group will


included in


the


study.


Ethnic identity


based on self-selection


that


particular


category


Navy


personnel.


term


ethnic and


racial


"ethnic


groups


group" will


the


used


study


to identify


purposes of


clarity


br ev i ty.


s study


activ e-duty


treatment


topic,


limited


enlistees in


requi res


to male white


the regular


female Navy

a different


black and Hi


Navy.


personnel,

theoretical


panic


Examination


while


an important


approach


and is


considered


beyond


scope


this


study.


enl istees


specialties while many


in ranks


to E-9


the lower


have


ranks


occupation


not.


this


reason,


only


personnel


in ranks


E4-E9


will


used in


this


study.


Summary


Research


Objectives


This


study


uses


the Navy


as an example


an ideal


type


complex


organization


because


precise


na tur e


hierarchical


rank and occupation


specialties


the Navy


nmr nranniqnti n nct


nrc i rrm Ut 0t


rnmnnrPrl


nri vatP


PP ~t nr


w


I 1








means


which


changes in


organization is attempting


environment.


distribution


to adapt


black and


Hispanic mal


is compared


enl istees


the white


ranks


and occupation


bench mark in


order


pecialti


to evaluate


effectiveness


in achievement


organizational


goals.


This research


will


attempt


to accomplish


the following


objectives:


Describe


black


changes


and Hispani


the


ethnic c


distribution


groups


white,


in ranks


occupation


specialties


between


1976,


1979


1982.


Determine


degree


which


minority


group


advancement


cohort of


occupational


qualified


placement


candidates for


affected


advancement,


minorities


discretionary


posi ti ons,


and practi


ces


which


exclude


minorities


from


core- technol ogy


occupations.


Identify


some


general


principles


which might account


distribution


minorities


complex


organizations.


Overview


Chapter


reviews the literature


on organizational


effectiveness


organize ati onal


goal


accomplishment,


affirmative e
-V 4 I 4 4n- tr anJ^J


action


research,


relevant


n l- 4 I ~-aa- a --


research


ri. -


~1


A m







study.


study


Chapter


outline


used


study


identifies


methods


Chapter


the


and


sources


statistical


present s


the


data


procedure


research


findings


Chapter


contains


concl usions


possible


policy


implications


findings.














CHAPTER


THEORETICAL


CONSIDERATIONS


Oraniz national


Effectiveness and Organizational


Goals


Organizational


Effectiveness


Organiz ati onal


effectiveness


literature is


plentiful


can


summarized rather


easily


there


is little


agreement


as to what


organizational


effectiveness is or


can


be measured.


Parsons


(1956)


view


organizational


effectiveness as


three


sets of


decisions which


determine


fluid resources


are


brought


to bear


the


process of


goal


impl em entati on.


The first


sets of


decisions,


policy


and allocative,


are


concerned with


what


resources


should d


allocated


whom


organization they


should d


assigned.


third


deci


si ons,


integration


decisions,


are


concerned with


the morale

Caplow


and effectiveness


(1964)


identifies four


organization.

variables for measuring


organic


national


effectivene


ss:


stability,


the degree


which


organization maintains


abil ity


structure;


organization to


control


integration,


internal


conflict


voluntarism,


the morale


e organization;


and,







Etzioni


(1961)


effectiveness is


suggest s


dependent


that


the


organize national


organize ati onal


goals.


That


organize ati onal


goals


determine


organizational


organizational


voluntary


structure,


structure i


compliance


the


that


member


most


effective


which maximize


organize


the


ation.


Kanter


and Brikerhoff


(1981)


point


that


criteria


and assessment


organizational


effective ene s


vary


with


perspective.


Using


the Navy


as an example,


effectiveness of


the Navy


viewed


would


from


be measured


points of


very


view


differently


society


it were


general,


individual


sailor,


senior


officers.


From


perspective


soci ety


general,


effectiveness might


measured as the


protecting


degree


society.


to which


From


the Navy


point


was


view


successful


individual


sailors,


effectiveness might


be measured


terms


such


fai rness


treatment


and


job satisfaction.


Senior


naval


officers might measure


effectiveness


terms of


effective


until ization


fiscal,


material


and human resources,


continuity


with


tradition.


Kanter


organizational


and Brikerhoff


effectiveness


(1981)


into


also


three


divide measures


categories


effectiveness


goal


task


accomplishment,


effectiveness in


adaptation to


environment,


effectiveness of


organizational


structure and


process.








Because


their interrelationships,


it is


difficult


isolate


operational ize


above


measures


organizational


effective ene ss.


example


as i


ca se


in this


study,


achieve ement


affirmative


action


goals


accepted


asa


measure


organizational


ectiv eness,


is also


a measure


the Navy


s adaptation


environment.


That is,


Navy


affirmative


action


goals


were


established


to address


changes in


the


demographic


composition


military


population and


to adapt


changes


imposed


political


and legal


developments in


intergroup


relations.


achievement


affirmative


action


goal


will


also


affect


organizational


structure


process


that


recruiting more minorities into


the Navy


will


affect


morale,


satisfaction and


occupational


mobility


both


majority


and minority


members


already


the Navy


Yuchtman and Seashore


organizational


methodol ogi cal


(1967)


effectiveness


conceptual


argue


through


problems.


that

goal


They


assessment


achievement


point


has


that


goal


achievement


approach


assumes


that


complex


organizations have


goals toward which


they


are


striving and


that


organizational


goals


ca n


identified


empirically.


They


also


point


that


goals


prescri bed


top management may


differ


from


goals of


others in


organization.


and may


al so


actually


reflect


aoal s


rr


ui







problem


with


ambiguity


multiple city


organizational goals has been discussed by other researchers


(Berk,


1966;


Goodman and Pennings,


1977;


Perrow,


1970;


Rhenman,


1967).


Affirmative action


research since it is

promulgated in writing


offers an


excellent subject


a clearly articulate

to all levels of


goal which is


the organization.


such,


overcomes the


a major


portion of


methodological problems pointed out by


Yuchtman and Seashore


(1967).


measure


Further,


of the


affirmative action is also


organization's attempt


a direct


to maximize


acquisition and utilization of


scarce human resources from


the environment.


Affirmative Action


Da~karn~n.P


early


1960's


saw


resurgence in


consciousness


concerning inequality


minorities in the


United States.


term "institutional


literature in


1967


racism" first


(Hamilton and Carmicha


appeared in

el, 1967).


the

Social


scientists and social


activists began to move


their focus


from personal


forms,


forms of


particularly


discrimination to


forms of


institutional


discrimination in employment.


It was


realized that passive non-discrimination


would not


adequately


remedy


institutional


forms of


discrimination








contractors


take


"affirmative


action" to


ensure


that


minorities were


employed and


treated without


regard


to race


creed,


color,


religion


national


origin.


Executive


Order


10925


1961


directed


positive measures for


elimination


discrimination,


direct


indirect,


which


currently


exist


federal


government


(Benokrati s


Feagin,


1978).


Civil


Rights Act


1964


prohibited


discrimination in


program s


receiving federal


assi stance


established


Executive


programs of


Equal

Order


government


Employment

11246 re


agencies


Opportunity


Commission.


!quired affirmative


including


action


the military


federal


contractors.


Department


Defense


(DoD)


requi res


heads


activities


to be


responsible for


equal


opportunity


their


respective


jurisdictions and requires


armed services


formula ate,


maintain and


carry


affirmative


action


plans


which


establ ish


quantifiable


good


faith


goals,


timetables


and accountability


in personnel


mana gem ent


(Department


Defense,


1976).


Affirmative


Action in


the Navv


Prior


1971,


the Navy


had no


service-


wide


program


specifically


January


designed


the Navy


to address racial


began its first


discrimination.


effort at increasing


ron'iol 0 ona a 4 n r a n~nan+ rcartl, noTIk v4-~


C k vlnlr rrk nllC


ini ~1


F~r.r


T







services


conduct


a minimum


hours race


relations


training for


personnel.


19Th


the vast


majority


petty


officers


officers in


the Navy


had received racial


awareness training,


and Phase


Equal


Opportunity


Program


began.


Designed


build on


increased racial


awareness


Phase


program,


Phase


now


mandatory


Naval


commands.


Each


command is required


conduct an


assessment


equal


opportunity


climate


command


and to


develop an Affirmative


Action


Plan


(AAP)


which


addresses


problem


areas identified


reassessed and


consul tant


the

Equal


assessment.


AAP revised ev


Opportunity


ery 18-24

Program S


month


command is

External


specialist


are


assigned


assist


command


the


assessment,


dev el opment


and revision


its AAP.


Command AAP


s are


designed


to accomplish


the following:


The


"Pha


Navy
I" and


race


relations


consisted of


program


became e


known as


the following:


UPWARD


(Understanding


Dignity )
awareness


seminars


Personal


which


instruction


provided


to senior


Worth


Racial


hour


racial


enlisted and junior


officer


Executive
primarily
department


Seminars


which


to executive


heads


provide d


training


commanding officers and


(second echelon managers).


Flag


Seminars which


were


attended


j Aa a


flag officers


I L 1 r \


r ri


A


Al








Establish


personnel


plans and


with


procedures


opportunities


provide


obtain an


non-rated

occupation


specialty


commensurate with


demonstrated ability


desi re.


Provide


for minority


representation


on those


boards


and


committees


which


affect


advancement


and


career


dev elopment


personnel.


Ensur e


that


provisions of


per sonnel


Navy


sponsored


are familiar


education


with


programs.


Ensur e


that


there


are


formal


policies


pr omul gated


advancement


available


to all


personnel.


Ensure


that


general


administrative


support


duties


outside


specific


occupation specialty


are


rotated fairly


among all


personnel.


Provide


equal


opportunity


training


personnel


their


command.


Naval


commanders must


pr ov ide


copy


AAP to


their


immediate


superior


command for


rev iew


and approval.


Guidelines for


effective


AAP are


characterized


following:


addresses


specific actions,


completion of


which


is measurable.


sets realist

is based


challenging


on accurate


goals.


diagnosis


equal


opportunity


issue


command.








summary,


placement


goal


and advancement


equal ity


the Navy


occupational


achieved through


affirmative


action


plans


promulgated


each


echelon


command


(Chief


Naval


Operations,


1978).


Milita rv


Occupational


Placement


and Advancement


Research


Research


conducted on military


per sonnel


placement


and


advancement


ca n


summarized


three


basic


categories:


Studies which


the military


reenl isting.


focus


on individuals'


and reasons


These


satisfaction with


entering,


studies employ


leaving and


survey


interview


methods


are


generally


based


on self-


reported attitudinal


Studies of

economic


data


effects of


conditions


upon


(Blandin and Morris,


changes in

military


1982).


the civilian

enlistments,


reenlistments and retention.


These


studies


generally


use


Department


Labor


data,


large


sample e


sizes and


focus


behav ior


rather


than


attitude


(Ghazalah,


1979;


Cowin,


1980)


Studies on


effects of


organize ati onal


practices


such


Aptitude


use


Battery


Armed


(ASVAB),


Serv ice s


technical


Vocational


training school


requi rem


ents,


etc.


which


affect


occupational


placement


(Nov aco


et al.,


1979;


Youngbl ood,


1980).


There has


been little


research which


compares the







military.


principal


studies in this area


are


those


done


Butler

Butle,


(1976a,


1976b )


(1976a)


in a


and Nordlie


study


et al.

trends


(1975).


correlations


between race


and rank in


military


from


found


there


was


negative e


correl ation


between


percentage


blacks


and enlisted rank.


That


the higher


the rank,


lower


percentage


blacks


in it.


Army,


this


trend went


from


~.6 11


1962


down


-.34


1973.


Correlations for


the Navy,


Marines and Air


Force


suggested


more


discriminatory


racial


distributions


than that


Army,


-.70,


-.78


-.82


respective ely


1973.


Butler


also


found


that,


Army,


blacks were


overrepresented in


non-technical


occupations


found that


there was


no change


trend


distribution


between


1966


When


effects of


mental


ability


(as measured


AFQT


score)


was


controlled,


inequitable rank


and occupation


specialty


distributions


remained,


the


trend of


represe


nation


between


1966


1973.


Butler


(1976b )


in a


study


promotion rates of


black


and white


Army


personnel


found


that


blacks


in ranks


E4-E9


took longer


to make


their


current


rank than


their white


counterparts.


When


AFQT was


controlled,


whites


still


made


rank faster


than


blacks.


When


the variable


education was


controlled,


Butler


found


that,


with


one


exception,


whites were


promoted faster







and whites


with


high


education


(some


college,


college


education)


took equal


time


to make


their r


current


rank.


Butler


also


controlled


types


occupa tion


specialties and found,


as one


would expect,


both


blacks and


whites in


those


technical o

non-technical


occupations were

occupations.


promoted

However,


faster

with


than

one


exception,


blacks


both


technical


non-technical


occupations were


promoted more


sl ow ly


than white


one


exception


was


blacks


in ranks


technical


occupations,


who were


promoted at


same rate


as whites.


Butler


also


found interesting


within-rank variation in


his


data.


Whites with


high


AFQT


scores were


promoted faster


than whites with


AFQT


scores.


situation for


blacks,


how ever,


was


reversed;


blacks


the low


AFQT


category


were


promoted faster


In his


than


those


conclusion,


the high


Butler


(1976b


category.


stated:


sufficient


explain


inequal ity


in the


Army
pers


vis-a'


-vi


pective which


s promotions,


ground d


from
in


theoretical


universal istic


standards.


given b
racial
failure


Such
some


In other words,


data


inequal ity
of blacks


presented


to meet


an erroneous argument,
of the institutional


little


support is


or the argument
explained by t


universal istic


which


perspectivess


that


criteria.


grounded in
, implicitly


or explicitly
more qualified


position
blacks'


s


posits


than


the Army.


that whites


blacks


Moreover,


supposition fosters


generally


attainment


are


high


the 'unqualified
equally erroneous


view


racism


real-


that


what


operates


life


referred


without


as institutional


racist


actions


individuals.


S ~ a -it





J A -- m


r I .


...


m







his findings.


Segal and Nordlie (1979:141) note problems in


Butler's aggregation of


AFQ T


scores and education variables


which


they


consider


exaggerate


extent


discrimination on


the basis of


ascription


incorrectly


assuming that achievement has been controlled.


Miller and


Ransford


(1978:68) disagreeing,


argue that Butler did not go


far enough in his analysis


When we rearranged all
regularity that alwa


of Butler's tables,


lys came through


clearly was


that the black disadvantage


in promotion tim_ to


E5-E6 was mar pr .ononunced fr thho.e with .ue
t I offer the Army. Namely, higher AEQT scor
higher duogation ad grated technical kills.


ULQflt


Miller


and Ransford


also point


out that


Butler' s


finding


organization rewarding


whites


who


possess


desirable qualities such


as high AFQT score


and education


while punishing


blacks who


have the


same qualities


consistent with


other research on women


in organizations


(Miller et al.,


1975)


Nordlie et al.


(1975)


in a study


Army


occupational


placement and promotion from 196


found that blacks


were


progressively underrepresented


in higher


enl isted


ranks,


particularly ranks E8 and E9.


He also found that


blacks were overrepresented in infantry,


gun crews,


supply,


service,


administrative,


and medical occupation specialties


and


underrepresented


electronic,


craftsman,


communication,


intell igence,


and other technical occupation


nonani C 4-4 00







Nordlie lacked


data


control


qual ifications


required for


it is not


various


possible


occupation


determine


specialties.


to what


As a


extent


result,


racial


differences found


in occupational


placement


were


inability


what


blacks


extent


to qualify


differences


high-skill


were


occupations


to racial


discrimination.


Both Butler'


and Nordlie'


research,


despite


methodological


difficulties


differences


interpretation


of findings,


still


strongly


suggests


that,


the


Army,


there


differential


treatment


occupational


placement


promotion


base d


race


even after


factors of


hum an


capital


such


as education and aptitude


are


controlled.


This


study


attempts


to extend


knowledge


organizational


behavior


theory


advancing


in four


way s


beyond


works


just


cited.


s study


compares


treatment


Hispanic


as well


black minority


groups;


it will


focus


the Navy


rather


than


the


Army;


it will


control


qualifications of


occupation specialties;


and,


in its


timing


emphasis,


it will


explore


effects of


affirmative


action


program s


the Navy.


statistical


analysis will


conducted with


procedures


similar


those


used


Butler


Nordlie.


these


statistics


will


minorities


permit


this


compare so n


study


the representation


the findings


Butler








Analytical Models


With the exception of Miller


and Ransford's attempt to


place Butler' s


findings into a


theoretical


context,


recent research on occupational


placement and advancement in


the military


has generally


organize ati onal


development of

research finding


theory,


organization

gs open to


been ad hoc,

and has not

al theory.


d


differences i


has not been guided


contributed to th


This lack has left

n interpretation


(Hauser


1978) .


While the data


suggest that there are


differences in treatment based on ethnicity,


offers no middle range theories


the literature


or analytical models which


can be used


for generalizing from the


research findings.


This


study


proposes


three model s


analyze


representation of


minorities in Navy


occupation specialties.


ese


models


are not competing


attempt


account for


shares of

Rather,

features '


the variance in


they will


a common


provide conceptual


the occupational


dependent variable.

frameworks to explain


distribution of


ethnic groups


a complex


organization after


implementation of


affirmative action policy.


Theory


suggests


that intra-


organizational mechanisms may


lead


to distortion in policy


implementation.


The second and third models look for minority


di stribu-


tions plausibly


consequent to such


factors.


The following


- a 4- a r r.4- l~ A n a an a a 1-. A a 4 ,ra 4 am44


nC;


C








Cohort Model


The Navy,


as an organization,


have been successful


in implementing its affirmative action program.


changes from


1976


1979 and


from


1979 to


1982


in the


distribution


ethnic groups


within


occupation


specialties and ranks will


reflect


efforts to move members


minority


ethnic groups


into higher


ranks and


into


occupation specialties requiring

Remaining ethnic differences in


higher


qualifications.


representation


could be


accounted for


either


human capital


differences (Becker,


1964) or by


a cohort effect


( Sti nchcombe,


1968) .


Since this


study


involves


occupation


only personnel


specialty,


human


have been

capital v


assigned an


ariabl


controlled


That is,


while there


be differences in


education between the various ethnic groups,


all members of


the study


have met the universalistic mental


and educational


criteria for the occupation specialties.


differences are

particularly in


Thus,


found in representation of


the more senior


whatever


ethnic groups,


ranks where the effects of


prior civilian


education would


be minimized,


could be


attributed to differences


in treatment in the


Navy


rather


than to differences in human capital.


These assumptions are


supported by the findings of Blau and Duncan (1967),


Butler


(1979) and Miller and Ransford (1978).
Siner a minimum of three vears time-in-rank is reounred







higher rank,


the E5's by 1976 roughly approximate the cohort


eligible for advancement to E6


1979.


Additionally,


1979 approximate the cohort eligible for advancement


to E7 by


1982,


etc.


cohort effect


influences


the distribution


minority


ethnic groups


in the Navy


in that


it requires a


minimum of 10


15 years of


advanced into senior ranks


underrepresentation of


service in the Navy


(E7-E9).

minority


Therefore,

in low ranks


to be


if there was


certain


occupation specialties in the past,

underrepresentation of this minority


there would tend to be

group in higher ranks


in those occupation specialties in the present.


It follows,


then,


even if the Navy's


affirmative action program were


pursued with perfect effectiveness,


that the program goals


would not


be achieved


until


10 to


15 years


after its


initiation.


ranks of


Changes


each


in ethnic


occupation special


representation

ty should be


in senior

predicted by


the cohort of


qualified members of that ethnic group who are


available for advancement.


The cohort


model assumes


that the


distribution of


minority


petty


officers into


more


highly


qualified


occupation specialties and


higher ranks is limited


by the


number


qualified candidates


appropriate


power


positions in the opportunity chain (Hope,


1982a,b;


Stewman


and Konda,


1983).






Meier (1978)


affirmative action


in a


study


goals by


the achievement


state and


local government


agencies


found that,


while economic


and labor


pool


constraints were


the major factors


constraining minority


hiring,


over 25 percent of the variation in minority hiring


was independent of these constraints.


Hall and Saltzstein


(1977)


a study


affirmative


action programs in 26 Texas


cities found that employment of


Spanish-surnamed individuals


was strongly related


to the


population characteristics such as


size and education level


of th


Hispanic work force.


This was not the


case


however


for blacks,


whose employment


was more


constrained by


environmental factors such as the size


of the city and the


characteristics of the employing


agency.


These findings


suggest


that


the available pool


or cohort


qual ified


candidates may affect blacks and Hispanics differently.


Finally,


Butler's (1976b)


findings would suggest that


black occupational placement and advancement


in the Army is


based on


their


inability


to meet


univer salistic


education and testing criteria,


differential


rather,


treatment in the military.


is based on


If this is also the


case


in the Navy,


then


the cohort of


available candidates


for advancement would not offer


an adequate explanation of


ethnic group


differences in


occupational


placement


advancement.







Cohort model


hypothesis.


All other


factors being


equal,


those occupation specialties


where minorities were


overrepresented in lower ranks in


1976 should have a greater


representation of minority


groups in higher ranks


1979


and 1982 than do those occupation specialties where they are

underrepresented.




Self-interest Model


Factors other than the cohort


of members qualified for


advancement could


also affect the distribution


ethnic


groups in occupation specialties and ranks.


such


factor


internal


resistance


intraorganizational


power struggles.


Individuals


organizations are


motivated to


protect or


enhance their


spheres of


occupational action


(Thompson,


1967).


Also,


according to


Thompson


(1967:122).


Individuals in highly


maintain power


equal


dependence on others.


discretionary
to or greater


jobs seek to
than their


Self-interest model


occupation specialties


would


with a high


suggest that


percent of


those


whites in


senior ranks would move to


protect their position and would


slow the


entrance of


minority


ethnic


groups into


that


occupation specialty.


Further,


occupation specialties with


a high percent of minorities in


senior ranks would tend to


b,~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ al a~ th aA in a tbar a 4 A a1, 144'


in, ~ab~+4 n


Cln








resistance to the achievement


organizational goals from


enlisted personnel


in discretionary


positions (ranks E7-E9)


who are protecting


the interest of


pe opl e


in their ethnic


group.


Research on public sector


organizations has generally


supported the

positions will


ethnic group.


minority


concept that


act in th


Thompson (1976)


minorities in discretionary

interest of members of their


found that increases in


representation (passive representation)


influences


pol icy


fav or of


Thompson also


minorities (active


identified the


representation).


following conditions


under


which


passive and active representation would be more likely


to be linked.


When institutions and groups


articulate an ideology


of minority


pride for advancement of minority


issues.


When minorities in power deal


in issues which improve


the well


being of


people in their ethnic group.


When minorities in the organization have a high level


association


with members


of their


own ethnic


group.


When minorities occupy


discretionary


jobs,


especially


those jobs in lower echelons.


When members


minority


group


work in


close


proximity to one another.


Rosenbloom and Featherstonhaueh


(1977)


in a study


vs








interest of


other blacks.


Davis and West


(1978)


had similar


findings in a


study


perceptions of


affirmative action


among Mexican-American


city


county


superv isors


middle managers.


Stillman (1974)


argues that


career military


officers


and petty


officers who


achieve discretionary positions have


been socialized


into a common


set of


ideals


and values


regardless of


their ethnic identity


and will


therefore not


act in the


interest of


member s


of their own ethnic group.


Stillman (1974:227)


states:


While


increasing


apparent in
officers and


cultural


diversity


the armed services,
enlisted men who


will


military
the top


ranks now


and in future


those lifetime careerist


the central


professional


years


will


tend


who most closely


ideals


and value


to be


emul ate
of the


service.


The Self-interest


model


will


test whether


members of


minority


ethnic groups


act in the


interest


members of


their own


ethnic group by


assisting them to


enter their


occupation specialties.


Stouffer et al.


ception of


(1949)


promotion opportui


found a correlation between per-

nity and social groupings.


Soldiers who were considered in the in group by their peers


were perceived to have higher promotion opportunities.


Other


studies have


found that social


characteristics


cl ass,


religion,


and region of


origi n


in the United States were


r o1 o'i-odi r\ i "I i v-u n *7r~v nm nt' I nnr I' -TQn I/- 4-i ,


1OaCn.I


1 OR Q.


Mills






southern


upper-class


white Protestants


tended


overrepresented in senior officer ranks.


Sel f-interest hy pojthesis.


All other


factors being


equal,


ethnic


representation in


discretionary positions


(ranks


E7-E9)


in 1976


should d


predict


proportional


representation in ranks E4-E9 in




Gore TechnoloQgy Model


1979 and 1982.


The third


model suggests the organization


itself may


have


put priority


goals


other than


equality


assignment.


This model


views the organization in terms of


its core and peripheral


Thompson


technologies.


(1967:19 states):


Under norms of


seal


rationality,


their


core


organizations seek to


technologies


environmental influences.


from


This model


suggests that


occupational specialties


which


represent


core


technologies


Navy


are


traditionally white


and that personnel


power positions


(policy making officers)


in the organization would tend to


*maintain them as such.


Therefore,


these officers would


resist accepting minorities into core


sectors to a greater


degree than


into occupations


in non-core


or peripheral


technologies.


Research on the distribution of minority


groups in core








example,


Coakl ey


(1978)


in a study


on the distribution of


blacks and whites on sports


teams,


found that blacks were


underrepresented in central


positions


(baseball


pitchers and


catchers; foot

overrepresented


ball quarterbacks,


peripheral


centers and guards)


positions


(baseball


outfielders; football


running backs and flankers).


Coakley' s


findings


conflict with


data


black


representation in the Army.


During the Vietnam era,


blacks


the Army


tended to


overrepresented in


combat


occupations,


even when the variable of


AFQT was controlled.


These data


were variously


accounted


being


due to


class rather than to race factors (Moskos


1976)


and due to


race discrimination (Butler,


1976b).


Nonetheless,


combat


arms represent the core technology


of the Army,


and there is


some evidence to


suggest that,


in the


case


of the Army,


minorities may


be overrepresented in core occupations rather


than under represented.


problem s


have


hampered


research


into


distribution


occupations in


technology


minorities

the military.


occupations


core


first


often require higher


peripheral


that core


skill levels


than do peripheral


the difficulty


occupations.


each occupation


Therefore,


is needed.


a control


Data which


would permit this


were often not available.


The second


Problem is


that categorie


s ot core


and neri heral


tech-







"support" comprise


numerous occupation specialties


and do


not contain occupations which exclusively


represent core and


peripheral


technologies.


Combat arms


contains


some


occupation specialties which could


technology while


be considered peripheral


support occupations contain some occupation


specialties which could be considered cor


technology.


Both


occupations have


data.


the problems


been due in par


The data available for


categorization of


all Navy


categorizing

t to a lack


this study will


military


adequate


permit the


into


occupation specialties


discrete categories of


core and peripheral


technologies.


Core technology model hypothesis.


All other factors


being equal

peripheral


minority


occupation


groups will


specialties and


overrepresented in

underrepresented in


core technology


occupation specialties.


Summ arv


Review


literature


organizational


effectiveness


affirmative


action


suggests


that


affirmative action


will provide an excellent


subject for


research on organizational


behavior


in goal


accompl ishment.


Research on th


e distribution of


minorities in the military,


principally

hampered by


that


done by Butler


a lack of


data.


and Nordlie,


As a result,


has been


the research has


- --


--


- --







This


study


attempts


extend


knowledge


organizational behavior and


theory


and also to


fill some


gaps in research on the military


comparing the treatment of Hispanic


as well as black


minorities.


focusing on the Navy rather than the Army,

recent research on the distribution of mir


where the


lorities has


been done.


using a


theoretical


framework which will


allow the


findings to improve for the analysis of


other complex


organizations


contribute


organizational


theory.













CHAPTER III
METHODS



Data Sources


Data for this


study were obtained primarily


from the


Navy-wide Demographic Data Base.


These data identify


occupation specialty,


rank


, sex


and ethnic identity


of the


entire active duty


population for the year


s 1976,


1979,


1982.


These years were selected because


1976 represents


first year accurate data on Hispanics were available and


approximated the time


affirmative action programs were


firmly


established throughout th


Navy,


the year 1979


provides a midpoint reference


between


1976 and


1982,


represents the most recent data available


The data have the advantage


representing the entire


population of


the Navy


therefore


e do not


require any


statistical


procedures


involving


estimation


population parameters.


That i


, whatever differences are


found between ethnic groups will be significant in that they

are population differences.


The data do,


however,


have major


limitations which


should be mentioned.


First,


the data are aggregated as of







various


ethnic groups


cannot


made without


severe


reservations.


Secondly,


since the


population does not


represent a


closed system,


conclusions based on the analysis


cohorts must be made


with caution.


For example,


minimum time for advancement from rank


years.

system,


the population represented a


the entire cohort of E-7's in


to E-8 is three

perfect closed


1976 would appear


E-8's in


1979.


Regr eta bly,


as with any


cohort data,


there


are confounding effects


(Glenn,


1977).


First,


all members of


the population are not promoted


occupation specialties


with their cohort.


have faster advancement


Some


rates than


others.


Also,


within occupation


specialties,


poor


performer s


are


advanced


more


slowly


than


superior


performers.

the end of


Secondly, peop

their enlistments,


)le retire or

i.e., exit


leave the Navy


at various levels


the ladder


Finally,


a few people are recruited into the


Navy


in ranks E-7


and E-8,


and a smaller number of


people


are reduced in rank for disciplinary


reasons.


While all


the above factors tend


to confound the


analysis of the


data and limit the


statistical


procedures


that can be used


, the data


source is nonetheless rich and


suitable for analysis.


The second source of


data


is the Navy


Enlisted Career


Guide


1980-1981.


This publication gives job descriptions


for each


of the


Navy


occupation specialties and was used








The third source of


data is the Navyv


Recruiters'


Manual


(COMNAVCRUITCOM,


recruiters


1979).


regarding


This manual


the qualifications


provides information to


required


entrance into the various


Navy


enlistment


programs.


data from the


manual


used in this study


are aptitude test


scores


required for acceptance into the "A" schools for each


occupation specialty.


qualifications for entry


These scores


into


represent the minimum


each occupation specialty


will


therefore permit an hierarchical


ordering of


occupation


specialties by


their degree of


qualification.


data


sources


this


study


permit


identification of


the white,


population of the Navy


black and Hispanic enlisted


occupation and rank.


Additional


sources of


data permit


the categorization


occupation


specialties by their technology


aptitude level


(core and peripheral)


qualification.


Identification of the PoDulation


As stated previously,


the data represent the total male


enlisted population of the Navy


for the years


1976,


1979 and


1982.


From this population,


ethnic groups wer


selected fo


only white,

r study. A


black and Hispanic


Ls stated in Chapter


study


of the treatment of females in


considered beyond the scope


this study.


the Navy


Accordingly,


C awn no t~nr a na1 of ACn +Inae ni '' il 44tr


rlC;







Additionally,


seven construction occupation specialties


(Sea Bees)


and three


Petty Officer occupation specialties


were deleted from the population.


The Sea Bees were deleted


because they

therefore do


are organizationally


an autonomous


not represent traditional


Petty Officer


occupation


Navy


specialties of


unit and


occupations.


Legalman,


Master-at-Arms,


and Navy Counselor


were deleted from the


population


because these


occupations are


not open


incoming recruits but,


rather,


obtain personnel from other


occupations.


After deletion of


the above occupations,


the total


1982


E1-E9 population was 40


,328 personnel.


population in


ranks E4-E9 contained 88 occupations and 24,935 individuals.


e term


white,


"total


black and Hispani


population" in this study


male Navy


refers to


enlistees in ranks E1-E9


full-time active


duty.


term


"petty


officer


population" refers to members of


this population in the 88


occupation specialties described above who


are in ranks the


spec E4-E9.


Soecification of Variables


Qualification


Qualification for Navy


primarily


occupation


on civilian education


specialties is based


scores on a battery


aptitude tests (Armed Services


Vocational Aptitude Battery,








high school


diploma a


and superior achievement on


the test


battery, wh

high school


ile non-technical


occupations require less than a


diploma and average or below test scores.


ASVAB


tests


aptitude


the


following


subjects


(COMNAVCRUITCOM,


1979) .


Subject

General Science

Arithmetic Reasoning

Paragraph Comprehension


Numeri cal


Operations


Abbreviation

GS

AR

PC

NO


Coding Speed

Auto and Shop Information


Mechanical


Comprehension


Electronic Information


Various


combinations


subjects are


used


determine


qual if ications


occupation


categories.


Occupation


specialties are grouped into four general


categories.


These


are:


General


Technical


(GT)


Mechani cal


Electronic

Clerical


(MC)


(EL)


(cL)


Qualifications for each


of these categories are


based on


combinations of


TPnh ni n1


ASVAB subject scores.


nnniinn~tti AP1Q


For example,


ran iii ra 2rnmhi nn ti nn


General


nP f ~ lrn







Electronics


requi res


combination


Mechani cal


Comprehension,


Electronic Information,


General


lence


Arithmetic


Reasoning.


Occupation


specialties within each


general


category


a part


score


of 90


cular


require minimum


occupation


required


scores


in order


specialty.


to qualify


to qualify


example,


as a Quartermaster


A GT


while


a score


required


to qualify


as a


Postal


Clerk.


electronic


score


is required


to qualify


as an


Aviation Ordnanceman,


while


a score


is required


qual ify


as an Aviation


Fire


Control


Technician.


ASV AB


subject


scores are


standardized with mean 50


standard


deviation


Therefore e


average


standardized


required for


score may


each


obtained


occupation


specialty


dividing


score


number


subject

required


tests


required.


to qualify


Average

occupation


standardized


specialty


scores

ranged from


Mess


Processing


Management


echni


cian


Specialist


to 55


several


Journal ist


other


Data


occupation


specialties.


occupation


specialties


were


placed


into


one


three


category


based


on the


average


standardized


score required


to qualify


occupation


specialty


Occupations with


scores


between


were


categorized


"low


average


qualified"


occupations,


standardized scores


those


between


which


49.1


requi red


51.7


were


ass


ified


"m edi um


qualify ied"


occupations.


Occupation







were classified


as high qualified.


This categorization


resulted in three


fairly


equal groups with


regard to both


occupation specialties and personnel.


There were


qual ified


occupations (N=86,003),


29 medium


qualified


occupations


(N=7


,948) ,


high qualified occupations


(N=86,948).



Technology


The main mission of the Navy


is rather


straightforward;


to control and protect the


seas.


The Navy


carries out this


mission by op

occupations,

involved with


ratingg ships

therefore,

the operation


and aircraft.

are those which


Core technology

are primarily


ships and aircraft.


For this


study,


core


technology


occupations are defined


as those


occupations which


involve the


operation of


propulsion,


detection and


weapons systems equipment aboard


ships and


aircraft.


Examples


core


technology


occupation


specialties are Machinest's Mates,


who operate shipboard


propulsion


machinery;


Aviation


Anti-submarine


Warfare


Operators and Sonar Technicians,


who operate aviation and


shipboard detection equipment;


Gunners'


Mates,


operate shipboard weapons systems.


Core


support


occupation


are


those


occupation


specialties whose primary


job function is to


maintain and


repair the equipment directly


associated with the operation








specialties are Electronics Technician,


Machinery


Repai rman,


and Aviation Structural Mechanic.

Support occupations are those occupations which provide


personnel,


logistic,


maintenance,


and administrative support


to the operating forces.

specialties are Journalist,


Examples of


support occupation


Ship' s Serviceman,


and Hospital


Corpsman.


Enlisted


Career Guide


1980-1981


gives


detailed


job description


each


the major


Navy


occupation specialties.


This publication


was used


classify


each of


the occupation specialties into core,


core


support and support technology


categories according to the


criteria previously


in 39 core (N=110,910),


described.


s classification resulted


core support (N=81,207),


and 27


support (N=54,799)


occupation specialties.


Statistical Procedures


Difference Indicators


statistic used


to summarize


and describe


distribution of blacks and Hispanics


in the population must


meet four criteria:


It mu

size

It mu


Tt m3st


st


be sensitive to


of the group

st be easily


1 JII


differences in the relative


s being compared.

interpretable.


SPn.sitivp tn nhanos in 1-h


~17


nP


N~LY








It must


compare the representation of


a particular


group against a standard.


An accepted standard against


which to compare observed


distribution of


a group is


the random distribution of that


group within the population


(Agresti


and Agresti,


1979) .


This method


assumes


that all


ethnic groups


are randomly


distributed throughout the population.


As an example,


blacks comprised

were randomly d


would expect blacks al


6 percent of the Navy


distributed in ranks and


to comprise


petty


officers and


occupations,


6 percent of


one


each rank


and occupation specialty.


Nordlie et al.


(1975) describe a Difference Indicator


(DI)


which is


based


the assumption


random


distribution.


The DI is calculated


as follow


= (Actual


Number


/ Expected Number


100)


Where:


Actual


Number


= The number of


members of


particular ethnic group in the category


interest.


Expected Number


= The number


of members of the ethnic


group


members


interest


of that


one would


group


expect to


were randomly


find


distributed


throughout


the population.


The Expected


Number is


derived by


multiplying the


percent of the minority


group in the category


the total population in that category.


interest by


exam pl e,


1982


4- L a, 1 lO- ~a 4 1 1-%a a 4 4 a- a- I --


II (I


CknHh


I,,, i.,







with regard to rank,


one would expect to find


11.48 percent


blacks in each rank and in each occupation specialty.


There


was a


total


of 9,108


black,


white and


Hispanic petty


officers


in rank


highly qualified


occupation


specialties.


Therefore,


the expected number of blacks in


highly qualified


occupations in rank


E7 would


11.48


percent X 9,108


= 1,045.


The Expected Number is divided


into the Actual Number to form a ratio.

multiplied by 100 to form a more easily


This ratio is then

interpreted percent.


Finally,


100 is subtracted from the result


that,


when the


actual


and expected number


are equal,


the DI equals zero.


The DI is interpreted as

group is over or under


the percentage which a particular


presented from random distribution


in the category


interest.


Continuing with


the above


example e,


there were


occupations in


1982.


365 black E7'


The DI for thi


highly qualified


s category


= (36


1 ,046 X


100)


- -65


The selection of the base


line


population has a strong


effect on

Both Butler


the expected percentage ar

(1976a) and Nordlie et al.


id the

(1975)


resulting DI.

, in their studies


of black enlisted rank distribution in


the Army,


used as the


expected percentage


the percent


blacks in


the enlisted


population of the Army.


Minority


distribution can generally


be expected to be biased downward.


The more inclusive the







measured


discrimination.


example e


black E7


cited above,


vary


from


percent


to -33


percent,


depending


on the


base


population


selected.


general


descriptions of


total


population


petty


officer


population,


this


study


will


use


percent


the minority


group


interest


the


total


population


Navy


derive


expected


percentage.


testing the


three models,


percentage


the minority


group of


interest


in each


rank and


level


of qualification


occupation will


used as


expected


percentage.


Change


Indices


describes


representation


a particular


ethnic


group at a


given


point


time.


Some indication


changes between

examining the


points of


trends


obs

the


rvation


Dl 's.


ca n


However,


determined

additional


statistics


which more


specifically


describe


changes


distribution


minority


groups


between


1976


1982


would


useful.


statistics


will


used for


purpose.


first


will


descri be


changes


in each


minority


change


second will


specific


groups


in specific occupational


in the white


describe


occupation


population


changes


category


categories


that


in each minority


relative e


relative


category.


group within a


changes


population


f that


minority


group


each


level








Change


in representation


-flde-x.


Change


Representation


Index


(CRI)


derived as follows:


m82


5-


-100


Where m76


and m82


are


number


of members of


the minority


group of


interest


a particular


rank and


occupation


specialty


1976


respectively,


and w76


and w8


are


number


whites


in that


rank and


occupation


same years.


number


in a


particular


of members

rank and


the minority


occupation


group of


category


interest


1982


divided


number


that


group


in that


category


1976


to form


a change


ratio.


This


ratio


then multiplied


to form


a change


percentage.


Finally,


subtracted


from


ratio


that,


there was


change


between


1976


1982,


the CRI


woul d


equal


zero.


interpreted


as the


percent


change


between


1976


1982


the


compo si ti on


each minority


ethnic


group


relative e


whites within each


rank


and


category


occupations.


example,


1976


there where


Hispanics


- -


8,107


whites


in ranks


E7-E9


in those low


Qualified


m







E4-E6


in 1976 (Cohort Model).


1982,


there were


Hispanics and 6,788 whites in


category.


the same rank and occupation


The CRI for Hispanics in this example is


6,788


8,107


The CRI


percent is


interpreted to


mean that,


relative to whites,


22.1


Hispanics in


percent in proportional


ranks E7-E9 increased by


representation in low qualified


occupations where they were


overrepresented in ranks E4-E6


1976.


Calculating the


CRI by


comparing each


minority


group


with whites was


selected for this study


for two reasons.


First,


the percentage change in the white population provides


less distortion than does comparison to the total


of whites,


blacks,


and Hispanics.


Secondly,


this method is not


influenced by


changes in one


minority


group


relative to


another.


Change in distribution index.


The second index which


will


be used to describe the


changes in the minority


group


popul ati on


between


1976


1982


is the


Change



















Where m is the number of the minority g

particular rank and occupation category


group of


interest in a


1976,


and M is


the total


number of


members of


the minority


group of


interest in a

The CDI


particular


compares the


level


occupation qualification.


distribution of


each minority


group in 1976 with

of qualification.


the distribution

The CDI is int


1982 for each level


erpreted as the percent


change in the distribution of the minority


group of


interest


within a particular qualification


and occupation category.


The CDI equals


distribution between


zero when there has been no


1976 and


change in the


1982.


Analv tical Models


Cohort Model


placement into occupation


specialties and ranks is


determined by the cohort of


qualified candidates,


then the


distribution of


this pool


qualified


candidates should


account for a


large portion of the


distribution of


ethnic


groups in the ranks and occupations


at the time this cohort







percentage of members of that ethnic group in ranks E7-E9


1 979 and


1982


than occupations where that


ethnic group is


underrepresented in ranks E4-E6


The Cohort model was tested


1976.


dividing the occupation


specialties in


1976


into two


groups.


first group


consisted of those


occupations where the ethnic


group of


interest was


greater than the


mean percentage


in ranks


E4-E6.


The other group consisted of those occupations where


the minority


group of


interest was


less than


the mean


percentage in those ranks.


DI was calculated for each


category


qualification for ranks E7-E9 in


1979 and


1982.


The Cohort model


hypothesis is


supported if the DI for


the occupations


where the minority


group of


interest is


overrepresented in ranks E4-E6


1976 is greater,


for each


category


of qualification,


than those occupations where it


is underrepresented.


The hypothesis


is also supported if


the CRI and CDI for ranks


E7-E9 in the occupation category


where the minority


group of


interest was overrepresented in


ranks E4-E6


1976


were greater


than the


occupation


category where the minority


group was underrepresented.


Self-interest Model


enlistees of


a particular ethnic group


in highly


discretionary positions act in the


interest of their ethnic


group,


then,


controlling for qualifications of


occupations,







are


ov errepresented


discretionary


positions


should


incr ease


rate


than


representation


occupation


that


specialties


ethnic

where


group at a


they


faster


are


underrepresented in


discretionary


positions.


Since


personnel


ranks


E7-E9


are


selected


members


selection


boa rd,


cri teri a


their r


selection


subject


more


subj ectiv ity


than i


the


process


advancement


in lower


ranks


which


base d


more


univ er sal isti c


criteria.


Further


, people e


in higher


ranks


ful fill


positions


requiring


leadership and


independent


action with


little e


supervision.


reasons,


ranks


E7-E9


are


defined


as discretionary


positions


purposes of


this


study.


analysis


was


condu


acted as


follows:


Occupation


specialties


1976


were


divided


into


categories;


one


containing


those


occupation


where


the minority


group of


interest


was


greater


than the


mean


percentage


in ranks


E7-E9,


one


where it


was


less


than


the mean


percentage


dependent


variable


was


the


ranks


E4-E9


1979


1982.


The hypothesis of


Self-interest model


supported


each


category


of qualification,


s in


1979


1982


are


greater


occupations where


percentage


minority


group


interest


is overrepresented


discretionary


positions


1976


than for


those


occupations





49

The hypothesis is also supported if the CRI's and CDI's


are greater


minority


for the


group


category


interest


occupations where


ov errepresented


discretionary


positions than for the category


occupations


where the minority


group is underrepresented.


Core Technology Model


This model suggests that


the organization protects its


core technology


from change.


If the


organization was


threatened by the inclusion of


minority


ethnic groups,


then


one would expect,


when ethnic


minorities were included in


the organization through affirmative action,


they would tend


to be overrepresented in occupations representing peripheral


technologies


and underrepresented


in those


occupations


representing the core technology.


Occupations were


categorized according


to the


job


description for each occupation specialty.


Each occupation


was assigned


to either core,


core support


or support


technol ogy


category


based on the criteria described in the


specification of


the technology


variable section


this


chapter.


Dl 's


were


calculated


each


rank


and


qualification category


for the years


1976,


1979


1982.


The Core Technology


model hypothesis is supported


if the


Dl 's


for the


core category,


each category







support categories.


Additional support


for the model is


gained if the CRI's and CDI's


than those of


for core occupations are less


core support and support occupations.


Models and Tests


One model


through time,


(Cohort)


is sensitive to whether the Navy


accomplishing its


affirmative action goals.


additional


minority


models generate


occupational


hypotheses


distribution departing


concerning


from perfect


effectiveness in this goal attainment.


One of these


(Self-


interest)


presumes


distorting pressures


enlisted


personnel and the other (Core Technology)


imputes distorting


action to officers.


Between the


two,


these exhaust the


Navy' s


personnel.


Alternative


explanations


positing


internal factors


would be confounded with


these.


Other


models concerned with forces outside the Navy are beyond the


scope of this


study.


Still other models


would generate


predictions not testable with the data available.


This study


proceeds,


in the next chapter,


to examine the data with


respect to these three models.













CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS



General


As of September


1976,


the enlisted population of


the Navy was


399,373.


Between


1976 and


1979,


the population


decreased slightly


to 394,251.


Between


1979 and


1982,


increased to 403,328.


The total increase over this 6-year


period was


3,955.


These data are


contained in Table


can be seen from Table


the white and black populations


varied considerably


between


1976 and


1982.


1976,


whites


comprised 88 percent


the population while


in 1982 they


comprised 8


percent.


This represents a decrease of 4.6


percent or


15,07


people.


During this same period,


blacks


increased from 8.6 percent of the population in


1976 to


13.1


percent in


1982.


This change represents a


gain of 4.5


percent or


18,5


people.


Changes


in the


Hispanic


population were


slight.


Hispanics comprised 3.4


percent of


the population in 1976,


decreased slightly


to 3


percent in


1979 and then increased


back to 3.4


percent by 1982.


This change represents a net


increase of 502 people.


.1..~~n Sa, I Il I -


n


II 1 1 I

























Table 1
Total White, Black, and Hispanic
Enlisted Population of the Navy


i i Whites Blacks Hispanics Total
IYear Number Pet. i Number Pct. ( Number Pet. I Number
11976 351,600 88.0 134,404 8.6 I 13,369 3.4 1399,373
11979 1 337,498 85.6 I 44,701 11.3 1 12,052 3.1 394,251 I
11982 1336,528 83.4 1 52,929 13.1 13,871 3.4 1403,328 1
11982-
11976 I -15,072 -4.6 I 18,525 4.5 I 502 0.0 I 3,955 I







As can be seen from Figures


and 2,


both blacks and


Hispanics tend to be overrepresented in ranks El,


rather equitably


represented in


progressively underrepresented


Trends in representation between


in ranks


1976


rank E4,


through


1982 are varied.


In ranks


E8 blacks


tend to


be increasing


underrepresentation while the trend


ranks is constant.


for Hispanics in these


The trend for rank E9 seems to also be


constant for both blacks and Hispanics.


























Ranklls


1 0 0,
C90,.
50.


0,
-10.
-20-.
- 30-.
-40.


-sea.
-70.


-~ 0.

--10.


E2 4 SE


Ranks


Figur


t- -I .


WW .Am


wa *


a w
























Ranks


70.


20..


-20'..
-

- 4-Os
-so-
-
~
-B0~
-so-
-100~


E77J 1982
-70 1979
ES31 1976


Ranks


Figur


TF 4-a 'L a .


7..? S


n










Description of the Petty Officer


Ronn~at tion


Examination of


occupation a


the population


s presented in table


by qualification


reveals some interesting


findings.


The percentage of white


in all


three categories


qual ifications


has remained quite stable,


percentage of blacks and Hispani


has markedly


while the

increased.


The rank distribution shows wide variation.

illustrates the representation for blacks in high


Figure :

medium,


low qualified


occupations.


In highly


qual ified


occupations,


blacks are underrepresented in all ranks.


This


underrepresentation generally


increased from lower to higher


ranks.


In medium qualified occupations,


of blacks is generally


equitable,


the representation


with a slight tendency


toward overrepresentation in higher ranks.


In low qualified


occupations however,


ranks.


blacks are overrepresented


This overrepresentation increase


in all


progressively with


higher ranks.


Examination


trends of


Dl 's


provide


accurate


information of the percentage changes in the distribution of


minorities from random distribution.


However,


the observer


must keep


in mind these


figures are based


on different


expected percentages and that


be much different.


actual


The DI represent


percentage changes may


the percent deviation


C r ani ~ A a A 1Pi4-, n -, ,, ',. 4 4 4 a e nn,-V mnaa4


-I ~~


C" v, nnr


dVnnn~b~












Ta bl e


Petty Officer Population of the Navy
by Qualification of Occupation

Highly Qualified Occupations


Whites Blacks Hispanics Total
SYear Number Pet. I Number Pet. Number Pet. Number j
11976 I 77,375 93.7 3,649 4.4 1 1,558 1.9 82,582 1
p1979 77,155 91.9 I 4,880 5.8 1 1,885 2.3 83,920 1
11982 77,306 88.9 1 7,403 8.5 I 2,275 2.6 I 86,984
I1982- I 1
11976 I -69 -4.8 I 3,754 4.1 I 717 0.7 I 4,402 i


Medium Qualified Occupations


I
i Whites Blacks i Hispanics I Total i
SYear Number Pct. j Number Pct. j Number Pct. I Number j
11976 1 63,401 90.5 I 5,007 7.1 I 1,624 2.3 1 70,032 1
11979 63,905 88.1 I 6,650 9.2 I 1,958 2.7 72,513
11982 1 62,601 84.61 9,170 12.41 2,117 2.9 1 73,948
11982- II I I
11976 I -800 -5.9 1 4,163 5.3 1 553 0.6 I 3,916 1

Low Qualified Occupations

SWhites I Blacks Hispanics f Total
Year Number Pct. I Number Pet. Number Pet I Number
11976 1 69,035 88.41 6,964 8.91 2,073 2.7 1 78,072
11979 71,270 86.61 8,492 10.3 1 2,561 3.1 1 82,323
11982 71,316 82.9 111,767 13.71 2,920 3.4 I 86,003
S1982-
1 1976 1 2,281 -5.5 1 4,803 4.8 1 847 0.7 I 7,931 I


All Occupations


Year


I I Whites Blacks Hispaics Total


Number
209,811
212,330
211 .223


Pot.
91.0
88.9
85.5


Number
15,620
20,022
28.340


Pct.
6.8
8.4
11 .5


Number
5,255
6,404
7.272


Pct.


Number
230,686
238,756
246.93q5






















Hagihly


Qualif~ied


Oooupatione


"'00,


- 30-
-40.
-BO.
-30..


-70,
-H0O.
-SeO.
-100,


T- 19792

mi 1 976


Eankrs


Fi gur e


Blaok


R nr Psnf.tati nn


0nal ii ian i nn

























Medium


Qualified.


Oco pations


ewec3,,


r 1982
an1979
Ec3 1976


4M


- 2C*4 -
--
- 4.0- -
-
-1
-.
--
O. -

-70 -
--


-10o, -


Ranks


Figur


3--continued.


c~l~f7


h~g





60











Qualified Oooupation




1979 q
EXS1976 j
b ^^ ^/ v ,
:, .,

\S ',, *k< S / !'S.
,. ,-' *









E5 ES E7 E8 E
Ranks
Figure 3--continued. I








Figure 3--continued.






61

of minorities between observations would also change the DI.


For example

qualified


Figure


occupations,


indicates that,


blacks


in rank E4


were


in highly


percent


underrepresented in


1976 and


percent underrepresented in


1982.


These figures are based on the percent of black E4's


in the Navy


15.22 percent).


1976 and


That


1982 respectively


if black E4's


(8.08 percent and


were randomly


distributed,


one would


expect that,


1976


1982


respectively,


8.08 and


15.22 percent of E4'


in highly


qualified occupations would also be black.


Therefore,


even


though


number of


black E4I'


in highly


qualified


occupations more than


doubled between 1976 and


1982 (from


3,649 to


7,403)


the underrepresentation


of blacks in that


category was reduced by


only 7 percent.


expected percentages


used in


this study


are


contained in Appendix A.


In highly qualified occupations the


trend of DI's for


blacks has been moving toward equality


medium and low qualified occupations,


for all


with


ranks.


the exception of


a movement toward equality

low qualified occupations,


distribution in ranks E5-E7


there has been little change in


the representation of blacks.


The CRI and


CDI provide more accurate


indicators of


changes that have occurred in


the distribution of minorities


between


1Q76 and


1QR2 thsn ines the veYminatinn nf trends in







in high,


medium


and low


qual ified


occupati ons.


With


exception


rank


medium


qualified


occupations,


blacks


have


increased


in representation


in all


ranks


qualification levels of


occupations.


change


distribution


blacks


as measured


indicates


that


percentage


blacks


in ranks


increased while


in all


other


ranks


it has


decreased.


There


are


fewer


blacks


senior


ranks


1982


than


there


were


1976.


This finding is


undoubta bly


the large


number


blacks


which


have moved


into


lower


ranks


three


occupation levels,


thereby


reducing


proportion


foun d


senior


ranks.


Hispani


representation


rank


somewhat


similar


that


blacks.


show n


Figure


Hispanics


are


underrepresented


in high


qualified occupations.


However,


over


under


representation


somewhat less


than


that


blacks.


progressive ely


Hispanics,


under


like


blacks,


in higher


also


tend


trend


between


1976


1982


Hispanics


has also


bee n


similar


that


blacks.


With


exce


option


rank


trend


representation


Hispanics


highly


qualified


occupations


been


toward


equal ity.


Whil


there have


been


changes


trends


in Hispanic


representation


medium


qualified occupations,
\


pattern


is apparent.


Figure 6


presents


findings


Hispanic


changes


represented


ranks.










Change in Representntion


(cmR)


Ranks
aX E9

[Z2ES
XSS3E7


JIDE5
= E4


"'0'Q


BO.


20..


-'c.-.


Q~Igd


uaedinnd
Qualified


LA~w


Qualified


OcouDations Ocoupations Occupations


Change in


Distribution


20g.


-204
-30 .
-60.
-BO.

-70.
-BO.
-50-


--100. -J


IFFF~11


r






64
















Highly Qualified Occrupations

1 0 -i
B,. -


89 -79
5so. -X 1976

+3s. -
40,.

20..-
10. -
Li ST3?i O l W
.


- 2O. '



- 0. -
-GO.-
-- 7 0,

-90. -

1 00,
E+ E5 ES E7 E E
Ranks






Figure 5























Medscium~


.1',',.


--3 0-.
-20.
-30.-

-BO.
- 6 O .
- 7EO
-70,
- no .
-SO.
-100,


Qualified Ocaupations






S 1979
CT031 97 6


]Ranks


Figur


5--continued.


L3~c~


L~i~I~





















~Low


Qrualifie


Ocorup-atione


90..
so.


-40.
-BO.

-70,


- -0.
--1 00,


P? 1979
EX 1976


Banks


Figur e


5--continued.








Hispanic representation,


ranks and levels of


like that of blacks,


occupation qualifications,


increased in


with


exception


rank


representation of


greatest


Hispanics was in


incr ease


the middle


ranks of


highly qualified occupations.


Change


the distribution


of Hispanics


are mixed.


There is a lower percentage of


Hispanics in rank E 4


1982


than there was in


1976.


This


reflect either a smaller


cohort being

advancement of


promoted in the

the cohort into


petty


officer ranks


the higher


ranks.


or the

The


increased percentage of


Hispanics in ranks E5


suggest the


latter


explanation is the more likely.


The analysis


of the data


presented in the


past few


pages can be summarized


as follows:


Navy


substantially


increased its


black


representation but


produced no change


in Hispanic


representati on.


Progress


has been


made


toward


equity


both


specialty

blacks, t


qualification and


th ough


rank distribution


the trend has as yet had little impact


at the top ranks.


For Hispanics,


the pattern is


more modest and more


mixed,


but generally toward greater equality.


Further details,


causes,


and implications of these patterns


21 -b 4


-__









marge in Representation (CRI)


Ranks
zaE
M EB
ETI E7


DJrii Eti


-10.
-20.
- 30.
- 40.


QI!tIlyd


Mediu n
Qualified


Lawr


cjua~lifled


Occupations Occupations Occupations


Change 1in


Distribution (CDI)


5O.


-20.
-30.
-40.
--EO.
-60.
-70,


IFFA~


~ rJO,


i OC),











Cohort


Model


Cohor t


model


hypothesizes


that


those


occupations


where


minorities


are


ov errepresented


in lower


ranks


(E4-E6)


1976


will


have


greater


representation


of minorities


senior


ranks


(E7-E9)


1979


1982


than will


occupations


where minorities


Blacks in

occupations


are


underrepresent


ranks


1976


(N=10,84


in lower


were


these,


ranks.


over represented


occupations were


highly


qual ifi


(N=1,899)

were low


wer


qualified


medium


(N=5,185).


qualified

Blacks


lower


ranks


were


under


represented


occ


upation


(N=4,778)


these,


were highly


qual ified


(N=1 ,750)


wer


medium


qual ified


94=1


249) ,


nine


were low


qualified


94=


779)


Base


line


data


black


Cohort model


are


contained


in Appendix


Figur e


illustrates the


Dl 's


ranks


E7-E9


occupations


where


blacks


were


over


under


represented in


lower


ranks


1976.


The year


1976


in figure


interpretive meaning


in relationship


model,


included


provide


a comparison


with


other


years.


ca se


levels of


blacks,


qual ification.


Cohort hypothesi


Black representation


supported


in highly


qualified


occupations


has


greatest


inequal ity


between


-I-- -- t .-. p 9, m I..-. 9-*


*I


--


*


q


1


~.. I-LI L


II






















Ranks


27-29


"'C.l,


-- 0


-60w.
-70,
-- 0.
-1no-
--S O.
-100,


Deeupations


ranks


with


E4-E6


OcLcupatlons


withb


E4-E6


bLaEcks~


1976.


blacks


overrepresented


underrepresented


1T?6.


Figur


ni -I ft. A. ,- --


II


--


r~r]ra






71

Black representation in low qualified occupations moved


toward


greater inequality


from


1976


1982,


while


representation


occupations in the


highly


qual ified


category moved toward equality.


Representation in medium


qualified occupations has remained rather constant.


Figure 8 illustrates the


changes in representation and


distribution


for the


Cohort model.


Changes in


the


representation of blacks support


the Cohort hypothesis for


highly qualified


occupations only.


For medium


and low


qualified occupations,


there is little difference in the CRI


between


the two


categories of


occupations,


hypothesis is not supported.


Changes in the


distribution of blacks also support the


Cohor t


hypothesis


occupations.

occupations,


In the


the case


case s


highly


of medium and


differences in


the two


qual ified

low qualified


category


opposite that predicted by the model.


The large


increase in black representation


in highly


qualified occupations and rather small


changes in medium and


low qualified occupations


can be explained


blacks and whites in


is due to several


examination of the

the two occupation


factors which


actual numbers of


category es.


highly qualified occupations there was


the number of blacks in


a large increase in


both the occupation category where


t~h V


- F' 'S e F''S


a F .**a. Ana*raaa I A


r r-I r rr%


AHC


7*~


1









Change


Representation (Ranks E7-E9)


Q~It1y


icx0.


50.


20..


3-I


-- 20C)


Occu


llediumn
Qualtiied


mwpl


Qualified


.atlons Occupations Occupations


-WI


Change


in Distribution


50(..


20..


-20.
-30.
- 40.
- EQ0.
-60.
-70,


RrEprcle.ntation in Ranks E4-E6


rr"7 Ouccpatlons with blacks


untdrrepresented


Occupations with blacks overrepre rented


i..nf


1~7~1~








occupations where


black


cohort


was


large,


while,


occupations where


cohort was


small


, the results


were


mixed.


number


blacks


increased


in medium


qual ified


occupations


decreased in low


qualified occupations.


Figure


reveals a


sharp


difference


in the


highly


qualified occupations


between


occupation


category


where


blacks


category


where


represent


that


a large


cohort


cohor t


in lower


sm al 1.


ranks


medium


and low


qual ified


occupations,


negative


both


categories


occupations.


being influenced


large


incr


eases


number


blacks


lower


ranks


occupation


categories.


summary,


cohor t


in low


ranks


does have


an effect


the representation


blacks


in high


ranks


when


measured


highly qu

qualify ied


seems


This effect


alified


occupations.


occupations,


to have little


most


With


cohort


effect


pronounced


exception


blacks


changes


in low

represe


highly

ranks

nation


distribution


blacks


higher


ranks


between


1976


1982.


1976


Hispanics


wer


ov errepresented


in ranks


E4-E6


in 3


occupation


s (N=11,945).


these,


were highly


qualify


ed occupations


,234) ,


wer


medium


qual ified


,768) ,


were low


qual ified


C N= 5,9'43


Hispani


were


underrepresented


in 4Q


occuna ti ons


. 1U- 1


.675)


Tw entv-








were medium qualified


(N=1,239),


and eight were low qualified


(N=1 ,021) .


The actual numbers of Hispanics in each rank and


occupation category


are in Appendix C.


As can be


seen in Figure 9,


Hispanic representation in the


DI indicates that


Cohort model


resembles that


of blacks.


Like blacks


, the greatest inequality


in Hispanic


representation is in highly


representation in


qualified occupations.


medium and low qualified


Also,


occupations is


similar


to that


of blacks.


trend in


Hispanic


representation is


toward greater inequality


three


categories of


qualification.


Changes in representation and


distribution of Hispanic


cohorts


as measured by the CRI


and CDI are given in Figure


10 As was


case


for blacks,


Cohort hypothesis is


supported for


Hispanics in highly


qualified occupations.


Change


in representation


in medium


and low


qual ified


occupations is in the direction predicted by the model,


is not


as marked


in the highly qualified occupations.


The change


in distribution of


Hispanics is


in the


di reaction predicted


by the Cohort


model


in the


case


highly qualified occupations.


In medium and low qualified


occupations,


the CDI


is negative for both


categories of


occupations.


Again,


as was the case with blacks,


size


of the


k n r 4- 4 1-1 ~ e n.~ -,~ n c1a,,p r 1


C.aa- '4 % ~ 1n 't a a4 4-


i






75






4







Ranks 27-EQ



r7771 19B2
1979
^ T 1976




tt

/ / /
4, I







*-E In .&6
..
S 2" .
t



highly Medium Low
salified Qualified qualified
iapatons Occupations Occupations

SA 5A B

With His panicE ivearrepresented
4--6 in 1976.

s with Hispanics underrepresented.
4-E6 in 1976,

Figure 9

Mi Wcrnann y PCnhnm- Mriral









Charne in


Hepresentatian (Ranks E7-E9)


Highly
Qua tled


220..


-4


- 20-
-30.


Mediunn
Qualified


Low


Qualified


Occupations Occupations Occupations


Change in Distribution


20..


-10.
-20.
-fl.
- 40-
-BO..


Represrntation in Rankn E4-E6 in


1976


1Z77Z C cup atkins
fi 0 ccupationa


with Hispanics


unde represented


with Hispanics overrepresented







those


in highly


qualified


occupations.


Changes


representation between


1976 and 1982


also appear to support


Cohort model


ca se


highly


qualified


occupations.


For medium and low qualified occupations,


results are somewhat less supportive.


There are some differences


between Hispanic and black


representation


in the


Cohort


model


which should


mentioned.


Blacks tend to be more overrepresented in those


highly qualified occupations where they


were a large cohort


in ranks E4-E6


1976


than was the


case


with Hispanics.


Also,


the trends in th


Dl' s


for blacks and Hispanics for


this category


are reversed.


Blacks tend to be moving toward


greater equality while Hispanics


are moving toward greater


inequality.

in the expected


This effect is undoubtably due t

d percentage for blacks between


o the increase

1976 and 1982


which has the effect of


reducing their overrepresentation.


Finally,


the Cohort model


is generally


supported for


both blacks and Hispanics


in highly qualified occupations,


but there is little support for


the model


in medium and low


qualified occupations.



Sel_ fintrnestModi


The Self-interest model analyzes


the effect of members


a minority


group in discretionary positions


the distribution of members of


that minority


1976 on


group in 1979







Blacks


were


ov errepresented


discretionary


positions


in 23


highly


occupations


qualified


1976.


category


Three


occupations were


(N=704),seven were medium


qualified


(N=2,


216),


were


qualified


(N=5,205).


Blacks


were


underrepr

qual ified


esented in

(N=2,945),


occupations,


medium qualified


which


(N=2,791,


rere highly

and nine


qualified


(N=1


759).


Hispanics


were


ov errepresented


discretionary


position


s in


occupations.


these,


one


was


highly


qualified


(14=2


were medium


qualified


(N=396),


and four


were


qualified


96) .


Hispanics


were


underreprese


nted


discretionary


qualified


positions


,617),


occupations ;


medium qualified


highly


C 1=3,645)


qual ifi


(N=5


229).


The few


number


occupations


in which


Hispanics


were


ov errepresented


discretionary


positions


presents


some


problems


in interpretation which


will


discussed later


this


section.


The Self-interest


model


base d


on representation


black and Hispanic

overrepresented in


groups


in occupations where


discretionary


positions


they


1976.


were

Since


these


occupations


were


treated


as underrepre


sented in


1982


regardless of


actual


representation


that year,


woul d


useful


to examine


1982


occupations


order


determine


changes


in representation


blacks







there


were more


occupations


in which


minorities were


overrepresented in


discretionary


positions,


would


evidence


that


they


wer e


gaining


discretionary


power


in the


Navy.


Conversely,


number


occupations


in which


black


or Hispanic


minorities


were


ov errepresented


discretionary


positions


was


less,


one


could assume


that


they


were


losing


discretionary


power.


1982,


blacks


were


overrepresented in


occupations


in which


they


wer e


underrepresented


1976.


They


were


under represented


overrepresented


in 3


1976.


occupations


Blacks,


which


therefore,


they


were


had a


gain


discretionary


power


occupations.


changes


occupations


where Hispanics


held


discretionary


positions


are much


different


from


those


blacks.


1982,


Hispanics


gained


discretionary


power


in 20


occupations


which


they


wer e


underrepresented


1976


while


losing


discretionary


power


mO


occupations


appears


that,


although


both


blacks


and Hispanics


gained d


discretionary


power,


gains made


Hispanics


hav e


been much


greater


than those made


blacks.


Figure


summarizes


findings


black Self-


interest


E4-E6


model.


and E7-E9.


These


Data


figures


on each


illustrate


indiv idual


data


rank is


ranks


contained


in Appendix D.


data


1976


lacks


interpretive meaning.

















Highly


Quell! ied


Occupations


Ranks
-i


90.
B0~


-20.

-40.
-EO.
-60.
-70,

-SO.
-100,


E4-E6G


Ranks


E7-E9


rrn 197
E7'Z a1982


Dccrpations
In ranks E1


Occupatlons


ra8nk3


with
-E9

with


E7-E9


blaaks


1976.


blacks


lam7.


overrepresented


underrepresented


Figure 11



















MediLmn


Qualified.


Occupations


Ranks E4-E6


Ranks E7-E9


10(.

Bo.


CO,
-10-
12O.
-20.

40.
--0.

-60.
-70,
not.
--SO.
-100,


rrmfl9Y


ODccuptions with blacks rverrepresented


in ranks


E7 -E9 In


1976.


Occupations with


in ranks


El' -ES


blacks underrepresented
n 1976.


~iP

















Low Qualified


Occupations


100C.


2Q..


-10.
--20+
--30.
-40.
-50w
-60.
-70,

-90.
-100,


Ranks E4-E&


Ranks


E7-E9


Erg i & 8


Decupationn with blacks overrepresented
In ranks E7-E9 in 1976.

Occupationms with blacks imderrepresented
in ranks E7-E9 in 1975,


Figur e


11--continued.







black


levels of


Sel f-interest


qual ification.


hypothesis


supported for


ov errepr esenta tion


blacks


in ranks


E7-E9


in occupation


categories where


they


have


discretionary


power


seem s


vary


directly


with


qual ification


occupation.


That


blacks


in highly


qualified


occupations


seem


to have


more


effect


on acting in


interest


other


blacks


than


blacks


in medium


qualified


occupations.


is apparent


that,


occupations where


e blacks


are


ov errepresented


in discretionary


positions


1976,


they


are


greatly


ov errepresented


1979


1982,


whereas,


those


occupations


where


they


were


underrepresented


discretionary po

under presented


sitions


1976,


1979


they


1982.


are


only


Reasons


slightly

r these


differences are


known.


ranks


E7-E9


are,


in all


cases,


larger


than


Dl's


ranks


E4-E6.


sibl e


interpretation


this


fact


that


blacks


higher


ranks


are


better


able


the


interest


other


blacks


getting


them


promoted


into higher


ranks


once


they


are


in an


occupati on


than


they


are


getting them


into


occupation


in lower


ranks.


appears that,


with


exception


ranks


E4-E6


highly


qual ified


occupations,


and ranks


E7-E9


in medium


qualified occupations,


the representation


blacks


moving


toward


equal ity.


Thi s


trend is


expected,







Changes


the


representation


blacks


increased in


both


categories of


occupations


both


high


and low


ranks.


increase


occupation


category


where


blacks


were


ov er represented


discretionary


positions


s greater


than


in th


category


where


they


had 1


ess


discretionary


power.


This finding


provides


som e


support


Sel f-interest


model


that


direction


predicted


the model.


In medium


qualified


occupations


differences


CRI' s


are


opposite


those


predicted


the model.


With


possible


exception


highly


qualified occupations,


percent


blacks


discretionary


positions


seems


to have


little e


effect


change


black representation


in higher


ranks,


even


less effect


their


representation


in lower


ranks.


Changes


distribution


blacks


shown


Figure


also


prov ide


little e


support for


the Self-interest


model.


doubt


being


influenced


a large


increase


blacks


in lower


ranks


three


levels of


qual ification


Figure


both


presents


categories of


Dl 's


occupations.


the Hispanic Self-interest


model.


Data


individual


ranks


this model


are


contained in


Appendix


As mentioned


earlier


this


chapter,


there


are


som e


problems with


interpretation


these


data.


highly


qual ified


occupations,


small


number


(N=21)


Hispanics


discretionary


po si ti ons,









Change in Representation


Highly
Qualified


Medium
Qualified


Low


Qualified


wig'


20.


-10.


Occupaons Occu nations Occupations


Change


in Distribution


-20.
-3-0.
- 40.
-BO.
-60-


E4-ES E7--E E4-E6 E7-E9 E4-ES E7-E9


Representation
[77 Occupations with
x Occupations with


in Enki 7-E9in


blacks
black


tWIGB


underrepresented
overrepre ented


~ ~CS.







occupation,


data probably


cannot be


meaningfully


interpreted.


In the medium and low qualified occupations,


the Self-


interest


hypothesis is


supported.


The findings


Hispanics are similar to those of blacks.


Where Hispanics


are overrepresented,


they


are highly


ov errepresented,


where they


are underrepresented,


they


are only


sl lightly


Additionally,


ranks E7-E9 tend


to be more overrepresented


than ranks


E4-E6.


possible e


that Hispanics


discretionary


positions,


like


blacks,


have more influence on


increasing


Hispanic


representation


discretionary


positions than they


do on increasing representation in lower


ranks.


The trend for Hispanics seems


to also follow the same


pattern


blacks.


With


the exception of


a tendency toward


no change


in representation


in ranks


E7-E9 in


highly


qualified and


medium qualified occupations,


there


is a


definite trend toward equality.


Changes


the representation


Hispanics


occupations between 1976 and


1982 show little resemblance to


those predicted by the


Self-interest model.


As can be seen


from Figure


the CRI in highly qualified occupations is


opposite that predicted by the


qualified occupations,


model.


In medium and low


the findings are varied,


and either


show little difference between the occupation categories,






87












ghly Qualified Oocupations



Banks E4-E6 Ranks E7-E9





//
*
I~IN








II
//
/"
>A











01 1079

1962


A B A B

ioans 'with Hi aruies overreprenented
s E7-E9 in 976.

Lians witb Hispanices underrepresented
s E7-ES in 1976.


Figure 13





















































Figur e


13--continued.


















LasGf rabf ied


Ranks E4-EE6


20-C


0,
-10.
-20.
- 30.
- 40o.


-60.
-70.

-100,
-100.


Occupations


Ranks E7-E9


nrrrm 1976
21979
iza11982


DaCupatinns with Hi panies overrepresented
In ranks E7-E9 in 1976.


Occupations with


E7-E9


Hispanics underrepresented
a 1976,


Figur e


13--continued.


in ranks