The effects of two career guidance testing programs on the career development of tenth grade students

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The effects of two career guidance testing programs on the career development of tenth grade students
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Dixon, R. Wiley, 1949-
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Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1984.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 131-140).
Statement of Responsibility:
by R. Wiley Dixon.
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Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

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EFFECTS
PROGRAMS
OF


OF TWO
ON THE
TENTH


CAREER GUIDANCE TESTING
CAREER DEVELOPMENT
GRADE STUDENTS


WILEY


DIXON


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE
THE UNIVERSITY OF
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE R
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF P


GRADUATE C
FLORDIA
REQUIREMENTS
PHILOSOPHY


COUNCIL


FOR


THE































. to


my wife,


Kathy,


my parents,


Sarah


John


Dixon,


their


steadfast


love


support.

















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The


author


would


like


thank


a number


of people


their


contributions


Robert


completion


Myrick,


my chairman,


this


been


manuscript.


a patient,


strong


inspiration


throughout


this


project.


He has


given


generously


of his


time,


effort,


and


expert


se.


am grate-


to him


not


only


contributions


this


manu-


script,


also


continued


personal


professional


growth.


iSa


teacher


finest


sense


word.


Paul


Fitzgerald


James


Long


stretch,


other


committee


members,


encouraged


me at


beginning


counseling


career


have


continued


to assist


me through


completion


this


proj


ect.


This


study


could


never


have


been


completed


without


assistance

at Buchholz


Santa


people

Fe High


School


counseling

s. Two ou


departments


standing


occupational


special


, Mary


Warren


and


Jeanine


Christain,


were


especially


helpful


in coordinating


study


their


respective


schools.


Mel


Luca s


hl nedr


mt -n a1a I fv


S rl a


nflhat-h


w


v --


*I i









Jack


Clark


s prompt


expert


assistance


with


data


analysis


helped


bring


this


project


to a close.


Finally,


wife,


Kathy,


has helped


with


this


project


in more


many


ways


hours


script.


than


typing,


love,


could


ever


editing,

patience,


and

and


list.


spent


agonizing over

support were,


this

and


many,


manu-

continue


to be,


a source


of strength.


















TABLE


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


LIST


OF CONTENTS


S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S i


OF TABLES


ABSTRACT

CHAPTER


S S S S S S S S S S V i


INTRODUCTION


Need


Purpose
Rational


search


h Qu


Study


the Study .
or the Study
estions .


S S S 5 3


a S S S S S 55


Definition


of Terms


Organi

CHAPTER II


Career


zation

REVIEW


OF THE


cation


Study . .

RELATED LITERATURES .


Unit


ed States


of School


Counse


lors


Car


eer


cation


eer


Development


Theories


Gelatt


s Dec


Holland'


slon


Needs


Developmental


Making
heory
ories


* S S S S S S S
* S S S S S S S S


Career


Guidance


Interventions


Programs as
Presentation


Inter
of 0


ventions


occupational


Information


Coun


selling


as an Intervention


Group


Computer


ersus


Individual


-Based Car


eer


ventions -


Coun


selling


Guidance


Inter-


m


Page










Page


CHAPTER


RESEARCH


METHODOLOGY


Research


Design


Population


Sampling


Proce


dures


Experimental


Conditions


Exp


erimental


Experimental
Experimental


Group
Group
Group


1 .. S


3.. .


Criterion


Instruments


Career


Maturit


y Inventory


Attitude


Scal


Career


Exploratory


avior


Inventory


Self


-Appraisal


Sca


e. .


Research


ersonne


Hypotheses
Data Colle


action


Ana


S1S


CHAPTER


Data


DATA


Analy


ANALYSIS


a a S S S Sa S S S 590


ults


S S a S S S S S a S91


The Career


Maturity


Inventory


Attitude


Sca


Self


CMIAS)


-Appraisal


S S S S S S S S5 591


Scale


The Career


Expl


oratory


Behavior


Inventor


Other


CEBI


Findings


Limitations
Summary .


Career


Maturity


Inventory


Attitude


Scal


(CMIAS


The Self-Apprai


The Career
Inventory


Analysis


Scal


Exploratory
(CEBI) .


of C


e (SAS)
Behavior


ovariance












Conclusions

Career


Career


Career
Summary


1mphi


Maturity .
Self-Awareness


Exploration .
of Conclusion


cations


atment


Achievement


Conditions


Groups


Recommendations


Recommendations


Counse


ling


Practices


. 0. .0 0 1


Recommendations


Further


Research


APPENDICES


GUIDANCE


SESSIONS


FOR


CONTROL


GROUPS


CAREER


EXPLORATORY


BEHAVIOR


INVENTORY


BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIOGRAPHICAL


SKETCH


P age


















LIST


OF TABLES


Table


Mean


Standard


Dev


nation


s for


CMIAS


Experimental


Group


. . 92


Means


and


Standard


Deviations


CMIAS


Achievement


Level


. . a 92


Means


and


Standard


Dev


nations


CMIAS


Sex


. . . 92


Means


Standard


Experimental


Mean


Deviations


Group


Standard


Achievement


Level


a . a 93


Deviations


a . 93


Means


and


Standard


Deviations


a a a a 93


Means


and


Standard


Experimental


eviations


the CEBI


Group


Means


Standard


Deviation


s for


CEBI


Achi


evement


Level


S. a a a 94


Means


Standard


Deviations


CEBI


Sex


Analy


of Variance


CMIAS


Bonferroni
the CMIAS


T Tests


Achi


evement


Levels


S a a a a a97


Anal


masi


of Variance


a a a a 98


SBonferroni


T Tests


Achievem


Levels


--- ---


Page










Table


Page


Analysis


Analysis


of Variance


Variance


CMIAS

SAS


S

a S S S

















Abstract


ssertation


Presented


Graduate


Council


Univers


Florida


Partial


Fulfillment


Requirements


Degree


of Doctor


of Philo


sophy


THE


EFFECTS
PROGRAMS


OF TWO
ON THE


CAREER


CAREER


GUIDANCE


TESTING


DEVELOPMENT


OF TENTH


GRADE


STUDENTS


Wil


April


Dixon


1984


Chairman:


Major


Robert


Department


. Myrick
Counselo


Education


purpose


s study


was


to investigate


effectiveness


career


guidance


testing


programs


facilitating


students


' career


development.


sample


consisted


tenth


grade


students


who


were


stratifi


ed according


to English


achievement


levels


Stud


ents


were


ass


igne


three


experimental


conditions


based


upon


students


' sex


achievement


level.


s study


used


three


-group


postte


st only


sign.


three


experimental


conditions


consisted


of participation


ACT


Career


Planning


Program;


DAT


Career










Data


were


collected


students.


A 3 X


factorial


two


way


analy


variance


was


conducted


each


dependent


measure.


The


results


this


study


indicate


that


there


were


significant


differences


among


the ACT


Career


Planning


Program,


DAT


Career


Planning


Program,


a brief


career


guidance


unit


facilitation


students


career


maturity


only


career


significant


self-awareness


differences


, and


career


found


exploration.


study


were


among


different


Engli


sh achievement


evel


groups


Generally,


students


from


higher


English


achievement


level


demonstrated


greater


career


maturity


career


self-awareness


than


students


from


lower


Engli


sh achievement


level


Students


from


lower


Engli


sh achievement


level


reported


more


career


exploration


behaviors


than


students


from


higher


English


achievement


level


The


results


this


study


suggest


that


career


guidance


testing


programs


development


when


have

used


limited impact

the tradition


on student


career


"test


interpret"


fashion.


career


guidance


testing


programs


are


to warrant


time


and


expense


required


implement


them,


more


effective


strategies


their


use


must


be developed.


Further


research


should


be conducted


to determine


what


kinds


of supplemental


activities


and


interventions


could


be used

















CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION


More


than


a decade


ago,


Goldman


(1972a)


stated


that


use of


tests


in counseling


had been a


disappointment.


Using


a marital metaphor,


compared


testing


counseling


to a


partnership


that


was


in deep


trouble.


a variety


reasons,


testing was


said


to have


contributed


very


little


the counseling


process.


Furthermore,


Goldman was


optimistic


about


salvaging


constructive


relationship


between


testing


counseling.


He predicted


that


unless


there were major changes


tests


testing practices,


both


tests


testers would be


"denounced,


ignored,


maybe discarded"


(Goldman,


72a,


423).


Goldman


s dismal


predictions


future of


testing


have not


come


true,


least


decade


following


pronouncement.


Indeed,


a recent nationwide


survey


of public


and private


secondary


schools


showed


use of


standardized


tests


to be


prevalent


(Engen,


Lamb,


and Prediger,


1982).


schools responding


survey,


reported


that










aptitude


test batteries or


interest


inventories were


used


with some of


their


students,


and in


75 percent


such


tests


were


grades


used with


seven


their


twelve.


students


somewhere between


In approximately


70 percent of


schools


even more career


guidance


testing would be


used


time and


funds


allowed


(Engen,


et al.,


1982).


If the contributions


testing


counseling


process have been


so meager,


as Goldman


(1972a,


1972b)


stated,


why


is career


guidance


testing


so prevalent?


Part


the answer


lies


public'


continuing demand


career


guidance in


schools.


summarizing


eleven


years


of research


public


s perceptions of


public


schools,


Gallup

ideal


(1979)

school


stated

should


that


the general


give much more


public believed


time


selection


careers


than


is currently the


case.


The demand


increased


career guidance


contributed


to widespread


career guidance


testing.


A second reason


continued


use of


career guid-


ance


It has


testing may


long


be due


been argued


changes


that no


in tests


single measure


themselves.


should be


used in isolation


purpose


career


guidance.


Rather,


several measures


of such


characteristics


inter-


ests,


aptitudes,


values,


and needs


should be


used


to obtain


a composite


picture


client


achieve optimal


_


_ w


m










past


assessment


of several


variables


required


that


different


instruments


given


various


times


during


counseling


process.


Repeated


testing


was


expensive


burdensome,


also


created


difficult


when


trying


to relate


diverse


test


res


ults


one


another.


A second


problem


was


that


many


counselors


did


know


how


to choose


tests


from


large


number


available


(Anderson


Farmer,


1982


Recently,


new


career


guidance


inventor


have


been


developed


which


measure


a variety


of charact


eristi


related


career


measures


planning.


report


In addition,


results


ese


multi


in an organi


-dimensional


fashion


that


characteristic


are


interrelated


can


used


together


career


planning


ease


with


which


these


tests


can


admini


stered


their


simplified


results


undoubtedly


contributed


recent


popularity


career


guidance


testing


But,


there


still


some


question


as to


their


effective


ess


and


use


counseling


process.


Need for


Study


While


predicted


decline


testing


in school


guidance


programs


not


come


true


criticism


that


testing


has contributed


little


eff


ectiveness


counseling


process


remains


large


-S


unanswered


As Goldman


F









most widely used


career


guidance


inventories


is primarily


based upon


their


ability


to predict


school


performance


rather than


success


in occupations.


The general


public has


the misperception


that


career


guidance


inventories


can


tell


students


or clients


exactly what


career


follow,


but


value of career


guidance


testing


likely to be


found


in predicting


success


in occupations.


Prediger


(1972)


said


that


inability


career


guidance


inventories


to successfully predict


a career


clients


is not


surprl


sing.


Career development


theories


such


those of


Super


(1953)


Ginzberg


(1972)


view vocational


decision-making not


as a one


time


choice,


but


as a develop-


mental


process


in which


individuals move


through progressive


stages of


career maturity.


Thus,


career guidance


should do


more


than help


individuals


to make


choices.


The primary


goal should be


to provide


clients


with a


variety


of experi-


ences


to facilitate


the developmental


process.


Likewise,


the goal


value of


career guidance


inventories must be


seen


terms of how much


they


facilitate clients


' career


development rather


than


how


accurately


such


tests


can


predict


their


future


jobs.


There are


three ways


that


career guidance


testing


can


assist people


broadening,


their


focusing


career


career


development:


exploration


stimulating,


facili-


.










contribute


to career maturity,


most of


research on


career


guidance


testing


been


concerned


only with


predictive quality


inventories


tests.


facilitate


ability


of career


career exploration,


career


guidance


self-


awareness,


and


career maturity


been neglected.


Because


the expense


schools,


the guidance


time


there


process


required


is a need


contribute


career guidance


to determine


to career


testing


tests


exploration,


career


self-awareness,


career maturity.


Purpose of


Study


Research has been


done on


the effects


career


guid-


ance

very


interventions on


little


career


research which


development.


focuses


Howe


upon career


ver, there

guidance


testing programs


and


their


impact


upon


career


development.


It i


s the purpose of this


study to determine what effect


career


guidance


testing programs


have


on career development.


Specifically,


this


investigation will


attempt


to determine


the effectiveness


career


guidance


testing programs


facilitating


career


exploration,


career


self-awareness,


career maturity


of high school


students.


Rationale


Study


This s


tudv will be


'-a t-_


nducted bv means


nf a fie l










testing


hypotheses


because


degree


of control


allowed


in an experiment


(Ary,


Jacobs


and


Razavich,


1979).


Kerlinger


1973


stated


that


eld


experiment


advantages


strength


variable


involved


appropriateness


studying


complex


social


processes,


ability


test


broad


hypotheses.


Further


advantages


field


experiment


this


study


are


that


research


carried out


under


normal


school


ible.


conditions


Additionally,


large


because


number


s study


of subjects


is concerned


access-


with


effects


career


guidance


assessment


in secondary


school


, a fi


experiment


using


school


settings


adds


significantly


to external


validity.


Research


Questions


following


research


questions


will


receive


attention


this


study:


career


guidance


career


testing


maturity


programs


tenth


grade


have


high


an impact


school


students?


career


guidance


career


self


testing


programs


-awareness


tenth


have


an impact


grade


high


school


students?


career


guidance


estinac


Procarams


have


an imPa


c


u.


v


IV









Do career


their


guidance


effectiveness


testing programs differ


facilitating the career


maturity


tenth


grade high


school


students?


Do career guidance

their effectiveness


testing programs


differ


facilitating the career


self-awareness


tenth


grade high


school


stu-


dents?


Do career guidance


testing programs


differ


their


effectiveness


facilitating


career


exploration behaviors


tenth


grade


high


school


students?


Definition


of Terms


Some


terms


used


this


study


have


been


assigned


different meanings by various


authors.


In order to


avoid


confusion,


seems


advantageous


to define


those


terms


that


are


particularly


important


this


research:


Career development--


. the


lifelong process


of developing work


values,
learning
in part


crystallizing


about
time,


situations.
effective in
occupational


a vocational


opportunities
recreational,


Development
vestigation,


possibilities.


identity,


trying


full


involves
choice,


Career


out plans


time work


increasingly
nd evaluation


development


may r
ment.


thought
(Tolbert,


as an aspect of


1980,


general


develop-


. 25)


Career


exploration behavior--behavior directed


toward


--


_ __










Career guidance


inventory any


standardized measure


which


yields quantitative


scores


on a variety


of personal


characteristics


Career


related


guidance


to career


options.


testing program--the


administration and


interpretation


of scores of


career guidance


inventories


tests.


Career maturity--an individual's


attained


point in


career development


as compared


to his


peers.


Career


self-awareness self knowledge


regarding


one


abilities,


attitudes,


interests,


and values


they


relate


to the world of work.


Organization


Study


remainder of


study


organized into


four chap-


ters.


In Chapter


profess


ional


literature


related


to career education,


career development


theories,


career


guidance


interventions,


career


guidance


inventories.


The research methodology,


data


collection,


and


analysis


procedures


are described


in Chapter


III.


The results


study


are presented in


Chapter


including


analysis


of the


data.


Chapter


V contains


summary


study,


discussion


of results,


conclusions


drawn


from


the research,


and recom-


mendations


further


research.

















CHAPTER


REVIEW


OF THE


RELATED


LITERATURE


Counseling


and


education


have


long


been


associated


with


occupational


training


placement.


Even


before


concept


career


vocational


plight


development


education


of large


were


numbers


emerged,


viewed


of people


vocational


as means


relegated


guidance


of improving


to dead


jobs


poor


living


conditions.


Despite


periodic


changes


emphasis


placed


upon


vocational


guidance


educa-


tion,


there


still


exists


a need


to provide


vocational


training


counseling


schools


(Tolbert,


1980)


Sidney


Marland


1979) ,


former


Assistant


Secretary


Education,


said


that


goal


of elementary


secondary


education


United


States


can


simply


stated


preparation


. all


students


as well-developed


people


to enter


successfully


either


some


form


post-


secondary


education,


whi


chever


they


choose,


soon


they


leave


elementary


-secondary


edu


cation


system"


43).


However,


Marland


1979)


also


noted


that


only


out









counseling


activities


are heavily


oriented


toward


college


preparation


(National


School


Public Relations Association,


1974) .


Over


half of the


students who


should receive


prepar-


ation


for work


entry


are


not being


adequately


trained.


These


students,


who


follow what


referred


to as


"general


curriculum"


students who drop out


of school,


consume


almost


one-third


the entire educational


expenditure


the nation.


Yet,


based


upon


the education


they


receive


school,


these


general


curriculum and


dropout


students


are


prepared


leave


school


enter employment


(Marland,


1979)


failure of


school


to adequately prepare


such


large


portion


of students


some


profound


consequences.


United States


highest


youth


unemployment


rate of


any nation


the world.


Every year


an estimated


million


young people


leave


school


system and


enter


pool


of unemployed or underemployed workers.


These


unemployment


figures


seem paradoxical


when


United States


Department of Labor


predicting


serious


shortages of


workers


a wide


variety


career


fields


that


require


special


training


and skills.


Unfortunately,


vocational


education


programs which might


prepare


students


for these


specialized


fields are only made


available


to 25 percent of


students.


I










he proposed a


system of education


which would provide


career


orientation and preparation programs


to help every


student


choose


and receive


training


a career


(National School


Public


Relations Association,


1974) .


eled


career educa-


tion,


the proposal has


received widespread support over


last decade.


Career


Education


United


States


While


term


"career


education"


is relatively new,


ideas


underlying the


term are not.


goals of


career


education


can be


traced


the beginnings


of American high


school


s (Hoyt,


Evans,


Mangum,


Bowen,


Gale,


1977)


first


secondary


schools established in America


during the nineteenth


century were


academies designed


teach Latin and


Greek and


prepare


young men


a narrow


range of


careers


requiring


a college education.


Since most


men did not


to college,


there existed


a need


for occupa-


tional


training past


elementary


level.


This


need


resulted


creation of


first


"English high


school"


in Boston


1820.


school


was


referred


to as


an English


high


school


because


taught English rather


than Latin


Greek.


Yet,


school'


primary purpose was occupational


training


(Hoyt et al


., 1977).


During the


1800


s the English hiqh


schools


supported


,









academies,


English


which


high


would


they


were


schools


serve


combined


to form


students


with


publicly


comprehensive


through


high


programs


supported


schools,


designed


college


preparation


or occupational


training.


Within


short


time,


occupational


training


aspects


old


Engli


sh high


schools


had


been


subverted


comprehen-


sive


high


schools


concentrated


on academic


curricula


(Hoyt


et al.,


1977).


Thus,


with


establishment


compre-


hens


high


schools,


chance


vocational


training


was


lost


to most


people.


Federal


legi


slation


1862,


1887,


1890,


1906


substantially


vocational


programs


colleges


Senator


Carroll


Page


noted


only


percent


total


school


population


attended


coll


ege.


Page


proposed


legisla-


tion


whi


ch would


move


vocational


training


into


elementary


secondary


schools.


Such


training


would


also


include


strong


guidance


component


to help


steer


students


into


appropriate


occupations.


While


Page


s proposals


were


immediately


adopted


into


legislation,


support


vocational


training


raised


law


makers


' awareness


need


such


training


public


schools


(Barlow,


1973).


Smith


-Hughes


Vocational


Education


Act


of 1917


establishment


four


ars


cific


training


in secondary


schools.


From


1917


through


F










agriculture and home economics


programs


(Hoyt,


Evans,


Mackin,


& Mangum,


1974).


1913,


the National


Commission


the Reorganization


of Secondary


Education


established seven


goals


which have


continued


to remain


widely


accepted


goals


the high


school.


One of


those


goals was


vocational


training.


1918,


the Educational Policies Commission developed


a list


curriculum needs


to be addressed by


high


schools.


first need


listed by


that


commission


was


the need


training


Saylor,


in salable


Williams,


skills


1971) .


and work activities


Despite


(Alexander,


recommendations of


these


two commissions,


vocational


education


was


still a


priority through


first half


this


century


(Hoyt


al. ,


1977).


The


1960s began


an era


resurgence


in vocational


education.


"Project


Talent,


large


longitudinal


study


high


school


students begun


1960,


showed


clearly that


thirds of


students


in high


school


general


curriculums


dropped out,


success


those


in employment


who did


or college


graduate had


(Hoyt


very


et al.,


limited


1977).


Vocational


educators


began


to point


that


only


a small


percentage of


future


jobs would require


a college degree,


whereas


the need


skilled


paraprofessionals


techni-


cians was


Droiected


to be


vePrv


hi ch


IRF ss lr.


19731


a










expansion


existing


vocational


programs,


development


new


programs,


providing


part-time


employ-


ment


youth


vocational


in vocational


training


include


training,


adults


expanding


handicapped


individuals.


One


intentions


this


was


to make


vocational


education


more


flexible


attractive


more


students.


However,


emphasis


was


still


placed


upper


secondary


y grades


and


adult


education.


Students


elemen-


tary


lower


high


school


grades


continued


lack


infor-


mation


training


related


careers.


Furthermore,


vocational


education


was


still


separated


from


general


education


suffered


from


a poor


image


emphasis


most


schools


placed


on college


preparatory


activities


(Ressler,


1973).


The


1968


amendments


Vocational


Education


Act


changed


structure


vocational


education


substantially.


These


amendments


the elementary


expanded


junior


voca

high


tional

school


education


grades


downward


into


included


related


academic


instruction


as part


of vocational


training.


For


first


time,


occupational


guidance


to aid


students


making


career


choices


was


viewed


a necessary


part


vocational


education


programs.


Rather


than


empha


sizing


only


occupational


training,


career


orientation


courses


were


also


incorporated


into


voc


national


education


(Ressler,


1973)


The










Vocational


education


cannot be meaningfully


limited


occupation.
all of those
which help a


relate


them


skills


is more


aspects of


person


necessary


appropriately
educational e


to discover


the world of work,


a particular


defined


experience
alents, t


t


to choose an


occupation,
successfully


Pragan,


1969


in
, P.


to refine his
employment.
63)


talents
(Evans,


use


them


Mangum,


Obviously,


changes


vocational


education were


pre-


cursors


to the concept of


career


education.


Career


education


was


officially


given birth


1971


when Sidney Marland,


then


United States


Commissioner


Education,


made


top priority


United States


Office of Education.


Marland


viewed


career


education


desirable way


"Career


reshaping


education will be


the country's educational


part of


system.


curriculum for


students,


not


just


some,


" said Marland.


It will
school


continue
from the


and beyond,


leaving


if he


school


will


to give him a start


throughout a


first


grade


youngster'


through


so elects...Every


possess


s stay


senior
student


skills


toward making


a liv


high


necessary
elihood for


himself


completing
Relations


and his


family,


high school.


Committee,


even if he
(National


leaves before
School Public


1974,


Few


concepts


such instant

However, alt

there is no


introduced


acceptance


hough educate


universally


into education have


and acclaim as

ors generally


accepted


career


like


definition


received


education.


the concept,

of career


education.


Even


United States Office


of Education has










research on


career


education,


broadly


defined


career


education


"the


totality


experiences


through which one


learns


about and prepares


to engage


work as


part of his


or her way


of living"


The National


related


Vocational


career education more


Guidance Association


specifically


(NVGA)


the organized


effort of the United States Office of Education


to promote


concepts


career


education nationally.


The NVGA


defined


career


education


an effort
and the ac
that will
knowledge,


aimed at refocusing


:tions
help


the broader


individuals


skills


American
community


acquire and


and attitudes


to make work a meaningful,
fying part of his/her way


necessary


productive,
of living.


education
y in ways
utilize


each


satis-


(Sears,


1982,


138)


In discussing


the definitions


that


have been


proposed


career


education,


Hoyt,


et al.


(1974)


found


that most


definers


seem


to agree on


several


key points:


career


education deals with


preparation


for work,


career


education


is more


than


training


specific


skills,


career


education


responsibility


career


students,


education must extend beyond


schools


to other


community


agencies.


The definitions


career


education


offered above


are


very


broad,


as are


programs


that have been


developed


around


country


to implement


caiireerT


eincati nn


(Hnvt Pt


U


V










The
the
The


integration


entire


career


development


curriculum.


integration


through exploratory
experiences in the


school
work


and
and


through


community
volunteer


community.


Hand
Self


s-on


experiences


-awareness


develop


one


in career


under


coordinate


s career.


standing


one


exploration.


in order


s self in


relation


Awareness


values
terns.


and


of options


relating


realm


values


of human


career


pat-


Car


eer


resource


cent


ers.


-service


training


of faculty.


Coun


selling,


vices


plac


(Baird,


ement,
1975,


and


follow-up


ser-


Career


education


a conce


been


popular,


different


career


education


model


have


been


developed


(Hoyt


et al.,


education


include.


1974


However,


programs


lack


should


there


is no consensus


be organic


consensus


or what


regarding


preci


how


they


sely


career


should


what


constitutes


career


education


has


to criticism


concern

Hoyt (1


about


979


efficacy


, a major


career


proponent


education.


career


education,


!nneth B.

pointed


out,


"Until


some


general


agreement


under


standing


can


reached


regarding


nature


career


education


treat-


ment,


' it


will


continue


to be


imposs


ible


to evaluate


effe


ctiveness


career


education"


of School


Counselors


Career


Education


The


United


States


Offi


of Education


and


the


American










functions:


ator,


mation,


the counselor


the counselor


counselor


skills,


as career


as provider of


teacher of


counselor


career


education coordin-

occupational infor-


decision-making


development


theorist.


As a coordinator


career


education activities


school,


counselors must work


toward


establishing


a scope and


sequence


plan


career


education


curriculum.


They


must


encourage


teachers


to infuse


career


education


concepts


and approaches


into classroom practice.


Also,


because


they


usually

appraisa


have more prc

1 procedures,


,fessional


expertise


counselors must


in student


provide


leadership


conducting needs assessments


and


program evaluations


career


education.


School


counselors


also


play


a vital


role


in career


education by providing


occupational


information


to students


teachers.


Students


need


information


about occupations


training programs


in order


facilitate


career


develop-


ment and decision making.


Teachers,


whose expertise may


in other


areas,


need


information


about


occupations


career


education


concepts


and methods


they may


infuse


career


education


into


their


daily


classes more


effectively


efficiently.


In order to


teach


career


decision making


skills.


. _I I










to recognize how the


two are related.


Thus,


career


decision


making


involves more


than


helping


students make


a one-time


career

overall


choice.


The counselor must help


career maturity


that rational


facilitate

career de


students'


cision


making becomes an


on-going part of


students'


continuous


career development.


Finally,


counselors


can


further


the goals of


career


education by understanding


process of


career


development


sharing that understanding with parents,


teachers,


administrators,


based upon contemporary


school boards.


career


Career


development


education


theories which


view


career


decision making


a continuous,


developmental


process


spanning


infancy to old


(Hoyt


et al.,


1974).


Career


Development


Theories


Career


education may


be more


indebted


to career


devel-


opment


theory


than


vocational


legislation and practice.


Traditionally,


could be


it was


facilitated


thought

through


that occupation

a simple process


placement


of analyzing


skill


which


requirements


those requirements.


finding workers who


This method


had


proved


traits


fruitless


because neither


factors not


personal


traits


are


fixed


and immutable.


Career


development


theories


emphasize


developmental nature of


career


choice


process and


riir


r^


v T









just


those


vocational


education


programs


(Hoyt


et al.,


1974)


an early monograph,


Ginzberg


et al.


(1951)


noted


that most


research


the area


of vocational


counseling


had


been


aimed


toward


improvement


counseling


techniques


rather than


the development


of a comprehensive


theory


of how


vocational


choices are made and implemented.


He implied


that


practicing vocational


counselors were


actually working


without any s

was dedicated


uch


theory primarily


to practice


rather


because most of


than


their


to research on a


time

sound


theory which might


lead


to more


effective


counseling


results.


Ginzberg's


sionals working


statement


seemed


vocational


to challenge


counseling


field


profes-

and a


variety


theories


resulted which have been


proposed


explain


the career


choice


process.


Tolbert


(1980)


classi-


field


career


development


theories


into


five categories:


developmental,


needs,


psychoanalytic,


socio-


logical,


decision making.


these


five general


categories,


the developmental


theories


have had


the greatest


impact


on career


education


and


career guidance


(Hoyt


et al.,


1977)


and will,


consequently,


receive


the most attention


this


research.


However,


because of


their


applicability to


school


setting,


specific


theories


the needs


decision makincr


categories will


also be discussed.










Gelatt


s Decision Making Theory


Gelatt


(1966)


proposed a


career development


theory


which


emphasized


the decision making process.


He outlined a


four


step model


(Tolbert,


1980).


In general


these were:


Purpose or


objective.


individual


is aware of


the need


to make a


decision


and must define


purpose or


objective of


the decision.


Data


collection.


Based


upon


purpose


or obj


ec-


tive of


the decision,


data


are collected


to aid


the deci


sion


making proce


ss.


Utilization


the data.


this


step


indi-


vidual


first


considers


the possible alternatives


as well


possible outcomes.


Next,


based


upon


personal


values,


individual


evaluates


the desirability


of each


the pos-


sible


outcomes.


Finally,


individual


evaluates


previous


steps


selection


of a deci


sion.


Decision.


A decision


is made


which may


be either


terminal


or investigatory.


Terminal


decisions


result


action


which produces


feedback


about


suitability


decision.


Investigating


decisions


produce


further


investi-


gation


into


problem


(Tolbert,


1980).


Gelatt


s model


portrays


career development as


cyclical


process of


decision making.


Each


decis


depends


uoon


Past conditions


'a.-.


each


influences


future


&


.


I










Holland


s Needs


Theory


Holland


theory


is based


assumption


that


voc


national


interests


are


one


aspect


of what


is commonly


called


personality


an individual


s vocational


interests


are


described,


his


personality


s likewi


described


Weinra


1979).


Holland


s th


eory


proposes


that


certain


per


sonality


types


seek


ecifi


environments


that


match


their


interests


that


work


environments


are


character-


d by


the people


who


occupy


them.


Holland


1973)


proposed


that


every


individual


resembles


one


SiX


personality


types


ser


one


resemble


particular


type,


more


individual


splays


behavior


character


stic


that


type.


further


proposes


that


there


are


six


types


of environment


corres


ponding


types


of personalities


Weinrach


1979)


escrib


personality


types


The realis
involving
machinery,
individual


individual


tematic


tools


may


or animal


social


pref


ers


activity


manipulation


Such


skills.


Inve


stigative


curious


inve


people


, methodical,


stigative


tend
and


occupation


to be
recise


that


analytical,
. A typical
of a biolo-


Inve


leader


ship


stigative
skills.


individuals


often


lack


Artistic


nonc


individual


on forming,


Decorators


tend


original,
musicians


to be


express


ive,


introspective


arti


stic


types


Arti


stic


individual


may


lack


clerical


skill


individual


eniov


workinac


with


~IVL


.


m









organizational


goals


or economic gain,


they tend


to avoid


symbolic


systematic


activities.
lawyers are


Salespeople,


office managers


Enterprising types.


individuals often


lack scientific


Enterprising
ability.


Conventional
manipulation


types


enjoy


of data,


reproducing materials.


filing
They


systematic
records, o


tend


to avoid


artistic


activities.


Secretaries,


file


clerks,
tional


and f
types.


financial


experts


(Weinrach,


are conven-


1979,


In addition


the basic


idea


that


people


seek out


environments


that match


their personalities,


Holland


(1973)


also


proposed


four


concepts which


underly


his theory.


Consistency


concerns


the degree


to which an


individual


personality or


a particular


environment


resembles


one of


SIX


types.


Originally,


Holland


(1966)


believed


every


individual


environment


could be


characterized as


single


type.


However,


he revised his


theory


(Holland,


1973)


indicate


that while


individuals


or environments may be


viewed

some c


as belonging


to predominately


characteristics more


closely


one


assoc:


type,


iated


they may


to a


have


second or


third


type.


The degree


to which all


these character-


istics are


similar


determines


consistency.


A second


important


concept


to Holland


theory


differentiation.


Differentiation


concerns


the degree


which a


personality


or environment resembles


a specific


type


distinctly


different


from other


types.


An individual


or environment


showing


equal


resemblance


to all


-- --


types









matches


environment.


personality


environment,


greater


the


match


greater


between


congruence.


central


concept


of Holland


s theory


calculus


Calculus


refers


relation


ship


between


various


types


or environments.


Holland


1973)


explains


calculus


thusly:


relation


environments


ships


can


within


order


between


according


types or
to a hexa-


gonal
types


model


in which


or environments


are


istances
inversel


between


proportional


theoretical


relation


ship


betw


een


them.


Holland


s career


deve


lopment


theory


probably


stimulated


more


research


than


other


such


theory.


Additionally,


psyc


hometri


instruments


deve


loped


Holland,


Vocational


Preference


Inventory


Self


Direct


ed Search,


have


een


used


widely


research


counseling


In spite


popularity,


howe


ver,


Holland


theory


has been


strongly


criti


cized.


For


example


Crites


(1978b)


referred


to Holland


theory


as nothing


more


than


old


Minnesota


matching


model


couched in


conven-


tional


terms


Developmental


Theory


of the


earli


est


career


eve


lopment


theory


was


proposed


Gin


zberg


et al.


1951) ,


later


revi










this


process passed


through


several


periods.


Until


approximate


age of


a child


fantasy period.


During


this


period


the child


lacks


ability to recognize


limitations of occupational


opportunities


therefore


believes


that


it is possible


to enter


occupation.


Toward


the end


fantasy period,


the child begins


face


necessity


of eventually making


a career choice.


During the


tentative


period,


from approximately


17 years of


career


age,


choices


individual begins


based


on abilities,


to make


interests,


tentative

and values.


There


are


three


substages


tentative


period:


interests,


in which


individual


s interests dominate


career


choice,


capacities,


which


abilities


play


increasingly


important


role


in career


choice,


values,


substage at which


values dominate both


interests


and abilities


the career


choice


process.


last developmental


period,


according to Ginzberg's


et al.


(1951)


original


theory


realistic


period,


from


approximately


years


through


early


adulthood.


During this period


individual


becomes more mature and


realizes


mental


that


compromises must be made because of


circumstances.


realistic period has


environ-


three


substages:


exploration,


character


zed by


final


explor-


at.i on


nccunationa 1


onnn-rIt-n UM t -


rvsta lli zati on


I J 1


I


I i. I L










becomes more


specific


career decision.


action


Ginzberg


et al.


taken


viewed


to implement


the realistic


period


final


phase of


the career


deci


sion-making


process.


The second


element


of Ginzberg


s et al.


theory


the concept of


irreversibility.


According to


this


concept,


many


educational


other preparatory


activities


career


choice


are


irreversible.


Once a


particular


action has


been


taken,


it cannot be changed.


There fore,


career decision making


a one-way process.


An individual


cannot back


up and


start


process


anew.


third


element of


theory


idea


compromise.


Ginzberg


et al.


(1951)


believed


that an


indi-


vidual must


compromise


between


personal


preferences


realities


of the world


of work


An individual may not be


able


to make


career decisions based


solely upon


interests,


capacity,


situational


or values


, but may


constraints


instead have


career


to weigh heavily


choice


process.


Two decades after the original


theory was


formulated,


Ginzberg


(1972)


revised


theory


based


on conclusions


drawn


from twenty years


of research.


The career decision


making process


was


extended beyond


early


adulthood.


Ginzberg


stated,


. we now believe


process


be ooen-ended,


that


it can


coexis


t with


individual's


P


....









occupational


choices do


have


a cumulative


effect


on career


opportunities,


but


the effect


is not


irreversible.


complete change


in career direction i


possible.


Instead


the concept


irreversibility,


Ginzberg


(1972)


stresses


that,


. the key


challenge


young people


face


S. is


develop a


strategy that will keep


their


options open


171) .


Compromise


an element


of the decision making process


has been reconsidered by Ginzberg


(1972).


The


idea


compromise


seems


to still be relevant,


as Ginzberg


(1972)


believes


that no


individual


ever makes


an occupational


choice


based


solely


on personal needs


desires.


However,


Ginzberg


replaced


term compromise,


preferring


instead


the more


positive concept


optimization.


Explained


Ginzberg


(1972),


Men


and women


fit between
changing cir
tinuing one.


seek


their


find


changing


*cumstances.


long


the best
desires


Their


they


occupational


and


search is
entertain


their


a con-
the


prospect


must
the
Our


of shifting their work and


consider
punitive
studies .


static


a new balance


gains


against


. have


concept


counterpart of


in which


career,


they


they weigh


probable costs.


persuaded
compromise


optimization.


to move


from


o the dynamic
171)


Ginzberg


s theory


(Ginzberg


al.,


1951;


Ginzberg,


1972)


received


some


support


from research.


Studies by


Davis,


Hagan,


Strouf


(1962)


and Hollander


(1967)


support










A second widely


accepted developmental


theory


is that


of Donald


Super


(1953).


In reply to


some of Ginzberg


(1951)


criticisms


regarding vocational


counseling,


Super


(1953)


forth


basis


theory of


career


development which he


felt was


inherent


in and


emergent


from


research


philosophy


of psychologists


counselors


over two decades of work.


Super


identified


a number


elements t

vocational


o which he f

development


elt any


comprehensive


should address


itself.


theory


These ele-


ments were: individuality, m

ability patterns, guidance of


ultipotentiali

development,


occupational


development as


the result of


interaction,


dynamics of


career patterns,


satisfaction,


and work as


a way


life.


Super


forth


ten propositions which he


felt


outlined a


comprehensive


theory


of vocational


development.


Super's


theory


concen-


trates on


four major


areas:


vocational


life


stages,


voca-


tional maturity,


translating


self


concept


into a


voca-


tional


self


concept,


career


patterns.


concept of vocational


life


stages draws


heavily


upon


the work


of early


developmental


psychologists,


parti-


cularly Charlotte Buehler


(Super,


1969) .


Super


identi-


field


five vocational


life


stages


and


the approximate


ages


which


they occur.


The Growth Stage


(ages birth


to fourteen)


- .--


I r- ''LIa 1`ill ri r.Ir 11 fl n n1 '1 a aro n -1 r 1


.-I-


n


rl a~ta 1 hn r!


Ck rhllRk


~611:


nnn~anC


"I-- i










individual


progresses


from a


state where needs


and likes


dominate his vocational


development


into a


stage where abil-


cities


are given


a higher


consideration.


the Exploration


Stage


(ages


fifteen


twenty-four)


individual


goes


through a


period


of self


examination and role


try-out.


progressing through


three


substages within


the Exploration


Stage


individual


considers


his needs,


capacities,


values


opportunities,


and makes


a series


of tentative occupa-


tional


choices


based


on his


assessments.


Reality


factors


play


an increasingly


important role during


this


stage.


conclusion


the Exploratory


Stage


individual


enters a beginning


tion.


job as


a continuing part


the Establishment Stage


(ages


of the explora-


twenty-four to


forty-four


an appropriate


field


of work


found and


individual makes


an effort


secure a


firm place within


this


field.


Some


shifting


of jobs


initial


phases


this


stage may


occur


before


individual begins


to estab-


lish


(ages


a satisfactory niche.


forty-five


During


to sixty-four)


the Maintenance


individual


Stage


works


progress within


the occupational


field


which has


been


chosen.


The Decline


Stage


(age


sixty


five on)


may


bring on


diminished


capacities


a subsequent


change or


reduction


job duties.


Work may


cease


altogether


as a result


ro 4- ronion+ 1


IrPnlhnrC


1Q El n\


I










these


vocational


developmental


tasks


as crystallizing


vocational


preference,


implementing the


preference,


stabil-


izing


the chosen


vocation,


consolidating


one's


status,


and advancing


occupation.


Obviously


, mastery


these


various


tasks would span


several


of the


life


stages.


translation


self


concept


into a


vocational


self


concept


is of major


importance


in Super's


theory.


Super


(1969)


believes


that


the expression


an occupational


preference


ideas


is an attempt by the


the kind of person he


individual


to state his


occupational


terms.


Thus,


the development


through


life


stages


coincides with


the development


of a vocational


self


concept.


An individual


with a


poorly


defined


self


concept would


find it much more


difficult


to make


sound vocational


choices


or to


implement a


career plan.


Super


also believes


that


individuals


can be


classified


according


to career patterns


Some


individuals change


occupations

stabilize i

Stable, con


often


throughout


n an occupation


ventional


life while others


long periods


career patterns


seem


tend


time.


to character


individuals of higher


socioeconomic


levels while


unstable


career patterns


are more characteristic of people


from lower


socioeconomic


levels.


11in r 's- s


th~n rv


onf vnatinnal


rl Pflnnmn- ha


I *-1 I


tn









tested various


aspects of


Super's


theory


(Tolbert,


1980).


Some of


the evidence gathered


this


study


supports


major elements of


Super's


theory.


Vocational maturity


appears


to increase with age and


advancement


in school.


Most ninth


grade


subjects


seem


to have


voca-


tional maturity needed


to make


sound


vocational


decisions.


Such maturity


increased by twelfth


grade.


Also,


vocational


maturity


and interests


judged by


for ninth


occupational


twelfth


information,


grade


planning,


subjects was


significantly


related


to vocational


success


early


adult-


hood.


Thus,


vocational maturity


seems


to play


a major role


vocational


development


(Super,


1969).


Other evidence


from the Career


Pattern Study gives


support


to Super's


concept


of vocational


life


stages.


There


appears


to be


a definite


stage of


exploration and


possible


floundering during the early twenties


a subsequent


settling


down


to a


particular


occupation during


the mid-


twenties.


This


supports


Super's description


occurrences


during


the Exploration


Stage of


development


(Super,


1969).


construct


of a vocational


self


concept


as an


essential


part of vocational


development


also received


research


attention.


Blocher


Schutz


(1961)


have


shown


that


self


concepts


of subjects


closely


resembled


their own


description of people working


-. -


their most


preferred









entering than


the occupation


they were


leaving


(Super,


1969).


Thus,


there


evidence


that


self


concept


vocational


preference are


related.


The emergence of


career


development


theories


affected career guidance and counseling practices


school


(197


(Hoyt


et al.,


and Super


(1969),


74) .


theories of


in particular,


have


Ginzberg


pointed


developmental


nature of


career choice


process.


Conse-


quently,


career


guidance


interventions


have


shifted


their


emphasis


from


trying to


help


students make


a one-time career


choice


to providing


a series of


experiences which promote


students


' career development.


Career Guidance


Interventions


Career guidance began


approximately


years ago as


attempt


to help


income


youngsters


find


jobs


after they


finished school.


During the


1930s,


career guidance


focused


on matching men with


jobs


that best


suited


their


abilities,


as measured by newly


developed


aptitude


tests.


By the


1950s


it had


evolved


into a


psychological


development approach.


broad range of human


interests,


characteristics


and aspiration were


such


considered


attitudes,


important aspects


of career development,


career development was viewed as


an inteqra


Dart


of overall


development


(Ginzberca.


1972).


.










appreciations


work


related


of society,


to self


understanding,


awareness


of the


understanding


importance


leisure


time,


under


standing


factors


involved


career


planning,


and


deci


sion


making


skill


(Sears


Considering


story


and


scope


of guidance,


it is


surpri


sing


find


that


many


different


types


career


guidance


interventions


have


been


tried


to facilitate


career


development.

interventions


evaluative


suggests


that


research

a variety


on career


guidance


of interventions


resulted


small,


consis


tently


detec


table


gains


on a wide


range


outcome


variabi


(Takai


Holland,


1979).


Programs


Interventions


Some


res


earch


on career


guidance


interventions


shown


that


they


have


a signi


ficant


effect


on outcome


varia-


without


attempting


to specify


exact


nature


of the


interventions


themsel


ves


These


research


reports


focused


effects


programs


rather


than


specific


interventions.


Omvig,


Tulloch,


and


Thomas


1975)


studi


effects


a school


-wide


career


edu


cation


program


career


maturity


of 240


sixth and


eighth


grade


students.


Using


pret


est/posttest


with


a control


group,


found


that


stud


ents


working


ci c


asses


where


curriculum


was


Anl a 4n-2.T4T1-


~ atra 1 nn


n~~rrrrL:


ClAt


F1


[i










occupational knowledge,


occupational


planning,


and career


maturity


attitudes.


In a


similar study,


Perrone


and Kyle


(1975)


researched


the effects of


three


year career


development program in


grades


seven


through


nine.


career


development


program


consisted


of strategies


integrating


career development


learning


experiences


into


the regular


curriculum.


Over


2300


eighth


grade


students,


randomly


selected after


being


strati-


fied by


sex


and academic ability,


were


pre-


posttested


with


the Readiness


Vocation Planning


Scale


a knowl-


edge of


careers


instrument.


Compared


to a


similar number of


ninth grade


students who


had not


participated


career


development program,


the eighth


grade


participants had


higher


scores


on both


readiness


for vocational


planning


knowledge of


careers.


authors


attributed


these gains


school


career development


program.


Mencke


Cochran


(1974)


studied


impact of


structured


outreach program on


career development


volunteer male college


participated


students.


a workshop which


Subjects


incorporated a


study


variety


interventions,


including


self


assessment of personal


attri-


butes,

test,


fantasy

and goal


a rnnntrrn1


experiences,


setting


rrnun and


a self


exercises.


fnindr-


t-n h


administered

Subjects were


gi rani fia'ntlv


interest

compared


h arrhr


L I1









interests.


No differences were


found


in attitudes


about


changing


a career or perceptions of


strengths


weaknesses.


While


studies


cited


above


were


concerned with


studying the effects


of broadly


defined


career guidance


programs,

determine


more


evaluative


the effects


research has been


of specific


types


conducted


of career guidance


interventions.


Presentation


of Occupational


Information


Some


researchers


have


studied


effects of various


methods


disseminating


information.


Yungman


(1969)


studied


three different modes


of distributing


occupational


information


to noncollege-bound Negro adolescents.


Eighty


subjects were


randomly


distributed


into one of


three treat-


ment modes


and a


control


group.


Subjects


three


treatment modes


received


occupational


information


through


either pictorial-auditory,


auditory,


or written modes.


found


that


vocational


learning of


occupational


information


was


significantly


higher


experimental


groups.


pictorial-auditory mode


produced


highest


degree


learning.


the groups


There were no


significant


on congruity of


expressed


differences


among


and measured


inter-


ests


related


to occupations


(Younqman,


1969).


V









knowledge


among


ninth


grade


students.


Using


a non-


equivalent


control


group


research


design Jepsen


(1972)


found


that


rural ninth


graders who


studied


printed materials


viewed


local


occupational


field


trips


reported


accurate


images of the occupations


studied


significantly more


fre-


quently than


did a


comparable


group


using printed materials


alone.


In a


similar


study,


Johnson,


Korn,


and Dunn


(1975)


found


that high


school


students who


viewed a


slidetape


presentation had a more


positive attitude


toward


program


than


either


listening


or control


group.


Jones


and Krumboltz


(1970)


studied


effects


participatory


behavior with


presentation


of occupational


information.


their


study,


subjects were


randomly


assigned


to one


of three


treatment


groups or


four


control


groups.


The


three experimental


film treatments


consisted of


active-overt


occupational


participation


participation in which


problems


students


and wrote answers,


which no written


answers were


solved


active-covert


required


problems,


and


passive


participation in which no


problems


were assigned.


Subjects


the control


groups


saw


films


careers of banking


or received


printed materials


about


careers.


Jones and Krumboltz


1970)


found


that


of the


treatments produced more


positive


interests


and attitudes


toward


the banking


industry,


.. AA


that active


participation









English


(1974)


compared


relatively new modes of


presenting

system, a


occupational


information.


microfilm-aperature


card


The Connecticut


system containing


VIEW

occupa-


tional


information,


was


compared


the occupation


informa-


tional


file


the Guidance


Information System


(GIS),


computerized guidance


system.


Subjects


for the


study were


high school


students


randomly


assigned


to one of


treatment groups or


a control


group.


English


(1974)


found


that both


VIEW System and


significantly


improved


subjects'


vocational maturity


as compared


to control


sub-


jects.


However,


no difference


in vocational maturity was


found between


students who


used VIEW


students


who used GIS.


Counseling


as an Intervention


Many


occupational


researchers,


information


believing


alone


that


presentation


inadequate


facil-


itating


career


development,


have


studied


a variety


specific counseling


strategies.


Krumboltz


and Schroeder


(1965)


researched


effects


reinforcement


contingencies


on information


dents.


seeking behavior of


subjects were assigned


eleventh


three


grade


treatment


stu-


groups


which


information seeking responses were


reinforced


a counselor,


tape


recordings


in which a


counselee was


-


%-- v










produced


significantly


subjects.


Similar


greater


information


studies


seeking


Krumboltz


and


behavior


Thorensen


(1964


Meyer,


Stroweg,


and


Hosford


(1970


have


also


demonstrated


methods


efficacy


facilitating


of brief


career


behavioral


exploratory


counseling


behavior.


Jepsen,


Dustin,


Miars


(198


studied


effects


three


distinct


types


of counseling


interventions


career


eleventh


exploratory


grade


career


students.


sion


Forty-eight


making


subje


behaviors


cts participated


either


guided


field


trips,


cognitive


problem


solving


training,


or behavioral


problem


solving


training.


The


results


showed


that


both


types


of problem-solving


training


were


superior


to field


trips


facilitating


career


exploratory


career


decision


making


behavior.


Group


Versus


Individual


Counseling


A number


of researchers


only


concerned


themselves


with


effect


of counseling


on career


development,


they


also


focused


differential


effects


of individual


versus


group


counseling.


an early


study,


Hoyt


(1955)


studied


effects


group


versus


individual


vocational


counseling


degree


of certainty,


satisfaction,.


realism


career


choice


among


60 male


college


freshmen.


Hoyt-


1 cvs1


fnii nc3


that


hnih


i nl i vi thia


* '.I ni


nrnrii


rnrnnsc1 i nn










between


individually


counseled


and


group


counseled


subjects.


In a study


similar


to Hoyt


1955),


Smith


Evans


(1973)


studied


the


differential


effects


of individual,


group,


no counseling


(control)


vocational


devel-


opment


sixty-six


college


freshmen.


Subjects


individual


counseling


setting


parti


cipated


two


four


individual


Subjects


counseling


group


setting


sessions


parti


with


a career


cipated


counselor.


five


week


career


per


group


guidance


week.


program


Activities


meetings,


which


included


small


group


consisted


individual


counseling


of three


activity


assignments,


sessions.


large


Smith


Evans


(1973


found


that


both


individual


group


counseling


strategies


were


eff


ective


facilitating


voca-


tional


Checklist.


development


as measured


Additionally,


Vocational


group


counseling


setting


sion

g was


found


to be signi


ficantly


more


effective


than


individual


counseling


setting


facilitating


vocational


development.


major


Evans


rese


arch


(1973)


problem


studies


with


was


that


Hoyt


counsel


1955)


ling


Smith


techniques


time


were


different


subjects


individual


group


settings.


Krumboltz


Thorensen


(1964)


also


studied


effects


of individual


verans


amounln


cnmnsel ina -


1-nil-


thpi r


rEs~~ mbP Ir


,


,










which similar


behavioral


strategies were


employed by the


counselors.


Results


this


study


showed


that both indi-


vidual


group counseling


behavioral


strategies were


effective in facilitating

behavior when compared to


career


information-seeking


no counseling.


No significant


difference


in career


information-seeking


behavior was


found


between


individual


group counseling


subjects.


Hanson


effects


and Sanders


of individual


(1973)


versus


studied


the differential


group counseling


on realism of


vocational


choice


among


eleventh


twelfth


grade boys.


Subjects were divided


overshooters or


into


extreme


two groups of

undershooters


30 extreme


relation


career choice.

further divided


counseling,


Subjects


into


or control


in each


individual

settings.


these groups were


counseling,


then


group


No significant


difference


was


found between


career


choice.


those


However,


counseled


a significant


controls on


interaction


realism of


effect


indicated


that


individually


undershooters who were


became more


realistic


counseled


their vocational


choices.


Graff,


Danish,


and Austin


(1972)


compared


effec-


tiveness of


three modes


vocational


counseling--indi-


vidual,


group,


programmed


self-instruction--on


SeVenI


criteria related


to vocational


in format on.


values.


.


.










control


group.


Subjects


individual


counseling


setting


met


with


a counselor


three


individual


sess


ions


of approximately


55 minutes.


Sessions


were


con-


ducted


according


expressed


needs


of each


client.


Subjects


group


setting


parti


cipated


three


four


small

the p


group


rogramm


sessions

ed self-


lasting


about


instruction


90 minutes.


setting


Subjects


worked


Self-H


Vocational


Deci


sion


Making


Booklet


(Danish,


Graff,


Gensler,


1969).


Results


study


showed


three


counseling


modes


to be


superior


to the


control


setting


criteria


tested.


In addition,


programmed


self-


instruction


mode


was


found


to be


superior


to both


group


individual


information,


counseling


decision


improving


making,


acquisition


goal


of vocational


setting.


Computer-Based


Career


Guidance


Interventions


A relatively


new


but


burgeoning


development


field


career


guidance


use


computer


-based


career


guidance


programs.


Such


programs


have


been


designed


provide


guidance


functions


as well


as vocational


and


educa-


tional


information


(Super,


1970).


Maola


and


Kane


(1976


studied


the effectiveness


computers


providing


occupational


information.


Selected


from


a nonnla-i n


#3 fA rn4in hrrr erhi 1; c4-r ii A an 4-


h; nh


a~hnnl


ECll~dnCa


,


,










counselor-based

Posttests using


information


the Assessment


system,


or a control


of Career


group.


Development


showed


that both


computer


more occupational


group


information


counselor


than


the control


group


group.


learned


Also,


the computer group


learned


significantly more


than


counselor


group.


Pilato and Myers


(1973)


studied


the effects


computer


based


vocational


exploration


system


that was


still


being


developed


intelligence


accuracy


and interests


of self-knowledge


among


eleventh


concerning


grade males.


Subjects were randomly


assigned


three experimental


groups


or a control


group.


One group was


given


computer-generated


accuracy


of self-knowledge


feedback printouts,


another


group


was


taught an


occupational


classification


system,


third experimental


group experienced both.


Initial


post-


tests


indicated


that


subjects who


received


computer-


generated


feedback


intelligence,


showed


but not


their


increased accuracy


interests.


about


A delayed


their

posttest


indicated


that


increase


in accuracy


self-knowledge


did not


using


persist.


same


A later


treatments


study


showed


Pilato and Myers


that


(1975)


computer-generated


feedback did


improve


the appropriateness of


career


choice of


eleventh


grade males.


This


improvement


persisted


through a


delaved


Dosttest.


&










vocational maturity


tenth


grade


students.


Using the


Career Maturity


Inventory


as a pre-


and


posttest,


they


found


that


students who


used ECES


showed significantly


larger


gains


degree of planfulness


and


knowledge


use


resources


career


degree of gain was


exploration


related


than nonusers.


amount


time


The


spent


ECES.


Rayman,


Bryson,


and Bowlesby


(1978)


studied


effects


of the DISCOVER


computer-assisted


career


guidance


program on


career development


students


in grades


seven


through


expressed


twelve.


While both


considerable


support


students


for the


their parents


value of DISCOVER,


career development as measured by

Inventory and Assessment of Career


the Career


Development


Development was


significantly


increased


in comparison


to control


subjects.


A second


study


Savin


(1979)


confirmed


that


students


liked


DISCOVER and


measures


Devine


found

career

(1977)


helpful.


development

studied the


However,


were


no standardized


taken.


effects


the System of


Interactive Guidance and


Information


(SIGI)


the career


maturity


of 84


students


enrolled


in a


career


development


course and


found no


significant


differences between


treat-


ment and

1iQ71-


control

o+-r^7incr


subjects.


J-4


im11 =


However,

nrniinm n\ F


Pyle


ciih a ae


and Stripling


nrnMh4 A CT(T










studies by Melhus


(1971)


and Myers,


Thompson,


Lindeman,


Super,


Patrick,


and Friel


(1972)


support


the efficacy


combining


computer-based


interventions with


other types


career guidance


Parent


interventions.


Involvement


Another

the direct


relatively n

involvement


ew development in


of parents


career guidance


the counseling


process.

parents


Counselors

by providing


have


traditionally tried


information


involve


on a one-time basis


through


such means


as booklets,


special


presentations


i.e.


college


nights,


career


days),


or parent


conferences


(Amatea


& Cross,


1980) .


Recently,


new


career


guidance


activities have been


designed


to directly


involve


parents


in career


counseling


programs


for their


children.


Lea

provoke


people


(1976)

thought


described


a parent workshop designed


and stimulate discussion between


their parents.


The


young


workshop participants were


18 parents whose children


were


already


involved


a career


counseling program at


Holland


school.


Vocational Preference


Parents were asked


Inventory


take


(VPI)


predict how their


children


would


respond


same


inven-


tory.


was


Additionally,


exDlained


LA.. J


Holland' s


a profile of


theory


their


of vocational


children's


choice


results


V^ .










children


s career


development


talk


with


their


children


about


career


planning.


Amatea


Cros


(1980)


developed


a career


guidance


program


entitled


GOING


PLACES.


This


program


was


designed


group


parents.


presentation


program


to high


school


consis


SIX


students


two-hour


their


sessions


covering


central


components


career


planning:


compiling


developing


self-information,


information-getting


exploring


strategies


occupations,


, (4)


relating


self-


information


career


alternatives


, (5)


exploring


educational


training


options,


deve


loping


skill


s in


deci


sion


making


goal


setting.


Anecdotal


data


indicated


that


both


students


parents


like


format


content


of GOING


PLACES.


They


judged


program


to be


helpful


students


' career


planning.


The studi


Lea


1976)


Amatea


Cross


(1980)


lack


evidence


that


programs


had


direct


benefit


students


career


development.


However,


the perceptions


that


both


parents


students


felt


these


programs


were


helpful


indicated


that


evaluative


research


on such


programs


would


worthwhile.


One


frequently 1


used


career


guidance


intervention


discussed


thus


career


guidance


testing


programs.


:m rP Csr


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this


study,


the most


frequently used


career


guidance


tests


will be discussed


following


section


of this


review.


Use of Tests


Career Guidance


Thorndike


and Hagen


(1969)


divided


the history


individual


assessment


into


four parts


covering


years


1900


1960.


They


described


period


from 1900


1915


"pioneering phase.


practical


During this


and widely used methods


phase


assessing


first


abilities


were developed.


For example,


Binet


test,


designed


screen French


school


children


appropriate educational


placement,


was


first wide-scale


use


aptitude


testing.


years


from 1915


to 1930


were classified


"boom years"


for testing


development.


During


this period


the development


expansion


of testing proceeded


rapid


rate.


Lewis Terman


standardized


validated


Binet


test


for use


this


country.


World War


prompted


the development


the Army


Alpha


test,


first


group-


administered


test


of intelligence.


use of


the Army


Alpha


test


to place


personnel


into


appropriate


jobs within


the military


also marked


first wide-scale


use of tests


as occupational


guidance


tools


(Chauncey


Dobbin,


1966


This


period also


saw the development


first


specific


nn i to0fracl-


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fi rs t- npr ~nn-


3hj 1 ~li


fjrcf


tPCf


faet


|










was


followed shortly


another


inventory


interests


related


to occupations,


the Kuder


Preference


Record,


1934


(Shertzer


Linden,


1979).


Thorndike


and Hagen


(1969)


referred


years


from


1930


to 1945


"time of


critical


appraisal.


" During


this


period


the emphasis


shifted


from measuring


a limited range


of abilities


to evaluating the


entire range of


educational


objectives.


During


this


period Wechsler's


individual


intelligence


scale was


published,


Buros


published


first


Mental Measurement


Yearbook,


and


the Minnesota Multiphasic


Personality


Inventory was developed.


fourth phase,


from


1945


to 1960,


was described as


"period


of test batteries


testing programs.


Integrated


test batteries


and wide-scale


testing programs were devel-


oped


expanded.


sudden influx of millions of


service


men


into


job market


following World War


development


the General Aptitude Test Battery


(GATB)


tool


for vocational


counseling.


The


1950s


saw the advent of


electronic


test processing which made


use of


tests


easier


and more economical


(Shertzer


Linden,


1979).


Shertzer


and Linden


(1979)


noted


that


period


since


1960


has been


one of


controversy.


Questions


have been


raised regarding the ethics of using tests


as well


their


n -i ltv fnr


fani1if- ina flhp


nnuoi n~rn1 i nc nrnr~


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that all


group


standardized


intelligence,


aptitude,


achievement


tests


should be


eliminated


(Engen


et al.,


1982).


In spite of


controversies


surrounding testing,


career guidance


testing


continued


to flourish


(Engen


al. ,


1982).


During the


1970s


several new types


career


guidance


instruments were developed.


Miller


classified


maturity


these new types


inventories,


instruments


multidimensional


into career


instruments,


large-scale


assessment procedures.


Career maturity


inven-


stories


large-scale


assessment


programs


have been


primarily used


to gather


data


diagnostic and evaluative


purposes


related


to career guidance and


career


education.


The multidimensional


instruments,


however,


have been


used


a part


instruments


career


can measure


guidance


counseling process.


a variety


personal


These


character-


istics


related


to career


options


provide


integrated


score


reports


that make


test


interpretation


easier


and more


useful.


A recent survey


revealed


that


career guidance


tests are


used


public


and private


secondary


schools more


than


any


other


type of


test


(Engen


et al.,


1982) .


Those


tests


listed


as most used by


interest


respondents


inventories,


aptitude


survey

tests,


can be classified

or multidimensional


tPCf C:










Interest Inventories


The Strong-Campbell


Interest


Inventory


(SCII)


latest version


interest


inventory


first published in


1927


the Strong


Vocational


Interest Blank


(SVIB).


several


versions of the


SVIB


have a


long,


respected history.


Millions of


of studies


copies


have been


SVIB


conducted


have been


using


sold


SVIB


thousands


(Shertzer


Linden,


1979).


The SVIB


compare


criterion


and SCII


individuals'


groups.


are


scores


SVIB


criterion references


response


SCII


tests which


patterns of various


contain occupational


scales which are


free


item overlap and


use


standard


t scores


(mean 50;


standard


deviation


The original


and revised


forms


of the


SVIB had separate


versions


for men


and women.


1966


edition


consists of


items divided


into


categories:


occupations,


school


subjects,


amusements,


activities,


types


people,


order of


preference of


activities,


preferences


between


items,


abilities


character


stics.


Most


items


call


response of


like,


dislike,


indifferent


Three


hundred


of the


items


1966


edition of


SVIB came directly


from the


1938


edition,


with


only minor rewording to


lower


required reading


level.


The


test has


occupational


P4 ira 7 nnnnc'1in^* 4 nI 1


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Original normative data


were reanalyzed


to obtain normative


data


for the


1966


SVIB


(Shertzer


Linden,


1979).


Because males


females


same occupation


demonstrate different


interest


patterns,


the SVIB had


versions


for men


(blue manual)


and women


(pink manual).


These different


versions


to charges of


sex


bias


SVIB and prompted


the development


SCII


(Srebalus,


Marinelli,


& Messing,


1982).


The SCII


men


uses


and women.


same


addition


version


(white manual)


to eliminating


separate


for both


tests


for men and women,


the SCII


has also


integrated Holland's


theory


career


development with


the empirical


approach


traditionally used


scoring


interpreting


SVIB.


SCII


items,


most


of which were


abstracted


from


both


the men's


and women's


editions


SVIB.


All


items


have been


purged


sexist references,


some


items were


reworded


to make


them


less


ambiguous


or easier to


read.


Only


two entirely new


items were written


the SCII


(Shertzer


Linden,


1979


1981


version


SCII


three different


types


of scales


Occupational


arranged


Themes


in a hierarchical


Scales


order.


correspond


The


six


6 General


types


Holland's


theory.


There are


Basic


Interest Area Scales


designed


to assess


nure


interests


a rear~S


develnned


from the


,










inventory to


response


patterns


of criterion


groups


representing


Scales


each


are consider


occupational

red to be th


area.


e most


These Occupational

important and reliable


scales

clients


the SCII.


Median


test-retest


have been reported


reliability


a thirty-day


coeffi-


interval


(Campbell,


1974).


Theme


Scales


and Basic


Interest Area


Scales


are


useful


interpreting the Occupational Scales


(Srebalus


et al.,


1982).


SCII


easily


administered,


requiring


only


about


30 minutes,


but


scoring procedures


are complicated and


require machine


scoring.


While


profile reports


both


sexes


have been merged


samples


sex


into one


form,


respondents


are


sex


still


the norm


utilized


scoring procedures.


However,


scores on all


profiles


are


presented in


such


a manner


that


individuals


can


compare


their


scores with both male


female


criterion


groups


(Campbell,


Crichton,


Hansen,


Webber,


1974).


SCII


appropriate


individuals


and over


(Buros,


1978).


One


problem with


SCII


for general


use


secondary


schools


that


is most appropriate


for college


bound


students


majority


and may


senior


high


therefore


school


be of


students


little


value


(Shertzer


Linden,


1979;


Srebalus


et al.,


1982).


SCII


also


still


open


to criticism for


its use of


cross- ~nde r


scnri na.


In sKite










most


popular


interest inventories


in use


in secondary


schools


today.


There


limited research


the effectiveness


SCII


facilitating


career


development.


Cooper


(1976)


compared


the SCII


with


two other


counseling modes


found


no evidence


that


significantly


affected


career


salience


or consideration


of nontraditional


careers


among women.


Additionally,


the SCII


was


found


to be


less


efficient


than a


card sorting


technique


for promoting


career


exploration.


Rubenstein


(1978)


investigated


the effects of various


interpretation modes with


the SCII.


SCII


was


found


be effective


facilitating


clients'


degree of vocational


certainty


self-knowledge of vocational


interests.


In a


similar


study,


Hoffman,


Spokane,


and Magoon


(1981)


found


that


individual


interpretation


SCII


significantly


increased


the amount


career


information requests by


clients.


The Kuder


Preference


Records


date back


1932


and are


the most


popular


interest


inventories


use


today


Engen et


al.,


1982;


Shertzer


Linden,


1979).


Form C,


the Kuder


Preference


Record-Vocational


(KPR-V)


was


specifically


designed


for the guidance of


Strong's empirically


derived


students


interest


school.


inventories,


Unlike


the KPR-V


was


designed


through a ratinnal


annrnar h


i 3 .


~t


|


L










measure a


particular


interest,


were


alike


content,


were


significantly


intercorrelated.


The KPR-V has


mechanical,


items


computational,


grouped


scientific,


into


scales:


persuasive,


artistic,


literacy,


musical


social


service,


clerical,


and


outdoor.


An eleventh scale


called verification is des


signed


to detect


faking


or insincere answers


individuals


taking the


test.


The KPR-V,


forced-choice


like other


format.


Kuder


Such a


inventories,


format


uses


calls


three-item,


ipsative


scoring


and allows


intraindividual


comparisons


interests.


While


such a


scoring


format


enables


users


compare


relative


degree


interest


various


occupations,


difficulties


arise when normative


interpreta-


tions


are


used


with


ipsative


scoring


Shertzer


& Linden,


1979).


The KPR-V has


scoring method.


been


Normative


criticized


data has


primarily


been


because of


characterized


incomplete


(Froelich,


1959


interpretation


rationally


derived


(Pierce-Jones,


1959;


and ipsatively


Shertzer


scored


Linden,


test are difficult

1979).


the Kuder Occupational


Interest Survey


(KOIS),


Kuder


abandoned


rational


approach


test


construction and


adopted


an empirical method.


The KOIS


empirically


developed


scal


es.


For men.


, S U


ccunational


scores ann










with


college


students over


thirty


day period.


Correlation


coefficients


high


school


subjects


showed


range of


over


thirty


day period.


A study


Zytowski


(1972)


indicated


that


validity


of the KOIS was


comparable


that of


the SVIB.


All


forms of the


Kuder


inventories


are easily


adminis-


tered.


Estimated


time


for completing the


forms


is approxi-


mately


30-45 minutes.


Some


forms may


be scored by


hand,


hand


scoring


tedious


and machine


scoring


is generally


recommended.


Even


though brochures which


accompany


scoring


reports


are


intended


to aid


self


interpretation,


diffi-


cult


of accurate


interpretation


probably precludes


useful


self interpretation by most


examines


(Shertzer


Linden,


1979).


The Ohio


Vocational


Interest Survey


OVISS)


was


designed


to be


consists


used by


of two


students


parts:


grades


the Student


through


Information


The OVIS


Question-


naire and


Interest Inventory.


The


Student


Information


Questionnaire


lists


twenty-seven kinds of


job activities


gathers


information


about


students'


favorite


school


sub-


jects,


high


school


program,


educational


plans


after


high


school.


Interest


Inventory


lists


activities


which


are categorized


into


scales


that


cover more


than


21.000


iobs


the Dictionary


of Occunation


Titles .


Suhl-


-1 A


.










system provides


norms


comparing


individual's


inter-


ests


those of


other


students


(Shertzer


Linden,


1979).


The OVIS was designed


to be


compatible with


other


career guidance


tools


including


the Occupational


Outlook


Handbook,


the General Aptitude


Test Battery,


and


the Dictio-


of Occupational


Titles.


It has been normed


50,000


high school


students


throughout


country.


The


reliability


scales


varies,


but


the median


test-retest


correlation


coefficient


over


two-week


period.


OVIS


is untimed and


requires


from


90 minutes


administer


(Srebalus et


al.,


1982).


The Self-Directed


Search


(SDS)


name


implies,


a self-administered,


self-scored,


guidance


tool based


upon


Holland's


career


development


theory.


While


directions


encourage


users


to contact a


counselor,


Holland


(1972)


believes


that


the SDS


can be


highly useful even


without


involvement


trained


counselor


or psycho-


metrist.


booklet


guides


use


r through a


series


activities

activities,


related


to occupational


competencies,


daydreams,


preferences


preference


occupations,


estimates


subject's


abilities


in a variety


occupa-


tional


areas.


By working


through


the booklet,


user


generates


a three


letter


code based


upon


-.* --


six personality


nry










to investigate


several


occupations


compatible with


code.


been


understood directions,


praised


its clear


efficiency,


and its


easily


thoughtful


construction


(Brown,


1978;


Seligman,


1974).


However,


Crites


(1978b)


criticized


as being too


simplistic,


subject


scoring


errors,


prone


to seriously mislead


naive


users.


Crites


(1978b)


even


questioned


the ethics


of making


readily


Considering


recency


available


compared


to untrained users.


to such inventories


the SCII


the KOIS,


the SDS


generated a


good deal


research regarding


effects


on career development.


Nolan


(1974)


compared


traditional


group


vocational


counseling


moving


found


frequency


to be


of information


less


seeking


effective


behaviors.


in pro-


However,


a similar


study


Avallone


(1974)


found


to be as


effective


as group counseling


facilitating


generation


career

seeking


Krivatsky


alternatives,

activities,


and Magoon


vocational


and


exploration,


satisfaction with


(1976)


have also


and


career


found


information

choice.


to be


effective as


traditional


group counseling


for promoting


information


seeking


activities


among high


school


students.


Zener


Schneulle


(1976)


compared


effects of the


D S with


Vocati nnal Prp.Tefer nn


Trnvrzpntnr


I'VPT)


L1. 1 1 IT-


i


t iI | I










satisfaction


with


occupational


choice and


consideration


occupational


alternatives.


Students


taking the


selected


occupations more


consistent


with


their personality types.


Takai


and Holland


(1979)


have


also


found


that


the SDS


compares


favorably with other


counseling techniques


promoting


well


increase


an increase


information


the number


seeking


variety


behavior


of occupations


being


considered.


Aptitude Tests


The Armed


is by


Service


s Vocational Aptitude Battery


far the most widely used


career guidance


(ASVAB)


test


secondary


schools.


popularity


the ASVAB


probably


owes more


fact


that


administered,


scored,


interpreted


at no cost by


the armed services


than


merits


test itself


(Engen


et al.,


1982).


The ASVAB


consists


items divided


into


twelve


tests:


general


information,


numerical


operations,


attention


space


to detail,


perception,


word knowledge,


arithmetic


mathematical knowledge,


reasoning,


electronic


infor-


mation,


mechanical


comprehension,


general


science,


shop


information,


automotive


information.


The


twelve


tests


are


used


to yield


aptitude


scores


on six


areas:


electronic/


01or'-Trr'n1 _


rnmnrliii r't 4i nfl + -


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1-crhnii -(~


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ASVAB


been


criticized


both


psychometric


properties


way


(Cronbach,


which


1979;


used


Shertzer


armed


Linden,


forces


1979)


recruiters


(Conrad,


Guli


a school


Kincaid,


s career


guidance


1977).


Because


program,


Cronbach


often


(1979)


part


and


Ciborowski


1980)


recommend


that


school


counselors


monitor


use


ASVAB


closely.


The


General


Aptitude


Test


Battery


(GATB)


was


developed


1947


Unit


ed States


Employment


Service


intended


use


in counseling


placement


serve


ices


with


clients


years


older.


Unlike


ASVAB,


GATB


tests


that


require


more


than


paper


pencil


performance,


intended


to be


admini


stered


individual


or small


group


settings.


Administration


time


two


and


one-


half


hours


(Herr


Cramer,


1979).


GATB


uses


tests


assess


nine


aptitudes


general

clerical


ability,

ability,


verbal,

form p


numerical,


perception,


and

motor


spatial


abilities,


coordination,


manual


finger


dexterity.


The GATB


uses


multiple


cut-off


scores


to determine


an individual


qualifies


occupation


or group


occupations.


Within


recent


years


however,


use


of cut-off


scores


declined


(Srebalus
a


al.,


1982).


GATE


norms


were


initially


derived


from


em loved


,J 1


I










praised


best


validated


multiple


aptitude


battery


available.


However,


been


critic


use


cut-o


scores


a criterion


measure


(Srebalus


et al.,


1982


Multidimensional


Tests


The Differ


ential


Aptitude


Test


(DAT


long


enjoyed


reputation


of being


best


multi


-aptitude


test


battery


available


use


with


high


school


students


(Johnson,


1978).


In 1972


Psychological


Corporation


subs


tantially


mented


DAT


adding


Car


eer


Planning


Que


stionnaire


(CPQ)


an availabi


option


The CPQ


a revise


score


reporting


combined


temr


with


which


DAT


included


to produce


a narrative


DAT


section


Career


were


Planning


Program


DAT


-CPP)


psychological


Corporation,


1982),


one


first


multidimensional


career


guidance


tests


available


(Johnson,


1978).


The DAT


was


first


public


shed in


1946


since


gone


through


several


revis


ions,


latest


in 198


uses


DAT,


according


Admini


strator


s handbook


Psychological


Corporation,


"fall


into


general


categories


counsel


ling


with


individual


making


adminis-


trative


deci


sons


" (p


. 13).


In counseling,


DAT


provides


informati


to better


under


stand


client


hereby


J. A


1 1 1


n _


n










eight


tests which require


hours


and


15 minutes


administration


over two or more


sessions.


Because


DAT-CPP


crucial


for this


study,


it seems worthwhile


briefly


describe each of


these


tests.


Verbal Reasoning


(VR):


The


test


is designed


measure


ability


to understand


concepts


framed


in words.


It claims


test a student's


ability to


think


construc-


tively,


manipulate abstract


ideas,


and reason


using


lan-


guage.


items


this


test are double-ended


analogies


which


first and


last


words


are missing.


The examinee


required


to choose


from


five


pairs


of words


the one


pair


that best


completes


analogy.


Numerical Ability


(NA) :


items


the NA


test


are designed


numerical


to measure


relationships


and


the ability


facility


to understand


for numerical


reasoning.


All


items


are


presented


a computational


format


to reduce


language elements


this


test.


However,


publishers


claim


that


the measurement of


reasoning


ability


not


sacrificed by


computational


format.


Abstract Reasoning


(AR)


The AR


test


consists of


items designed


test


reasoning


ability unrelated


language


usage.


Items


this


test


present a


series


eii arnranmc which mrairn


t henP);3m1 n smi


1-n unirli


i l










Clerical


Speed


Accuracy


(CSA):


items


CSA


test


are


designed


measure


speed


accuracy


of perception,


examinee


momentary


is required


retention,

examine a c


response.


combinationn


The


of letters


numbers


test


bookl


and


then


select


same


combin-


action


from


a group


of similar


combinations


answer


sheet.


items


are


supposed


to resemble


tasks


that


are


similar


many


tasks


found


clerical


jobs.


Mechanical


Reasoning


: The


test


consi


items


repair


designed


of complex


assess


mechanical


principles


devices.


of operation


test


and


consists


pictures


tions


mec


which


hanical


test


situations


degr


with


to which


corresponding


examine


ques-


under-


stands


what


is happening


picture.


While


authors


admit


that


this


test


may


affe


cted


some


degree


prior


expert


ence,


they


argue


that


scores


will


not


affected


such


a degree


that


serious


difficulties


in interpretation


result.


Space


Relations


test


designed


measure


abili


to mentally


manipulate


concrete


mater-


s through


visualization.


items


this


test


require


examine


to mentally


cons


truct


an obj


from


pattern


identify


that


object


a rotated


ition.


'N Sn! Ii *Z *I t


I f


SCtrni -h rhr-fnr'w'r


J *


I| -


I ft


I


I


I; Illr










value.


word


Examinee'


spelled


are required


correctly


indicate whether


or incorrectly


each


shown.


Language


Usage


(LU)


The LU


test


designed


measure


ability to detect


common


grammatical


errors,


i.e.


grammar,


punctuation,


capitalization.


The LU


test


consists


short


sentences divided


into


four parts.


examine


indicates which


part,


any,


contains


a grammat-


ical


error.


(Psychological


Corporation,


Harcourt Brace


Jovanovich,


1982)


The Career


Planning Questionnaire


(CPQ)


is designed


administered


scored


only


in conjunction with


the DAT.


When


the CPQ


used,


a special


answer


folder


required


along with a


Career


Planning Glossary.


The Career


Planning


Glossary provides definitions


terms


used


the CPQ


(The


Psychological


Corporation,


Harcourt Brace Jovanovi


The CPQ


actually


contained


answer


folder


the DAT.


The CPQ


is untimed and


contains


a 92


item interest


survey


survey


based


based


on school


subjects


on occupational


item interest


preferences.


surveys


are


essentially


checklists which are


used


to help


students


identify their


three choices


educational


occupa-


tional


interests.


The CPQ has


been


severely


criticized


lack of


data regarding


either


the reliability


or validity


instrument


(Stronq,


1978)


. "


.










scores


from


DAT


are


reported


in national


percentile


ranks.


percentiles,


upon


same


sex


comparisons,


are


presented


numerical


form


a graph


form


which


incorporates


error


measure


tests


Percentil


rankings


opposite


sex


are


presented


numerically.


Accompanying


percentile


rankings


a concise


explan-


action


percentile


scores


how


can


used


determine


performance


test.


The


second


half


CPR


s a


narrative


report


which


integrates


0 LuL


ents


' performance


the DAT


information


gathered


degree


through


CPQ


congruence


The narrative


between


students


report


intere


explains


educa-


tional


plans,


and


aptitudes


as mea


sured


CPQ


and


DAT


Where


interests,


plans,


aptitudes


match,


narrative


report


between


confirms


interests


match.


, plans,


When


and


ere


s some


abiliti


disparity


report


points


differences


and


suggests


some


possible


occupation


ernatives


student


to explore


CPR


ends


with


a standard


statement


referring


stud


ents


to other


sources


help


in career


planning.


Differential


Aptitude


Test


-Career


Planning


Program


(DAT


-CPP)


been


commended


innovative


use


narrative


report


incorporating


DAT


into


rnnrTcrhon c I \uns


n^ rnP or


n nnni nfl


n rnnrrr rnn


I .Tnhnenn


1 Q7S1


I










generated


narrative


reports


that


are


used


DAT-CPP


(Johnson,


1978;


Strong,


1978).


There


s little


research


effectiveness


DAT-CPP

studied


promoting

effects o


career


f various


development.


modes


pres


Moni


(1979)


entation


career


guidance


unit


built


around


DAT


-CPP.


Moni


(1979)


found


that


students


who


participated


guidance


unit


adult


ed small


groups


did


significantly


increase


their


career


exploratory


behaviors


However,


because


a great


deal


of information


unrelated


DAT


-CPP


res


ults


was


pre-


sented in


guidance


units,


it i


impossible


to determine


whether


or not


DAT


-CPP


was


responsible


s increase


exploratory


behavior.


The


ACT


Career


Planning


Program,


Level


(American


Coll


Testing


Program,


1974a)


was


public


shed


1974.


purpose


ACT


Career


Planning


Program


(ACT-CPP),


according


Supervisor


s Manual


of Ins


tructions


(American


Colle


ge Testing


Program,


1974b),


s to


"stimulate


facilitate


exploration


self


self


career


in relation


exploration


careers


, particularly


'S(P


The


most


recent


edition


ACT


-CPP


(American


Coll


ege


ting


Program


, 1983)


inventories


divided


into


units


The fir


st five


units


are


untimed.


flni4-


Ic cv rn r rn II I'I i FI*u


fl =iniC,


L 1a


--- .Z S..


-j ir


I Il I C' 1111 lr


I


I It;









math


and study


skills,


and


ability to make appropriate


course


selections.


Unit


of the ACT-CPP


titled Work


Related Experi-


ences.


This unit has


items which require students to


estimate how often


Unit 3,


they


Self Rating


have worked at

of Abilities,


a specific

requires


activity.


students


estimate


their


abilities


in nine


areas.


The areas


are


scientific,


creative/artistic,


creative/


literary,


helping


others,


meeting people,


sales,


leadership/management,


organization,


manual


dexterity.

on each of


Students


* these areas


ate themselves

as compared w


as high,


ith


medium,


other persons


or low

their


own age.


Unit


, the ACT


Interest


Inventory,


contains


items.


Students


indicate


their


interest in


activities by


responding with


last


measures which


like,


six units


can be


indifferent,


or dislike


the ACT-CPP


administered


are


according


to each


timed


to a


item.


ability


variety


schedules


covering


one


three


sessions.


Total


time


administering the


ability measures


in a single


session is


91 minutes.


The ability measures


consist of


six


tests


designed


to measure


a variety


of aptitudes.


Other than


titles,


there


is no explanation


of what


each


test


designed


to measure.


A brief description


the ability









Reading


Skills


The


test


contains


five


reading


passages


accompanying


ques


tions


items


contained


s sec


tion


test


are


designed


to test


reading


comprehension.


Language


Usage


(LU)


test


similar


format


sentences


Language Usage

presented, eac


test


h having


the

four


DAT.

parts


Twelve

underlined.


Examinees


are


asked


examine


each


underlined


part


sentence


indicate


whether


is correct


incorrect


Clerical


Speed/Accuracy


(CS)


This


test,


though


having


Cleri


a similar


Speed


title,


Accuracy


complex


test


tely


diff


in the


erent


DAT.


from


This


test


items


which


require


examinee


cross


reference


three


items


differ


various


table


to det


weights


ermine


to diff


erent


cost


locations


of shipping


No math


computational


skills


are


required.


pace


Relations


SR presents


a series


complex


arrangements


of identically


sized and


shaped


blocks


Examinees


are


asked


to study


each


arrangement


and


determine


how


many


other


blocks


a designated


block


s touching


There


are


items


s test.


Numeri


Skills


(NS)


test


contains


items


first


items


requi


computational


skills


only. T


remaining


items


are


word


problems


require


w-










test has


picture of


items which require

a common mechanical


the examinee

operation and


to study


determine what


is happening


picture.


Results


from


units


are


presented


the Career


Planning


Report.


The Career


Planning


Report


divided


into


four


sections:


How to


Your


Report,


Job Clus-


ters,


Information


Another Way


for Counselors


to Find Job


and Advisors,


Possibilities.


How to Use


Your


Report


section


is a step-by-step guide


to interpreting


using


the Career


Planning


Report.


The Job Clusters


section related students'


interests


abilities


SIX


career


clusters and


families.


Information


Counselors and Advisors


section shows


a graphic


represen-


station


of students


' percentile


scores


on seven


ability


six interest measures.


One of


ability measures


is a


composite


language


score of


usage.


reading


skills,


Additionally,


this


numerical


section


skills,


of the Career


Planning


Report directs


students


to specific


areas


World-of-Work Map contained


the Another Way to Find Job


Possibilities


section.


World-of-Work Map


helps


students


select specific


families


organized


according


to a


data,


people,


ideas,


things


typology.


An innovative


feature of


the ACT-CPP


page


consumable booklet,


"Explorinac


Your


Future"


(American









information


on career planning


steps,


books


jobs


education,


educational/training programs,


family


charts,


advice on


understanding


using


the Career


Planning


Report.


The ACT-CPP was normed


using


a multistage


probability


sample of


over


,000


high school


students


from 201


high


schools


states.


Interval


reliability


coefficients


range


from


ability measures,


from


interest


scales,


and


from


experience


scales.


Test-retest


reliability


coefficients


over


a nine-week


period ranged


from


ability measures,


from


College Testing


from


interest measures,


the experience measures


Program,


(American


1974b)


Validity


of the ACT-CPP


scores


has been


tested


several


ways.


Correlations between


overall


grade


point


average and


composite


scores


the ability measures yielded


coefficient


for criterion-related


validity.


Construct


validity


shown


through


intercorrelation


the ACT-CPP


measures with other measures.


interest


scales


of the


ACT-CPP were


found


to correlate


from


.62 with


simi-


larly named


scales of


Vocational Preference


Inventory


from


with


scales


from


the Ohio


Vocational


Interest snrvev


2-


ability measures


fielded


coefficients










The ACT-CPP


has been


commended


format of


program,


norming procedures,


comprehensiveness.


However,


tests


support for

the ACT-CPP


the reliability


has


been questioned.


validity


of various


In addition


there


lack of


research evidence


that


the ACT-CPP


any


effect on


career development of


students


(Mehrens,


1977).


long


history


career


guidance


tests


resulted


little research


tests


concerning


facilitating


the effectiveness


career development.


such


Despite


growing


belief


some


authors


that


tests must


do more


than


simply provide


students


with worthwhile


information


(Prediger


and Ferguson,


1982) ,


most research


on career


guidance


tests


is still


directed


toward


verifying


reliability


and


validity


such


tests.

















CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


Substantial


time


expense


invested


in career


guidance


testing


secondary


schools.


More research


needed


to determine


effects


career


guidance


testing


programs


on career


development.


This


study


investigated


effects


career


guidance


testing programs


on tenth


grade


high


school


students'


career


exploration behavior,


career


self-awareness,


career maturity.


Research Design


This


study used


three experimental


ipation in


the ACT Care


three-group,

conditions c

er Planning


posttest-only


insistedd

Program,


design.

partic-


participa-


tion


in the


ipation


in a


DAT Career


Planning


three-session


Program,


career guidance


partic-


unit


designed by


researcher.


All


students were


posttested


four weeks


after participating


in one of


the experimental


conditions.


To avoid


disrupting normal


school


functioning,


intact












Group


Independent


Variable


Posttest


Population


population


this


study


consisted


tenth


grade


students


Alachua


County


Schools,


Gainesville


, Florida.


All


tenth


grade


students


in Alachua


County


Public


Schools


routinely


take


part


in career


guidance


testing


as part


county


guidance


program.


Alachua


Florida


County


has


located


a population


north


of approximately


central


part


159,000.


Most


county


cons


idered


rural.


The


only


large


popu-


lation


center


city


of Gainesville


, which


population


of about


83,600.


Gainesville


also


site


University


of Florida,


largest


university


state.


In 1983,


Alachua


County


School


System


serve


d 21,741


Cl-~~~t 1r1A i X7 I


nlr~~ r c


lcint


ar Yr-=n


fWP1 ftP


thP J~P


ctl~~ pnt


^^ I


r


I f I










The


County


total number


time


tenth


this


grade


study was


students


1,751


in Alachua


There were


approximately


(47%)


females


(53%)


males.


these,


were black


and non-hispanic,


(2%)


were


hispanic,


1189


(68%)


were white and non-hispanic,


(1%)


were of other national


origins.


Sampling


Procedures


The

public hi


School


sample of s

acrh schools.


students was drawn


Buchholz


were chosen


study


from two of


High School


because of


six


and Santa Fe


their


High


size and


geographical location,

representative of all


and because


the high


they were considered


schools.


Buchholz


High School


located


the northwestern


part of Gainesville.


Built


1971,


it had


1983


a total


population


1794


students


in grades


nine


through


twelve,


most of whom were drawn


from


west


side of the city.


tenth


grade


class


at Buchholz


was


comprised


students


of which


(49%)


were


female


(51%)


were male.


these students,


21%)


were black and non-hispanic,


(2%)


were hispanic,


(76%)


were white and non-hispanic,


were of


other national


origin.


Most of the black


students were bused


from


five


fifteen miles


order to


an), rfl, ~nn F-. -, r n n C. ~ r.~l


9n*1 attn


nn 1~ nnl


n


I










about 2491).


1983


school


served


students


from


surrounding


area.


tenth


grade class


at Santa Fe


High School


(58%)


students,


(42%


of which were male.


of which were


There were


29%)


female


black


and non-hispanic,


hispanic,


(70%)


white


non-hispanic,


of other national


origin.


This


English


study used


classes


students


from


at each


high


randomly


schools.


selected


English


was


selected


curriculum area


from which


to draw the


sample of


students


for two


reasons.


First,


tenth


graders were


required


take English.


Therefore,


high


school


guidance


counselors


that


often


they


used English


could be assured


classes


classroom


of reaching


every


tenth

of the


grade

study


student.

because


This

the s


increased


getting was


the external


similar


validity


that nor-


mally used


large group guidance


activities.


Secondly,


tenth


grade English


classes were


ability


grouped according


to achievement

Therefore, the


to examine


test scores


se classes


effects of


teacher


provided a


academic


recommendation.


convenient


achievement


opportunity


on career


development.


This


classes


study used


each


procedures


twelve


intact English classes,


participating


called for


random select


schools.


V. -


with six


Sampling


two classes


i


""'










Buchholz


High


School


had


only


one


achievement


level


English


ss.


Therefore,


additional


average


achievement


level


English cl


ass


was


subs


tituted.


total


sample


then


consi


sted


of 96


students


from


four


high


achievement


level


asses


, 118


students


from


five


average


achievement


level


asses,


54 students


from


three


achievement


level


class


ses.


After


random


selection


of the


twelve


asses


was


comply


female


eted,


one


from


third


each


mal


twelve


one


asses


third


were


randomly


ass


one


three


experimental


groups


Thus,


was


assumed


that


students


were


equally


stribut


ed by


achi


eve-


ment


level


and


sex


into


three


experimental


conditions.


sampling


students


procedure


inclusion


resulted in


study.


section


However,


circums


tances


beyond


experimenter


s control,


students


were


eliminated


from


stud


Forty


were


eliminated


to absenteeism


to complete


or withdrawal


items


from


school.


criterion


Thirteen


tests


fail


30 did


not


have


scores


which


could


use


a covariate.


remaining


students,


were


from


high


achi


evement,


were


from


average


achievement,


were


from


achievement


eve


English


asses


There


were


mal


females


these


students,


were


black


rrr ~I~ rr


*


* V


.










Experimental


Conditions


The


experimental


conditions


consisted


of participation


ACT


Planning


Career


Program,


researcher


All


Planning


a career


three


Program,


guidance


experimental


DAT


unit


conditions


Career


designed


required


three


sessions.


Two


sessions


were


on consecutive


days


were


followed


four


weeks


third


sess


ion.


For


Experimental


Groups


first


sess


ions


were


used


admini


station


career


guidance


inventori


their


During


scores


sess


from


three,


career


students


guidance


and


inventories


interpreted


large


groups.


Students


in Experimental


Group


E3 participate


ed in


three


large


group


career


guidance


sessions


unrelated


Experimental


career


conditions


are


guidance


presented


inventories


below:


Experimental


Conditions


Group


Days


of Study


Day


Study


Career


guidance


ting


(ACT


Test


interpre


station


Career


guidance


testing


(DAT)


Test


interpretation


Two non-testing


guidance


Third


career


guid-












Experimental


Group


Experimental


Group


participated


ACT


Career


Planning

inventori


Program,


Level


This


supplemental


program


career


cons


guidance


ists of

material


inventori


are


The


Inventory


of Experiences,


Plans,


Intere


sts;


Ability


Measures.


title


impli


Inventory


of Experiences,


Plans,


and


Interests


designed


educational


section


measure


plans,


designed


students


interests


measure


' activities


The Ability


students


career


Measures


aptitudes


reading


skill


, language


usage,


clerical


skill


, space


relations,


numerical


skill


mechanical


reasoning.


Total


time


required


admini


steering


both


parts


inventory


Results


estimated


from


to be


Inventory


hours


minutes


of Experiences,


Plans,


Interests


Ability


Measures


are


combined


to produce


report


scal


form

six


which


shows


interest


students


scal


and


' results


six


on si


experience


ability


measures


related


to inter


ests.


Additionally,


report


organizes


world


of work


into


clu


sters


(Busin


ess


Contact,


Business


Operations,


Techni


cal,


clence,


Arts,


Social


Service


prioriti


zes


student


career


exploration


alternatives


around


these


---- -J


clusters


based


upon


F


-- Dw w--


w w-


-- -









supplemental materials


for use by


counselors


and students.


Counselors


"Action


are


Guide,


provided


" which


with


contains


page booklet


suggestions and


called


instructions


on how the ACT Career


Planning


Program may


used effec-


tively


itself


or as part of


a comprehensive


career


guidance program.


Additionally,


counselors


are


provided


with


13 pages of


scripts


and


pages


of graphics which


can


be used


to introduce


the ACT Career


Planning


Program and


interpret


score


reports


to groups


of students.


script can be used exactly


is written


or can be


adapted


as desired by the


counselor.


The graphics


are


designed


that


they


can


easily


be made


into


transparencies


and used


as visual


aids


in presentations


to students.


The ACT Career


Planning


Program also


provides


a 23


page


workbook


score


students which


reports.


can be


This workbook


used


conjunction with


is designed


to help


students use


their


score


reports


further


explore


career


information


their


own


abilities,


interests,


plans.


Instructions


score


report


refer


students


to specific


pages


the workbooks.


Activities


the workbook expand


upon


information


students


sources


provided


such


score


Dictionary


report and refer


of Occupational


Titles or the Occupational


Outlook


Handbook.


this


study,


score


interpretations were done










were


passed


with


score


reports


referred


called


script.


interpretation


session


asted


approximately


50 minutes


Stud


ents


were


allowed


to keep,


enc


ourag


use,


elr


score


reports


workbooks


after


interpretation


session


was


over


Experimental


Group


Experimental


Group


parti


cipated


DAT


Career


Planning


Program,


which


consis


an orientation


booklet,


Differential


Aptitude


Test


DAT) ,


Career


Planning


Questionnaire


(CPQ).


orientation


bookl


was


given


to students


one


week


prior


taking


DAT


CPQ.


The orientation


booklet


gives


a description


the DAT


Career


Planning


Program


explains


how


tests


and


score


reports


can


used


facilitate


career


planning.


booklet


also


a copy


CPQ


that


students


will


have


time


to consider


eir


answers


and


discuss


their


career


educational


plans


with


their


parents.


designed


verbal


eric


reasoning,


al speed


numerical


accuracy


measure

ability,


students'

abstract


, mechanical


aptitudes

reasoning,


reasoning,


space


relations,


spelling,


language


usage.


CPQ


designed


measure


students


' inte


rests


, educational


goals


ana career


goals.


Total


time


required


admini


steering










scores


from


DAT,


Career


Planning


Report


combines


results


from


DAT


and


CPQ


into


a narrative


report


which


provides


an analysis


of how


well


a student


s aptitudes,


interests,


educational


goals


match


occupational


plans.


When


personal


goals


DAT


results


match,


Career


goals


Planning


DAT


Report


results


confirms


conflict,


match.


Career


When


Planning


personal


Report


suggests


some


possible


alternative


goals


students.


Unlike


ACT


Career


Planning


Program,


DAT


Career


Planning


Program


provides


supplemental


materials


use


counselors


students.


counselor'


guide


provides


only


general


instructions


on how


to interpret


DAT/CPQ


Career


Planning


Report.


one


page


copy


the Career


Planning


Report


is provided


conversion


into


an overhead


transparency


that


can


used


as a visual


aid


when


making


presentations


groups


this


study,


Career


Planning


Report


was


interpreted


students


referring


them


transparency


which


explained


meaning


of each


part


score


report


This


method


interpretation


was


consistent


with


instructions


provide


counselor


s guide


took


approximately


50 minutes


large


group


session.


Experimental 1


Group


Exnerimenta 1


Crnoun


n rt i cinDa ed


three


]arae


aroun


1-. J


A I









career guidance


testing.


Session


one


focused


various


education


Students were


training


encouraged


options


to share


available after


their


high school.


knowledge about


on-the-job


training,


apprenticeship programs,


vocational-


technical


programs,


college


programs.


The discussion


primarily


centered around


time and


expense


for each


type


training.


second


session was


used


facilitate discussion of


students'


career values.


Students were asked


to choose


one


of three


selected


jobs.


Each


job was


assumed


to have


benefits which would be both attractive


unattractive


students.


examine


In order


to make


their values


such


a choice,


students


job-related issues


salary,


security,


leisure


time.


Session


three required


students


to answer eight


ques-


tions


related


to job type,


work


setting,


and working


condi-


tions.


Working


small


groups,


students


read


their


answers


aloud


listened while other


students


suggested


jobs which


might match


their


answers.


sessions


Experimental E3


(See Appendix B)


were


limited guidance


interventions


intended


primarily


to control


Hawthorn Effect


(Kerlinger,


1973).


research


ass


istants conducting


volunteer


information


these


sessions were


regarding


education,


instructed not


careers,










Criterion


Instruments


Three


instruments were


used


this


study:


Career Maturity


Inventory Attitude


Scale,


form


A-2


Career


Exploration Behavior


Inventory;


Self-


Appraisal Scale.


They were


administered


to all


students


the experimental


conditions.


The Career Maturity


Inventory


Attitude Scale


Vocational maturity was measured by Crites'


(1978a)


Career Maturity


Inventory Attitude Scale,


form A-2


(CMIAS).


The CMIAS


consists of


items


to which an


individual


responds


true or


false


to denote agreement


or disagreement


with a


statement.


It measures


several


attitudes


related


Vocational Maturity


(VM).


However,


only


one overall


score


determined by the CMIAS.


There


are no


sub-scales within


this


instrument.


Kerlinger

predisposition


(1973)


defined


think,


feel,


an attitude

perceive,


and behave


ganized

toward a


referent or


cognitive object"


495).


This definition


implies


that


one's


attitude will


affect behavior.


There-


fore,


measurement of


attitudes


can be


a measure of


expected


behavior.


As emphasized


in Chapter


vocational maturity


gives


attention


to behaviors


that


can


accomplish


various


voca-









Crites


(1978a)


reported


internal


consistency


coeffi-


clients


for the CMIAS


ranging


from


students


grades


through


twelve.


coefficients were estab-


lished using


over


69,000


subjects.


These


internal


consis-


tency


coefficients


similar to


are


the CMIAS


comparable


(Crites,


to other


1978a)


scales which are


In addition,


because


the CMIAS measures


a group of


related but


distinct atti-


tudes,


it would not be


expected


that


internal


consistency


would be


as high as


other


scales


which measure more homo-


generous variables.


Crites


(1978a)


also reported high stability


coeffi-


clients


for the CMIAS.


In subjects


from grades


through


twelve,


ability


tested


and retested at


coefficient


was


one


year


found.


intervals,


Crites


1978a)


a sta-


also


pointed


out


that


the developmental nature of vocational


maturity would naturally


lead


to changes


in vocational


attitudes


over time.


Therefore,


correlation


coefficient might


have


reflected


increases


in vocational


maturity


as well


as error variance


the CMIAS.


There is


evidence


of content


validity,


criterion-


related


validity,


and


construct


validity


for the CMIAS.


Hall


(cited in Crites,


1978a)


reported a


study which


tested


agreement between


the opinions of


empirical


experts


scoring


(five male


five


the CMIAS

female









the experts'


judgments


this


supported


Crites'


(1978a)


claim of


content


validity


for the CMIAS.


The CMIAS


has been


shown


to correlate with


several


criterion


variables


Bathory


(1967),


in a


study using


ninth


grade and


twelth


grade


subjects,


found


correlation


coefficients


(p< .01)


(p<.05)


respectively


with


subjects'


realism of


aspirations


as measured by the


Occupational Aspiration Scale.


In a similar


study


1648


students,


grades


through


Hollender


(cited


Crites,


1978a)


found


that students making more realistic career


choices generally


scored higher


CMIAS.


A study by


Carek


(cited in Crites,


1978a)


indicated


that certainty


about career

significantly


choice

(p<.05


among

) with


college

scores


students


correlated


the CMIAS.


Because


reality


of aspirations


of vocational maturity


career


(Super,


certainty


1969) ,


these


are both


studies


indices


offer


support


for the


criterion-related validity


of the CMIAS.


Evidence


from its


construct


correlation with


validity


other variables.


the CMIAS comes


Theoretically,


because


vocational maturity


is an


important


aspect


vocational behavior,


it should be related


to other


intellec-


tual


psychological


variables.


Research


shows


correla-


tions


between


the CMIAS


and measures


of intelligence


(Asbury,


1968) ,


academic aptitude


(Tamminen a


Ind Miller,










psychological


variables


provides evidence


the construct


validity


the CMIAS.


The Career


Exploratory


Behavior


Inventory


Career


exploration behavior was measured by


a modified


version


of the Career


Exploratory


Behavior


Inventory


(CEBI)


developed by Moni


(1979).


The CEBI


ten item survey


which requires


students


to respond with


either


"Yes"


"NO"


to questions about


their


career


exploration behavior


over


the previous


two weeks


(See Appendix B).


The CEBI


was


adapted


from a


structured


interview


approach developed by


Krumboltz


Schroeder


(1965) ,


which


was designed


to measure


frequency


and variety


subjects'


information-seeking behavior.


Zener


and Schnuelle


(1976)


later modified


structured


interview into


questionnaire requiring written


responses.


Variations of


instrument have been


used b


other


authors


(e.g.


Cooper,


1976;

with


Jones and Krumboltz,

satisfactory results.


researchers


using


1970; Krivatsky

Oliver (1978)


structured


and Magoon,


reported


interview approach


1976


that


found it


to be


a highly valid


technique


based


upon


verification


self-reports of


randomly


selected


subjects.


Self-Appraisal Scale


i l


--










item scale designed


to measure


self-awareness of vocational


assets


liabilities


(Crites,


1978a).


is based


the assumption


that


individuals who


can accurately


appraise


career


capabilities


of others


are also accurate


self-appraisers.


Each item on


the SAS


presents


some career-related personal


characteristics of


young person


taken


from actual


case


studies.


The examine


asked


to make a


judgment regarding


career


options


chooses one of


five alternatives.


These


alternatives


reflect


following


concept


: (1


dependence


upon others,


(2) a need

ities, (4)


certainty,


accurate


overestimation of capabil-


self-appraisals,


"don't know"


Evidence

limited.


for th4

Crites


reliability


(1978a)


reports


validity


Kuder-Richards


the CMICT

on formula


internal


consistency


coefficients


ranging


from


.85.


Data on


test-retest stability


is appar-


ently


still being


gathered by the


author.


Although validation


the CMICT has


just begun,


Crites


(1978a)

related,


claims

and c


that


there


construct


is evidence of


validity.


Content


content,

validity


criterion-

is based


upon


item selection


process,


which


used a method


trial


tests


and replications


to select


only


items which


differentiated


independent


significantly


samples


between


of subjects.


grade


Crites


levels


(1978a)


several


also claims










Construct


validity


is based


upon Crites'


(1978a)


model


of career maturity.


The CMICT


Career Choice Competencies


is designed


factor


to measure


this model.


According


to Crites


(1978a),


variables


which make


the Career


Choice Competencies


factor


are


interrelated,


with hypoth-


sized


correlation


coefficients


ranging


from


.40s


.60s.


Scores on


subtests


the CMICT have been


found


correlate


from


.62.


The


similarity between hypoth-


esized


correlation


coefficients


and


obtained


correlation


coefficients


is evidence of


the construct validity


CMICT


(Crites,


1978a).


Research Personnel


This


study utilized


research assistants


con-


ducting


treatment


groups


collecting


data.


assist-


ants were


involved in


administration and interpretation


of the career planning programs


to Experimental


Group


Experimental


Group


All


six were either


certified school


counselors


or occupational/placement


specialists with


minimum training


rienced


the Masters


in administering


level.


standardized


They were expe-

tests.


five assistants


facilitating the


various


guidance


sessions


Experimental


Group


one held a


Ph.D.


-. -


Counselor


Education,


two were


certified


school










posttesting


tional/placement


was


done


specialist


researcher


schools


All


or occupa-


research


assis


tants


received


instructions


and


training


from


experimentor


assure


consistency


among


experimental


groups


Hypotheses


s study


ted


following


null


hypotheses


There


experimental


no significant


groups


difference


in career


among


maturity,


means


ured


the Career


Maturity


Inventory


Attitude


Scal


There


is no significant


difference


among


diff


erent


Engli


sh achievement


level


groups


career


Maturity


maturity,


Inventory


as measured


Attitude


Career


Scale.


There


no signifi


experimental


groups


cant


difference


in career


self


among


-awareness,


measured


Self


-Appraisal


Scal


There


no significant


diff


erence


among


subjects


from


different


English


achi


evement


level


groups


in career


Self


self-awareness,


-Appraisa


as measured


Scal


There


is no significant


difference


amona


~lllr


v --










Ho6:


There


is no significant


differ


ence


among


different


Engli


sh achievement


eve


groups


career


Career


exploration


Exploratory


Data


Coll


behavior,


Behavior


section


as measured


Inventory.


Analysis


Exactly


four


weeks


after


third


treatment


sess


ion,


students


were


posttested


their


regular


English cl


ass-


rooms.


All


students


were


adminis


tered


Career


Maturity


Inventory


Behavior


(SAS


Attitude


Inventory


Scal


(CEB I


Most students


fini


CMIAS),


and

shed


Career


three


Apprai

tests


Exploratory


Scale


within


regular


50 minute


ability


ass


level


period


Engli


sh cla


However,


sses


students


failed


in one


to comply


three


measures


in one


eriod.


Therefore,


testing


that


group


was


complex


their


assroom


following


day


Responses


CMIAS


were


recorded


students


on a standardized


answer


sheet


accompanies


Career


Maturity


Inventory.


Answers


CEBI


were


recorded


directly


forms


Responses


three


instruments


were


hand


scored


and


tallied


rese


archer


scores


instruments


research


gathered


were


used


following


anal


data


from


~r u


u










self


-awareness;


students


English


ability


level


group;


students


' sex.


To evaluate


null


hypotheses


this


study,


well


as evaluate


any


differences


sex


in vocational


maturity,


career


exploration


behavior,


career


self-


awareness


factorial


two-way


analy


S'S


var-


lance


was


computed.


analysis


yielded


a significant


value


, a multiple


compare


son


was


done


to determine


which


variables


evels


e.g.


, sex


experimental


interactions


conditions,


yielded


Engli


significantly


ability


dif-


ferent


means


each


dependent


variable


(i.e.


vocational


maturity,


career


exploration


behavior,


and


career


self-


awareness)


Bonferonn i


multiple


Procedure


comparison


(Kerlinger,


formula


1973)


used


was


A confidence


level


was


considered


significant.


of p<