Designing televised instruction for college classes

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Designing televised instruction for college classes
Physical Description:
xi, 131 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Morris, Jon D., 1944-
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Television in education   ( lcsh )
Teaching -- Aids and devices   ( lcsh )
Curriculum and Instruction thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Curriculum and Instruction -- UF
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1985.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 126-130.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jon D. Morris.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000879783
oclc - 14937709
notis - AEH7568
System ID:
AA00002171:00001

Full Text





DESIGNING
FOR


TELEVISED INSTRUCTION
COLLEGE CLASSES


JON


MORRIS


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA








































Copyright


Jon


Morris














DEDICATION


honor


Leah


. Morris


and


loving


Ann


memory

Morris









ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Without


help


many


fine


people


this


dissertation


would not


have


been


possible.


committee,


many who


joined


late


in my doctoral


career


have


been a source


inspiration.


Smith,


chairman,


has


been


especially


helpful


and


dedicated


success.


Without


his


guidance,


trust,


and


courage


this


task


would have bee

opportunity to


n much more


prove


learning experience


that


difficult.


competence


culminated


permitted me


and guided me


in a


through


worthy


dissertation.


Ken


Christiansen represented my


secondary area


emphasis


, communication,


and


endured


and


supported me


since


began my doctoral


career


Drs.


William Drummond


and


James


Wattenbarger


have


provided


a standard


pedagogical


excellence.


wish


thank my mother and mother-in-law.


mother,


who


for many years


attempted


convince


seek


higher


levels


academic


competence,


died


one


year


before


began my doctoral


career.


My mother-in-law,


Pauline


Nagelberg,


graciously


accepted


task


mothering me


through my


candidacy.


and mv father-in-law.


Joe.


have


undaunting1 v


sunnorted me










wish


thank my


Dad and


brother who


listened


complaints


over and


over again


encouraged me


continue.


also


wish


thank my


good


friend Leo


Miller


who


unabashedly


what


topic.


has


offered


Also,


an opposing viewpoint,


wish


thank


no matter


Susan and Larissa


Scott,


helped me


through


final


hectic


moments.


I wi


express my appreciation


Kaltenborn


Foundation for


funding the


construction


treatment


videotapes used


this


study.


Without


this


contribution


many


televised


special


effects would not


have


been


possible.


last


least,


wish


thank my wife,


Leah,


whose


heart


may never


have


been in my


dissertation


topic


whose


my rough


mind has


drafts


been.


and


corrected my


listened


spelling,


complaints.


edited


Over the


last


five


years,


has


guided me


through many troubled


times.

effort


has always


takes


will


said,


matter


finish


task.


how much


Upon


time

the a


and


arrival


our daughter


, Sara Anne,


on April


1985,


Leah has


changed her position,


however,


think it


is time


finish


task.


Thank


you


one


and all.










TABLE OF CONTENTS


PAGE

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS......................................iv

LIST OF TABLES................ .............,..98 ..viii

ABSTRACT............................................. ix

CHAPTERS

1 INTRODUCTION.... .. .. .. ...... ..1


Statement
Questions
Need for
Delimitat
Limitatio
Definitio


of the Problem.. .. ...... se.. ........ 3
and Hypotheses........................
Study. . ..... ... 4
ions........... ................ .. @....6
nicfr


n


of Terms. @ .@. ... .
of Terms.@..@.....@@..,.......@,.@...


REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.......................11


Instructional Development Models...............14
Previous Reviews of Television
Effectiveness Research.......................16
Comparing Learning with
Television to Learning With
Other Methods and Media......................17
Measuring the Effect of Variations
in Television Production
Techniques and Values on Learning............23
Summary.................... ... .. .. .... ..... 34

METHODOLOGY....................................38


General Research Design.
Design of Treatment.....
Instruments.............
Selection of Subjects...
Collection of Data......
Analysis of Data........
Anticipated Findings....


.............. ..... .. .38
.......................40
........................ ,. .. ..44
.*.6... S... *.. ... .. ... 47
**.**** ..***..**....o .49

.. .C t.. .... ... ...0.. .53


I, "Dl'DTTr'n' C I TrTTmnTTrrrtrnr y mArir r- -










QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE FINDINGS..........73


Results....... *.............. *
Focus Group ... .
Experimental ........ .....
Summary... .. . *


..74
..74
..88
..95


CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS.99


Introduction..................................*99
Conclusions.......... ...... .. ...**** **.* .*....... *.* *.99
Implications.................................105
Recommendations For Further Study..............108

APPENDICES

A COVER LETTER AND QUESTIONNAIRE FOR
TELECOURSE EXPERTS..........................112

B LIST OF EXPERTS AND THEIR ADDRESSES...........115


FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEW SCHEDULE................117


D POSTTEST OF CONSUMPTION FUNCTION..............124


REFERENCES . . . .


.126


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH................................. 131









LIST OF TABLES


PAGE


TABLE 5-1


Descriptive Statistics for Pretest


and Posttest


Scores


by Study Group........91


TABLE

TABLE


Ancova For Total.................... ...... 92

Ancova For Score.......................... 93


TABLE 5-4


TABLE


Pairwise Comparisons For Total............94


Pairwise Comparison for Score.............94













Abstract


of Di


University


ssertation Presented


Florida in Partial


Graduate


School


Fulfillment


Requirement


for


Degree


Doctor


of Philosophy


A MODEL FOR DESIGNING


EFFECTIVE TELEVISED


COLLEGE


JON D


August


INSTRUCTION


CLASSES


. MORRIS


1985


Chairman:


Albert


Smith


Major


Department:


Instruction and


Curriculum


purpose


this


study was


analyze


and


compare


effect


adhered

record


a segment


elements


(nonmodel-developed)


televised


a producer's model


segment


instruction


with a


televised


which


camera


instruction


in a


college


course.


A Producers'


Instructional


Televi


sion


(PITV)


Model


was


developed


for


this


study


order


improve


production


quality of


televised


instruction and


thereby


improve


college


student


achievement.


three-st


age


evaluation


proce


was


used


evaluate


model,


(b)the


tapes,


and


effectiveness











questionnaire,


University


critiqued


Florida


PITV Model.


, with five


focus


students


groups,


in each


group,


compared


and


analyzed


model-developed


and


nonmodel-developed


videotapes


and made


recommendations


for


improvement.


An experimental


comparison


was


then made


with


a control


and


treatment


tapes,


determine


impact


on student


achievement.


January


Principles


of Economics


2013


telecourse


University


of Florida,


posttest


scores


students,


control group,


in treatment


group one,


and


treatment


comparison


group


were


made


, were


compared.


in a non-randomized


experimental


control


tape


group,


pretest-posttest


design


using an analysis


covariance


(ANCOVA).


results


indicated


that


expert


had


reservations


about


model


and


seemed


think


that


PITV


model


was most


appropriate


for


beginning producers;


focus


groups


were


able


identify a


production


technique


(music/drama)


that


they perceived


ineffective,


model-developed


videotape;


and


there


was a


significant


diff


erence


among the


three


groups


posttest


measures


student


achievement.


a.. ~~~ ~ ~ ~ 11 J-aa. 4. .I \ 1 --a-..


m,,, L, nuC


C,,,


~U 1, r, LU~~, L


AUA











not.


This


study


showed


PITV Model


an effective


method


improving telecourse


videotapes.


Student


test


scores


improved


over a


camera


record


presentation


when


videotape


was


developed


using


PITV Model.












CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


title


an article


by Gavriel


Salomon,


Future


of Media Re


search:


More


Full Acceleration


Neutral


Gear"


(1978),


reflected


lack


progress


media research,


specifically televised


instruction.


Several


reasons have


been given


why televised


instruction research


has


contributed


little


improvement


learning


environment.


First,


much


televi


sed instruction research has


become


out-dated


Lumsdaine,


Sulzer


(e.g.


, Carpenter


, & Kopstein


, 195


& Greenhill,


Mercer


Vandermeer


1954;


Vestal,


thus


limiting the


value


results.


quality of television


processing


equipment


has


improved


greatly


since


research


on televised


instruction


was


conducted


and


1960s.


Many unique


television


production


capabilities


have


been


developed,


including videotape


, special


effects,


and


satellite


interconnections


, but


little


research has


been


conducted


determine


how to


use


this


technology


effectively.


Metallinos


said,


"the


failure


recogni


kev differences


between


U I


media


of film and


televi


sn-on










Second,


instructional research has


been limited


applicability


because


researchers


have


continued


repeat


research


which


opposes


one


medium


(television)


against


another


(lecture


method)


with


little


insight


into


how each


these


presentations


was


developed


(Chu &


Schramm,


Morris,


1983,


1984).


Third,


limited number of


studies


(Barbatsi


, 197


Davis


1979)


which


have


compared


methods


presentation


within


medium


television,


there


has


been a


continuing


interest


in isolating variables


measure


their effect


on achievement.


This approach at


times has


overlooked


cumulative


effect


variable


student


achievement,


an effect


which


could


greater


than


sum


individual results.


Methods


and models


have


been


propo


assist


development


of media


products


(Cambre


, 1981)


for


instructional


purposes.


A review


these


models


suggested


that


they were


inadequate


for


development


methods


instruction in


televised


college


courses


because


they


not


include


recommendations


for


use


production


techniques


that


were


unique


television.


Moreover


review


literature


also


indicated


that


those


instructional models


that


may


applicable


in part


development


instruction for a


telecourse


were


weak









Statement


Problem


purpose


study


was


analyze


and


compare


effect


adhere

record


a segment


elements


(nonmodel-developed)


televised


a producer's model


segment


instruction


with a


televised


which


camera


instruction


in a


colle


course.


A major problem facing the


field


televised


instruction is


lack


production model


and


current


research


on the


development


and


impact


televised


instruction at


college


level.


Questions


and Hypotheses


questions


and


hypothe


ses


were


developed


for


evaluating the


model.


They were


follows:


experts


, who


have


been asked


evaluate


a producers'


model,


find


useful


for


producing televi


instruction?


Does


information and


feedback


provided


by a


focus


group


sugge


methods


by which model-developed


televised


instruction might


revised and


further


improved?


Hypothesis


There


will


no differences


in student


achievement


between


students


who


view model-developed


televised


instruction and


students who


view


nonmodel-developed


elevi


instruction.


Hypothesis


There


will


no difference


in student


- S










televised


instruction and


students who


view model-developed


televised


instruction


with a


selected


production


technique


deleted.


production


model-developed


technique


televised


that


was


instruction


deleted


was


from


identified


in a


focus group analysis as an


unnecessary


distraction.


production


technique


was music/drama.


Need


for the


Study


Researchers


(Chu & Schramm,


1967


Gagne,


1980)


educators


(Bronfenbrenner,


1976;


Newell


& Olejnik,


1980),


and


televi


sion


production


text


writers


(Utz,


1980


ettl,


1984)


have


for a long time


suggested


that


student


achievement


certain


can


techniques


increased


designed


through


gain and


application


hold attention.


a television


as production


production,


techniques


technique


(Zettl,


have


1984).


been referred


Although many


suggestions


for attracting and


holding attention go


beyond


scope


this


research


effort


because


they are


unrelated


televi


sion


production,


many


can


applied


in a


model


for the


development


a televised


instructional


presentation.


A search


literature,


however,


indicated


that


little


had


been done


verify the


value


these


suggested


techniques


enhancing


student











With regard


(1980)


college


isolated five


student


factors


achievement,


pertinent


Gagne


human learning


and


educational


technology.


These


factors


are


"Attention,


Selective


Perception,


Semantic


Encoding,


Effect


of Prior


Knowledge,


and Metacognition


or Cognitive


Strategic


es" (pp.


ii).


Of these


five


factors,


were


used


guide


development


They were


television


Attention,


production


arousing the


this


learner


study.


interest


and


Selective


Perception,


directing the


learner'


field


concentration.


Neither


these


factors


were


tested


directly,


they


seemed reasonable


factors


apply to


television


production.


Moreover,


these


concept


have


been


tested


various


other


instructional


formats.


Fifteen


studies


on televised


instruction


film


production reported


review


literature


section


for this


research


were


conducted


during or


prior to


1960.


Dreher and Beatty


(1958)


stated


that


"the


use


televi


sion


for educational


purposes


new to


characterize


all


strengths and


weaknesses"


only studies


since


1960


found


have


been measuring the


effective


use


televised


instruction


(Barrington,


Davis,


1979


irrelevant


variable


were


mixed


and


compatible


variables


1 I 9


I


I 1


*r I


I











"Battle


Star Galactica"


into


a film demonstration


on house


building.


This


procedure


was


an attempt


assess


ability


learner'


clips


sophisticated


production


attention


failed


techniques


televised


attract


subject


desired attention.


attract


matter.


This


result


was not


surprising,


since


clips were


irrelevant


subject


instruction.


In fact,


clips


probably


distracted attention from


concepts


presented.


response,


this


study attempted


develop and


use a model


that


incorporated


television


production


techniques


that


colle


instructor


subject


matter.


Salomon'


conducted


(1978)


in Israel,


survey


indicated


research,


that


which


lack


was


televised


instruction research


Media researchers


is not


confined


in Belgium at


Ghent


United


State


States.


University


concluded


"that


there


a lack


of basic


information about


learning


by television,


which result


in an intuitive


approach


optemolization


process


called


'methods-media


trade-off'"


(Herrel,


1972,


20).


contrast,


current


study attempted


provide


information about


learning


television


contained a


via


development


strong and


diverse


a producer's model


evaluation


that


component.


-rI) S *









development


televised


instruction,


with none


being


directly applicable.


Moreover,


evaluation


processes


incorporated


within


these


same


models were


weak when applied


televised instruction.


This


study was


delimited


include


a producer


model


, a camera


record


(control)


videotape


treatment


(model-developed)


videotapes,


and


three


methods


evaluation.


control


tape


was


an exact


recording


live


lecture.


Treatment


tape


one


was an


enhanced


version


control


tape


using


several


appropriate


television


production


techniques


as prescribed


by a


producer's model.


Treatment


tape


was


a copy


treatment


tape


one


with a


selected


variable


(the


music/drama


segment


eliminated.


Limitations


limitations


this


study were


as follows:


experimental


improvement


portion


a s


ingle


this


one-hour


study fc

lecture,


causedd


on the


therefore


results may not


subject


generalized


lecture


beyond


was


that.


Consumption Function,


which is a

experiment


,n economics


may


topic.


or may not


apply to


results

other


courses


subjects.


. Several


television


Production


techniques


were


combined











and no


single


technique


was


identified


cause


improved


student


achievement.


Definition


Terms


operational


definitions


some


major terms


employed in


this


research


were


follows:


Abstract


examples.


These


are


representations


using


charts,


graphs,


graphics


, and alpha-numeric


characters.


this


study,


graphics


were


used


construct


abstract


examples


televised


instruction.


Student


Achievement.


This was


percentage


correctly answered items


on a


standardized,


objective


posttest


prepared


by the


instructor of Economics


2013


University


Florida.


sets


achievement


scores


were


examined:


cumulative


overall


posttest


score,


identified as


Total,


and


cumulative


score


for these


posttest


items


that


pertained


an understanding


application


consumption function


real


consumption


in economics


activities,


identified as


core.


Concrete


examples


These


were


photographs


and


visuals


that


were


used


provide


examples


real


-life


scenes


consumers


buying


situations


model


-developed


tape.


Focus


groups.


These


were


qualitative


in-depth


r -


1r a cr a a n a 1 .IIkLa 4n 0n %


ivPdnn onviavI an


Saaaci n-ritA


Jo


n










Producer's


Model.


This


was


a plan


or guideline


for


development


telecourses


and


from which


treatment


tapes


one


and


this


study were


developed.


Production


values.


These


are


a reflection


production


quality


a televi


sion


presentation.


Television


is a


these

while


visual


and aural medium.


attributes

productions


considered


record)


low


tape


are considered

that minimize


production


this


Productions


high in

these a


values.


investigation


that


production


attributes


control

example


was an


maximize


values,


are


(camera


low


production


values while


treatment


tapes were


examples


high


production


values.


Telecourse.


This


a course


that


delivered


student


solely


television.


this


case,


course


was


Economics


University


Florida,


Gainesville,


Florida,


1985.


Televised


instruction.


For


this


study


, it


use


television as


sole


method for


conveying


information


and knowledge


about


consumption function in a


college


course,


Economics


2013.


Student


gathered


in a


typical


classroom,


for


fifty minutes,


watch


or more


television


sets.


instructor was


present


in the


room.


All


instruction


was


provided


via


television.









- 10


Chapter


Producers


Chapter 4


contains


' Instructional


Televi


a detailed


description


sion Model and


experts'


evaluation


model.


The


results


this


study are


presented and analyzed


Chapter


Chapter


contains


summary,


conclusions,


implications,


and


recommendations.










CHAPTER


REVIEW


LITERATURE


quality and


quantity


studies


on the


effectiveness


instructional


television in higher


education have


been quit


limited.


This


limitation has


been


least


factors.


First


, there


been


factor


time,


since


television has


been available


public


for


only


years


(Brown,


1977).


comparison


first


illustrated


printed


textbook was


written


over


years ago


(Schramm,


1977)


, thus


allowing


for years


repeated research


on the


effectiveness


this


medium.


Although


studied


comparing the


effectiveness


television


with


other media,


as measured


by achievement,


have


been numerous


over


past


years,


only


studies


were


located,


this


review


which measured


effectiveness


one


method


televi


sion


presentation


(variations


production


values)


over another.


All


three


these


studies were


conducted


before


1960


three


studi


conducted


since


1960,


one


was


reported


1960s


were


reported


1970


A second factor


limiting research in


area has


been


progre


technology.


Many


benefits


attributed


televi


sion as


a medium,


including


those


. Of









1960s.


Technological


breakthroughs made


during this


time


included


special


effects


and


video


tape


recording


(Brown,


1977).


These


breakthroughs


enabled


experimenter to


manipulate


time,


scenes,


and


transitions.


This


review


literature


been divided


into


five


sec


tions:


a review


instructional


development


models;


other related


reviews


literature


on the


use


instructional


television


, to


assist


in forming the


bases


for


this


literature


research


studied


other media


review


which made


terms


further narrowing


of

of


a narrowing


comparisons


viewer or student


focus


focus


television


achievement;


research studies,


such as


this


one


which


sought


compare


variations


television


and film


production


techniques


terms


of viewer


or s


student


achievement;


and


a summary.


section


which


discusses


some


more


significant


reviews


literature


on instructional


television has


been included


because


most


these


reviews


were


conducted


support


or refute


hypotheses


on the


relationship of


television


production


value


learning.


Often


these


reviews


have


relied


on research


that


was


years


old,


thus


excluding recent


developments


television


production


techniques.


rv,. *


I I


1


I










Search,


conducted


on January


, 1981,


and repeated


on May


1983,


using the


instructional,


identifiers


experimental,


and


educational,


empirical;


television,


a personal


review


bibliographic


listings;


a review


abstracts


a review


rotation abstracts;


review


studies;


and


a citing


studied


including the


initial


trial


experiment


used


current


study.


Studie


comparing television with


other media


or cross


media


studies


have


been quite


numerous.


Although


indirectly


related


problem investigated


this


study,


comparative


studies were


not


used


extensively to


support


investigations


reported


here.


a result,


only


selected


research has


been reported here


show


some


major


findings


from


this


form


research.


Studies measuring variations


television and film


production


values


have


been


direct


measures


one


method


television


or film


presentation


versus another.


These


studi


had a direct


thirteen


reported


studied


empirical


relationship


included


studi


this


thi


found


study.


section


measure


Twelve


constitute


methods


effective


production in instructional


television.


Nine


these


twelve


studies


were


film


studies.


study was


--


-- -- v











Instructional


Development


Models


Instructional


development


model


abound


(Brown,


Lewis,


& Harcleroad


, 1983;


Davis,


Alexander,


& Yelon,


1974


Gagne


Briggs,


1979


Johnson


& Johnson,


1971;


Reigeluth,


Bunduson,


& Merrill,


1978)


, but


few


have


addressed media development


directly and none


those


examined


were


directly applicable


development


television


production as


a method


instruction.


Most


models


have


included


provisions


for


use


televi


sion as


instructional material,


did


detail


procedures


for the


development


material


and


did not


address


situation


where


television


was


sole


method


presentation,


i.e.,


telecourses.


Gagne


and


Briggs


(1979)


, for example,


developed a


media intensive


model


which


concentrated


on media


selection


and


provided little


specificity


for media development.


model focused


procedure


on delivery


methods


systems,


media


media


selection,


selection


and adaptation


model


project


circumstances


(Gagne


& Briggs,


1979).


Moreover


, the


Davis,


Alexander,


and


Yelon


(1974)


model made


no mention


of media and


thereby typified


situation


Reigeluth,


with many


Bunduson,


other


instructional


and Merrill


(1978)


development


models.


highlighted


need


-C' - 9 .L 1 -- I.. a S -









instructional media


delegated


tasks


differentiated


staff


media


technicians.


These


models


provide


some


direction


for


general


media


application,


television


no model


production


been found


directly.


that


media


addresses


selection


process,


general media


selection guidelines


have


been


applicable.


For


development


television


production


, however,


responsibility


been


shifted


televise


technique.


ion


This


production


void has


technician


been further


with no


guidance


compounded


when


television


production is


more


than a material


for an


instructional


experiences are


presentation.


vicarious;


telecourses,


instructional


students'


development


model


was


found


this


author


s review that


discussed


methods


for developing these


experiences


video.


Insight


into


basic


requirements


a model


for


development


examining the


a television


crit


pictures are


production


eria for media


stimulus


choice,


were


selection.


gained


"If moving


media available


are


film and


videotape"


(Gagne


& Briggs,


1979


, p.


186).


How


magnification,


motion,


slow motion,


and


other attributes


of the


video


component


can


best


used


present


instructional message


needed


addressed


through










Previous


Reviews


of Television Effectiveness


Research


Other reviews


literature


have


often


used


outdated,


insufficient


studies


support


conclusions


about


effective


(1952)


use


instructional


and MclIntyre


(1954)


televise


studied


ion.


, Schramm


Citing Mercer


(1977),


in Big


Media,


Little


Media,


concluded


that


"there


a long


line


studies


emphasizing the


advantage


simplicity and


clarity


in media instruction"


41).


Chu and


Schramm


(1967),


authors


stated:


there


variations in
significantly
instructional


will


learn


presented


planned


clear evidence


production
contribute
television.


better when


in a


both


b


study teacher.


continuous


iy the
(p.


televi


on the


kind


techniques
to learning
However,


visuals


order and


ion


that
from
students


are


carefully


team and


Barbatsis


study


(1978)


for Children


, citing Kumata


Television


1960


Workshop,


study


concluded


in a


that


"the


mode


presentation


significantly affect


learning"


409).


Finally,


in Empiri


cal Studies


of Television


Composition,


Metallinos


(198


said,


"the


failure


recognize


key


differences


between


media


film and


televi


sion is


a major reason for


lack


empirical


research


television


composition"










Comparing Learning With


Television


Learning With Other Methods and Media


Comparative


modes


studies


instruction in


have


terms


been


conducted


student


compare


achievement.


These


studies most


frequently


have


compared


television


with


some


other medium,


usually a live


lecture,


and


then


compared


effects


media


on viewer achievement.


These


studies


have


been


quite


numerous.


conclusion in most


these


studies has


been


that


significant


differences


achievement


exist


between methods


instruction


between


media in


which


course


presented


(Carpenter


Greenhill,


Kumata,


1960


Lepore


&c Wi].


son,


list


comparative


studies


cited


this


review


representative


rather than


comprehensive


because


studies were


emphasis


so numerous


this


and


did not


investigation.


reflect


An ERIC


search


major


was


conducted and


over


studies were


reviewed.


Other reviews


literature


were


examined


help


identify those


studies


considered


most


noteworthy.


overall


conclusion


reported


these


studies


was


that


significant


differences


in learning,


as measured


by achievement,


existed


between


television recording


of a lecture


or the


live


lecture


itself.


.Y-%-.,..~~~~~_ 9I AL.. -<- it1I-1-I.f r-


r i


n~ r 1 r


-


m










State


University measured


what


they described


as the


value


a closed-circuit


conventionally taught


television


course


course


versus


with regard


student


achievement,


student


attitudes,


and


cost


production.


Thi


project,


known as


Instructional


Television Research


Project


of video


Number One,


tape;


was


therefore,


conducted


all


before


presentations


widespread


were


use


live.


presentation


was viewed


directly with


television


equipment


present;


one


presentation


was viewed


via


television;


and


one


presentation had no


television


equipment


present


in the


room.


results


student


indicated


achievement


that


occurred


significant


among the


groups,


differences


although


authors


concluded


that


direct


instruction


proved


slightly more


effective.


authors


also


concluded


that


student


reaction


televised


instruction


was neutral and


that


moderate


videcon


(television)


equipment


was


adequate


(Carpenter


& Greenhill,


1958).


1954,


United Stat


a course


Army"


called


was


"Food


telecast


Service


Activities


over television


station


KUHT.


Forty-seven Reserve


Officer Training Corps


(ROTC)


students


received


instruction


via


televi


sion and


ROTC


students


found no


received


significant


face-to-face


difference


instruction.


between


u


Allen


954)


e face-to-face


and









- 19


Inventory


Instructional


Television Research


1956


and


Impact


Educational


Television


(Kumata,


1960).


After reviewing


several


studies at


Conference


Teaching


Colleges and


Universitie


(1957)


Pennsylvania


State


University,


conference


members


concluded


that


significant


difference


occurred


studies


that


involved


over


3000


students,


between methods


instruction in


various


colle


courses.


evaluators


revealed,


however,


that


immediate


recall in social


sciences was


significantly


better


in several non-television groups


as compared


television groups


, although


they did not


say


how much.


They


stioned


reliability


in a


statement


that


suggested


that


"instrument


may


inadequate


and


a more


precise


measurement


necessary"


(Conference


on teaching


colleges and


universities


, 1957


, p.


Lepore


include


and


Wilson


instructional


expanded


television


comparative


viewed


home.


analysis


Again,


significant


differences were


found


mean


achievement


scores


student


who


received


television


instruction at


home,


television instruction


on campus,


conventional


on-campus


instruction


(Lepore


& Wilson,


1958).


Kasten and


Seibert


(1959)


found


significant


A~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C- -..An,%*~nai Y n, .I r. +l ,A an v, t


n a ,a a a


n rr irr : n r t Am A ~r C


kA










study


compared


instructional


television


(ITV)


students


face-to-face


students,


and


scores


were


found


significantly


.05 and


higher


level.


for


face-to-face


Because


students


small


sample,


both


only


students


experimental group,


variations


between


student


scores may


have


been high,


and


because


lack


statistical


data about


test


instrument,


reliability


this


study was


questioned.


Kumata


(1960)


conducted


one


most


often


ited


instructional


television


experiments


which


was


published


Schramm's


Impact


of Educational


Television.


Kumata's


analysis,


"Two


Studies


Classroom Teaching


by Television,


had


three


major


intentions:


"(a)


present


a class where


presentation


assess


was


feasibility


predominately visual


teaching adverti,


(training aids)

sing by televise


, (b)

;ion


(solution


large


class


enrollment


problems)


, (c)


give


experience


instructors


teaching


over televi


sion"


151-152).


Three


sections


junior


level


advertising


course


were


analyzed.


first


experiment


face-to-face


group


received


significantly


higher


scores


achievement


than


televi


sion group.


view


significant


differences


favoring the


face-to-face


group


anpvrlv' mont


nro tho ov~nrar matXAa0 nfo a 0 n


Ilc~n rr~0


rPnP~tP~


nYI a


rllSl~


CI~MP










achievement


these


between


experiments may


groups.


in part


frequent


these


citing


contradictory


findings.


These


contradictory


findings


suggested


that


further


study was needed.


In an


experiment


conducted


Danielsen and


Stauffer


(1972


, a comparison


nationally normed


was made


test


of

se


student

students


performance


who


on a


received


instruction


via


televi


sion with


those


students


who


received


instruction in a lecture


section


"Principle


Economics.


Three


hundred


and five


television


students and


lecture


televi


televi


students were


sion sections


sion sections


programmed


used


used a


instruction


divided as

a standard


standard


and


book,


follows:

textbook,


textbook


one


three

five


plus


large


non-television lecture


section


used


standard


text.


multiple


regression


procedure


was


used


determine


whether


or not


there


was


a s


significant


difference


between group


means


achievement.


results


indicated


that


national norm scores


were


significantly


higher


than


those


lecture


and


television groups and


that


lecture


group


scores


were


significantly


higher


than


television groups.


authors


concluded


that


this


particular televise


ion


course


-- T









unique


sections


did


this

suffer


study,

from


student

several


in the


television


deficiencies:


television students


could not


ask


questions;


television


teaching assistants were


inadequately prepared;


and


television


course


objectives


taught


a few


concepts


thoroughly


, but


"the


inclusion


indifference


curve


and


isoquant


analysis


probably


distracted


from


student


achievement


on the


standardized


test"


(Danielsen & Stauffer,


1972,


104-105).


Other


studies


since


Danielsen and


Stauffer


(1972)


have


reported


conflicting results


under various


conditions.


For


example,

community


Waechter

college


(1973


health


investigated

education in


teaching of

classroom versus


instruction


this


measures


students.


broadcast


experiment


television.


performed


achievement


Tien


significantly


than


(1974)


home"


compared


classroom students

better on


television


effectiveness


teletutorial method


instruction


with a


conventional


lecture


method


and


found no


significant


difference


achievement


between


teletutorial


group and


lecture


group.


Further,


Hegar


(1977)


compared an


campus"


Introduction


telecourse


Business


Introduction


class with an


Business


open


class.


circuit


telecourse










scores


for


"open


circuit"


television group


were


significantly

Finally,


higher than for


Case


Study


other

the


groups.


Instructional Development


Instructional


Model


Television Program,


Produce


" Parer


and


(1977)


Evaluate


chose


investigate


recall


among


special


education


teachers


information about


how to


select


curriculum


packages.


study,


learning achieved


from a


television


program


was measured


against


learning achieved from a


printed


article


disclosed


containing the


that


same


participants


information.


viewed


results


television


program learned


significantly more


than


those


who


read


article.


Interestingly


, those


who


read


article


and


viewed


program did not


learn


significantly more


than


those


who


just


viewed


program.


Measuring the
Production


Effect


Techniques


of Variations


and


Values


Television


on Learning


Most


early


studies


that


measured


variations


production


techniques


or improvement


production


values


began


investigating the


application


specific


technique


medium


motion


picture


film.


Although


methods


employed


and


tested


can


be recreated


televi


sion,


or for that


matter


film itself


can


A -


S


- I.. I- -A- ~~1 - - I -


I ) )


I


I


r


rr


I.


L











instructional


effectiveness were


included


provide


review


several


production


techniques


used


current


tudy.


These


techniques


were


compatible


with


both film and


televi


sion


capabilities


and


were


useful


for


identifying the


elements


that


have


been


combined


for this


study.


1951,


Lumsdaine,


Sulzer,


Kopstein


conducted


experiment


for the


United


States


Department


of Defense


measure


influence


television animation


technique


effectiveness


training films.


simple


animation


techniques used


included


pop-in labels


and moving arrows.


study reported


that


among


1300


Air


Force


trainees,


group


that


viewed


animated


films


showed


significantly


greater achievement


than


those


who


saw the


non-animated


films.


Although a


stati


stical


analysis was


conducted


for


this


study,


failure


report


methods


control,


including the


size


groups,


severely affected


reliability


result


Neu


(195


began a


series


film


experiment


Pennsylvania State


University measuring film


effectiveness


on achievement.


Neu


tested


effects


of visually


relevant


and


visually


irrelevant


attention-gaining devi


ces


on learning among


Army and Navy recruit


Neu


(195


concluded


that


rivi no


which


rrnvir An


r l,


atten t. i


.


s








- 25


report,


television


content


conclusion


production


of the


supported


techniques


presentation


contention


need


have


that


be related


an effect


achievement.


A year


later,


Mercer


supported


Neu


s finding


a study for


United


State


Naval


Special


rvice


Center.


Mercer


tested


effect


on achievement


optical


effects,


sso


lives,


wipes,


and


zooms,


that


had


been inserted


between scenes


in a film


production.


Using


an analysis


co-variance


and


a sample


size


recruits,


Mercer


found no


significant


differences


in recruit


achievement.


further


information about


this


study


has


been located.


In a doctoral


dissertation at


University


Nebraska,


Vestal


compared


achievement


scores


of high


school

school


physics

physics


student

student


viewed

viewed


animated films


direct


and high


photography films


within an instructional


setting.


Again,


significant


differences


in achievement


were


found.


However,


study


reported a failure


use


comparable


classroom instructional


methods


each


test


group and


a failure


maintain


strict


control


over


number of times


each film was


shown.


This


lack


control


seriously


limited


reliability


research results


reported


by the


Vestal


(1952)


study.










1953,


evaluation


training


films


for the


United


State


military


continued


with


a most


bizarre


study.


Vandermeer


(1953)


attitudes


compared


films


that


the


used


effect


on learning and


different


techniques


influence


personal


hygiene


knowledge


and


habits.


A dramatic


type


film which


employed


a singing


commercial method


was


compared


with a lecture


type


film.


A personal hygiene


information


test


was


given following


pre


sentation


each film and a


chi-square


analysis


was


used


measure


significant


differences


in the


distribution


results.


No differences


in learning


or in attitudes


about


material


presented


were


found.


That


was


only


measure


used.


Observers were


designated


monitor the


hygiene


behaviors


recruits.


conclusion


reached


was


that


neither


film,


with


accompanying


instructions,


changed


observed


personal


hygiene


behavior


of the


men


to any significant


degree.


1954


Vandermeer


tested another production


technique


in film


that


reflected


technical achievements


television


effect


black-and-white


during that


on achievement


films.


time.


using


Both films


Vandermeer


color


had


(1954)


films


same


studied


instead


content.


multiple-regression analysis


was


used


isolate


significant


w


w








- 27


Both


color and


black-and-white


films


produced


learning.


significantly


greater


achievement


on the


immediate


recall


tests


was


demonstrated


by the


color


films,


recall


scores


end


six weeks


were


significantly


higher


for


three


five


color


film groups.


Regardless


significant


differences


reported


delayed results


Vandermeer


(1954)


concluded


that


use


color


film


did not


seem


justified


terms


greater achievement.


Moreover,


Vandermeer'


(1954)


test


results


lack applicability when


compared


current


state-of-the-art


television.


other production


technique


which


proved more


useful


States


were


Naval


evaluated


Special


by MclIntyre


Devices


(1954)


Center.


for the


purpose


United


this


study was


measure


effect


on achievement


of humorous


elements


and


subtitles


in a


training film


on the


use


cold


weather uniforms.


study,


treatments were


prepared.


one


production humor was


used,


and


other sub-titles were


used.


Achievement


results


were


compared


a control


group.


film


presentation


that


control


groups


saw,


blank


leader


(blank film)


was


inserted

occurred.

from 426


production

experimental


trainees.


where

group


reported


humor and


were


result


chosen


indica


subtitles

at random

ted that









from


film which had neither the


humorous


approach nor


titles.


These


were


studies


early


1950s.


These


studies were


interesting


only marginally useful


development


present


experiment.


medium


tested


studies


variables,

medium of


conducted


without


television


this


regard


point


validity,


today.


was


are


studies


film,


relevant


that


follow,


additional


variables


were


identified


and


were


tested


specifically with


television


1958,


Carpenter and


Greenhill


conducted


frequently


cited


televise


ion


studies


Pennsylvania


State


University


These


studied


were


titled


Reports


and


"An Investigation


-Circuit


Television for


Teaching


University Courses


Report.


Both


studies were


predominantly


characteristic


comparative


studies


reported in t

Report Number


third


however


section


did


this


contain


review


literature.


experiments


designed


measure


effect


televi


sion


production


techniques


on achievement.


Both


experiments


, one


in air


science


one


in psychology


, were


identical


in nature


and


were


designed


measure


difference


in achievement


scores


between


methods


televi


sion


presentation.


Both










as the


sole


visual


component.


first


experiment


was


conducted


with


air


science


students


and


second


was


conducted


with


psychology


students.


Both


experiments


were

air


analyzed

science e


using analysis


experiment,


variance


significantly


procedures.


higher


scores


prevailed


lecture/chalkboard


psychology experiment,


significant


group.


differences


achievement


were


found.


Several


conclusions


were


presented


by the


authors and


included


students need


learn how


learn from visuals;


visual media need


visual


tests;


method


Greenhill,


presentation is


criticizing the


unimportant


(Carpenter


presentation,


the


authors


stated,


possible


that


much more


radical


changes


in course


presentations


will have


devised


before


differences will


emerge


when


comparisons are


made


with


traditional methods"


Kazem


(1960)


evaluated


effect


adding films


lecture


presentation in a Detroit


high


school


biology


class.


Using several


t-tests,


Kazem found


that


students


three


experimental


groups


had


significantly


higher posttest


scores


than


students


control


group.


also


found


that


student


viewing an informational-expo


story


film had


significantly


higher


scores


on the


sttest,


design











information-expository


group


had no


higher


scores


than


students


combination


information-expository and


historical-dramatic


treatment.


There


were


significant


differences


among


overall


posttest


scores


of student


in any


of the


three


experimental


groups.


Finally,


Rock


(1969)


conducted


a test


designed


measure


learning and


retention from a


television


presentation.


television


this


was measured


case,


against


value


a written


instruction


presentation.


That


so-called


control


group


was


given


material


read


received no


expository presentation.


Three


thousand reservi


took


part


experiment.


Rock


(1969)


concluded


that


method


were


equally effective.


Before


experiment,


all


participants


were


allowed


see


questionnaire


used for


evaluation;


therefore,


experiment


introduced


another variable.


Lack


reported


statistical


details


indicated


that


study may


have


been


uncontrolled


and


poorly designed.


In addition,


study


did not


discuss


comparison


televi


ion


effectiveness


with


effectiveness


other media.


Barrington


conducted


a study


greater


specificity.


nrs~rP nnnrriPr


study


V.V-'nn r y


compared


.1 a


IIt IIln A.J I r r.!. I Znl.I. I


versions


nrp s Pnt; ntnt ni -


V ~ r $11]


I










demonstrations,


while


other used


diagrams and


charts


present


concepts.


The


study


involved


a sample


college


education


students


Significance


was


found


with


regard


setting was


hypotheses:


less


effective


scientific


than gray


curtain:


laboratory

ns as a


background,


and


cine


films


with


commentary were


less


effective


than animated


diagrams.


From


these


result


s Barrington


concluded


that


"simple


will


more


effective


than sophi


sticated


sets


diagrams


and models


will


more


effective


than


photographs and


films"


190)


. The


conclusions may not


an accurate


analysis


of the


res


but,


Barrington


goes


on to


say that


"further research aimed


improving


instructional


television


programs


should


undertaken


(and)


more


information is


needed


about


effectiveness


presentation"


90).


In an


unpubli


hed


dissertation at


Auburn


University,


Davis


(1979)


sought


measure


retention


as related


arousal


created a


study might


in film and


state


have


television.


attention


been


undertaken


arousal


learner


would


, then


measure


have


a valuable


effects


methods


gaining arousal


However,


in this


study,


arousal


stimulus


was


unrelated


subj


o be learned.









construction.


A multifactor analysis


variance


was


used


determine


main and


high-and-low-arousal


films


interaction


as measured


effects


by a nineteen


question


visual


and


verbal


test


given immediately after


viewing and again


one


week


later.


According to


Davis


(1979)


, significant


differences


were


found


consistent


with


those


found


in previous


studies


on arousal.


effect


interaction


time


interval


of the


arousal


stimulus


on retention


was


significant


level;


however,


arousal


because


retention


use


phenomenon


arousal


was


techniques


clearly


did not


demonstrated


significantly


increase


long-term retention


(Davis,


1979).


fact


that


arousal


clips


were


unrelated


subject


instruction may


have


contributed


insignificant


results.


study


conducted


1981


by Morris


984)


was


designed


measure


and


compare


achievement


between groups


undergraduate


student


receiving economy


instruction


different


televi


son


presentations.


original method


depicted


instructor,


in typical


"talking


head"


fashion,


using a


chalkboard


present


visuals


discuss


conceptual relevance


consumption function.


second method


used


"pop-in"


animation


over


entire


a a I -


__


I


I I


m










of the


videotape


dealing with


relevence


of the


content


matter.


instructor was


visible,


less


often,


in this


version


(Morris,


1984).


Bot

students


tape


enrolled


presentations


in an


were


economics


shown to

class at


two

the


groups


University


Florida


Spring


1981


term.


Following the


viewing,


student


achievement


was measured


and


then


compared


(N=197).


An analysis


covariance


and


unbalanced


analysis


variance


were


used


measure


significant


difference


between


groups


on the


overall


posttest;


t-test


was


also


used


measure


significance


scores


on two


particular questions


designed


measure


relevance


content


matter


that


was


presented.


results


indicated


that


significant


differences


occurred


measurement


regarding two


relevance


questions.


significant


differences


occurred


on the


overall


exams,


which


included factual material


and


calculations


(Morris,


984).


results


this


study


indicated


that


only


modifying the


standard


"talking


head"


lecture/chalkboard


presentation


by adding preproduced


graphics


and


"pop-in"


animation did


necessarily


improve


achievement.


However,


replacing the


relevanne of


lecture


a tonin.


sequence,


with


i J


which


rnc!nrnduner 3Pi


dealt


with


sosment s


whi h









freeze


frames,


and


animated moving


graphics


did


improve


achievement


(Morris,


1984).


results


Morris


study were


based


on a


single


execution,


so further


study was


recommended.


This


study


included a


one


item


preference


survey which


indicate


that


those


saw the


modified


tape,


66%0


preferred


usual


talking-head


videotape.


Eighteen


per


cent,


however,


Could


did not


these


prefer the


results


modified


repeated?


tape


Did


(Morris,


attitude


1984).


those


students who


did not


prefer


modified


tape


affect


results?


production


chniques which


produced


negative


attitudes


about


treatment


tape


were


identified


and


eliminated


, would


results


a further


improvement


in achievement


scores?


Applicability


has


been


shown


between


these


studies


designed


measure


variations


television


production


techniques and


present


study.


most


significantly


consistent


conclusion,


which


was applicable


this


study


was


that


more


research


was needed.


Summary


There


are


several


conclusions


which


can


drawn from


summarizing the


studies


reported


this


section.


conclusions


and


summaries


stated


here


have


been made


as a










Instructional


for


development


models


general media application,


provided


no mode


some

1 was


direction

found


that


motion,


addressed


television


slow motion,


production directly.


magnification,


and


How


other


attributes


video


component


can


best


used


present

through


instructional message


development


needs


a television


addressed


production


model.


studies


reviewed,


which


compared


television


instruction


other


forms


instructional


presentations,


six revealed no


significant


differences


and


six revealed


studies


favored


differences


face-to-face


in achievement.


instruction,


(Four


and


favored


television instruction.)


The

more


studies


recent


favoring televi


(1977)


than any


sion instruction


those


were


favoring


face-to-face


instruction.


four


effect


studi


television


designed


production


measure


techniques


achievement


were


conducted


before


1960.


studies


designed


measure


effect


televi


sion


production


techniques


on achievement


(Kumata,


1960)


revealed


conflicting results


when repeated.









differences


between


chalkboard and


animated


characters.


three


production


value


studies


conducted


since


1960,


experiments,


Rock


(1969


and


Davis


(1979


, may


have


measured


unrelated


variable


Rock


compared


television instruction


with no


instruction and


did not


compare


television


other media,


while


Davis


979)


in measuring retention related


arousal,


used


arousal


clips


unrelated


subject


instruction.


Danielsen and


Stauffer


(1972


study and


Waechter


(1973)


study,


face-to-face


instruction


was


favored,


many factors


outside


experiments


could


have


(1972)


influenced


reported


results.


several


Danielsen and


deficiencies,


Stauffer


including


inadequately prepared


televi


sion assistants.


Waechter


(1973)


study,


broadcast


television


was used


a method


uncontrolled


limited


delivery.


variables


inter-student


This


situation


including


contact,


introduced


home


and


viewing,


reception


difficulties.


experimental


result


found


Morris


study are


based


on one


execution and


therefore


experiment


needed


repeated.


Moreover


, an attempt








- 37


elements which


students


found


unnecessary


or distracting


would


helpful.


trend


comparative


studies,


as measured


achievement,


been


reveal


significant


different


ces


between


televi


sion and


other methods


presentation.


effectiveness


studies


for television have


been


few and


most


were


conducted


when


medium was


technically


sophisticated.


As a result,


little


significance


was


achieved


in studies measuring


learning from


television.


Barrington


(197


what


might


most


comprehensive


television


effectiveness


study


ever


conducted,


concluded


that


"further research aimed at


improving


instructional


television should


undertaken"


190).


This


study


attempted


findings


follow up on


Morris


that


(1984)


recommendation and


study


on the


developing and


testing the


effectivene


a completed


producer


model.


Three di

research


fferent


evaluation


to determine


strategies were


effectiveness


combined


this


new model and


suggest methods


instruction at


for continually


college


improving televised


level.









CHAPTER


METHODOLOGY


General


Research Design


purpose


this


study was


analyze


and


compare


effects


a segment


televised


instruction


that


adhered


elements


a producer's


model


with a


camera


record


(nonmodel-developed)


segment


televised


instruction


in a


college


course.


Both


quantitative


and


qualitative


methods


evaluation


were


used


conduct


analyses and


to make


comparisons.


First,


a qualitative


analysis


a producer


model


for designing televised


instruction


was


conducted


using a


survey


questionnaire,


A description


a producer


s model


together with a


questionnaire


was


sent


a select


group


telecourse


producers.


These


producers were


asked


analyze


model


by addressing


perceived


usefulness


developing telecourses


and for training telecourse


producers.


Second,


a qualitative


focus


group evaluation


was


used


analyze


and


compare


televised


instruction


that


adhered


elements

(nonmodel


a producer


-developed)


s model


videotape.


with a

Two


camera

groups


of record

of respondents


were


asked


watch


control and


treatment


videotapes









Third,


1985 experimental


design


was


used


analyze


and


compare


test


scores


economics


students who


viewed


three


different


versions


televised


instruction.


college


economics


class


section


was


shown a


camera


record


(nonmodel-developed)


presentation and


served


control group.


This


tape


was


minutes


long.


Another


section


was


shown


televised


instruction


that


adhered


element


a producer's model,


a modified


version


1981


Morris


(1984)


treatment


tape.


only modifications


that


were


made


this


1981


treatment


tape


were


eliminate


10 minutes


of material no


longer covered


economics


course


in 1981.


This


tape,


which


was


minutes


long


1981,


was


reduced


minute


and


labeled


treatment


tape


one.


This


sec


tion


served


treatment


group


one


this


, the


experiment.


third


section


was


shown


another version


televised


instruction


that


adhered


elements


a producer


s model


that


had


been revised


exclude


production


technique


using music/drama


that


1985


focus


groups


found


ineffective.


This


tape


was


33 minut


long and


labeled


treatment


tape


two.


This


tion


served


as treatment


group


1985


experiment.


order to


maintain


strict


control


experiment







- 40


used


include


differences


on the


covariat e


and


posttest.


measure si

independent


gnificant

variables


T2 were


experimental


treatments,


was


pretest,


was


posttest.


Group


Pretest


Independent-Variable


Posttest


Design


Treatment


For the

production and


purpose

thereby


improving a


televised


improving achievement


instruction


and


learning,


this


experiment


used


a cumulative


approach


in developing the


treatment.

Snow aptitude


When Schramm

e treatment


(1977)


analyzed


interaction


(ATI)


Chronbach and


studies,


found


that


"there


are


many


characteristic


learner that


interact


and alter the


effe


for different


individuals--more


likely to


know about"


isolate


such


able


40).


or control


character

control,


This


for these


stics

more


experiment


than any

than he i


did not


variables


was


experimenter


s able


attempt


designed


maximize


attributes


televised


instruction


increasing the


overall


production


values


of te


levision and


ultimately


gaining the


attention and


interest


college








- 41


televised


instruction and


were


designed


conju
AK


with


experiment


Instructional


Television


Morris

n (PITV


(1984).

) Model


The

was


Producers'

developed from


this


study to


exploit


three


principal


functions


television


production:


looking at


, looking


into,


and


creating an


event


ttl,


1984).


visual


depiction and


description


of the


PITV Model


can


found in


Chapter


Four.


model


divided


into


three


key


sections:


presentation


facts


and methods,


illustration


relevance


or applicability


those


facts and methods,


and


evaluation


product.


A description


of how the


PITV Model


was


used


design


treatment


(model-developed)


videotapes


can also


found


Chapter


Four.


For the


1981


experiment


and


again for


this


study,


David


Denslow


College


Business


University


of Florida,


consulted


with


this


experimenter


on the


development


control


(nonmodel


-developed)


tapes


and


treatment


(model-developed)


videotapes.


Denslow's,


Economics


2013


class,


Principles


of Economics,


delivered


over


student


a semester


most


of whom


see


in a


telecourse


format.


usual


televi


instructional


presentation


consists


instructor presenting








- 42


instructor.


relevance


of terminology and


econometrics


presented


during the


first


part


each


lecture


has


been


summarized


instructor,


conclu


again


ion


using


each


only the


televised

chalkboard


lecture

for


illustration.


A 46 minute


camera


record


videotape


, made


January


1985,


served


control


(nonmodel-developed)


videotape


for this


study.


treatment


tapes


were


also


developed in January


Treatment


tape


one


was


minute


revised


version


model-developed


videotape


from


study


by Morris


(1984).


This


tape


was


revised


exclude


material no


longer


covered


course


otherwise


was


unchanged


from


1981


experiment.


first


30 minutes


treatment


tape


one,


when


instructor


talked about


diagrams,


definitions,


and


tables,


chalkboard


was


replaced


high


contrast


graphic


on a


blue


background


that


popped


on the


screen


in a method known as


"pop-in"


animation.


In addition,


arrows


and


boxes


were


used


further


highlight


point


interest.


instructor


was visible,


less


frequently


this


treatment


tape


than


control


tape.


first


30-minute


section


treatment


tape


one,


audio


and


structure


tape


was


unchanged


from









- 43


portion


PITV Model,


removing the


instructor entirely.


In an attempt


improve


achievement


10-minute


discussion


of the


relevance


and


meaningfulnes s


terminology and


econometrics


by the


instructor


in the


end


control


(nonmodel-developed)


videotape


was


replaced


on the


treatment


tape


by a


three-minute


scenario


designed


accomplish


same


task


in a more


effective


manner.


This


scenario


consisted


dramatizations


consumer


activity


animated


graph,


activities,


depicting


charts


consumers


showing movement


newspaper


and


clippings


check-out


lines,


along and movement


highlighting various


contemporary music


with


within a

economic


theme


money.


Treatment


tape


was


a revised


copy


treatment


tape


one,


was


revised


January


recommendations


student


focus


groups.


focus


groups


reviewed


both


control


tape


and


treatment


tape


from

two


the

was


1981


experiment


constructed


in January


in accordance


with


1985.

the r


Treatment


procedures


tape

the


PITV Model for using focus


group


information


further


improve


televi


instruction.


Feedback from


focus


groups


was


used


revise


treatment


tape


one


and


thereby


nrrFte


thrfsatmnet


*ta~ns


Atwn.


Al imia+tin Ii I


frnrn


s~Fnanari


ft-


I |


1r j r r








- 44


Instrument


A five


item


open-ended


questionnaire


was


used


survey


a panel


five


expert


telecourse


producers.


addition,


an interview


schedule


was


used


facilitate


focus


group


interviews.


Finally


, as a test


instrument,


one


12-item multiple


choice


exam was


used


measure


student


achievement.


instrument


was a


posttest


given after the


showing


treatment


and


control


tapes.


cover


letter and


open-ended


questionnaire


that


was


given


panel


experts


was


designed


secure


opinions


about


PITV Model


from


experts


Appendix


expert


see


Appendix B)


also


were


given a copy


PITV Model


(Chapter


Four)


and


asked


make


suggestions


for


improving


Focus


group


interviews


have


been a


qualitative


method


evaluation for


some


time


(Merton,


Fiske,


& Kendall,


56).


investigator


followed


an interview


schedule


(see


Appendix


facilitate


open


cussion among the


focus


group


interviewees


utili


this


research.


An audio


and


video


tape


recording was


used


collect


student


responses


during two


focus


group


sessions.


information


was


then


analyzed


investigator to


provide


recommendations


for


improving treatment


tape


one.


interview process








- 45


. Questions


referring to


process


retrospection


(questions


and


Questions


including reference


stimulus


situation


(questions


, 9,


and


10).


Verbal


cues


past


response


(question


plus all


probing stimulators).


Questions


control


loquacious


interviewees.


Questions


activate


reticent


interviewees


(all


probing


questions).


Questions


that


extend


coverage


group


(all


probing


questions)


. (Merton,


Fiske


, & Kendall,


1956)


"An item-by-item


comparison


between


results


qualitative


study and


a quantitative


study shows


validity


21).


focus-group


findings


findings"


this


(Reynolds


part


& Johnson,


research


1978,


were


used


establish


strong


causal


links


between


television


production


techniques and


student


achievement


, but


rather to


provide


feedback about


quality


control and


treatment


tapes


from


1981


experiment


and


identify any


unnecessary production


technique


s used


treatment


tape.


S. .


item


nosttest


was


constructed


from a


DOol


-A a


,








- 46


Office


Instructional


Resources


University


Florida.


In addition,


posttest


was


examined


for


reliability using the


KR-20.


composite


item analysis was


performed


for all


twenty-four


items


pool.


analysis


coefficent


was


.61.


This


result


indicated


that


test


items


provided reliable


predictive


results


for


measuring


changes


student


achievement.


Moreover,


this


coefficent


indicated


that


there


was


room for


improving


achievement


(Morris,


1983


Identical


control


posttest


group and


instruments


experimental


were


given


groups.


The


instruments


were


presented


the


last


minutes


instructional


period


by the


experimenter.


posttest


was


major


test


instrument


used


experiment


and


was


identified


measure


student


achievement.


was administered


immediately


following the


television


groups.


presentation in


posttest


both


consisted


treatment


multiple


and


control


choice


items


(see


Appendix D).


All


items


pertained


Consumption


Function,


major


content


presented


three


videotape


All


questions were


used


measure


recall


material


from


entire


minutes


control


Atane


and


minutes


of the


.- 4 V -


treatment


tapes.


Three


- -


,v








- 47


and


last


three


minutes


treatment


tapes.


respondents


were


required


relate


movements


along,


shifts


Consumption Function


consumer


behavior.


This was


portion


of both


treatment


(model-developed)


videotapes


that


provided


a complete


departure


from


control


(nonmodel-developed)


videotape


and represent


"relevance


illustrated"


portion


PITV


model


developed


for this


study.


election


Subjects


A panel


five


experts


see


Appendix B)


was


selected


from a list


expert


elecourse


producers


provided


Research


Communications,


a telecourse


research


firm,


and


Kenneth


Christiansen,


a member


committee


supervising this


study.


selection


process


consisted


a telephone


interview


seven


potential


evaluators


determine


was


most


likely to


complete


survey.


focus


groups were


used


to determine


perceived


differences


between


1981


control


(nonmodel-developed)


videotape


treatment


(model-developed)


videotape


and


determine


what


production


techniques


were


unnecessary


1981


treatment


tape.


focus


group


consisted


five


student


had


taken


economics


course


that


was


examined


- -


this


study


*


.... 4


other


ErouD


consist


- -.J-


five


r


r








- 48


University


Florida in


Fall


1984.


class


role


was


examined


obtain a mixture


students


according


their


final


grades


class.


An attempt


was made


obtain an


even


through D.


distribution


subjects


students


for the


second


with


group


grades


were


from A


select


from student


enrolled


University


of Florida in


Spring


1985


who


had not


taken Principle


of Economics


(2013).


A list


volunteers was


obtained


from an


Introduction


Advertising


course.


Token gifts--donated


three


local merchants and


consisting


portable


radios,


coffee


mugs,


shirts,


and


assorted


toiletries--were


used


encourage


students


part


ipate.


participants


received an assortment


gift


All


subje


for


experimental


evaluation


study were


selected


from


students


enrolled


Principles


Economic


(2013)


Colle


of Business


University


of Florida


Spring


1985.


students


select


their


sections


during registration


either


from


those


sections


available


or from


those


that


best


their


own schedules.


live


lecture,


from which


985


control


tape


was


recorded


, was


presented


in a


large


lecture


hall


a.m.


day


experiment.


control


(nonmod


el-developed)


and


treatment








- 49


Three


Economics


2013


sections


were


selected


as the


sample


for this


experiment


obtain


sections


approximat


equal


size


One


section


served


control


group and


served


experimental


groups.


total


sample


size


was


113,


with


control


group,


treatment


group


one


, and


treatment


group


two.


Collection


Data


result


s of


an earlier


study


by Morris


(1984)


were


examined


for


further


inquiry and


development


Summer


1984.


Although


data


showed


that


significant


differences


in student


achievement


had


occurred


in a


telecourse


when


television


production


value


were


increased,


results


a single


trial


seem


conclusive.


Furthermore


, no formalized model


existed


for use


telecourse


development,


thus


inhibiting


others


from


obtaining


significant


improvements


effectiveness


telecourse


production


found


Morris


(1984)


study.


October of


1984


a model


was


fully


developed


from a


rough


outline


used


televi


ion


production for the


earlier Morris


(1984)


study.


procedures


and


proce


sses


were


described and


model


was


a diagram


called


model


Producers


was


construct


' Instructional


Television


Model


(PITV).











summative


evaluation


processes


were


incorporated


PITV


Model.


After


proposal


for


this


study was


accepted


December


begun.


984,


Copie


first


model


formative


, to


evaluation


their with a


five


process was


item


open-ended

telecourse


questionnaire,

producers. Al


were


.though


sent

data


five


expert


collection from


this


evaluation


was


scheduled


for


January


, all


data


were


received


until


late


February


1985.


A second


formative


evaluation


process


was


begun in


January


1985.


Data


from a focus


group analysis


control and


treatment


tapes


from


1981


Morris


(1984)


tudy were


gathered.


result


were


used


modify


treatment


tape


one


and


thereby


construct


second


treatment


tape,


treatment


tape


two.


spring


data


were


gathered


from a


summative


evaluation


of the


control


and


treatment


videotapes.


experiment,


student


achievement


scores


posttest


(model-developed)


viewed


for treatment


were


control


tapes


one


compared


(camera


and


scores


record)


students


videotape.


analysis


f covariance


(ANCOVA)


was


used


compare


achievement


test


scores


and


match


those


scores with


nT)rnvio rs


tApts


recIln ts


for


trh n5.e


I I -


~ tll~ P.n t, r;


1 r


.










appropriate


statistical methods.


experts,


who


have


been asked


evaluate


a producers


' model,


find


useful


for producing televi


instruction?


analyze


information


provided


by the


expert


telecourse


producers


their


comments


were


summarized


and


compared


results


focus


group and


consistency.


model


experimental


experts'


were


group about


compared


quality


opinions


evaluations


on the


opinions


model-developed


for


usefulness


focus


tape,


and


achievement


scores


students who


viewed


treatment


tapes.


These


data


were


then


used


make


recommendations


researcher


for


commented


improving


on the


model.


quality


In addition,


evaluations


provided


by the


experts.


Does


information and


feedback provided


by a focus


group


suggest


methods


by which model-developed


televised


instruction might


revised and


further


improved?


analyze


information


"qualitative"


focus


group


evaluation,


interviews were


summarized


interview


question


(see


Appendix


and


transferred


into


recommendations


for


improving treatment


tape


one.


Since


focus


group evaluation is


a qualitative


form


of evaluation,


summaries were


focused around


strength








- 52


held


research


observation


College


Journalism and


Communications


and


were


videotaped


and


audiotaped for thorough


analysis


and review.


focus


group


responses were


analyzed


for range,


specific


ity,


depth,


and


personal


context


(Merton,


Fiske


, & Kendall,


, p.


Using these


criteria,


revi


sion


1981


treatment


tape


was


based


on the


strongest


argument.


Hypothesis


There


were


no difference


student


achievement


between students


viewed model-developed


televi


instruction and


students who


viewed


nonmodel


-developed


televised


instruction.


analyze


data


achievement


evaluation related


this


hypothesis,


an ANCOVA


was


used


investigate


possible


interactions


between a


previous


test


and


sttest


, or to


measure


for the


effects


of prior


knowledge;


measure


differences


in c


umulative


mean achievement


overall


posttest


between


student


who


viewed


treatment


tape


one


and


students who


viewed


control


group;


and


measure


differences


in cumulative


mean achievement


on the


three


posttest


items measuring understanding


consumption function,


and


related


"relevance


illustrated"


portion


model


between


students who


viewed


treatment


tape


one


and


student


who


viewed








- 53


Hypothesis


There


were


no differences


in student


achievement


between


students


who


viewed model-developed


televised


instruction and


students


who


viewed


model


-developed


production


televised


technique


del


instruction


eted.


with


analyze


a selected


data of


achievement


evaluation related


this


hypothesis,


an ANCOVA


was


used


to measure


difference


in cumulative


mean


achievement


three


postte


items measuring


understanding


consumption function,


and related


"relevance


illustrated"


portion


model,


between


students


viewed


treatment


tape


one


and


students


who


viewed


treatment


tape


two.


criterion for accepting


or rejecting the


hypotheses was


a confidence


level


.05.


Anticipated


Findings


this


study was


ecologically


significant


contribute e


creative


production


proc


ess


televised


instruction,


needed


formative


rather


than


summative

Children'


in nature.


Television


research


Workshop


conducted


(CTW)


by the

design


"Sesame


Street"


formative.


(Barbatsis,


CTW


research


1978)


was


may


categorized


designed


uncover


"information for


imnrovinP a


nrodtir t


or nrant. i rnP "


1 I .


hnn'~











still fluid


contributes more


improvement


education


than


evaluation


used


appraise


a product


already


on the


market"


(Guba


& Lincoln


, 1981,


method


chosen for


this


study was


consistent


with


approaches


used


in formative


studies.


Instead


comparing the


results


face-to-face


delivery with a


videotape


presentation


same


lecture


to determine


winner


, a comparison


videotape


presentations


containing the


same


information


was


conducted


determine


methods


for


improving televised


instruction.


expected


result s


were


follows:


expert


evaluations


were


expected


to point


methods


for


further


improving the


PITV Model


and


make


more


effective


for


future


users.


focus


methods


group


for


interviews


further


were


improving the


expected


production


point


techniques


used


1981


treatment


tape.


Student


recall


terminal


ogy


, statistical


proce


sses


and


diagram


construction,


as measured


by achievement


scores,


was


expected


television


improve


special


as a result


effects,


substituting


pop-in animation,


and moving


arrows

<=t+1A^n+t


for a


chalkboard


Sirh i a 'lromnr* t


treatment


1AY/n o *.z I


tapes.


1 mnlrnrnv


rcicnilt


W~ e


1.I .I











animation,


concrete


and


abstract


examples,


scenerlos,


and


relevant


contemporary music.










CHAPTER


PRODUCERS'


INSTRUCTIONAL


WITH EXPERT


TELEVISION


(PITV)


MODEL


EVALUATION


experimental


or treatment


tapes


for


this


study


were


developed


using the


Producers'


Instructional


Television


(PITV)


Model.


experimenter designed


Model,


1981


and


1985


treatment


tapes,


increase


effectiveness


of televise

production


instruction


techniques.


through


use


PITV Model


televise


and


ion


relationship


treatment


tapes


can


found


first


sec


tion


this


chapter.


order


examine


perceived


usefulness


model


telecourse


producers,


a panel


experts


was


established.

experienced


A questionnaire


telecourse


experts,


producers


have


been


see


Appendix A)


(see


asked


was mailed


Appendix B).


evaluate


producers'


model,


find


useful


for producing televised


instruction?


To answer this


question,


responses


experts


have


been


summarized


second


section


this


chapter.


consensus


combination


on each


five


five


questions


was


questions


used


and


determine


usefulness


model.


PITV Model


Prnrjijrns r


Tnhrc r iint' f. ^ nnn nl


mc orl'


S~n


(PTmVr


ManAal


I lit-







- 57


models which include


audience


analysis


part


model,


those


models


that


are


objective-based.


order to


determine

consulted


proper prerequisites,


before


implementing the


these


models


PITV Model.


should


PITV


Model


should


inserted


media


development


sec


tion


other


instructional


sign


or development


models.


PITV Model


a procedural model


which


divides


instructional


presentation into


three


basic


segment s


(see


Figure


Segment


Demonstrated)


deals


(Facts


with


Presented,


presentation


Methods


terminolo


facts,


and


formulas.


this


section,


presentation


should focus


on developing


skills.


Segment


(Relevance


Illustrated)


should


used


for


illustrating the


relevance


material


presented


first


segment.


This


second


segment


should


involve


more


complex


production


techniques


an attempt


illustrate


meaningfulne


topic


under study.


component


qualitative


gment


Three


Model.


and


(Evaluation)


segment


quantitative


evaluation


includes


methods


one


evaluation.


Moreover


, the


lines


running to


all


segments and


subsegments


Model


representative


serve


segments


purposes.


Model,


and


They


they


connect


indicate


places where


transitional


devices


are


needed.








- 58


Finally,


electronic


facilities--the


quality


audio


given


video


reproduction


limitations


equipment--need


available


optimal,


resources.


order


implement


PITV Model


television facilities must


have,


as a minimum,


graphics


edit


equipment


videotapes.


produce


visual


electronic


depiction


model appears


following page.


Although


PITV Model


included


thi


study,


treatment


videotapes,


well


videotape


focus


groups


are


not.


Copies


those


videotapes may


viewed


Colle


Education Library,


Norman Hall,


University


of Florida,


Gainesville,


Florida.


Also,


copies


videotape


and additional


information about


study


may


obtained


from


author.


locate


address


author


, contact


Librarian


College


Education at


University


Florida,


Gainesville,


Florida


32611.


For


'serious


researcher,


opies


videotapes


may


found


Motion Picture


Divi


sion,


MBRS,


Library


Congress


Washington,


20504.


All


videotapes


have


been recorded


VHS


format


and


copyrighted


as part


this


study.







59 -

SEGMENT 1
Facts Presented
Methods Demonstrated


Visual


I l
Auditory Stimuli


Stimuli


ABSTRACT
-Charts
-Diagram
-Graphic


EXAMPLES


MUSICAL EFFECTS
VERBAL PASSAGES
-Abstract and
-Concrete


CONCRETE EXAMPLES
-Scenarlos
-Pictures
-Illustrations
-Persons
-Objects


SOUND EFFECTS
-to support
-independent


video
use


SPECIAL
-slow
-time
-digit
-other


EFFECTS
motion
lapse
al manipulations
manipulations


SEGMENT 2
Relevance Illustrated


Visual


Stimuli


Auditory Stimuli


ACRO-C
-Trend
Proje
ICRO-C
-Trend
Proje


OMPRESSION(Concrete
s &
actions
OMPRESSION(Abstract
cts &ons
actions


examples)


examples)


Support
-Musica
-Verbal
Reinforc
-Musica
-Verbal
-Sound


Concrete
1 Effect
Passage
e Abstra
1 Effect
Passage
Effects


Illustration
s
s
cts
s
s


SEGMENT 3
Evaluation


Quantitative Achievement
Quantitative Survey
Qualitative Focus Group








- 60


subject


televised


instruction may


presented


beginning


production


or videotape


a title.


This


title


may


only a


portion


subject


a premise,


depending


on the


length


or amount


material


covered.


title


presentation may


presented


visually


or delivered


orally.


some


instances,


hold


interest


, it


might


desirable


reveal


subject


premise.


treatment


tape


for


this


study


blue


background


with


white


letters


on the


top and


bottom was


used


identify the


subject


of the


lecture,


Consumption


Function.


inserted


instructor appeared


center of


in a


graphic.


square


When he


wipe,


began


lecture,


graphic


was


raised


up and


picture,


an effect


that


resembled


a rising


curtain.


Once


title


given,


first


major


section


Model


employed.


"facts


and methods"


sec


tion is


used


define


terms


and


demonstrate


processes


methods.


This


"how-to,


" skills


development


section


production and has


been


categorized


on two


levels.


initial


level


divided


into


types


stimuli,


visual


or auditory.


These


levels


are


further


subdivided


into


example


types,


concrete


or abstract,


or into


supporting


production


effects.


Some


knowledge


television


a.


reduction


.L











use


this


Model.


In addition,


use


storyboards may


provide


component


audio


assistance


and


portions


in the


development


coordination


instruction.


visual


video


conform with


with


standard


television scripting procedures


, the


visual guidelines


have


been


placed


on the


left


side


Model and


auditory


guidelines


on the


right


side.


production


abstract


examples


for


both


visual and

discussions


production


auditory


charts,


concrete


stimuli


includes


diagrams,


examples


and


representations


and


formulas.


includes


scenarios,


photographs,


illustrations,


persons,


or objects.


ordering


concrete


examples


after abstract


examples


implied here,


a reverse


order may


appropriate


for


some


subject


visual


component


may


consist


illustrations


alpha-numeric


graphics and may need


animation


ass


viewer


i.e.,


in making


dissolves,


necessary to


assi


implied


wipes,


connections.


or special


viewer


Transitional


effects,


in making the


devices,


may also be

connection


between illustrations.


For


presentation


terminology


econometric


diagrams,


and


problems


treatment


tape


for


. -


* -


- n- -4 tt ,l2 n.n tn -j


fl 1 -' ~ a-,


,t,,l


,~,1


rrrn rr


f^








- 62


constructed from a


video


wipe


highlight


important


reference


points.


auditory


stimuli


televi


sion


presentation


may include


music


for


support


or transition,


well


simultaneously


include


verbal


passages.


verbal


passages


used in


segment


one


presentation


should most


likely


descriptions


rather than


dramatic


dialogue.


They may


abstract


and


directly related


visual


or concrete


and


used


cite


example


abstract


visual


component.


treatment


tapes


for


this


investigation,


instructor


Denslow,


Function as


described


they appeared


processes


on the


Consumption


screen.


audio


and


video


components


presentation may


inseparable


or mutually


exclusive


, depending


on the


needs


content


material.


scenarios


are


used,


for


example,


verbal


passages may


an integral


part


visual

passage


presentation.


may


In some


a continuous


cases


however


discussion


verbal


facts,


while


visual


component


may present


various


examples.


Special


visual


effect


presentations,


may


i.e.


used


vary the


, slow-motion,


time


forms


lapse,


close-ups,


and


sound


effects may


used


attention-getting


devi


ces


, as


a highlighter


for t


e visual


v --










In segment


PITV Model,


"Relevance


Illustrated,


" the


relevance


or meaningfulness


facts


and


This


definitions


segment


presented


attempts


in segment


show the


one


learner


is demonstrated.


value


material


presented


in terms


usefulness.


explanation


what


comprises


concrete


or abstract


examples


or a li


sting


relevant


video


and audio


effects


will not


repeated


for


segment


two.


All


conditions and


techniques


used


in segment


one


apply


this


segment


with


some


additional


organization and


sophistication.


First,


illustrations


relevance


must


divided


into


areas


trends


(recapitulation)


for


those


portions


which are


reviews


past


and


projections


(future


applications)


for


portions


which deal


with analyses


future.


Macro-compressions


represent


compression


information into


some


type


demonstration


a concept.


Micro-compression represent


use


charts,


diagrams,


and graphics


as described


abstract


portion


previous


section;


however,


in micro


impression


presentation is


often more


elaborate


because


includes


summaries


of data,


trends


and


projections.


Animation


and


special


effects


are


an imDortant


Dart


-A.









- 64


moving


animation.


In addition,


concrete


and


abstract


examples


may


have


mixed


together,


employing two


televi


ion's most


useful


quality


ies


video


replay


and


superimposition.


highlight


identification


physical


process


for


example,


definitions


may


superimposed


over a


slow-motion replay


process.


audio


for macro-and


micro-compressions may


supportive


dialogue


, descriptions,


music,


sound


effects,


any


combination


several


audio


four.


sources


one


The

time


ability to

is another


incorporate

strong feature


televi


sion.


Second,


segment


focuses


attention


psychological,


Soc


and


physical


needs


and


wants.


This


an attempt


affect


influence


over the


learners


through


emotional


stimuli


and


thereby


enhance


learning.


methods


of affective


appeal


include


comedy,


tragedy,


relevance


life,


contact


with authorities


contact


with


subjects,


interactions,


exploitation


inherent


drama


subject.


means


for


creating


such appeals


include


visual


effects,


ound


effects,


music,


varying


camera angles


camera movements,


moving animation,


characterizations,


dramatizations,


graphics,


and


staging.


*I ~~~~ ~ ~ I rr In nl~A .n .t*--- 5 -


dllmma 1 MVl -w -


f%


+'


Tr


I~n








- 65


minute


summation.


This


package


consisted


an opening


scenerlo


consumers


in action,


animated


diagrams


depicting


differences


between shifts


consumption function


and movement


along the


consumption


function,


newspaper


headlines


verbal


des


criptions


relating


consumer


behavior


diagrams,


and


contemporary music


hold


learner


approach


attention and


used


many televi


add


treatment


sion


commercials


and


emotional


videotape

included


appeal


was


. The


similar


several


special


effe


impose


such as video


itions,


and


wipes


dissolves


freeze


frames,


ameliorate


super

transitions.


Finally,


segment


three


recommends


use


three


different


type


s of


evaluation:


achievement


(guided


experimental


standards),


survey


, and


focus


group.


Examples


use


three


forms


evaluation in analyzing


effectiveness


PITV Model


are


discussed


General


Research Design and


Instrumentation


sections


this


study.


All


three


forms


evaluation


are


recommended


order


determine


successful


implementation


Model.


achievement


evaluation


component


used


measure


suC


cess


regarding


learning.


survey


s used


determine


model-developed


over une


television


nonmodel-developed


presentation i


television


preferred


presentation.









- 66


television


presentation and


point


what


further


improvements


might


made.


Experts'


Evaluation


PITV Model


Five


practitioners


field


instructional


television


were


identified


as experts and


asked


assist


evaluation


PITV Model.


Each


expert


was


sent


copy

the


economic


model and a d

s experiment.


descriptionn


Below


how


a list


was applied in

those who


cooperated


evaluation


model and


a summary


their professional


backgrounds.


Dr. Edward
University
CBS-TV, New
Board of Ed


Stasheff, Professor Emeritu
of Michigan. Educational C
York; Writer-Director for
ucation, New York; Director


Educational and Relig
New York, Producer of
the Board of Educatio
Associate for NETRC (
Television and Radio
of Production for the


Instructional Televis


;ious
'the
n, Ne
Natio


s,
consultant
WNYE-FM,


Programing for WPIX-TV,
Living Blackboard, for
w York, Program
nal Educational


Center)
first
ion Cen


, Ann Arbor; Direc
station in Israel,


ter,


Ramat


Donald Johnson, Director of Program Development
and Production, WNET-TV, New York. Developed
several nationally distributed educational
programs.


Nebraska


Gr


producers of IT
Television Netw
responses were
of Educational


reviewers


have


experience prod


oup. The
V Service


se
s a


were three anonymous
t Nebraska Educational


ork, Lincoln Nebraska (Note: The
provided by Lee Rockwell, Manager
Telecommunications). The three
seventeen years of combined
ucing and directing ITV materials


;tor
the


Aviv.


-----


r








- 67


related


question.


five


interviewers


were


identified


last


name


or group


name.


Would


model


assistance


you


in a


telecourse


or an instructional


televi


sion


production?


, why?


not,


why not


JOHNSON-The


model


would not


useful


professional


production/broadcast


center.


processes


described


are


either


somewhat


elementary for a


seasoned


producer


or appear


designed


"translate"


lectures


into


a television format.


Telecourses,


effective,


must


far


beyond


this


objective.


This model


appears


reflect


a concept


telecourse


which has


shown


somewhat


less


effective


than


most


recent


broadcast


efforts.


Perhaps


a very effective


model


for


closed-circuit


sentations.


am not


qualified


critique


model


from


that


viewpoint.


Rather my


comments


reflect


needs


televi


ion


stations and


production


houses.


NEBRASKA EDUCATIONAL


TELEVI


SION NETWORK-All


three


believe


model


simpli


stic


for


type


work


that


they


on a regular


basis.


They felt


model might


useful,


an organizer,


for


beginning producers.


Nebraska


producers


felt


that


PITV Model


would








- 68


STASHEFF-The


model


would not


much assistance


me.


In all


fairness


Morris,


should


point


that


have


been involved


in either


Educational


or Instructional


since


1945.


Therefore,


almost


everything


in the


model


something


I would


use


instinctively


or habitually,


with


exception of


Section


about


which


have


more


below.


there


any parts


model


you find more


useful


than


others


Please


explain.


JOHNSON-The


model


most


useful


when,


on page


illustrative


example


techniques


are


presented.


Much


model


defined


becomes


concept


such


unclear


through


"Macro


use


-compressions


inadequately


represent


compression


information into


some


type


demonstration


concept


model


vacillates


between abstract


concept


which may


hard


for


reader to


grasp and


superficial


descriptions


techniques


such as


"visual


cial


effects.


NEBRASKA


EDUCATIONAL


TELEVISION


NETWORK-No-The


model


exists


does not


well


with


type


of work and


level


or production


reviewers


work with


on a regular


basis.


STASHEFF-As th


co-author


basic


text


book










(in regard


relevance)


in that


Segment;


intriguing and


potentially useful.


Greater explanation


that


area


accompanying


Would


producers


JOHNSON-It


discussion


model


would


helpful.


particular use


instructional


hard


televis


say.


beginning


ion?


beginning producer may


have


enough grasp


on the


challenge


itself


able


benefit


from


suggested methods


model.


unclear


"why"


important


consider


approaches


laid


out.


would


helpful


for


beginning producer to


understand


instructional/motivational


challenges


instruction


that


are


trying to


met


through


this


model.


Again,


more


illustrative


examples


technique


are


nece


ssary


make


this


understandable


beginning producer.


NEBRASKA EDUCATIONAL


TELEVISION NETWORK-Yes


as a tool


help organize


material,


make


people


aware


what


possible


through


use


television.


STASHEFF-Of


particular value


beginning producers


would


Segment


one


and


two,


only


sugge


stions


start


planning and


checksheets


for


follow-up


before


going


into


rehearsal.


accompanied


model


by the


study


would,


book


however,


need


on production,


as Mr.


Morris


suggests.










a model


for producing a


telecourse


which appears


most


effective


possibly,


translating


most


pertinent


lecture


use


screen


video.


which


segments


themselves


seem


follow a


lecture


mode


rather


than


taking


advantage


video'


ability to


produce


non-linear


instructional


patterns which may


more


effective


than


other presentation modes.


You have


something


important


mind,


hasn


been actualized


effectively as


might


NEBRASKA EDUCATIONAL


TELEVISION NETWORK-Again


reviewers


felt


first


section


could


an organizer.


reviewer felt


a good


separating


idea.


information from


reviewer again mentioned


usefulness was


that


model


is too


vague


useful


for


type


work


done


Nebraska ETV.


STASHEFF-Segment


four would


least


value


because,


as described


on pages


and


, this


evaluation


was


designed


assess


effectiveness


model.


In a


practical,


non-experimental


situation,


any


evaluation


would


concerned


with


effectiveness


a program


or series,


model.


In addition


these


responses,


reviewers


made


some


comment


on the


model.


Johnson


wondered


- w.Ja


third


.


-- w--











what


are


purposes


connections.


Johnson


thought


that


prefixes


Macro


and


Micro


needed


further


explained.


Johnson also


felt


use


storyboard


electronic


graphics,


called


for


model,


were


absolutely necessary.


indicated


that


even


"greater


sophistication


graphics are


necessary for


greatest


effectiveness.


Johnson


was


referring to


white


characters


on a


blue


background


that


were


used


treatment


tape


this


study.


section


model


description


that


suggest


that


illustrations


relevance


divided


into


"trend"


for reviews


past


and


"projections"


express


for analyses


reservations.


future,


wondered


these


Johnson

approaches


"don't


limit


generic


usefulness


model.


wondered


all


productions


would


benefit


from


approaches.


Finally,


Johnson felt


that


video


and


theatrical


processes


suggested


by the


PITV


model--i.e.,


superimpositions,


slow-motion,


scenerlos--are


"great"


any


one


process


should not


over used.


Although


they


expressed


some


support,


overall


five


evaluators


seemed


express


some


strong reservations


regarding the


usefulness


PITV


model.


All


those


who


o'ra i *iiotaA


tim


niaol


falt


~nn~n n: nCa


L i,, L,


I


m I


M a ~n a


r












contention.


Finally,


reviewers


seemed


indicate


that


model


would


greater


use


them


with more


adequate


descriptions


in all


three


segments.










CHAPTER


QUANTITATIVE AND


QUALITATIVE


FINDINGS


results,


reported


this


chapter


have


been


organized


into


category


quantitative


and


qualitative.


This


is descriptive


their nature.


Quantitative


analysis,


related


hypotheses,


consisted


a comparison


achievement


treatment


score


groups.


differences


Qualitative


between


data


one


were


control


derived


and


from a


focus


group analysis


control


and


treatment


tapes.


research


question


(number


two)


was


formulated for


a qualitative


analysis


videotape


from


1981


experiment


Morris


(1984)


and


model.


This was


focus


group


portion


study and


was


used


as a formative


evaluation and


construction


1985


treatment


tape


two.


qualitative


results,


which


can


found


first


section


this


chapter,


were


recorded and


analyzed


using the


facilities


College


Journalism and


Communications


University


of Florida.


facilities


included audio


and


video


recording


equipment


and


conference


room with a


two-way mirror.


research hypotheses


and


dealt


with


achievement


score


differenn.es


on the


1


.ct t~t, $t


hatw0 n


.


.









videotapes.


This


was


experimental


portion


this


study


been


used


investigate


relationships.


quantitative


results


, which


can


found


second


computer


section


this


system


chapter,


North


were


East


analyzed


Regional


Data


using the


Center at


University


Florida and


incorporated


procedures


developed


by the


Institute,


Cary


North


Carolina.


responses


with


incomplete


identification numbers


were


eliminated.


Results


Focus Groups


focus


group evaluation


was


an outcome


research


question number


provided


two.


by a focus


Does

group


the in

suggest


.formation and


methods


feedback


by which


model-developed


televised


instruction might


revised


and


further


improved?


focus


found


differences


groups were

between t


used


determine


treatment


student


(model-developed)


videotape


control


(nonmodel-developed)


videotape


used


experiment


by Morris


(1984).


group


consisted


Economics


five


2013


undergraduate


(Principles),


student


and


who


other


had


group


taken


consisted


five


student


who


had not


taken Economi


. The











videotapes


from


1981


experiment


Morris


(1984)


and


discuss


them.


focus


groups


were


held


from


p.m.,


January


24th,


College


985,


Journalism and


research


Communications.


observation lab


sessions were


videotaped


audiotaped


for


thorough


analysis


and review.


tapes


these


focus


group


sessions


have


been included


as part


material for this


dissertation and


have


been


made


available


, through


researcher,


for


future


reviews


evaluation


process.


responses


students


focus


group


evaluation

interview


have


been


question.


summarized


Questions


below


one


beneath


through


each


fifteen


were


asked


background


questions.


Questions


through


20 were


asked after


participants viewed


control


tape


and


again after they viewed


treatment


tape.


additional


questions,


and


were


asked


after


parti


cipant


viewed


treatment


tape.


In addition,


questions


and


were


asked after viewing three


distinct


segments


treatment


tape.


there


segments


consisted


scenes


with


pop-in animation,


scenes


with highlighting,


and


scenes


from


three-minute


scenario.


n It











group who


had not


taken Principles


of Economic


hereafter referred


non


group,


consisted


three


females and


males.


these


student


planned


take


2013


, either


because


was


required,


because


they thought


was


an important


course


Three


of the


students


had no


plans


take


2013.


group


who


had


taken


Principles


Economics,


hereafter referred


as the


2013


group,


consisted


of two


males


and


three


females.


All


these


students


took


because


was


required.


class


rankings


for


both groups were


heterogeneous,


representing


four


undergraduate


levels.


grade


point


averages


non-2013 group


were


evenly distributed


between


and


2013


group averages were


higher


ranging from


non-2013


group


consisted


one


sociolo


major


three


advertising majors


, and


one


undeclared.


group


consisted


one


advertising,


one


business,


one


finance,


and


one


broadcast


management


major.


person


did


respond


this


question.


All


of the


student


participant


were


full-


time


student


carrying


between


and


hours


student


course


work.


All


one


students


had


been


exposed


some


form


television in


..


__._











hours,


watching television


college


classrooms.


All


student


participant


thought


a college


education


was


important,


essential for


with most


obtaining


believing


skills


was very


enter


important


market.


Descriptions


college


teaching today ranged


from routine


good.


Other terms


used


were


inconsistent,


adequate,


and


insensitive.


Three


students


felt


that


college


teachers


were


generally


helpful.


students


felt


that


many


teachers


lacked


effective


teaching methods.


Most


students


were


in favor


of using television


deliver the


majority


their


classroom instruction.


They


felt


that


television


was


impersonal,


boring,


and


unmotivating.


Students


said


they found


hard


pay attention


telecourses,


and


they felt


as though


they were


getting


what


they


had


paid for


, namely an instructor.


participants


felt


that


some


use


televi


sion


was


acceptable,


and


well-produced,


even


desirable.


student


thought


that


telecourses


were


a good


idea


because


they


offered


flexibility


viewing times.


Finally,


poor audio


or video


quality were


cited


three


students


as problems


that


they


encountered


taking telecourses.


student


said


that


was


often











Question Sixteen.


What


are


your opinions about


videotape


you have


just


seen?


Both


2013


group and


non-2013 group


characterized


control


tape


boring with


poor video


quality.


Several


also


expressed


difficulty


reading the


chalkboard.


Both groups


found


treatment


tape


easier to


see


and follow.


group


said


they


liked


treatment


tape,


thought


they remembered more


from


and


felt


that


viewing time


passed faster.


non-2013 group called

improvement" and noted


Participants


the t

that


both


treatment


was


groups


tape

easier


thought


"vast


follow.


instructor was


hard


follow


control


tape.


2013


group


felt


that


treatment


tape


improved


instructor


effectiveness


directing the


attention


viewer.


Neither


group


found any problem with


audio


quality


either tape.


non-2013


group


found


difficult


hear questions


live


liked


from


lecture.


music


students


Three


used


who


2013


"relevance


attended


group


taping


participants


illustrated"


scenario


contained


treatment


tape.


student


said


music


was


good,


little


distracting.


Only


one


person in


non-201


group


commented


on the music.


That


individual


said


r I-,i


a~nnA


tU~ Q


i dr 9-











much material,


quickly.


and


jumped


contrast,


from

same


concept

group


concept


found methods


used


treatment


presentation


interesting,


more


focused


on the


subject,


ess


distracting,


tiring,


and


easier


follow.


non-201


group


found


that


methods


presentation


used


control


tape


were


adequate


and


thought

All of


that


the


material


presented


participants


this


was supported

group thought


with

the


examples.

methods


used


treatment


tape


made


lecture


easier


follow.


Three


thought


that


abstract


examples


were


easier


follow and


that


concrete


examples


used


conjunction


with


abstract


example


"relevance


illustrated"


scenario


helped


understanding the


material.


Question Seventeen.


What


did


you like


about


What


you not


like


about


2013


group one


person


felt


that


had


"learned


something"


from


control


tape


while


another expressed


satisfaction


with


inability


ask


questions.


participants


felt


that


hypothetical


think.


questions


asked


participant


by the


this


group


instructor made


found


them


that


treatment


tape


had


clear


graphics,


and


others


thought


'


.. .


.. .











boxes


eliminating the


flashing.


Moreover,


one


participant


thought


that


arrows


were


helpful


for


identifying


specific


items


screen


, particularly


graphs.


felt,


however


, that


arrows


should


smaller.


group appreciated


television


s potential


for


re-establishing


charts


when


numbers


from


charts


were


used


in graphs and formulas.


control


tape


chart


were


erased


from


board,


treatment


tape


charts were


recalled at


electronically


any time.


generate


2013


ed and


group also


therefore


felt


could


that


scenario


"helped


make


sense"


facts


present


treatment


tape.


non-201


group


felt


that


control


tape


offered


a greater


opportunity to


distracted


than a


live


presentation,


and


parti


cipants


expressed a


tendency for


falling asleep during this


presentation.


All


participants


this


although


group


one


found


person felt


treatment


that


tape


scenario


their


was


liking,


distracting


and


unnecessary.


other part


cipants


disagreed,


and


one


person


said


that


this


presentation


"offered advantages


that


offset


disadvantages


not


attending the


live









- 81


participants appeared more


exhausted


and


listless


after the


control


tape


than after


treatment


tape.


Although not


giving the


appearance


excitement,


students


did


seem


more


alert


after viewing the


treatment


tape.


Question Eighteen.


How does


this


presentation


compare


other


telecourses


you have


had?


Only


one


person


in the


non-2013


group


had


taken a


telecour


se.


That


person


thought


that


instructor


in the


control


tape


made


thi


telecourse


better than most.


That


same


person


thought


that


treatment


tape


was


a vast


improvement


over all


other


telecourses


encountered.


2013


group


said


that


some


telecourses


were


better


because


they


often included guest


speakers.


group


felt


that


many tele


courses,


however,


were


worse


than


this


one


because


writing


on chalkboard


was


often more


difficult


see


The


group


felt


that


treatment


tape


was


such an improvement


over the


control


tape


that


they


inquired


all


telecourses


could


quickly


modified,


after each


lecture,


look


like


treatment


tape.


3 group also


reported


that


camera,


other


sections


course,


often failed


follow the


subject


being discussed.


camera


often


showed


shots


.-. 4


mi-f,


--- 1.


- -


- -


fl fI f


A, otr~,ntnr


lit n


rlrll. it











They


indicated


that


disruptions


playback


sites made


difficult


watch


television.


Question Nineteen.


How


could


this


tape


improved


students


non-2013


group


gave


following


suggestions


for


improving the


control


tape


use


different


colored


chalkboard,


use


more


color


for


clarity


and,


correct


irregularities


in graphic


reproductions.


group


thought


that


treatment


tape


was


fine


was.


person


strongly


objected


entertainment


aspects


scenario


treatment


tape.


other


members


express


support


for the


scenario,


and


then


objecting participant


acquiesced,


indicating that


scenario


was acceptable.


person suggested


that


a minor


improvement


would


have


instructor


shape


cture


new


graphics.


group


suggested


that


guest


lecturers


, similar


those


used


other


telecourses,


might


improve


interest


control


tape.


For the


treatment


tape


, the


2013


group


indicated


suggestion


that


was


improvements


have


were


instructor


needed.


only


speak


visuals,


rather than matching the


visuals


instructor's


lecture.









- 83


Question


twenty.


What


was


most


important


thing you


learned


from


this


class


segment?


After viewing the


treatment


tape,


members


non-2013


group


said


they


learned


about


consumption


, income,


and


savings.


person


indicated


that


did


not


learn


much.


Another


said


that


boredom


caused


her to


lose


concentration.


After viewing the


treatment


tape,


one


group


member


said he


learned more


about


relationship of


graphs


real


understood


-life

the


situations.

relationship


Another participant


consumption


said


income,


another said


understood


those


factors,


other than


income,


that


often affect


consumption.


3 group members


indicated


that


they


learned a


little


more


about


various


economics


consumption factors


after viewing the


control


tape,


that


this


subject


remained


vague


them.


participant


admitted


being


confused,


and


another


said


that


central


message


could


have


been


"clearer.


After viewing the


treatment


tape,


participants


expressed


understanding of


"shifts


versus

others


"movement

discussed


along"


effect


consumption function.


of attitudes


on consumption and


said


had


become


much


easier


understand.


I~I if if .


Ir I ,


*


q


q









- 84


table


was


superimposed


over a formula.


Question


twenty-one.


What


differences


did


you first


noti


between


presentations


When did you notic these


differences?


What


were


your thoughts at


time?


non-2013 group


noticed


different-looking title


beginning


treatment


videotape,


new


emphasis


noticed


on graphics,


changes


and a more


soon after the


intricate


tape


production.


began.


They


Two


participants


said


that


their


thought


time


were


that


this would


a more


interesting presentation.


group


first


noticed


color


(blue)


on the


tape


instead


chalkboard,


"clearer"


graphics,


and


ability to


recall


charts


for use


solving


equations.


changes


were


noticed


almost


immediately


Three


group


members


said


they


felt


"relieved"


when


they


first


saw the


changes.


participant


recalled


first


noticing


improved graphics,


and


wondering at


time


how the


graphs


would


developed.


This


partic


ipant


was


very pleased


with


outcome.


Question


twenty-two.


What


did


you


prefer about


videotape


with


blue


(model-developed)


black


(nonmodel-developed)


background?


Nnr0


(II~n I.'' I ri tT'C ii 1


t~ha i-


n n mm a v4 a A^


When did


vou notic


these


bYinlln


1 r i


III I. r ir








- 85


indicated


a preference


for


seeing more


instructor.


Other


students


disagreed


and


indicated


that


improved


graphics


offset


lack


a visible


instructor.


participant


suggested


that


might


interesting to


find a


method


for


combining the


graphics


and


views


instructor.


Another


student,


however


said


that


graphics were


much more


important.


These


improved graphics


would make


notetaking much


group


easier


unanimously thought


that


effectiveness


treatment


tape


far exceeded


control


tape


primarily


because


graphics.


participant


indicated


a strong preference


for white


letters


on blue


background.


This was


supported


by a


comment


that


writing


on the


chalkboard


was


unclear.


treatment


and


students were


tape


asked


was

two


divided

questions


into t

about


hree

each


segments,

segment.


Again


segment s


responses


for discus


have


sion


been


were


divided


by the


follows:


questions.


scenes


with


pop-in animation,


scenes with highlighting,


and


scenes


from


three-minute


scenario.


Question


twenty-three.


What


did


you notice


about


segment


videotape?


About


segment


with


pop-


animation,


non-2013


group


said


effect


made











permitted


entire


word


or subject


appear at


once.


group


said


that


pop-in


effect


produced


visual


instructor


talked


about


and


therefore


learner through


thought


subject


pop-in animation


matter.


was


parti


preferable


cipant


writing on


board


because


instructor


or the


instructor'


hand


often


blocked


writing.


participant


said


that


this


was an


essential


part


treatment


tape.


non-2013


focused


the interest

screen. The


group

the v


student


said


viewer


who


that


on the


preferred


highlighting


important


section


instructor


over the


graphics


also


preferred


instructor pointing


over the


highlighting.


All


2013


group


thought


highlighting was


essential.


person suggested


that


size


highlighting


reduced.


A participant


recalled


that


in one


case


on the


treatment


tape


arrow


blocked


some


numbers.


was


suggested


that


arrow


reduced


in size.


That


part


ipant


also


indicated


that


flashing the


arrow was


unnecessary


because


arrow alone


was


effe


ctive.


person in


non-201


group


had


been


critical


entertainment


aspect


this


segment


I I I


I I











some


were


moving to


music.


Three


students


expressed


their approval


scenario.


other


participant


expressed


strong disapproval


focusing


on the


scene


checkout


counter.


An argument


ensued,


as the


other participants


attempted


explain


value


music


drama


scenario.


part


cipant


said


that


music


aided in recalling the


concepts.


Another discussed


how the


graphs


(abstract


example


were


related


tape


to real


life


(concrete


example


Another


participant


described


how the


scenario


demonstrated relationships.


scussion finally


ended


because


participant


who


liked


scenario


decided


discontinue


participant


added


that


scenario


added an advantage


providing for explanation not


available


control


tape.


2013 group


thought


that


in an abstract


format


moving


graphs were


very


effective


for demonstrating the


relationship of


changes


in income


changes


in consumption.


They felt


that


music


assisted


recall


by relating the


concepts


examples.


participant


added


that


music


helped


hold


scenario


together.


Question


twenty-four.


What


improvements


would


you like


see


this


segment


tape


only


---





I









- 88


other participant,


however


, disagreed.


Another


participant


suggested


that


a zero


placed


in front


cimal


point


to avoid


confusion


when reading from a


tanc


highlighting


segment


one


participant


suggested


removing the


material


being


highlighted


save


need


for


highlighting.


Others,


however,


suggested


no changes


made


procedure.


participant


013 group


repeated an


earlier


suggestion


reducing the


highlighting


box.


non-2013


group


thought


that


music


scenario


was


very


helpful


and


that


needed


as dominant


as the


narrator.


participant


thought


that


transition


between


selected musical


ces


could


have


been


smoother.


parti


cipant


suggested


that


lady


scene


cast


so as


appear so


stupid.


person


was


not


sure


purpo


comic


everything


detail.


element


scenario


2013 group


thought


could


that


recall


music,


customers


, and


moving graphics were


all


essential and


effective.


They did not


suggest


any


changes.


They


did


suggest


that


other videotapes,


skit


could


used


place


music


add


variety.


Fynsri Thnmt 1











comparison


student


achievement


scores


between


students


who


viewed


treatment


one


and


students


who


viewed


control


tape.


Hypothesis


There


will


no differences


student


achievement


between


students


who


view model-developed


televised


instruction and


students


who


view


nonmodel


-developed


televised


instruction.


second


hypothesis


was


developed


from


data


provided


by the


focus


group analysis


treatment


tape.


strong


criticism


treatment


tape


came


from a


focus


group


participant


who


objected


musi


drama


used


scenario


as an unnecessary


distraction.


After discussing this


finding with Dr.


David


Denslow,


instructor


in the


course,


who


indicated


that


had received


similar


complaints


after


(Morris,


1984)


experiment,


investigator decided


eliminate


production


technique


music/drama from


treatment


tape


and


measure


results


student


achievement


for treatment


tape


against


treatment


tape


one


and


control


tape.


Hypothesi


There


will


no differences


in student


achievement


between


students


who


view model-developed


televised


instruction and


students


who


view model-developed