Establishing community college honors programs

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Title:
Establishing community college honors programs
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Heck, James, 1953-
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Subjects / Keywords:
Universities and colleges -- Honors courses -- United States   ( lcsh )
Community colleges -- United States   ( lcsh )
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1985.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 135-140).
Statement of Responsibility:
by James Heck.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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aleph - 000874851
notis - AEH2383
oclc - 14637133
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Full Text















ESTABLISHING


COMMUNITY


COLLEGE


HONORS


JAMES


PROGRAMS


HECK


A DISSERTATION


UNIVERSE ITY


PRESENTED


OF FLORIDA


TO THE GRADUATE


IN PARTIAL


SCHOOL OF


FULFILLMENT


OF THE


REQUIREMENT


DEGREE OF


DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1 OQR






































Copyright


Jame s


1985


Heck




































Thi s


Once,


is dedicated


during


to the


the Depression,


memory


was


my father,


offered


Charles


a scholarship


John Heck.

to Columbia


University


but had to decline


so that


he might


help


support


family.

















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


I am deeply


indebted


to many


individuals


have


assisted


throughout

Dr. James


the completion of


L. Wattenbarger,


this


project.


committee


especially


chairman,


wish


patients


to thank

y guided


the development


of the study.


Without


Dr. Wattenbarger's


encouragement,


support


friendship


throughout


my graduate


education,


could


not have


attempted


or completed


this


project.


Additionally,


Dr. Arthur


Sandeen


Vincent


McGui re,


committee members,


deserve


sincere


thanks


their


suggestions


advice.


students


and staff


associated


with


the Institute


of Higher


Education at


the University


of Florida also


deserve my


heartfelt


thanks


for tolerating me


while


worked


on this study.


Of them,


Ms. Kathy


Carroll


was


particularly


supportive.


also


wish


to thank Ms.


Carolyn


Suggs,


skillfully


operated


the word


processor


upon which


the final


copy


of this manuscript


was


produced.


I am


grateful


to the participating


honors


directors,


administrators


faculty


Community


at Rockland


College


Community


in Atlanta,


College


Georgia,


in Suffern,


and Daytona


Beach


York,


DeKalb


Community










extend


my appreciation


to Dr. Willis


Holcombe,


Vice


President


Brevard


Community


College


in Cocoa,


Florida,


for providing


me with


opportunity


to work as


an Administrative


Intern


in Academic


Affairs.


During


my internship


at Brevard


Community


College,


began my


first


formal


investigation


of the establishment


of community


college


honors


programs.


I must


also


thank Mr.


Martin


Lee Curry


of Brenau


College


in Georgia,


an extraordinary


teacher,


a gifted


writer,


a valued


friend.


addition


to making


numerous


contributions


my personal


professional


development,


Martin edited


many


versions


of this manuscript


made


continual


suggestions


regarding


contents.


Finally,


wish


to thank my


wife,


Stacy


, for


providing


the foundation


which enabled me


see this


project


through


to its completion.


While


pursuing


a demanding


career


in school


psychology,


Stacy


found


time


edit


type


this manuscript


on countless


evenings


weekends.


Much


more


than


these


tremendous


contributions,


though,


her unswerving


belief


in me


and her


unfailing


love


for me


not only


made


this


project


possible,


but also made


it worthwhile.



















TABLE OF CONTENTS


PAGE


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...................................... ..........


ABSTRACT........................................................... viii

CHAPTERS


Statement of Problem..........
Delimitations and Limitations.
Justification for the Study...
Assumptions...................
Definition of Terms...........
Procedures....................


*. a a a a a a a a a a ."a
.. .a. .a. . .. .. ... .
.. a a ... a. .. .. .. ... .
............................


Organization of the Research Report............................

II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE...................................


Literature Offering an Overview of
the Development of Collegiate Honors


Programs in American Higher Education........................
Literature Published Before the Creation
of the National Collegiate Honors Council..............
Literature Published Since the Creation of the
National Collegiate Honors Council.......................


Literature Specifically Related


to Honors Programs in Community Colleges.....................
Literature Published Before 1975.......................
Literature Published Since 1975..........................


Literature Related to Martorana and Kuhns


"Interactive Forces Theory" of Academic Change................ 49
Summary. .................................... .. ..... ........ ... 60

III STUDY SITES AND METHODOLOGY OF DATA ANALYSIS..................... 62


Selection of Study Sites..........


. . . .


0...


......


INTRODUCTION............................... ....................










IV RESULTS........................... .. ...... ......................


Exploration Stage......................... .. ....................
Formulation Stage...............................................
Trial Stage....................................................
Refinement Stage.. ............... ......... ... ............... ..
Institutionalization Stage.....................................
Summary of Results........................ ...................

DISCUSSION, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS....................

Discussion of Results.......................................


Recommendations:


A Model for the Establishment


and Continuation of Honors Programs at Community Colleges..... 104
Exploration Stage........................................... 105
Formulation Stage........................................... 110
Refinement Stage......................................... 115
Institutionalization Stage.................................. 119
Suggestions for Further Research.... .............. ........... 131


RERENCES................................... ....................... 135

APPENDIX


A. Checklist Used as Interview Guide........................... 141
B. Major Features of a Full Honors Program..................... 147
C. Informal Survey Sent to Academic Officers................... 149
D. List of Individuals Interviewed at Study Sites............. 151
E. Specific Colleges Belonging to the League for Innovation
in the Community College Listed as Having Honors Programs. 152

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...................... ................ .......... 15 3


















Abstract


of Dissertation


Presented


to the


Graduate
Florida


School


of the University


in Partial


Fulfillment


the Requirements
of Doctor of


for the Degree
Philosophy


ESTABLISHING


COMMUNITY


COLLEGE


HONORS


James


PROGRAMS


Heck


1985


Chairman:


Dr. James


Wattenbarger


Major


Department:


Honors


programs


Educational


, along with


Administration


special


programs


Supervision


for disadvantaged


and remedial


mission

should,


students,


by meeting

therefore,


help


the needs


community

of divers


a part


colleges

e student


community


to fulfill

s. Such p


college


their


programs


curriculum.


As community


college


leaders


begin


to plan


for the development


new honors


regarding


programs,


or the expansion of


successful


establishment


existing programs,


continuation


information


of community


college


honors


programs


should


prove


to be useful.


* *1 4


rM


*r


-- L


. 1 /- -* ^


~~^









event s


employed


in the


establishment


continuation


of honors


programs


at selected


community


colleges?


In particular,


researcher


attempted


the actual


to determine whether


establishment


strategies


and continuation


tactics


of ongoing honors


employed


programs


at these


selected


community


colleges


conformed


to the


five


finite


stages


proposed


by Martorana


and Kuhns


' theory


for academic


innova-


tions.


three


colleges


selected


for study were


chosen


because


they


met a majority


of recommendations


for honors


programs


published


the National


Collegiate Honors


Council.


Evidence


obtained


this


researcher


indicated


that


these


three


colleges


undergone


four


of the five


stages


of development


represented


Martorana


Kuhns'


model.


was


therefore


determined


that


actual


process


by which


these


three


community


college


honors


programs


were


established


did,


indeed,


conform


to the


following


four


stages


of development:


exploration,


formulation,


refinement


institutionalization.


Strategies


tactics


used


each


college


to implement


these


stages


of development


were


then


identified.


A model


specifically


designed


for the


establishment


con-


tinuation of


community


college


honors


programs


was


also


included


this


study.


This


model


incorporated


the researcher's


recommendations


concerning


the most


effective


strategies


tactics


related


to the


exploration,


formulation,


refinement,


institutionalization


stages


of academic


innovation.

















CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


Educators


our


nation


s community


colleges


have


long


recognized


that


students


deficient


in academic


skills


need


coursework designed


appropriate


level


of difficulty.


The premise


generally


governing


p rog rams


the academically


disadvantaged


is that


students


should


be encouraged


to realize


more


fully


their


potential


participating


courses


which match


their


ability


level.


This


same


premise


furnishes


the rationale"


an honors


program


intended


serve


the needs


of both


the academically


gifted


highly motivated


student


(Austin,


1975,


161).


Whereas


the unique


educational


needs


of handicapped,


mature,


international,


developmental


students


have


long


been


given


a great


deal


of attention,


the special


needs


of the talented


and gifted


students


as frequently


addressed


(National


Collegiate


Honors


Council,


1983,


In fact,


a 1975


survey


of the entire membership


American Association


Community


Junior


Colleges


revealed


that


of 664 respondents,


only


community


colleges


had developed


formalized


prog rams


for the gifted


(Olivas,


1975,


p. 1).


dearth


accelerated


program s


occurs


at a time


when


the number


of "high ability


students


attending


two-year


college s


growing


are










quarter


of their


graduating


high


school


class


(Bay


, 1978,


p. 18).


It is


projected,


moreover,


that


as the


cost


of tuition


in four-year


institutions


continues


to increase,


and as available


financial


declines,


more


academically-talented


students


will


be attending


local


community


colleges


(National


Collegiate


Honors


Council,


1983).


As reported


the National


Collegiate


Honors


Council


(NCHC),


research


has shown


that


a large


number


of exceptionally


talented


students


permanently


drop


out of college


(NCHC,


1983).


such


investigation,


conducted


Alexander


W. Astin,


reported


the findings


a nationwide


study


of 41,356


undergraduates


at 358


representative


two-year


colleges,


four-year


colleges,


and universities


(Astin,


1975,


3-4).


This


longitudinal,


follow-up


report


found


that


dropouts


tend


to list


"boredom


with


courses


as the


most


important


reason


for leaving


college.


Astin


stated


that


while


one


can argue


that


boredom


or dissatisfaction


with


requirements


represents


a handy


rationalization


failure


which


reality


is attributable


to other


causes


(poor


academic


performance,


example).


. nevertheless,


fully


percent


of the students


who give


boredom as


a reason


leaving


college


actually


have


average


grades


of B


or higher


" (1975,


17).


Astin,


therefore,


advanced


the notion


that


many


highly


talented


students


drop


of college


because


they


feel


appropriately


challenged.


He stated


that


these findings


suggest


that


the academic


programs


many


ergraduate


substantial
achievers.


institutions


numbers
Boredom


fail


of students


with


to capture
, including


courses


the int


some


rest


of the


an important


highest


factor










study


suggested


that


community


college


students


are identified


as highly


talented


are


as likely


to drop


as are


other


groups


students.


If community


college


leaders


value


the opportunity


retain


the growing


number


talented


students


attending


their


institutions,


it is time


to provide more


prog rams


specifically


designed


to meet


the needs


of those


students.


In addition


to this


increase


of academically-talented


students


attending


community


colleges,


other


far-reaching


environmental


trends


also


serve


to heighten


the need


community


college


honors


programs.


Finn


(1981)


saw


the primary


focus


of education at


levels


in the eighties


as being


the achievement


of quality.


Another


writer


perceived


a general


shift


toward


achievement


of quality


in the eighties


occurring


throughout


our


nation


s community


colleges


(Friedlander,


1983,


. 26).


Piland


Azbell


(1984)


noted


a similar


shift.


Such


influential


national


reports


as A Nation At


Risk,


also


have


emphasized


the need


our


country's


educational


system


to make


a concerted


effort


toward


establishing


more


rigorous


programs,


academically


especially


gifted


those


(National


students


Commission


considered


to be


on Excellence


in Education,


1983).


response


to such


specific


factors,


some


community


college


leaders


are beginning


to stress


the need


to plan and


implement


honors


programs.


They maintain


that


"while


high-cost,


labor










Gould,


1982,


26).


As quoted


in a


recent


NCHC


(1983)


publication,


Dr. Robert McCabe,


President


of Miami-Dade


Communi ty


College,


stated


that


with


an increased


focus


on achievement


in the community


college,


it is important


only


those


with


that
poor


these


academic


institutions


skills.


not become


Yet,


places


overwhelmed


problems


of the unprepared and


the task of


providing


support


them,


the community


neglected
aspect of
community
not only


a positive


superior


our


total


colleges.


to other


public


college
students.


has,


over


These


diversity,


superior


students
attitude


but also


towards


a period


students


they


can


student


of time,


represent


be well


one


served


is an important


in building


the community


asset,


and maintaining


college.


As McCabe


implied,


the need


"academic


balance


" (NCHC,


1983,


P. 4)


suggests

community


that


a well-designed


colleges.


honors


Like McCabe,


Pau


program

1 Elsner


deserves


a place


Chancellor


of the Maricopa


County


College


District


in Arizona


supported


the development


of honors


programs


at community


colleges.


During


testimony


before


the California


Post-secondary


Education


Commission,


he described


the honors


programs


Maricopa


Community


his commitment


to t


Colleges.

he programs


Following


station


this d

2 that


description,


our


Elsner

hope t


affirmed


hat


provide


that


kind


opportunity


on a


continuing


basis


" (Elsner


1984,


As community


college


leaders


begin


to plan


for the origination


honors


programs,


or the expansion


of existing


programs,


information


regarding


the establishment


and continuation


of community


college


honors


programs


should


prove


beneficial.


This


study will


provide


academic


decision


makers


with


this


information.


can


new










Statement


of the Problem


Levine


(1980)


suggested


that


"the


process


of innovation


involves

these st


a series


eps may


innovation is


of predictable,


predictable


terminated


prior


sequential


steps


sequential,


to achieving


" (p.


" frequently


its intended


Although

academic


purpose


(Levine,


1980,


p. 9).


Levine


also


noted


that


unfortunately,


there


little


in the


consensus


among


the studies


about


how many


steps


there might


be in the


sequence


or what


the individual


steps


This

stage


lack of co

s involved


nsensus


concerning


in academic


the number


innovation


renders


characteristics


it difficult


of the

academic


decision makers


to plan


of the phases


in the "life


cycle


(Martorana


Kuhns,


1975,


179)


a successful


innovation.


Information


regarding


sequence


event s


involved


in a


particular


type


of innovation


within a


specific


institutional


context may


prove


be useful.


This


study,


therefore,


sought


to answer


the following


question:


Does


the theory


of academic


innovation as


described


Martorana and


Kuhns


their


"Interactive


Forces


Theory


describe


sequence


events


employed


in the establishment


continuation


of honors


programs


selected


determine


community


whether


establishment


colleges?


Specifically,


the strategies


and continuation


tactics


of well


the researcher


employed


established


sought


in the


honors


programs


selected


community


colleges


followed


the five


finite


stages


that


are


" (p.










honors


program


be classified


under


the five


stages


identified


Martorana


Kuhns?


Were


study


stages


at least


identified


outlined


two of the three


as having


community


experienced


Martorana and


Kuhns


colleges


five


in the


selected


developmental


process


establishing


continuing


their


honors


programs?


Delimitations


and Limitations


confinements


observed


in this


study


primarily


involved


population/sample,


setting,


instrumentation,


and data


analysis.


They may


be listed


as follows


This


study


employed


qualitative


evaluation


techniques.


When


using


this


particular


research


app roach descriptions


situations,


events


behaviors;


direct


quotations


from


individuals

documents a


concerning


nd records


their

become


experiences;

important (P


and,


'atton,


excerpts

1980).


from

Access


of the pertinent


information needed,


within any


given


academic


setting,


be available.


Therefore,


this


particular


limitation of


ex post


facto


exploratory


field


research


inherent


in this


the establishment


study.


Specifically,


continuation


of hono


documents r

rs programs


elating


at selected


community


colleges


not have


been


exhaustive


and may


not have


objectively


reflected


what


occurred


at the respective


colleges.










and continuation


of the honors


programs


at the selected


campuses


not have


been available


interviewing.


The setting


of this


study


was


that


of three


comprehensive


community


colleges.


ex post


facto


case


study


of each


college


undertaken in an


effort


to address


the problem


statement


with


depth and


detail.


attempt


to make


context-free


generalizations


concerning


the findings


of this


study


would


inappropriate.


Since


the open-ended


interview


guide


approach


was


employed


while


collecting


data,


no set of standardized


questions


was


developed


in advance.


However,


a special


checklist


was


compiled


to be used


during


the interviews


(see Appendix A).


While


using


this


type


instrument,


the interviewer


required


to adapt


both


the wording


sequence


of questions


to the specific


situation.


Further,


some


questions may


prove


to be


germane


to the mode


inception


continuation


employed


at a given


institution.


This


places


a constraint


on the degree


to which information


cross-referenced


from one


college


to another.


In qualitative


research,


"theory


construction


is inductive,


pragmatic,

the intent


highly


of this


concrete


study


was


e" (Patton,

to report a


1980,


Lnd explain


276). While

causes and


consequences


clearly


that


recognized


emerged

that "


during


such


the data


theoretical


analysis,

linkages


it should

are


was


can










Because


of time


limitations


placed


upon


the researcher


those


individuals


being


interviewed,


was not


possible


to question


each


individual


on every


item


of the interview guide.


emphasis,

depending


therefore,


upon


changed


the circumstances.


from interview


to interview


Additionally,


individuals


frequently were


and continuation


involved


honors


in different


programs


stages


were


of the establishment


seldom able


comment


on all


phases


of the life


cycle


of the innovation.


description


of the


stages


that


the selected


colleges


experienced


had to be inferred


considering


the perceptions


as many


individuals


as possible.


one


person


was


interviewed


could


offer


a comprehensive


vision


of what


occurred


during


establishment


continuation


of the honors


program at


their


respective


college.


The researcher


arbitrarily


determined


when


he had interviewed


sufficient


number


of individuals.


This


determination


was made


after


the researcher


interviewed


of the available


individuals


reported


pertinent


faculty


administrators


have


knowledge


of the establishment


continuation


of their


respective


honors


program.


Justification


for the Study


When


compared


to the total


number


of community


colleges


our










National


Collegiate


Honors


Council,


1983).


According


a NCHC


(1983)


publication,


past


five


years,


the comprehensive mission


of the


two-year


college


has expanded


to include


the special


needs


of talented


gifted


students


" (p.


Friedlander


(1983)


stated


the primary


from


concern


the attainment


to the achievement


of community


of equity
f quality


college


in the


education


educators


sixties


moved


the seventies


in the eighties.


manifestation


this


movement


toward


quality


education


revival


of honors


programs.


Piland


Gould


(1982)


also


observed


an increased


interest


establishing


honors


programs


stated


that,


an honors


program


would


seem an appropriate


service


to the gifted


students


of the community


" (p.


25).


Similarly,


(1978)


perceived


a need


to establish


and maintain


more


honors


programs


at the community


colle


level


suggested


that


these


goals


"deserve


faculty


attention and


administrative


support


18).


Furthermore,


an informal


survey


of chief


academic


administrators


community


colleges


in Florida


thirteen


other


eastern


states


which


conducted


this


writer


in the fall


of 1983,


also


suggested


that


there


is a growing

twenty-seven


interest

returned


in establishing

questionnaires


new honors

in which th


programs.


e respondents


indicated


that


their


respective


colleges


not have


an honors


program,


twenty-one


indicated


that


they


felt


an honors


program should


be included


community


college


curriculum.


As previously mentioned,


this


developing


interest


in establishing


honors


programs


in community


colleges


occurs


concurrently with


" (p.


was


I










makers


with knowledge


concerning


the successful


development


of these


programs.


area


Since


of community


very


little


college


formal


honors


research


programs,


been


this


study


conducted


serves


in the


to provide


muc h


needed


information in


the field.


Assumptions


Some


educators


argue


that


very


concept


of having


an honors


program at


community


colleges


is inconsistent


with


that


institution


stated


mission


of providing


equal


educational


opportunity


for all.


Piland


Gould


(1982)


summarized


some


of these


arguments


in their


survey


some


of 48 Illinois


respondents


programs.


bright
such a


These


students,
program,


community


reported
negative
a belief


that


colleges.


definite
reactions


that


there


They


reasons
include


students


were


stated


against honors
d a fear of isolating


would


not participate


not enough academically


talented


students


to warrant


a program.


In addition,


other writers


have


noted


that


honors


programs


are


often


subject


to charges


of elitism


(Daniel,


1978;


Rother


1978


Smith,


1981;


Straus,


1976;


Weir,


1976).


As Daniel


(1978)


suggested


there
elemen


seem always
ts within h


to be
Higher


a few friendly


education


or not


perceive


so friendly


Honors


as an


elitist,


undemocratic


aristocracy


seeking


to increase


advantages


the advantaged.


The critics


selective


that


admission


Daniel


process


and others


special


write


of maintain


incentive


programs


that


frequently


employed


in honors


programs


violate


the spirit


of equalitarianism which


an imnnrtnntn


nljitt-n r4nn


ePt nrao


nf Ama yi ro .


i okno-


Sirr n'rt Pr yQO-


a ianor~ t


i


n


I~I j It I









to the philosophy


expressed


John


Gardner


(1961)


in his


classic


work,


Excellence


We Be Equal


Excellent


Too?


In this


work and


in the


recently


revised


edition


(1984),


Gardner


explored


the issues


excellence


equalitarianism.


He stated


ext reme


equalitarianism--or


equalitarianism wrongly


as I


would


conceived--which


prefer


ignores


say,
differences


native
Carried


capacity


and achievement,


enough,


means


has not served


the lopping


democracy well.


heads


which


come


above


dead


smothered


level.
group.


means


committee


means


rule,


the end


the individual


of that


striving


excellence


which


has produced


mankind' s


greatest


achievements.


Honors


programs,


along


with


programs


disadvantaged


and remedial


students,


are


developed


to meet


the diverse


needs


of students.


They


therefore


assist


community


colleges


in actually


fulfilling


their


mission.


Within


this


study,


the assumption


has been made


that


honors


prog rams


have


an important


role


in community


colleges,


that


discovering


successful


strategies


tactics


currently


available


for use


in implementing


these


programs


a worthwhile


task.


In addition


to propounding


the position


that


honors


programs


deserve


a place


in the community


college


curriculum,


a significant


methodological


assumption


is also


inherent


in this


study.


researcher


assumed


that


an ex post


facto


case


study


approach


to answering


this


particular


problem


statement


was


most


appropriate


approach.


limitations


quantitative

limitations


data c

related


collected

to the


from responses

writing skills


to questionnaires,


such as


of respondents,


impossibility


of probing


or extending


responses,


and the effort


required










own words


" (Patton,


1980,


29).


intent,


therefore,


was


not to


provide


statistical


analysis,


but to provide


qualitative


data


that


ascertain


what


people


s lives,


experiences,


and interactions


mean


them


in their


own


terms


in their


natural


surroundings


" (Patton,


1980,


22).


Definition


of Terms


following


terms


were


defined


purposes


of this


study:


A Comprehensive


community


college


is an educational


institution


designed


to meet


the postsecondary


needs


a local


community


offering


comprehensive


curriculum


consisting


of general,


transfer,


occupational


and continuing


education


programs


" (Henderson,


1982,


11).


These


institutions


are


"locally


controlled


are sensitive


to the needs


the community


" (p.


11).


Continuation


an honors


program


is operationally


defined


as the


strategies


academic


tactics


innovation as


employed


defined


during


the institutionalization


in Martorana


and Kuhns


stage


' (197


"Interactive


Forces


Theory.


Establishment


an honors


program


is operationally


defined


as the


strategies


tactics


employed


during


the exploration,


formulation,


trial, and refinement

Martorana and Kuhns'


stages

(1975)


of academic

"Interactive


innovation


Forces


as defined


Theory.


Five


Stages


of Academic


Innovation


(contained


in Martorana


and Kuhns'










Exploration


stage


in the life


cycle


an innovation


is marked


"discussion,


exploration,


conceptualization.


This


stage


extends


from


the first


awareness


of the innovation


to the first


official


action


sanctioning


an effort


in this


direction


179).


The Formulation


stage


is characterized


information-compiling


elements


issues


identified


during


the exploration


stage.


formulation


stage


ends


when a


decision


is made


to try


the innovation


179).


The Trial


stage


of academic


innovation


pilot


operation


limited


in time and


scope


but otherwise


involving


institutional


elements


which


would


be included


were


the practice


permanent"


. 179).


Refinement


stage


of academic


innovation


extends


from


the initial


trial


of proposal


to the point


of decision


to continue


innovative


development,


but with


purpose


of sharpening


its focus


or design


" (p.


179).


The Institutionalization


stage


involves


the "full


acceptance


of the


innovation,


including


its movement


into


the regular


operations


of the


institution.


A new


state


of equilibrium


has been


reached,


institutionalization


being


closure


of the developmental


cycle


" (p.


180).


An Honors


program,


in its


most


general


definition,


consists


of the


"total


set of


ways


by which an academic


institution


attempts


to meet


educational


needs


of its ablest


most


highly motivated


students


(Austin,


1979,


p. 160).


Austin continued


his definition


stating


that


" (p.










(1966b)


definition also


suits


the intent


of this


study:


organized


attempts


to provide


superior


students


with


a special


different


learning


experience"


Honors


programs,


from


institution


to institution,


usually


assume


various


curriculum models.


Generally,


however,


honors


programs


are


concerned


with


providing


special


programs


those


students


deemed


academically


talented.


criteria


used


identify


the academically


talented


also


vary,


but standardized


test


scores,


grade


point


averages,


teacher


recommendations,


or other measures


suggesting


high academic


aptitude


or achievement


are frequently


used.


Honors


programs


often


have


the following


common


characteristics


special


sections


courses


with


limited


enrollment


specific


faculty


are trained


to meet


the needs


of the academically


talented;


special


incentives


participants,


such


as scholarships


and transfer


assistance;


a central


administrative


network


with


one


individual


overseeing


available

study, in


the operation


to students


ternships,


of the


earning


tutorials.


program,


honors


(A more


and (4)


credit,


various


such as


complete


options


independent


description


of what


is normally


considered


to be


a complete


honors


program,


entitled


"Major


Features


a Full


Honors


Program,


appears


in Appendix B.)


terms


junior


college


community


college


will


be used


somewhat


interchangeably


in this


study.


differentiation


terms


generally


refers


to the


expansion


of the mission


of the junior


college


in the late


1960s


and 1970s


to include


occupational


continuing


educational










A strategy


an overall


plan


of action


achieving


a goal.


Strategies


take


into


consideration


what


to be achieved,


"how


these


goals


be achieved


with


assurance


efficiency


" (Martorana


Kuhns,


1975,


163).


Within


this


study


, all


critical


decisions


that


affected


the characteristics


of implemented


honors


programs


also


will


considered


strategies.


Tactics


are


"the


specific


actions


taken


to implement


chosen


strategies.


Tactics


are


ways


of carrying


strategies.


They


are means


toward


implementing


stragety


that


is being


followed"


(Martorana


Kuhns,


1975,


163)


Well


established


honors


programs


are operationally


defined


in the


following manner:


program,


to be considered


well


established,


must


meet


eight


or more


of the recommendations


listed


in the fifteen-point


statement,


"Major


Features


a Full


Honors


Program.


This


statement


issued


the Inter-university


Committee


on the Superior


Student


(ICSS),


appeared


in a


NCHC


publication,


Handbook


the Evaluation


Honors


Program


(NCHC,


no date).


Procedures


researcher


conducted


an informal


survey


regarding


community


college


honors


programs


in the fall


1983.


This


three


page


survey was


sent


to the chief


academic


administrator


at twenty-eight


community


colleges


in Florida,


three


randomly


selected


community


colleges


in each


can


was










Answers


to the following


questions


were


sought


the institution


have


a college-wide


honors


program?


what


were


its essential


components?


What


suggestions


could


the respondents


offer


to those


interested

assisted t


in establishing


he researcher


new programs?


in determining


Essentially,


nature


this survey

current community


college


honors


programs


in identifying


those


colleges


that


apparently


have


well


developed


programs.


After


reviewing


surveys,


three


colleges


that


were


determined


have


well


established


programs


were


selected


further


study.


guidelines


used


to select


the three


colleges


included


the following


criteria


The colleges


selected


eight


or more


of the recommendations


listed

Honors


in the fifteen-point


Program.


This


statement


statement


was


"Major

issued


Features


a Full


Inter-university


Committee


on the Superior


Student


(ICSS),


appears


in a


NCHC


publication,


Handbook


for the Evaluation


Honors


Program


(NCHC,


date).


Although


the ICSS


recommendations


are


not specifically


designed


community


colleges,


this


statement,


nevertheless,


served


as a useful


tool


for evaluating


community


college


programs.


colleges


selected


had historical


data


available


to the


researcher.


Individuals


that


were


directly


invo ved


in the development


ai










Upon


selection


of the colleges,


the qualitative


research methods


conducting


open-ended


interviews


and examining


related


documents


were


employed


to collect


the data.


interviews


were


tape


recorded


using


cassette


tape


recorder.


Documents


examined


included


committee


meeting


minutes,


personal


group


memos,


newspaper


clippings,


various


proposals,


other miscellaneous materials.


A list


of the


persons


interviewed


with


their


corresponding


professional


titles


college


affiliations


appears


in Appendix


Using


aspects


of Martorana


Kuhns


S"Interactive


Forces


Theory


(outlined


in their


book,


Managing Academic


Change,


1975)


as a structural


framework and


with


their


personal


assistance,


the possible


strategies


tactics


were


developed


from


the review


of literature.


possible


st ra tegies


and tactics


planning


implementing


an honors


p rog ram


were


divided


this


study


into


five


developmental


stages:


exploration,


formulation,


trial,


refinement,


and institutionalization.


each


stage,


three


outlined,


possible


several


strategies


tactics


were


were


suggested


outlined.


each


as possible


means


strategy


toward


implementing


the particular


strategy.


After


the list


of possible


strategies


tactics


was complied,


checklist


was


Appendix A).

Qualitative


developed


Using


which


was


the guidelines


Evaluation Methods,


used


as an interview


set forth


general


in Patton


interview


guide


(see


s (1980)


guide


book


approach"


employed.


Honors


program


coordinators


and other


pertinent


college


was










each


developmental


stage,


not appearing


on the checklist


that


were


employed.


In addition,


available


documents


that


have


supported


the observations


of the respondents


were


examined.


Upon determining


that


at least


two strategies


specifically


related


each


developmental


evidence


been


stage


shown


been


employed,


of the responding


was


college's


concluded


that


experiencing


those


particular


developmental


stages.


The researcher


made


this


determination


a simple majority


of the


individuals


interviewed


the documents


examined


indicated


that


such


strategies


had indeed


been


employed.


If it


demonstrated


that


at least


two strategic s


were


employed


each


the five


considered


developmental


valid


stages,


then Martorana


the implementation of


Kuhns


community


' theory was


college


honors


programs


being


studied.


purposes


of this


investigation,


if Martorana


Kuhns'


"Interactive


Forces


Theory


was


judged


to be valid


two of the three


colleges


studies,


the theory was


considered


a valid


description


of the


stages


of development


that


well


established


honors


programs


follow during


the maturation


process.


Once


the data


were


collected


evaluated,


specific


recommendations


as to the most


effective


strategies


tactics


employed


in developing


successful


community


college


honors


p rog rams


were


offered.


These


recommendations


are


structured


around


the developmental


stages


academic


innovation,


presented


in Martorana


Kuhns


"Interactive


Forces


a. --


was


m--


1


1 _


II I _


I _










and Kuhns


appears


to be valid,


and to study what


have


been


found


to be


most


effective


strategies


tactics


at each


stage


program


development.


Organization


of the Research Report


This


research


project


is organized


in the


following


manner:


Chapter


I discusses

limitations,


the introduction,

justification, a


problem


assumptions,


:atement, de

definition


limitations


terms,


and

and


procedures.


Chapter


II contains


the review


of related


literature,


which


encompasses

overview of


higher


programs


two general


topics


the development


education,


in community


literature


of collegiate


literature


colleges.


honors


specifically


The material


offering

programs


related


in this


an historical

in American


to honors


section


organized


in a


general


chronological


manner.


Also


contained


in Chapter


II is


a review


of literature


related


to Martorana


and Kuhns'


"Interactive


Forces


Theory


of academic


change.


Chapter


III is


a discussion


of the study


sites


me thodo logy


data analysis.


Chapter


IV is an analysis


of the data


obtained


while


studying


the establishment


continuation


of honors


programs


selected


colleges.


Finally


, Chapter


V is a discussion


of the results,


list


of recommendations


programs


at community


including


colleges,


a model


suggestions


the establishment


further


of honors


research.
















CHAPTER


REVIEW


OF RELATED


LITERATURE


review


of literature


related


to honors


programs


encompassed


specific


areas:


material


offering


an overview of


the development


collegiate


honors


programs


in American


higher


education and


material


specifically


related


to honors


programs


in community


colleges.


examining


these


areas


of the literature,


the primary


focus


material


that


offered


information


regarding


the establishment


continuation


honors


programs.


Since


little


literature


dealt


with


this


specific


topic


directly,


much


of its relationship


to the problem


this


study was


inferred.


As a result


of the great


variety


found


among


approaches


organize


concerns


the review


of writers


literature


in this field,


thematically.


no attempt


Rather,


was made


two sections


were


arranged


in a general


chronological manner.


Also,


each


of the


primary


sections


was


divided


into


two sub-sections


where


events


seemed


warrant


this


division.


This


study


basically


tested


a theory


of academic


change


(Interactive


Forces

program


Theory)


in relation


in community


colleges


a particular a

). Therefore,


academic

a brief


innovation

synthesis


(honors

of the


literature


that


Martorana and


Kuhns


(1975)


employed


in developing


their


was










Literature


Offering


an Overview


of the Development


of Collegiate


Honors


Programs


in American


Higher


Education


Literature


Published


Before


the Creation


of the National


Collegiate


Honors


Council


The existence


back


of honors


to the latter years


programs


of the 19th


in America

century.


higher


According


education dates

to Rinehart


(1978),


recognition at


graduation


as an honors


student


began at


Wesleyan


College


in 1873,


at the University


of Michigan


in 1883.


Honors


designation at


that


time


was


based


upon


the completion


a pre-specified


type o

Around


f coursework


turn


, thesis,


of the


century,


a more

several


individualized


Eastern


academic


colleges,


program.


including


Harvard and


Columbia,


also


initiated


special


programs


talented


students


(Cohen,


1966a).


Harvard


implemented


a modest


attempt


establishing


departmental


honors,


Columbia


College,


in 1909,


established


a three


year


program


for talented


students


(Buchler,


1954;


Cohen,


1966a).


efforts


of Frank Aydelotte


to inititate


honors


work


at Swarthmore


College,


however,


are


widely


recognized


as the inceptive


steps


in the development


of honors


work in America


(Austin,


1975;


Cohen,


1966a;


Rinehart,


1978


Sell,


1981).


In 1922,


while


was


President


Swarthmore,


Aydelotte


initiated an


honors


program


largely


based


upon what


he had earlier


observed


as a Rhodes


Scholar


at Oxford


University


(Bhatia


Painter,


1980).


In 1830


, Oxford


modified


its tutorial


system and


began


to differentiate


between


the Pass


Honors


degrees


(Rinehart,


1978).










aspects


of the curriculum maintained


a strong


resemblance


to Oxford


pass-honors


system.


Aydelotte


wrote


a pioneering


report


in 1925


on the honors


movement


America


(Aydelotte,


1925).


Thi s


report,


entitled


"Honors


Courses


American


Colleges


Universities,


was


based


upon


an extensive


catalog


study


of honors


education at


that


time


(Rinehart,


1978).


report


indicated


that


a large


number


of colleges


and universities


have


honors


systems


under


consideration at


present


time


(Aydelotte,


1925,


It concluded,


however,


with


the statement


that


"the


actual


achievement


here


recorded


is less


important


that


the promise


implied


in the


widespread


interest


in the subject


" (p.


In 1942,


the faculty


at Swarthmore


recorded


the development


of their


program


in a


book


entitled,


An Adventure


in Education:


Swarthmore


College


Under


Frank Aydelotte


(Swarthmore


College


Faculty,


1942).


This


account


described


in detail


the major


events


that


occurred


over


nineteen-year period


while


the planning


implementation


of their


program


took


place.


Subsequently,


Aydelotte


(1944)


published


the first


major


history


of the development


of honors


programs


throughout


American


higher


education.


Thi s


book,


Breaking


Academic


Lockstep


Development


of Honors


Work in American


Colleges


Universities,


based


upon


his experiences


at Swarthmore


and his study


of 116


honors


programs


at other


colleges


universities.


Among


other


topics,


Aydelotte


discussed


honors


comprehensive


examinations,


administrative


- 4


was


I*





_










Also,


some


of the


programs


he studied


were


found


to be


no longer


existence


the date


book was


published


(Cohen,


1966b).


program


which


thrived,


however,


was


implemented


Joseph


Cohen


at the University


of Colorado


in 1928.


This


program


introduced
university
sophomore
. and


seven


ral key


concept


honors


was


budgetary


and newsletter.


features


of general,


devised


provisions


(Rinehart,


Cohen


were


1978


education


in a


lower-division


and his


made
. 17)


large,


public


freshmen and


colleagues


an honors


in 1930


library


Although


honors


programs


existed


at the University


of Colorado


limited


number


of other


large


state


universities,


a great


deal


of the


early


literature


concerning


honors


programs


focused


upon


private


colleges


and universities.


However,


an event


took


place


in 1957


that


would


significantly


institutions.


extend


In that


scope


year,


of honors


a national


programs


conference


to public


was


organized


Joseph


Cohen


pursue


three


specific


objectives


that


would


notably


impac t


the development


of honors


programs.


These


objectives


were


to "1)


form


the Inter-University


Committee


on the Superior


Student


(ICSS)


as a


clearinghouse


information,


publish a


newsletter,


Superior


Student,


and,


establish a


visitation


system


to gather


information


existing


programs


" (Sell,


1981,


p. 4).


Shortly


after


its inception,


ICSS


received


a grant


from


the Carnegie


Commission of


$125


,000,


which was


later


renewed


in 1960


(Rinehart,


1978,


18-19).


continuing


efforts


of the ICSS


the dispersal


of information


the ICSS'


newsletter,


The Superior


Student,


a rapid


increase











years


1958


and 1964,


peak circulation


of 12,000"


(Rinehart,


1978,


20).


Rinehart


reported


that


journal


contained


practical


information about


dozens


honors


programs


around


country.


It also


provided analysis


interpretation


of theoretical


issues,


such


as women


honors,
honors


honors


democracy,


in the professions,


honors


and honors


the minority


research


student,


and evaluation.


journal


published articles


Margaret


Mead,


"Gender


in the


Honors


Program,


was


a member


of the ICSS


executive


committee f
Perspective
leading aca
with the ho


r four years,
on Dialogue."


demicians


nors


Marshal McLuhan,


Other


connected


movement.


(pp.


articles


either
20-21)


were


directly


"A Fresh


contributed b
or indirectly


Having


private


believed


institutions


that


their mission


to public


to extend


institutions


was


honors

largely


programs beyond

fulfilled, the


ICSS


disbanded


in the


summer


of 1964


(Sell,


1981).


a final


statement


of that


organization,


Joseph


Cohen


edited


a volume


of material


concerning


the honors


movement,


entitled


Superior Student


in American


Higher


Education


(Cohen,


1966c).


This


work covered


a variety


of topics


including


the history


the honors movement,


the development


of the


ICSS,


the evaluation


of honors


programs,


and the characteristics


honors


students.


Literature


Published


Since


the Creation


of the National


Collegiate


Honors


Council


With


the termination


of the ICSS


in 1964


came


the formation


another


organization,


the National


Collegiate


Honors


Council


(NCHC),


which


was


designed


to promote


honors


work.


name


of this


organization


Sa n 1 i a A n


A i(rcn rr A C A ~


Ic 5*lrr, ^4


rr rrr A I ~ A I C


lirmrr n


DA IA I^ A *n .f


rrF 4-U^.


l l


M1










NCHC,


entitled


Forum for


Honors,


has replaced


Superior


Student


as the


major


source


of information


regarding


honors


programs.


Much


of what


reviewed


in the following


pages


this section


of this


paper


is drawn


from


that


publication.


of the leading


writers


in the field


of honors


programs


since


1966


has been


C. Grey


Austin,


Director


of Honors


at Ohio


State


University.


addition


to publishing


numerous


articles


in Forum


Honors,


his work


has appeared


in several


periodicals


exclusively


concerned


with


honors


work.


such article


appeared


in the Journal


of Higher


Education


(Austin,


1970)


, in which Austin argued


open admissions


to honors


programs.


He suggested


that


having


grades


and standardized


test


scores


serve as sc

of the most


reening


desirable


devices may


discourage


characteristics


those

honors


students who

program wor


possess


k--curiosity


creativity.


He implied


that


those


students


prove


themselves


with


grade


point


averages


standardized


test


scores


be academic


conformists


often


lack


the important


traits


needed


honors


work.


Another


article


Austin


(1975)


which


appeared


in The Educational


Record,


provided


a comprehensive


view


of honors


work.


In this


article,


Austin


examined


a wide


range


of topics


including


the following


rationale


honors,


modern approaches,


institutional


objectives,


academic


integrity


honors


alternatives,


counseling.


Austin


concluded


that


our young


many


people


talents


are
our


to have
colleges


opportunities


to develop


universities


their


are to attract


- -


_


1


I


I










In subsequent


literature,


Brother


(1978)


offered


an account


of her


experiences


while


initiating


an honors


program at


a large


state


university.


In this


report,


she emphasized


the necessity


of having


detailed


written analysis


of the


need


such a


program and


possible


plans


its implementation approved


appropriate


committees


administrators


down


the line


" (pp.


4-5).


Brother


also


stressed


that


the initial


plan


should


be presented


as a limited


pilot


project.


concluded


that


the most


challenging


aspects


involved


in starting


a new


program are


coping with


the administrative


structure


and (


countering


the opposition


the anti-elitists


Austin


(1978)


later wrote


of the desirability


of establishing


a sense


community


among


college


students.


He stressed


the importance


honors


students


learning


from


each


other


concluded


that


methods


teaching which


encourage mutual


learning


are


superior


to those


that


encourage


solitary


learning.


Austin also


discussed


the advantages


having


an honors


lounge


to be used


as an informal


gathering


place


participants.


Like


Brother,


Daniel


(1978)


examined


the criticism


that


honors


programs


are


elitist,


which


often


been


levelled


against


such


programs.


He suggested


that


supporters


of honors


programs


insufficiently


our


failure


answered


has been a


this


charge


failure


of elitism.


to clarify


Dani


the fact


observed


that


honors


that


work is


not better


than;


it is better


for"


(Daniel,


1978,


18).


He summarized


- S


" (p.


L


L










characteristics.


courses.


Honors


Honors


courses


instructors


are


are


not better


not better


than


than


other


other


instructors.


non-honors


If they were,


sections


would


we who


teach


be educational


both


honors


schizophrenics


questionable


morality


indeed.


Very


little


formal


research


been


done


relating


only


to the


strategies


tactics


establishing


continuing


honors


programs.


study


Rinehart


(1978),


however,


is somewhat


allied


to this


topic.


In his


study,


Rinehart


considered


what


has been,


currently


should


be the curricular


instructional


innovation


used


honors


programs


in American


higher


education


to meet


their


primary


goal


providing


challenging


educational


opportunities


academically


superior


undergraduate


students


" (pp.


4-5).


Rinehart


sent


detailed


questionnaires


to 140

NCHC (


honors


pp.


directors


52-53).


whose


He analyzed


programs


more


than


were


institutional members


600 pages


of the


of information


returned


the 72 responding


directors


53).


After


completing


this


analysis,


Rinehart


concluded


that


honors


programs ha
independent


lye


relied


study.


innovation and


primarily
In these a


influenced


on interdisciplinary


areas


higher


they


have


education


pioneered


to the point


seminars


needed
where


these
have


methods


not,


are


however,


established


been a


in most


leader


colleges.


in initiating


Honors


prog rams


or promoting


promising


new


learning


content


areas


methods.


166)


Pickering


(1979)


made


several


predictions


regarding


the future


of the


honors


programs


in the 1980s.


The majority


of his predictions


were


derived


from


the suggestion


that


"the


economic


plight


of higher


education


will


be particularly


supporters


of honors


hard


on honors


programs


will


programs


need


" (p.


to clearly


He concluded


articulate


that


a defense










The charges


of elitism


were


once


again addressed


in Smith's


(1981)


article,


"Ideas


That


Ramify:


Honors


in an


Open Admissions


Commuter


Institution


" (1981).


Although


Smith acknowledges


that


honors


programs


have


long


been associated


with


exclusive


private


institutions,


suggested


that


they


are


perhaps


most


appropriate


in large,


open-admissions


colleges


where


the student


body


diverse


needs.


Smith


summarized


argument


cogently


stating


the following


By permitting
talented and


low tuition


serious


state


undergraduates


universities


the kind


to offer


their most


of educational


experience
expensive


that


liberal


would


arts


otherwise
colleges,


be limited


honors


to students


has contributed


to the


egalitarian


tradition


extending


educational


opportunity


the less


affluent.


As a further


investigative


effort,


Daniel


(1982a)


wrote


a two-part


article wh

implement

considered

effort "to


ich


is particularly


an honors

possible


communica


program. I

off-campus

te clearly,


helpful


to those


In the first

activities

honestly a


part


tha

nd


t


attempting


to plan and


of the article,


could


Daniel


be undertaken in an


effectively what


honors


to those


whose


understanding


support


will


spell


survival


or demise


Throughout


the article,


he delineated


four


questions


that


must


be considered


while


marketing


honors


programs.


They


clarification


of what


honors


is," (


"what


target


population must


addressed,


" (3)


what


are


or might


be the most


effective


ways


addressing


each group,


and (4)


"what


are


some


of the different


ways


honors


programs


have


responded


to these


questions


" (Daniel,


1982a,


Daniel


s conclusions


were


summarized


in the


statement


are










guidance
should in
students,


counselors,


Involve


direct


faculty


the wider
contact


community.


with


or administrator


That


representative
s. (p. 26)


approach ideally
es of honors,


part


two,


Daniel


(1982b)


discussed


on-campus


marketing


considerations.


As he stated,


"within


the institution,


Honors


program among many


competing


support


participation


proposed


specific


participation


faculty,


strategies useful

honors among three


and students.


Daniel


in developing

on-campus gr


concluded


with


support


oups:


the follow


administrators,

ing suggestions:


recruiting


a clear


This means


Second,
Honors
should


students,


support


evaluation and


a continuing


faculty i
as a means


do best;


good


and personal.


of administration and


presentation


process


of self


involvement depends
of enabling them


an ally,
advising
Finally,


upon
to do


of what


study
their
what


not a competitor.


is the key,
recruitment


faculty


honors


ca


begins
n do.


response.


t


perception
hey do bes


Third,


it must


of good


t--or


to retain


be systematic


students


depends


providing th
in education


em with what


can and


ought


they


need


to be.


a vision


what


excellence


Literature


Specifically


Related


to Honors


Programs


in Community


Colleges


Literature


Published


Before


1975


Since


significant


interest


in the establishment


and continuation


honors


programs


at community


colleges


a relatively


recent


development,


the body


of literature


specifically


relevant


to this


topic


does


not have


a long


history.


In fact


most


of what


been written was


published


within


done,


the last


still


decade.


fewer


Moreover,


full-length


very


books


little


have


formal


been


research


published


has been


on the


topic.


The majority


of what


appeared


consists


of relatively


brief


" (p.


First,










Educational


Resources


Information


Center


(ERIC)


document


file.


Eldersveld


(1961)


was


one


the earliest


writers


to raise


following


question:


If instruction at


the junior


college


is "directed


toward


average


student,


is the able


student


being


neglected?"


54).


In this


article,


wrote


primarily


of his experiences


at Grand


Rapids


Junior


College


where


was


Dean


of Instructional Affairs.


Eldersveld

significant


surveyed


number


of wh


the students

at he termed


that


able


college


students


and had found


were


that


not being


sufficiently


challenged.


He concluded


that


need


to provide


instructors

evident, an


with more


d the need


academically

to develop


demanding


an attitude


classroom op

of full-time


portunities

learning a


was


s the


intellectual


155).


tone


To assist


junior


in meeting


college

these D


campuses


proposed


was


needs,


also a

Grand


parent

Rapids


" (p.

Junior


College


1961-1962,


the statement


established


an honors


and proceeded


of aims


program during


to refine


program


objectives,


the academic


in four


selection


year


areas


process,


conduct


of honors


sections,


(and)


administrative


procedures


" (Eld


ersveld,


1961,


155).


year


later,


Swets


(1962)


wrote


of her


experience s


as an English


instructor


teaching within


Grand


Rapids


Junior


College


s Honors


Program.


Most


of her


comment s


were


an attempt


to describe


the unique


challenges


offered


students


in honors


sections


when


they were


faced


with


the less


regimented


goals


of honors


work.


Swets


concluded


that


"the


student


"(1)










inner


direction


should


be the goal


of honors


sections,


while


describing


possible


Another


assignments


study which


that


dealt


have


with


that


honors


underlying


English


intent.


was


conducted


Koehnline


(1965).


Although Koehnline


addressed many


topics


specifically


related


to community


college


honors


English,


he did


outline


various

Community


junior

v Junio


college


models,


College.


in particular


He found


that


one i

areas


n existence


greatest


at Flint

concern


within


junior


college


English


honors


programs


included


the identification


of suitable


students,


choice


course


content,


evaluation


of the


program,


selection


of faculty.


English


honors


at the community


college


seems


to have


drawn more


attention from writers


in the field


of honors


than


other


academic


disciplines.


Several


years


after


the Swets


Koehnline


studies,


Bridges


(1981)


also


wrote


of her


experiences


teaching


in an English


honors


class.


part


of her


doctoral


studies


at Carnegie-Mellon


University,


Bridges


designed,


implemented


evaluated


a course


design


in freshman


composition


for the honors


student


two-year


colleges.


Jordheim and


Leopold


(1965)


offered


a report


on the "better


students


at Skagit


Valley


an open door


Community


two-year


College.


institution


This


report


known


sought

emphasis


to determine

on remedial


education


should


begin


more


thoroughly


address


the needs


of the


academically


talented.


report


recommended


that


enrichment


programs


at Skagit


Community


College


be initiated


and that


more


attention


be given


t -


Im


I










Swets


within


(1967)


the honors


wrote


a second


sections


article


at Grand


relating


Rapids


Junior


teaching


College.


experiences


primary


focus


of this


second


article


was


upon


the entrance


criteria.


maintained

college ac


that


entrance


hievement


criteria


placement


emphasized


scores


high


students


school


enrolled


or previous

in the


program would


largely


super


conform


lacked


the intellectual


curiosity


independence


appropriate


honors


work


74).


Swets


concluded


that


community


college


educators


should


raise


the question:


"How


can


we revise


our


entrance


criteria


to initiate


the inquisitive,


creative,


often


lonely,


insightful


student


will


participate


with


enthusiasm


in a


program


that


does


not spell


out in detail


exact


the student


should go?"


74).


Swets


' concern


regarding


appropriate


entrance


criteria


would


be echoed


in several


subsequent


articles.


Follow-up


studies


of students


transfer


from community


colleges


four-year


institutions


are numerous.


Studies


that


deal


specifically with


honors


students


transfer


to four-year


institutions,


however,


are


less


prevalent.


such


study


of this


nature


was


conducted


in 1965


reported


in The


Junior


Colle


Journal


(Schultz,


1967).


Schultz


surveyed


4,171

viewed


honors

their


student

junior


with


college


the general

experience.


purpose

The f


of determining


findings


how they


the study,


according


to the researcher,


indicated


that


former
college


honors


students


Virtually


non


were w
e felt


arm in


their praise


penalized


having


the junior
attended a


junior


college.


Most


stated


that


they would


make


same


decision again.










academically


talented


at community


colleges,


and that


many


academically


talented


students


feel


unchallenged


the curriculum.


factors,


however,


does


should


not speak


be noted


to the


in this


current


regard.


status


First,


the date


of academically


of the study


talented


students


community


colleges.


Second,


Schultz


s entire


survey


population


consisted


of the members


of Phi Theta


Kappa,


community


college


honorary


fraternity.


essence


he defined


honors


students


as those


have


been


initiated


into


Theta


Kappa.


survey,


therefore,


have


omitted


significant


numbers


of academically


talented


students


in Phi


Theta


Kappa


who may


have


felt


relatively unchallenged


their


junior


college


experience.


Suggestions


offered


to administrators


contemplating


the initiation


an honors


program are


contained


in Pollock'


(1971)


description


of honors


activities


at St.


Petersburg


Junior


College.


Pollock suggested


that


Ad Hoc committee


be established


to consider


carefully


the need


honors


work and


the feasibility


of implementing


such a


program.


After


a need


been established


the feasilbility


assured,


Pollock suggested


that


next


critical


step


is the establishment


rapport


with


local


high


school


counselors.


Much


of the latter


portion


of his


report


discussed


the specific


curriculum model


employed


at St. Petersburg


Junior


College.


Course


descriptions


of several


core


general


education


honors


sections


were


also


included.


The specific


honors


curriculum


model


at another


community


college


was










form


an interdisciplinary


social


science


sequence


which


not employ


a student


screening


process.


authors


described


the program in


following manner:


We call
social


our


program


sciences


"Man


integrated


and Society"


into


and while


a full-year


we have


sequence,


we have


not structured


aiming


directly


the traditional


course


at students
curriculum


material


too rigidly.


identify


courses


offered


Rather,
too well


in the social


we are
with
science


field.


our most


. The main idea


highly


qualified


is to present
instructors.


relevant


material


with


140)


Munson


(1973)


was


one


of the first


writers


to consider


important


issue


of faculty


compensation.


She surveyed


Mount


Vernon


College,


Northern


Virginia


Community


College


, and


community


colleges


in Maryland,


with


the intent


of determining


how faculty


release


time


was


used.


Munson


found


that


participation


in honors


programs


was


one


of eleven


uses


faculty


release


time


most


frequently


cited.


Other


writers


would


later


discuss

faculty


the advisability

participation in


demonstrated


empirically


of usin

honors

that th


release


programs


ie practice'


time as

(NCHC, 1

e was an


an incentive


983),


but Munson


accepted


approach


the colleges


she studied.


part


of his doctoral


studies


at Walden


University


in 1973,


Etchinson


evaluated


the effectiveness


of an innovative


honors


program at


Grand


View Community


College


in Des Moines,


Iowa


(Etchinson,


1973).


This


program enabled


students


to begin


the third


year


of their


baccalaureate


studies


while


still


attending


the community


college.


program


involved


an arrangement


made


with


participating


four-year


institutions










curricular


and instructional


services.


Students


indicated,


however


that


much


work


needed


to be done


on the articulation


agreements


between


Grand


View


Community


College


the participating


four-year


institutions.


years


following


the publication


of this


study,


an NCHC


publication


would


also


emphasize


the need


to establish


workable


articulation


arrangements


between community


college


honors


programs


senior


institutions


(NCHC,


1983).


Literature


Published


Since


1975


A significant


increase


in the


rate


of literature


published


regarding


community


college


honors


programs


was


seen


in 1975.


During


this


year


the American Association


of Community


Junior


Colleges


sponsored


nationwide


survey


to determine


status


of honors


programs.


result


was


an influential


often-quoted


statistical


analysis


written


Michael


Olivas


(1975),


which called


attention


to the dearth


programs


specifically


designed


the academically


ifted.


As previously mentioned


in the introduction


to this


paper,


Olivas


surveyed


the entire


membership


the American Association


of Community


Junior


Colleges


regarding


extent


to which


they


provided


special


programs


for the academically


gifted.


Out of the 664 respondents,


found


that


47 had


formalized


academic


structures,


the majority


some


honors


elements


not what


could


be called


college-wide


programs,


the size


125 colleges


of the college


no elements


apparently


of special


not affect


provisions


whether


and (4)


or not










and that


attempts


were


being


made


to widen


participation


within


this


segment


of higher


education.


He suggested


that


the mandate


two-year


colleges


to cultivate


available


talent


extending


educational


opportunity


to all


seek it


suggests


that


there


are no entangling


precedents


to preclude


development


of honors


programs


they


be warranted.


In the


same


year


that


Olivas


undertook


study,


another


significant


study


of community


colleges was


undertaken


order


to examine


current


honors


activity


and to identify


current


institutional


concerns


high-achievement


or superior


student"


(White,


1975,


. 25).


study


sponsored


William Rainey


Harper


College


included


those


community


colleges


accredited


the North


Central


Association


(NCA).


Questionnaires


were


sent


to 225


institutions,


with


percent


of these


institutions


about


responding


percent


institutions)


. The


survey


of the NCA affiliated


operationally


defined


revealed


community
programs


that


colleges


honors


that


nearly


institutions)
the needs of


50 percent


have


superior


of the institutions


provisions


sort


responding
or another


for meeting


students.


In addition


to determining


the actual


number


of honors


programs,


survey


intended


to gather


information


regarding


the following


common


concerns


of honors


instruction,


programming


faculty work


load,


administration,


transfer


participants,


career programs,


registration,


financial


support,


evaluation.


The study


revealed


that


the administration


of honors


programs


is "usually


found


in the academic


affairs


sector


of the community


college


rather


than in


student


personnel


services (p


26).


was


26).










who directs


the entire


program.


average


of participants


was


found


to be 24


years


27).


This


suggested


that


senior


institutions


receiving


these


students


into


their


honors


program


will


serving


students


older


than


the traditional


of honors


participants.


also


reported


that


honors


students


took


an average


four


honors


sections


in one academic


year


27).


Unlike


the Munson


(1973)


study,


this


study


showed


little


evidence


of faculty


being


granted


release


time


as compensation for


teaching


honors


classes.


Another


conclusion drawn


from


survey


revealed


that


very


little


honors


programming


been


initiated


in the career


or terminal


student


areas.


was


suggested


that


this


lack


of programming


was


largely


a consequence


of honors


programs


four-year


institutions


serving


as role models


programs


at NCA


community


colleges.


White'


(1975)


study


also


reported


that


registration


of students


an annual


basis


varied


greatly.


The mean


enrollment


was


45 students


institution,


with


the smallest


annual


enrollment


being


largest


being


28).


A critical


question


concerning


the budgeting


of honors


programs


was


determined


this


study


to be whether


the fiscal


responsibility


should


fall


upon


the individual


departments


or upon a


centralized


college


" budget


area.


Most


NCA community


colleges


assigned


the fiscal


responsibility


to the individual


departments.


amount


spent


"instructional


programming


labeled


honors


rarely


exceeded


$1,000


institution


28).


was


also


reported


this


was










mechanism


involved


advisory


committees


consisting


of faculty,


students,


community


participants.


White


summarized


the findings


of this


study


in the following


manner:


In all the finds


honors


programs


of the


survey


not predominate


seems


clear


in North


that


Central


although
Association


community
increasing


colleges,


they


in number.


certainly


Once


again,


show promise
the efforts


are


to maintain and


extend


rationale
rationale
remedial
community


comprehensive


honors


as for


education


college


those


educational


programs


programs


students
spectrum.


activities


-- certainly


designed


at the other


provide
as much


to meet


a sound


the needs


end of the broad


While


Etchinson' s


(1973)


study


emphasized


the need


better


articulation


between community


colleges


senior


institutions,


Whitlock


(1978)


discussed


the topic


of articulation


between


the high


school


the community


college.


Whitlock


found


that


above


average


students


were


more


likely


to encounter


curriculum duplication


as a result


of inadequate


articulation,


need


than


special


would


programs


average


students.


at community


Therefore,


colleges


he suggested


the gifted


in an


effort


to avoid


this


duplication.


The head


of Rockland


Community


College


s English


Department,


Libby


(1978)


wrote


an article


that


explored


the philosophical


basis


honors


at community


colleges.


She,


like


other writers,


found


that


"whispers


honors


of elitism and


programs


are


tracking


suggested


clog


lines


and the mandate


of communication


of the community


college


reduced


wrongly


to remediation and


technical


preparation


" (p.


18).


suggested


that


a significant


number


of bright


students


attend


community










of the final


portions


of her


report


described


the curriculum model


employed


at Rockland


Community


College.


Bangor


Community


College


in Maine


attempted


to address


problem of


articulation


between


community


college


senior


institution


honors


programs discussed


in Etchinson


s (1973)


study


and elsewhere.


report


entitled


"Integrating


Honors


Programs


At Two


Year


Institutions


Four year


Institutions


between Bangor


Community


" described


College


the efforts


to establish


the University


of Maine


coordination


in nearby


Orono

Bangor


(Carlson


Community


Schuman,

College


1980).

honors


The

student


arrangement

ts "the ODD


described


ortunity


affords


to participate


in the intellectual


of the rich


life


personal


of the large


physical


institution,


resources


. to utilize


a university


some


of 10,000


plus


students,


to confront


issues


materials


which go


beyond


bounds


many


of the preprofessional


programs


at the A. A. level


" (p.


21).


While


Bangor


Community


College


honor


student s


are


required


earn


some


honors


credit


at the community


college,


they


are


also


required


take


at least


three


honors


courses


at the University


of Maine.


This


arrangement


is the critical


factor


in encouraging


community


college


students


to interact


with


faculty


and other


honors


student s


at the senior


institution.


It also adds


a degree


of diversity


to the University


Maine'


program


traditional


four


addressing


year


students


baccalaureate


are


program.


not enrolled


Both


campuses


in the

appear


benefit


from


the exchange.


.v w


A &










board


between


campuses


is the Honors


Council,


which


directs


program at


The board


both Bangor


is under


Community


the general


College


supervision


the University


of the Vice


of Maine.


President


Academic


Affairs


of the University.


Like


Carlson


and Schuman


(1980),


many


researchers


have


been


interested


in developing ways


to provide


a smooth


transition


gifted


students


dealt


from one


with a


institution


cooperative


to another.


arrangement


While


gifted


Carlson and


students


Schuman


between a


community


college


a senior


institution,


Campion


outlined


arrangement


between Henderson


County


Junior


College


in Athens,


Texas,


the local


high


schools


(1981).


According


to Campion,


many


community


colleges


have


dual


enrollment


systems


gifted


high


school


students,


and a few


actually


take


their


programs


directly


to the high


school


campus.


p rog ram


that


Campion outlined


does


just


that.


As a result


Henderson


County


Junior


College


s concurrent


enrollment


approach,


a much


higher


percentage


of talented


students


from


the local


high


schools


enrolled


in that


institution


upon graduation.


Additionally,


"the


college and


area


high


schools


enjoy


a much


closer


relationship


and,


"the


college


the community


are drawn


closer


together


" (p.


31).


Attempts


community


colleges


to attract


more


academically


talented


students


were


also


described


in an article


entitled


"Working


With


High


Schools


to Strengthen


Communi ty


College


Programs


" (Friedlander,










school


class


are


offered


scholarships


to attend


Miami-Dade,


as well


honors


classes,


seminars with


distinguished


professors,


opportunities


program acceleration,


cultural


events,


special


services,


individual


recognition


" (p.


15).


Other


community


colleges


have


offered


similar


incentives.


As a result


of these


incentives,


increased


numbers


academically


talented


high


school


graduates were


found


to be enrolling


their


local


community


college.


As previously mentioned


in the introduction


to this


paper,


Farnsworth


(1982)


also


noted


an increase


of academically


talented


students


attending


community


colleges.


main


concern,


however,


was


the retention


these


students.


He described


the results


a follow-up


study


conducted


at Muscatine


Community


College,


where


he is Dean


of Student


Services


This


group


of academically


acce


lerated


students


was


dropping out


a rate
course,


equal
were


to that


of stud


transferring


ent s


to other


with marginal


skills.


Many,


institutions.


alarming
the time


number were


discontinuing


their


education,


at least


being


response


to this


situation,


Muscatine


Community


College developed


its "Horizons


program.


In a


letter


sent


to this writer,


Farnsworth


explained


program at


some


length.


A portion


of his


comments


included


the following


We elected
experiences


to develop


our


a series


students,


of broadening


making


them


open


extra-curricular


to any who


wished


to participate.


arranged
theatre


Those


experiences


luncheon discussions


outings,


with


discussion groups


have


included


visiting d
on topical


specially


dignitaries,


issues


dinner


or books,


field


trips,


so on.


are


four


hours


from


Chicago


have


taken advantage


occasion.


of the cultural
A. Farnsworth, p


opportunities


personal


afforded


communication,


there


November









Farnsworth


continued


stating


that


he preferred


these


special


programs


to be


extracurricular


in nature,


since


the academically


talent e

Little


student


attempt,


can


therefore,


I asset to

was made


other


students


to gather


gifte


in regular

d students


sections.

into


limited


enrollment


honors


sections


A. Farnsworth,


personal


communication,


November


1983).


Farnsworth'


(1982)


article


personal


communication


with


this


writer


underscored


a concern


that many


writers


in the field


have


expressed


that


although


programs


will


vary


from institution


to institution,


some


provisions


should


be made


challenge


the academically


talented


student.


Piland


and Gould


provided


a brief


history


of honors


programs


before


they

This


honors


discussed

survey re


programs


their


vealed


survey


of 48 community


the existence


in Illinois


36).


of only


These


colleges in

seven active


results


are


Illinois

community


consistent


(1982).

college


with


the results


the previously mentioned


nationwide


survey


conducted


Olivas


(1975).


a composite


Although


profile


was


only


seven active


suggested.


programs


of the


were


programs


found

were d


to exist,


determined


to have entrance


criteria


that


usually


consisted


of three


factors:


scores,


grade


point


average,


and recommendations.


Additionally,


the colleges


offering


honors


programs


identified


some


type


requirement s


students


to continue


in the


programs


once


they were


admitted"


(Piland


Gould,


1982,


p. 26).


The most


frequently mentioned


program features


included


honors


sections,


independent


study,


in-course










with


one


program.


individual,


Recognition


usually


offered


called


a program coordinator,


to participants


included


directing


award


nights-banquets,


certificates


of program completion,


special


seals


affixed


on the diploma,


special


notation in


commencement


program


on the transcript"


36).


Following


Piland


Gould


s (1982)


exploration


of the


status


honors


programs


in Illinois,


they


concluded


that


programs


already


existence


were


consistent


with


the mission


of comprehensive


community


colleges.


Consequently,


they


suggested


that more


programs


be developed


throughout


state.


Several


influential


publications


concerning


community


college


honors


programs


appeared


in 1983.


An article


in the Chronicle


of Higher


Education,


entitled


"Urban


Communi ty


Colleges


Revamp


Programs


Students


Transferring


to Universities,


" drew


attention


to the increasing


interest


in honors


programs


(Watkins,


1983).


In this


article


Watkins


outlined


efforts


undertaken


to assist


academically


talented


students


such


urban


community


colleges


as the The


Community


College


Philadelphia

California,


Los Angeles


and Honolulu


Mission

Community


College,

College


Compton

in Hawai


Community

i. Most


College

of the


program s


outlined


sought


to assist


transferring


honors


students


in much


same


manner


as the Bangor


Community


College-University


of Maine


(Carlson


Schuman,


1980)


model


did.


Another


influential


publication


that


appeared in


1983


was


A n


m 1- -- A A


__


-- -










California a

in six major


Miami-Dade


t Los Angeles.

community col


St. Louis)


Persons


lege


were


responsible


districts


interviewed.


(Chicago,


The end


the honors


Dallas,


product


programs


Maricopa,


covered


broad


variety


initiating


honors


concerns 1

programs,


includingg t

benefits,


:he following: the

admission criteria


purpose

. course


selection,


interdisciplinary


courses,


in-class


honors


options,


extra-course


activities.


Friedlander


found


that


most


program were


frequently mentioned


an increasing


reasons
number


for starting
of students


an honors


are


attending
programs;


community
(2) honors


colleges
programs


can


are


benefit


part


from


honors


of college-wide


courses


efforts


to strengthen
particularly


the quality


in the


area


of their
of general


academic


education;


programs,


honors


programs
to attract


can assist


community


college


retain outstanding


educators


students


in their
faculty;


efforts
and (4)


these


programs


as a place
encouraged.


can


where


enhance


superior


the public
scholarship


image


the institution


is honored


benefits


to students


most


frequently mentioned


included


opportunity


offer


to work in


of transfer


smaller


assistance


classes


to senior


with outstanding

institutions. S


faculty,


similar


and the


to previous


inve


stigations,


this


study


found


that


the admission


criteria


usually


consisted


of ACT


or SAT


scores,


grade


point


average,


recommendations.


In addition,


scholarships


were


usually


offered


participants,


although


the form


varied.


Friedlander


also


found


that


honors


students


typically


have


a number


of special


honors


sections


from


which


to choose:


A major


advantage


honors


courses


is that


they


provide


students


with an


opportunity


to work


-r- --










honors


while


students


attending


also


regular


earn


course


honors


credit


sections.


through


These


in-class


options


options


typically


consist


the student


fulfilling


extra


requirements


activities


before


credit


earned


is listed


"honors.


Many


honors


programs


seek


to develop


a sense


of community


among


their


participants.


Friedlander


(1983)


listed


a number


of extracurricular


activities


that


have


this


objective


as their major


intent.


These


activities were


similar


to those mentioned


Piland


Gould


(1982),


and included


special


social


activities,


recognition


banquets,


special


education-intellectual


activities,


recognition at


graduation,


affiliation


with


the state


honors


council,


opportunities


special


research"


25).


Still


another


important


document


regarding


community


college


honors


p rog rams


was


published


in 1983.


In October


of that


year,


the National


Collegiate


Honors


Council,


with


the assistance


of the National


Council


Instructional


Administrators


Community


College


Humanities


Association,


published


a full-length monograph


entitled


"Honors


Programs


in the Two


Year


College


" (NCHC,


1983).


This monograph was


written


committee


honors


consisting


education.


leaders


committee


in the field


chairperson


was


of community


Ms. Kandell


college


Bent ley-


Baker


of Miami


Dade


Community


College.


This


document


appears


to be the


most


comprehensive


treatise


on the topic


to date.


five


chapters


of the monograph


covered


a variety


of topics


The










of several


researchers


suggest


the legitimacy


of honors


programs


community


colleges.


Included


in this


group


were


several


of the writers


previously mentioned


in this


paper


including


Bay,


Farnsworth,


Piland


Gould,


McCabe.


Also


included


was


the goal


statement


of Maricopa


Community


College


to attract


retain


superior


students


to recognize


meet


special


needs


of superior


students


to improve


the overall


to challenge


provide


image


of the college


satisfaction


to faculty


serve


programs,


as a focal
services,


point


development


of innovative


courses


to provide
outstanding


special


recognition and


rewards


truly


students.


The

honors


chapter o

contracts,


,n curriculum

seminars,


components


independent


described


study


honors


projects,


sections,


admission


criteria,


maintenance


graduation


criteria,


special


program


services,


administrative


networks,


other pertinent


areas.


Brief


descriptions


of curriculum models


at Long


Beach


Community


College,


Miami-Dade


Community


College,


Maricopa


Community


College,


Broward


Community


College,


other


colleges


were


also


included.


authors


of this


chapter


summarized


their


thoughts


on curriculum models


in four


statements


An honors
activities


program needs


work


with


a director


the honors


to coordinate


students.


A broad
faculty,


base


honors


students,


program advisory
administrators, a


committee
d possible


composed o
community


representative s


should


guide


the direction of


the program.










There


are


five


types


of activities


which are


particularly


important:


special


sections


of honors


courses,


in-course


honors


(contracts),


independent


study


, extracurricular


activities,
p. 27)


recognition


of achievement.


(NCHC,


1983,


authors


"the


success


of the chapter


of the honors


entitled


experience an


"Honors

d honors


Faculty"

programs


stressed


that


superior


st udent s


is directly


proportional


to the commitment,


skill


and expertise


of the faculty


involved"


29).


Community


colleges


wishing


to initiate


honors


programs were


advised


to address


faculty


concerns


as early


in the


planning


process


as possible.


was


suggested


that


programs


faculty


should


only


be implemented


from


outset


of planning,


" but


they


should


continue


as long


as the honors


program


is in existence


(NCHC,


1983,


30).


Specifically,


the authors


recommended


that


four


major


areas


be addressed


the screening


selection


of faculty,


identification


of specific


roles,


the strategies


to be used


when


addressing


faculty


training


needs,


the evaluation


process


to be


employed.


authors


explained


that


honors


faculty


typically


are


required


possess


These


skills


beyond


instructors


will


what


need


might


skill


be expected


in dealing


of other


faculty members.


with motivated


students


will


seek from


outside


class.


them additional


According


guidance


instruction


to the authors,


honors


frequently


instructor must


welcome


this


additional


responsibility.


was


also


reported


that


motivated


students


are


often


prone


to challenging


and questioning


a -


- 4 4 L* .


41 L


4


q










type


of instructor


would


be better


suited


an honors


program


than an


instructor who may


possess


the required


expertise


healthy


self-image.


Above


all,


the authors


maintained


that


the honors


instructor


should


be committed


interested


to the goals


in professional


of the


program.


advancement,


or she should


but should


have


only


a genuine


interest


in the intellectual


growth


of students.


or she


must


also


maintain a


repertoire


of various


teaching methods


designed


to stimulate


the spirit


of inquiry.


According


to the authors,


honors


faculty


will


need


to be involved


tasks


usually performed


instructors,


in addition


to having


special


teaching


counseling


skills.


example,


program


director


will


often


request


that


honors


faculty


participate


in recruitment


activities.


Such


participation


involves,


among


other


activities,


visiting


local


high


schools


in an


effort


to maintain


ongoing


communication


with


the students,


teachers,


counselors,


and administrators


of those


institutions.


incentives


accepting


these


increased


responsibilities,


stated


in the monograph,


are


largely


psychic


in nature


" (p.


29).


Although


was


reported


that


some


community


colleges


do provide


occasional


satisfaction


extra


of the honors


tangible


incentives,


working


responsibility


faculty,


with gifted


involved.


the authors


faculty members


students


After


concluded


will


as their


reviewing


this


need


chief


to perceive


reward


the additional


chapter


roles


stating


is -1 .










Following


discussion


the chapter


on-campus


devoted


to faculty,


off-campus


support


the authors


systems.


included


On-campus


support


was


divided


into


the three


categories


of administrative,


facilities


equipment,


financial


support.


authors


suggested


that


most


critical


type


on-campus


support


occurs


when


"administrative


support


is translated


into


financial


support


- (p.


34).


They


stressed


need


for funds


to be provided


salaries,


scholarships,


travel,


equipment


publicity.


Linkages


important

to senior


to senior


form of


institutions


off-campus


institutions


support.


graduates


were


considered


Specifically,

of community co


to be the

gaining


alleges


most

scholarships


was


mentioned.


Additionally,


other


forms


of transfer


assistance


that


could


be secured


were


considered


to be


very


effective


in ensuring


the health of


the community


college


program.


A brief


narrative


in a


question-and-answer


format


concluded


National


Collegiate


Honors


Council


monograph.


This


particular


document


stands


as the single most


comprehensive


treatise


specifically


related


community


college


honors


programs.


However,


after


this


dissertation


completed,


another


excellent


monograph


on the topic


was


published


League


Innovation in


the Community


College entitled


Survey


of Honors


Programs


McKeague,


White,


Wilders


(1984).


Literature


Related


a


to Martorana and Kuhns


' "Interactive


was


II


'1


L









"hundreds


of books and


. dissemination


articles document

strategies and a


the need


adoption


curriculum


patterns


have


change


been


thoroughly


discussed


in the literature


" (p.


Although an


exhaustive


review


of the


literature


related


to curriculum change


would


go beyond


scope


of this


study,


it is possible


to briefly


describe


the work of


several


change


theorists.


These


theorists


seem


to have


exerted


particular


influence


over


the development


of Martorana and


Kuhns'


"Interactive


Forces


Theory"


(1975).


Kurt


Lewin


was


a pioneer


in the


area


of change


research.


suggested,


in his "Field


Theory,


that


there were


basic


steps


in the


change


process


unfreezing


the field,


carrying


out activities


which


induce


change,


refreezing


a new


location


(1948).


Many


aspects


the five


steps


of academic


innovation


contained


in Martorana


Kuhns'


Interactive


Forces


Theory


seen


as a refinement


of Lewin's


three


stages


of change.


Martorana


and Kuhns


(1975)


mentioned


Lewin prominently


in their


book and


summarized


his thinking


in the following manner:


A pioneer


theory


in the field


on differences


of Aristotle
equilibrium


and Galileo.


occurs


to strengthen a


academic


lower


tha


in a


standard


tradition c
t standard.


change


was


. perceived
According


social


Kurt


Lewin


between th
to Lewin,


situation when


of behavior


ir expectation)
(p. 175)


(for


are


based


ie conceptual


his "field
approaches


quasi-stationary


the forces


example,


equal


to those


which


a particular


which


tend


tend


Martorana


and Kuhns


(1975)


explained


that


Lewin


saw


change occurring


when forces


were


added


to the "force


field"


in a desired


direction


when


opposing


forces


were


diminished.


Wattenbarger


Scaggs


(1975)









First,
change,
college


accomplish
planning,


one must


go through


a favorable
leadership,


this.
study,


attitude
and the


Second,


fact


the refreezing must


development


new


process
toward
use of a


one


finding,


occur with


skills.


must


of unfreezing.


change,
change


prepare


reinforcement


security,
9)


the o
agent


vert
wil


A climate
support


1


change.


is required.


adequate


for
of the


help to
A period


Finally,
, and the


resources


At least


other


researchers


are mentioned


in Martorana


Kuhns'


book


(1975)


as having


utilized


Lewin's


theory


of change


investigative


purposes.


Levinger


(1961)


applied


Lewin's


Field


Theory


to the resolution


of conflict,


while


Stearns


(1955)


applied


to decision making


within


schools.


Hefferlin


(1969)


published


an influential


study which


was mentioned


by Martorana and


Kuhns.


In his work,


Dynamics


of Academic


Reform


(1969),


Hefferlin


studied


the degree


to which


institutional


instability


affected


change.


He concluded


that


change


was more


prevalent


when institutional


instability


existed.


This


instability


could


be caused


by many


factors


including


the existence


a low number


of tenured


faculty,


division


department


chairpersons


rotating


on a


regular


basis,


frequent


personnel


changes


on governing


or coordinating


boards,


high


rates


of expansion


or turnover


among


faculty


administrators.


Heff


erlin also


found


that


colleges


without


graduate


programs


colleges


located


in metropolitan


areas


seemed


to exhibit


instability


thus


showed


a predilection


toward


change.


Warren Bennis


has been


one


of the leading


researchers


in the


area


change


theory.


Benni s


a former


student


of Kurt


Lewin'


edited


a book


__









of the


most


frequently


cited


sources


of information


on change


research.


In addition


to containing


articles


written


the editors,


this


text


also


contained


the work


many


other


noted


writers


including


David


Reisman,


Ronald


Lippitt,


Jacob Getzels,


Douglas


McGregor,


Gordin


Lippitt


Talcott


Parsons.


Bennis


' influence


on the development


of "The


Interactive


Forces


Theory,


however,


was most


strongly


exerted


his book,


Leaning


Ivory


Tower


(1973).


This


book


was


intended


to be


"intimate memoir


that


would


capture


the thoughts


feelings


a university


administrator


caught


in turmoil"


vii-viii).


events


discussed


focused


upon a


period


in the late


60s when Bennis was


Provost


at the


State


University


of New


York


(SUNY)


at Buffalo.


During


this


period,


SUNY


at Buffalo


was


experiencing


a great deal


unrest,


as were many


other


campuses


at that


time.


In addition


to the student


unrest


that


typified


these


politically


volatile


days,


SUNY


at Buffalo


was


undergoing


significant


organizational


changes


in its leadership


structure


while


process


experiences

suggested s


of building


in this


several


a new


rapidly


campus.


changing


guidelines


Following


academic


a description


environment,


the administrator


involved


of his


Bennis

in academic


reform.


Among


these


guidelines were


the following


"Guard
propose


against
d that


the crazies"
innovation of


(1973,


ten attracts


138).


Here


people


Bennis


will


take


your
He w


ideas
arned


and
that


distort them
change minded


into


something monstrous


administrators


must


avo


" (p. 13
id being


associated


with


"irresponsible


antagonistic


persons


138)


Administrators,


according


to Bennis,


must


be able to


8).









"Build


support


among


like-minded


people


whether


recruited


them


or not


stressed


" (p.


138)


the need


With


this


institutions


recommendation,


preserve


Bennis


the esteem of


its members


work


with


" (p.


new ideas


the institution must


include


significantly
situation by


veterans
impeded
stating


138)


He explained


new personalities,


be involved


that
that


that


change


but the


welcomed.


SUNY at Buffalo
change process.


we succeeded


in the change


Bennis


in infusing


agents may


veterans
failure


process


summarized


new


blood


into
139).


Buffalo,


we fail


to recirculate


the old


blood"


"Plan


Here


clear


for how to


Bennis
vision


mechanism for


outline
concept
139).


stores


change


sed that


of goal
change


of possible


of how


change


as well


success


s, but also
" (p. 140).
strategic s


should


as what


to change


ful change


it requires
Change age


tactics


proceed"


could


" (p.


only


139).


involves


coherent


nts must
so that


be visual


have


a clear


a clear


zed (


"Don' t


settle


maintained


"fiat.


that


rhetorical


significant


Consequently,


change


change does


a change


agent


S(p.


140).


not
must


take


Here
place


Bennis


be sensitive


to the


organizational
intramural rel


structure
ationship s


represented


that


are


complex


much more


set of


influential


than


the organizational


structure


existing


on paper


141)


change-minded
constituencies


administrator,
and maintain


therefore,
established


must
ones


build
" (p.


new


141)


"Remember


that


change


most


successful


when


those


affected


that


are


perhaps


involved


in the planning


greatest


resistance


" (p.


144)


to change


Bennis


occurs


stated


when


people
that "


feel
people


that


change


resist


is being


change,


even


imposed


a kind


tpon t
they


hem.


He stated


basically


agree


with
(p.


, if they
144).


are


not significantly


involved


in the


planning"


Bennis


offered


numerous


other


pragmatic


suggestions


to administrators


involved


in academic


reform,


in addition


to those mentioned


above.


These


guidelines,


as well


as those


discussed


in the chapter


entitled


"Guidelines


Change


Leaders


" (pp.


162-173)


in Martorana


Kuhns'


book,


offer


a clear


concise


list


of practical


suggestions










In addition


to The


Leaning


Ivory


Tower,


another


study


concerning


academic


change


appeared


in 1973.


Mayhew and


Ford


(1973)


reviewed


some


of the


more


prevalent


curricular


innovations


occurring


during


the early


70s.


Among


innovations


discussed


was


the development


of honors


programs.


Mayhew


Ford


described


this


particular


innovation


in the


following manner:


A peculiar


curriculum effort,


in the light


the issues,


honors


program.


pass-honors


gain


headway


scientific


An early manif


degree
until


at Swarthmore
the American


achievements


climaxed


station


in 1922,


public,


was


creation


but the program did


prompted


Sputnik


in 1957,


Russian
demanded


rigor


in education.
intellectually
of the honors


value


issues,


Generally,


gifted,
courses


accept


honors


hence


are


programs


in one


broad,


the conflicts


sense


stress


which


are


they


intended


are


important
college


elitist.
questions,


students


nut many
raise


experience,


to focus


work in a


broad


the attention


context


on ends.


to help


Honors


students


courses


seek


to place


establish


relationships


between


their


lives


what


they


study.


(pp.


7-8)


After


describing


the various


academic


innovations,


the authors


offered


specific


suggestions


curriculum


change.


such


suggestion


stressed


that


any system


of education


should


have


a built-in


process


bringing


about


regular


change


" (p.


168).


Mayhew and


Ford


believed


that


an environment


must


be created


where


change


is expected


and is


associated


only with


the inauguration


a new


administrator


or a major


palace


revolt


" (p.


168).


Later


in the


text,


the authors maintained


institution


should


subject


the entire


curriculum


to constant


criticism


and analysis


" (p.


171).


They


recommend


that


this


criticism and


analysis


be und


ertaken


through


regular


self-study


through


sociological


stranger


" (p.


121).


sociological


stranger


use


one










Many


of the authors'


suggestions


concerning


criticism and


analysis


originate


from


the realization


that


little


change


occurs


unless


specific


need


is felt.


As Meyhew


Ford


stated,


"Innovation


likely


come


about


unless


the need


is clearly perceived.


A number


successful


innovations


are


clearly


traceable


to the simple


fact


that


need


been


painfully


apparent


" (p.


117).


suggestion


that


a change


agent


is needed


to create


a demand


change


was


also


emphasized


Martorana and


Kuhns


' (1975)


study.


In their words


change
forces
demand


agents an
on behalf


does


forcing new


this


managers


of the


need


change


changing


organizational


to activate


desired;


the institutional


responses.


the possible


strategy


setting


interactive
creating
rnd thereby


165)


Having


briefly


outlined


some


of the research


which apparently


influenced


the development


of Martorana


Kuhns


Interactive


Forces


Theory,


it is now possible


to synthesize


some


of the


more


important


aspects


of their


theory.


Managing


Academic


Change


(1975),


as the title


implies,


represented


the authors'


approach


a theory


of effective


change


in colleges


universities


" (p.


xiv).


During


course


of their


inquiry,


Martorana


Kuhns


asked


numerous


colleagues


in higher


education about


their


involvement


with academic


innovation.


Additionally,


several


educators


were


asked


to submit


manuscripts


describing


specific


innovations.


These


descriptions


appear


in Chapters


II through


V of the book,


and fall


within


four


basic


categories:


"the


creation


new campus-based


institutions,


the dsveelnrmnsint


trhn rcrn4 oa-4n


nnnl--r'inni l


tarn fltir


*II


ii


r- T










guidelines


change


agents,


a description


of the theory


interactive


forces


that


operates


during


academic


innovation,


which


Martorana


and Kuhns


distilled


from


their


inquiry.


The proposed


guidelines


theory were


found


to be


most


pertinent


to the problem


present


study.


Martorana


Kuhns


divided


their


discussion of


"Guidelines


Change


Leaders


into


two categories:


strategies


for change,


tactics


for change.


As previously mentioned


in the Definition


of Terms


section


in Chapter


achieving


of this


a goal"


paper,


162).


a strategy


Tactics,


an overall


on the other


plan


hand,


of action for


are


specific


actions


taken


to implement


chosen


strategies


" (p.


163).


Mart orana and


Kuhns


used


the analogy


of building


a house


to explain


their


terms.


They


likened


the goal


to the finished


house,


strategy to


the blueprint


the house,


and the tactics


to the "tools


used


steps


taken in


process


constructing


it (


163).


They


selected


certain


strategies


tactics


that


appeared


to be


more


advantageous


than


others


directing


academic


innovation.


They


then discussed


these


strategies


tactics


in detail.


Among


the strategies


mentioned


were


the following


"Low-profile action


" (p.


164).


The authors


stated


that


often


the best


This


expected.


strategy is
particularly


to de-emphasize


important


The objective


see the change


as a


when


of this


reform--an


the importance


strong


strategy


effort


of change.


opposition is
is to encourage
to return the


others


institution


successful


to its


true


oals


at accomplishing


and to make


traditional


the institution more


purposes


" (p.


164)










"Creation of


demand"


165).


As previously mentioned,


cause


In order


that


. change


to create


responsible


this


persons


to create


new demand,


need


a new demand"


Martorana


engage


Kuhns


165).
believed


in political action


within


the organization,


between


it and


other


external


agencies,


or in both agencies


" (p.


165).


"Control
this str


of communication


ategy


stating


" (p
that


167). The
at its best


authors
, this


summarized
strategy


spotlights


dramatizes


the fact


that


the innovation


underway
worst, i


and merits
t distorts


attention
information


of all interested


disseminating


parties;


only


what


at its
is


favorable to
negative" (p.


a propo
167).


innovation and


suppressing


that


which is


Martorana and


Kuhns


(1975)


listed many


tactics


that


can


be employed


in carrying


strategies.


They warned


, however,


that


like


strategies,


tactics


have


both


negative


positive


connotations.


" Therefore,


sensitivity


to the ethical


concerns


was


recommended.


The tactics


listed


included


the following


appreciation of


obtaining a

determining

providing r


timing,


n overview,

obstacles,

assurance,


building


on existing


concerns,


avoiding


respecting


persuading

confronting

compromise


rejection,


past,


the opposition,

the opposition,

and co-opting,


selecting


personnel


decision-making


positions,


one










In the "Checklist


Used


As An


Interview Guide


of this


study


(see


Appendix A),


this


researcher


attempted


to apply


the general


principles


outlined


tactics


in Martorana and


a specific


Kuhns


academic


discussion


innovation,


of advantageous


honors


strategies


programs.


strategies


the broad


tactics


guidelines


which


outlined


appear


on the checklist,


in Managing


Academic


therefore


Change


, reflect


(1975),


combined


with


the specific


language


of the literature


directly


related


honors


programs.


Following


their


review of


guidelines


change


agents


concerning


suggested


strategies


tactics,


Martorana


Kuhns


described


conceptual


framework"


within


which


successful


change


can


planned,


projected


implemented"


173).


They


also maintained


that


this


conceptual


framework


can


be employed


retrospectively


to reconstruct


. a past


change


" (p.


182).


This,


course,


is the manner


in which


Martorana


and Kuhns'


framework


is employed


in the


present


study.


They


named


their


conceptual


framework,


"Interactive


Forces


Theory.


This


theory


consisted


of three


primary


categories


of forces


which


promote


hiatus


change


forces.


in higher


Personal


education:


forces


are


personal,


of three


extrapersonal,


kinds


and goal


"decision makers


within


the institutions


out decisions


consumers,


"implementors


such as


within


students,


the institution


parents,


carry


alumni


affected


change


177).


Extrapersonal


forces


are


those


forces


which


move


beyond


the influence


of single


individuals,


such


as the tangible


are










particular


institutional


goal


the achievement


of this


goal"


178).


Martorana


personal,

development


Kuhns


extrapersonal,

tal stages of


(1975)


and goal


academic


suggested


hiatus

change


that


the three


operate

discussed


forces


throughout

previously


the five

in this


paper.


They maintained


that


during


the life


cycle


an innovation,


"interplay


of forces


over


a period


time


creates


a continuum which can


be "divided


into


five


finite


developmental


stages


exploration,


formulation,


trial,


refinement,


institutionalization


" (p.


179).


These


five


terms


have


been


previously


defined


in the Definition


of Terms


section


of this


paper.


Martorana


and Kuhns


(1975)


suggested


that


a matrix could


be created


using


another

change


the three


axis.


was desired,


forces as


one axis


a statistical


numerical


the five


analysis

values may


past,


developmental


present,


be assigned


stages


or future


to each


of these


forces


at each


stage


of development


in order


that


the change


leadership


assess


the most


important


positive


negative


pressures


" (p.


180).


While


the "Interactive


Forces


Theory


was


primarily


intended


as a


planning


device


estimating


the likely


level


of forces


in the


future


regarding


a projected


innovation


" (p.


182)


aspects


of the theory


will


applied


retrospectively


in the


present


study.


As previously mentioned


the Procedures


academic


section


innovation


of Chapter


outlined


of this


defined


paper,


the five


Martorana


stages


Kuhns


will


utilized


as a


structural


framework in


the evaluation


of strategies









Summary


literature


related


to the development


of honors


programs


American


higher


education and


that


related


specifically


to honors


programs


in community


colleges


exhaustive.


Much


of what


appeared


consists


of short


journal


articles


appearing


in Forum for


Honors,


or The


Community


Junior


College


Journal.


Very


few full-length


studies


were


found


to exist.


Among


these,


Aydelotte's


(1944)


pioneering


work entitled


Breaking


Academic


Lock Step:


Development


of Honors


Work


in American


Colleges


Universities


and Joseph


Cohen


(1966c)


Superior


Student


in America


remain


the most


notable.


A 1983


publication


of the National


Collegiate


Honors


Council


entitled


Honors


the Two


Year College


is the most


significant


work


to date


community


college.


Perhaps


from


because


researchers,


recurring


the topic


itself


it is difficult


in the literature.


received


to outline


Several


concerns,


strong


extensive


thematic


however,


seem


attention


currents

to be most


prevalent.


These


concerns


include


historical


origins,


current


status


programs,


rationale


goal


statements,


admission


criteria,


faculty


selection and


programs,


incentives,


attempts


administrative


answer


networks,


the charges


evaluation


of elitism.


amount


of literature


dealing with


process


of curriculum


change,


unlike


that


dealing


specifically


with


honors


programs,


very


extensive.


purposes


of this


study,


those writers who


appeared









others,


Kurt


Lewin,


J. T


Hefferlin,


Warren Bennis,


Lewis Mayhew,


Patrick Ford.


These


writers


' and


other


change


theorists


contributions


led to the development


of the "Interactive


Forces


Theory


outlined


Managing


Academic


Change


(197

















STUDY


SITES


CHAPTER


METHODOLOGY


OF DATA ANALYSIS


As described


in Chapter


of this


study,


three


comprehensive


community


colleges


that


were determined


to have


well


established


honors


programs


were


selected


in-depth


study.


These


three


community


colleges


were


chosen


because


they


clearly met


definition


comprehensive


Chapter


community


because


college


they


(see


clearly met


"Definition of


the specific


Terms


Section


criteria


(see


"Procedures


section of


Chapter


as comprehensive


community


colleges


having well


established


honors


programs.


Selection


of Study


Sites


Several


stages


were


involved


in the selection


the specific


colleges


to be studied.


These


included


the following


studying


professional


literature


that


described


honors


programs


at specific


community


colleges;


reviewing


the results


of the previously mentioned


honors


programs


survey


designed


distributed


this


researcher


in the


fall


of 1983


(see


Appendix


reviewing


the general


catalogs


prospective


prospective


community


community


colleges;


colleges,


studying


and other


honors


related


program


printed


brochures


material;









as comprehensive


community


colleges:


Daytona


Beach


Communi ty


College,


DeKalb


Community


College,


Rockland


Community


College.


Description


of Study


Sites


Daytona


Beach


Community


College


(DBCC)


serves


Volusia and


Flagler


Counties


on Florida


s east


coast


one


of Florida


s 28 public


community


colleges.


The main


campus


is located


in Daytona


Beach,


Florida,


with


centers


in Deland,


Deltona,


New Smyrna


Beach and


Palm


Coast.


Since


its establishment


in 1958,


DBCC has


been called


"the


state


s first


1983-1984,


comprehensive


1983,


p. 8).


community


In 1984,


college


DBCC offers


" (DBCC

a wide


General

variety


Catalog:

of courses--


vocational


technical,


college


credit,


adult


education,


and others


designed


1984


to meet


edition


the needs


of the Community,


of its serving


Technical,


district.


Junior


According


College


to the


Directory,


DBCC had


3522


full-time and


4738


part-time


students enrolled


as of


October,


1983


(Community,


Technical


and Junior


College


Directory


1984,


1984,


p. 31).


DeKalb Community


College


(DCC)


was


established


in 1958


"Georgia


only


College


commune ty


General


operated


Catalog


institution


1983-1984,


of higher


1983,


learning


11).


" (DeKalb Community


serves


citizens


of DeKalb County


greater


Metropolitan Atlanta


area


from


three


campuses,


one


of which


is juxtaposed


a Vocational-Technical


campus.


north


campus


is located


in Dunwoody


, Georgia;


the central


It fi In lr n tnt n (n 4 r rho Un narn n n -Tanhn1no


l a ri 4 o^ Ay^ ^


4 n Pi a lL't-\T


r~n~a~f- *n>


<- mn TCTl










developmental


studies


and community


service


programs.


According


to the


1984


edition


of the Community,


Technical,


Junior College


Directory


had a full-time


student


enrollment


of 8710


and a part-time


student


enrollment


of 7810 as


of October,


1983


(Community,


Technical,


Junior


College


Directory:


1984,


1984,


Rockland


serving


Community


the citizens


College


of Rockland


(RCC)


is a comprehensive


County


York.


two-year


Located


college


in Suffern,


York,


established


in 1959,


provides


"affordable,


quality


learning


experiences


great


range


" (RCC General


Catalog


1983-84,


1983,


Its offerings


include


general


education,


technical


education,


programs.


special


A noted


education,


international


extension


work,


education


transfer


program


also


education


been


developed


and implemented.


is affiliated


with


the State


University


of New


York


(SUNY).


According


to the 1984 edition


of the Community,


Technical,


Junior


College


Directory,


had a full-time


student


enrollment


of 4412


a part-time


enrollment


of 4616


(Community,


Technical,


and Junior


College


Directory:


1984,


1984,


53).


In addition


to meeting


the criterion


of being


a comprehensive


community

criteria


college,

listed i


as previously


n the "Procedures


stated,


all three


section


(see


colleges met


page


the three


of this


study.


First,


the honors


programs


at all


three


colleges


clearly


incorporated


eight


or more


of the recommendations


listed


in the


statement


entitled


"Major


Features


a Full


Honors


Program


" (NCHC


no date).


I a- _


S 11 41 n n A a 1 n f


. 33)


C ~A A-" *^


1 It\urr rr


A ^^1 I jlj j ,


U4 rn ^.' 1l


nnmr~ctnll. rt


C <


1











faculty


administrative


policies


procedures,


planning


committee


meeting minutes,


formal


proposals,


student


newspaper


local


newspaper


articles,


brochures,


various


printed announcements


circulated


among


students,


meetings,


course


outlines


and minutes


syllabii,


of pertinent


minutes


meetings


of honors


of the


faculty


council


senate.


Third,


individuals


respective

interviews.


honors

The


were


programs

positions


directly


were

held


involved


available


these


in the development


in-depth and


individual


included


of the


individual


those


former


president


of the college,


vice-president


academic


affairs,


dean


of student


services,


campus


provost,


coordinator


career


development,


coordinator


transfer planning,


former


honors


program


director,


present


honors


program director,


chairperson


of the honors


council,


past


former


present


honors


honors


program ad


hoc planning


program faculty.


committee


A complete


list


members,


of those


individuals


interviewed,


with


corresponding


college


affiliation


professional


title,


appears


in Appendix


Methods


of Analysis


of Data


Throughout


process


of analyzing


the qualitative


data


collected


the three


study


sites,


the researcher


relied


heavily


upon


the guidelines


set forth


two educational


researchers,


Matthew


B. Miles


A. Michael


Huberman


(1984a,


1984b).


The techniques


explained


other


educational


researchers


were


also


helpful.


These


included


M. L. Dobbertt,


M. Q.











of activity


outlined


Miles


Huberman


(1984a,


data


reduction,


data


display


conclusion


drawing.


Data


Reduction Activities


Data


reduction activities


included


informally


transcribing


editing


the taped


interviews


conducted


at the study


sites.


These


transcribed


notes


were


then


organized


to coincide


with


stages


academic


innovation contained


in the interview


guide.


They


were


stored


so that


individual


interviewed,


the site


location,


the date


interview


could


be retrieved.


Also,


the information contained


on the


documents


studied


was


paraphrased


these


notes


were


similarly


organized


to coincide


with


stages


of academic


innovation.


They were


stored


in a manner


in which


type


of document,


location


site,


data


received


could


be retrieved.


The final


stage


of the data


reduction


process


consisted


of summarizing


editing


the field


notes


taken


during


the site


visits.


These


field


notes


were


organized


and stored


in a


manner


similar


to that


of the transcribed


interviews


paraphrased


documents.


Data


Display


Activities


data


display


activity


employed


in this


report


was


a descriptive


matrix


(Miles


Huberman,


1984a).


The intent


was


to combine


parallel


data


" (p.


26).


rows


of the matrix correspond


to the three


study


__


_


_ _











reduction


stages


of analysis.


These


cell


entries


included


informally


transcribed


notes


each individual


interviewed,


paraphrased


notes


extracted


from


the documents


studied,


edited


field


notes


written at


the three


study


sites.


The matrix


is represented


in Chapter


IV of this


study.


Conclusion Drawing


Activites


After


employing


the data


reduction and


data


display


techniques


previously mentioned,


tactics


drawing


conclusions


were


employed


order


to reduce


"the


bulk


of data


bring


a pattern


to them


" (Miles


Huberman,


1984a,


27).


identified


strategies,


with corresponding


tactics within each cell,


were


counted


in order


to determine


at least


two strategies


could


be identified


in each


cell.


at least


strategies


cell.


This


were


identified


" designation


the word


signified


was


that


placed


in the particular


the particular


institution


had undergone

continuation


the specific


stages


of the respective


during


honors


the establishment


program.


Conversely


strategies


could


not be identified


a particular


cell,


the word


was


placed


the researcher


in the cell


to answer


the opposite


the problem


was


true.


statement


This


of this


process


study


enabled


according


the procedures


set forth


in Chapter

















CHAPTER :
RESULTS


central


concern


of this


study


was


whether


or not


aspects


of the


theory


of academic


innovation,


as described


by Martorana and Kuhns


(1975)


in their


"Interactive


Forces


Theory,


" describe


sequence


events


employed


in the establishment


continuation


of honors


programs


selected


structured


community


according


colleges.


to the major


Results


elements


section


of that


was,


therefore,


theory


Because


interview guide


was used


as the key


instrument


throughout


data


collection


analysis,


much


of the narrative


of the Results


section


was


organized


around


this


guide.


Occasionally,


a strategy


or tactic


that


appear


on the interview


guide


was


identified


the researcher.


accordance


with


the procedures


set forth in


Chapter


if the


strategy


tactic


could


be classified


into


one


of the five


stages


of academic


innovation as


defined


Martorana and


Kuhns,


was


included


in the


narrative.


Exploration


Stage


three


institutions


progressed


through a


clearly


discernible


exploration


stage.


Each


honors


program


studied


traced


its early


origins


a small


offering


courses


initiated


a few instructors,


working












program


began


to evolve


when


a top-level


administrator,


respected


faculty


member


, or group


of faculty members


determined


that


an honors


program


should


be established.


dean


of student


services


at RCC,


example,


mentioned


that


major


impetus


for their


honors


program came


from a


general


realization


part


of the faculty


administration


that


their


institution


doing


"better


with


average


student


with


the developmental


student


than


with


the student


at the other


end of the academic


spectrum


Lowdermilk,


personal


communication,


June


1984).


This


administrator


also


stated


that


in order


the comprehensive


mission of


their


college


to be realized,


needs


of students


of all


academic


aptitudes


should


be addressed.


three


of the institutions


employed


a variety


of tactics


pursue


Strategy


A (create


a demand


an honors


program).


of the most


frequently


mentioned


tactics


was


the identification


a top-level


administrator who


would


support


the establishment


of the


program,


emphasize


the need


for such a


program.


honors


program director


DBCC,


one,


explained


the situation


in this manner:


"You


need


a top


administrator


and a dynamic


administrator.


You must


hitch


your wagon


a star.


that


I mean


you must


find


an administrator


that


can get


things


done


" (B.


Sharp,


personal


communication,


1984).


Individuals


at all


three


study


sites


stressed


that


their


programs


- --1I


t .


em. no, own


wa11


acrfn hlh i -h


wti thnut


secure no


administrative


was


honr me


j











another.


while


At DCC,


was


still


the vice-president


a faculty member


for academic


in planning


affairs


was


teaching


involved


honors


courses


long


before


a college-wide


program was


initiated


Nesbitt,


personal


communication,


1984;


R. Clow,


personal


communication,


1984).


administrative


This


support


type


of coincidence


would


helped


be forthcoming


to ensure


in this


that


particular


instance.


Many


other


tactics


that


are associated


with


Strategy


were


identified.


Most


prominent


among


these


was


conducting


of informal


meetings


forms.


to share


First,


perceptions


faculty


and outline


recognized


the need


needs.


This


an honors


generally


program


took


from


their


direct


contact


with


students


in the classroom.


They


then


informally


shared


their


perception


of this


need


with


other


faculty


administrators.


Second,


administrators


realized


a need


an honors


program


from interactions


with


various


community


groups,


shared


this


information


with


faculty


administrative


groups.


Many


variations


this


tactic


were


employed,


but the general


pattern


consisted


concerned


faculty


and/or


administrator


sensing


the need


beginning


communicate


that


need


whenever


possible.


In all


three


instances,


detailed


written


needs


analysis


usually was


included


in the formal


proposal


submitted


later


the planning


committee


the honors


program.


Likewise,


committee)


was


at all three


employed.


institutions,


At RCC


Strategy


planning


B (form


committee


honors


consisted


planning


of all


full


professors


meeting


once


a month.


According


to the co-director











talented


student,


and that


an honors


program


should


be formed


Draper,


personal


communication,


June


1984).


At DCC,


a top-level


administrator,


in conjunction


with


vice-president


of academic


affairs,


appointed


faculty


an honors


planning


committee.


These


faculty members


either


previously


expressed


interest


in an


honors


program,


or had


been


recommended


participation


their


division chairpersons.


A memo


sent


to specific


faculty members


appointed


the committee,


set the agenda,


assigned


sub-committees,


and described


the responsibilities


of individual


members.


administrator was


careful


to appoint


faculty


from a


wide


variety


of disciplines


the college.


This


ensure


administrator


that


the committee


described


was


his actions


representative


in the following


manner:


strategy


in creating


to the three main


areas


the committee


was


of the curriculum


to have


Also,


members


we wanted


correspond


to have


sampling
campuses
ownership


from each
and every
regarding


communication,


campus.


area


In that


way,


of the curriculum


resulting
1984)


program.


representatives


could


feel


from all


a sense


L. Swofford,


personal


At DBCC,


the interest


member,


a memo


was


of the faculty


later was


distributed


to faculty


in teaching


appointed


honors


chairperson


in an attempt


courses.


survey


A faculty


of the ad hoc committee,


made


the following


comments


surveyed


the interest


of the faculty


teaching


honors


courses


before


we did almost


anything


else .


We surveyed


them first,


rather


than


first


telling


them our


concept


an honors










program.


According


to the vice-president


academic


affairs,


the DBCC


honors


program


was


"initiated


through a


very


democratic


process.


Faculty


from several


disciplines


banded


together


to initiate


the planning


Cornelius,


personal


communication,


April


1984).


three


colleges,


moreover,


exhibited


evidence


of employing


Strategy


C (create


a formal


proposal


an honors


program).


At RCC,


proposal


took


the form


a report


issued


the full


professors


campus


which called


for more


concerted


efforts


to meet


the needs


of the


academically


talented


student.


Details


of the


program were


later


developed


written


to such groups


two co-directors.


the respective


planning


as the faculty


senate


At DBCC and

committees,

e, academic


DCC, th

and then

affairs


e proposal


was


was


distributed


committee,


and the


administrative


cabinet.


respective


committees


used


a multitude


tactics


to reach


their


proposal.


three


committees,


some manner,


attempted


to reach consensus


on the twelve


issues


listed


in Tactic


the Exploration


Stage


on the Interview Guide.


At DCC,


the committee


guided


the honors


number


a clear


director


of drafts


set of objectives


at the north


A. Michna,


and a specific


campus,


personal


agenda.


proposal moved


communication,


According


through a


1984).


A central


group


of members


worked


many


of the details


rest


of the committee


to approve;


the committee


secretary


then


drafted


proposal"


A. Michna,


personal


communication,


1984).


Individuals at


three


campuses


stressed


the value


of communicating


was


" (J










personal


communication,


1984).


this,


he indicated


that


determining


was


extremely


other


valuable.


institutions


This


planned and


individual


implemented


particularly


their


stressed


programs


the worth


of attending


the national


regional


conferences


of the NCHC.


This


same


person


repeatedly mentioned


the need


secure


funding


program


early


in the planning


process


ensure


that


trave 1


to other


institutions


and conferences,


along


with


other


related


planning


activities,


would


be possible.


A campus


program director


at DCC


stated


that


communicating


with


senior


institutions


in the general geographic area also


was particularly


helpful


during


the formulation


of the proposal.


This director made


three


statements


in this


regard


We knowingly
universities


We sought


as


tried


to evaluate


in the general area
much information as


what


were
poss


other


four-year


colleges and


doing in regard to honors
ible from neighboring


institutions


about


our


Early


students


in the planning


would


be received


process
v senior


we thought


carefully


institutions.


A. Michna,


personal


communication,


1984)


Numerous


written

however,


other


proposal.


were


tactics

Those m


the tactics


were


mention


most


employed i

ed in this


frequently


n the


process


section

stressed


of th


of formulating

e narrative,


at the study


sites.


Various


other


strategies


were


identified


that


could


be classified


within


the exploration


the planners


stage


at all three


of this


study


sites


study.


employed


was


clear,


at least


however,

of these


that

three


strategies


B (form an


Strategy


honors


A (create


olannin2


a demand


committee).


an honors


and Stratew v


program),


(eren te


Strategy


a formal










Formulation Stage


Upon


the creation


of its


proposal,


each


college


entered


into


formulation


stage


of development.


As theorized


Martorana


Kuhns


(1975),


during


this


stage


of development


the planners


at each institution


pursued


strategies


which enabled


them


to compile


information


relative


the "elements


issues


identified


during


the exploration


stage


179).


Tactics


associated


with Strategy


A of


the formulation


stage


(formal


proposal


circulated,


discussed


and modified),


Strategy


C (address


faculty


was


development


insufficient


needs),


evidence,


were identified

however, to state


at all the study

unequivocally t


sites.


hat


There


Strategy


(determine

At RCC,


obstacles and


confront


the aforementioned


opposition)


report


issued


was


employed.


the full


professors


1977


was


widely


circulated


discussed.


According


to the co-director


program,


was


largely


because


report


was


issued


a group


with


many


significant


leaders


involved,


that


was


"circulated


discussed


among


the entire


college


" (S.


Draper,


personal


communication,


June


1984).


This


report


was


readily


endorsed,


while


no evidence


modification could


be detected.


At DCC,

informally.


the proposal

Primarily b


was


ecaus


circulated and

e the planning


discussed

committee


both

was


formally


large


representative


of the total


college,


much


of the discussion and


modification


took


place at


the planning


committee


s meetings


prior


to the


circulation


of the proposal.


After


receiving


a thorough


discussion


within


.i C s- C44


. a


1a


F


-~ ~ 4 9


I *


P









administrative


cabinet.


Modifications


were


made


in the original


proposal


following


these


discussions.


At DBCC,


memos


were


sent


to department


chairpersons


the chairperson


of the ad hoc committee


describing


the proposal


A. Drimmel,


personal


communication,


September


1975).


Several


days


later,


the dean


arts


and sciences was


sent


a summary


of the significant


features


of the ad hoc


committee


s recommendations


A. Drimmel,


personal


communication,


September


1975).


Subsequently,


the proposal


was


sent


to the


vice-president


academic


affairs.


Student


services


personal


were


then


contacted


after


the plan


been


approved.


More


significant


contact


with


student


services


personnel


was


initiated


after


an honors


council


formed.


example,


according


to the minutes


of the honors


council


meeting


of October


1976,


the honors


faculty


formally met


with


appropriate


counselors


in an


effort


to work


necessary


details


(Honors


Council


minutes,


DBCC,


October


1976)


Additional


interactions


among


counselors


honors


faculty


within all


three


colleges


will


be discussed


in the "Institutionalization


Stage


of this


section.


A significant


amount


of literature


reviewed


in Chapter


II of this


study


stressed


the need


to determine


obstacles


confront


opposition


when developing


honors


programs.


focus


of much


of these


particular


comments


was


upon


the need


to formulate


counter-arguments


to charges


elitism

sites,


frequently


however


leveled


little


against


evidence


honors


programs.


of opposition


could


At all three

be discovered,


study

and it


C 1 1^.,-


*- -- -


1.i J .1-a


a. -. 4 .t ,


a I .2 -- - C -- A-


_.t, .2 a I -


was


1


L. L_ __










At DBCC,


the chairman of


the ad hoc


committee


stated


the following


this


regard:


Opposition


completely


failed


to materialized.


There


was


absolutely


no resentment


devoted


from


to the hono


the Vo-Tech
rs program.


sector


concerning any


Similiarly,


there


was


funds


that


were


no resentment


from


our


Drimmel,


colleagues
personal c


in the traditional


communication,


academic
, 1984)


areas.


This


same


individual


add,


however,


that


if opposition


had arisen,


the planners


at DBCC would


have


singled


those


opposing


the plan


out,


invited


them


to the honors


council meeting,


asked


them


to discuss


their


questions


at the council meeting


" (P.


A. Drimmel,


personal


communication,

not directly i


, 1984).


involvedd


Apparently,


in the early


stages


the prevailing mood


of the planning


among


process at


those

DBCC


was more


one


of skepticism


than


opposition.


of the individuals


interviewed


at DBCC


generally


echoed


these


sentiments.


As with


the other


two study


sites,


experienced


little


or no


opposition.


According


one


administrator,


"there


was


more


complacency


than


opposition


" (R.


L. Swofford,


personal


communication,


1984).


Other


individuals


repeated


these


comments


added


that mainly


because


the college had such

administrators could


a strong

justify


developmental


opposing


program,


an honors


few faculty


program.


Similarly,


exhibited


little


evidence


of confronting


opposition.


Apparently


when


the full


professors


suggested


that


the college


ignoring


some


of its


best


students,


vast


majority


of faculty


administrators


supported


the idea.


Upon


the release


of that


report,


was










Unlike


Strategy


B (determine


obstacles


confront


opposition)


formulation


stage,


evidence


of each study


site


experiencing


Strategy


C (addressing


faculty


development


needs)


existed.


RCC probably


experienced


the least


need


formal


re-training


of faculty


because


the wealth


of faculty members


who had significant


prior


experience


teaching


Even


honors


under these


courses,


or courses


circumstances,


similar


however,


in nature


careful


to honors


guidelines


courses.

teaching


honors


courses


being


an honors mentor were


created


implemented


the co-directors.


Perhap s


the most


frequently mentioned


tactic associated


with


Strategy


occurring


at RCC,


was


the faculty


meeting


on a


regular


basis


to discuss


curriculum development


and other


related


concerns.


According


to most


of the individuals


interviewed,


there

were


was


a core


willing


of dedicated


to devote


extra


professors


time


to helping


had

each


natural


other


rapport"


develop


their


talents.


DBCC and


initiated


similar


faculty


development


activities


such as


developing


guidelines


informally meeting


course


among


themselves.


development,


Evidence


honors


also


was


faculty


located


visiting


consultants


helping


to retrain faculty


travel


funds which


were


made


available


faculty members


to visit


other


institutions


attend


appropriate


conferences.


There


was,


therefore,


a clearly


discernible


formulation


stage


in the


establishment


and continuation


of the honors


programs


at all


three


study










occurred,


all three


study


sites


clearly


experienced


Strategies


A and


other miscellaneous


strategies


mentioned


in this


narrative


that


could


be classified


under


the Formulation


Stage


in Martorana and


Kuhns'


conceptualization.


Trial


Stage


adheres


rigidly


to the definition


of the trial


stage


set forth


Martorana and


Kuhns


(1975),


then none


of the study


sites


could


be said


to have


passed


through an


explicit


program


trial


period.


Martorana and


Kuhns


stated


that


the trial


stage


consisted


a pilot


operation


limited


in time


scope.


No evidence


could


be discovered


that


innovations


at the three


colleges


received


a mandate


signifying


that


they were


pilot


operations


limited


in the above-mentioned


manner.


Most


of those


addressing


this


question


reported


that


if there


been


established


a clear,


definite


commitment


support


unspecified


period


of time,


the program would


have


been successful.


Most


faculty members


indicated


that


there


would


have


been a


decided


lack of


motivation,

had started


on their p

as a pilot


art,


to develop


project.


teach courses


faculty member


if the innovation


s comments


were


representative


many


that


this


researcher


recorded


It is


a lukewarm commitment


if the


powers


that


or even


participants,


insist


on a


trial


project.


It discourages


those


might


for more


take an interest,


than one


A. Drimmel,


semester


if they


or one


personal


didn


know that


year.


were


communication,


was


assured


going
that


to be


we were


1984)


A co-director


at another


study


site


example,


jokingly


stated


that


one










instance,


the former


president


one of the colleges


studied


addressed


the issue


a trial


project


in the following


manner


never


formalized


program doesn't
discontinue it.


hedging


your


the premises
suggestion of


October


a trial


work in


three


should


bets.


should


project.


semesters,
t respond


meet


of the program intellectually


a trial


project.


Eskow,


never


said


that


example,


type


philosophical


not with


personal


if the


we would
criticism


challenges
the


communication,


, 1984)


These

process.


sentiments

It should


were


reiterated


be mentioned


that


repeatedly


during


although none


the interview


of the study


sites


actually


experienced


Strategy


A (begin


trial


project),


individuals at


three


study


sites maintained


that


there


was


definitely


an implied


trial


stage.


As in all


innovations,


if the fledgling


honors


programs


dramatically


failed


to draw


students


after


a significant


amount


of time


had passed,


they


obviously would


have


been


discontinued.


only


evidence


that


an explicit


trial


project


occurred


uncovered


at DBCC.


This


occurred


during


the development


of their


honors


program,


but much


later


during


the planning


interdisciplinary


p rog ram


developed


as part


of the honors


program.


This


program,


called


Quanta,


was


given


a one-semester mandate,


according


of its chief


architects


Zelley,


personal


communication,


1984).


no other


site


was


such a


clearly


discernible


trial


project


evidence.


The information gathered


regarding


Strategy


(initiate


a careful


evaluation and


readjustment


procedure)


in the trial


stage


was


one


was










evaluation


procedures.


Although


some


honors


faculty members


seemed


observe


evaluation


procedures


that


surpassed


what


might


normally


occur,


this


constitute an elaborate


process.


Rather,


of the


program


directors


at the study


sites


apparently


relied


on informal


information


gathered


from faculty,


students,


and graduates


of the


program,


evaluate


the efficacy


of their


honors


programs.


three


study


sites


clearly


showed


evidence


of experiencing


Strategy


C (identify


recruit


students).


five


tactics


associated


with


this


strategy,


and listed


in the Interview Guide,


were


extensively


employed


the three


colleges.


Perhaps


the most


frequently


stressed


tactic


in this


regard


wa s


Tactic


C2 (initiate


develop


liasons with


students,


teachers,


administrators


at local


high


schools).


each college,


Although a


much


great


of these


deal


of recruitment


activities


should


activities


be categorized


occurred at


within


Institutionalization


Stage


of this


narrative,


and will


be discussed


there.


Although


Strategy


C of the trial


stage


was


clearly


in evidence


at all


three


study


sites,


the researcher was


unable


to identify


positively


strategies


that


could


be classified


under


that


heading.


At each college,


evidence


that


would


have


allowed


the researcher


to identify more


than one


strategy


the trial


stage


failed


to materialize.


trial


stage


theorized

be valid


Martorana


within


and Kuhns


the confines


was,


of this


therefore,


study.


official

however,


judged


Martorana


not to

and


Kuhns'


definition


of the trial


stage


was


to be


more


loosely


interpreted,










Refinement


Stage


Insufficient


(distribute


results


evidence


was


of the sel


discovered

f-study and


to determine

evaluation


that


Strategy


external


agents)


Strategy


(set


up advisory


committee


of students


community


representatives)


of the refinement


stage


occurred.


This


was


true


for all


of the three


study


sites.


Strategy


B (initiate


follow-up


studies


graduates


of the trial


program),


however,


was


clearly


initiated


three


colleges.


This


was


true


if the phrase


"trial


program


interpreted


to mean


the beginning


stages


of the


program.


previously


reported,


no college


underwent


an official


trial


program.)


Strategy


was


the only


strategy


specifically


listed


in the


refinement


stage


of the Interview Guide


that


was


identified


at all


three


study


sites.


However,


other


strategies


listed


on the Interview


Guide,


but clearly


associated


with


the refinement


stage


as defined


Martorana and


Kuhns,


were


identified.


Each


college,


therefore,


produced


verification


of initiating


at least


strategies


associated


with


this


particular


stage.


Thus,


the researcher was


able


to determine


that


refinement


stage,


as theorized


Martorana


Kuhns,


was


valid


purposes


of this


study.


While


none


of the colleges


participated


in a


formal


evaluation,


researcher was


obviously unable


to substantiate


occurence


of Strategy


As reported


evaluation


in the Trial


procedures which


Stage


occurred


of this


narrative,


at the three


study


the majority


sites


was


was










most


frequently mentioned


the constraints


time


reason


on students


for

and


not initiating


community


Strategy


representatives.


There


occurred


a significant


amount


contact


with


students


community


leaders


that


could


be described as


advisory


in nature.


this,


however


apparently was


conducted


on an informal


basis.


college


established


an extra-curricular


club


through which


informal


advising


occurred.


At another


college,


students


traveled


with


honors


faculty


national


regional


conferences,


during which discussions


advisory


nature


occurred.


no instance,


though,


were


formal advisory


committees


organized.


Unlike


Strategies


A and


in the Refinement


Stage,


Strategy


(initiate


follow-up


studies


of graduates


of the trial


program)


received


great


deal


attention.


Personnel


at both


DBCC


conducted


follow-up


studies


through


such activities


as telephoning


graduates,


writing


individual


letters


to graduates


and sending


a standard


survey


graduates.


Program co-directors


at RCC


, however,


extensive


work


this


regard,


some


of which


will


be briefly


outlined.


Most


of the individuals


interviewed


at RCC


stressed


their


belief


that


one test


program


effectiveness


is the choice


of future


directions made


students


following


their


graduation.


There


was


significant


evidence


to document


that


substantial


efforts


were


made


to follow


progress


program graduates.


A co-director


of RCC


s program


described


their


procedures


in the following


manner


was










have


maintained


institutions.


(Grade
Draper,


Point


personal


Ave rage)


or better


communication,


at transfer


June


1984)


A newspaper


article


described


the results


one


such follow-up


study, r

present,


reportingg

showed


that

that


"the

all t


study,


tracing


he students


100 graduates


in the honors


from 1978


program


went


to the

on to


four-year


institutions


" (Winters,


1982,


This


same


newspaper


article


current


quoted


president


the former


vice-president


of the college,


instructional


in the following


manner:


services,


"Study


results


further


show that


the honors


students


completed


their


studies


a four-year


institution with


a grade


average


equal


or higher


than


average


they


at RCC"


Members


of the office


student


services


staff


outlined


additional


follow-up


activities.


These


included


individual


case


studies


that


were


developed

studies,


describing

information


honors


was


program


compiled,


graduates.

including "


Through


where


these


case


the graduates


went,


what


their majors


are,


eventually


what


their


professions


Cohen,


personal


communication,


June


1984).


Portions


of these


written


case


studies


appeared


in brochures


and in additional


newspaper


articles.


They were


also


read


open


house


events.


RCC also maintained


an ongoing


directory


of its graduates.


This


directory


lists


the student


s name,


high


school


, honors


scholarships,


transfer


institutions.


This directory


also


included


a list


of each


institution


which accepted


the graduates


of the


program.


faculty


member


at RCC


summarized


the follow-up


activities


stating


are


" (J.


- - _


w l










elements


of the


program.


M. Pirone,


personal


communication,


June


1984)


In addition


the Interview Guide


to Strategy


but clearly


numerous


other


associated


with


strategies


the refinement


listed


stage


defined


strategies


Martorana and


were


Kuhns)


the following:


were


identified.


Increased


travel


Primary


among


to national


these

regional


conferences,


increased


communication


with senior


institutions,


additional


release


time


offered


to program directors


faculty


in order


to sharpen


the focus


and design


of the


program,


refining


program


brochures


other


pertinent


literature,


redesigning


courses


course materials.


Institutionalization


Stage


three


study


sites


experienced


a clearly


discernible


institutionalization


stage.


In fact,


the researcher was


able


to locate


more


evidence


of strategies


tactics


that


could


be associated


with


institutionalization


stage


than


with any


other


stage


included


Martorana


Kuhns


' theory.


Perhaps


this


abundance


of activity


occurred


because


encompassed


very


definition


the longest


period


offered


of time.


Martorana


It could


Kuhns,


be maintained


this


that


stage


once


a program


has passed


through


the refinement


stage,


every


activity


that


enables


program


to continue


develop


should


be considered


as part


of the institutionalization


stage.


Strategy


A (select


personnel


decision-making


positions)


important


sten


in the institutionalization


nroress


at all


three


of the


was


|










administrative


framework


included


a program director,


was


the chief


officer


responsible


the daily


operation


of the entire


program.


At DCC,


there


was


a program director


each


of the three


campuses.


The three


campus


program directors met


regularly


in an effort


formulate an


honors


program


council.


chairperson


of this


council


served


as the college-wide


coordinator


was


selected


from


membership


on a


regular


basis.


An internal memo


from a


district


administrator


to the academic


affairs


council


outlined


responsibilities


of the


campus


honors


coordinators


assigned


to them a


stipend


of approximately


communication,


February


$900.00


1983).


per year


The honors


L. Swofford,

coordinators


personal

at the three


campuses


were


responsible


to the


academic


dean at


each campus,


through


campus


academic


dean


to the district


vice-president


academic


affairs.


greatest


advantage


to this


administrative


framework,


according


one


campus


coordinator,


was


that


centralized


class


scheduling


could


be done


one


administrator


" (S.


M. Thomas,


personal


communication,


1984).


At RCC,

program. I


co-directors


two co-directors


:n addition


were


administered


to teaching


responsible


the daily


responsibilities,


the vast majority


operation


of the


these


of planning,


scheduling,


recruitment


activities.


These


co-directors


were


responsible


Likewise,


to the vice-president


DBCC


academic


had a program director


affairs.


was


assigned










program director


from


honors


teaching


responsibilities


was


based


upon


belief


that


or she could


better


administer


informal


faculty


evaluation


involved


with


the position


if he


or she


were


not also


teaching.


In addition


a program director,


DBCC


an honors


council


composed


of interested


faculty members.


Like


the program director,


members


of the honors council


teach


within


the honors


program


itself.


Their


task


was


to provide


guidance


to the program director.


Minutes


basis


of the honors


provided


council


guidance


meetings


on such


revealed


crucial


that


issues


on a


as course


regular


approval


faculty


selection.


honors


council


was


responsible


to the


vice-president


academic


affairs.


faculty member


at DBCC


suggested


that


the administrative


framework should


be decided


as soon as


possible,


and that


should


be firmed


on who


is going


to do what


the early


days


" (P.


A. Drimmel,


personal


communication,


1984).


Funding


the three


honors


programs


studied


took


various


forms.


While many


individuals


stressed


the need


their program


to have


independent


budget,


others


saw no


such


need.


such


individual


stated


there
found.


no need


one is paid


a budget.


Whenever we


to do anything.


need money,


Perhaps


money


in the future,


program mentors
communication,


should


June


be given
1984)


a stipend.


Draper,


personal


Generally,


assistance,


time


if funds


brochures,


faculty,


combination


of both.


were


travel,


they were


First,


needed


special


secured


various


such


events,


in one


academic


items


as clerical


colloquiums,


ways


departments


and release


or through a


shared the









as needed"


basis,


directly


from


or her


budget.


At all


of the


colleges,


the vice-president


of academic


affairs


was


consistently


sent


information


regarding


the honors


programs,


at least


partially with


implicit


intent


of securing


future


funding.


Strategy


B (establish


permanent


office


locations)


was


an important


strategy


in the institutionalization


stage


at all


three


study


sites.


of the


program


directors


used


their faculty


offices


as the main


office


their


honors


program.


Consequently,


was


clear


that


each campus


a central


physical


location


honors


activity.


Likewise,


program directors


clerical assistance


available


them.


This


usually


took


the form


of assistance


from


departmental


secretaries,


secretaries


to the vice-president


academic


affairs,


student


assistance.


However,


although


program


directors


assistance,


few felt


that


what


they


received


was


adequate.


former


director


of the honors


council


at DBCC


stated,


have


always


received


clerical

Adequate


assistant

clerical


but unfortunately


assistance


it has


is essential


been adequate.


S. Lightsey,


personal


communication,


, 1984).


There


was disagreement


on the appropriateness


of pursuing


the tactics


of establishing


an honors


lounge


an honors


library.


Individuals


DBCC


stated


that


they


been


working


toward


realizing


those


goals


years


felt


that


having


both


a library


lounge


would


tremendous


advantage.


According


to the program director,


after


great










Individuals at


generally


thought


that


having


an honors


lounge


library might


be advantageous,


but it


was


a program


priority.


cent ral


reasons


appeared


to surface


this


hesitancy.


First,


space


required


Second,

students


such a


given

and


facility


the combination


an abundance


seem


of high


of various


to exist


numbers

cultural


at their


of part-time

activities i


campuses.


commuter


n the Atlanta


area,


there


was


some


doubt


if the facility


would


receive


sufficient


to warrant


its establishment.


At RCC,


there


was


a definite


belief


that


establishing


an honors


lounge


library would


be productive.


Faculty


feared


that


establishing


such a


facility might


represent,


in the minds


of other


students,


a blatant


attempt


to give


special


privileges


a small


group


of students.


Second,


more


importantly


, was


that


was


envisioned


unnecessary


as having


a poor


chance


of being


utilized


students.


Most


honors


lounges


libraries


are


initiated


with


intent


of developing


a sense


of community


exchange


among


honors


students.


At RCC,


most


of the individuals


interviewed mentioned


that


this


sense


of community


already


existed


without


the benefit


a lounge


or library.


A faculty member


summarized


it in the following manner:


Because


the class


grow within


size


the class


limited,


itself


Ther


a sense
e does


of community


seem


to be


begins
a great


to
deal


of time
probably


extracurricular


be left


unused.


activities, an
. Fitzpatrick,


so an ho
personal


nors lounge wo
communication,


tuld


June


1984)


Most


individuals


at RCC


stated


that


small


classes


a sense


use









It was also


apparent


to the researcher


that


the well


developed


mentoring


system


provided


to honors


program


participants


helped


develop


this


desired


sense


a learning


communi ty


at RCC.


Each


student


regularly met


enrichment.


particular


the student


with


Usually


interest


throughout


a professor


the 'professor


to the student.


or her


academic


taught


counseling


and academic


within an academic


The mentor


followed


participation in


program.


field


progress


This


arrangement


provided


a rich context


within


which a


sense


communi ty


could


grow.


developed


establishment


through


the mentor


of this


system with


sense


of community,


the added


ingredient


largely


of smaller


honors


classes,


precluded


the need


an honors


lounge.


After


initial


success


of their


programs,


the personnel


at all


three


study


sites


turned


a great


deal


of attention


to employing


Strategy


C increases

retaining

serving di


recruitment


increasing


stricts


activities).


numbers


of the three


was


f appropriate

community co


though

honors


lileges


that


students


would


attracting


from


noticeably


the

enhance


the entire


educational


atmosphere


of the respective


colleges.


A great


deal


of this


increased


recruitment


activity


occurred


at the


local


high


schools.


Honors


Council


director


summarized


activities


stating


the following


took


our


schools.


students
took an


from the honors
entire semester


seminar


visited


off to organize and


local high
implement


recruitment
of advanced


at local
placement


high


schools.


courses,


I contacted
principals i


counselors,


n order


ar


teachers
range for


our


local
1Iat-


presentations.


high


schools


personally
encouraged


af rho arw.AA antt


n en


talked


them
Fra


to talented


to participate.


..~ ~ 4I*


students


from


obtained


A a a 1 .a


1 *


^ 4


r Tr









A copy


a staff


program development


(SPD)


application


documented


that


funds


were


made


available


to this


honors


council


director


to support


these


recruitment


activities


(SDP


application,


March


1978,


DBCC).


At all


three


of the study


sites,


program directors,


honors


council members,


and faculty


engaged


in similar


activities.


In each


instance,


the need


for personal


direct


contact


among


honors


p rog ram


personnel and


administrators,


faculty,


students


was


deemed


to be


essential.


Contact


among


program graduates


prospective


students


also


seen as


very


important.


This


contact


usually


took


the form


program graduates accompanying


faculty


during


site


visits


to local


high


schools,


or program graduates


attending


open house


functions


and other


various


receptions


held


on the community


college


campus.


A great


many


of these


increased


recruitment


activities


consisted


refining


improving


the incentives


offered


to students.


This


usually


involved


the development


of scholarships,


special


recognition and


transfer


assistance.


of the study


sites


showed


great


interest


attracting


increased


numbers


of talented


students


improving


their


incentives


in these


three


areas.


Scholarships were


generally


offered


to the


upper


percent


of the


graduating


seniors


of local


high


schools.


These


scholarships


usually


took


the form


a tuition


waiver.


In addition


to scholarships


being


offered


significant


to students


effort


while


was


they were


directed


at the community


toward


helping


college,


program participants


S* ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ L *-l*r- .aL 1a ..*-l areA ut A-f- -


was


AA 1, A1*IYlf~l.l


1


__f a


~ ii CI I I YCL


L II.. ~--


--.2 L. --










of the study


sites


refined


methods


offering


special


recognition


to program graduates


during


the institutionalization


stage.


The minutes


of the honors


council


at DBCC,


for instance,


traced


decision


secure


a silver


seal


on the diploma


issued


to all


program


participants


(Minutes


of Honors


Council,


November


1976,


DBCC).


This


general


practice


existed


at the other


study


sites


as well.


In addition


a special


seal


on the diplomas,


special


notation


during


commencement


exercises,


annual


awards


banquets,


specific


notations


transcripts


were


some


of the other


incentives


developed


during


institutionalization


stage.


Throughout


the institutionalization


stage,


personnel


associated


with


the honors


programs


at each


of the study


sites


increased


their


attempts


to offer

generally


transfer

involved


assistance


to graduates


individualized


efforts,


of their

beyond


program.


what


This


the respective


office


for student


services


would


offer


student


wishing


transfer


a senior


institution.


Although attention


was


given


to transfer


assistance


at all


of the


colleges,


the honors


program at


clearly


emphasized


this


service


as an


integral

at RCC,


part

prior


their


to the


program.


increased


According


efforts


to student


to organize


service


transfer


personnel


assistance,


senior


institutions


not been


receptive


to transfer


students


graduating


from RCC'


honors


program.


student


service


representative


explained


this


stating