Citation
The antic death

Material Information

Title:
The antic death restoration and Shakespeare's comic-tragic synthesis
Added title page title:
Restoration and Shakespeare's comic-tragic synthesis
Creator:
Cox, Catherine Irene, 1949-
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xi, 275 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Comic theater ( jstor )
Death ( jstor )
Fear ( jstor )
Graves ( jstor )
Guilt ( jstor )
Humor ( jstor )
Kings ( jstor )
Laughter ( jstor )
Mortality ( jstor )
Theater ( jstor )
Death in literature ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- English -- UF
English thesis Ph. D
Self-knowledge in literature ( lcsh )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1985.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 266-274.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Catherine Irene Cox.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
000867095 ( ALEPH )
14349252 ( OCLC )
AEG3939 ( NOTIS )

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ANTIC


DEATH:


RESTORATION


SHAKESPEARE


COMIC-TRAGIC


SYNTHESI


CATHERINE


IRENE


A DISSERTATION


PARTIAL


PRESENTED
UNIVERSITY


FULFILLMENT


TO THE


GRADUATE


SCHOOL


FLORIDA IN
E REQUIREMENT


rrn ',r1 ni't m IaI v


I


1n/5 / T/ ft


__I


r


a n da em PP 11 r
-
1


fl-


























In Memory


Tommy


Ruth


Waldo















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Clark,


who agreed


to direc


program already


progress,


am deeply


grateful.


Rather


than


molding


students


own image,


Clark


encourages


them


to think


independently


exceptionally


good


reader


a brilliant and


exacting


scholar,


reviewed


my work


with


care


, specifying


areas


that needed


further


clarification


or better


support.


sugge


tion


every


case


improve


ements


my argument.


showed


confidence


idea


as much a


direc


tion


scholar


hip,


offer


special


thanks.


"She


born


under


cing


tar"


--these


words


were


poken


Walter


Herbert


memory


of Tommy


Ruth


Waldo,


whose


courage


hake spear


love


continued


to inspire


throughout my


year


writing.


Waldo,


teacher


espeare


at the


Univer


Florida


and my


graduate


advi


sor,


influential


deci


to work


on S


hake


speare


plays


instrumental


Wiping


me to refine my


ini tial


ssertation


late


Walter


Herbert also


played


an important rol


Sn i + 1 I


t w c inn h


c rniirc


that


T first h'nan


. Ira


+*mv


nhi ce


i l 11r









particularly my


handling


contemporary material


interpreting


play


bear


imprint of


fine


hakespearean.


When


my work


half


-compl


late


Marjorie


Malvern


reviewed


it with meti


ulous


care.


editing


draft was


great


help


me 1


preparing my


final


manuscript.


with


tenderness


tha t


remember


Malvern,


her spontaneity,


interest


medieval


motif


part


ularly


ngaging


laughter.


want


acknowledge


former


teac


her,


stair


Duckworth


. Duckworth


exce


llent


struck


tion


literary


criti


paved


a way


own dev


lopment of


a method


tha t


turned


literary


theory


into


tical


scholar


ship


am part


ularly


thankful


comments


on my early


drafts,


parti


ularly


question


"Have


read


Bakhtin?"


Robert


Thomson


also


ected me


numerous


studies


important


my topi


comments


on popular


culture


ritual


patterns,


renai


ssance


fool


were


always


nsightful.


wish


to thank


John


Perl


ette


agree


to be


on my


commi ttee


when


asked


ata


very


late


date.


Perl


ette


shown


inter


in me throughout my


graduate


career,


always


taking


time


inquire


about my


progr


and my


plans.


Dickison


nuine.


sense


humor


natural


warmth


to her


teac


hing


special


quality


appreciate


her encouragement over


years.


fami lyv


mliit al


Vn hP rpconnfiz


their


sunnort


m


IJ I U .


Il V


. .. .. .









completion


of my


proj


ect.


Peter


Ben sen


under


tood


meaning


ssertation


long


before


it regi


tered with me,


part


journ


through winter


to spring


ster,


Brown,


thank


being


here


always


appre


iative


ster


thriving


always


caring


finally,


to recogni


my parents,


George


Jeanne


celebrate


with me


the reward


efforts.


could


there


are many who


make


up my world and


are happy


me today.


m and


Nige


am particularly


thinking


, and


course


special


thanks


to Cindy
















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS....................................................111

LIST OF FIGURES...................................................vii

ABSTRACT....... ..... ........... .................. ....... ...........x

CHAPTERS


SHAKESPEARE'S ANTIC DEATH:


AN INTRODUCTION...............1


............31


RE-CREATIVE DESTRUCTION:


COMIC-TRAGIC FUSION IN


THE EARLY COMEDIES.......................................36


Notes...


.....................49


"GRAVES YAWN AND YIELD YOUR DEAD":


DEATH, HUMOR,


AND THE CRISIS OF FAITH IN MUCH ADO ABOUT NOTHING........52


Notes. .... .....

FOOLISH KNAVERY: COMIC


. ... ... .73


EVIL IN THE TRAGICOMEDIES........75


Notes.. .


"SO THERE'S MY RIDDLE:


ONE THAT'S DEAD IS QUICK--":


THE RIDDLER DEATH IN ALL'S WELL THAT ENDS WELL...........82

Notes................................................... 102

"I SWEAR I WILL NOT DIE TO-DAY FOR ANY MAN'S


PERSUASION"
MEASURE....


NntpJ .....


MORTAL REFLECTIONS IN MEASURE FOR


.. ..... aa aa a. a a. a a 137


..... ... .. ... ... .............80


Notes......... ....... .. ............


..... .......... .......103











VIII


"THIS MIGHT BE THE PATE OF A POLITICIAN, WHICH THIS
ASS O'ERREACHES, ONE THAT WOULD CIRCUMVENT
GOD ": SATURNALIAN SACRIFICE IN


SHAKESPEARE'S HAMLET.....


. ..... .......... ....159


Notes.......


"JOY OF THE WORM":


............. ........182


REDEEMING PLAY IN SHAKESPEARE'S


ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA............


......................184


LAUGHTER AND OUR IMPERILED CHILD: THE RETURN OF
SPRING IN THE LATE COMEDIES............................206

Notes........ ...........................................228


"FREEDOM, HIGH-DAY!


HIGH-DAY, FREEDOM!":


CIRCLES


OF FREEDOM IN THE TEMPEST.....


Notes.......... ........................... ............264

BIBLIOGRAPHY.......................................................266

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH................................................275


.................229


Notes...................................................205
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure


Page


George Wither, "This Ragge of Death" from A Collection


of Emblemes (1624)..


George Wither, "Death is no Losse" from A Collection


of Emblemes (1624)....


Hans Holbein,


"The Emperor" from The Dance of Death


(1538)........... .........


"The Daunce and Song of Death," illustration accompanying


a ballad by John Audeley (1596)


..... o ee.o..o. .. ...23


Antiochenus' Son Looks on His Father's Grave, an
anonymous illustrated poem (15th century)..................68

The Three Living and the Three Dead, a detail from a
fresco in the Camposanto, Pisa (c. 1350)............... 113

The Three Living and the Three Dead, from the Psalter
of Robert de Lisle (end of first quarter, 14th century)....114


Babuinares: a-b.


Detail


from the Gorleston Psalter


(c.1305); c.


The Monkey Waggoner from the Luttrell


Psalter (c. 1340)


.........127


Jean Fouquet, "Martyrdom of St. Appolonia," The
Hours of Etienne Chevalier (15th century)..................133


Hans Holbein,


"The Queen" from Dance of Death (1538).......146


The Harrowing of Hell from The St. Albans Psalter
(12th century)............... ....... ..........


..........150


The Harrowing of Hell, detail from an initial of
The St. Albans Psalter (12th century)...........


..........151


...........................2


...0..... 0......4


.. .... .......17










Giovanni Francesco Guercino, Et in Arcadia Ego, Rome
Galleria Corsini (1621-23)..............................212

Nicholas Poussin, Et in Arcadia Ego, Chatsworth, England,


Devonshire Collection (1629-30)


Nicholas Poussin, Et in Arcadia Ego, Paris, Louvre


(1640).....................................

Honore Fragonard, The Tomb (drawing), Vienni
Albertina..................................


Boticelli, detail from Coronation of the Virgin,


Uffizi, Florence.


Matteo di Giovanni, Madonna with the Girdle, The


National Gallery, London...


................242


Woodcut from Hartman Schedel, Buch der Chroniken (1493)....244


...........213


................214

a,
................218


..............241
















Abstrac


t of


ssertation


Univers


Requirements


sented


Florida


the Degree


the Graduate


Partial


Doctor


School


Fulfillment of


Philosophy


RESTORATION


HAKE


ANTIC
PEARE


DEATH:


COMIC-TRAGIC


YNTHESI


CATHERINE


May,


Chairman:


Major


Department:


IRENE


1985


Clark,
Engli


tudy


treats


regenerative


implication


death


fusion


with


humor


Shakespeare


play


ludes


detail


scussions


About Nothing,


That Ends


Well,


Measure


Measure


Haml


, Antony


Cleopatra


Tempest.


Drama,


poetry,


rose


art of


late


middle


ages


early


renal


ssance


provide


a context


interpretation


lively


skull


dancing


leton


that pervade


art and


literature


day were


not merely


reminder


a grim


, implacable


future,


were


compelling


instruments


-knowl


edge.


memento


morn


to bani


compla


cency,


induce


humility,


bring


viewer


to faith


often


link


too i


Shakespeare


comedies,


moc


play


death and


-death


, death


-knowl


threats,










derives


both


from our


sympa thy


character


as they


encounter


death and


from


the magical


power


laughter


Like


hero,


we must


sense


our vulnerability


learn


esson


faith.


test of


our faith


our willingness


to accept


fall


hero


back


into


comn


fold.


come s


increa


ingly


difficult,


however,


as we move


from


early


comedies


tragicomedies,


hero


crimes


become


more


deplorable


death


becomes


genuine


threat.


Unlike


profu


usually


portive


enters


froli


e speare


comedies


tragedies


tragicomedi


rare


mirth


unexpected


moments


striking


change


tone


at the


entry


buffoons,


as Hami


s gravedigger


suggests


that we


tand


at an


important


juncture


play.


Al though


formerly


secure


, the


protagoni


now assumed


vuln


rabi


role


scapegoat.


first


encouraging


our sympathies


hero or


heroine


then


dancing


us from


him or


her,


lown


jibes


contribute


relea


from death


lown


prepare


us to accept


unavoidable


calamity


that awaits


protagoni


t and


simultaneously


to anti


ipate


sense


freedom


tha t


death makes


poss


ible.


Like


tragedy


, the


late


comedy


also


integrate


abusive


joyous


laughter,


as i


tragedy


, the mixture


points


toward


monarch


hol ogical


death and


towards


our sel


-knowledge


regeneration.


Temp


takes


from


trag


edies


the descent


theme


from


early


comedi


comical


ubplot


that promi





_1 _


___


L
















CHAPTER


HAKESPEARE


ANTIC


DEATH


INTRODUCTION


riveting


haunting


as Mona


Lisa


smil


fleshless


grin


Death


that appears


time


time


again


from


fifteenth


seventeenth


century


That Death


grimace


often


expresses


embi


scorn


, "Thi


Ragge


mockery


Death


indi


putabl


example


George


poem


Wither


explains


grim meaning


eton


smil


e. "


. and market


what


uglin


esse


tares


through


sight


esse


-holes,


from within


Note


those


eane


Cragg


with what Ga


tlin


esse


That


horrid


Countenance


doth


seemed


to grin"


(Fig.


Death


scoffing


smile


starkly


under


scores


life


transience


our own fooli


hnes


when


trust


illusion


perman


ence.


meaning


Death


smil


often


more


complex,


however,


evoking


not only


sense


mockery,


tark


reminder


our inescapable


tiny


but also


gaiety


as well


Wither


s "Death


no Losse


" provide


an e


xampl


kull


that both


jeer


brate


scene


places


ground a


large


skull


poised


upright on


an hourglass.


sock


ets,


crevi


temple


corners


mouth,


long


trands


of wheat


protrude


as though


they


are growing


from































Third Ragge of Death, vhich thou jhalicfe,

Consider it And Pious bee.


I" V


*.


/ \
'."/
S~









lJ" 13 'f-= "._ ., .';-
rn



-"



a.







I
.* *










5+
I- -
rit-U


- -


S. II


A *


Tl


a m


.. .. -










entire


scene


with


brilliance.


Whil


hourglass and


candle


pull


together


ideas


death


life,


so too do


background


stas.


scene


on the


bleak


city


cession


of mourner


delivering


a casket


burial


right,


easant country


scene


sugge


sts life


impl


joys.


A cottage,


with


smoke


gently


from


himney,


comfortably


on a


hill


front of


cottage


worker


are shown


busily


harve


ting


wheat.


accompanying


poem


larifies


meaning


smiling


death


head.


Like


wheat,


poem


explain


we must


earth


a while


"But,


from


that Womb


receives


another


Birth,


And,


with


Addi tion


seth


from


Clay


grave


then


comes


"Pla


Fear


" but rather


"Bed


st" (Fig


memento


serves


not only


as a


reminder


but also


as a


reminder


that awaits


us beyond


grave


Like


hopeful


message,


hakespeare


play


often


blend


death with


omical


so as to


suggest an


unquen


habit


force


whose


energy


either


emerges


at moments


intense


tragic


awareness


or dev


within


context


into a


transforming


creative


power


paradoxical


union


death and


life


finds an


analogue


comedy


Chri


tian


redemption


medieval


renai


ssance


thought.


death


not only


provide


portal


eternal


an agon


to test


ncerity


beli


but al


, by


showing


peopi


their


own nature,


death


encourages


requ


site


remorse


I 4 I


'a *t TuI. 4, an t, 4-k


kn,4 1 ,


mori


,ILn A m^j4*


/"hftf-^


- -^


H l j* j


Ik


**





4















SDetlisn oLbffe butrtherGine-
Forwec by Dying Life attainae.
t, : n c. *.1 .21-


i-
.











*








I -
S .(.-












Fig. 2. George Wither, "Death is no Loose" from A Collection of
Emblemes (1624)










Misery


of Mankind"


explains


that,


faithful


"bodily


death


door


or entering


unto


therefore


not so much


dreadful


it be


rightly


cons


idered,


as i


comfortable


not a


chief


but a


Remedy


. not a


orrow


Pain,


to Joy


Plea


sure


thinking


on the


grave


, the


faithful


real


duality


their


natures


they


hare


with


evitability


death


with ang


spirit


that enables


escape


from


death


confines.


Recognition


hybrid


nature


precario

hopeful


spec


stance


laughter


between de

Charlotte


tive


ath and


pivack


incongruity,


life


cause


explain


that


afforded


uneasy


"Endow


laughter


but

with

as a


means


reconciling


contrary


aspects


nature


humor


reque


nt converge


ence


with


death


medi


1i teratur


should


not be


surpri


ing,


terms


rational i,


mortal,


capax


interlock


medieval


conception


According


to th


anonymous


author


Diues


et Pauper,


laughter


gift


man, signifying


soul'


inherent


longing


joy.


Earthly


mirth


then


but a


taste


perfect


happiness


man may


receive


after


death


Chri


stian


comedy,


so too in


Shak


espeare


comedies and


romances


death


functions


as an instrument of


-knowl


regeneration


Unlike


the Chri


stian


empha


on cel


estial


affair


however


hakesp


eare


centers


on temporal


renewal


eigned













as the


deaths


of Mamilliu


Antigonu


Winter


s Tale,


provide


quent plot compli


nations


whose


resolutions


depend


on the


hara


cters


' capa


human


under


standing.


Initially


trading


happine


death


opens


remorse


, repentance,


compa


ssion


ympa the ti


action


thus


surmounts


death and


comic


catas


power


trophe


are burl


ensues.


esque


Reinfor


ubplots whi


theme


reduce


death


death


restorative


surdity


Caliban


conspiracy


again


t Prospero


life


empest,


mechanical


' performance


"Pyramu


Thysby"


A Midsummer


Night


Dream and


Pompey


assi


stance


hangman


Measure


sure


farci


ally


mock


death


s terrors


, furthering


our sense


reli


from death.


Whil


regenerati v


hakespeare


power


comedy


providing


happy


romances


make


ndings


expl i


tragedy


it death


merely


suggest


t po


ssibilities


rene


ements


with


moments


death


to imply


restorative


power


s dimini


shed


pride


ha tred.


Hami


encounter with


merry


gravemaker


quibbi


while


unearthing


skull


eopa tra


s vi


sit by


jovial


clown


bears


the "pretty


worm


Nilu


Macduff


greeting


equivocating


porter who


bids


him enter


Hell


-Gate


point at once


unceas


dial


ecti


death and


life


our potential


future


rejuvenation.


Momentarily,


we real


intimate


relation


between


death


and Hamlet


, Ophelia,


Cleopatra,


and Macbeth,


while








r










memento


morn


not only


characters


poised


on the


threshold


death


viewer


as well.


weigh


finality


death


again


st human


vanity,


rding


ambition


to be


hollow


hate


impotent.


-knowl


extend


beyond


confines


play


to the


spectator


whose


potential


renewal


remain


open-


nded.


anti


points


mocking


finger


us as well


as at


hero


or heroine,


we sympathy


fully with


one who mu


t di


identification


becomes


a bri


moment complete,


thus


allowing


transfer


our negative


impul


to the


tim.


anti


then


engages


us i


merry


laughter,


helps


us to rel


ease


doomed


scapegoat and


encourages


us to


celebrate


freedom


that


death


makes


poss


find


cons


olation


n lif


continuity


reflected


vivacity


lowns and


sense


infinite


possibilities


humility


love.


working with


hakespeare


play


have


attempted


understand


em as


as p


ossibl


their


terms.


That


have


tried


not merely


to impose


ingle


design


plays


see what designs


patterns


there


to bring


to the


readings


material


that


seem


relevant


patterns


that emerge.


knowing


too well


that my


can only


partially


achieved--


tha t


like


fellow


mortal


am limited


individual


prejudi


my ways


perce


giving


world.


Commenting


on Leo


teinberg


cri ti


ism of


painting


, Ja


sper


Johns


express


what


believe


* -


L .2 -L -- ... .


It


_- -_. J2 -I-


I


LL


L


L _


| -- A


* -^


L-










over


saw the work


as something


new,


then


tried


change


himse


relation


to it,


very


hard


What Jasper


Johns


scribing


criti


s pr


ocess


-growth when


engaging


the arti


experience.


extend


myse


through


act of


interpr


station


accounts


eclectic


method


tori


material


with


sociological,


structural,


hologi


ideas.


When


t began


examine


comic-tragi


ending


Shakespeare


s plays,


things


seemed


apparent


, that our


response


to death was


both emotional


intell


ectual,


second,


that


comical


message


countered


kull


our terror


Herbert Wei


while


singer


enhancing


theory


hopeful


trag


John


Holloway


use of


ritual


pattern


treating


espeare


tragedy


provided


tragedies.


me with


Both


context


singer


examining


Holloway


laughabi


agree


elements


that


engagement with


protagoni


st as


or she


undergo


journ


towards


death


that accounts


our sense


tragi


Holloway


explains,


rather


that we


make


contact


very


direc


tly with


experience


through whi


protagoni


st passes


course


play


issue


not,


what kind


man Haml


et i


but what he


Or rather


what


both


does and


undergoes:


one can


desc


ribe


whol


volume


experience


through whi


sses


as one who


both a


uffer


action


others


both










respon


deeply


rooted


t of


man,


tragedy


power

not a


to evoke


perver


afresh

desire


pleasure


another


pai


that we

n or for


take


offering


our own but


comes


from


our awareness


rational


order"


tha t


extend


beyond


individual


death:


"The


tragic


occurs


when


fall


man of


strong


chara


cter


we are made


aware


something


greater


than


that man


or even


man-king


we seem


to have


truer


vision


universe.


Tragedy


occurs


when


epted


order


things


fundamentally


ques


tion


only


to be


more


triumphantly


reaffirmed.


Al though


neither


inger


nor Holloway


addresses


ssue


comir


Shakespeare


trag


singer


numerous


example


tival


, masking


s, and


orgies


primi tive


ritual


played


a part


laying


the god-


king.


That


events


hakespear


tragedy


might


serve


similar


function


, allowing


audience


an occasion


comply


identification


with


sacrifi


victim and


then


begin


to rel


ease


him or


her,


seemed


plau


media


eval


play


lent


support


to thi


theory,


death


Chri


almost


always


accompany


game s


farce


Play


Call


Corpus


Chri


Kolv


emphas


stanc


effect of


tor tores


' games:


"The


horror


ass


control 1


constantly


making


flow


action.


judges


, corners,


- a --: -.-L


L,.. .L 1 I .a


-. La L. .


n a a~


- S.


.af nr A


I


Y1


rl


A


L A A m


I-. _~ -_ .__ a_ -










cing


are notable


example


Kolve


also


recognl


irony


impli


in these


games


regenerative


value.


While


torturers


that


they


control


game,


we reali


Chri


composure


amid


their


laughter


that


they


are unwitting


part


pants


a cosmic


game


"The


tortores


play with Chri


, but


we must not


forge t


that Chri


playing


too--that He


game


own choi


, to


serve


s larger


purposes.


game


must


as God


intends.


Whil


singer


and Holloway


Scuss


ions


ritual


pattern


Kolve


remark


on the


dancing


value


laughter


laughter


affirmation


function


osmi


allaying


order


our f


were


ears


helpful


other


under


work


standing


contributed


humor


to my


examination


emblemati


igni fi chance


scenes


nding


humor


hake


speare


plays.


Particularly


helpful


were


studied


treating


death motif


n literature


arts,


like


Dougla


Gray


s Themes


Image


Medi


eval


Engli


Religious


Lyri


rederi


Parkes


Weber


Aspects


Death


Correlated


Aspects


Art,


Epigram and


poetry


13 work


on the


moriendi


tradition


, lik


ster


Mary


Catherine


Connor


Art of


Dying


Well


and Nancy


Beaty


Mori


endi


Craft of


Dying;14


studies


tomb


sculpture


such a


Kathl


Cohen


Metamorphosi


a Death


Symbol


Erwin


Panof


Tomb


ul pture


Four


Lectures


Aspects


from Anci


ent Egypt


to B


ernini


works


treating


Changing










Aries


' The Hour of Our Death:


Western Attitude


toward Death and


Johan Huizinga


The Waning of the Middle Ages.


In Shakespeare


comedi


as well


as in hi


tragedy


ritual


patterns blend with the didactic


lesson of the


kull


to induce in us


a sense


of renewal


The interplay of abusive wit and high-spirited


mirth that we find in


the laughabi


scenes in


tragedies


Barber recognizes as essential


components of


hakes pea re


s early


comedies.


Stress


ing Shakespeare


affinity to Aristophanes,


Barber


refers to


The Origins of Atti


Comedy in which F. M. Cornford


suggests


"tnat invocation and abuse were


the basi


gestures of nature


worship behind Aristophanes'


these


union of poetry and railing."18


"two gestures," the early comedies,


"through release


to clarification" :


Through


explains Barber, move us


"The clarification achieved by


the festive comedies is concomitant to the release they dramatize:

heightened awareness of the relation between man and 'nature'--the


nature


ebrated on holiday.'"19


More pointed than Barber in his


remarks on the destructive-recreative power of folk humor is Mikhail


Bakhtin in his introduction to Rabelais and Hi


World.


For Bakhtin


the grotesque image


that emerge


from carnival


suggests


ambivalence:


image


encompa


sses


"simultaneously the


two poles of


becoming:


that which is receding and dying, and that which is being


born:


they show two bodies


living cell.


. Old age


in one,


the budding and the division of


is pregnant, death i


gestation, all


.L S J J- -. -_ L I I


I r


I It I L .


ft ,










fool


studies


fool


folly,


such a


Enid


ford


Fool


Literary


tory,


William


Will


ford


Fool


cepter


Richard


Levin


s "Clown


ubplots


Foil,


Parody,


Magi


proved


invaluable


to my


work,


part


cularly


their


observation


fool


s magi


quality


ability


to reacquaint u


with


own inner


hild,


affinity


to both


death


life


1 Levin


writes


fool


s ability


audience


innocence


playful


ess.


explains


that our


response


lown


"goes


well


beyond mere


acqui


escence


because


we positively


enjoy


these


esca


padres,


can be


explain


our subcon


SCioUS


tenden


to identify


lown


not only


with a


child


ours


but al


with


child


through


permit tted


throw


repression


maturity


civilization


to enact


some


milder


fantasies.


Like


Levin


Will


ford


recogni


fool


affinity


with


recreative


prin


nature


"The


magical


force


that


induces


chaos


presence


fool


often


results


transval ua tion


values


that could


beginning


order.


Shak


espeare


comedy


regen


erative


movement does


spring


from


relation


to fes


tival


folk


humor


grote


sque


has a


dida


as well


as a


magi


significance.


While


early


omedi


emotional


journey


solution


rebirth


superce


death


value


as an i


instrument


-knowledge,


_ *


.1


Im





m










Shake


peare


Allegory


of Evil,


David


Bevington


From Mankind


to Marlow


Charlotte


pivack'


Comedy


Evil


hakespeare


tage


treatments


typologi


figures


such


Philippa


stram


Figures


Life


Death


Medi


eval


English


Li terature


were


val uabl


me i


treating


hakespeare


tragi


omedi


as were


works


studying


concepts


-knowledg


forgiveness,


uch a


Rolf


Soellner


ha kespeare


s Pattern


Knowl


Robert Grams


Hunter


hakespeare


Comedy


Forgiveness


Charlotte


Spivack


scuss


relation


death,


evil,


laughter


part


ularly


helpful


conce


pt of


evil


only


between


as privative


the kinship


death and


being


evil


laughter


central


death or


pivack


to her


"non-Being"


explains


tudy,


explains


but al


that our


bond


laughter


demoni


figures


comes


from our


awareness


their


naivete,


"their


eluded


sense


uperiority


. The


mockery


gibes


evil


character


are doubly


funny


that


they


only


seem


to be


based


on a


compr


hension


reality


ereas


they


are but added


refl


sections


deprived


Being,


limited


torted


rationality


espeare


tragi


omedies


like


tragedy


estimate


comply


exi ti


humanity


moral


truggl


acce


pting


mortality,


respon


ibility,


grace.


While


ambivalence


unce


rtainty


pervade


world


tragi


comedies


, th


late


comedies


define


larify


issues


death,


-knowl


edge,


--A--.-.~~~~~~ L r .* 4 .-. -- 4.-


L





." _


I,, I,


LL


S C- -1-1^


1


1









examine s


difference


be tween


bucoli


georgi


modes


pagan


Chri


tian


conceptions


garden


while


Erwin


Panofsky


Arcadia


: Poussi


Elegai


Tradition"


was useful


interpr


station


various


treatments


death


renal


ssance


toral


art.


scribing


evolution


conve


niton


death


Arcady,


Panofsky


mention


two contrasting


treatments


death


renaissance


pastoral


gothi


roma n ti


Shakespeare


late


comedi


we find


that


humor


serves


reconcile


tens


ting


be tween


oppo


treatments.


laughter


touches


play


romantic


conce


option


death,


it work


like


a lightning


infuses


grote


to forestall


ugge


sque,


our criti


cism


ctory


, and


life


laughter


over


grav


Laughter


affirm


both


play


tful


sens


i tivi ty


vity


time


idea


that


spiritual


freedom


paradoxically


attainabi


acknowl


edging


mortal


limitations.


Kathi


Meyer


-Baer


s Mu


pher


Dance


Death,


stressing


relationship


between


mortal


cosmic


dances,


then


offered


context


under


standing


interdependence


life


death


Calibanian


that


symbol i


antimasque


n The


engagement masque


Tempest.


My method


assumes


tha t


interplay


vents and


their


signifi


cations


the viewer


mind


meaning


ible.


broaden


context


interpr


station,


my work


examines


funerary


comic


motifs


* .


S. .


art and


literature


late


middle


ages


w --


_ _


v w


V










often


blends with


lessons


death and


salvation.


have,


however,


given


special


cons


ideration


treatments


death.


Illustration


psalter


book


hour


mblems,


popular


songs


poems


have been


part


ularly


helpful,


as have portraits,


chur


h mural


s, and


painting


Moti f


tha t


hold


special


evance


tudy


are The


Legend


Three


Living


Dead,


Vado Mori,


Arcady


Dance


Death


ced against


, The


hakespear


pheres,


treatment of


humor


Death


death,


these


traditions


have


afforded


new and


valuable


insights.


briefly


examining


ssage


from Ri


hard


some


scenes


from


Henry


we see how


antic


Death


play


rege


negative


trag


edies


anti


then


become s


a trans


forming


power


comedies


Richard


famous


speec


h marking


acquit


escence


to Bullingbrook,


King


scribes


vivid


detail


menac


ster


Death:


No matter where


talk


e--of
graves


comfort no


of worm


man speak:
and epitaphs,


Make
Write


And
Save
Our


dust our


sorrow
choose


yet not so
our depos
lands, our
nothing ca
that small


n serves as
God's sake


tell
some


Some


sad
have


paper,
on the


with


om of


executors


talk


what can


bodi


live


n we call


model


rainy


eyes


earth.


will


we bequeath


to the ground


and all


ste and


et us


stori
been


haunted


are Bullingbrook


our own but


barren


cover


sit upon


death of


deposed,
e ghosts


some


death,
arth


our bones.
ground


slai


they have


kings:
n in war,


depo


I


*I *


I


I









monarch


fear


kill


with


look


Infu


sing


him with


which wall


vain


conce


about our


Tife


Comes
Bores
Cover
With


impregnable


at the


ast and


thorough


your
solemn


Tradition,


have


humor'


with


cast


head


reverence


form,


but mi


little


wa11, a
not fl


, throw


farewell


esh and


away r


ceremoniou


took


me all


king


blood


respect,


duty,
his while


live
aste


with


brea


you,


need


can you


me I


am a


feel


want,


objected
king?"


(III


.144


-175,


empha


mine)28


As the


peech


feelings.


unfolds


moves


we sense

from in


subtle


tense


hifts


-pi ty


hard


to bitterness


a attitude

s and


finally


to resignation


humility


arly


line


hard


absorption


"epi taph


death


suggests a


own death.


till


s physi


ality,


morbid,


more


sens


"grave

repul


repugnant


" "worms,


at the


hard


thought of


to know


that


nothing will


to bequeath


belong


to Bullingbrook.


hard


focus


then


moves


from


personal


at and


imminent


death


to the fate


king


"How


some


have


been


depos


, some


lain


murth


war,


Some


ered


poisoned


At thi


point,


ir wive


exac


some


tly mid-way


keeping


through


kill


speech


hard


s mood


beings


to change,


to intense


bitternes


then


to humility.


he describe


grinning


anti


make


king


fool,


similar


hard


to tha t


word


found


harbor


Holbein


resentment.


"Dance


tone


Death"





















































Fig.


Hans


Holbein,


"The


Emperor"


from


Dance


Death


(1538)










they


seize


crown


nor does


real


bitter


irony


fact


that hi


Whil


own state


irony


than


Holbein


s ill


that of t

ustrati on


;he kneeling


uppli cant.


apparent only


to the


viewer


hard


sharply


aware


irony


memento mori


creates


expert


ences


true


poverty


estate,


however,


anger


subside


into


calm.


hard


now i


ntifies


himse


only with


kings


but with


peopi


live


with


bread


like


you,


want,


Taste


need


chard


rece


ptiv


eness


identify


action


with


ects


cruc


hard,


once


profligate


proud


King


to symbol i


ally


purge


nation


through


death


hard


opening


lines


passage


saw himse


as worm


meat now


associates


himself


with


nourishing


, sacramental


bread


live


with


bread


like


speech,


hard


performs


own ritual


mock


dethronement


though


will


rally


spirits


one


time


at the


instigation


hop of


Carl i


ssage


reveal


microcosm


paradox


asce


nsion


chard


that occur


throughout


play


paradox


that a


that we


hard


find


humbi


here


himself


as in


he be


so many


come S


Shakespeare


us more


play


regal


inwardly

suggest


powerful


paradox cal


words

a sce


tha t

nsion


d th

The


lines


ssage


significant


word


through


line


are "epitaph


" "earth


" "bones,


" "kings


" "war,


"kill


"depose


These


word


grimly


sual


L, m-


a


--


- -


LI~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ -,,, 'L-a -a~a-n Ss.A l a-- .- I'- 1C ~ .


SL-- A.-J


- I .. -


*r\


I A


*


rl


*I~L1A










vanity


ical


uperiority


while


word


uch a


crown,


" "life,


ood,


" "respect,


" "duty,


"king"


h end


three


lines


including


final


line


remind


us that Ri


chard


is more


than


ever


England


s king.


t bear


burden


people


guilt,


even


as he ha


hastene


the i r


As Ri


chard


accepts


place


among


men,


fool


s cap


to hi


adversaries


Death and


Bullingbrook


receives


crown


that cannot be


snatched


mortal


men nor p


erce


the anti


In Ri


chard


anti


Death


described


efly


vividly


as a


"grinning


" mali


ious


ster


anything


laughable.


When


anti


Death


ceases


to be


rhetorical


figure


takes


on the


fullness


character,


light


-hearted,


merry wit often


becomes


most


significant


feature.


major


exception


to thi


Lear


fool,


like


Richard


anti


contribute


to the


monarch


self-


know


ours


possesses


little


or playfulness


might di


stance


us from


fated


King


Unlike


Haml


gravedigger,


Romeo and


Juli


nurse


beth


porter,


Lear


fool


is an extension


the protagoni


, call


himself


at one


point


"Lear


hadow


Like


a shadow,


fool


journeys


with


King


towards


isolation,


pain,


death


. He


helps


us to


sympathy


with


Lear


points


as well


as Lear


, toward


sense


mortality


-knowl


here


function


ince


sesses


no gai


or joy


cannot


help


us to separate


from


". .


-- A. A-- 1 .t *-


- .z Ia AI.


L,,1 '


L- .-


1


1


~I


=... -- F = 1 .I..= S1


II-.- ,


.-1










fool


along with


crown


England,


then


taff,


surrogate


father


to Hal,


urely


unified


nemesis


flouts


guilt-ridden


aging


King


y threatening


usurp


heir,


Kingdom and,


as H


enry


believes,


life.


would


like


xami n


ly a


scene


from


Henry


order


to show


function


espeare


merry


anti


comedies.


We will


find


that,


as i


pa s sage


from Ri


hard


fool


play


sacrifi


But more


comply


etely


than


Richard


anti


helps


ct our


cathar


When


Hotspur


fall


to the


ground


after


meeting


fatal


troke


Prince


drama ti


moment t


highly


serious.


antagon


ist of


the realm,


valiant and


proud


dead.


honor


nobi


heart


then


upon


fini


thing


eulogy,


corpul

moves


nt body


attention


feigning


from Hotspur


taff


to Fal


sense

taff.


an antith


Hal ha


when


express


admiration


Hotspur


eloquent phrases,


appropriately


reveal


sadness


taff


humorous


double


ntendre.


When


leaves,


taff


springs


to life


and,


after


quibbling


over


true


meaning


word


counterf


hudder


to think


that


Hotspur


could


also


ounterfeiting


"Zounds,


am afraid of


gunpowder


ercy


though


dead.


should


count terfe


it and


y my


fa ith


am afraid


would


prove


better


counterfeit"


.121


-24)


taff


suggest


tion


that Hotspur would


*3 IA A*- nr J -


r -





__w


l_1_


I~._ *


=


*.


* .


i- ~


-... .. J' .










taff,


sugge


tion


foster


an idea


laim


to have


killed


Harry


Percy


rece


honor


saving


kingdom?


soon


as Fal


staff


entertain


notion,


stab


Hotspur


then


lifts


him onto


back


order


to present


to the


King,


sture


that bring


to a


focu


irony


entire


scene


That


ridi


ulou


coward


taff


should


such


1 iberti


with


body


Hotspur


trikes


viewer


as an absurd


outrage.


t I,


we firs


t noti


striking


differences


between


Hostpur


, the


loth and


man o


measure.


action


Young


serious


ercy


sness


highly


and Fal


taff,


consc


man of


marc


h of


time


wasted


none


umulating


honors.


scene


one,


stnmore


land


pral


exploit


of Hot


pur who


on Holy-rood


brave


ever-


valiant"


cot,


rchibald


King


so affirms


Hotspur


deeds,


telling


lord


that on


Holmedon


plain


Hotspur


took


as h


Mardak


Earl


of Fife


as wel


as the


earl


Athol,


Murray,


Angus


and Menteith


.70-74)


Although


King


Henry


applauds


honorabi


spoil,


nonetheless


turned


Percy


refusal


turn


over


prisoner


realm.


Hotspur


defiance


King


under


scores


not only


courage


high


spirits


but an


overwhelming


pride


. We


assoc


iate


Hotspur


with


important


matters


realm


, and we


see that


actions are


uffi


trouble


King


delay


the royal


crusade


Holy


Lands.


Hotspur


assoc


iated with matter


state


and with


time,


- a


I


I


- -


I*












response


to Fal


taff


s question


gives


us an


xcell


nt portrait of


rogue who


to offset


serious


matter


play


comic


wit and absurd


bravado:


Thou


unbuttoning


after
which


noon,


so fat-witted with


thee
that


after


thou


thou wouldest


to do with


of s
bawd


ack


esse


drinking


supper, ana s
ast forgotten


truly


time


minute


and
d su


taffata


uperfluou


capon s


dial


n himse


a fair


see no reason


to demand


know.
day?


keeping


sack
upon


to demand


What a


devil
hours


ocks


of leaping
hot wench


thou


should


that


truly


hast thou


were


cups


tongue


-houses


flame


-color


t be


time


-12)


disparity


be tween


gallant


Hotspur


comical


human


rogue.


Whil


Hotspur


Holmedon


to hi


credit,


taff


will


have


Gadshill


. The


men inhabit diff


rent worlds,


only


scene


Hotspur


death


that


come


together


perha p


scene


uitabl


death,


that Hotspur


Death


take


taff


should


readily


converge


as the


fool


an illu


traction


ompanying


an anonymous


ballad


sixteenth


century


enti tl


"The


Daunce


Death,


we see


oppo


ites


paire


king


holds


hand


beggar,


old man


hand


hild,


the wi


hand


fool,


being


figures


death


(Fig


1 A


taff


Hotspur


onto


two opposite


chara


cters


come


viol


ntly


yoked.


dominating


power


now that of


the fat,


laughable


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over


death.


find an


added


jest


taff


gesture


when we


remember


one of


conventional


exits


at the


morality


ordered


play


. The


to mount


schievous


devil


carri


thrown


away,


on the


usually


devil


to hell


Will


to Like,


exampi


, Nickel


ewfangl


when


told


to ride


devil,


change


some


jolly word


on the


subject:


"Woh,


Ball,


will


come


pair


spurs


would


a good


groat


try whether


jade


do ambi


trot. "3


2 Hotspur


name


reminds


us of


though


king


spur


possesses


vitality


enjoy


devil


game.


Hotspur,


ever,


cannot


join


staff


s fun.


cannot drive


jade


on with


spurs


but must


shar


cowardly


scheme


to win


honor.


spur,


who wi


to "plu


bright


honor


from


'd moon"


.iii


01),


honor


come


indeed


mocking


grimace


mere


corpse


scutcheon"


remind


us of


.140)


Whil


own fragile


Falstaff


abuse


lives and


Hotspur


senseless


waste


ambition


pride,


it also


offers


us an


opportunity


celebrate


freedom


that Hotspur


death makes


possible.


expul


urrogate


prince


through


death and


laughter


compare bl


periodic


expul


primi tive


ritual


Cosmo


and Hi


story:


Myth


Eternal


Return,


Eliade


explains


that


"annual


expul


eases


demon


ally


an attempt


to restore


only


momentarily--


*


= m


* .


I


rl





1 I


r


i










deluge


that annihilates


humanity


in order


prepare


the way


a new and


regenerated


human


species.


With


ctory


taff


over


Hotspur,


we experience


structi on


ordinary


time


rarchy


. "Cups


sack


" caponss,


" "tongues


bawd


eaping


reign


supreme


over


Sour


"minutes,


II 1


lock


"dial


" A


we experience


triumph


laughter


over


death


time,


we return


are was


an instant


lean.


haos


moment


where


rebel


crown


threat


to England


ssolve


real


tragedy


Hotspur


s death,


youth and


vitality


yet we


are simultaneous


conso


d by


adversary


defeat,


playing


it offer


serves an


hope


important


England.


function


play,


allows


spur


to become


a substitute


sacrifi


death


spares


Henry


and Hal,


deserves


kingdom


integrity,


bringing


play


comi


rather


than


a tragic


lose.


When


taff


uses


word


counterfeiti t"


to describe


spur


himself,


we remember


many


counterfeit kings


marc


thing


battle


as decoys.


These


assoc


nation


suggest


that Fal


taff,


Hotspur,


King


have


been


lock


an elaborate


game


deception.


Throughout


play


Hotspur


with a


manife


prince.


himse


If been


ted all


taken


playing


valiant


place


a fool


qual itie


honor


that we


vacant by


hion


associate


Hal,


King


late


hard and


"carnival


king"


taff.


, King


Henry


rI- a a. I


I


q


* F


__


* f


'R J*


_ _


*










call


d min


Percy,


Plantagenet!


Then


would


have


Harry


mine"


Hotspur


-90)


father/son


between


chard and Hal


ntifi cation


grows


between


stronger


King


when


, the


King


scolds


son:


"For


world


thou


hour wa


hard


then


When


from France


set foot at


Ravens


purgh,


And even


as I


then


Not only


have


Hotspur


been


counterfeiting,


King


Henry


too ha


been


role


playing.


hard


s crown


proven


uncomfortable


enry


pretended


to be


true


King


though


in hi


heart


himse


a usurper


William Will


eford


explain


tha t


"when


any king


fail


offi


. he


comes


, at lea


moment ts


that


failure


one o


the '


counterfeit


kings


I
a


like


an unconvinc


actor


fall


to the


mercy


lown


, who,


having


no fixed


place


action,


free


occupy


center


intended


king


but abandoned


him.


just


way,


enry


allows


taff


move


towards


center


play,


gathering


strength


from


King


weakness.


sense


Henry


weakness,


consequence


guilt,


opening


line


when


speak


crusade


to the


Holy


Lands, "


haken as we


are,


so wan


with


care


.i.1)


As the


play


moves


us through


laughter


tears


it work


uncover


authentic


King


batti


Shrew


bury,


Dougla


looks


King


amid


pretenders


and we


hope


that hi


search


h will


uncover


new and


vital


a --


mrnnn r n Nr e n


l1 kn Itnl rn


now"


tF* n N C lf


n~wj-'


^ r- 1,1 1 \.


+V1 */


n 1 u r


--~ J --


1n


r*









di scovery


King


accompanied


Hal'


defense


father,


a demon

power f


station

rom King


Prince


Richard and


love


taff


courage.


to King


trans


Henry


from Percy


Prince


of Wales


comply


ete until


lays


Hotspur


moment


Prince


gives


final


xampl


true


nature


rece


giving


honor


from


at of Hotspur


empowers


as well


father


realm.


guilt of


King


insurrection


lean


blood


new i


nsurgent.


When


Hotspur,


s dying words


indicate


trans


honor


from


head


better


brook


britti


Than


those


proud


thou


st won


Hotspur


dies,


leaving


to finish


thought whi


h wa


on h


, "And


food


for--


with


these


words


"For worms,


brave


Percy"


.86-87)


Hotspur,


dominated


play


from


beginning


deposed,


from valiant rebel


attack


England


safe.


taff


degradation


corpse


ssol uti on


moment


ebrate


surrogate


that Hotspur


degrade


Prince


* however,


real


that a


potential


enemy


realm


at large,


that


fatter


prouder


tha n


ever


rogue


taff


till


lives.


force


that we


taff makes


us laugh


heartily,


we may


slightly


uneasy


sloth and


impudence


represent


potential


threa ts


to the


newly


cemented


realm.


st as


irrational,


procreative


power


offer


hope


new


life,


they


carry


lda +h4 ii


+hom


eaaA


c + l- 1


4i- an


2 nar


* I


+ n-f


r^ r n_


* n3-


* I 1










Prince


under


influence


crown


himself


king


luxury,


exempt


from all


penal tie


law.


Hotspur


taff,


however,


differ


from Hal


their


counterfeiting,


they


ceive


not only


other


but al


themselves.


Hal,


however,


always


conscious


real


identity


promi


father


that at


right moment


would make


himself


known,


"And


losing


some


glorious


.133


Be bold


-34)


to tell


promi


tha t


Harry


am your


honored.


son"


as we watch


taff


s boasting


prize,


we may


laugh and


enjoy


rogu


arrogant


posturing,


for we


remember


another


promi


made


Hal,


that


some


future


time


could and would


"bani


fat Ja


sovere


power


according


William Will


eford,


that


allow


fool


license,


knowing


that


can eas


tighten


reign


at will


Will


ford


explains,


rating


[fool'


jokes


the king


partly


affirm


royal


power


tha t


fool


tend


to den


offi


ster


fulfill


some


same


actions


as the


ritualized


rebellion


pol i ti


ubje


express


actual


possibi


resentments


again


st authority.


tha t


rebellion


allowed and even


encouraged


power


implies


are strong


that


enough


social


tolerate


nsti tutions


thus


serves


per

the


sons


intere


authority


social


cohensi on


taff


anti


at thi


point


refle


Prince


s and


the King


power


With


King


* a a I


S1


'1 *. FF


A


q


t *










Prince


discovery


"true


King"


as we


laugh with Hal


anti


fool.


Not only


King


Prince


returned


their


rightful


places


we too,


haring


in Fal


staff


fool


ery,


cover


child


within


course


Gives


thus


enjoy


truer


sense


course


lives.


not constri


ted now


y fear,


defiance


Hotspur


influ


ence


staff,


but may


safe


free


y play within


boundaries


new order.


so many


hake spear


plays,


laughter


at and with


fool


involves


-extension.


momentary


grace


return


forgive


to chaos


rebel


innocence


Hotspur


we give


tas


as well


we forgive


as accept


rebel


Bullingbrook.


And with


humility


forgive


eness


we d


cover


spontaneous


power and


more


vital


self


Like


King


enry


Prince


we cease


being


tha n


best and


discard


robes


counter


order


to under


tand


development of


hake


speare


use o


laughter


death


throughout


canon,


have


divided my


paper


genr


section will


look


at the


treatment of


death


tive


comedies.


About Nothing


will


show


hakespeare


early


use o


a symbolic


death


to point


to happiness


integral


part of


laughter


comply


eating


journey


second


section


focuses


on the


tragi comedy


will


demon


state


growing


homil


empha


Shak


espeare


treatment of


death


humor


-| -- a


mm J ft


'I L


Irrl II


W+ F" 1


-









difficult,


so too the


comical


ements


grow


darker.


Laughable


characters


, however,


suggest not only


pervasiveness


evil


ul timate


impotence


when


countered


with


faith


love.


third


section


centers


on the


tragedy


will


use Haml


et and Antony


Cleopatra


to investigate


comic-tragi


moment


in terms


tragi


structure.


will


find


tha t


issues


sacrifi


-knowl


, that are


important


each major


character


assimilate


tragi


omedi


tragedi


crucial


only


protagoni


Because


focus


rarity


humor,


relationship


between


audi


ence


protagoni


greatly


intensify


audi


ence


hope,


kingdom


rests


on the


hero


or the


heroine


s death.


laughter


at moments


death


offers


us the


stance


needed


separate


from


hero


or heroin


assimilate


meaning


our own mortality,


to anti


ipate


ebrate


triumph


order


over


haos


--of


life


over


death.


final


section which


treats


late


comedies


will


center


laughter


death


as they


enter


world


toral


romance.


deep


sense


that accompanies


lings of


hope


tragedy


sent al


late


romances.


pain


comes


from


protagoni


death,


however,


from


loneliness


that


accompanied


prolonged


estrangement of


friend


family


Thus,


while


trag


we experience


bitterness


lives


prematurely


ended


romances


we fe


sadness


that,


Sl; tln


nr 1


nre +i l \


S1 +hrnan h


1 lnn


^ rfa


ant 1 /


hann


+kan


I .


. i P


--










unnatural


death.


But as


in S


hakespeare


earlier


play


so too


late


comedie


, laughter


mitigates


pain


points


hope


that re


in our openness


to love.


reconciliation


ents


children


symbol i


willingness


to extend and


accept


grace.


they


embrace


their


newly


found


child,


parents


' triumph


, like


ours


momentary


return


innocence,


a recovery


and an


affirma tion


sacred


child


within


ourse


Gives.


Notes


1George


ked with M


Wither,


for Robert Allot,
discerned, the sk


A Coll


1625),
letons


terrors


Illu


section o
strati on


Embleme s


Illust.


death'


Death.


heads


Ancient and Moderne


. (London:


As
were


numerous
often


an illustration


Printed


s crit
express
Jean


have


sions
Colomb


treats


marc


eton


s Riche
fourth


again
's fa


the living
prophetic


Books


st a
ces,


tell


Heures


horsem
meager
their


both


apocalypse.


stant Mirror


, 1978),

2Wither,

3Certain


ti me


an of
troop
bold d
story


Duc de Berry
apocalypse,


of living
demeanor, a


rece


Illustration


Calami tou


(c. 1470),
a phalanx o


corpse


men.


fearful


nt hi


story


reproduced


14th Century


as well


in Barbara
(New York:


111u


Illust.


sermons


Queen


expressions


as o


. Tuchman,
Ballantine


XX1.


homi i
abeth


es, appointed
(London


tob


read


in c


Printed


churches


George


s, 1687).

4Charlotte


(London


ssoc


Spiva


iated


Comedy


Univ


esses


Evil


on S


I 1978),


espeare


tage


piva


tanford


A. K
Univ


olve,
. Pre


he Play
, 1966),


Call


Chri


Diue


tanford


et Pauper


B
taa 1 a a a


, Calif.
asserts


. .


4 k, k -a aa


\


I n ~mrrur


Corpus
3-134.


~ ,.,,


A


I


~kA


kjf









7Margar


t Moorman,


"Leo


teinberg and


Sexuality


Chri


Artnews


(Mar


, 1985),


john


Major


Holloway,


Tragedi


(Lin


tory
Univ


Night,


tudi


Press


espeare


, 1963


9Herbert W


Fall


st Lan


singer,


sing


Tragedy


chigan


tate


Paradox


Coll


Press


the Fortunate


, 1953),


singer


11Kolve


200.


Kolve


Kolve


uses


Towne


ifixion


the irony
introduces


figure


developed


through


the metaphor
substitute fo


fayth,


play


primu


tournament when


real


syr,


tor tore


first


defining


game


esus


sen ye called


kyng


mus


t prufe


That


fall


a worthy
s vnto t


thyng


were


must


tornamente


191)


other t
palfrey


Chri


than


or tore s


then


Cross


's harrowing
defeat: "By


ctory were


Chri


conce


harrow


ived


hell,


join
The


image


hell


time


separately


and a


game
that


, suggest


ting


tortor


s an image of
e cycles, the
victory was p


tradi tional


that J
create


esus


ctory


dying
ostpon


statement of Hi


mount
that


rather


until


triumph


there
man's


was


as a knightly
. The Townel
that metaphor


ombat in
drama ti


into


I .


wnlc
st ha


Jous


simply


cifixion


ts with


--and


itse


a tan


brilliantly--
to create a


erful


their


drama ti


game


irony


figure


makes
uch an


the
enc


tor stores
ounter"


dress


Chri


13Dougla


Religious
Parks W
Epigram,


Gray,


Lyri


eber,
and


conography


Publi


shing


Memento Mori


Theme


ston


Aspects
P oe try:


f the Subje
., 1971).
Figures in


Al n


Routl


d Image
edge &


Death and


Contribution s


Also


in th


Kegan


Corr


Medi


Paul,


lated A


towards


4th ed. (Coll
, see Marjori


espeare


CC n a- n


I- r- i A i


(Firan


Play
Ctnn -


eval


rederi


aspects


an Anthology


e Park,
Garber's
." Renai


Nnrthhw


Life


Maryland:
"Remember


ssance


ctarn


McGrath


Drama,


Inlv


Vrpcc


I I I- O ,kJ


Sr


11


I


L


I


I









Sequences
650-1450


of Medi
(London


eval


Art:


Faber


Illu


and Faber


treated


Limited,


from


Illuminated


1950)


tram'


Engli


h Wall


Painting


Fourteenth Century


(London


Routl


Manu


edge


Kegan


scripts


Technique
Miniatures


Belgium


(New


Paul,


ssical


Cambridge:


1955); J
and Media


Cambridge


Henry


eval


Univ


from Department of Manu


York


Illuminated Manu


Harry


scripts,


Abram


originally


Middle


Times:


Press
i sw


scripts


public


ton '


Their


, 1892),


the
1965


Royal


Illuminated


Art and


Their


Medi


Library of
A. Herbert


London


1911


York:


Burt Franklin,


1958),


Briti


h Museum:


Reproduc


tion


from


Illuminated Manu


Oxford


Univ


scripts


Press


3rd


, 1923).


(Oxford


Longman


14Si


ster


elopment of


Mary


Cather i n


the Ars


Mori


endi


Connor, The
(New York:


of D


Col umbia


Well: The


ress


Beaty,
rs Mori


Tradi ti on


Craft of


endi


Dying


England


tudy


Haven


in the


: Yale


Literary


Univ


ress


, 1970).


Kathi


Tomb in


ornia


resurrec


tion


corpse
ociation


Late


Cohen


Middl


ress, i /j
: "Before


as a


symbol of
as part of


, Metamorphosi


es and


a Death


Renai


1scusses


appearance


resurrec


tion


language


ssance


ymbol:
(Berkel


tne corpse as
transi figures


was p


rese


noted


hemi


Univ


symbol


four


image of
separate


ymboli sm


represent


Book
(p. 9
that
ingre


Job;
"Al


grave
and i


Adam;


n assoc


emical


death


ents)


, rot by


98).


Changing
York: H.


to illu


nation


writers


compos


necessary


putrefa


Erwin
aspects


Abrams


Panof


tion,
sky,


from An


with


state
the r


explain


ition


various


esurrec


Cohen,


body


prelude


then


and
Tomb


ent Egypt


(the


resurrec


it will


ulpture


verse s


tion


from


Chri


stress


hemi


tion


regenerate


Four


lectures


he body
n glory"
on its


must


to Vernini,


, 1964).


Renai


16James
ssance


Stegemeier
the Dance


Clark,
sgow:
Dance


of Death


Dance


Kson,
Death


cago


death


and
Folk


Univ


Company,


song


Middle


1950)


with an


cago


Introd


enri
auction


Libraries


Western


Pres


ges:


ress
of t










OMi khail


Bakhtin,


and Hi


World,


trans


Helene


Iswol


y (Bloomington


: Indiana


Univ


ress


* 1984),


21
(London


center:


Plot


ress


Enid


Faber


Study


Northwe
in Engli
, 1971).


sford, The
and Faber,


Clown


stern


Univ


Renai


Fool:
1968)


Social


William Will


esters


ress


ssance


, 1969).


Drama


chard


cago:


and Literar


ford


Audi


ence


Levin,
Univ.


(Evan


ston,


e Multiple
Chicago


Levin,


Will


139.


ford


ernard


History
Columbia


Marlow


piva


a Metaphor


Univ.
Growth


(Cambridge:
Tristram, F
(New York:


Pattern


1972)


Forgiv


ess,


Harvard
figures o
New York


Robert


eness


espeare


Relation


1958)


structure


Univ.
Life


Univ


1f-Knowl


Gram


(New


York


edge


to H


David


is Major
vington,


Popular


Evil
(New


From Mankind


Drama


Charlotte


Death


ress


(Columbus


Hunter,


Columbia


in Medi


eval


Rolf


Ohio


espeare


Univ


ress


Tudor


piva


Engli


Soellner


State


Univ


York
to


England
. Philippa


Li terature


espeare


ress


Comedy


, 196


Charlotte


piva


1957)


6Renato
. Erwin


Tradition,


(Garden


Poggioli,
Panofskv


Meaning


City,


"The
"Et


in th


York


Oaten


Flute,


rcadia
Arts:


Double


" Harvard


Library


Pouss


, 1955).


in and


Bull


legaic
story


on Art Hi


7Kathi


r-Baer


pheres


Dance


Death
Press


tudi


onol ogy


(Prin


ceton


Princeton


Univ


, 1970).

28William


Shak


Mifflin


1 1974)


Kespeare,
espeare,


future


The Tra


more


stations


Richard the Second


vans


ston


quotations


hake


speare


play


come


from


edition.


public


the
. 2 1


9Han


shed

30In


idea
-- .i .-1 -


Holbein,


1538


nenry
regen


J.- -


Dance


(New


York


.vii


rati on


- r


a


Death and


Sylvan


-22)


Talbot


a lA- An


- St


.L:


Press


anti


Bibi


, 194


Woodcut,
7, 1TTTu


Death


, holding


aLJlA


S


body
*lTk.w^,


originally
st. VII, p.


connect


- n 4.


ted
son,


na 4Lk


Ego:
Paper


Jlj


I 1









31"The


Bri ti


h Mu


Daunce


se um,


illu


Arbor


Univ


Huth


Song


50),


station


Microfilms


of Death,


reproduce
accompany
N.D.).


" (sixteenth


Gray


John


century


Theme


Audeley


ballad


broads
Images


heet;
*


(Ann


Like


Carew


Will


to Like


*litt,


. (London


A Se


ect Coll


section


Reeves and Turner,


sh Plays,
356.


33Mircea
Return, trans


Eliade, Co
Willard R


smos
. Tra


(New


tory:
York


The Myth
Harper,


Eternal


1959),


34Eliade,


35Will
36Will


eford,

eford,


Old Engli
1874), D.
















CHAPTER


RE-CREATIVE


DESTRUCTION


COMIC-


TRAGIC


FUSION


EARLY


COMEDIES


us reside


mall


child who


frightened


to venture


from


parents


meet


hall


enges


a complex and


hanging world.


hakespeare


festive


comedy


allow


inner


child


to work


through


fear,


the result of


our experience


sense


renewed


power


autonomy


These


early


play


portray


breaking


restraints,


h are


sometimes


expli


itly


parental,


pain


separation


establi


hment of


new bonds.


lings


abandonment


that a


company


separation


manife


death


such a


Hero


About Nothing,


period


mourning


such a


Olivia


Ifth


Night,


or by


death


threat


uch a


ultimatum


issued


Theseu


A Midsummer


Night


Dream.


Through


these


encounters


with


death,


we see the


kern


what will


come


a dominant


ssue


Shake


speare


later


play


, the


idea


that


pi ritual


treng th


love


come


st accepting


hip with


death


Whil


;ymboli


death


enter


early


omedie


they


rece


ess


development


than


tragicomedies


late


romances


where we


are


seriously


prol ongedly


rn n n+amn I t-


T


rI in c 1 1 ur n i1


vi nr> ifa


-1I-----


1 *


A^C/I Pnn n


nc" +'Q-a


1-rnn


n


I









gain


sense


freedom both


from our


identification


with


characters


surmoun t


their


fear


annihilation


from


magical


ease


laughter


Mirth


prevent u


from


succumbing


to th


olip


station


pair,


that beckons


as the hero


or heroin


journ


reach


nadir


Humor


assures


us that


world


beyond


parental


fold


benevol


ent and


encourages


us to


see its


comply


exiti


as a perpetual


source


nation


este


playful


ridi


Olivia


suggests


happiness


that awaits


when


we break


restrictive


bonds


our pa


Good
Good


Clo.


madonna,
fool, fo


think
know


more


soul,


soul


fool


being


gentlemen.


What
mend?


think


, madonna,


heaven


mourn


brother


st thou


s death.


hell,
heaven,


madonna


fool


mourn


Take


fool,


away


your


brother


fool,


Malvolio?


doth


(I.v


.66-77)


fool


does


indee


mend.


comes


not mere


better


fool,


but a


mirth.


Through


undermines


logical


Olivia


, making


stress


fool


excess


mere


folly.


Olivia


pleasure


este


railery


contrasts


Malvolio


ardoni


response


shall


till


pangs


death


hake


him"


.v.78),


indicate


increasing


readiness


to relea


her brother


to death and


oarti


i Date


SI


I U .


s


-3









childhood


before


they


can commit


themselves


to new relation


gaiety


that accompanied


vows


betrothal


at the


play


brates


passage


through


death


new stage


life.


Humor


death


combine


two way


hakespear


comedi


They


occas


ionally


converge


in a s


ingi


moment


, such a


in Midsummer


when


mechanic


unknowingly


trans


form


trag


Pyramus


into


farce.


When


tragi


offering


collides


with


carefree,


bumptiou


death


genre


mechanic


Pyramu


but also


moment


-Bottom


death


holds


itself when


erupts


into


ridicule


imitates


saturnalian


not only


eloquence


expul


tragic

dying


tage


lover


Thus


am I
am I
soul


I, thus
dead,


Tongue,


Moon
Now (


take


, thus,


thus.


y light,
flight,


die.


.300


-06,


mpha


Bottom


brea


these


again


and again


final


word,


we wonder


fool


will


ever


relinquish


host


(and


hero


as the


script demand


eseus


senses


fool


unqu


enchable


spirit


when


remark


"With


help


a surgeon,


might y


et recover


prove


an ass" (310


-11)


recall


tha t


folk


-play


ctor,


while


indulging


much


seplay,


frequently


revive


cla Inht a rl


nr nn nni


nlaramrnnt nf


Rnttnm' c


"T Annlio"


s .


Il .


I I









victim.


Like


Georges,


Turkish


Knights,


fool


fol k


drama,


Bottom will


long


remain


dead.


Hearing


Demetri us


remark


tha t


Wall


must


help


Moon


shine


Lion


bury


the dead,


literal


-minded


fool


starts


explain,


assure


you,


wall


down


that parted


their


fathers.


" The


tragedy


moral


tiny


Wall


are more


important


to the


fool


than


sustaining


drama ti


c illus


ephemeral


as i


Bottom


s resurrection


ugge


sts h


recovery


an earlier


scene,


when


awakens


from


"dream"


Fairyland,


itself


kind


beautiful


Titania


land


arms


Cockaigne.


readiness


drowsiness


seblossom,


Bottom a


Moun


Cobweb,


Mouns


ieur


Mustard


seed


serve


Bottom


every


suggests


into


eating,


plentiful


Lubberland.


Here


too we


find


analogue


folk


-play


further


associations


resurrection.


Chambers


explains


that although


they


overflow


into


other


parts


folk-play,


both


rusti


paradox


Lubberland


seem


have


main


home


in the


"Cure


Like


response


Corni


folk-play when


awakening


from


death,


"Aloft,


aloft,


where


have


been,


what


strange


foreign


land


ve seen


Bottom awakens


from


"dream"


dismay


wonder


Bottom


metamorpho


o marvelous


illusive


that


it defies


compare


hension


"The


man hath


heard,


of man


hath


seen,


man's hand


not able


to taste


tongue


conce


his heart


report what my


dream wa


" (IV


.211-


.


a y 5 -


Here


aqain


verbal


w










Bottom


after


all,


only


adult mortal


during


course


play


to be


held


arms


of Titania.


fairy


queen


name


impli


an el


mental,


unorganized


energy


Bottom


affinity


primordial


haos


enabi


to d


ssol


logical


structures


that


separate


language.


death


possess


as easily


Bottom'


as he


corrupts


regenera ti ve


power,


structures


we must


childlik


inno


cence


simple


faith


goodness


life.


must ri


our dignity


wear


moment


ears


an ass.


When


we give


course


Lives


over


to the


rolli


king


mirth


mechanical


tragedy


we do


just


that.


as Bottom


struts


upon


stage with


more


enthu


siasm


than


talent and


more


zeal


tha n


under


standing,


holds


fool


mirror


provide


merry


satire


on all


aesthetes


literary


know-all


en we


laugh at


mechanical


interpretation


we mus


t al


laugh at our


presumption


sensitivity


ight.


Bottom ri


phoenix


like


from


ashes


death,


ready


to dance


Bergomask,


momentarily


banishes


apprehension


doubts.


vicariou


y enjoy


triumph


over


death a


we enjoy


taff


comical


resurrection


Henry


.111


mechanical


prepare


the way


entrance


eron


cortege


when


they


reduce


death


absurdity.


fair


' job


sustain


fool


magi


, to


protect


palace


throughout


the night.


As Puck


speak


, however,


once


more


come


aware


danger


beyond


palace


gates.


lion


_I


~1 _













COuc


danger world.


mechanical


' travesty,


however,


helped


to pi


erce


not only


theatri


illusion


Pyramus


but also


tha t


A Mid


summer


Night


s Dream.


reali


that


play,


like


eseus


' palace,


prote


playful


nonsense


fairy


Although we


know


that we


are soon


to be


hurled


into


hospitabi


surrounding


we will


eave


play with


courage


faith,


like


Bottom


we have


a most rare


emerging


from


our own bottomless


dream,


where


laughter


can d


ssolve


death


into


harml


our


experience


will


linger


memory


ending


our liv


special


grace


While


fuse


with


humor


merriment


ingi


moment

combine


in the


sequentially


mechanic


tragedy,


, as link


combine


these


on a


element


hainm.


more

scene


often

s move


before


us i


ideas


rapid


. The


effe


success


ion,


t of


we connect and


horizontal


separate


melding


not an


tones


explo


bration


ctory


over


death but


rather


gradual


adju


tment of


our per


spec


threat of


death


or a mock


death,


becau


initially


drama ti


zed without humor,


seems


momentarily


ominous.


fear


are soon


dimini


shed,


however,


when


carefree


chara


cters


appear


Linear


ending


thus


enabi


us to


consider


serious


structi ve


impli


ca ti on


hate


pride,


while


imul tan


eous


sens


presence


nevolent providence.


exampi


sequential


blending


occurs


A Mid


summer


Night


s Dream


- i


-aa-a.. AJ.LL^ -*


h A X A


nr~


I L1. II ^ i ^


i.lh In^j


,C *--


CJ A *L A U \ C1


*


ii


+kA


+ Uiur









bitter,


painful


isolation


tha t


leads


to maturity


sooner


does


These


send


Philostrate


Athenian


Youth


merriments"


than


geus


storms


into


palace


demanding


that


daughter


marry


man o


own c


choosing


or el


sentenced


to death.


wonder why


Egeus


so adamant


demand,


Demetri u


birth.

reasonab


Lysander


Demetri u


father


clearly


t ha


to favor


equal


committed


Lysander.


rank,


one offense


After


pursuing


fortune


that might sway


daughter


and winning


love,


Demetri u


cast


aside.


Clearly


Egeu


' intran


i gence


anger


spring


from wi


dom.


Egeu


outraged


because


ermi a


chosen


here


man s


will


love.


geus


fears


daughter


autonomy,


seems


indi


cate


own i


solution


are metaphors


control


not only


rmia


Thus


painful


death and


truggl


nunnery


freedom,


also


Egeu


separation


impotence.


we enter


hempen


wor


entertain


Id of th

royalty,


ie yokel


we gain


, however,


stance


and

from


overhear


tens


their


ions


plans

Athen


sense


that


these


are j


fellow


can "Turn


melancholy


forth


to funeral


When


Bottom rants


vein


mighty


tyrant Hercules,


"the


raging


rock


hovering


hocks


Shall


break


lock


gate


" (I


we recall


ravings


another


tyrant,


old Egeus


. Bottom


child


eatri


sugg


child within


eus.


lion


that allows


to see Snu


s face


Bottom'


comi


w.


interpretation


of Here


ules


.


I


.


v


..... m









little


play


uit,


crown


so big


lipped


down


over


eyes,


hand


clutching


a pinwhe


high


piping, '


Remember


s the


man around


here


When


we recognr


bullying,


-faced


outbur


hild


seems


, Egeus


now hardly


' threats


more


much


terrifying


their


than


force


tantrum of


frightened,


manipulative


Shak


espeare


like


Bottom,


would


have


sucking


us frighten


death


.ii.8


dove"


but would


-83)


"roar


lown


as gently


express


their


as any


concern


amati


problems


proper


tone


for th


lion


roar


most


uitabl


watching


color


Pyramus


itself


' beard,


tion


we remember


we sense


tha t


that H


play we


rmi a


and Lysander


, like


Pyramus


ects


merry


imagination.


linear


ending


as thi


exampi


demonstrates,


reduces


tragi


expectancy,


while


allowing


us to


sense


pain


involved


piri tual


growth.


Although


humor


seem antithetical,


they


one way


osel


alli


, for


both


involve


solution


onal


identity


Like


Jaques


ribes


as i


prematurely


all,


usurp


That


body


strange


and mind


eventual


aged: "


s tory,


scene


second


child


hness


and mere


oblivion,


Sans


teeth


sans


eyes


, sans


taste,


sans


rything"


.vii


.163


Harry


Morri


notes


arti


Like


rcadia


Ego,


" Jaques


scribing


dzIth' '


h~rI "


"I irlr


ftotth


II Ci *


a\1ae


a vrut -h nn


nf


II 1


I1


I|l










not only


ical


de cay,


but al


power


privation


similar


discrete


threat


personality


to identity


Like


since i


death,


solves


humor


accepted


entail


structures.


uch a


wordplay,


hop-


logi


i tuational


ncongruity


scure


boundary


order,


plunging


us momentarily


into a


meaning


world


fill


with


delight as


well


as with


fear


Laughter


cons


perhaps


cting


springs


structures


from


which


exhilaration


indeterminacy


ease


affords.


from


sens


temporariness


from


psyc


restraint.


collapse


however,


we enjoy


we feel


interval


that our


escape


traction


permanent,


that we


like


Humpty


Dumpty


cannot be


recomposed,


then


places


plea


sure.


then we


sense


threat of


insanity


death


. C.


Barber


describes


difference


social


terms


when


tingui


she's


between


tival,


temporary


overthrow


everyday


order,


and anarchy,


a compi


ting


collapse


erarc


thus


temporary


topsyturvydom of


carnival


as we enjoy


laughter


et we


fear


unlimited


ruption


anarchy,


it mirror


clearly


our own insanity and


death.


ust as


ti va 1


supports


order


iy allowing


reprieve


from daily


strati on


humor


too contributes


to order


sensing


our lapse


into


meaning


essness


we attempt


to disp


confu


ion,


to natural


illogi


to modify


antiquated


patterns


accommodate


new.


resurgence


power


accompanies


resys


tematization,









himself


intelligent,


worldly


man,


Jaques


suddenly


onfronted


with


image


brooding


the fool


Jaques explains


to Duke


nior


band


merry


outlaw


that while


walking


forest,


met a


fool


who railed


on Lady


Fortune


lamented


destructiveness


time:


we may see


but an
after o


so from
then fr
thereby


hour


ne hour


O


hour
m hou


hang


quoth he,
qo since


more


clock


"how
it wa


twill


to hour, w
r to hour,
a tale."


the world wags.
nine,


even


re ripe and
we rot and


ripe,
rot;


(II.vii


-28)


own reflection


contemplative


fool,


Jaques,


properly


humble


, laugh


preconceiv


temporarily


anti


idea


from


himself,


own grave


fool


freeing


ssolve


content at


spirit.


Jaques


east


humor


questions


at our world


our certainty


from a


chall


new stance.


enges


Allowing


us to look


at ourse


ourse


njoy


Lives and


this


comic


perspective


we may


gain


greater


night and


humility,


we are not sworn


malcontent


like


Jaques,


lesson


laughter


have


ting


ects.


Henry


Morri


ugge


sts that


Touchstone


words,


am I


Arden"


.16)


echo


translated word


death


rcadia


tradi tion,


now am I


Arcadia


Morri


us that


Touch


stone


introdu


tion


rrma ma n +-n


mnv"I


ma L'ae


n rn r^ n "Hn A c .a M a a


44


way,


II ,^^ ^ ^


1


"Ay,


"Ay,


A IA R


m Tnr


IA


_ ~ nl









not acknowledge


transvaluation


memen to


mori


when


mirrored


image


fool.


fool


to radically


alter


pectives and


to overturn


hierar


. Like


este


mockery


Olivia


s gri


, Touchstone


s imitation


grim reaper


turns


traditional


value


syturvy


fool


makes


not only


Jaques,


Orlando


the audience


fool


but also


potent monarch


Death


as Tou


hston


holds


looking


-gla


before


issues


not a


hilling


threat but rather


a message


Through


laughter


larifi


our place


nature;


affirms


myth


eternal


return.


Like


fool,


death may


also


hold a


mirror


before


us and


challenge


us to


see our onn


image.


Al though


intru


death


threaten


love


life


espeare


early


comedy


paradoxically


provides


means


attaining


-knowledg


happen


ess.


converts


Oliver


forest of


Arden


after


being


resc


from


snake


lioness


ugge


sts death


power


to transform us


fundamental


ways.


Writer


such


as John


Lydgate


John


Davi


us to


mirror


death a


true


eness


* sin and mortality


only


ing aware


power


essness


are we made


truly


humbi


receptive


grace.


Just


as humor


depends


on a


ocess


centering,


hakespeare


comi


likewi


imilates


death and


render


it power


ess.


Time


death are


illogically


suspended


through


imaginative wi


ful fil1 mtnt


hilt arP


ahcnrhhd


in tn


I I *-I


nlav


con tra 1


II


.










their

but i


action


sens


interconnected


thought of


ical


itivity


responses


or psy


to death may


on their


parts


solution


initiate


repul


(lik


two opposing


ion at


Claudio


Ado,


Jaques


and Malvolio


Ifth


Night)


and a


challenge


ultimate


force


traction


like


Hermia


sander


summer


Egeon


in The


Comedy


Error


While


hara


cter


annihilation,


con trary


impul


also


draw


or her


towards


death,


sugge


ting


that


power


paradox


ally


stery


one's


own mortality


Although


these


conflicting


lings


may intermingi


, one eventually


dominate


, thereby


determining


course


dramatic


events.


chara


cter


inordinate


fear


death


result


attempt


to deta


himself


from


time


commitment.

f old age,


rejecting


that character


maturity,


denying


obligations


affinity with


adulthood


death.


fooli


shly


acting


as though


own means


could


live


forever


attempt


escape


time


destruction


known


to the


renai ssance


Chri


stian


as the


pride


life,


that according


some


accounts


t drove


Adam and


from


paradi


, thus


dooming


humanity


mutabl


world.


Entrapped


mortality


Adam


heir


obtain


freedom,


not by


dismi


ssing


death


from


thought,


but by


ontinual


remembrance.


A keen


awareness


mortality


enabi


hara


cter


to attain


humility


faith


necessary


to vanqui


own fear


integrity


thus


depends


on a


will


d acceptance


A*. I .


1


I


*1 *


1


-t K


* ft


mm


m










Chri


tian


comedy


redemption


means


giving


himself


or her


Chri


hake


speare


comedy i


, it become


loving


spouse,


children


nds.


pattern


Shakespeare


comi


play


demonstrate


psychic


than

while


batti


death,

other


between


some

chara


love


characters


cters


death.


challenge


aring


Fearing


death


annihilation,


love


sake


fight


more


love


to remain


table


at the


ense


love.


pattern


used


stingui


to a


large


degree


tone


play


first


extensi


vely


used


early


festive


comedies


as th


second becomes


dominant pattern


darker


tragicomedies


late


romances.


early


comedi


young


protagoni


are often willing


to challenge


bonds


that portend


spiritual


death.


rmia


ander


ummer,


Celia,


Rosa


lind,


Orlando


Viola


Twelfth


Night,


Egeon


Comedy


Errors


defer


authority


courageou


face


unknown.


Those


resi


t mutability


early


comedy


are usually


minor


hara


cters


, like


Malvolio,


John,


Jaque


Oliver


anti theti


John


comedy


highly


Although


, their


limited.


these


influence,


Whil


men represent all


with


that


exception


st pattern,


main


hara


cters


ical


or psychic


to find


or to protect


loved


second


, someone


t demonstrate


value


sacrifi


Although


second


paradigm


only


rarely


present


tka aQ-r1I


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rn


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another


sacri fi


humility


love.


Countering


this


movement


typical


Bea tr i


festive


-Benedi


plays.


plot whi


Olivia


follow


excess


pattern


grief


Twelfth


Night,


Beatrice


Benedi


s war


games


suggest


their


initial


ensiv


stance


matters


love.


even


as they


scoff


at marriage,

willingness


their


playful


ubmit


themsi


scrimmages i

elves to the


indicate

uncert


their


ainty


developing


love.


Beatr i


merry


atta


dick


at the


masquerade


Benedick


hall


enge


to Claudio at Beatri


request demonstrate


their


readiness


to risk


solution


Beatr i


Benedi ck


are more


engaging


chara


cters


than


Claudio and Hero and


since


their wit and


are more


compelling


tha n


darker


trand


action,


play


seems


more


related


comedy


than


to the


tragi


omedi


But a


play


revea


dire


consequences


pride


importance


sacrifi


* it anti


i pates


Well


Measure


sure


in whi


emes


sacrifi


contrition,


forgiveness


gain


complexity


late


romances


in which


these


issues


achieve


final


definition


clarity


Notes


fear o
writes
that a


pattern


ssol ution


tive
may


of her patients
companies one's


acquired


i4~. -A--.


omedi


find
need


sire


in childhood:


fnr r f~' r m" s lT "I tn a 4 "J ^'


so too i


expression
:o confront


change


"For


some


+k **A a-


pers
symbo


onal
ls.


growth,
Margaret


"survi val -re


ceptions
clients,


trans


lated


one s


P. Korb
fear"


behavioral


cendence


a .


0--- A A


r^


*LII


ftAJ^If 4>> ^l L: W


I c. -


rn


1


I


k J









find


zebub


York


verbal


in T


play is
Russel

3Chamber


inversion


ston


ider


ub-Edge


drink


found


usse


. K.


hard


similar


to Bottom


Play: "S
crust of


Chamber


1964)


asked


her
Engli


ad and


h Folk


e spee
could


-Play


hees


eat a
e."


(New


. 42-48.


Mylor
Turki


wound


Play,


when


Knight,


doctor applies
knight awakens


media


to the


claiming:


What places


What


seens


apparel!


Whare


hantin


ever


around


torn


mine


ground


soft


delu


ions


Flowry mountain
Mossy fountains


What will


veri


alow walk


hundred


From


ecos


round


to hil


urpri


we walks
us stock


tost,


Rock
Ecos


one s


rebounding,
resounding,


ingi


word


lost.


Bottom,


experiencing
Chamber's Th
pages 74-75.


Turki


marve


Engli


sh Folk


Knight
, idylli


-Play


experience
ion. The
Turkish


d and
Mylor
Knight


perhaps


Play


cure


till


found
occurs


Howard M


terms
appli


with


Your


cation


explain
must be
helps t


gi


tha t
n to
pati


omnipotence


Halpern,
Parents


Halpern
in order
see the


tob


see the


Cutting


York


word


Loose


Adult Guide


Bantam Book


to Shake


to separate
child within


reak


through


parent


spear


from a


domin


eerlng


parent.


illu


, 1981),


to Coming


Hal pern


father


comr


sons


about


person


perspective
parent's


nsecuri ti


6Harry Morri


Quarterly,


Like


26 (1975)


272.


Arcadia


Morri


Ego,


interpr


Shakes


eare


aque


- --- 1_ h~ t L -t


(New


IL,


- -


^ 1 J


_ J__ I1


-- aL -









Barber,


9Morri


River


ide,


.301


quotation


from As


Like


found


10John


Davi


Contemptu Mundi,


as the


Death


corpse


true


mirror


espeare


(Ell
the


Nosce


trans.


Tiep
Thoma


humanity


Patterns


esmere
King


as a


John


um and
Roger
Rolf S
-Knowl


s in 1586,
oellner di


dge,


Lydga te


mirror:


tell


both
scusse


. 106.
to the


refer t
s these
n The D


worm-eaten


;o death


work
aunce


folke


eholdyng


Seet
Mete
And


that
here


loken


h what ye be
vnto wormes


haue


here


estates


That worme


vpon
the


& what


myrroure


som-tyme


a trewe


fode


estate


yo
yn
yn


euer


crowned


rese


fyne


purtrature
s dance
wre nature
substance


remembrance
kynge


mblaunce


owre


lyuynge.


(633


-640)


Ellesmere


dited


(Oxford


Florence


Univ


ress


see The


as well


Warren


, 1931).
of Vain


ulum Peccatoris


s the
for
The


Lan
the


-Glorie,
(London


down M


Early


sage q
trans
: Jolh


, of Lydgate


Enli:
uoted
. from


Winder,


Text S
found
;. Augu
1587)


Daunce


on p.
stine















CHAPTER


"GRAVES


DEATH


YAWN


, HUMOR,
IN MUCH


YIELD


ABOUT


YOUR


DEAD"


NOTHING


FAITH


Central


to life


Shakespeare


Messina


incertitude


reality


. The


merry


tone of


opening


acts


emphasis


creative


function


illu


humor


sion,


growth


parkling


repartee


sembling allow


rapid


Beatr i


flow


freedom


of wit,


dick,


play


particularly


indicates


comi


world


unexpected


reversal


necessarily


swift adaptations.


st as


these


change


delight us


, they


also


suggest


precarious


stance


humanity


world


undetermined


flux.


ease


with


stru


ctures


obscured


indeed


points


hidden


danger


when


trea


cherou


y applied,


dupli


city


undermine


bond


endship and


love


mul tiple


meaning


necessary


innocent play


as well


as for


treachery,


real


threa t


to happiness


cannot be


nsub


tantiality


menace


rather


scepticism,


propen


sity


to doubt what


beyond


one's


comprehend


sion


or control


trust be


comes


recurrent motif


play,


entering


into


playful


rivalry


Beatri


Benedi


as well


as the


etrarchan


courtship


ro and


Claudio.


Benedi ck


merry


remarks









.280


-81),


suggest


fear


love,


fear


tha t


later


destroy


Claudio


s affections.


serious


implications


trust


unfold when


wi thdraws


Claudio,


s love


plagued


from Hero,


fear


be traya 1


so isolate


honor,


himself


from


community


of Messina.


Hero


collapse


at hi


usation


signifies


both


death


s love


death


honor,


irreparable


damage


faith


essness


cause.


t even


death,


renaissance well


knew,


bring


forth


greater


good.


Felix


culpa


, after all,


belief


familiar


general,


theme,


to the


trad


central

ition of


not only


Engli


to Chri


h religious


tian

s drama


speci fi


Adam and Eve


while


they


brought death


into


world


paradox


ally made


possible


Incarnation


Redemption


Like


sacrifice


Chri


Hero


mock


death


represents


not only


blindness


-trus


t but also


tantiality


death


itself


countered


love


faith.


feigned


death


thus


becomes


crum


that makes


comedy


hi fting


world


possible.


Hero


sacrifi


alone


not suffi


lent,


however,


redeem Claudio.


Claudio who mu


t repent hi


error


demon


state


faith.


community


of Me


ssina


audience


who must


forgive


Claudio


wavering


trust.


Though


faith


an i


issue


paramount t


to eac


lationship,


sets


lovers


provide


contra


st not


to be


found


other


omedi


For while


humor


and merriment character


courtship


Beatri


Benedick,


struction


centers


romance


of Hero


romance


_










using


tension


polari ties


to modulate


and enrich audience


response.


relationships


lover


differ,


so too do


their


affe


actions


follow


different paths.


For while


romance


Claudio


Hero moves


from


happiness


to calamity,


ending


with


sudden


reversal,


story


of Beatri


Benedi


follows


generally


upward


course.


growing


affe


tions


Beatr i


Benedi


well


as their


pontaneity


and mirth,


counteract our


fear


permanent


aster when


Claudio


denounces


bride


Whil


pride


proves


detrimental


to the


love


Claudio and Hero,


it plays


an equivocal


courtship


Benedick


Beatrice


Pride


serves as


force


attraction


loquacious


pair,


ust as


it keep


them


cautious


on guard.


Their


high


esteem


independence


find


express


verbal


rivalry


t while


their


"merry war"


refl


ects


high


piritedness


, the


couple


enjoyment of


language


people


Enveloped


destructive


points


ambience


capacity


humor


quali ties.


trust and


playfulness


of wit


thus


love.


, pride


becomes


disarmed


primarily


device


excuse


love


A battle


contact.


sexes


name


indeed


ombat,


provides


rival


an excellent


seek


each


other


company


and may


peak


each


other


name,


though always


contemptuously


When


the messenger


opening


scene


bring


news


rece


nt battle


Beatri


uses


li cense


an enemy


to broa


ubje


t of


Bene


dick


With


hint of


bawdry


and a


sarcastic


jibe at


mD a r>r1 En l -


+na nn n e-


+A kHmnA-


* *


ni


m^l n r ri r





F


H


11


r(^ fc kf k.*









play


of wit,


where


meanings


dissolve


at will,


play


love


require


manipulation


ubterfuge,


attack


counter-attac


Although Benedick


Beatri


suppress


their


affections,


objective


particularly


servers


noti


sense

their


their


ompatibil ity


uitability,


Pedro


so counters


their


enses


with an


ambu


Ironically


" 1 ove


god"


Pedro and


attendants Claudio and


Leonato


give


Benedi


esson


humility


only


to later


fall


victims


them


to pride.


allowing


Beatri


enedi


to overhear


their


faults


, the


plotter


hope


to cha


sten


their


conceit.


From


their


new humility,


love


will


sure


spring


treachery


unmas


love


Hero


explains,


"1ittl


Cupid


crafty


arrow made/


That only wound


y hearsay"


(III


Like


"merry war,


plot of


dro,


while


involves


dupl i


ity,


promi


happiness


love.


Play


triumph h


over


pride assur


us of


similar


tory when


after


accusa


tion


Claudio,


Friar


advi


Leonato


tol


et Hero


awhilel


secretly


kept


public


that she i


dead


indeed


.203-04)


Charmed by


magic


comedy,


Friar


game


, like


mark


success


Mess


ina,


humor


playfulness


draw


into a


lose


alliance


with


faith,


not by


ident


that Beatri


supe


rior


to all


chara


cters


in wit,


exce


also


trust.


lively


ests


force


even


her worth


est rival


into


retreat.


Angered by


her latest


vi rtnrv


- U l


mllrf


nmn i n n


thait


V| l


tlnnrl


a fnrn


"1i4t'


a iu ri a


T


1 *


[


r r


|








inherent


from


irrational


A Hundred Merry


retaliates


kind.


When


es" (II


Benedi


informed


.130),


that she


Beatri


, however,


when


takes


continue


similarly


jests


game


attacked,


cannot


sustain


stance


but questions whether


world


indeed


thinks


him a


fool


Though


Beatrice


submits


only


imaginatively


temporarily


to the


counter


-construct she


provides


(for


to submit


fully would


to take


part of


Dogberry),


flirtation with


chao


demonstrate


not only


intell


ectual


ubtl


ety,


but also


trust


the face


insubstantiality


Beatri


not paralyze


fear


unknowabl


world,


finds


it possibility


plea


sure


delight.


William G


McCullom


explains


that


her wit,


as well


"proves


folly


to be


coming


an Era


an under


mian


sens


standing


itivity


them


one's


selves


early


play,


Beatri


Benedick


are ready


to demonstrate


their


faith when


Hero


accuse


Beatri


places


reli


less merry


trus


ting


chara


cters.


stress


of wit,


opposes


John who will


"smi 1l


at no man


ests"


.14)


For while


John


desire


concentrate


power


annihilating what


cannot under


tand,


Beatrice


extends


here


include


elements


irrational


faith.


remorse


Beatrice


Leonato


. Although


even


prayer


Leonato


excee


Hero


laim


Hero


osest r


death exude


that he


self


loved H


lative


-pitying


so "That


myse


lf was


to myse


not mine"


.138),


clearly wi









spirits wer


rearward


stronger


reproache


than


trike


hame


at thy


Myself woul d


life


on the


" (123-


Leonato


fear


solution


own identity


Hero


honor,


daughter


honor means


thus


cuts


away


that


part of


that


beli


eves


to be


seased.


Like


fool


medieval


moral


play who


tumbi


into


Death while


attempting


escape


him,


Leona to


seek


to avoid


honor


impotence


only


find


himse


help


disgraced.


Leonato


into


erance


become


most dangerous


enemy


Though


priest per


uade


Leonato of


Hero


innocence


eonato


pride


not cha


tened.


Hero


to blame


score


editing


name


then


Claudio


t be.


Leonato


thus


vents all


anger


on Claudio


When


we next


see Leonato


, scene


Antonio


warning


him of


self-de


tructi ve


anger


on thu


* you will


kill


course


wisdom


thus


to second


Again


your


self"


Leonato


solving


pride


become


most


evident


farcical


episode


that


follows


when


Leonato and Antonio


chall


Claudio and Don


Pedro


to fight.


Like


-divi


ible


fool


Launcelot


Merchant of


, who


debates with


himse


the merit


danger


leaving


hylock


Infec


servi


Leonato


Leonato


testy


seems

sense


plit


honor,


half


Antoni


before

o beco


our eyes.


mes


Leonato


identi


twin


rage


indignity


. As


the two old men


rant before


Claudio and Don


Pedro


they


seem ridi


ulou


feeble


miniatures


their


former


selves. T


Prince


mockery,


"What


think


st thou?


"What









attempts


to redeem his


dignity


Pedro,


honored


Leonato


with a


better


and with a


Act I


only


scoff


at the


scible


old man.


st as


Beatri


beyond


Leonato


faith,


likewise


excee


Claudio.


For,


unlike


Claudio,


require


verification


Hero


s inn


ocence,


Beatri


tinctively


asserts


trust: "


oul,


cous


beli


.146).


When


Claudio


confesses


that h


wronged Hero,


indicates


that hi


not one


mali


but rather


one o


error:


"Yet


not,


taking"


Claudio


rece


further


ustifi cation


from


onato who


explain


tha t


Count and


Prince wer


inno


cent


tims who a


ccuse


d Hero


"upon


error


that you


heard


debated"


Although much


Claudio


guilt


here


diverted


to the


villain


John and


Boracio


so that Claudio


again


return


to the


comic


, the


ruelty with whi


h Claudio


formerly


taunted


wedding


party


points


serious


ct of


faith.


wedding


day,


Claudio


stands


before


Friar,


seeming


to be


an expectant


groom.


then


coff


the wedding


vows and mock


gift he


should


heri


"There,


eona to,


back again


Give


rotten


orange


your


end"


These


abusive words


ect our


ympa thi


to the


innocent daughter who


unexpe


tedly


finds


groom


enemy


conforms


to what


Kenneth


Burk


terms


tragedy


"pity"


act.


Hero,


like


tragic


lh na rnn


fl n .4 n nn -


AfiLta, 4-


P a ta b a 1


- -. -


..1,11...


L









we respond


Hero


plight,


Claudio appear


more


clearly


undeserving


fool


bullying


arrogance,


again


t whi


Hero


reasonable


tyrant


defen


holds


figures


no sway,


Corpus


Chri


rese


haughty


Cycl


Indeed,


demeanor


Claudio


exhibit


same


blind


confidence


Wakefi


Id pageant,


slaughtering


innocent


hope


secure


own power


Claudio


likewi


splay


some


humorou


hara


tyrant.


Angered


thought of


human


auda


erce


ptiv


eness


, Claudio


laim


what men


dare


What men


What men


daily


not knowing what


they


Irony


infuses


these


words


ust as


it does


Herod


vacuous


threat


to kill


babe


Bethi


hem:


. that boy


hall


all"


Neither


Herod


nor Claudio


under


tand


true


signifi


diminutive

Herod and


cancer


as they

Claudio


words.


rage


can create


become


ignorance an

e havoc on a


fear.

limited


comically


Although we


scal


know


neither


that


seems


powerful


enough


to alter


ultimate


course


cosmic


or comic


providence.


knowledge


of Chri


story


purpose


gives


pecti ve


to the


pecta


dying


children,


familiarity


with


will


Claudio


Chri


character


temporary


s impati


genre


Indeed


ence,


st child


gives


seems


us hope


nevitabi


that Dogberry will


Hero


poses


carry


no threat


that Hero


even


the day


to her


honor


face


Like


attacker,


-I *- I, U t h *'*


rn Ca C/ 4H: n -. nfh


teri


#% 1


r c*


rnfnw +^31 F


J L L .


1I


LU~I* ,B,


" m#% 'i i~ L


nn Tn










that Don


Pedro


Hero


him,


vows:


"Lady,


as you are


am yours.


away


myself


you and


dote


upon


change"


.308


Al though


Claudio


peaks


nobly


love,


truth


not ready


to include


Hero


idea


nor to


treat an


insult


to her


honor


as an attack


on hi


own.


so too


willingly,


spirits,


heed


Benedi


word


explain


known


"toi 1


malcontent,


frame


man "whose


villain


.189).


take"


Claudio


thus


stems


not so


much


from


other


as from


own defi


iency


faith and


fear


death


an illusory world


games,


so a


fall


world,


faith


love


provide


defense


against


usion.


limited


faith


requires


tive.


humility


humility


admi


ntail


sense


ssion


power


one's


essness,


an awareness


t of


one's


link


with


death.


Claudio,


however,


seek


preserve


rhetorically,


"Are


identity


our eyes


at all


costs.


our own?"


When


Claudio


reveal


staun


reliance


on h


own senses


interpretation


Refus


to doubt


himse


Claudio


then


mus


t doubt Hero.


Claudio,


Hero


becomes


an obje


ct upon


h all


uncertainty


sten


reiterates


name


time


again


as though


very


name


lied


meaning


rail


at Hero


"seeming,


unlea


hing


tirade


equivocal


epithets,


"most


foul,


most


fair


" "pure


impi


t~~~ nf AL -


I ft *


* II


f a


A


Jn *- n& rjL









an effort


stabilize


meaning


stabilize


1



own


identity,


Claudio


looks


to tradition.


trict all


giance


to a


tem of


pers


onal


honor


predisposes


condemn


Hero.


Even


before


John


offer


evidence


Hero


infidelity,


Claudio


entertains


possibility


bride


unworthines


contemplate


public


denouncement


see anything


tonight why


should


not marry


tomorrow,


congregation,


where


should


wed,


than


there


sorrow


will


shame


over


poss


her"


(III


ibility


. Claudio


lost


love.


more


outraged


pect of

Claudio


honor


perceives


Hero


public


infidelity


humiliation


to him a


threat


thus

to hi


appropriate,


honor


a due


challenge


t be


public.


same


piri t


repri


Pedro


offer


Claudio


support:


"And


as I


thee


to obtain


her,


will


join


with


thee


to disgrace


her"


.126


Hero


collapse


on her


wedding


day will


give


Claudio


attack


even


more


semblance


to a


duel


motive


aspe


hake


t of


revenge.


peare


public


sources


confrontation


analogues.


Bandello


unpr


ecedented


scribes


Feni


encounter with


messe


nger who


informs


tha t


Timbreo


abandoned


Ario


sto,


on the


other


hand,


not even


heroin


receiving word


broken


engagement.


The appearance


Claudio


savage


denouncement


hake


speare


empha


Count


desire


sati


faction


eye s


the world.


quarrel,


hnwuauar


nfl 1 w


nna nnnnnn


fl~~~~~~ ~ ~ nI CL 5L -I n 9 4k 4 i n P1 *.


;r ^ ^ km^


nnr


~nF1


q









Claudio


strips


humor


recreative


function.


Humor


becomes


sati ri


, a weapon


attacking.


contras


t between


two sets


lovers


become


even


more apparent at


point,


for while


the wit


Beatri


Bene


reflects


free


-spiri ted


ety,


Claudio


shows


only


fear


honor


Claudio


ignify


uspi


fear


ious


time


nature


stringent


idea


regard


that honor


honor


could


mi ti ga te


death


s har


reality


held


sway


over


renai


ssance


imagination


Tangibi


rewards


such a


ti tl


, property


, and


dutiful


heir


were


to immortal


person,


prove


stence


inviolate


virtue.


Council


explain


that re


pect


honor


derived


from


"the


pragmatic


thical


implication


were


appli


to the


detail


public


profess


ional


life"


combination


can engage


expe


tangible
matter


produce
effort


station


intangibi


grandiose


a society
to perform


appropriate


--by


being


or trivial


--by


h ea


appropriate


honourabi


integral
being an


both


part


tha t


most perva


ethical


system.


concept of


honor


thus


encouraged men


to virtuous


deeds,


providing


social


cohesion


protection


state


Romei


Courtier


Academic


states:


"Thi


honor


that ardent


heate whi


enflameth


mind


man,


to gloriou


enterpri


making


him auda


C1IUS


against


enemi


timerous


scene


of Much Ado


gives


demonstra tion


honor


sitive


value


better


and mes


senger


death.


member


reward


part--no
integral









loyalty


Al though


concept of


honor wa


valuable


to society,


could al


prov


dangerous.


When


regarded


too highly,


honor


could


easily


foster


-indulgent pride.


Hotspur'


st for


fame


Henry


and Julius


Caesar


ambition


Julius


Caesar


exemplify


destructiveness


honor


when


too highly


While


Claudio


respect


honor


meeting


test of manhood,


prevents


success


military


front


second


because


trial


there


Claudio


line


perform


demarcation


admirably


are clearly


marked.


batti


Claudi o


confronts


death


, performing


figure


a lamb,


feats


lion"


Ironically,


tabili


power


Claudio


hopes


secure


t be


achieved


direct


confrontation


with


ical


death


ivil


arena,


however


where


innuendo


obscur


certainty


Claudio


finds


himse


overwhelmed


trust.


Like


tra g i


, Othello,


Macbeth,


Coriolanus


Antony,


Claudio


triumphs


martial


exploits


fa 1


to the


comply


xi ti


soci


ety.


perplexing


nature


of Messinian


soci


t becomes


obvious


when


chara


cters


intermingi


at the


upper


Leonato.


Here


love


hate


dance


behind


identical


masks.


Whil


visors


offer


lover


cense


sembling


villains


and a


to conceal


merry


envious


atmosphere


schemes.


flirtation,


Throughout


they


play,


also allow


both


Beatr i


Don John


thoroughly


engrosse


their


private


wars.


Don John


know


that


place


brother


affect


tion


io trie


to wre


havoc


on Don Pedro


favorite.


.


.L. I J


I


a R


I


.









.280-81),


seeks


to wreak


havoc


different kind


on her


adversary


Though Don


John


Beatrice


masters


of warfare,


they


tand at oppo


site


pole


comi


/tragi


spectrum.


If Beatri


born


under


light of


a dancing


star,


then


John


born,


like


Conrade,


under


scowling


turn.


stress


laughter


faith,


Bea tr i


stands


at the


center


comedy,


dominating


play


from


opening


to its


ose.


John,


on the


other


hand,


represents


that oppose


A dark,


lone


desperate


figure


, he


lurks on


comic


finally


must


leave


it all


together


upper


Leona to,


John


Beatri


use the


same


device


state


their


prey


They


give


their


remark


tamp


verity


pretending


to recogni


the i r


conversants


While


Beatri


of wit,


pretense


John


merely


feigning


playful


mali


retaliation


ious attempt


an ongoing


to arouse


battle


alousy


unsuspecting


Count.


Illu


provides


an opportunity


both


innocent


port and


nsidious


trea


hery.


Both


Beatrice


and Don


John


succeed


their


atta


they


know


target


their


victim


greatest sour


pride.


Beatri


know


high


Benedi


esteem


chilles


independence


heel,


and wit.


because


thus


likewi


disparages


own,


Benedi


intelligence


barrage


merry


sul ts.


Pronoun


cing


"the


Prince


ter"


.137),


Bea tr i


send


rival


hasty


retreat.


Even


more


vuln


rabi


to injury,


however,


Claudio,


whose


nfA 1I r a at


I-~~~~ ~ ~ ~ -n a nf aa4 nI- la


nv,'( A l


1


nrr u C~L CI ~: ~


1t ..1. -*


n


'Il F


#,llm -


j_ r' F n T









gem,


"Can


world


uch a


.81).


Quick


to notice


Claudio


perception


ero as


beautiful,


rare


session,


Benedi


jokingly


respond


affirmative,


"Yea,


and a


case


to put


into"


.182)


cul kol dry,


Benedi


faith,


erence


hath


to marriage


world


as a


state


one man but


portending


he will


wear


cap with


suspi


ion?"


.197-99),


places


bol d


reli


Claudio


perfect


tion and


permanence.


Claudio


commi tmen t


to the


realm of


time


Platoni


Idea


Beauty,


Love,


and Honor


indeed


a consequence


fear


mutability


death.


ording


courtly


love


tradition,


beloved


serves


as the


refining


agent


court


Patritio


Court


spiritual


Academic


development.


Romei


explains,


ignior


. humane


beauty


. hath


creator


produce


among


tal


beauti


sens


ible,


most


exce


, but


to kind


hone


holy


love


divine,


vniteth


human


creature


with


creator


love


beautiful,


virtuous


lady


1iminary


to the


love


God and


thus


source


court


virtue


honor,


hence


identity


prologue


to the


fourth


book


penser


Faeri


Queene


extol


love


ennobling


power:


natural 1


affection


faul tl


blame,


fault of


it of
roote


honor
and


that have


and all


bring


same.


vertue


forth


glorious


floure s


fame


Though


love


convention


provide


a vehi


ror express


ion,


they,









pressure


uncertainty


uspi


Cion


thus


fracture s


fragile


sends


love


crashing


down.


substitution


events


on the


wedding


sugge


sts thi


shattered


illu


ion.


Claudio,


intends


sere


nade


love


from


beneath


balcony,


find


himself


tead


crouching


silently


out of


view,


expecting


proof


of betrayal


sillu


sionment becomes


ually


apparent on


following


when


ero,


having


descended


from


safety


chamber,


collapses


before


Claudio


angry


assa


ult.


downward movement of Hero


suggests


breaking


an idol


Hero


fall


feel


catastrophe


lost


faith.


sense


growing


isolation


not only


doubter


Claudio


but of


come within


circle


influence.


play


reached


lowest


Not only


does


Claudio


leave


chur


unwed,


ro and all


care


remain


behind,


bewildered and


tressed.


olation,


however,


as the


Friar


knows,


only


a spec


t of


death.


Death,


nadir


a natural


cycle


marks


not only


downward movement but also


origin


an upward


course.


A plot,


urmi


too shar


, may


Friar


serve

hope


to turn


deepest


success


grief


greatest


we know what


joy.

Friar


doe s


not know,


tha t


bungling


night watch


overhead


detail


John


scheme


already


apprehended


accomplice


Bora


not suffi


lent,


however,


that Dogberry


should at


this


point


stumb1


forth


to reveal


cause


confu


ion.


tragi


nF l. 4 l A ra


a i =, a S A


Sa


a s a a A. ~ ...~A .- S


111


L?


. *_ L


* J









again


reclaim Claudio


heart.


hearing


dea th,


Claudio


should


repent hi


hasty


accusation


come


again


to pri


Hero


value


worth


"for


it so


fall


Whiles we enjoy


That what we


but being


have we


d and


to the


lost,


then


rack


value


" (IV


story


Antiochenu


son who


receives


(Fig


fromra


news


father


Hero


s grave


death will


reminder


bring


Claudio


death


personal


intimate


message


of mortality.


game


suggest


Friar


resembles a


ritual


ancient


heritage


symbol


ring


an innocent


s death


purification


individual


community


Hero


name


indeed


appropriate


sacri fi


must play


. While


pales


beside


brilliant


cous


Hero


lack


olor


contribute


greatly


to thi


ymbol i


val ue.


Hero


alon


play


serenity


uncompromi


ocence


. Al


, enhancing


symbol


significance


sence


from


action


be tween


moment of


death


revival


Claudio,


at the


play.


to Mess


not only


guilt


dead


that Hero


must


vanqui


h by


play


death


thus


belongs


not only


to Claudio


to the


house


Leonato and


repercussions


Claudio


s actions


are extensive


. The


manna


atonement must


seminate


over


a community


fragmented not only


Claudio


error


but al


own impati


ence,


trust.


Like


MPSs


inian


we tAon arV


nu trana


Cla.idin


s slander


Hprn.


SII


.


. V


.I .





68



a -
-. .I .. l

.TipyS yc *PiB. yv^c. r cvy r o4,,' .


".+. ..... .? A^y --+ yP



u : "-S "l--



--y tsu y .yau .&..... .. -- fr
W^~(c q? v,(C,(6^1~hi r c r~( (* *

J:i- t




6 tr-- ii -* -
.., -,




*_ I










S-. .,,



'C


C(sC ,--J { -- r

S+ r* -










play


and Hero


sacrifice


order


to experience


rejuvenation


must


trust


comi


providence,


urrendering


ourselves


to the


play


structive


recreative


power.


The events


revenge,


that follow


Claudio


Leonato and Antonio


accusations,


angry


indi


Beatrice


ctments,


s de


Benedi


formal


hall


enge


demon


state


comic


confu


that spring


from error


Although


these


threats


bear


serious


implications,


we view


them with


humorous


deta


hment,


love


confessions


Beatrice


Benedi


entrance


Dogberry


cohorts


remind


that Messina


still


comi


world.


Humor


assures


that confu


will


temporary


and mi


stake


soon


rectified.


Dogberry


muddled


interrogation


not only


spell


darker


implications


Claudio


action,


it help


to neutral


Claudio


guilt.


When


cons


table


enlarges


upon


own merit


, boasting


to be


as pretty a


lece


as any


ssina"


.80),


display


arrogance


similar


that of


Claudio


Like


Claudio,


Dogberry


lack


self-knowledge.


longer


catalogue


virtues


grow


, the


more


time


we must write


down


an ass.


Through


Dogberry,


pride


transformed


into


human


folly


As we


laugh


at thi


dolti


cons


table


we must


compa


ssion


more


sophi


ticated


fool,


Claudio.


Like


Dogb


erry


lowni


turning,


somewhat


farc


ical


changes


between


Claudio


Hero


supporter


also


evoke


sympa thy


Claudio.


Though


still


bell


eves


laim


to be


true,


S- .-a.


a S


a a -


al


t 1


Ja-* -


J I









begin


also


subside


because


not only


our animosity


because


find


we recogni


express


offering,


reproa


Hero


defenders.


t while


we part


ipate


their


atta


cks,


we a


sense


fool i shne s s


their enterpri


likewi


suspect


fool i


hness of


own.


Leonato and Antonio are


inde


pitiful


nder


honor


their


thrusts


smack


grote


sque


Antonio


Only moments


himse


burs


after warning


ts with agitation


onato against


cannot be


impatience


calmed.


name


-calling


indeed


remind


us of


vacuous


threats


familiar


stage


figure,


miles


glorious.


Unlike


conventional


figure,


however,


Antonio


threats appear


hollow


not because


cowardi


but becau


age.


as Antonio and


Leona to


rage


, they


evoke


pity


as well


as laughter


They


would


indeed


snap


Count and


Prince


"two noses"


.115)


though


they


no teeth.


Bemoaning


Hero


death


extravagant


hion,


men seem moc


king


hadow


of Claudio and


dro,


who were


themselves


sporting


duel


ust earlier


Dogberry,


Antonio and


Leona to


deflect Claudio


guilt by


indulging


their


own pri


tempers.


Even


Beatri


formerly


demonstrated


faith now


becomes


victim


rage


enli


Benedick


to "Kill


Claudio"


As all


ssina


becomes


swept


into


torrent of


pride


Claudio


seems


culprit and more


man who


like


so many


only


fooli


shly


blind.


confu


that


follows Claudio


assa


ult become


not only


comi


I


=


I __









begins


return


to favor


through


serio


-farcical


conflicts


game


instituted by


Friar


both


infuses


turmoi


Messina


ssolves


our fear


casting


confu


ion.


quent


mention


Hero


death


hall


engers


as it netti


Claudio


consc


ience


reminds


us that H


not really


dead at all


Since


Claudio


literally


"kill


sweet


lady"


.148),


chall


enges


easily


resc


indeed.


Although


attack


seem at


times


duped


their


own f


tion,


our sensitivity


to it assures


tha t


confu


restrained


larger


order,


stratagem


Friar


Not until


Bora


confess


ion,


however,


doe s


Claudio


impact of


Friar


deceit.


Claudio


response


admi


sslon


express


inten


grief: "


have


drunk


poison whiles


utter


Hero


image


, as the


Friar


hoped,


resurrected


mind


Claudio.


purred by


sorrow


regret,


Claudio


places


himself


hand


Leonato.


Leonato


action


Claudio


penance


appropriate


crime


as Claudio


run from


death,


t now reflect on


death


as he


defamed H


ero,


must now


restore


name.


Although Claudio


epitaph


centers


on a familiar


theme,


tabili


power


honor,


now Hero


name


seek


to redeem.


pral


Hero,


Claudio


indirec


admits


impatience


pride.










Live


life


that died with


death with


gloriou


hame


fame.


.111


.5-8)


attempt t


to draw


Hero


from


obscurity


death


seems


feeble


ense


against


leveling


powe r


death.


mourners


must


sense


too,


as they


ceremoniously


ircle


Hero


tomb,


song


begin


which


invokes


night and


dead


to aid


their


rites:


Midnight,
HelD us to


Grave
Till


heavily,


S, yawn
death b


st our moan


igh and
heavily.


groan,


nd yield
uttered,


Heavily,


.iii


dead,


heavily


-21)


imbues


nature


death with animistic


qualities.


Personification


becomes more


than


an aes


devi


it reflects


mourners


' de


sires


connect


t with my


teri


beyond


comprehend


ion,


human


thus


to make


access


ible


sacred.


uppl ication,


with


incantatory


rhythm and


evocative


imagery,


ugge


pagan


world


men and


natural


force s


not only


coexist but are


spiritually


bound.


Claudio


penance


ended,


final


test of


faith


t begin.


When


Claudio and


dro arrive


at Leonato


, the


ladi


approa


Claudio willfully


inquire


ch one


must


take


bride


Whil


mask


contribute


to the wonder


Hero









when


Beatr i


unmasks.


Humor


blends with


sense


of wonder,


natural i


zing


stery


death and


rebirth.


Both Benedi


Claudio ar


now anx


ious


embark


on uncharted


seas.


merry


allu


ions


to cuckoldry


to the


waywardness


husband


reflect mild


apprehension


come.


Present joys


hopeful


expectations,


however,


dwarf


these


apprehen


sion


merry


Benedi


fact


that


"coll


of witcrackers


.100-01)


cannot dampen


mood.


Whil


hearts


are merry,


trouble


seem


away


A ki


serves


stop


mouth


ever


Beatri


and music


clng


drive


away


thoughts

appears


villains.


gloomy


happy


ompari son


are

The


these

theme


grooms


that Don


cuckoldry


that Benedick


used


to flout marriage


e-minded


Claudio


Benedi


mploy


to mock


helor


"Prince


thou


sad,


observes


edick,


"Get


thee


a wif


et the


wife.


There


no staff


more


reverend


than


one tipp


d with


horn"


-23)


Marriage,


though


fraught with


peril,


still


superior


to the


ingi


life.


Benedick


sage


to the


Prince


transition


only


constant


a mutable world


and an


embracing


time


only


means


by which we


triumph


over


death.


Note


1William G


Nothing,


Shak


McCollum,


espeare


"The


Role


Quarterly


of Wit


(1968),


Much Ado


About


, pp.


in hli


Weber


tinh--


-fi f* In


thinks
rl n ho


that


wi t+h


Middle


S"hn n


figure


n -+; n iA nn


+hkam


mes


2We
CCPH


~r0


| I


I


111 r-









3Kenneth


Hyman


Burke,


(Bloomington


Perspective


Indiana


Univ


Incongruity,


Press


, 1964)T,


162.


tanley


Edgar


Bevington


trans.
Drama ti


Kegan


erod


Great"


ston:


ucca,
Geoffr


from Wakefi


Houghton


Prima


Mifflin


Parte


ey Bullough


sources


Paul,


hake


1958),


, 1975),


Novell


Drama,
w446,


David
8-310.


Bandello,


Comedi


spear


Bullough


118.


XXII,


Narrati v


(London


Routl


6Ludovico


Haring ton


Ario


sto,


Bullough,


Orlando


Furioso


Narrative


Dramatic


trans


Sources


John
Vol.


7Norman


Shakes


eare


According to
most orthodox


explains As
self, geven


soci
15).


summer


honor
ety:


s day"


can breath


Coun
s Pla


ounci
view


Honour


some


S


When


(London


during


as a


repres
certain


man by


necessary


"For


espeare
asserts


or eyes


give


life


Honour


at th


George Al
istotelia


zabeth


& Unwin


option
Coun


n conce
reign.


entativ


testemoni
iudgement
promoting


can vertue
sonnet no


honor


can see,
to thee"


Idea


Ltd,


text on


good men


goodne


take


tand


s immortal i


long


(Riv


hall
ing


lives


erside,


1973), p.
honor was t
uses Robert


subject.
shining
11


both


away


compare


power


. 1752).


[the


"Honor,
of yt
For


individual
honour?"


thee
o long
poetic


to a
as men
tribute]


8Count Annibal


Experi


ence:


IOrK:


uapo


Romei,


Early


Printed
iLI.. 'S ---I- I. -.
Bo6k PublisheA imil


ress


Courtiers


atrum Urbi


Academic


errarum Ltd,


Engli


1969),


. 78


9Romei,

10Edmund


Works
1909)


Edmund


(Oxford


. 19.


penser, In
Spenser:
Clarendon


Faeri


Three


ress


ueene, IV,
Volumes. V


, 1964)


Prologue i
1. II (fir


Poeti


t public


hed,


11Gray,
Emperor's so


the
tyme


grave.
what wa


. /


pp. 118,
n looking
When the


Thou


thou
sal


206-
1at h
young


207


voice


cum and


illu


father


Emperor
replies


rest


traction


worm-infested


addre


sses
ilk a


with me


as it
"Fader
nowe


body


father,
was artu


II.


vertue


Medi


take


Honour


of


Printed


Book


Published


imil


late
















CHAPTER


FOOLI


KNAVERY


COMIC


EVIL


IN THE


TRAGICOMEDIES


When


turn


from


romantic


comedy


to the


tragicomedies


All'


That Ends


and M


measure


sure


we noti


ignifi


ant change


in humor


relation


to death


early


comedi


humor


opposes


death


in an obvious


direct way,


laughter


love


clearly


Many


links


benevol


with


relative


ent chara


cters


forces


in these


such as


plays


-knowl


, lik


alind,


Portia,


Beatri


Benedick,


display


parking


wit and


Other


hara


cters


, those


who are


erous


skilled


verbal


arts,


reveal


potential


love


their


assoc


nation


with


fool


reve


ers.


motl


crew


Olivia


sehold,


Toby,


Maria,


este,


point


to Olivia


capa


love while


Bassanio


merry


companions,


fortune


Gratiano and


the jester


st as


love


Lance


lot,


draw


foreshadow


ether,


good


moroseness


links


with


treac


hery


. Don


John


Duke


Frederick,


Oliver


hylock


exemplify


dire


alliance


antagoni


frowning


to death


with


in the


lousness.


romantic


While


comedi


humor


, it opposes


death


indir


ctly


tragicomedi


these


play


, the


omedi


hir iIn


Qcd- c


n r+ 1a1t kl


eurmnm +kn +^


nr 1.1"' 4 Iflt' --


^- -^ Wb ^


lChI I 4 4


F^ ikt l^


/"*









Overdone,


Barnardine


supply


sportive,


underworld humor


sure


sure.


These


character


clearly


children


medi


eval


They


mock


serious world and are


mocked


we ridi


them,


we scorn


death whi


provides


their


fundamental,


final


meaning.


Whil


these


scurvy


spec


imen


indulge


merrily


their


villain


hari table


character


such a


ena,


King


of France,


sabella,


Duke


Vincentio


play


little


levity


Their


sobri


ety,


contrast


to the


free


-spiritedness


rogues,


emphasis


dial


etic


good and evil


that operates


throughout


play


shift


humor


relation


to de


stru


tive


force


indicates a


radical


change


drama ti


conse


quence.


Humor


alignment with


self-


knowledge


happiness


early


comedie


ugge


classical


admiration


humanity


and an


innocent delight


thing


world.


These


comedy


indeed


reflect


essence


renai


ssance


humanism.


their


playful


inve


tigation


ideas and


institutions


along with


their


half


-serious,


half-mocking


intimations


social


perfe


tibility


contribute


to their


current popularity


. Less


under


tood and appreciated


are the


values and


tradition


that underlie


s Well


and Mea


sure


for Mea


sure


these works


refl


ect a


medi


awareness


mortality


better


appreciate


unusual


quality


these


play


we may


examine


tinction


drawn


Jonson


between n


two states


virtue


to know


vice at all


keep


true


state,


true


*





I


I


t









diff


erent comic


pectives ar


suggested


Jonson


passage.


Shakespeare


early


comedies


correspond


to the


state


mentioned;


these


work


, evil


seems


unsu


tantial


unreal.


Love,


ety,


farce


corruption


Even


tend


to innoculate


in The


romance


hant of


world against


play


bridging


tive


comedies and


darker


tragi


comedy


, calamity


seems


unlik


the masker


music


Belmont


, the


escape


Launce


lot and


Jess


from


hylock


household,


the wit and


playfulness


Portia


provide


strong


assurances


that neither


Shylock


mali


nor the


Chri


tian


' arrogance


will


solve


comi


world.


these


romantic


comedi


death


vice provide


intrigue,


tension,


peculativ


interest,


they


rare


endanger


play


comi


integrity.


and M


measure


for Mea


sure


, however,


comedi


different kind.


rese


mble


second


state


Jonson


ribes.


ugge


t primal


innocence


but a


worl d


lost and


reclaimed.


Evil


death


now become


tantial


ster,


even


love


provides


no guarantee


of withstanding


pain.


these


play


we become


acutely


aware


restri


tions


impo


mortality


humanity


almost


compul


to defy


these


confines.


sympa th i


with


raging


soul


trivings


independence


ability,


but we


real


as well


that r


billion


against


immutable


laws


will


only


draw


one into


closer


onfinement.


escape


mnrt&l itv


tn li


Sc fhn,,nh nnaa


wil


no are^


Vlll^a


e ^ ^


L -o


rnnl.: A


ri


1 ~ J-


UTR









cannot be


found


resisting


limitations


but by


acquiescing


one s


mortal


na ture.


power


tragicomedi


rives


from


portraying a


world


tha t


thrive


restraining


integrating


forces


within


tension


between


comi


deformity


ublime


order


creates


gothic


beauty,


intermingling


fear


hope


arts


middle


ages


display


same


antithes


and may


indeed


some


light on


hakespeare


comedy


evil


medieval


chur


whose


facade


contrasts


urreal


shapes


ts with


repo


countenance


saints,


remind


us that


fea r


must never


totally


absent when


meditating


on God,


seed


pride


compla


cency.


media


eval


grotesque


does


excite


terror


own sake


but rather


animates


inspires


nliven


uneasiness


an otherwi


enhance


tati


ublime.


spiritual


grotesque


world.


allowing


glimpse


hideou


torments


h await unrepentant


man,


ntir


panorama


good and


evil


gains


immedia


significance.


Evil


bestial


appearance


induces


fear


as it reminds


that


through our


own appetites,


we partake


grote


sque.


while


evil


bestial


countenance


induce


anxi


ety,


simultaneou


offer


assurance


indicating


evil


inferior


status


on the


ladder


being.


Gargoyl


himeras,


devil


comical


as well


bestial


Their


ludi


crous


grimace


vacuous


stares


reinforce


sense


final


defeat by


good.


laughter


attests


both


iL


our recognition


evil


follv


ni i


imnotence


I **J L









leads


viewer


between


two most dangerous


spiritual


ha sms,


presumption and


despair.


moral


drama


later


interludes,


tens


equally


important.


sustain


even


at the


play


end.


After


protagoni


from


st returns


action


to God,


audience.


play will


often


A virtuous


hift


character


attention


steps


forward


to remind


that


batti


against


t be


continually waged


from


to day


in our own heart


severance,


exampi


, the


Father


i tting


Judgement warns


that


while


scul


those


to hell


good


e-lak


hall


bitter


brought


balys


to bli


to be


, those


brent


men example


hereat may


take


To maintain


goode


mendyn


here


3639


-44


not allowed


repose


at the


play


must


remain


constantly


vigilant.


some


play


away


at the


play


lose,


even


we suspect


their


escape


interlude


Wealth and


alth,


Remedy


restrain


Will


hrewd


Wit.


Will,


however,


taunts


jail


audi


-Will


ence:


and S


"Lock


hrewd


us up,


hall


keep


us as fa


be with many


st as

,"3 W


ye can,


move


from


play with mingled


hope


and apprehen


sion,


aware


both of


evil


resili


ence


ultimate weakness


face


good.


similar way


hakespeare


tragi


omedies


on an


unsettling


note.


relieved


that dire


events


take


so happy


turn


but ar


V t .


turned


L. t., Er-


npa tnP


W


i th whi


I I.


rnmnl


Y-x


nrnhlf m


. /


. /


are


s









unabashe d


retur n


to Ro


ssillion at


Well


Lucio


burr-


like


tenacity


Barnardine


s pardon


in Measure


for Mea


sure


increase


our awareness


evil


resilience


Lava tc h


told


us that


"things


serve


long


, but


serve


ever,


and a


part of


us fears


that He


and Mariana


one day


exclaim


like


cynical


fool,


ne'er had wor


my '


Lord,


spare


not me]!"


-58).


our own


quips.


images


Lava tc h


also


trouble


protagoni


implicates


glimpses


we have


' frailti


us as well


taken


fool


as himself


ever


observation


that one


may wear


urpli


humility


over


black


gown


heart"


-95)


. Unabi


acce


pt Bertram and Angelo a


fully


as do He


Isabella,


we are cautioned


to examine


our own


charity


faith.


play


thus


attempt


to bring


not only


character


uninhibited


but also


exhilaration


audience


at the


humility


losing


There

comic


no fee


ling


ircles


reservation s


conce


rning


both


viability


circle


right


to part


cipate


play


not defective,


however,


ending


on an unsteady


note


they,


like


their medieval


analogues,


attempt


to guide


their


viewers


between


complacency


despair


Only


a mingling


dread and


hope will


allow


us to


ngage


play


comic


play


trive


ensure.


Notes









3Wealth and Health


Recove


York


st" Tudor


Barnes


Noble


in Early English


Play


, Inc.,


With


Some


1966),


Dramatic


Other


306.


sts:


John


cently
S. Farmer


(New















CHAPTER


THERE


RIDDLE


THAT


RIDDLER DEATH


WELL


DEAD
THAT


QUICK--
S WELL


When


King


deliver


epilogue


at the


lose


Well


That Ends


Well,


underscores an


idea


central


play


happiness


renewal


require


mu tual


support and affection


A successful


performance,


explains,


depend


not only


on the actor


enthusiasm


but also


on the


audi


ence


good will:


well


That you


With


Your


nded,


express


trife


our pati


gentle


content;


ease


ence


hand


you,


then


uit be won,
ich we will
ay exceeding


, and


yours
take


pay,


our parts
ur hearts


2-6)


re-creation


soci


ety,


like


recreation


play,


comes


through


interact


tion


reciprocation.


esson


that


Bertram must


learn


order


to become


true


Count of Ross


million,


teaching what we


must accept


entertainment


to be


ended.


" Through


Bertram we


t reali


own insuffi


iency


dependence.


Renai


ssance


Chri


tians


under


tood


that man


very


nature


incompl


ete.


defi


lent and


partial


as he


mortal -


Hnolv


Dvino


Jeremv


Tavl or exn


resses


commnnnlace


I r


I









While we


think


a thought,


we die


lock


trikes,


reckons


on our portion


eternity. "1


Death


does


come at once


upon


us daily


are never


r whole,


as "we


form our word


with


breath of


every word we


speak


our nostri


Death


--we

can be


have


to live


defeated


peopi


upon

made


compi


only


love.


theme


of Taylor'


discourse


truth whi


Bertram must


learn.


comedy


evil,


which


also


comedy


death


, indicates


dreadful


consequence


of Bertram


failure

stability


to know


own mortality


imaged


youth and


Believing


honor,


illu


Bertram partakes


deadly nature


proud


Parolles


centiou


Lava tch.


remember


comical


figures


Pride


echery,


famous


even


adly


who frequent


media


eval


tage.


recogni ti on


linkage


laughter


death


these


grote


sques


in their


heir


Parole


Lava tch


points


precarious


state


Bertram,


hares


their


folly


just as


humor


points


to the


humiliation


Bertram,


it also allows


to escape


perp


tual


hame.


Parolles


' alliance


with


Bertram recall


virtue


psychomachia


soul


earli


mankind.


drama,


moral


battle


confli


between


indicates


hero


mental


anguish.


Al though


Bertram


fail


miserably


spiritual


war,


traction


induces


pity


erance


increased


our own sense


securi ty


humor


help


us to


evil


true


nature


, its absurdity


impotence


, it allows


immunity


sense


protection


then


temDer


-I .


esDonse


L.t5


#


then


v


-- w


_









Bertram


rejection


fear


marriage


dependency


Marriage


death manifests


early


ignifie


itself i

process


aging


cons


tra in ts


time.


Bertram


s denial


Helena


perhaps


more


under


tandable


than


Angelo


reje


tion


of Mariana


Measure


Measure


For while


Angelo wa


free


select his


wife,


Bertram


not.


Indeed,


we might b


inclined


to sympathy


fully with


young


man compelled


marry


not only


woman


doe s


love


one so far


beneath


social


status.


Shakespear


, however,


care


fully


comp


oses


action


Well


so that H


lena


Bertram,


receives


our s


ympa thy.


an important opposition ari


that will


trengthen


attack


hment


to He


and will


contribute


sati


faction with


er tram.


antithesis


that of


illu


sory


death and


illusory


life.


Decay


darkness


pervade


Ross


million


opening


scene,


there


memory


countess


dead


recall


with expectations


death s


nobi


future


husband and


sorrow.


good


Narbon.


Lafew


relates


seriousness


King


sease


an illness


hope


recovery


bee n


lost.


King,


Countess


Lafew


vestige


noble


but passing


age.


not surprising


that a


high


spirited


youth


uch as


ertram would


to escape


oppressive


atmosphere


France


where


mind


constantly


drawn


to the


grave.


grave,


however,


is prec


ely where


Bertram


thoughts


should


1i nnar


nf2 vr 4riv P2 1 \


+haro


hkn n


k,. I


*I "i "It"


^^w WIE nl fkL-i


I I W -


' nn"









Narbon


suggest


tha t


former


years


state


larg


ound.


King


strength and


flowed


outwardly


subjects


and was


then


gathered and


returned


to nourish and


power


perimeter


hea 1 thy


now appear


change


tob


between


breaking


Kingdom


down,


center


ssol ution


symbolically manifes


in the


King


tula.


dead and


aged


not portend


demi


empire


they


rather


offer


new age


legacy


honor


strength.


Bertram


father


leaves


highest


example


nobility


devotion


to family


King,


while


father will


secrets


healing and


own model


goodness


acce


heri tage


dead,


one mus


t also


acce


one's


hip with


death and


response


ibiliti


h mortality


impli


remember


a fifteenth


century


illus


treated


poem


that


scribes


son of


Antiochenu


as he


look


upon


father


worm-


eaten


corpse.


voice


warns


proud


young man,


"Swilk a


artu


nowe.


. Thow


cum and


reste with me


grave


Count


ssillion,


like


that of


Antiochenus


offer


a means


self-


knowledge.


admi


1 imitation,


however,


tremendous


diffi


nexp


erienced


young


Count.


opening


lines


indicate


dain


form of


confinement:


. I


must


attend


esty


command,


to whom


am now


in ward,


evermore


section"


.4-5


final


phrase,


though ostens


ibly


edge


faith,


suggests


harbored


resentment.


)I..









courtier


, good


my lord,


Advi


him"


.71).


Through


mother


concern,


we sense


Bertram


vuln


rabi lity


as he


sets


forth


to meet


chall


tests


enges


manhood.


ch await her


tear


son.


and warning


Countess


presage


right


mourn


perilous


Bertram


parting


for hi


Journey


mark


inevitable


changes


which occur


relationship


mother


son when


reach


manhood


period


mourning,


however,


provide


time


adju


stment,


though


Countess


grieves a


Bertram


departs,


soon


demon


states


acceptance


change.


, she


will


have


given


essings


as a prospe


tive


daughter


law.


Thus


while


Countess


' gri


and an


enabi


us to


see Bertram


journey


as a


significant event marking


unavoi dabi


alterations


life,


po s i ti ve


response


to mutability


places


reli


obstinacy


Bertram


the following


act.


ertram


leaves


with


guardian


Lafew


another


courtier


comes


to center

Helena pr


stage.


ivately


fool


Iti


flamboyant and


explain


oward"


notoriousu


.100-01)


comical


Parol les,


liar,


Paroll


. a


energetic


a man who

great way


, witty


colorful


brilliance,


however,


a flame


tha t


tempts


life


only


to reveal


atl


true


deadly


nature.


ust as


Lafew


France


sugge


st life


death,


Parolle


Flor


entire


wars


indicate


death


life


completes


description


Paroll


her word


connote


traditional


anti thesi


- n aa


1









Look
Cold


bleak


' cold wind.


dom waiting


on s


Withal,


uperfl uou


full


oft we


folly


.102


-04)


word


"take


place


suggest


that


good and


evil


not passive


elements


but are


active


agents


contesting


power


human


heart.


Bertram


taken


specifically


Parolles


as a c


suggested


companion


these


friend.


lines


Implanted


lena'


words


sturbing


umption


that


virtue


s less


appealing


than


early


comedy


inverse


true


, for


goodne


goes


hand


in hand with


laughter


world


tragi


comedi


, however,


virtue


teely


bones"


looks


' cold wind.


" To


virtuou


to lead an


often


painful


tra ti ng


existence,


like


that of


lena


Isabella


truggi


justified at all,


tifi


reward


"What


e'er the


course


, the


renown"


.36)


. Helena


words


ndor


hiav


llian


tha t


justify means


but reveal


fai th


Chri


tian


consolation


that


human


sorrow


will


finally


crowned with


Well


That End


Well"


both


central


tenet of


medi


Chri


tianity


premi


underlying


hake speare


tragi


omedies.


Although


Paroll


personifi


hypocrisy


simulation,


significantly


ceives


no one i


the play


exce


pt Bertram.


Helena,


La few,


Countess,


French


lords all


know


almost upon


ight


tha t


Paroll


- w a


fooli


..


scurvy


. -


Ilow.


And we


S -...


member


S JI L


c










manners


make


him a


ridiculous


figure.


This


ready


recognition


Parol les


' folly


so many


character


and by


us s


suggests


that evil


tragicomi


world


Unlike


not diffi


lago


, the


to di


ster


scern


figure


one really wi


Iio,


fool


virtually


everyone


play


Parolles


deceives


only


proud,


young


Bertram.


laugh at Paroll


we a


laugh at Bertram who


comply


tely


duped


coxcomb.


laughter


deri


ironically


soften


effect of


ertram


reprehen


conduct.


expert


ence


comic


relea


for we


real


, through


humor,


impotence


folly


evil


both


as the


cording


middle


absence


to Charlotte


renai


or privation


piva


ssance


ing.


evil


regarded


not as a


According


itiv


to thi


throughout


force


theory,


things


unreal


h are


Evil,


spiritual


becau


real


it depends


while


upon


those


matter


h are


its exi


material


stence,


unsu


tantial


retensions


power


intrinsically


laughabi


Evil


shadow


asse


rting


tance,


nothing


masqu


reading


as something.


It becomes a


butt of


humor


to anyone


recogni


ita


an important monster


thundering


void


evil


tyrants


mystery


moral


play


, for


their


prowess


running,


inevitably


succumb


to God


s will


Their


treac


hery,


like


Paroll


redounds


to their


sery


. We


remember


Mankind


-Gui


farcical


self-entrapment


* ah


own


* | 1


S-L


_ -*-, J L -_ A


S. J. *


*I


s


1. a


*









succeed


only


tightening


noose


falling


to the


ground.


Like


-Gui


Paroll


continually


foiled


own devi


ces.


scarves


, banner


ets,


courtly


airs


, though


intended


to d


sgui


inner


hollowness


defeat and


susp


, betray


as well


fool


that Bertram will


laugh at Parolles


eventually


self-


ensnare


himself


folly.


Paroll


pea k


with


lena


, a page


enters


with a


message:


"Monsi


Paroll


, my


lord


call


you"


.187)


Bertra m


sending


Parolles


acquaintance


suggests


with


young


Count


Paro


s own respon


not a


mere


sibility


parasite


encouraged


Bertram


to be


friend


confidant.


ndship


tha t


large


part dir


ects


our responses


to B


ertram


throughout


the play


under


stand


nature


relationship,


we may


examine


connection


between


ances


tral


humanum


genus.


n the


moral


plays and


interlude


, the


plays


an ambiguous


role


relation


to the


protagoni


one hand,


represents


internal


attribute


hero


himself


compon


nt of


protagoni


moral


hara


cter


takes a


tangibi


, dramatic


form,


however,


attain


external 1


value


as well


become


world


intriguer


to taunt and


exce


frustrate


ence


tim.


* maneuvering


double


the material


eness


nabl


media


eval


playwright


to do


several


things.


internal


aspect of


man.


Vice


reinforces


idea


that


hero


fully


racnnrn Kh


a Fnr h/- C I1


i --


n re


_ JLe_ P'


rLL


61


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