The effects of intertrial interval and wait-time durations on learning for children with severe handicaps

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Title:
The effects of intertrial interval and wait-time durations on learning for children with severe handicaps
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vii, 100 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
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Creator:
Valcante, Gregory Carl
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Subjects / Keywords:
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Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D)--University of Florida, 1986.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 90-92).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Gregory Carl Valcante.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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notis - AEN8917
oclc - 16109069
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EFFECTS


OF INTERTRIAL


INTERVAL AND


WAIT-TIME


DURATIONS ON


LEARNING


CHI LDREN


WITH SEVERE


HANDICAPS


GREGORY


CARL


VALCANTE


A DISSERTATION


OF THE


PRESENTED
UNIVERSITY


TO THE


GRADUATE


SCHOOL


OF FLORIDA


PARTIAL


FULFILLMENT OF


THE REQUIREMENTS


FOR THE


DEGREE


OF DOCTOR


OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA


1986
















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


To all who


this


assisted


dissertation,


in the


extend my


completion


gratitude


doctoral


and appreciation.


studies


Bill


Reid,


my supervisory


committee


chairman,


been


a source


friendship,


support,


encouragement


for more


than


three


years.


other


members


my committee,


Bill


Working,


Dr. Rex Schmid,


Dr. Cary


Reichard,


and Dr.


Chris


topka


deserve


special


thanks


for giving


of their


time,


patience,


professional


competence.


have


learned


from


their


example


their


confidence


in me.


Dr. Ralph


Maurer will


always


remembered


part


in making


this


dissertation


a reality.


Wynelle


Lee who


assisted


with


implementation


this


research,


also


offer


sincere


thanks.


enthusiasm and


teaching


ability


greatly


enhanced


quality


this


proj ect.


sincere


thanks


are


extended


to Kim Stoddard,


Craig


Smith,


Clark,


Karen


Sealander,


Julie


Lee,


Lori


Korinek,


Bee Crews


, Reid


Linn,


Tom Gollery,


Pam Campbell,


other


friends


doctoral


students


with


whom


have


worked


over


past


three


years.


Their


help


and moral


support


have


been


invaluable.


To the


staff


of the Children


s Mental


Health


Unit,


especially


Jane Gravel


and Jane


Mutch,


their


assistance


!ar ni nnarm* i nfl r-In i ce


rnnnr4r'~a t" f r\


r\ ^"*aQrl &j


aln 1f


Mrf^?-#


; n TiTrf i^--iv'- \r


1


a n /i












For

deserves


encouragement


special


thanks.


and technical

She has been a


assistance,


source


Leila


of guidance


Cantara

since


first


visit


to the


University


of Florida


in 1983.


deepest


appreciation


is offered


my family


for their


love,


patience,


support


throughout


doctoral


studies.


thank


parents


encouraging


me to return


to school


, my


children


for keeping


me from


becoming


too much


a student


my wife


for her


love,


without


which


the letters


Ph.D


. would


never


appear


after my


name.



















TABLE


OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

ABSTRACT


CHAPTERS


INTRODUCTION


Background
Teacher
Form and


and Need


Study


Effectiveness


. . S 1


S. . 2


research


S . . 2


Function


Instructional


Problem Statement


Pacing 6
S . . 7


Question


Under


estig


action


S . S . 7


Related


Questions


. . S . S 8


Rationale


Definition of
Delimitations
Limitations o


S. . S 5 . 8


Terms


of the Study


f the


Study


Summary


Overview


Remaining


Chapters


REVIEW OF


LITERATURE


* . . 5 17


Selection
Intertrial
Teacher Wa
Additional


Relevant


Intervals
Lit-Time


Teacher


Literature


. . . 17


S . . .
. S S S S S S .


Pacing


Studies


S. 27


Rapid Responding
Delayed Responding


. . . .
S S S S .


Chapter


Summary


Implications


tudy


S S S 5 35


METHOD

Subjects
Setting
Variables


* S S S S S S P 5 5 5 5 5 S S S S S S S

* S S S S S S S S S 5 S S S S S S S S S S S S
* S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
. . . .

. . ... . .O
. . . . . . .


Under


Investigation


. . . . 41


T A n 4- ,


\7^^1 Z 1


4.










Experimental
Experimental
Materials
Curricular


Procedures


S. . . 45


Tasks . . . . .
. . . . . .


erials


Data


Data


Recordin


Colle


action


g and Display
and Analysis


erials


. . 49


. 50


Data
Data


Summary

RESULTS


Coll


section


Analysis


. . . . S .

* . . . . . .


Accuracy
Teacher


Implementation


Wait


Intertrial


-Time


Interval


. S . . 55


S . . . 5 64
* * * * a*3
* * * f U~


Teacher
Summary


Wait-


Time


of Results


and Intertrial


Interval


. . 66


. S . S S . 78


DISCUSSION


. . . . . 5 79


Accuracy


of Implementation


S S S S 81


Teacher


Wait


Intertrial


-Time


Interval


. . . S . 84


Teacher


Wait


-Time


Intertrial


Interval


. . 85


Summary

REFERENCES


. . S S S

S S . . . . . .


APPENDICES


INSTITUTIONAL


REVIEW


BOARD


APPROVAL


. . S 5 93


DATA


RECORDING


FORMS


. .. S S S S S S S 5 95


RANDOM SEQUENCES


. . . . S S 98


BIOGRAPHICAL


SKETCH


. . . . .

















Abstract


of Dissertation


University


of the


Requirements


Presented


of Florida


Degree


to the Graduate


in Partial


of Doctor


School


Fulfillment


of Philosophy


EFFECTS


OF INTERTRIAL


DURATIONS


INTERVAL AND


ON LEARNING


WAIT-TIME


CHILDREN


WITH


SEVERE HANDICAPS


Gregory


Carl


Valcante


December,


1986


Chairman:


Major


William R.


Department:


Reid
ecial


Education


Although


instructional


pacing


been


regarded


as an important


aspect


learning


environment


some


time,


little


empirical


evidence d

Intertrial


ocumenting

interval


effects


duration


individual


teacher


temporal


wait-time


variables


duration


exists.


are two


temporal


variables


that


have


been


shown


to be functionally


related


student


learning.


Previous


researchers


have


investigated


these


variables


separately


rather


than


in combination.


This


study


was


conducted


evaluate


individually


is preferable


effects


of intertrial


to discover


for maximizing


which


student


interval


combination


performance.


wait-time


of variables


Four


durations


levels


experimental


conditions


were


investigated:


long


wait-time


long


intertrial


interval,










Long


intervals


were


designated


as 10 seconds


in duration


short


intervals


were


designated


as 1


second in


duration.


Four


children


with


severe


handicaps


two instructors


participated


in the study.


Data


were


each


collected across


student.


treatments.


correct


10 tasks


design


For each


responding


at least


of the study was


student


were


each


calculated


task


tasks


single


were


subject,


numbers


charted.


Data


studied


alternating


percentages


relative


accuracy


of implementation


the independent


variables


were


also


presented.


Findings


were


discussed


in relation


previous


literature


on instructional


pacing.


effects


of intertrial


interval


duration and


wait-time


duration


were


assessed


response


data


for more


were


than


collected


1 earning

analyzed,


trials.

the long


When


student


wait-time


condition


was found


to have


resulted


in student


performances


that


were


superior


to the short


wait-time


performances


all four


children


and all 10


tasks.


intertrial


interval


variable


was


found


to affect


student


responding


were


a great


compared,


degree.


highest


When


levels


all four


correct


experimental


responding were


conditions


seen


under


long wait-time/short


intertrial


interval


condition.


Student


performance was


poorest


under


short


wait-time/long


intertrial


interval


condition.


Results


were


similar


to those


found


in previous


research


conducted


on these variables


separately.
















CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


Since


the early


1970s


many


educational


researchers


:lave


directed


their


efforts


conditions


have


tha


attempted


toward i

t foster

to link


dentifyin

student

specific


teaching


learning

teacher


activities


(Brophy, 1979).

behaviors with


classroom


Educators

the learning


outcomes


evidenced


students


in order


that


teachers


be trained


evaluated


on the basis


observable


behaviors.


Teacher


trainers


are


also


concerned


with


identifying


both


what


to teach,


to teach,


in their


efforts


to develop


acceptable


knowledge


and skill


levels


in their


trainees.


Although


educators


are reluctant


to evaluate


instructors


on the basis


of student


performance


(Soar,


Medley,


Coker,


competencies


must


1983),


individual


be evaluated


teaching


in light


strategies


of the influence


those


strategies


competencies


have


upon


student


achievement


(Whitten


Westling,


intertrial


1985).


interval


Classroom


duration,


variables


such


feedback,


as teacher wait-time,


direct


instruction,


among


others,


have


been


investigated


to determine


contributing


effects


of each


on learning.


Instructional


pacing,


or the


rate


stimulus


presentation,


has also


been


proposed


as a teaching


behavior











research


in this


area


is founded in


the teacher


effectiveness


research,


the study


of form and


function


in education,


previous


research


instructional


pacing.


Background and


Need


for Study


As education


progressed


a service


provided


for all children,


including the


more


most


efficient


severely


effective


handicapped


instructional


our


society,


programs


need


become


evident.


consumers


of educational


services


are demanding


quality,


while


taxpayers


government


officials


are demanding


cost


effectiveness.


Research in


area


of teacher


effectiveness


a need


empirical


validation


of the


competencies


that


have


been


proposed


essential


Furthermore,


teaching


techniques


that


have


been


demonstrated


to be effective


in the


mainstream


education


nee


to be validated


with


exceptional


students


before


are adopted


in special


education


settings.


Teacher


Effectiveness


Research


Consumer


dissatisfaction


with


our public


schools


and the quality


of instruction


therein


has provided


much


of the


impetus


for teacher


effectiveness


research.


Some


writers


have


called


a total


restructuring


of the


schools


the abolition


of teacher


training


programs


as we now


know


them


(Lyons,


1980).


One may


conclude


from


the Gallup


Poll


surveys


from


1969


to 1983


that


teachers


have


been


considered


to be


one


of the major problems


in our


nation


s schools


rather










strategies


that


were


associated


with


effective


teachers


to train


preservice


teachers


to exhibit


these


behaviors.


Investigations


of teacher


effectiveness


in general


education


began


with


correlational


studies


that


attempted


to link


teaching


behavior


concepts


to these


to student


such


original


learning.


as academic


studies.


Brophy


learning


Continuing


(1979)


time


research


traced


direct


the development


instruction


to these


related


correlational


studies


is being


conduct


in an attempt


to ascertain


what


variables


any,

and


functional

student le


relationships


warning.


exist


In addition,


between t

attempts


teaching

are being


made


to extend


the generality


previous


research


to students


different


ran


to different


academic


subject


areas.


Knowled


of effective


teaching


practices


in special


education


has been


limited


to published


lists


of individual


expert


opinion,


or at best


a consensus


opinions


with


little


or no empirical


support.


Individual


combined


bits


with


pieces


a liberal


of knowledge


sprinkling


about


theory


effective


personal


teaching


bias


were


over


years


These


to compile


indicators


lists


of effective


of special


education


instruction


were


teacher


subsequently


competencies.


transformed


into


training


guidelines


preservice


teachers


evaluation


instruments


inservice


teachers.


Unfortunately,


there


was little


agreement


among


teacher


trainers


as to exactly what


constituted


effective


instruction,


necessary


teaching


skills,


or how


teacher


__











attempt


to provide


empirical


validation


some of


the teacher


competence es


that


were


proposed


in the


past.


Researchers


have


focused o

(Englert,


in variables


1984),


such


intertrial


as the


number


interval


of trials


duration


per minute


(Koegel


Dunlap,


Dyer,


1980),


direct


instruction


techniques


(Thomas,


1983),


teacher wait-time


investigated


(Lee,


1986).


in classrooms


Instructional


for mildly


practices


handicapped


are


students


being


and in


classrooms


severely


handicapped


students


in an effort


determine


whether


or not


techniques


used


in regular


education


classes


effective with


exceptional


students


whether


or not


specialized


competence es,


unique


to specific


handicapped


populations,


are needed.


It is


assumed


that


special


education


teachers


will


require


at least


some


specialized


teaching


competencies


(Florida


Department


Education

Form and


1984-1985).


Function


Traditionally,


educators


have


focused


attention


on the


form or


appearance


of teaching.


What


behaviors


are


exhibited


by the


teacher,


and what


form


do these


behaviors


take?


Teacher


behaviors


frequently


performance


observed


purpose


or effectiveness.


of evaluating


An alternative


the teacher'


strategy


to focus


on the


function


or effect


of behavior.


What


effect


does


a particular


behavior


one would


have


on the immediate


be concerned


with


environment?


effect


In educational


a teacher'


settings


behavior


are


are


_










Some educators contend that education has progressed to the

point where we can now identify effective instruction and evaluate

teacher performance through low-inference teacher observation


systems


(Soar,


Medley,


& Coker,


1983).


These observation systems


focus on the teacher's form.

exhibited in the classroom,


Observers record behaviors that are

occasionally the number of times the


behavior is observed is recorded,

is rarely taken into account. Si


and the frequency


.nce it is doubtful


(count/unit time)

that the mere


performance of desirable behaviors


for pupil progress,


is either necessary or sufficient


some teacher educators have proposed that


preservice teachers and teacher trainers may be evaluated on the


basis of the demonstrated progress of their students


(Stainback,


Stainback,


Schmid,


& Courtnage,


1977)


This method of evaluation


focuses on the function or effect of the teacher's behavior.


Nevertheless,


for the purpose of training teachers,


it is desirable


to identify certain teaching behaviors or forms that are


have desirable effects on students.


likely to


A method of validating a


specific teaching strategy or behavior,


then,


is to demonstrate


whether or not a functional relationship exists between the teaching


strategy or behavior and enhanced student performance.


demonstration of this type of relationship between a specific

teaching form and its function or effect will enable educators to

train teachers and evaluate their performance on the basis of









of current educational research is directed toward validating the


effectiveness of specific instructional approaches.


In the present


investigation,


the temporal


variables associated with the pacing of


instruction have been chosen for consideration.

Instructional Pacing


The speed or rate of stimulus presentation in a teaching situation


may be referred to as instructional pacing. When teachers present

questions or other stimuli for student response, the teacher's rate


of presentation may be measured as questions per minute,


tasks per


minute,


or stimuli per minute.


The time that elapses during the


teacher's presentation,


and the time required for the student to


complete a response are not the only possible temporal


components


of an instructional interaction. There may also be some introductory

or explanatory time spent before an initial learning trial is


introduced by the teacher.


There may be some teacher wait-time


involved between the presentation of the stimulus and the student's

response to allow the student to think about possible alternative


responses.


Time may be used by the teacher for cueing or prompting


a response and time may be used by the teacher after the student's


response for praise,


error correction,


or other feedback.


Finally,


the time that elapses between the end of one trial,


and the


initiation


of the subsequent trial


(intertrial interval) must be considered.


These are only some of the possible ways of viewing an instructional


interaction.


Educational researchers have begun to focus their












supported


notion


of allowing


students


ample


time


before


responding


to teacher


questions


(Rowe,


1974).


Other


investigators


have


found


rapid


paced


instruction


(Carnine,


1976;


Englert,


1984)


short


duration


intertrial


intervals


(Koegel,


Dunlap,


Dyer,


1980)


to be


associated


with


enhanced


student


responding.


Further


research


that


will


elucidate


the relationship


between


instructional


pacing


student


progress


is warranted.


Problem


Statement


Instructional


pacing


is a variable


that


been


linked


to student


achievement


in both


regular


and special


education


settings.


While


some


investigations


have


demonstrated


importance


extended


teacher


wait-time,


others


supported


a rapid


paced


direct


instruction


model


short


intertrial


intervals.


problem addressed by


this


investigation


whether


student


performance


functionally


related


to wait-time


duration and


intertrial


interval


duration.


Question


Under


Investigation


This


variables


study was


on student


conducted


learning.


examine


durations


effects


of both


temporal


teacher wait-


time


intertrial


intervals


were


systematically manipulated


context


learners.


under


of teaching


number


all conditions


functional


correct


each


skills


error


subject.


to severely


responses


following


handicapped


was


recorded


question


was


was











Related Questions


study


teacher wait-time


intertrial


interval


durations


required -that


several


potentially


confounding


variables


be controlled


and allowed for


information


to be


gathered


on more


than


one


dependent


variable.


As such, the


possibility


addressing


questions


related


to the


primary


classroom


question


conditions


were


under


investigation arose.


arranged and


observations


Specifically,


conducted


study the


following


questions:


short


or long


wait-times


preferable


for maximizing


performance


severely


handicapped


learners?


short


or long


intertrial


intervals


preferable


maximizing


performance


severely


handicapped


learners?


Rationale


Although


research


data


are


beginning


to provide


some


evidence


that


specific


teaching


techniques


are associated


with


effective


instruction,


studies


have


been


conducted


in special


education


settings


or with


severely


handicapped students.


Koegel,


Dunlap,


Dyer


(1980)


investigated


effects


of varying


intertrial


interval


durations


on learning


in autistic


children.


a study


of three


subjects


across


seven


different


tasks


these


researchers


found


that


short


(one


to three


seconds)


intertrial


intervals


resulted


in more


rapid


learning


that


than


long


manipulating


to 26 seconds)


the temporal


intervals.


variables


contention


in a teacher


learner










regular


first


grade


classroom


subjects


were


described


as having


difficulties


with


reading


with


staying


on-task.


Data


were


collected


during


small


group


instruction.


results


of this


study


indicated


that


fast-paced


instruction


was


accompanie


higher percentage


correct


responses


to teacher presented


tasks


than


was


slow-paced


instruction.


There


has been


little


research


since


1976


that


would


further


support


the contention


that


a teacher'


rate


presentation


or would


extend


can


influence


generality


accuracy


Carnine'


of student


original


responding,


investigation


other populations


or tasks.


Englert


(1984)


examined presentation


rates


in the


context


special


interns


education


into


preservice


two effectiveness


teacher


groups


training.


based


on their


divided


teacher


students


achievements


found


that


more


effective


teachers


presented


significantly


higher number


trials


per minute


than


less


effective


teachers.


effective


teachers


were


said


to have


maintained


a brisker


lesson


pace.


In this


study


int erns


worked


on a one-to-one


tutorial


basis


with


students but only


group


data


were


presented.


Since


data


in this


investigation


were


averaged


over


a number of


individuals,


some


information


that


have


a clearer


understanding


of the


variables


investigated


was


lost.


variability


among


teachers'


presentation


rates


variability


among


student


gain


scores,


relationships


between specific


temporal


variables


achievement


1










Teacher wait-time


student-teacher


is another


interactions.


temporal


Researchers


variable

(Fagan,


associated

Hassler, &


with

Szabo,


1981


Rowe, 1974)


have


suggested


that


extending


the time


a teacher


waits


for a


student


response


before


proceeding with


the lesson


desirable.


These


findings


have


also


been


substantiated


in the field


special


education.


Lee (1986)


found


that


extending


wait-time


from


one to five


seconds


resulted


in enhanced


responding


from multiply


handicapped


preschool


children.


developmentally


delayed


children


in this


study produced more


frequent


more


accurate


responses


teacher


requests


under


the longer wait-time


condition


than


under


shorter wait-time


condition,


Although


extended


teacher wait-times


shortened


intertrial


intervals


seem


to be theoretically


opposed,


the proponents


of the


direct instruction

as Distar Reading


model and commercial

(Engleman & Brunner,


curricula


1974)


based


advocate


on it such


a somewhat


similar model.


They


suggested


allowing


students


ample


time


to respond


a task


and shortening


time


between


tasks.


Nevertheless,


extending


teacher wait-time


tend


to slow the


pace


of instruction


training teachers


to maintain


short


intertrial


intervals


rapid


pace


reduce


amount


of time


the instructor waits


student


responses.


temporal


variables


involved


in learning


trials


also


be influenced


the task


s difficulty,


the student's


stage


of learning


on that


particular


skill


(e.g.,


acquisition,


fluency,


-1 \


I











Previous


research


on instructional


pacing


been


limited.


Most


studies


have


been


conducted


with


normally


achieving


students


investigations


that


have


focused


on exceptional


students


have


generally


body


ignored


of knowledge


effects


on the effects


of pacing


on individual


of instructional


students.


pacing


in special


education settings


lacking


in replication


generality.


This


study


extended


the previous


work


on wait-time


intertrial


interval


durations


following


ways:


definition


a learning


trial


was


clearly


precisely


presented


so that


results


intervention


are more


meaningful


study


be replicated.


sample


studied


was


comprised


of students


been


identified


as severely


handicapped,


multihandicapped,


autistic.


study


included


tasks


curricular materials


previously


studied.


study


combined


two variables


previously


studied


only


separately.


design


this


investigation


was


single


subject,


alternating


treatments.


Justification


investigation


also


rests


on the fact


that


teachers


are


evaluated


on the


basis


of their behavior


in the


classroom.


that


are


If wait-time


functionally related


intertrial


to student


interval


achieveme


durations


then


are


variables


inistrators


YII


J. w


I (











in our


schools


are


faced


with


challenge


of catching


their


normally


achieving


peers.


investigator


in this


study


became


interested


in the issues


surrounding


teacher wait-time


intertrial


intervals


because e


previous


research


on these


variables


been


so limited and


because e


of the


conflicting


conclusions


reached


investigators.


Additionally


the need for validation

education is becoming

investigation should a


teaching


increasing


techniques

v evident.


to the developing


in th

The

body o


area


results


f knowledge


of special


this

on the


technology


of teaching.


Definition


of Terms


Some


technical


terms


from


research


educational


specialties


such


as teacher


effectiveness,


direct


instruction


, and


behavior


analysis


used


in reporting


this


investigation.


following


definitions


were


developed


ensure


greater


consistency


interpreting


results.


Celebration.


Celeration


a basic


unit


of behavior


change;


change


in frequency per unit


of time.


Countability.


Countability


refers


a dimensional


quantity


behavior.


Behaviors


are


countable


or possess


countability


because


they


characterized


temporal


locations


relative


to other


environmental


and behavioral


events.


Direct


instruction.


Direct


instruction


is defined as


a structured


approach


to teaching which


emphasizes


academic work,


controlled


are


are











Discrete


trial


format.


Discrete


trial


format


is a four-step


instructional


students.


format


four


advocated


component


instruction


steps


are


severely


a discriminative


handicapped


stimulus


a response


reinforcement,


extinction,


or punishment;


a pause.


process


is then


repeated


data


are collected


on a


trial


trial


basis.


Duration.


purposes


this


study


duration


is defined


as the


amount


of time


it takes


to complete


one


occurrence


a behavior;


number


minutes


spent


behaving.


Frequency.


Frequency


is the


basic


unit


of behavioral


measurement;


the number


movements


per minute.


Instructional


pacing.


In this


study,


instructional


pacing


synonymous


with


rate


of presentation.


Intertrial


interval.


An intertrial


interval


is the time


between


completion


one


learning


trial


beginning


subsequent


learning


trial.


Latency.


Latency is


the amount


time


between


the occurrence


a signal


to respond


beginning


a movement;


time


from


signal


to start


movement.


Learning.


Learning


is defined as


rat e


acquisition


knowledge.


Learning


trial.


complete


teacher-student


interaction


consisting


of the


teacher presentation


a stimulus,


wait-time,











with


the initiation


a subsequent


trial,


off-task


behavior


the end of the


lesson


a learning


trial.


Phase.


term phase


is defined


as a period


of time


in which


a particular


set of


instruction


conditions


in effect.


Phase


change.


A deliberate


alteration


made


to the beaver'


environment


an effort


to influence


the behavior


being


measured


a phase


change


Presentation


rate.


term


presentation


rate


refers


to the


number


of learning


trials


per unit


time.


Response


delay.


response


delay


is a procedure


improving


performance


of impulsive


responders.


Students


are


instructed


to wait


a few


seconds


before


responding


a teacher'


question


or instruction.


Wait-time.


Wait-time


is defined


as a temporal


criterion


or limit,


set by


instructor


within


which


a student


s response


must


occur


in order


to be counted


as correct.


Delimitations


of the


Study


This

conducted


study was

in Alachua


delimited

County,


in several


a medium


ways.


sized


county


investigation


in north


was


central


Florida.


subjects


for this


study were


elementary


level


, severely


handicapped


students


selected


from


the Children


s Mental


Health


Unit


(CMHU)


at the University


of Florida.


Additionally,


this


study


involved


only


teachers


volunteered


to participate


in this


research


project.


There


was


no consideration


given


to the


sex


or socioeconomic


status of










Limitations


of the Study


results


of this


study may not


be generalized


to nonhandicapped,


mildly


handicapped,


or other


level


students


without


systematic


replications


with


these


populations.


subj ects'


previous


experience


with


tasks


presented


and their


ability


levels


limit


this


investigation.


fact


that


this


investigation


conducted


in the Children


s Mental


Health


Unit


(CMHU)


on the


campus


of the


University


Florida,


rather


than


in a public


school


classroom,


further


limit


the study.


Finally


problems


associated


with


accurately


identifying,


diagnosing,


evaluating


severely


handicapped


students


and the


specific


eligibility


criteria


used


at the CMHU


limit


generality


of the findings.


Summary


Overview


of Remaining


Chapters


effects


of wait-time


intertrial


interval


durations


severely

Empirical


handicapped

evidence


children


supporting


s learning


specific


was addressed


teaching


in this


strategies


study.


is lacking


in the


area


special


education.


While


some


researchers


advocate


short


intertrial


intervals


rapid-paced


instruction,


others


espouse


virtues


of extended


teacher wait-time.


investigation


conducted


for the


purpose


identifying


relevant


temporal


variables


associated


with


presentation


of learning


trials


their


influences


on learning.


In Chapter


a review


analysis


pertinent


studies


in the


areas


of teacher


effectiveness


instructional


was


was












procedures


used


in this


research


are


described


in Chapter


the obtained

a discussion


results


are presented.


of the results


terms


Finally,


current


Chapter


knowledge,


consists


implications


for teacher training,


future


research.



















REVIEW


CHAPTER
OF THE


LITERATURE


In Chapter


relevant


a summary


to the manipulation


analysis


intertrial


of the


professional


interval


wait


literature


time


durations


is presented.


chapter


is organized


into


five


maj or


divisions.


selection


criteria,


including


sources


descriptors


used


is addressed


first.


Research


on intertrial


intervals


teacher


wait-time,


other pacing


studies


is discussed


analyzed


subsequent


examination


sections.


of the


chapter


implications


concludes


previous


with


a summary


research


pres ent


study.


Selection


of Relevant


Literature


Determining the


selection


criteria


inclusion


choosing


sources


literature


search


were


initial


steps


in this


review.


goal


published


of the


in the


search


was


last


to locate


years


and examine


(1976-1985)


all relevant


important


studies


research


reports


literature


published


reviewed


prior


to that


were


main


period


time.


sources


Citations


locating


less


in the


recent


research.











Some


aspect


of student


performance


to be included


the dependent


measures.


Only


teacher


effectiveness


studies


investigating


temporal


variables


Studies


variables


involved


to involve


instruction


direct


or a correlation


were


included.


manipulation


of levels


of temporal


of temporal


variables


to student


performance.


Literature

University


identified

of Florida


to be available


library


through


or inter-library


loan


system.


sources


of the literature


reviewed


included


Current


Index


to Journals


in Education


(CIJE)


, Education


Index,


Index Medicus,


citations


in studies


initially

the fields


located,

of speci


and personal comr

al education and


municatio:

teacher


with


professionals


effectiveness


research.


Descriptors


used


the literature


search


included


wait-time,


reaction


time,


response


latency,


pacing,


pausing,


time,


time


factors


(behavior),


time


factors


(learning),


teacher


effectiveness,


and stimulus


response.


Studies


located


through


the initial


literature


search


were


analyzed


the investigator.


following


criteria


were


applied


to research


reports


located


through


initial


search


ensure


that


only


methodologically


sound


studies


would


be included


in this


review.


subjects


setting


the study


to be thoroughly


described.


independent


dependent


variables


measurement










experimenter'


interpretations


to be


consistent


with


results


displayed.


Intertrial


Intervals


An intertrial


interval


is the


period


of time


that


separates


learning


trial


from


next.


It is generally


only


a momentary


pause


in the


sequence


of teaching


a student


to respond


correctly


Given


discriminative


programs,


stimulus


teacher will


in repeated


often


use


trials.


In data-based


the intertrial


interval


instructional


to record


the student'


performance


materials


subsequent


trial.


discrete


trial


teaching


format,


which


been


advocated


for teachers


severely


handicapped


students


(Donnellan


et al.,


press),


uses


intertrial


interval


to signal


that


a learning


trial


ended.


be able


It is postulated


to communicate


that


their


teachers


expectations


of handicapped


most


students


clearly


breaking


down


instructional


interactions


into


discrete


cycles


of stimulus--response--consequence--pause,


then


stimulus--response--


consequence--pause


again,


with


prompts


provided


before


responses


when


necessary.


Only


recently


have


researchers


investigated


effects


of manipulating


intertrial


interval


durations


on student


learning.


Although


there


has been


little


systematic


research


directly


focusing


on intertrial


interval


duration,


the findings


so far


have


been


dramatic c


(see


Table


two separate


reports


same


one




















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Koegel,


across


Dunlap,


seven


Dyer


different


(1980)


tasks.


initially


This


studied


investigation


three


revealed


subjects


that


short


intertrial


intervals


one to four


seconds


were


consistently


associated


with


higher


levels


correct


responding


with


rapid


acquisition


than


were


long


intertrial


intervals


of 5


to 26 seconds.


a follow-up


1983)


study


relationships


same


among


researchers


intertrial


(Dunlap,


interval


Dyer,


duration,


Koegel,


correct


responding,


self-


stimulation


were


examined


in four


auti


stic


children.


As anticipated,


short


intertrial


intervals


one


to four


seconds


were


associated


with


decreased


levels


of autistic


self-


stimulation


increased


levels


correct


responding


for each


subject.


Longer


intervals


to 25 seconds)


were


associated


with


higher


levels


of self-stimulation


lower


levels


correct


responding.


Other,


nonautistic


self-stimulatory


behaviors


such


lightly


tapping


furniture


with


hand


or swinging


were


also


monitored


during this


investigation


were


apparently not


affected


by variations


in intertrial


interval


duration.


researchers


suggested


that


manipulating


intertrial


interval


durations


effectively


suppresses


autistic


self-stimulation,


maintains


student'


attention


on the


task,


results


in increased


correct


responding.


It should


be noted,


however


that


only


seven


autistic


subj ects


have


been


studied


only


limited


periods


of time.


Further research


to extend


e generality


of the findings


on intertrial











the effects


of short


and long


intertrial


interval


durations


on learning


over


extended


periods


of time


is also


lacking.


summary,


intertrial


interval


duration


been


identified


an important


temporal


variable


related


to responding


studies


with


autistic


children.


Very


few investigations


of the effects


intertrial 1


interval


durations


have


been


conducted.


relationship


of intertrial


interval


duration


to learning


children


with


disabilities


other


than


autism,


and for nonhandicapped


children,


known.


Teacher


Wait-Time


Another


temporal


variable


found


some


to affect


student


responding


is teacher wait-time.


Wait-time


is the time


between


presentation


a stimulus


and additional


teacher


behavior.


Only


one


study


examining


the effects


of teacher wait-time


on responding


with


disabled


students


was


located


this


review,


however,


studies


conducted


with


normally


achieving


students


are


presented here


since


they


have


implications


for work


with


special


populations


(see


Table


Lee (1986)


conducted


the only


study


teacher wait-time


with


special


education


students


that


was


located.


developmentally


delayed


children and


one


nonhandicapped


child,


all of preschool


age,


served


as the


subjects


this


investigation,


three


types


of tasks


were


used;


verbal


imitation,


gestural


imitation,


receptive


labeling


Using


a single


subj ect


, alternating


treatments


design,



















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subj ects


than


a one-second


wait-time.


Although


procedure was


used


in assessment


of student


performance


rather


than


ongoing


instruction,


the results


were


dramatic


consistent


across


tasks.


of the


first


studies


of teacher wait-time


was


conducted


Rowe


(1974).


After


analyzing


over


tape


recordings


of classroom


interactions


from


throughout


the United


States,


found


average


teacher wait-time


to be approximately


one second.


Within


context


of elementary


responding


school


under


science


short


lessons,


less


Rowe


than


then


three


compared


seconds)


student


long


(i.e.,


three


to five


seconds)


wait-time


conditions


(see


Table


Increases


in the


length


students


' responses


the number


unsolicited


appropriate


responses


a decrease


number


failures


to respond


were


credited


to the


longer wait-time


condition


in this


investigation.


Tobin


(1980)


extended Rowe'


work


on teacher wait-time


using


student


achievement


as the


dependent


measure.


Within


context


science


lessons


again,


short


wait-times


one-half


second


were


compared


with


longer wait-times


correlation


between


seconds


long wait-time


in 23 classrooms.


achievement


A high


as measured


test


scores


was


reported.


There


was


no correlation


between


short


wait-time


achievement.


Although


these


findings


support


those


Rowe


(1974),


it should


noted


that


intact


classes


were


used,


study was


conducted


in the


United


States,


long wait-time









More


recently,


Fagan,


Hassler,


and Szabo


(1981)


addressed


issue of tea

instruction.


icher wait-time


a replicat


in elementary

ion of Rowe's


school


(1974)


language

original


arts

procedures,


20 teachers


volunteered


to participate


a study


designed


investigate


both


teacher wait-time


and questions


that


require


high


levels


of student


thinking.


Although


the teachers


provided


with


instruction


in wait-time


alone


elicited


longer


student


responses


than


those

main


not i

effect


instructed


in wait-time


for wait-time


training


techniques

in this s


there


tudy.


was


no significant


All student


response


variables


were,


however,


positively


affected


use


of higher


level


questioning


techniques.


authors


concluded


that


while


training


of wait-time may


be valuable


some


extent,


training


in the


use of higher


level


questioning


techniques


is likely


to have


more


value


for language


arts


teachers.


They


recommend


combined


training


in teacher wait-time


and higher


level


questions


for language


arts


instructors.


It is


evident


from


recent


educational


research


literature


that


teacher wait-time may


an important


temporal


variable


in the


instructional


process.


a recent


review


of wait-time


studies


Korinek


(1986)


concluded


that


extended


wait-time


is generally


associated


with


increases


in the length


and quality


of student


responses.


pointed


out,


however,


that


little


is known


about


relationship


between


teacher wait-time


student


achievement.


Lee's (1986)


research


was


first


evidence


that


extended


wait-time


use


w __-










Additional


Teacher


Pacing


Studies


Research


is not limited


on the temporal


to intertrial


variables


interval


associated with


teacher wait-time


instruction


studies.


effects


in both


of teacher


special


pacing


regular


during


education


instruction

settings (


have


see


been


investigated


Table


manipulation


of variables


such


as rate


teacher presentation,


time


delayed


prompts


and forced


response


delay


allowed


researchers


develop


guidelines


effective


instruction.


Pacing


studies


arbitrarily


rapid


divided


responding


into


those


types;


where


those


where


emphasis


emphasis


on delayed


responding.


Rapid Responding


Perhaps


our


society


s push


efficiency


time


management,


being


able to do things


well


often


becomes


synonymous


with


doing


things


quickly.


Special


education


students


are,


unfortunately,


notorious


and Pisor


for working


(1976)


slowly


conducted


making


a study


slow progress.


in an attempt


Ayllon,


to assist


Garber,


three


mentally retarded


students


were


completing


their


assigned


arithmetic


work


a reasonable


amount


of time.


An abrupt


decrease


in time


allotted


for arithmetic


work


from


to 5


minutes


decreased


rates


of performance


all three


students.


However,


when


the time


to 10


limits


to 5


arithmetic


minutes,


work


number


were


gradually reduced


rates


correct


from


arithmetic


problems


increased


all three


subjects.




















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slow presentation


(x=14.


secs


./task)


was


compared


to fast


presentation


secs.


/task)


two first


graders


targeted


low achievement


in reading


consistently

participation


high


levels


associated

and with


with

lower


off-task


higher

levels


behavior.


levels


off-task


fast


nswerlng

behavior


rate was


correctly


than


slow


rate.


This


study provided


support


rapid


pacing


and the


direct


instruction model.


a follow-up


study,


Carnine


(1981)


evaluated


the combined


effects


praise,


of four


clear


direct


signals


instruction


error


procedures


corrections.


rapid


This


pacing


direct


frequent


instruction


package


was


compared


a slow pacing,


no praise


no signals


error


corrections


package


three


preschool


students


of normal


ability.


As anticipated,


the direct


instruction


procedures


produced


higher


percentages


correct


answers


on-task


behaviors


than


comparison


procedures.


Carnine'


findings


support


contention


that


rapid


pacing


lead


to enhanced


responding


ultimately


increased


learning


rates.


A total


only


five


subjects


was


investigated,


however,


handicapped


students


were


included


in the samples.


remains


seen


whether


same


effects


would


seen


with


special


education


populations


exactly which


temporal


variables


in the


presentation


crucial.


Englert


hand canned


(1983)


Sel mentary


addressed


schonl c


issue


hi lt en


of teacher


After


pacing with


nbhservino


mildly


1 7 teacher


x=5.


are










effective t

trainees.

of progress


rainees

Trainee

and pa


maintained a

effectiveness


cing was


faster pace


was


measured


than


determine

as trials


less


effective


pupils


per minute.


rate

more


effective


group


trainees


also


maintained


higher


levels


correct


responding with


their


students,


shorter


lessons


overall,


were


less


likely


to tell


a student


correct


answer


than


less


effective


group.


Englert


(1984)


provided


further


documentation


benefits


rapid


pacing


in a subsequent


study.


This


time


28 special


education


teacher


interns


52 elementary resource


room


students


served


as subjects.


Once


again,


a higher


number


of trials


per minute


significantly


correlated


with


effectiveness


as measured


student


achievement.


Maintaining


a high


rate


correct


responding


was


found


to be associated


with


effective


teaching


again.


Englert'


s (1983,


1984)


findings


are


in agreement


with


those


Canine


(1976,


1981)


extend


work


into


the field


of special


education.


students


effects


It should


preservice


of rapid


be noted,


teachers


pacing


however,


were


that


included


on individual


only mildly


in the


students


handicapped


latter work.

on students


with


more


significant


disabilities


are


unknown.


Delayed


Responding


Just


as some


researchers


have


attempted


to improve


student


performance


through


rapid


responding,


others


have


used


delayed


was










response


delay procedures


(see


Table


Lowry


Ross


(1975)


studied


impulsive


four


severely


because


retarded


of their


short


students


response


were


judged


latencies


to be


high


levels


incorrect


responding.


When


students


were


not allowed


respond


to the instructor


s directions


five


seconds,


all showed


increased


levels


correct


responding.


More


recently,


Dyer,


Christian,


Luce


(1982)


applied


a forced


response


delay procedure


to three


autistic


children.


response


delay


condition


(three


to five


seconds)


was


compared


a no response


delay


condition


dependent


variable


was


percent


of unprompted


correct


responses.


response


delay was


found


to always


produce


higher


levels


correct


responding.


Response


delay


occurs


at the


same


point


in an instructional


interaction


as teacher wait-time


the time


between


the presentation


of the


dis criminative


stimulus


and the


student'


response).


Teacher wait-time


may,


in fact,


be the


analog


response


delay


students


are


able


to delay their


responding


while


they


consider


their


response


options.


Along


similar


lines,


Knapczyk


(1983)


developed


a program


severely retarded


student


whose


eating pace


was


so rapid


that


rarely put


spoon


down


to rest


often made


scooping motions


without


actually


obtaining


food.


Slowed


pacing was


established


initially


offering


student


only


one


bite


at a time,


using


verbal


physical


prompts


gradually


fading


the procedures


Dresentincr


the student


wi th


mnor


more


on hi s


nlt na


nrt a


1J l a i a i.c a L. tirlIfll .


own


n Il









just


as in the studies


presented


above.


By using


teacher pacing


slow


student,


the student


was


taught


to put


spoon


down


rest


after


each


bite,


scooping without


obtaining


food was


reduced


near


zero


percent.


Sometimes


delay procedures


be applied


a teacher'


behavior


order


to increase


a student


s learning


rate.


Browder,


Morris


Snell


(1981)


used


a prompt


delay procedure


to improve


performance


a mentally


retarded


student


was


being


taught


use


manual


signs.


When


prompts


were


delayed


several


seconds,


performance


improved


rapidly


to 100%


correct


responding.


Time


delay


become


an accepted


prompt


fading procedure


teachers


working with


severely


handicapped


students


(Browder


Snell,


1983).


This


procedure


is also


presented


related


after


to teacher wait-time


the discriminative


procedures


stimulus


because


before


prompts


are


response.


applying


a time


delay procedure


before


offering


a prompt


a teacher


be said


to be extending


wait-time.


Chapter


Summary


Implications


Study


Although


researchers


are


beginning


to develop


a knowledge


base


pertaining


to teacher wait-time,


intertrial


intervals


other


aspects


teacher pacing,


there


have


been


no studies


conducted


systematically


assess


combined


effects


of manipulating


both


teacher


wait-time


intertrial


interval


durations.


Some


general


trends


evident


in the educational


research


literature.


Intertrial


intervals


of short


duration


teacher wait-times


of long


duration


have


both


now


are


_1__


-- -- w









limited


number


of students


a small


range


of handicapping


conditions


have


been


studied.


Pacing


guidelines


special


education


teachers


are


lacking


. An experimental


study,


designed


to investigate


effects


of individual


temporal


variables


learning,


was


needed


in the


field


of special


education.


Experimental


data


relative


to the performance


of special


education s

manipulated


students

will a


when


ssist


wait-time

in the fo


intertrial


rmation


pacing


durations


are


guidelines


teachers.

trainers


results


to develop


of the present


pacing


skills


study may


in their


enable


trainees.


teacher

Information


on the


design


and methodology


the investigation


is presented


the following


chapter.

















CHAPTER
METHOD


This


investigation


was


designed


to advance


understanding


instructional


pacing


temporal


variables


associated


with


teaching


handicapped


Teacher wait-time


students ac

intertrial


cording


interval


a discrete


durations


trial


are


format.


two temporal


variables


that


have


previously been


examined


in educational


research.


combined


effects


wait-time


intertrial


interval


manipulations


were


examined


this


study.


experimental


findings


will


assist


establishment


guidelines


teachers


of handicapped


students.


subjects,


setting,


variables


under


investigation,


measurement


procedures,


experimental


design, materials,


data


collection,


and data


analysis


procedures


are


described


in this


chapter.


Subjects


subjects


this


study were


severely


handicapped


elementary-


school-age


children


residing


at the


Children


s Mental


Health


Unit


(CMHU)


on the


University


of Florida


campus


Severely


handicapped


children


served


as subjects


this


study


because manipulations


teacher wait-time


intertrial


interval


durations


have


been


shown


__










developmentally


delayed


(Lee,


1986)


autistic


(Koegel


Dunlop,


Dyer


, 1980)


subjects.


Additionally,


severely


handicapped


children


have


in the


past


been


unserved


and underserved


because


they


constituted


of the


greatest


challenges


to special


education


teachers.


Students


readily


learn


from


traditional


instruction


and who


unable


those


acquire


are


incidental


in the


greatest


learning


need


from


proven


their


environment


teaching


are


technologies.


study


of learning


in severely


handicapped


children


will


supplement


growing


body


of knowledge


that


is being


generated


those


study


higher


incidence


disabilities.


Selection


list


subj ects


of all the children


this


residing


investigation


at the Children


was


made


s Mental


from a


Health


Unit


were


expected


remain


in the


program


at least


three


weeks


beyond


the beginning


of the


study.


Permi


ssion


to conduct


study


with


children


at the CMHU


was


obtained


from


the Shands


Hospital


Institutional


Review


Board


see


Appendix


On the basis


of the


above


selection


criteria


the performance


four


children


across


tasks


single


was


examined.


subject


Since


experimental


subj ects


research,


serve


as their


the four


own


children


controls


10 tasks


included


in this


study


allowed


for replications


of experimental


effects


within


across


subjects.


Child


one


was


an 11-year-old


male


been


previously


diagnosed


as hyperactive,


mentally


retarded,


and severely


emotionally


A 4 c*, rrho


TT *1- -


.\ a fV# 0n ,l*/^-P'aC w Ar 4b CI f


1n o vli- a4+,r


one


are


1 I "r-- # V


11


cn /-. +- ^ r'/f


nri n/


nt











language


disability


severe


attention


deficit.


Child


been placed


in self-contained


classes


for mentally


retarded


emotionally


disturbed


children


and had


been


on homebound


instruction


prior


to admission


whatsoever


only


to the


a very


unit.


limited


He demonstrated


understanding


no reading


of numbers


skills


and money.


These


areas


were


identified


as priorities


instruction


specific


tasks


in the


community


living


domain


were


chosen


inclusion


in the


study.


Child


diagnosed


two was


as autistic,


an 11-year-old


suffering


female


from


been


an organic


previously


brain syndrome,


severe


speech and


language


delay.


Problem


behaviors


at the


time


admission


to the


CMHU


included


aggression,


hyperactivity/impulsivity,


tactile


defensiveness


short


attention


span.


been


served


in classes


for preschool


handicapped,


multihandicapped,


emotionally


handicapped/language


impaired


children


prior


to her


admission


to the


unit.


Child


demonstrated


very


limited


reading


skills


and had


been making measurable


progress


a commercial


reading


curriculum


at the


time


study was


initiated.


Specific


tasks


from


this


curriculum were


chosen


inclusion


study.


Child


three


was


an eight-year-old


female


been


previously


diagnosed


as having


mild


cerebral


palsy,


a developmental


speech


language


disorder,


a conductive


hearing


loss,


and mental


retardation.


Referral


problems


included multiple developmental


delays


esneciallv


one











served


in a class


for children


with multiple


handicaps


prior


admission


to the


CMHU.


Child


three


demonstrated


a very


limited


understanding


of numbers


money.


These


areas


were


identified


among


the priorities


instruction


specific


tasks


in the


community


living


domain


were


chosen


inclusion


in this


study.


Child


four was


a five-year-old


male


been


previously


diagnosed


as having


developmental


delays,


language


delay


mild


mental


retardation,


conduct


disorder,


severe


articulation


problems.


Referral


problems


included


fire


starting,


self-injurious


behavior,


tantrums,


noncompliance,


aggression,


and bedwetting.


He had


been


enrolled


in early


intervention


and Head


Start


programs


prior


admission

to count


to the CMHU.


obj ects


Child


or to identify


four


demonstrated


numerals.


These


very I

areas


limited

were


abilities

identified


among


the priorities


instruction


specific


tasks


from


community


living


domain


were


chosen for


inclusion


in this


study.


Setting


study was


conducted


at the


Children


s Mental


Health


Unit


campus


of the


University


Florida.


The Children


s Mental


Health


Unit


a five-day per week


inpatient


program


of the Department


Psychiatry,


from


located


throughout


at Shands


the State


Teaching


of Florida.


Hospital


data


serving


were


children


collected


investigator


University


of Florida


special


education


graduate


students.


instructional


sessions


took


place


in a small


, quiet











instruction


in the


same


room as


part


of the


ongoing


treatment


program.


One-way


observation


windows


were


used


videotaping


direct


observation.


Variables


Under


Investigation


Independent


Variables


Teacher wait-time


intertrial


interval


were


independent


variables


this


investigation.


Teacher wait-time


the time


that


an instructor


allows


a student


to respond


before


recording


trial


as correct


or incorrect.


There


were


levels


of this


variable:


short


duration wait-time


to 3


seconds)


long


duration


wait-time


to 10 seconds).


Intertrial


interval


time


that


an instructor


pauses


between


completion


one


learning


trial


and the beginning


of the


variable:


subsequent


short


learning


duration


trial.


intertrial


There were


interval


two levels


to 3


of this


seconds)


long


duration


intertrial


interval


to 20 seconds).


There


were


four possible


combinations


variables


levels:


long wait-time


and long


intertrial


interval,


long wait-time


short


intertrial


interval,


short


wait-time


long


intertrial


interval


, and


short


wait-time


short


intertrial


interval.


These


four


combinations


constituted


four


experimental


conditions


of this


study.


Each


subj ect


was


taught


functional


skills


under


each


condition.


Dependent


Variables


dependent


variables


in thi s


investigation


were


students'


I 1 I


LA











possible.


of the


above


are


common measures


of student


performance


under


discrete


trial


teaching.


Measurement


of both


the independent


and dependent variables


are


fully


explained


in the following


section


of this


chapter.


Measurement


Independent


Variables


levels


of both independent


variables


were measured


frequently


directly.

duration.


(Johnston


The d

Since


dimensional


time


Pennypacker,


quantity


a fundamental


1980),


duration


* the behaviors

parameter of


was


measured


behavior


an appropriate


dimensional


quantity

wait-time


for

and


independent


intertrial


variables


interval).


in this


unit


investigation


measurement


(i.e.,

for the


independent


variables


was seconds.


Time


units


are absolute


standard


thus


basic


units


of behavioral


measurement


appropriate


variables


under


consideration.


Johns ton


Pennypacker


(1980)


defined


absolute


units


as "those


whose


definition


is independent


of the measurement


operation


(though not


necessarily


of the


measuring


device)


phenomenon


that


under


are


defined


investigation"'


inductively


120).


from


variability


response


class


in the


of wait-


time


is functionally


defined


as beginning


when


the discriminative


stimulus


is presented


to the


student


ending when


the time


limit


criterion


or when


student


initiates


a response.


measured


using


a stopwatch


direct


observation


of videotaped


was












defined


as beginning when


one


trial


ends


(signaled


delivery


positive


reinforcer


or the


of the wait-time


interval,


whichever


comes


first)


ending with


the presentation


the discriminitive


stimulus


subsequent


trial.


was


measured


using


a stopwatch


direct


observation


videotaped


sessions.


accurate


implementation


of the


independent


variables


in this


investigation


across


three


instructors


was


ensured by providing


training


sessions


the instructors


and by monitoring


the temporal


durations


during


instructional


sessions.


Observer


accuracy was


checked against


videotaped


instructional


sessions


in order


to provide


additional


documentation


that


experimental


conditions were


implemented


according

Dependent


to plan.

Variables


dependent


variables


were


measured


frequently


directly.


response


classes


dependent


variables


were


correct


responses


to instructional


questions


or directions


incorrect


responses


instructional


stions


or directions


Correct


incorrect


responses


were


topographically


defined


each


learning


task.


dimensional


quantity


dependent


variables


was


countability.


Countability


chosen


as appropriate


this


investigation


because


is standard


absolute.


unit


of measurement


was


cycle,


or occurrence


a single


instance


of the


behavior,


student


performance


data


were


was


__ 1












Experimental


Design


experimental


design


of this


study was


single


subj ect


alternating


treatments.


A single


subject


design


allowed


experimenter


to demonstrate


experimental


control


within


subj ects


because


the unit


analysis


is the individual.


alternating


treatments


procedure


is one of several


single


subject


designs


that


are available


for evaluating


effectiveness


of multiple


interventions


within


a single


subject


(Tawney


Gast,


1984)


It


is a powerful


form


single


subject


experimental


research


in which


treatment


conditions


are


rapidly


alternated.


four


treatment


conditions


in the


present


investigation


were


randomly


counterbalanced


within


sessions.


Each


subject


received


each


treatment


each


day.


This


procedure


allowed


experimenter


compare


effects


of the


treatments


under


investigation


each


day.


With


this


design,


each


becomes


an experimental


replication


effects


comparison


each


alternating


succeeding


treatments


becomes


design


is generally


associated


with


good


internal


validity


because


rapid


alternation


of conditions


Internal


condition


controls


validity,


for threats


or experimental


is consistently


associated


such


as history


control,


with


maturation.


is demonstrated


a different


when


level


responding


than


other


conditions.


External


validity


demonstrated


if effects


are


replicated


across


teachers,


across


students,


across


tasks.


one











children


(Barrera,


Lobato-Barrera,


Sulzer-Azaroff,


1980).


chosen


as most


appropriate


the present


investigation


because


accomplishes


following:


Baseline


conditions


data


are


because


necessary


treatments


before


are


implementing


compared


to each


treatment


other.


is particularly useful


with


nonrevers ib 1 e


behaviors


such


as learning


since


reversal


is not


necessary


to demonstrate


experimental


control.


A rapid


comparison


Intervention


effects


the

are


four


conditions


generally


evident


may be made.

early in th


investigation


(Tawney


Gast,


1984).


Experimental


Procedures


Sessions were


condition


span.


was


scheduled


determined


An instructor presented


four


based


each


days


per week


on the


student


individual


with


the number


student's


to 15 learning


of trials


attention


trials


each


condition


during


each


session.


Each


student


received


a total


from


to 60 learning


trials


sess


ion.


Twenty


learning


trials


allowed


allowed


trials


trials


under


under


each


each


condition


condition


one


task,


two separate


40 trials


tasks,


60 trials


allowed


trial s


under


each


condition


three


separate


tasks.


The order


of presentation


four


experimental


conditions


was


randomly


selected


to eliminate


possible


sequencing


effects.


was











instruction


to touch


one


of them).


stimulus


presentation


followed


teacher wait-time.


If the


student


responded


correctly,


positive


reinforcement


was


delivered


intertrial


interval


began.


If the student


responded


incorrectly,


the stimuli


were


removed


the intertrial


interval


began.


two choice


discrimination


tasks


the location


of the positive


or correct


stimulus


the designation


which


choice


was


correct


were


randomly


balanced


insure


that


no position hypothesis


would


produce


other


than


chance


performance


that


no position


hypothesis


would


be differentially


developed


both


reinforced.


one binary variable


Balanced


(e.g.,


sequences


left


have


right


been


location)


and for two


binary variables


(e.g.,


left


right


location


designation


of which


stimulus


is correct)


based


on research


Fellows


(1967)


Appendix


principal


investigator


another


graduate


student


in the


Department


of Special


Education


served


as the


instructors,


observers,


recorders


and implemented


all of the procedures


this


study.


Instructors


collected


student


performance


data


during


the instructional


sessions.


Sess


ions


were


conducted


or about


same


time


each


day.


Experimental


Tasks


tasks


chosen


investigation


were


ones


that


would


allow


experimenters

the temporal


to collect

variables u


accurate


under


trial


investigation


trial

while


data and

providing


to manipulate

instruction


was


see











Child


1/Task


child


was


taught


to read


number words


from


"one"


to "twenty"


increments


of five words


one


to five,


then


child


one to ten,


was


shown


etc.).


a card


words


asked,


were


"what


printed


is this


on flashcards


word?"


and the


child


responded


reading


word


aloud


to the


instructor.


Child


1/Task


same


child


was


taught


to identify


the number


words


from


"one"


to "twenty"


using


a nonverbal


response.


The instructor


presented


the child


with


the printed


words


from


"one"


to "five"


asked


the child


child


to point


responded


a designated


by pointing


to the


number


printed


"point


word.


to four").


Again, the number


of words


was


increased


five


when


student


demonstrated mastery.


Child


1/Task


same


child


was


taught


to count


pennies


five.


instructor presented


the child


with


five


pennies


and asked


the child


to "give


me one


more)


penny.


number


of pennies


requested


was


randomly


sequenced


the child


responded


placing


coins


in the


instructor'


hand.


Child


I/Task


same


child


was


taught


to read


20 three-


letter,


consonant-vowel-consonant


words


(see


Appendix


The words


were


printed


on flashcards


the child


was


shown a


card


asked,


"what


is this


word?"


child


responded


reading


word


aloud.


Instruction


began


with


five


words


and five


additional


words


were


added


to the task


each


time


mastery was


demonstrated.


Each


set of


five words


contained


each


of the five


vowels


words


were


presented











Child


2/Task


This


child


was


taught


to identify


letter


sounds


from


child


Distar


was


shown


Reading


a print


(Engleman


letter


Bruner,


1974)


or letters


curriculum.


would


respond


verbally producing


the sound


that


the letters


represent.


Five


sounds


were


chosen from


the child'


instructional


program


presented


in random


sequence.


sounds


replaced


ones


when


mastery was


demonstrated.


Child


2/Task


same


child


performed


same


task


with


only


response


mode


changed


from a


verbal


identification


of the sounds


a nonverbal,


pointing


response.


child


was


presented


with


printed


list


of the letters


in the


curriculum and


asked


to point


the letter


representing


the sound.


Child


Task


This


child


was


taught


to discriminate


between


coin

Two


(penny


coins


were


quarter,


placed


dime


in front


quarter)


of the


child


using

and t


a nonverbal


he child


response.


was


instructed


to "touch


penny


quarter)


child


responded


touching


one


the coins


with


index


finger.


Child


3/Task


same


child


was


taught


to discriminate


between


numerals


using


a nonverbal


response.


wooden


blocks


with


numerals


painted


on them


were


placed


in front


of the child


the child


instructed


give


one


to the


instructor


g., "give


me number


eight").


The child


Child


respond


4/Task


by placing


This


a block


child was


in the


taught


instructor


same


s hand.


numeral


was











Child


4/Task


same


child


was


taught


to count


objects


seven


using


counting


rods.


Initially


, five


rods


were


placed


front


of the


child


the child


was


asked


give


some


to the


instructor


g.,


give


me four.


child


responded


by placing


rods


in the


instructor


s hand.


Materials


Curricular Materials


A variety


of materials


were


used


as stimuli


the learning


tasks


employed


in this


study.


Materials


selection


was


based on


students'


educational


student'


needs.


current


Learning


level


tasks


and goals


of functioning.


were

types


suited to each

of tasks employed


included


reading words


number words),


discrimination


tasks


(e.g.,


discriminate


between


numerals),


money


use


tasks


(e.g.,


count


pennies).


These


types


tasks


were


chosen


because


they


lend


themselves


to the collection


of trial


trial


data


are


typical


approaches


to remediating


some


of the


skill


deficits


found


in children


with


Data


severe


handicaps.


Recording


Display Materials


A digital


display


chronograph


stopwatch


was


used


an independent


observer


recording


the actual


durations


of the independent


variables.


Additionally videotapes


were


used


to record


instructional


sessions.


These


tapes


allowed


experimenters


to check


accuracy


of implementation


of the


independent


variables


accuracy


of the










(see


Appendix


Student


performance


data


were


recorded


on the


same


form.


Every


learning


trial


every


subject


was


recorded.


numbers


correct


responses


were


charted


on equal


interval


graphs


each


condition


for each


subject.


graphic


display


format


chosen


because


of its efficiency


at communicating


relations


between


variables


(Johnston


Pennypacker,


1980).


Data


Collection


and Analysis


Data


Collection


data


for this


study were


collected


during


the instructional


sessions


with


the handicapped


students


in the Children


s Mental


Health


Unit.


Proponents


performance


data


of data-based

be collected d


instruction


directly


suggest


that


and frequently


student


(White


Haring,


1976) ,


thereby


allowing


the teacher


to monitor


student


prog


ress


closely


as possible


to make


adjustments


in the instruction


necessary.


discrete


trial


format


used


in the


present


investigation


allowed


the teacher


to collect


trial


trial


data,


to adjust


level


prompting


needed


as students


progress,


to set mastery


criteria


each


learning


objective


against


which


student


performance


be evaluated.


these


reasons


student


performance


data


were


collected


continuously


in this


study.


Each


learning


trial


each


student,


under


each


condition


was recorded.


Instructors


recorded


each


student


response


performance


as either


forms.


correct


response


or incorrect


within


on the student-teacher


the designated


wait-time


* C


was


raw


I


*


m


*










Data


Analysis


performance


data


for each


subject


were


summarized


transforming


the data


individual


sessions


into


individual


data


points


for each


on separate


experimental


graphs


for visual


condition


inspection.


plotting


Care


data


was taken


points


that


information


value


was


lost


that


no new


information


artifactual


nature


was


created


in this


transformation.


Each


initial


graph


consisted


of four


trend


lines;


one for


each


experimental


condition.


dependent


variable


was represented


on the vertical


axis


as number


correct


responses.


Real


time


continuous


days


was represented


on the horizontal


axis.


effects


of the independent


variables


on the dependent


variables


is manifested


as variability


among


the four


trend


lines


each


subject.


magnitude


of the differences


between


experimental


conditions


is represented


the vertical


distance


between


trend


lines


the relative


speeds


with


which


trend


lines


reach


performance


criteria.


This


type


of analysis


allows


experimenter


and the


reader


to determine


wait-times


intertrial


intervals


manipulated


to facilitate


learning


in severely


handicapped


children.


Summary


purpose


of wait-time


of this


experimental


intertrial


interval


study was

durations


examine


on learning


the effects

for


handicapped


children.


Four


children


were


taught


functional


skills










student


performance


for the


dependent


variable


in this


study.


Measurements


were


taken


insure


that


the independent


variables


were


implemented


recorded

directly


accurately


accurately.


continuously


that


data

and


on student


were


dependent


performance


graphically


variables


were


displayed


were


recorded


for visual


inspection.


In the following


chapter,


the performances


of the


four


subjects


are


reported


discussed


in terms


of the effects


wait-time


intertrial


durations,


types


tasks


employed,


the specific


disabilities


of the students.
















CHAPTER I
RESULTS


purpose e


of this


study was


to examine


relationships


among


teacher


controlled


temporal


variables


and student


performance


variables.


The durations


of teacher wait-times


intertrial


intervals


were


manipulated and


their


effects


on student


responding were


assessed.


Four


children


instructors


participated


in the


study.


data


were


recorded


on the


data


recording


forms


(see


Appendix


Data


were


collected across


10 tasks


at least


tasks


were


studied


each


child.


was


accuracy


measured


direct


of implementation


observation


of the independent


through


variables


the use of videotaped


instructional


sessions


A total


2,680


learning


trials


administered


to the children


data


points


representing


number


correct


responses


condition


day were


plotted.


number


of data


days,


learning


trials,


learning


trials


experimental


condition


are


reported


each


child/task


combination


Table


number


data


days


each


child/task


combination


varied


differential


rates


mastery


ranged


from


to 24 days


with


a mean


of 13.4


days


a median


of 12 days.


Additionally


, the


rate


correct


responding


was


calculated


five


of the


child/task


combinations


was











Table 4


Number of Data Days,


Total Trials,


and Trials Per Condition


Child/Task Data Days Total Trials Total Trials Per Condition


Child I/Task 1 19 380 95

Child I/Task 2 12 240 60

Child 1/Task 3 6 120 30

Child I/Task 4 14 280 70

Child 2/Task 1 24 480 120

Child 2/Task 2 21 420 105

Child 3/Task 1 7 140 35

Child 3/Task 2 7 140 35

Child 4/Task 1 12 240 60

Child 4/Task 2 12 240 60


Total 134 2680 670

Mean 13.4 268 67

Median 12 240 60











In this


chapter,


results


of the


study


are presented.


Data


are


divided into


investigation.


four


In the


sections


first


corresponding


section,


to the objectives


accuracy


of the


of implementation


independent


variables


addressed.


In subsequent


sections,


data


related


to the


effects


of teacher wait-time


the effects


of intertrial


intervals,

intertrial


the combined


intervals


effects


on student


of short


responding


long wait-times


are


presented.


Data


and

are


displayed


line


graph,


graph,


tabular


forms


important


points


are discussed


in the


text.


Accuracy


Implementation


Experimental


sessi


ons


were


observed and


accuracy


of implementation


of the independent


demonstrated


variables


proficiency


was m

pacing


measured.


task


Although


trials


both


according


instructors

to prearranged


temporal


guidelines


prior


to the


initiation


study,


monitoring


actual


wait-time


intertrial


interval


durations


was


performed


ensure


that


instructors


did not


drift


from


target


durations


during


the course of


study.


Instructors


attempted


to keep


short


duration


intervals


as close


as possible


to 1


second


to keep


long


duration


intervals


as close


as pos


sible


to 10 seconds


both


variables.


Measurements


actual


wait-time


intertrial


interval


durations


were


made


using


direct


observation


or videotaped


sessions


a digital


display


stopwatch.


complete


sessions


were


videotaped


including


at least


each


subject


and a


total


of 18


sessions


were


monitored


in all.











interval


duration


measurements


was made


since


these


intervals


existed


between


trials


regardless


of student


performance.


According


to the


definition


wait-time


used


in this


study,


measurement


of wait-time


duration


could


only


be accomplished


when


the student


failed


to respond


a trial.


waited


subjects


In these


a response


responded


instances


could


to learning


the length


be measured.


trials


before


of time


most


that


instances


the teacher


an instructor


however


wait-time


interval


elapsed.


Measurement


the interval


between


stimulus


presentation


student


response


would


have


provided


information


response


latency which


was


beyond


scope


of this


study.


In all,


interval


durations


were


measured


ensure


that


instructors


implemented


the experimental


related


conditions


to instructor


according


proficiency


to plan.


at adhering


In Table


to wait-times


the data


intertrial


intervals


of designated


durations


are presented.


For short


wait-times


instructors


approached


the 1-second


duration


that


was intended.


mean


duration


measured


for this


condition

the long


was


2.2 seconds


duration


wait-time


the median


instructor


duration

rs were


was


similar


seconds

close


to the


10 seconds


attempted.


mean


duration


measured


for this condition


was 8.5 seconds


the median


duration


was 7


seconds.


intertrial


intervals

duration


measured

intertrial


approximated


intervals


the intended


intended


durations


to approach


as well.


1-second,


Short


were


measured


having


a mean


of 2.5 seconds


and a median


of 2.2 seconds.








57






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Teacher


Wait-Time


One of


the related


questions


addressed


in this


study was


"Are


short


or long


teacher wait-times


preferable


for maximizing


student


performance?"


Wait-time


was


operationally


defined


this study


beginning when


a discriminative


stimulus


was


presented


ending


when


designated


time


interval


elapsed.


experimental


design


called


short


wait-times


of from


to 3


seconds


long


wait-times


from


to 10 seconds.


Instructors


aimed


durations


of 1


second


10 seconds


ensure


that


conditions


were


as dissimilar


as possible.


In order


to evaluate


the effects


of the wait-time


variable


alone,


student


performance


data


short


long wait-times


were


compared


without


regard


to intertrial


interval


duration.


In Figures


through


performance


data


the 10 child/task


combinations


are presented.


long wait-time


condition


was


associated


with

task


superior


student


combinations


(S1/


performance

T1, S1/T2,


in all

S3/T2)


cases.


trend


lines


three


not meet


child/

on any


of the


study.


Student


performance was


superior


under


the long wait-


time


condition


on every


these


child/task


combinations


three


additional


child/task


combinations


S1/T3,


S1/T4,


S3/T1)


trend


lines


did not


cross


on any


of the


study.


Student


performance


under


the long wait-time


condition


was


superior or


equal


to performance


under


the short


wait-time


condition


on every


day for


these


child


task


combinations.


In all,


performance


was superior under


long


wait-time









TASK 1


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15


16 17 18 19


DAYS



TASK 2


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11


DAYS


- LONG WT
-o- IHIOR TWT










TASK 3


r







I C
Hk


DAYS





TASK 4


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14


DAYS


*- LONG WT








TASK I


1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23


DAYS




TASK 2


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13


14 15 16 17 18


19 20


DAYS


I LONG WT







TASK


1 2 3 4 5 6 7


DAYS


TASK 2


0---------


1 2 3 4 5 6 7


DAYS


LONG WT
SHOP T WT









TASK 1


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11


DAYS




TASK 2


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9


DAYS


r -* LONG WT










of the days


studied.


Short


teacher wait-time was


associated


with


superior performance


only


6% of the


days


studied.


Across


subjects


tasks,


the mean


and median


levels


correct


responding


short


wait-time


condition


were


69.25%


71.5%,


respectively.


the long wait-time


condition,


however,


the mean


and median


levels


correct


responding were


89.9%


, respectively.


Intertrial


Interval


In addition


to teacher wait-time,


a second


temporal


variable


the intertrial


interval,


was


considered


in this


study.


Specifically,


estion


interest


was


"Are


short


or long


intertrial


intervals


preferable


for maximizing


student


performance?"


intertrial


interval


operationally


defined


this


study


as beginning


when


one


learning


trial


ended and


ending with


the initiation


the subsequent


learning


trial.


experimental


design


called


short


duration


intervals


of from


to 3


seconds


long


duration


intervals


from


to 20


seconds.


ensure


research


Instructors


dissimilar

on intertria


aimed


conditions

1 intervals


durations


similar to


(Koeg


of 1


those


, Dunlap,


second and


found


Dyer,


10 seconds


previous

1980).


evaluate


effects


of the intertrial


interval


alone


student


performance


data


for short


long


intertrial


intervals


were


compared


without


regard


to wait-time


duration.


Student


performance


data


for the


10 child/task


combinations


were


plotted and


neither


short


nor


the long


intertrial


interval


was









performance


of subject


one


on task


one


is representative


of these


data


is presented


Figure


Further


anal


ysis


of the intertrial


interval


data


revealed


that


short


intertrial


interval


condition


was associated


with


superior


performance


on 58 of the 134 days


studied


3%).


long


intertrial


interval


condition


was


associated


with


superior performance


on 40 of the


134 days


studied


(29.95)


performance


was


equal


for the


two conditions


tasks


on 35 of


mean


134 days


and median


levels


studied


(26.1%).


correct


Across


responding


subjects


for the short


intertrial


interval


condition


were


81.4%


and 83%,


respectively.


For the


long


intertrial


interval


condition,


mean


median


levels


correct


responding


were


77.7% and


81.5%,


respectively.


SI/T1


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14


15 16 17 18


DAYS











Teacher


Wait-Time


Intertrial


Interval


central


question addressed


in this


study was


"What


combination


of wait-time


duration


intertrial


interval


duration


is preferable


maximizing


student


performance?"


Since


two independent


variables


each


having


levels


were


investigated


in this


study,


all four possible


combinations


were


investigated


as experimental


conditions.


four


experimental

intertrial i


conditions


nterval,


studied

short


were


wait-time


short

and 1


wait-time


ong


intertrial


short

interval,


long


wait-time


and short


intertrial


interval,


long wait-time


long

shown


intertrial


Table


interval.


Since


Data

trials


related


were


to the


presented


experimental


sets


question


of five,


student


performance,


each


condition,


on each


day,


was


measured


the number


correct


responses


in five.


The mode


was


chosen as


appropriate measure


of central


tendency


for these


data


since


represents


the most


frequently


occurring


score.


In this


sense,


the mode


best


represents


the child


s typical


performance,


or the


performance


that


teacher would most


time/short


likely


intertrial


obtain


interval


under


condition


each


condition.


resulted


in the


long


highest


wait-


student


performance


levels.


Under


this


condition


mode was


five


of the


10 child/task


combinations.


Student


performance


under


this


condition


at the


100%


correct


level


most


frequently.


the short


wait-time/


long


intertrial


interval


condition,


however,


a mode


of five


was


obtained


only


of the


10 child/task


combinations.


was











Table


Mode


Values


Student


Task


Performance


Child/Task


Conditions


(Wait-Time/Intertrial


Interval)


Short/Short


Short/Long


Long/Short


Long/Long


Child


Child


Child


Child


Child

Child

Child

Child

Child


Child


1/Task


1/Task


1/Task


1/Task


2/Task

2/Task

3/Task

3/Task

4/Task


4/Task











combination under each of the four experimental conditions.


In Figure 6


these data are displayed in bar graph form for comparison of experimental


effects.


Student performance measures are grouped according to


experimental condition.


Thus,


the first bar in each set of 10 represents


the data for child one/task one and the last bar in each set of 10

represents the data for child four/task two. When viewed from this


perspective,


performance was superior under the


long wait-time/short


intertrial


interval


condition.


Across students and tasks,


the mean and


median levels of correct responding for this condition were 91% and 92%,


respectively.

intertrial in

Performance 1

condition (x=


The level of correct responding for the


iterval condition was nearly as high


long wait-time/long


(x=88.8%, median=90.0%).


.evels for the short wait-time/short intertrial


:71.8%, median=72.0%)


interval


and the short wait-time/long intertrial


interval condition


(x=66.6%, median=66.0%)


were noticably


lower.


These same data are presented in an alternate format in Figure


In this figure,


experimental conditions are compared separately for each


of the


10 child/task combinations.


Again, maximum levels of correct


responding are seen under the


condition.


long wait-time/short intertrial


This condition resulted in superior performance


interval


levels for


4 of the


10 child/task combinations


(S1/T2,


S2/T1,


S3/T2,


S4/T1).


long wait-time/long intertrial interval condition resulted in superior


performance for


of the


10 child/task combinations


(S1/T3,


S4/T2).


the remaining four child/task combinations,


correct responding was equally






































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From


every perspective,


student


performance


in this


study


was best


under


under


long


the short


wait-time/short


wait-time/long


intertrial


intertrial


interval


interval


condition


condition.


worst


Data


for these


two conditions


were


plotted


together


comparison


presented


in Figures


through


This


data


display


technique


is the


most


typical


method


for presenting


the results


an alternating


treatments


design


since


the experimental


effects


be directly


compared


within


subjects


on a day


basis.


Trend


lines


these


conditions


show


divergence


with


superior


student


performance


associated


with


the long wait-time/short


intertrial


interval


condition.


cases


(S1/T2,


S4/T1),


students


performed


better


under


the long


wait-time/short


intertrial


interval


condition


every


study.


an additional


cases


(SI/T1


S3/T2)


performance


under


the long


wait-time/short


to performance


intertrial


under


interval


the short


condition


wait-time/long


was


superior


intertrial


or equal


interval


condition


every


the study.


Further


analysis


of these


data


across


children


tasks


revealed


that


on 97 of the 134 days


studied


(72.39%)


students


produced


relatively more


correct


responses


when


taught


with


long


wait-times


short


intertrial


intervals.


On only


12 of the


134 days


responses


studied


under


(8.96%)


the short


students


wait-time/long


produce


relatively more


intertrial


interval


correct


condition.


of the 10 child


task


combinations


rate


correct


responding


was


determined.


duration


of each


block


five


trials


__


LJ


---- w








TASK 1


I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15


16 17


DAYS


TASK 2


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1


DAYS


= Wait-time


ITI = Intertrial


interval


*- LONG WT/SHORT ITI
"- SHORT WT/LONG ITI







TASK 3


1 2 3 4 5 6


DAYS




TASK 4


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11


DAYS


= Wait


time


ITI = Intertrial


interval


*- LONG WT/SHORT ITI
"- SHORT WT/LONG ITI








TASK I


1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23


DAYS


TASK 2


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11


WT = Wait time
ITI = Intertrial interval


12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
'S


-- LONG WT/SHORT ITI
O- SHORT WT/LONG ITI









TASK 1


1 2 3 4 5 6 7


DAYS



TASK 2


1 2 3 4 5 6 7


DAYS


= Wait-time


TTT Ta t 4o


i LONG WT/SHORT ITI


4 +n v e m







TASK


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11


DAYS



TASK 2


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9


DAYS


= Wait-time


ITI = Intertrial


interval


- LONG WT/SHORT ITI
p- SHORT WT/LONG ITI











frequencies were plotted on


SIX


cycle semilogarithmic charts and


celebrations were calculated


(see


Table


Increasing trends


(indicated


by the multiplication sign)


were obtained for most of the tasks and


conditions with the exception of the short wait-time/long intertrial


interval condition.


A decreasing rate of correct responding over time


(indicated by the division sign)


was obtained for each child/task


combination under this condition.


Table


Celerations by Experimental


Condition


Child/Task


Conditions


(Wait-Time/Intertrial


Interval)


Short/Short


Short/Long


Long/Short


Long/Long


Child 1/Task 1


Child 1/Task


Child 1/Task 4

Child 4/Task 1


Child 4/Task


xl.13

xl.10

xl.40

+1.21

xl.30


+1.03

+1.10

+1.30

+1.15

+1.60


xl.20

xl.10

xl.40

+1.11

I.I10


xl.25

+1.06

xl.03

xl.30

xl.10











Summary of Results


The effects of teacher wait-times and intertrial intervals were


assessed for four children and 10 tasks in over 2,600


learning trials.


Measurements were taken to ensure that instructors implemented the


experimental conditions accurately.


Median durations for short and


long wait-times were 2.0 and 7.8 seconds,

durations for short and long intertrial i


respectively.


intervalss were


Median

2.2 and 10.2


seconds,


respectively.


The long wait-time condition resulted in student performance that

was superior to the short wait-time condition for all 10 child/task


combinations.


Superior student performance was seen under the


long


wait-time condition for


111 of the


134 days studied.


Short wait-times


almost never resulted in high levels of correct responding.


The intertrial


interval


variable did not affect student responding


to a great degree.


together,


When short and long conditions were plotted


the trend lines crossed for each child and each task.


short duration interval was associated with superior performance for


more days


(58 of 134)


than the


long duration intertrial interval


of 134).


When all four experimental

10 child/task combinations, the

were seen under the long wait-t


conditions were compared for each of the


highest levels of correct responding


ime/short intertrial interval condition.


Student performance was poorest under the short wait-time/long intertrial
















CHAPTER


DISCUSSION


Teacher


effectiveness


been


a focus


of educational


research


for many years.


During


1970s


competency-based


teacher


education movement


led to the


development


competency


lists.


These


lists


were,


however,


based


on expert


opinions


rather


than


empirical


evidence.

in general


(Korinek,


Researchers

education s


in press).


subsequently


ettings


began


to validate


empirical


study


to conduct i

the proposed


of methods


investigations

competencies


for teaching


children with


handicapping


conditions


is presently


receiving


increasing


attention.


Researchers


field


special


education,


having


documented


effective


techniques


for managing


student


behavior


in the


classroom,


presently


addressing


urgent


educational


needs


students


with


disabilities.


Although


special


education


teachers


require


some


specialized


competencies,


teaching procedures


have


often


been


transferred


from


general


education


to special


education


from


special


education


to general


education.


Presently,


educators


are


interested


in finding


out whether or not

be successful with


instructional

nonhandicapped


strategies

children


that

are e


have


been


effective


found


with


special


are











An accepted


strategy


documenting


effectiveness


given


between


teaching


technique


the teaching


to demonstrate


technique


or behavior


a functional


enhanced


relationship


student


performance.


When


relationships


between


ecific


teaching


forms


their


functions


empirical


or effects


support


are


be genera


demonstrated

ted and used


, competencies

in teacher tr


that


aining


have

programs


with


confidence.


temporal


variables


contained


an instructional


interaction


between


student


teacher


are


important


factors


in student


learning.


Teacher wait-time


and


intertrial


interval,


while


only


temporal


variables


in a student-teacher


interaction,


are


critical


variables


that


teachers


use


to promote


learning


Children


with


severe


handicaps


have


only recently


been


integrated


into


educational


settings


proven


teaching


technologies


these


students


are


being


sought.


guidelines


practice


is gaining


of pacing


acceptance


instruction


according


in education


to predetermined


been


incorporated


into


commercial


curriculum


packages.


Four


children,


females


males,


who were


inpatients


the Children


s Mental


Health


Unit


at the University


of Florida


participated


in this


study.


Their


ages


ranged


from


to 11


years.


data


required


answer


experimental


questions


were


obtained


from


the experimental


manipulation


of the


temporal


variables


during


instructional


sessions


with


the children.


Student


performance


was


observed


recorded


under











long


wait-time/long


intertrial


interval


conditions.


Students


were


taught


functional


skills


during


one-to-one


tutorial


sessions.


Correct

basis.


incorrect


Student


responses


performances


were


were


recorded


charted


on a trial


by task


and by


trial


condition


comparison


experimental


effects.


In the


following


discussion,


the results


this


investigation


are


presented


questions


in relation


addressed.


to previous


In addition,


work


experimental


implications


teachers


researchers


are


presented.


discussion


is divided


into


four


sections,


accuracy


implementation,


teacher wait-time,


intertrial 1


interval


, and


teacher wait-time


intertrial


interval,


corresponding


to the


presentation


of results


in Chapter


Accuracy


of Implementation


Although


the degree


to which


instructors


were


able


to maintain


paced


lessons


in accordance


with


predetermined


guidelines


of the

this a


experimental


rea merit


questions


discussion


addressed


since


in this


there may


study
*


questions


findings


about


practicality


classroom


teachers


implementing


similar


strategies.


Furthermore,


findings


in this


area


provide


additional


documentation


of the


importance


previous


research


on teacher wait-time


intertrial


intervals.


Lee (in

measurement


press)

of the


used


videotaped


dependent


variable


sessions

es in her


insure


accurate


investigation


of the


was


one











of the independent


variables


(long


short


duration


wait-times)


and readers


must


assume


that


planned


differences


in levels


existed


in actuality.


Similarly,


Fagan,


Hassler,


and Szabo


(1981)


presented no


information


on the measurement


the independent


variables


in their


study


of teacher wait-time.


In this


study,


short


wait-times,


which


were


intended


to last


only


second,


averaged


2.16 seconds


in actuality


(median=2.0


seconds).


These


figures


contrast


somewhat


with


those


of Rowe


(1974)


Tobin


(1980)


measured


wait-times


in general


education


science


classrooms


found averages


of 1.0 second


0.5 seconds,


respectively.


Instructors


in the


present


investigation


were


unable


to maintain


wait-


times


as short


as 1I


second


even


though


they were


consciously


attempting


to do


so.


Rowe


s finding


gs may not


be typical


of special


education


instruction and


descriptive


studies


of typical


wait-time


durations


special


education


settings


would


be worthwhile.


Korinek


(1986)


addressed


the question


of wait-time


in the special


education


classroom


found


wait-times


of 3


seconds


or more


following


only


of the


questions


observed.


Her measurements


were


imprecise,


however


study was


conducted


only


during


group


instruction


in classes


for mildly


handicapped


students.


An alternative


explanation


the longer


durations


of the short


wait-time


intervals


in this


experiment


involves


measurement


system


used.


In the present


investigation,


measurements


were made


using


direct











This


type of


imprecision would


tend


to lengthen


the measurements.


Rowe

where


C1974)

sound


Tobin


(1980)


delivered


used more


from


tape


automated


recordings


recording


into


systems


a servo-chart


plotter


wait-time


durations


could


be measured


linearly


from


resulting


chart.


In previous


studies


intertrial


interval


duration


(Dunlap,


Dyer,


Koegel,


1983;


Koegel,


Dunlap,


Dyer,


1980),


limited


information


relative


to the measurement


of independent


variables


is reported.


Typical


reported


lengths


without


intervals,


reference


approximate


to how


lengths,


measurements


ranges


were


were


taken.


short


intertrial


intervals


in the


present


investigation


averaged


2.48


seconds


duration


(median=2.


while


long


intertrial


intervals


averaged


10.8


seconds


in duration


(median=10


These


figures


similar


to those


reported


in previous


investigations.


Teacher


Wait-Time


results


the teacher wait-time


portion


this


study


interpreted


as supporting


findings


previous


researchers


(Lee,


1986;


Rowe,


1974;


Tobin,


1980)


perhaps


extending


generality


previous


findings


to children


with


severe


handicaps.


In the


present


investigation,


manipulation


wait-time


duration


resulted


meaningful


changes


student


levels


correct


responding.


Long


wait-


times


were


found


to be


superior


to those


that were


relatively


short.


consistency with


which


long wait-time


condition


was


associated


are


are











difference


between


median performance


levels


found


in this


study was


20 percentage


points


in favor


long


wait-time


(71%


versus


91%).


This


magnitude


of difference


is likely


to be very meaningful


to students


frequently


teachers


set mastery


in the


criteria


classroom.


levels


Special


at 80%


education


or higher


teachers


for individual


student


objectives.


children


who participated


in this


study,


taught


only under


short


wait-time


conditions


would never


have


succ


essfully


mastered


their


educational


obj ectives


criteria


been


set at 80%.


It would


wish


appear


to maximize


that


teachers


student


children


performance


with


would


severe


wise


handicaps


to employ


extended


wait-times


in their


instruction.


With


evidence


that


teacher wait-time


a functional


variable


mounting,

classrooms


further


descriptive


seem warranted.


studies


time


of its

is also


use i

right


n special


education


investigation


the applications


of wait-time


to distributed


trial


learning


paradigms


community-based


instruction.


It would not


be premature


for teacher


trainers


to stress


importance


of wait-time


to their


students.


Intertrial


Interval


results


of this


investigation


of intertrial


interval


duration


were


similar


to those


found


by previous


researchers


(Dunlap,


Dyer,


Koegel,


1983;


Koegel,


Dunlap,


Dyer,


1980)


Although


slight


differences


in favor


of the


short


intertrial


interval


were


observed,


student


performance


was not


found


to be


superior


under


either


of the











the children and


plausible


tasks


explanation


included


present


in this


results


investigation.


is that


A more


effects


wait-time


variable


in this


study were


so strong


that


they masked


effects


intertrial


interval


variable


to a


great


extent.


Teachers


researchers


would


be wise


ignore


possible


effects


researchers


intertrial


have


interval


documented


duration


importance


student


of this


learning.


variable.


Previous


Koegel,


Dun lap,


Dyer


(1980)


suggested


that


short


duration


intervals


always


superior


that


a major


implication


of their


findings


that


intertrial


interval


a functional


variable.


children


participating


in the previous


studies


exhibited autistic


self-


stimulatory


behavior while


those


participated


in the


present


investigation


did not.


This


difference


in subjects


studied


translates


into


differences


in abilities


remain


on task


between


trials


partially


account


discrepant


results.


In fact,


instructors


present


investigation


noted


that


the subjects


most


difficulty


staying


on task


between


trials were


ones


benefited


most


from


short


intervals.


Future


intertrial


interval


research


directly


comparing


children who


engage


in self-stimulation


with


children who


is needed.


seen


effects


most


clearly when


manipulating

discussed in


intertrial


conjunction


interval


with


duration


teacher


wait-time


in the


following


section.


Teacher


Wait-Time


Intertrial


Interval


__


w











performance


for all subjects


all tasks.


These


results


are


evident


in every form


of modes


measurement


all students


available


tasks


in this


revealed


study.


that


A comparison


the long wait-times


short


intertrial


intervals


were


associated


with maximum


levels


student


performance.


When median


percentages


correct


responding


were


compared


across


subjects


and tasks


the short


wait-time/long


intertrial


interval


was


highest


again.


Charts


of the long


wait-time/


short


intertrial


interval


condition


versus


the short


wait-


time/long inter

differences bet

In all analyses


trial


interval


ween most


this


condition:


condition


least

n was


show


desirable

slightly


magnitude


teaching

superior


conditions.

to the long


wait-time/long


the other


intertrial


two experimental


interval


condition


conditions.


Because


and greatly


of the


superior


consistency


results


within


across


subj ects


is possible


to conclude


that


manipulation


independent


variables


was


directly


responsible


the differences


in responding


that


were


evidenced.


first


interpretation


that


follows


from


these


results


is that


long


wait-times


short


intertrial


intervals


be preferable


maximizing


the performance


of children


with


severe


handicaps.


consistency


of findings


in this


study


across


subjects,


tasks,


instructors may


used


to provide


evidence of


generality


results.


Similarly,


concordance


of the results


of this


study with


those


supporting


extended


wait-times


(Lee,


1986;


Rowe,


1974


Tobin,










Englert,


1983,


1984)


is further


evidence


of the


generality


importance


similarities


findings


between


this s


reported

tudy and


here.

those


Planned methodological

conducted previously may


viewed


as additional


evi denc e


these


conclusions.


Although


differences


between


the long wait-time/short


intertrial


interval


long wait-time/long


intertrial


interval


conditions


appear


to be slight


When


at first


effects


levels


glance,


of intertrial


wait-times,


minor


they may,


interval


in fact


are


consistent


be very meaningful.


compared


differences


within


appear.


median


level


correct


responding


the short


intertrial


interval


higher


than


that


long


intertrial


interval


condition


when


wait-times


were


long.


Similarly,


the short


intertrial


interval


condition


was


associated


with


higher


levels


correct


responding


than


the long


intertrial


interval


condition


when


wait-times


were


short.


More


importantly,


long wait-time/short


intertrial


interval


condition


was


much more


time


efficient


than


the long


wait-time/long


intertrial


interval


condition.


average


duration


of five


trials


under


short


intertrial


interval


condition


was


35 seconds


while


average


duration


five


trials


under


the long


intertrial


interval


condition

teachers


was

emplo


67 seconds.

y short int


This


tertrial


difference means


intervals


that


may receive


students

nearly


whose

twice


amount


instructional


time


as students


whose


teachers


employ


long


intertrial


intervals


in addition


to maintaining maximum performance










Summary


Teacher wait-time


intertrial


interval


have


been


studied


both


general


special


education


settings.


Researchers


have


previously


nor


attempted


to develop


examine


comprehensive


both


pacing


of these

guidelines


variables


simultaneously


for teachers.


paucity


of research


on the effects


of these


variables


the need


for effective


strategies


teaching


children


have


severe


handicaps


resulted


in this


research


project.


problem


addressed


this


investigation


was whether


student


performance


is functionally related


to wait-time


duration


intertrial


interval


duration.


Specifically,


the following


question


was investigated:


"What


combination


of wait-time


duration


intertrial


interval


duration


preferable


questions


for maximizing


focusing


student


on the effects


performance?"

the independent


related


variables


when


viewed


separately were


the investigation


also


support


included


notion


in the

that s


study


student


results


performance


enhanced


extendin


the duration


of teacher wait-time.


brief


intertrial


intervals


during


instruction


was also


supported


the results


of this


study.


appears


from


the data


reported


here


that


the combination


of long wait-time


short


intertrial


interval


is preferable


for maximizing


the performances


of children


with


severe


handicaps.


Although


only


four


children


were


included


in this


study,


use











previously unstudied.


Furthermore,


integration


two well


defined


temporal


variables


into


one


study may


serve


as a foundation


an understanding


factors


that


make


instructional


pacing


so important.


When


these


other


critical


temporal


variables


fully understood,


guidelines


for teacher training


be delineated.


are
















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APPENDIX A


INSTITUTIONAL


REVIEW


BOARD


APPROVAL


March


Mr. Gregory C.


1986


Valcante


Research Assistant


Department
Doctoral


of Psychiatry


Candidate,


Department


Specia
College
Departme


J-234


1


Education


of Medicine
nt of Psychiatry


JHMHC


SUBJECT:


Exempt


Approval:


Effects


Intertrial


Wait-Time


Durations


on Learning


Dear Mr.


Valcante:


have


received


reviewed


your


request


for exemption


from


review


as identify


above.


After


included


exemption,


careful


with


consideration


your


citing


letter


find


Paragraph


is request an
this research


DHHS


protocol


meets


regulations


which


criteria
approval


is hereby


granted.


Thank


consulting


IRB regarding


this


proposed


research.


If I


can


be of further


assistance,


please


feel


free


to contact


Sincerely,


Stephen


H. Curry,


Ph.D.


Vice


Chair


Uo altna


Trncr t ti +i,+ -a n


me.


I QT1 f Q-V