Citation
Career maturity and locus of control orientation in Jamaican high school students

Material Information

Title:
Career maturity and locus of control orientation in Jamaican high school students
Creator:
Boodhoo, Yvette R
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
viii, 133 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Career counseling ( jstor )
College students ( jstor )
Educational research ( jstor )
Grade levels ( jstor )
High school students ( jstor )
High schools ( jstor )
Locus of control ( jstor )
Schools ( jstor )
Socioeconomic status ( jstor )
Students ( jstor )
Control (Psychology) ( lcsh )
High school students -- Jamaica ( lcsh )
Vocational guidance -- Jamaica ( lcsh )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1988.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Yvette R. Boodhoo.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
001101397 ( ALEPH )
AFJ7376 ( NOTIS )
19602988 ( OCLC )

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CAREER MATURITY AND LOCUS
ORIENTATION IN JAMAICAN HIGH


YVETTE R.


OF CONTROL
SCHOOL STUDENTS


BOODHOO


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA


1988














































Copyright


Yvette


1988


Boodhoo


















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


would


doctoral


like


committee--to


express


my deep


my chairper


gratitude


son,


to the members


Joe Wittmer,


for struggling


with me


through many


revisions


offering wise


counsel


direction;


to Dr.


Janet


Larsen,


the inspiring


conversations,


generous


hospitality,


and friendship


which


were


sources


of stimulation


and renewal;


and to Dr.


Al Smith,


III,


for his accessibility


encouragement.


am also


grateful


to Dr. Larry


Loesch


for his valuable


suggestions

seminar and


to Dr


enabling


Paul


Fitzgerald


me to retain


a sense


for chairing


my proposal


of perspective


on numerous


occasions.


would


also


like


to extend


my appreciation


to Drs.


Bob Bollet


and Ray


Kavanaugh


who introduced


me to the world


counseling


at the


University


of Central


Florida.


research


and counsel


of Dr. Elsa


Leo-Rhynie


a former


high


school


classmate


and professor


at the University


of the West


Indies,


were


invaluable.


am indebted


to the Ministry


of Education


and the high


school













investigation;


and to the counselors,


teachers,


and students


for their


enthusiasm and


cooperation.


am appreciative


of the moral


support


and technical


assistance


provided


colleagues


at Brevard


Community


College.


am especially


grateful


to my


husband


, Victor,


for emotional


logistic


support;


mother,


sister


, Rose,


their


prayers,


their


encouragement,


and their


faith


in me;


to my


sons,


Gary


and Terry


for their


patience


and technical


expertise at


computer.


remember with


gratitude


the late


Helen


Henry,


my elementary


school


teacher,


who encouraged


love


of learning


and expanded


horizon.



















TABLE


OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


ABSTRACT


CHAPTERS


INTRODUCTION

Theoretical


Framework


Statement
Purpose o
Research


of the Problem


f the Study
Questions


* a a a .
.* a a .


Need


for the Study


Rationale
Definition


Overview

REVIEW 0


the Study
Terms


of the Study


F RELATED


LITERATURE


Overview
Historical


Background .


Role


Education


in Developing


Countries


Support
Locus


for the Theoretical


Framework


of Control


Theorie
Career


Support
Support
Career
Summary


Career


Maturity
r the Need


Development


for this


for the Approach


Maturity


and Locus


Study


to the Study
of Control


a a a a a a a a a
. a a .
. .


METHODOLOGY . *

Research Hypotheses .


Research


Design


Ponnl action


. .


Sub ect


nl ll


L_














RESULTS


OF THE


STUDY


Demographic Data of Sample .
Results of Testing the Null Hypot
Summary .

SUMMARY, LIMITATIONS, CONCLUSIONS
IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Summary .
Limitations
Conclusions
Discussion
Implications
Recommendations


heses
heses


DISCUSSION,


* S S S S S S S
* S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
* S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
. .
. .
. .


Further


Study


REFERENCES


APPENDICES


LETTER


TO PRINCIPALS


REQUESTING


PARTICIPATION


OF STUDENTS


DEMOGRAPHIC QUESTIONNAIRE


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH















Abstract


Dissertation


of the University
the Requirements


Presented


Florida


of the Degre


to the


in Partial
e of Doctor


Graduate


School


Fulfillment


Philosophy


CAREER


MATURITY


LOCUS OF CONTROL


ORIENTATION


JAMAICAN


HIGH


SCHOOL


STUDENTS


Yvette


August,


Boodhoo

1988


Chairperson:


Joseph


Wittmer


Major


Department:


Counselor


Education


purpose


of this study


was


to investigate


associations


among

level


career

(i.e.,


maturity


grade


locus


of control


in school),


orientation,


socioeconomic


gender,


status


form


in Jamaican


high


school


students.


sample


of 324


male


and 339


female


students


was drawn


from


first,


third,


and fifth


form English


language


classes


in five


high


schools.


instruments


administered


were


the Attitude


Scale


Crites'


Career

Control


Maturity


Scale


Inventory


Children


(CMI), t

(NS-IE)


.he Nowicki-Strickland


a demographic


Locus


questionnaire


Nine

variance


null hypotheses were

was used to determine


tested


in the study.


Jamaican


high


school


analysis


students


differed


form


level,


gender,


and socioeconomic


status


(SES)


career


maturity


and locus


of control


orientation.


addition













hypothesis


no significant


difference


due to form level


rejected


at the


level


for both


the CMI


and the NS-IE


for Jamaican


students.


Differences


career


maturity


which


existed


in the


younger


Jamaican/American


comparison


groups


diminished


in the


oldest


group.


Only


the third


form/eighth


grade


comparison


significant at


level.


Jamaican males


scored


more


in the internal


direction


than


American


males;


differences


were


for females,

, however, r


the situation


lot significant,


was the

except


reverse.


These


for the third


form/


eighth


grade


males


were


an exception


to this


trend.


Cultural


factors


were


virtually


unrelated


to the


development


career


maturity


locus


control


Jamaican


students,


more


mature


career


attitudes were


associated


internal


with


locus


an internal


of control


locus


was


of control


associated


higher


with male


gender


SES;


and higher


SES.


interaction


these


factors


no significant


effects


career


maturity


or locus


control.


Recommendations


were


made


for increased


attention


to the needs


students


from


the lowest


socioeconomic


level


further


research


development


appropriate


programs


career


maturity


materials


for the


career


creation


guidance.


was


was

















CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


In 1980


, Douglas,


an 11-year-old


Jamaican


primary


school


student,


was awarded a

screening exa


to select


education


free


place


mination


the most


(Phillips


in the annual


presided


over


intellectually


, 1985)


able


the next


Entrance


s Ministry


Common

Jamaica


for a free


years


high


Examination


Education


school


, Douglas


pursued


academic


curriculum


designed


prepare


entry


into


the sixth


form and


, subsequently


into


the University


of the West Indies.


intended


to major


in political


science


and then


enter


school.


Unfortunately


he passed


in only


three


seven


subjects


for which


was entered


in the General


Certificate


Education


, Ordinary


Level


(0-Level)


Examinations.


Lisa


another


Jamaican


student


, had been


successful


in the


0-Level


Examinations


was accepted


the sixth


form.


spent


additional

disciplines


years


to gain


intensive

admission


preparation


in three


a university


academic


She failed


two of the


three


subjects


for which


was


entered


in the General


Certificate


Education,


Advanced


Level


(A-Level)


Examinations.


Both Douglas


Lisa


are typical


examples


students


o become















to realize


educational


career


goals


has become


commonplace


is contributing


a pessimistic


outlook


among


Jamaican


high


school


students


(Strudwick,


1985).


The Common


Entrance


Examination


is taken


at approximately


primary


English,


school


children


mathematics,


in Jamaica.


mental


ability.


It is composed


Places


three


in the academic


tests:


high


schools are


awarded


to the students


who perform


best


in this


examination


(Hamilton,


1979).


Certification


at the end of


high


school


in Jamaica


is acquired


through


the General


Certificate


Education


(GCE)


Examinations


of the


University


Caribbean


Cambridge,


Examination


England


Council


and,


(Phillips,


more


recently,


1985).


through


Students are


entered


an average


of six subjects


in the 0-Level


Examinations,


with


entries


ranging


from a


minimum


of four


to a


maximum


of nine


subjects.


the Advanced


Level,


students


usually


specialize


two,


three,


four


subjects


in the


arts


or sciences


(Leo-Rhynie,


1978).


first


one through

preparation


five.


years


of high


A student


for the GCE


0-Level


school


in Jamaica


in the fifth


form is


Examinations.


are known as


in the final


Students


forms


year


perform


well


in these


examinations


have


the opportunity


to continue


pre-university


studies


in the sixth


form.


At the end of


a 2-year


period.


the A-Level


Examinations


are taken


in two,


three,


or four














Success


in the Jamaican


education


system is


based


on passing


Common


Entrance


examination


A-Level)


Examinations


(Phillips


, 1985)


Despite


the rigorous


criteria


entry


into Jamaica


s academic


high


schools


success


rates


in terms


"passes"


in these


examinations


recent


years


have


been


consistently


low (Kuper


1976


Leo-Rhynie,


1978).


1985,


the 4.119


(61%


Jamaican


high


school


students


sat for the 0-Level


English


language


examination


failed


the 714


entered


for A-Level


mathematics


failed


(Statistical


Yearbook


Jamaica


, 1986)


In 1980


, only


30% of


the 1451


students


sat for the A-Level


Examinations


obtained


or more


passes.


This


alarming


failure


rate


these


subjects


in the 1980s


not at


unusual


for Jamaican


high


school


students.


Leo-Rhynie


(1978)


concluded


that


"wastage


at the sixth


form


level


has become a


problem


of national


concern"


. 153).


The criticism


the changing


Jamaica and


needs


in other


that


education


the population


post-colonial


has failed


to respond


has echoed


societies


many


effective


years


(Adams & Bjork


, 1969


Bacchus


, 1978)


educational


systems


in these


societies


continue


to bear


stamp


former


European


metropolitan


power


(Husen


Postlethwaite


, 1985)


In Jamaica


the British


colonial


concepts


occupational


orestiee


have


lingered


to the detriment


V -


other


types















1979).


a result


this


heritage,


secondary


school


system in


Jamaica has concentrated


on preparing


students


for the succeeding


rung


of the academic


ladder


therefore


has,


indirectly,


escalated


aspirations


and expectations


for professional


occupations


(Husen &


Postlethwaite,


1985).


order


to create


a more


egalitarian


educational


system in


Jamaica


, succeeding


governments


over


past


years


have


attempted


to provide


secondary


education


for a wider


cross-section


Jamaican


society


(Phillips,


1985).


They


have


initiated


policies,


including


institution


the Common Entrance Examination


, which


have


resulted


a constant


increase


in enrollment


in Jamaica


s secondary


schools


(Jamaica Ministry

available at all


Education,


stages


1971).


a student'


Free


education


educational


is now


career


in Jamaica.


However

highly


, progression

competitive s


from one


election


stage

process


to another is

(Leo-Rhynie,


\ contingent


on a


1982).


result


the democratization


of education


has been an


expansion


educational


opportunities


Jamaica


s students,


with


the ability


pass


supplanting


the ability


pay (Figueroa,


1971).


The academic high


schools


in which


an ever-increasing


number


Jamaican


students


have


been


placed


were


originally


designed


expatriates


during


the colonial


period


(Gordon,


1969).


The curricula


CI 11


I















entry


into


the civil


service,


or into


the medical


or legal


professions


in British


universities


(Gordon,


1969;


Richards,


1974).


During


the colonial


technicians


period


was filled


in Jamaica,


British


the limited need


expatriates


(Richards,


skilled


1974).


However,


1962,


with


the demand


the achievement


increased


Jamaica's


a more


political


varied


independence


workforce


contribute


to the


nation


s development and


to the efforts aimed


transforming


the society


from an agrarian


to an industrialized


(Mandle


1982).


In the


past


there was


an almost automatic


system


progression


from a Jamaican


high school


a white-collar


or a university


education


(Jackson,


1974).


This


situation has


changed


with


the growth


in enrollment


in the secondary


schools.


In the opinion


many


educators,


the Jamaican high


schools


have


become


susceptible


to the


social


educational


problems


the wider


society:


problems


underachievement,


lack


of motivation,


and,


some


student


lack


interest


in a


seemingly


irrelevant


curriculum


(Leo-Rhynie,


1978).


The

prompted


disenchantment

successive corn


with


the educational


missions


inquiry


system in Jamaica


to point


to its


limitations


economic and


in developing


technological


the skilled


labor


development


force essential


an emerging nation


(Whyte,


one














contribute


substantially


to national


development


(Tedesco,


1983)


while


consuming

Phillips,


be some


over


of the


1985).


degree


gross


expectation


of equilibrium


national


has been


between


product


(Cross,


expressed


the financial


tha


1979;

t there would


investment


education and

to take their


Postlethwaite,


returns

place i


1985).


in the form of


n the existing


Unfortunately,


appropriately


economic


according


trained


structure


graduates


(Husen &


to a report


Tedesco


(1983)


on trends


in the development


education


in Latin


America and


the Caribbean,


the dividends


expected


from education


have


materialized.


(cited


Rather,


in Tedesco


a gloomy


, 1983)


picture


increasingly


has been


described


widespread


sense


Wolfe


lost


opportunities,


of the squandering


irreplaceable


human and


natural


resources,


and of the


urgent


need


new concepts


and strategies"


37).


Researchers


from Jamaica


s sole


university


indicated


intensification


the clamor


for relevance.


of the voices


from


the university was


policy-makers


that


to reexamine


James-Reid


the role


(1982)


called


of the Jamaican high school


in the


community.


Some


action has


already


been


taken


to meet


these new


challenges

to provide


with


the establishment


a system


of education


of the Caribbean

and certification


Examination


better


Council


equipped


th0 hsmmndna


nf thp Inrn


inh market


(James-Rei


d. 1982t.


order


maet















guidance

planning


Jamaican


students


for the available


in the selection


career


opportunities.


courses


Leo-Rhyni


and in

e (1982)


also


suggested


that


career


guidance


would


an important


first


step


in helping


students


to develop


skills


in the


critical


areas


of task


motivation


and realistic


problem-solving


During


past


decade,


guidance counselors


have


been appointed


in Jamaica


s secondary


schools,


but there


no information available at


this


time on


scope


or the effectiveness


this


innovation.


Rather,


Leo-Rhynie


(1982)


criticized


manner


in which


this


program


was implemented,


i.e.,


without


the benefit


a research


base.


Over


years


ago,


Super


(1954)


commented


on a dilemma


which


remains


relevant


for educational


administrators


career


counselors


in developing


countries


such as Jamaica,


i.e.,


should


the privileged


elite


group


in the high


schools


channeled


into areas


of study


that


are vital


to the survival


progress


an emerging nation,


should


guidance


foster


individual


development?


According


to Super


(1983)


diversity

resulted


in countries with


educational


in the introduction


democratic


ideals,


and occupational


guidance


expansion and


opportunities


programs


have


to enable


usually

the youth


to take


advantage


of the


new options available.


Obviously,


Jamaica's


educators


have


not taken


either


these


courses


action,


non QnAii'o'h- a1r


r-1 Pfl x1


omnh Q- rryon a


Q/*-*\i t~aT-^- ^ -I h; ; T


ho~n


TiQrl n */-















Bacchus


(1975


1978)


called


action


to make


education more


functional


cost-effective


to the Caribbean area.


The combination


of a high inc

certification


idence of


academic


or marketable


failure,


skills


(Kuper,


school

1976)


leavers without

. and unfilled


vacancies


in the


labor market


(Husen


& Postlethwaite,


1985)


seem


to indicate a


need


Jamaican


students


to be provided


with


educational


vocational


information


more


realistic


career


decision-making


When implemented


in the early


high school


years


career


guidance


potential


for offering an


alternative


to the


tragic


waste of


human and


financial


resources


(Tedesco,


1983).


Once, t

inequalities


he dream for


Jamaican students


in the educational


was


system would


that


pave


removal


to upward


mobility


education


(Whyte,


has not


1983).


proved


However,


to be


increased


expected


access


catalyst


to secondary


for change.


Aspirations and


expectations


for white-collar


professional


occupations are


proving


to be a mirage


for many


Jamaica


s high


school


students and


their


expectant


families


(Cross,


1979).


In spite


of the resulting


disillusionment,


students continue


to hold


negative


attitudes


toward


Consequently

system whose


nonacademic


they

primary


remain


occupations


trapped


function


(McKenzie,


a dysfunctional


is preparation


for hig


1986).

educational

her education














The

has been


backdrop


the changing,


the social


at times chaot


educational u

ic, economic,


upheavals

social,


described

and


political


climate


in Jamaica


(Mandle,


1982).


political


economic


insecurity


the 1970s,


fueled


changes


in the


political


philosophy


Jamaica


s ruling


party


and the impact


tremendous


increases


in oil prices,


contributed


a life-threatening


strug


for Jamaica' s


survival--at


least


at a


standard


comparable


to existing


expectations


These


conditions


resulted


in a


"brain


drain,


i.e.,


migration


difficult


highly


skilled Jamaicans,


for economic and


educational


which has made


objectives


even more


to be attained


(Husen & Pos


tlethwaite,


1985).


1980s


future and


began


a national


with


a restoration


program for


of confidence


reconstruction


in Jamaica


(Jamaica


Labour


Party,


1980).


challenged


industries


the attention,


new


technologies


the imagination,


and the


have attracted


resources


Jamaica' s


population.


There are


perhaps


parallels


between


current


situation


in Jamaica and


that


which


led to the founding


of the


Vocational


Bureau


of Boston


in 1908


(Hoppock,


1976).


In the United


States,


the impetus


recognition


for the


the need


guidance movement


vocational


came


guidance


from


a changing


society


in an


era when


parents


became


less


knowledgeable as


information-givers


(Hoyt,


Evans,


Mackin,


& Magnum,


1974).


this


period


transition















The p

the career


More


in this


problem addressed


development


specifically,


population.


in this


process


the focus


Locus


study was


of students


was


the lack


of knowledge of


in Jamaican high


on the maturation


control


orientation,


career


education


schools.


attitudes

1 and


maturational


growth,


gender,


and socioeconomic


status are among


factors


known


to affect


career


maturity


(Crites,


1973


Gardner,


1981


Nowicki & Strickland,


1973).


The relevance


these


factors


and their


associations


in the Jamaican


context


were


investigated


in this


study.


Theoretical Framework


The c

the United


concept


States.


career

Before


development

the 1950s,


is a fairly recent


career


one,


decision-making wa


even in

s seen


as a matter


chance,


or a "time-bound,


largely


static


event"


(Crites,


1978b,


P. 3)


occurring


sometime


around


high school


graduation.


Ginzberg


Ginsburg,


Axelrad,


and Herma


(1951)


were


among


first

process

progre


theorists to

s, extending

ssing through


conceptualize


the choice


from approximately


the definable


periods


an occupation


through age


fantasy


as a

and


(age 6


through 11)


, (b)


tentative


(age


12 through


realistic


(age


18 and


over)


Super


(1955


1957)


elaborated


on this


theory


introduced


concept


"career


maturity"


to denote


the place


reached















Crites


(1961,


1965)


operationalized


concept


career


maturity


and developed a measure


identifying


the individual'


standing


in relation


to chronological


or the behavior


others


same


developmental


stage.


Crites


found


the maturation


career


attitudes


to be


systematic,


with


most


significant


spurts


occurring


between

between
Career


the 6th


and 7th


the 9th and


10th


grades

grades


(i.e.,

(i.e.,


between

between


ages

ages


12 and 13)


16).


maturity


is expected


to level


at about


the 12th


grade,


a period


that


coincides


with


the realistic


stage


(Ginzberg


et al.,


1951).


In addition


to developmental


theories


career


decision-making,


Erikson


s (1968)


psychosocial


theory


of human


development


offers


more


complete


understanding


the dynamics


involved


because


it takes


into


account


a wide


range


of social


forces


and their


interaction


the adolescent' s


search


for identity.


This


search


for a personal


occupational


identity


occurs


during


a period


considerable


fluctuation


vocational


interests


and goals


which


gradually


become


better


defined


more


realistic


uper,


1957).


charge


has been


made


Richards


(1974)


that


the Jamaican


high


school


student


settles


on an occupation


somewhat


prematurely


without


the period


of moratorium advocated


Erikson


(1968).


Richardson


(1982)


, drawing


heavily


on the work


of Erikson,


found


some















socioeconomic


level


were motivated


to make


definite


career


choices


an earlier


age.


Richardson


theorized


from


the results of


this


study


that


only


persons


from


upper


social


strata


Jamaican


society


were able


to afford


the luxury


occupational moratorium


advocated


Erikson


(1968).


These


findings


seem


to add


confirmation


to the observation


of Richards


(1974)


and Jackson


(1974)


that


career


decisions


were


being made inappropriately


, early


in adolescence,


before


the period


of moratorium


that


been


observed


to encourage


greater maturity


in decision-making


years


of secondary


schooling


are expected


to offer


opportunities


for reality


testing


through school


courses,


extracurricular


activities,


temporary


jobs


(Super,


1953).


However


(1982)


school


, this may


raised


personnel


be the


the concern


in Jamaica


case


that


rather


in Jamaican


there may


than


society.


be active


encouragement


Richardson


repression


of students


searches


for self-definition.


According


to theories


adolescent


career


development,


Jamaican


students


in the first


form,


with an


average


age of


years,


are in the latency


period


(Erikson,


1968)


or the fantasy


stage


(Ginzberg


et al.,


1951).


At this


stage,


they


can be expected


think about


the desirability


an occupation


but they


possess


the ability


assess


their


capabilities


or the available


=
















and suggestions


significant


others.


Career


maturity


is expected


near


the lower


the continuum


during


this


period


(Crites,


1978b).


According


to Crites


' (1978b)


formulations


on periods


significant


increase


career


maturity


Jamaican


students


in the


third


form


(average


years)


would


be expected


to be between


first and


the second


these major


spurts.


Jamaican


be in


students


process


in the fifth


resolving


form


identity


(average


issues


years)


(Erikson,


should


1968)


moving


from


tentative


period


toward


realistic


period


(Ginzberg


et al.


, 1951).


Based


on the developmental


premises


of these


theories,


they


should


more


oriented


toward


future


satisfactions,


consideration


of interests


capabilities,


clarification


values.


In addition,


their


vocational


interests


are expected


become


more


realistic


their


choices


more


independent


influence


of significant


others.


Career


maturity


for this


group


should have


advanced


toward


the higher


of the continuum


(Crites,


1978b).


At the time


of the study


reported


herein


, there


was an absence


kind


of supportive


research


on the applicability


the existing


concepts


career


development


to Jamaican


high


school


students.


.1 *1 a .. 1 Li ~ A~fl- fl a- -


mn.n*-iir +,r


* .f ^ ^ ^- ^


T


IICI11~~+1


-1


It















lower


to higher


career


attitude


maturity


across


grade


levels


(Achebe,


1975;


Huang,


1974;


Moracco,


1976).


While


prototypic


pattern


increase


was


in evidence


very


diverse


school


systems


outside


U.S.,


the career maturity


scores


American


students were


significantly


higher


at all


grade


levels


compared.


pattern


increase similar


to that


observed


in other


cross-cultural


populations


could


be expected


in the Jamaican high


school


students.


concept


of locus


control,


with its


focus


on an


individual'


beliefs about


control


over


life


events,


also


provides a


useful


framework


understanding


the development


career


maturity.


Persons


with


an internal


locus


control


believe


that


their


achievements


are determined


their


own actions.


Persons with


a high


external


locus


control


believe


that


their


behavior


is controlled


fate or


powerful


others


(Rotter,


1966).


According


to Lefcourt


(1976),


conditions


of dependency,


a climate


fatalism and helplessness,


limited


resources and


opportunities


which may


exist


within a


developing


country


(such as Jamaica)


are


potential


precursors


to the


development


an external


locus


of control.


Jamaican high school


students


have


enjoyed


a somewhat


elitist


status


in the society


(Cross,


1979).


Leo-Rhynie


(1983)


has observed


that


their


striving


success


in the country


s highly


selective


n -


I


^^J


f -I t


1 1















responsibility


for their


continued


academic


Success.


It is


conceivable


that


this


initial


striving


is externally motivated,


joint


effort


fueled


parents


and teachers.


In the


developmental


process,

control,


students


guided


are expect

parental


progress


admonitions,


from a


position


a position


where


of external

e they


process


information


through


their


own internal


reference


points


(Knefelkamp &


Slepitza,


1978)


However,


in Richardson


s (1982)


opinion,


this


process


has not been


encouraged


in Jamaica


s high


schools.


studies


of locus


of control


expectancies


in other


societies,


younger


children


have


been


found


to be more


external,


with


a shift


toward

1983).


internality


In an


occurring


exploratory


with


study


increasing


locus


age (Lefcourt,


of control


1976,


development


Jamaican


young


people,


Sinanan


(1982)


found


support for


this


developmental


process


in the


years


from ages


through


There


convincing


evidence


Sinanan


(1982)


that


first


third


form


students


in Jamaican high


schools


could


be expected


score


in the


external


direction and


fifth form


students


to be more


internal


comparison.


However,


it has been


suggested


that


there


are cultural


determinants


expected


in Jamaica


pattern


s high


development


schools

of loc


which may

us of contr


mitigate against

ol (Richardson,
















social


role


expectations,


an external


locus


of control,


considered


an adaptive


response


(Lefcourt,


1976).


Hence,


pattern


of locus


control


development


in Jamaica may


be significantly


different


from


the norms


observed


in industrialized


societies.


Locus


control has


been


linked


to both


social


career


maturity,


to academic and


career


success,


to independent,


self-motivated


behavior


(Gardner,


1981).


this


reason,


the locus


control


construct has


assumed


some


significance


in studying


behavior


of children and


adolescents


(Nowicki


& Strickland,


1973).


Students


in this


investigation


have


been


classified


as internal


external


on the locus


of control


dimension


on the basis


scores


the Nowicki-Strickland


Locus


Control


Scale


for Children.


Statement


of the Problem


problem


explored


in this


study was


the lack


of information


about


the career maturity


Jamaican high


school


students.


lack


of realism in


career


choices made


Jamaican high school


students


and their


apparent


inability


to make


appropriate


career


choices are


phenomena


which have


been attributed


to vocational


immaturity


(Westbrook,


1976).


Researchers


have


detected


a certain


immaturity


in the career


planning p


process


of high


school


students


in Jamaica


(Jackson,


1974;















aspirations


parental


that are


occupation,


independent


or of social


their


performance


background.


in school,


great


emphasis


placed


on education as a means


social mobility


contributed


this


situation


(Bacchus,


1978;


Kuper,


1976).


Another


discussed


study


aspect


Jackson


seem unable


this apparent


(1974).


to relate


their


lack


only


career maturity


students


actual academic


been


in Jackson


performance and


abilities


to the competencies


required


entry


into


the occupations


to which


they


aspired,


but they


were


also


ignorant


of the educational


requirements


many


occupations.


Jackson


also


uncovered


underlying


expectation among Jamaican high school


students


that


significant


others


would


pave


entry


into


the occupations


they


desired


to pursue.


According


not seem


through


to Jackson


to modify


parental


(1974)


the career


influence


, formal


aspirations


these early


educational


acquired


aspirations,


experiences


an early


however


unrealistic,


tended


to persist


throughout


the high


school


years.


Jackson


(1974)


suggested


that


the educational aspirations and


expectations


of Jamaican


students might


have


predated


their


enrollment


in high school.


that


the majority


Richards


(1974)


Jamaican high


reported


school


a similar


students


finding


in their


concluding


terminal
















Ignorance about


the options


available


in the world


of work


is a


problem of


great magnitude


in many


developing


countries.


Nigeria,


for example,


to be limited


the occupational


to the major


common


knowledge of


occupations--law,


students

medicine,


was found

and


engineering

criticisms


(Arene &


have


Durojavbe,


been made


cited


Jamaican


in Drapela,

high school


1979).

students


Similar

in view


their


aspirations


to a limited


range


occupations


regardless


their


academic


performance


(Jackson,


1974).


possibility


raised above


that


students


in Jamaica


who enter


high


school


at the age


or 12


not modify


their


career


preferences during


the adolescent


years


contrary


to prevailing


theories of


career


assumption among


development


these


(Ginzburg


theorists


et al.,


is that


1951;


Super,


an individual


goe


1953).

s from a


fantasy-based


choice


a more


realistic


one.


An adolescent


vocational

better with


preferences

reality, a


are expected


nd to reflect


to become more


greater


specific


independence


agree


thought


he or she


progresses


through


high


school


(Crites,


1961).


appallingly


high


failure


rate


in both


0-Level


and A-Level


Examinations


has become commonplace


for Jamaican


high


school


students


(Leo-Rhynie,


1983).


This


researcher


contended


that


career


immaturity,


as evidenced


students


unrealistic


career


choices


(Westbrook,















students


to take


responsibility


for their


educational


progress,


coupled


with


the lack


of guidance


course


selection


and in planning


for available


career


opportunities


have


further


contributed


to the


tremendous


waste of


human


potential


(Leo-Rhynie,


1983).


great


percentage of


Jamaica


s high school


students


have obviously


been


failing


to reach


their


career


educational


goals;


goals which are


often not


based


on objective


realities,


but on parental aspirations


for upward


mobility


(Bacchus,


1978).


In the


present


educational


system,


Jamaican


students are


prepared


primarily


next


level


in the academic


hierarchy,


escalating


aspirations


Postlethwaite,


expectations


1985)


for professional


increasing failure


occupations


to realize


(Husen &


such


aspirations


disdain


for alternative


careers have


disappointment


those


unable


to meet


the criteria


entry


into


postsecondary


levels


institutions


employment


in Jamaica and


than anticipated


forced


(Strudwick,


to accept lower

1985). The


resulting


tragic


waste of


human and


material


resources


(Tedesco,


1983)


provoked


this


inquiry


into


the nature


of the career


development


process


of the Jamaican


high


school


population.


Jamaican students


find


themselves


trapped


an educational


system


that


has been


judged


ineff


ective


Kuper


(1976)


could















students


who qualify


on the basis


the Common Entrance Examination


opened


channels


of social


mobility


to all segments of


population,


Kuper


(1976)


has charged


that


parental


social


class


still


the major


determinant


a student


s prospects


in Jamaican


society.


Indeed,


students


from a higher


social


background


were


found


to be both more confident


of furthering


their


education


(Strudwick,


1985)


and more


likely


to succeed


in the General


Certificate


Examinations


(Hamilton,


1979).


Lefcourt


(1976)


postulated


that


externality may


be a realistic


response


to social


or political


oppression


or to the


awareness


realistic


obstacles within a


society.


Jackson


(1974)


alluded


a possible


external


locus


control


operating


in Jamaican high school


students whose


educational


aspirations and


expectations


were


unrelated


to their


academic


performance.


as has


been


suggested


Jackson


(1974)


and Richards


(1974)


significant


others


are the prime motivators of


career


choice


Jamaican high


school


students,


then


the juxtaposition


career


maturity with


locus


control


might


further


elucidate


career


development


process


of high school


students


in Jamaican


society.


Purpose


of the Study


The major


purpose


of this


study was


to determine


the differences















purpose


of this


study


was to investigate


the associations


of gender


socioeconomic


status,


locus


of control,


career


maturity


Jamaican


form)


students


near


at three


the midpoint


grade


(third


levels:


form)


at the beginning


at the terminal


(first


period


high


school


(fifth


form).


Research


Questions


Research


questions


three


and four


below were


investigated


in an


attempt


to provide


baseline


data


researcher


concerning


comparison


of levels of


career


maturity


locus


control


between


comparable Jamaican and


American


high


school


age groups.


remaining


questions


relate


to the specific


purposes


of the study


What


is the difference


in the level


of career maturity


among


first,


third,


and fifth form students


in Jamaican high schools?


What


is the


difference


in the locus


of control


orientation


among


first,


third,


fifth


form students


in Jamaican


high


schools?


What


is the difference


in the level


career maturity


first,


third,


and fifth form students


in Jamaican


high schools


students


similar


ages


in an American


population?


What


is the difference


in the locus


of control


orientation


of first


, third,


and fifth form students


in Jamaican


high schools


and students


of similar


ages


in an American


population?















Are there


differences


career


maturity


as a function


socioeconomic


status


in Jamaican


high


school


students


in first,


third,


and fifth forms?


there differences


career


maturity


as a function


gender


in Jamaican high


school


students


in the first,


third,


and fifth


forms?


there


differences


in locus


control


orientation as


function


of socioeconomic


status


in Jamaican


high


school


students


the first,


third,


and fifth forms?


there


differences


in locus


of control


orientation


as a


function


gender


in Jamaican


high


school


students


in the first,


third,


fifth


forms?


Need


the Study


Changes


in the political,


social,


economic


power


balance of


the world


community


coupled


with a


new awareness


of global


interdependence have


stimulated


a growing


interest


in cross-cultural


issues and


alternative approaches


service delivery


in the United


States


(McFadden,


1988


Pedersen,


1980).


Counselor


educators


counseling


practitioners


have recognized


the increasing


need


culturally


effective


counselors


to work


with


the growing


numbers


new immigrants


and refugees


in the


context


a pluralistic


society















Programs


(CACREP)


(McFadden


& Quinn,


1987)


also


has heightened


awareness


ethical


responsibility


of counselors


to operate


from


a solid


base


cross-cultural


competencies.


There


has been more


attention


to racial


and ethnic


minority


topics


in the


past


decade


(Ponterotto,


1986).


focus,


however,


been


on the


concerns


ethnic


minorities


and,


a lesser


extent


on international


visitors


(Ruiz & Casas,


cited


in Ponterotto,


1986;


Vontress,


1979).


Research


on educational


concerns


in the developing


countries


has,


so far


, been


relatively


neglected.


Concurrently,


guidance


there


and counseling


has been


programs


a growing


interest


in the schools


in establishing


many


developing


countries


(Heinzen,


1983


Okon,


1983


Webb


, 1983;


Yusuf


& Bradley,


1983)


These


programs


are usually


staffed


professionals


trained


counselor


tradition in


education


the developing


programs


country,


or by


in the


international


American

exchange


programs


such as


Fulbright


Scholarships


or the


Peace


Corps


(Heinzen,


1983;


McWhirter,


1983;


Webb,


1983).


Stewart


(1983),


from


experience


of seeing


the failure


of American


ideas


want


sufficient


attempt


to adapt


them


to the British


educational


system,


has issued


a warning


to developing


countries


against


inappropriate


transfer


the counseling


tools


and techniques


of the technologically


advanced


counn tried.


Stewart's


recommendation


was to Drovide


helo


.,















Enthusiastic


attempts


counselors


and counselor


educators


transport


counseling


practices


to Ethiopia,


Bolivia,


and Nigeria


cite


just a


examples,


have


been


unsuccessful


(Heinzen,


1983


Okon,


1983


Yusuf


& Bradley,


1983).


Yet,


the evidence


from


these


Third


World


countries


is that


counseling


is becoming


a vital


part


of the


educational


program and


service


delivery


could


be facilitated


with


appropriate


technology


(Heinzen,


1983).


experiences


practitioners


in the developing


countries


endorse


the need


for careful


scrutiny


which influe


the prevailing

nce behavior w


philosophy


within


a society


the motivational

before exporting


patterns


tools


problem-solving


(Heinzen,


1983).


At the


time


of the


study,


there


been


no attempt


to study


career


observed


development


that


patterns


the developmental


in Jamaican


stages


society.


through


Anastasi


which


(1976)


individuals


progress


toward


maturity


vary


from


one culture


to another.


Consequently,


the generalizability


measurement


devices and


automatic


transfer


of materials


and research findings cannot


assumed


(McFadden,


1988).


Crites


(1978b)


considered


it important


identify


career


immature at


an early


in order


to provide


opportunities


for development


of students


with


exceptional


needs


before


the decision-making


years.


This


procedure


would


also


enable


















external


factors


such as


parental


influence


or the


prestige


associated


with a


career


have


been


judged


as potentially


more


powerful


determinants


career


choice


than


the internal


factors


of ability


interest,


and motivation


(Jackson,


1974;


Richards,


1974)


then


locus


of control


construct could


shed


some


light


on this aspect


behavior


in the Jamaican


population.


When


Richards


(1974)


reported


his findings


indicating


that


the majority


students,


regardless


academic


standing,


expected


to achieve


at least a


bachelor


s degree


he recommended


research


to identify


the factors


related


to students


career


choices


in Jamaican


high


schools.


Research activity


at the


University


of the West


Indies


in Jamaica


had not


dealt


with


career


guidance concerns


(Phillips,


1985).


relationship


considered


to exist


between


internal


locus


control


and a positive orientation


to work,


achievement,


career


maturity


may be specific


to the


American


population.


Whereas Gardner


and Beatty


(1981)


and Gardner


(1981)


have


found


that


internal


locus of


control


is positively


related


to high


levels


career


maturity


intelligence,


Farmer


(1978)


found


that


high


externality


bears


a positive


relationship


to lower


class


status


levels


achievement


Sue (1978)


has characterized


locus


of control


as a


function


one's world


view.


However,


there


were


no data


at the


time
















believed


that


data


collected


in this


study


should


provide


answers


some


important


research


questions


designed


to clarify


nature of


locus


control


career maturity


a previously


unstudied


group.


While


some


studies


of career maturity


have


been


conducted


in developing


countries,


there


had been


no previous attempt


to investigate


the association


of this


variable with


locus


control.


This


study


also


provided


baseline


data


which


could


be helpful


screening


career


immaturity,


in assessing


guidance needs,


and in


establishing


evaluating


career


guidance


programs


not only


Jamaica,


but also


in other


societies which


share a


similar


colonial,


educational,


and social


heritage.


Rationale


for the Study


1974,


recommendation


the General

s concerning


Conference


education for


UNESCO adopted

international


certain

understanding


and education


relative


to human


rights


fundamental


freedoms


(Bolan


& Seymour,


1978).


conferees


called


for the inclusion


international


dimension


and a global


perspective


in education.


Even


more


relevant


to the


purpose


of this


study


was


the plea


educators


in the developed countries

and solidarity with less p


to show


rivileged


a sense

groups


responsibility


and to take


toward,


the initiative


to devise


ways


to assist


the developing


countries.


Warwick


(cited


was















the priorities


of the


groups


studied


and to demonstrate


sensitivity


their


concerns and


interests.


Most


of the research


on the


culturally


different


has been


in the


U.S.


and has


been


concentrated


on disadvantaged


groups who


are usually


behind


the middle


class


in vocational


maturity


(Vasquez,


1979).


With


the democratization


of education,


Jamaican high


school


students


have


become


increasingly more


heterogeneous


terms


socioeconomic


status


(Whyte,


1983).


Using


parental


occupation


as a measure of


socioeconomic


status


in Jamaican


society,


Hamilton


(1979)


established


a link


between


performance


in the General


Certificate of


Education


examination and


socioeconomic


status.


This


link


was independent


students


earlier


Another

development

females in J


gender-based


success


relevant


career


in the Common Entrance


question


for exploration


maturity would


amaican society.


differences


Although


e similar

Crites (


to be negligible,


Examination.


was whether


for both males


1972)


Achebe


considered


(1975)


and Huang


(1974)


found


significant


differences


in career maturity


as a function


of gender


in cross-cultural


populations.


Considerable


evidence


been


amassed


Bigelow


(1981)


Curry


(1980)


and Gardner


and Beatty


(1981)


to suggest


a positive


relationship


between


career maturity


an internal


locus


control.














were all


conducted


with American


populations,


it seemed


relevant


explore


similar


associations


in the


Jamaican


high


school


population.


addition


to the locus


of control


dimension,


age,


gender


, and


socioeconomic


status


were


other


factors


included


for their


potential


contribution


to the understanding


both


career


maturity


and the


locus


control


constructs


in the


Jamaican


high


school


population


studied


in the present


investigation.


Definition


of Terms


terms


below were


used


in this


study


according


to the


respective


definitions


provided.


Academic


high


school.


This


type


school


, in Jamaica


, has


least


a 5-year


program


study


from


form


one through


form


five


(Fisher,


1979)


Advanced


Level


Examination


(A-Level).


This


an examination


taken


at the


end of


upper


sixth


form as


preparation


university


entry.


Preparation


for the examination


involves


additional


years


high school


beyond


the fifth


form.


Students


take


two,


three,


four


subjects


(Fisher


, 1979).


Career


maturity


(also


termed


vocational


maturity).


This


concept


is used


to indicate


individual as


measure


the degree

ed by the


a


of vocational

bilitv to deal


development reached

successfully with


expected


age-related


developmental


tasks,


taking


reality


factors


into















Caribbean Examination


Council


(CXC).


This


refers


an examining


board


established


in the


English-speaking


Caribbean


area


to allow


greater


flexibility


in type


of curricula


and examinations.


first


public


exams


were


given


in 1979


(Fisher,


1979).


Common


Entrance


Examination.


This


is an


examination


taken


11 and


over


entry


into


the academic


high


schools.


Selection


participants


for it is highly


restricted


(Richards,


1974).


Corporate


area.


This


refers


to the incorporated


area


of Kingston


Andrew.


Over


the population


Jamaica


resided


in this


metropolitan


area


(Statistical


Yearbook


of Jamaica,


1986).


Developing


country.


"After


the dissolution


colonial


empires,


stage


development


became


an accepted


basis


classifying


nation-states,


with


the great majority


of countries


in Latin


America,


Africa, an

industrial


d Asia


countries


. becoming


becoming


'developing'


developed


countries


countries


and the Western


s" (Husen


Postlethwaite,


1985,


2651).


Emic.


This


refers


an approach


in which


intercultural


differences


are viewed


as clues


to divergent


attitudes,


values,


assumptions


that


differentiate


one culture


from another


relativist


Etic.


framework


In this


(Pedersen,


perspective


Draguns,


Lonner


is assumed


, & Trimble,


that


all human


1981).


beings


mnn ra tronr-


a tini vorqfl


d f-i nI ti nn


o l =


Tr a cpr ta^^


yi o/^mA


n*n















External.


Persons


classified


as external


on the locus


of control


dimension


believe


that


events


or outcomes are independent


of their


behavior


are the result


of luck,


chance,


fate,


or the influence


powerful


others


(Rotter,


1966).


Fifth form.


fifth


form student


is in his or her final


year


preparation for


the examinations,


usually GCE Ordinary


Level"


(Fisher,


1979,


p. 22).


First


form.


This


is the first


year


of secondary


school


Entrance


into


the first


form i


based


on performance


in the Common


Entrance Examination


(Fisher,


1979).


Internal.


Persons classified


as internal


on the locus


of control


dimension


believe


that


events


or outcomes are contingent


on their


behavior


(Rotter,


1966)


Locus


of control.


This


construct


refers


to the belief


individuals


as to whether


outcomes


of their


actions


are causally


related


control


to their


own behavior.


continuum represents


internal


the belief


that


the locus


reinforcements


outcomes are


contingent


on one's own behavior,


whereas


the external


represents


the belief


that


reinforcements


or outcomes are


independent


one's behavior


and are


the result


of fate,


luck,


powerful


others


(Rotter,


1966).


own














Ordinary


Level Examination


(O-Level).


This


examination


is taken


fifth


form


students.


students


take


from


three


through


nine


subjects


(Fisher,


1979)


Post-colonial


Jamaican


society


Jamaica


became


an independent


nation


in 1962


after


years


as a British


colony


(Phillips


1985)


Sixth


form.


Students


who qualify


on the basis


success


in the


0-Level Examination


may spend


additional


years


high


school


the sixth


form


, made


of lower


upper


sixth.


These


years


intensive


preparation


university


entry


(Fisher


, 1979).


Socioeconomic


status


(SES)


. Miller


s Occupational


Coding


Scheme,


a scale


based


on parental


occupation


in Jamaican


society


was used


measure


of SES in thi


study


(Miller


, 1971)


Overview


the Study


Chapter


, is presented a


review


of literature


related


to the


development


career


maturity


and its relationship


to locus


control


in high


school


students.


Also


, the


theoretical


framework


expanded


and discussed.


In Chapter


, the educational


system


in Jamaica and


population


from


which


the sample


was selected


is described


support


validity


and the reliability


of the instruments


used


included.


Detailed


descriptions


the sampling


procedures


and the


procedures


used


in collecting,


recording,


and assessing


data


are also


are














The findings


the study


are presented


in Chapter


Chapter


, the obvious


implied


conclusions are


discussed and


recommendations are made


practice and


for further


research


in this


area.



















CHAPTER


REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE



Overview


educational


system


transported


to the West


Indies


British has


been


described


as irrelevant


region


(Whyte,


1983;


Williams,


1968).


Alarming


failure rates


in the 0-


A-Level


Examinations


which are


the hallmark


Success


in the Jamaican


academic


high schools


have


concerned


educators


economists.


Educational


changes

but lack


researchers


in the

the r


in Jamaica


curriculum and


sources


have,


method


for making


for many


course


meaningful


years,


selection


changes


demanded


for students


(Leo-Rhynie,


1982)


The concept

therefore, there


career


is minimal


development

research


is a fairly


on career


recent


development


one,

in Jamaica


and,


indeed,


in the developing


countries.


this


reason,


literature


on career


maturity


and locus


control


is reviewed


from a


global


perspective


with


appropriate emphasis


on cross-cultural


studies.


In this chapter


, the


researcher


provides


support


for the


- .


1 1





1 m















Historical


Background


Jamaica


is one of


the most


rapidly


developing


countries


in the


world


with a


population


of 2,325


in 1985


(Statistical


Yearbook


Jamaica,


1986).


It is the third


largest


of the Caribbean


islands,


group of


islands


that


stretch from near


Florida


in the United


states


to the Venezuelan


coast


South America.


In spite


of differences


size,


heritage,


language,


history,


political


system,


these


islands


have


strong


cultural


similarities


as a


result


a common history


foreign


domination


("Caribbean


Cultures,


" 1982).


blending


European,


Chinese,


East


Indian,


African


influences


has given


region a multicultural


polyethnic


flavor.


English


is the official


language


in all


present


or former


British


colonies


in the West


Indies,


although


local


dialects


are widely


spoken


(McKenzie,


1986).


The idea


a public


system


of universal


education


in the West


Indies was


introduced


with


the act


to abolish


slavery,


in the House


Commons


in England


government


officials and


religious


leaders


1833


region


(Gordon,


were


1969).


welcomed


curriculum and


uncritically


teachers


imported


for the opportunities


they


to the


offered.


Subsequently,


times,


this


irrelevant


uncritical ac

curriculum has


ceptance

been la


of the imported


mented


and,


as a catastrophe


Williams


(1968)


a luxury


which


the strained


financial


resources of


__















In 1968,


Williams,


a West


Indian


leader


and educator,


observed


post-primary
kind of scho


pointing
callings.


education


ol.


towards


is almost


the academic c
the clerical,


exclusively


limited


:ollege-preparatory
official, and pro


one


type,
fessional


There


is still


an element


of truth


in this


statement.


Kaplan,


Blutstein,


Johnston,


and McMorris


(1979)


have


described


the academic

prestigious


high schools

of the schools


enrollment accelerated


in Jamaica as

providing se


after


Jamaica


the oldest


condary


most


education.


s independence


in 1962


Their


when


policies


in education


opened


these


elite college-preparatory


schools


to all who qualified


on the basis


of the Common Entrance


Examination,

the position


regardless


of Jamaica


of economic

s academic


status.


high


Kuper


schools


(1976)


described


as privileged


terms


of having

better eq


schools,


the most


uipment.


qualified


staff


technical


and comprehensive


schools


lower


high


have


pupil-teacher


schools,


been more


ratios


the vocational


recently


high


established


and lack


the prestige


the traditional


high


schools


(Richards,


1974).


Attempts


began


in the post-World


years


to transform


Jamaica


s fairly


static


economy,


dependent


on agriculture,


tourism,


and bauxite,


a more


diverse and


dynamic


one with


a growing


industrial


and manufacturing


sector


(Mandle,


1982).


These


attempts


new















stated


the dilemma


of Jamaican


high


school


students


are forced


make


career


decisions


against


the background


the social


pressures


of the


past


the often


conflicting


occupational


needs


present.


review


of the


literature


suggests


that


situation


changed


significantly


in the intervening


years.


increasing


disenchantment


with


formal


education


as the key


to national


development


has been


documented


Husen and


Postlethwaite


(1985).


has the continuing


discrepancy


between


the needs


the labor


force


and the role


primarily


of the high


next


school


step


in which students


in the


are


prepared


academic hierarchy.


Role


of Education in Developing


Countries


Education had


been


expected


to guarantee


greater


productivity


income equality


for Jamaica as


well


as for the other


developing


countries


to a greater


(Tedesco,


extent


1983).


Although


in education


democratization


than


other


has been achieved


sphere of


social


structure,


the criticism continues


for its failure


to be the


expected


instrument


of social,


as well as


economic,


mobility


(Tedesco,


1983).


The democratization


of the secondary


schools


in Jamaica


accomplished,


at first,


through


provision of scholarships


(Gordon,


. n -


was


-A


1


m















increased


availability


secondary


education


a wider


cross-section


of the population and


led to the quadrupling


expenditure


on secondary


education


in the


past


years


(Phillips,


1985)


There


has been


an ever-growing


number


students


, pioneers


within


their


families and


potential


beneficiaries


the increased


educational


opportunities


have


been


entering


the secondary


schools.


Parents


have


perceived


education


as the key


to achievement


a better


life


their


offspring;


consequently


, through


self-denial,


thrift,


and hard


work,


they


have


invested


heavily,


financially


and emotionally,


in their


children's


education


(McKenzie,


1986).


They


have


been,


however,


handicapped


in offering


them


needed


guidance or


direction.


A high


regard


for education


has been


nourished


in the West


Indian


population


(Bacchus,


1978).


High


expectations


and aspirations


their


children may


lead


West


Indian


parents


to impose


rigid


controls


on their


children


in a


very


autocratic manner


(Louden,


1978).


Close


supervision,


dependency,


and the


encouragement


close affective


ties


with aunts,


been


uncles,


prevalent


grandparents,


in the developing


cousins,

countries


and family

(McKenzie,


friends

1986).


have

This


expansion in
r*


educational


opportunities


has


created


high aspirations















Responses


to address


this


problem of


a tremendous


discrepancy


between aspirations


and their


realization have


come


from


politicians


(Manley,

1982; Le


1974;


io-Rhyni


Williams

e, 1982;


, 1968)


Richards,


educatorss

1974),


(Gordon,


1969;


anthropologi


James-Reid,

sts (Cross,


1979


Kuper,


1976).


Richards


(1974)


proposed


the redesigning


secondary


would


education--a


enable


broadening


the inclusion


from


a wider


the colonial


range


concept


interest


which


and abilities


among


the students


in post-independent Jamaica.


Academic


education


has enjoyed


a position


of prestige and


a preferred


status


to the


present


time.


Non-academic


education


has rarely


been


a matter


choice


rather


a second-best alternative


(McKenzie,


1986;


Richards,


1974).


can a


country


such


Jamaica


cope


with


this


problem


rising


expectations which are


not being met?


can the twin


problems


a high


rate


of academic


failure


and large


numbers


unemployed


youth


be surmounted?


primary


concern


in the developing


countries


to maximize


the human resources.


Still,


ineffectiveness


solely


1979)


been


the increasing


In the opinion


the resulting


present e

g failure


of this


narrowness


educational


rate


researcher


of focus


system


in external


an even


in the goals


is not


to be judged


examinations


greater


(Cross,


failure


of students


in the


. I I I I I n. S


1


1 -


*


^ 1 *















Ignorance


about


the options


available


in the world


of work


is not


unique to Jamaican

magnitude in many


students.

developing


Nigerian students was


found


Indeed,


it is


countries.


to be limited


a problem


occupational


to the major


great

knowledge


common


occupations,


i.e.,


law,


medicine,


and engineering


(Arene & Durojavbe,


cited


in Drapela,


1979).


Similar


criticisms


have


been made


Jamaican high


level


school


occupations,


students


ignorance


terms


of the


their


entry


aspirations


requirements


to high


(Jackson,


1974)


several


years


concept


educational


planning as


viable


tool


economic


progress


in developing


countries


has been


discussed


(Adams & Bjork,


1969;


Whyte,


1983).


Adams


and Bjork


urged


broadening


concept


secondary


education


to make


an outlet


into


industry


and agriculture,


instead


of primarily


an avenue


into a


university.


These


educators


also


proposed


the introduction


programs


to change


vocational


attitudes and


concepts,


including


prevalent


fatalistic


belief


that


events


cannot


be predicted


controlled.


addition,


Whyte


(1983)


also


advocated


a role


education as


transmitter


of values


and attitudes,


not just


skills and


knowledge.


Pemberton


(cited


in Drapela,


1979)


expressed


the need


*1 -


1


1


I 1















their

Brazil


changing

where 1


culture.


legislators


Pemberton


have


reported


recognized


on the notable


occupational and


success

career


guidance as


primary


objectives.


This


change


in approach


resulted


in more


realistic


career


choices


and improved


adjustment


the world


work in


the case


of Brazilian students.


of the goals


career


education


is the broadening


educational


increased


and occupational


opportunities


options


self-awareness


students


providing


and knowledge


the world


of work


(Hoyt


et al.,


1974).


This


exposure


would


enable


students


base


their


career


choice


in reality


aside


the myth


that


4-year


degree


is the best


route


to occupational


success


in Jamaica


(Richards,


appreciate


1974).


Such an approach


the value


their


would


enable


educational


students


experiences.


The need


to increase


the technical


and practical


content


of the curriculum and


to shake


the residual


influence


of the


British


colonial


system has


been


recognized


as a


to increase


the relevance


education


to the


needs


of the job market


(Kaplan


et al.,


1976).


James-Reid


(198


linked


this


growing


demand


for relevance


to the


creation


Caribbean Examination


Council


(CXC)


which


offers


an alternate


system of


examinations.


implemented


Early


reports


examinations are


on the failure rates


discouraging


in the newly

A. Leo-Rhynie,


- -. a a I t..1 -- I I IL) ~
a a
- ----- a .L. -


- 7 n 4


,,,,,,, i


T-. -


I 1tJ


L-


I














students'


aptitudes,


aspirations


and employment


and variables


outlook


such


as curriculum,


in Jamaica.


present


academic


system


seems


encourage


inconsistencies


between aspirations


and their


realization,


creating


frustration


for those


unable


to meet


criteria for


entry


into


a postsecondary


institution


in Jamaica.


Students could


be expected


to react


to such


harsh realities


with


feelings


of powerlessness and


being


pawns


system,


especially


since Jamaican


society


been


characterized


as accepting


rather than inquiring


(Figueroa,


1971)


In the post-independent


period,


leaders


have


stressed


the need


people


to change


their


"psychological


"obeahman"


dependence"


as both


in viewing


cause


God,


government,


the solution


their


or the


problems


(Leo-Rhynie,


1982).


Support


for the Theoretical


Framework


Locus


Control


concept


of locus


of control


is a


major


aspect


of Rotter


(1966)


social


learning


theory


According


to Rotter,


an individual


psychological


orientation may


be internally


or externally


controlled.


Internal-control


(IC)


persons


believe


that


reinforcements


contingent


on their


own actions.


External-control


(EC)


persons,


the other


hand,


believe


that


their


behavior


is controlled


fate,


luck.


or Powerful


others.


High


internal


orientati on


h~A hap n


lin kdrl


|















world,


but Sue (1978)


cited


research


valuing


high


externality


the Chinese


culture.


has also


pointed


out that


where opportunity


is unequal,


feelings


of powerlessness may


be indeed a


realistic


assessment


the discrepancy


between ability


and attainment.


Farmer


(1978)


summarized


characteristics


persons


who are


internal


as follows:


They


choose


careers


which are more


consistent


with


their


values,


interests,


competencies,


potential.


They


seek more


complete


information


career


deci


sion-


making


assess


They


themselves and


develop more


their


feasible


resources more


plans


for overcoming


realistically.


obstacles


their


career


goals.


They


engage


in moderate


risk-taking.


Farmer


described


persons


with


external


orientation


in this


way:


They


tend


to be


more


diffused


about


long-range


career


goals.


They


tend


to be less competent


in information


seeking,


planning,


evaluating


their


plans.


They


are more


likely


to take


such


high risks


as to make


easy


to rationalize


failures.


They


tend


to be easily


discouraged


and to underestimate


their


progress.


Y















cultures.


Socialization


patterns,


national


traditions


customs,


value


systems


affect


the direction


one's


locus


control


(Furnham & Henry,


1980).


Lefcourt


(1976)


acknowledged


possibility


that


"groups whose


social


position


one of minimal


power


either


class


or race


tend


to score higher


in the external


direction"


212).

control


Other

among


researchers

ethnic gro


have


recognized


up members


(Hsieh,


this


phenomenon


Shybut,


& Lotsof


external

, 1969),


lower-class


persons


(Battle & Rotter,


1963)


women


(Farmer


1978).


Sinanan


(1982)


endorsed


the view


that Jamaicans


have a


tendency


to rely


on external


forces


to solve


their


problems.


Louden


(1978)


found


a group


of West


Indian adolescents


(including Jamaicans)


Britain


to be significantly more


external


than


their


Asian


or English


peers.


One explanation


he offered


for this


finding


was their


experience of


dealing with


the dominant


culture as


members


deprived


group.


Louden


(1978)


further


expressed


skepticism


that


internal


control


could


develop


in this


population given


inconsistency


observed


in child-rearing


patterns:


a combination


permissiveness


repres


sion.


(1978)


stressed


importance of


considering


an individual'


world


view


in evaluating


his or her locus


of control


orientation.


is possible


for externality


to be adaptive


a culture


which


values















racism,


political


oppression,


or realistic


obstacles


a society


(Lefcourt,


1983).


Theories of


Career


Development


following


theories


career


development


were


judged


to have


some


degree of


usefulness


for exploring


career


development


process


of students


a developing


country


such


as Jamaica.


Ginzburg


et al.


(1951),


while


subscribing


a developmental


theory


career


development,


were,


nevertheless,


cognizant


of the fact


that


young


people


grow up


in adverse circumstances


do indeed


have


fewer


options


creating


"optimal


fit"


between


preparation,


goals,


realities


the workplace.


Super


(1953,


1957)


is the chief


proponent


of the developmental


career

only o


counseling


ne aspect


approach


of the


Super


individual


viewed

s total


vocational

development


development


Personal,


social,


and environmental


factors


were


considered


to have


bearing


making.


on the individual


was


Super


s educational


who introduced


and vocational


term


decision


"vocational maturity"


which


was


later


replaced


with


"career maturity"


by Crites


(1973)


Vocational


individual


or career maturity


along


denotes


a continuum ranging


the degree


from


of development


exploration


in an


to decline.


individual


has fully


developed


an awareness and


a "readiness


__















Career


maturity


has been


identified


Super


(1955)


as a


concept in vocational

formulated by Ginzburg


development.


et al.


(1951)


basis


is that


of this


concept,


occupational


choice


a developmental


process


progressing


through


distinguishable


periods


from a


fantastic


(age 6


through 11)


, through a


tentative


period


(age


12 through


to a realistic


orientation


(from age


onwards)


This


pattern


progressive


increase


in vocational


maturity


age has


been


validated


for cross-cultural


applications


(Achebe,


1975).


first


and third


form Jamaican


students


in this


study,


based


on the


premises


developmental


career


theory


, could


reasonably


be expected


to be at


the fantastic


stage;


fifth form


students


to be


at the


realistic


stage.


Munley


(1975)


found


that


low career maturity


affected


students'


total


functioning,


developmental


cruise


signaling d

s (Erikson,


difficulties


1968)


in resolving


and in making


age-appropriate


decisions.


He recommended


preventive


programs


aimed


at early


intervention


in students


At the opposite


' educational


end of the


spectrum


career


from


development.


the developmental


approach is


a group


of theories which


Hoppock


(1976)


linked


together


virtue


of their


inclusion


of economic,


family,


cultural


influences as


he determine


factors


in the


career


choices















however


this


group


of theories,


termed


the accident


theory


(Caplow,


Clark,


Hollingshead,


Miller,


& Form,


cited


in Hoppock,


1976)


seemed


very p

making


ertinent


to the


in Jamaican


prevailing


society.


attitude

accident


toward

theory


career decision

supports the point


view


common sense


that


economic


and sociological


factors


limit


options


open


an individual


s consideration.


accident


theory


is briefly


summarized


below.


Caplow


Based


(1954)


is the chief


on the evidence of


proponent


sociological


of the accident


research,


he viewed


theory.

the career


choice


process


as a result


error


and accident.


He has suggested


that


a career


is chosen as


a means


an end


at a


time


when


a student


is remote


from


the reality


the world


of work.


Evaluation


one's


satisfaction


comes


as an afterthought,


very


late


one


s career,


when


there


is no


scope


for realizing


one's potential.


Observations


of students


in the West


Indies and


of the varied


international


population


in the United


States


support


the accident


theory


as operative


in many


parts


the world.


Pressure


to choose


career


can be exerted


many ways:


limitations


in the


curriculum,


constraints


the family


or the occupational


environment,


one's


current


or desired


status,


or inequalities


in the prestige


or salaries


many


careers.


nr PrPd no


t-hsnrl'-i rml


frnamwnrlr hmIc


I?
~ ntod


I I I


sa h~tia/'lr/l"T


T















students


in a


developing


society may


be examined.


The focus


narrowed


to theories


career


development


that


were


though


to be of


significance


in studying


a population


such as Jamaica


Career


Maturity


Career maturity


has been


identified


Super


(1955)


as a


concept


that


in vocational


occupational


development.


choice


The basis


a developmental


of this


process,


concept


progressing


through


distinguishable


periods


from a fantastic


a realistic


orientation


(Ginzberg


et al.,


1951).


individual'


progress


fulfilling


a given


set of


vocationally


relevant


developmental


tasks


assessed


in relation


to his


or her


peer


group


(Crites,


1961).


vocational


behavior matures


the individual


is expected


to become more


goal-directed,


more


realistic,


and more


independent


(Super


Overstreet,


1960).


This


pattern


progressive


increase


in vocational


maturity


been


validated


for cross-cultural


applications


(Achebe,


1975).


This


"readiness


for choice,


i.e.,


career maturity,


was


one of


the variables


explored


in this


study.


Many


researchers


have


investigated

sociological


the relationships

and psychological


between


career


variables.


maturity

effects


and a number

of gender,


grade


level,


socioeconomic


status,


urban/rural


residence,


as well


- -9 .


was


II *


-


I I


1 -















Crites


(1965)


reported


few differences


between


the development


career maturity


in boys


and girls.


Currie

settings.


(1973)


studied


He reported


that


adolescents

adolescents


in urban,


from


suburban


the middle-cla


and rural

ss were


higher in


vocational maturity


and vocational awareness


than


those


from


the lower


class,


whites were


higher


than


non-whites,


and females


higher


than males


in their


vocational


maturity.


Franklin


(1975)


compared


the vocational


maturity


of junior


high


and 12th


grade


vocational


students.


found


significant


differences


related


age,


sex,


grade


level,


race,


and IQ.


Socioeconomic


status


proved


to be


nonsignificant.


Palmo


scores


and Lutz


on the Career


(1983)


found


Maturity


a positive


Inventory


(CMI


relationship

) and higher


between

scores


high

on the


Wechsler


Adult


Intelligence


Scale


(WAIS)


in a


disadvantaged


population.


Vocabulary


and Comprehension


subtests accounted


large


amounts


variation


in all the CMI


scores.


They


suggested


that


past


academic


success


or general


overall


ability may


be possible


methods


assessing


career maturity.


Phillips


(1975)


found


a positive


relationship


between


vocational


maturity


and grade


point


average


among


college


freshmen.


He suggested


that


feeling


powerlessness may


inhibit


exploratory


behavior















students

Attitude


scored

Scale


significantly


the CMI.


higher


Higher


than


scores


the rura

on this


students


measure


on the


were


obtained


students


in the college


preparatory


curriculum


than


those


enrolled


in the vocational


curriculum.


findings of


Smith


(1976)


a study


lower


socioeconomic


college-bound


black high


students


school


in this


seniors were


group


somewhat


who subscribed


similar.


to middle-class


values obtained


higher


vocational


maturity


scores


than


their


work-bound


peers.


Smith


interpreted


low scores


the others


indicative


a need


for considerable


educational


and vocational


counseling


as a means of


enhancing


their


career


development.


Williams


(1975)


investigated


the career maturity


black


llth


12th


grade


students.


There


was no significant


difference


between


sexes,


but there was


a significant


difference


between


grade


levels


The comparison


group


was


less


career mature


than


Crites'


(1973)


reference


group,


suggesting


a developmental


in the


group


studied.


results


these


studies


are somewhat


inconclusive


with


regard


to gender;


however


middle-class


status


, academic


ability,


age,


and urban


residence


seem


to be consistent


indicators


mature


career


attitude.


These


findings


lend


support


to the


argument


that


the CMI is















With


this


in mind,


Achebe


(1975)


explored


the vocational


development


pattern


students


in the East Central


State of


Nigeria


to determine


applicability


Super


s (1953)


theory


vocational


maturity.


study


involved


400 classes


of boys


and girls


in grades


through


10 in


rural


and urban


schools.


Boys


scored


higher


than


girls


and urban


students


higher


than


rural


ones


on the Attitude


Scale.


Achebe concluded


that


the vocational maturity


of the Nigerian sample


showed


a prototypic


pattern


progressive


increase


age,


especially


grade,


validating


developmental


theory


of vocational


maturity


for cross-cultural


application.


Other


researchers


have compared


the vocational


maturity


American students and


Chinese


(Huang,


1974)


and Arab


students


(Moracco,


1976).


They


have


provided


some


evidence


of the potential


usefulness


of the CMI


to cross-cultural


populations.


Huang


(1974)


studied


career


attitude of


332 Americans and


Chinese


students


in Taiwan.


Students


were


from


grades 6,


each


culture,


he found


that


career maturity


increased


with


grade


level,


that


females


tended


to be more mature


than males


career


attitudes,


and that


scholastic


achievement


correlated


positively with


career maturity


In Chinese


culture,


higher


socioeconomic


levels were


associated


with higher


levels


of career maturity.


career















factors,


particularly


the authoritarian


nature


the Chinese


family,


and the


status


of guidance


programs


were


possible


factors contributing


to these


differences.


In Moracco


were compared


students were


s (1976)


with Arab


from


study,


students


the 9th and


American students


in a college


the llth grades


residing


preparatory


and their


in Lebanon


school.


counterparts


in the Arab


school


system.


Students


were all


from


the middle and


upper


classes.


There


was


a significant


difference


between


scores


of the 9th and


llth


graders


at both


the American


and Arab


school


between


scores


the American


and the Arab


students


results


supported


the monotonic


relationship


the CMI


to grade


level


for the


Arab


students.


revealed

degree o


An analysis


significantly


f involvement


lower

in the


response


scores

career


trends


on items

choice p


of Arab


expressing


process,


students

independence,


and criteria


selection.


Since


care needs


cultural


to be taken


differences


are


in interpreting


reflected


scores.


responses


Anastasi


to the CMI,


(1976)


indicated


that


the developmental


stages


through which


individuals


progress


toward


maturity


may vary


from culture


to culture.


Support


for the Need


this


Study


This


study


provides


information


which


should


contribute


4 4-

















most


or universalistic


its history,

, direction


counseling


with


been slanted


the assumption


that


in the etic,


techniques


tools which


another


proved


(Pedersen


useful

et al.,


In one

1981).


culture


would


danger


transfer


inherent


directly


in this approach


is the tendency


to view phenomena


which are alien


one


s experience


as pathological.


becomes


imperative,


therefore


, to study


concepts


from an


emic approach,


i.e.,


within


the context


of the society.


In today


a global


village,


the migration


career


counseling


theories and


(1980)


practice


very


is likely


graphically


to escalate


described


(Heinzen,


waves


1983).


of change


Toffler


buffeting


societies


in the decade


of the 1980s.


Many


countries


are caught


simultaneous


change moving


impact


at different


two,

rates


sometimes


speed.


three,

The


different

developing


waves


countries


are still


caught


in the first


wave


agrarian


society,


struggling


to keep


pace


with


industrialization and


looking


answers


to the age-old


questions


resource management.


Career


guidance


and counseling


services


in the United


States


have


evolved


as a response


to options


created


young


people


industrialization


and the democratization


opportunities


(Super,


1983).


National


adversity


has played


a major


role


in stimulating


vocational


guidance.


Smith,


Engels,


Bonk


(1985)


have


cited


snerifically


the influx


immigrants


in Boston at


turn


of the


new


1 J


L. il














situations


in which social,


educational,


and economic


needs


have


contributed


to the


evolution


career


development


in the schools.


similar


situation and


similar


needs


exist


in Jamaica


in other


post-colonial


societies


struggling


for more


efficient management


their


educational


resources


(Tedesco,


1983).


There


was extremely


sparse


research


on the career


development


process


students in Jamaica,


in the West


Indies,


in the


developing


countries at


time of


the study.


Jackson


(1974)


Richards


(1974)


have


explored


the relationships


Jamaican


students'


career


aspirations


and expectations.


Richards


(1974)


indicated


that


students


rejected


nonprofessional


occupations


and aspired


toward


professional


or administrative


careers.


More


recently,


McKenzie


(1986)


observed a similar


phenomenon


among


West


Indians


in the United


States.


Richards


' (1974)


findings


regarding


the aspirations of


Jamaican


students help


to emphasize


need


acquiring


baseline data


career maturity


implementing


career


guidance


programs


Jamaica.


Following


is a


summary


of findings


which


suggest


both


narrowed


focus


inconsistency


in the goals of


Jamaican high


school


students.


Over


of the students


in Richards


study


perceived















Over 67%


the total


sample


expected


to enter


the labor


market


on leaving


the secondary


school.


Success


for the Jamaican


student


is measured


passing


Common Entrance Examination,


then


the General


Certificate


Education,


then


entering


a university,


finally,


securing


position


one of the


examinations


indicate


prestigious


that


occupations.


an overwhelming


results


majority


are


of the


destined


to fail


in this


process


successive


elimination


(Leo-Rhynie,


1982).


This


system


prestige


and,


career


so far,


selection


clings


undergone


only


to outmoded


moderate


views


change


of status and


trudwick,


1985).


date,


attempts


to revitalize


formal


education have


been


concentrated


on curriculum changes and


on creating


a variety


of school


types


(Whyte,


1983).


to this


time,


student


attitudes


motivation have


been


ignored


as avenues


for exploration.


This


research


grounded


provides


a sound


a base


for practitioners


theoretical


structure


to devise


career


programs


development


developmental


approach


to human functioning.


Locus


of control


career maturity


both


contribute


to this


framework


for examining


decision-making


process


for students at


certain ages


in Jamaica


high


schools.


___















programs


to be constructed


around


locally


generated


data


is crucial


ensuring maximum


utility


within


the sociocultural


structure


of the


society.


level


Accurate


knowledge


readiness


the characteristics


decision making must


of the population


precede


development


programs


or materials


(Heinzen,


1983).


data


generated


this


research


study


can also


set the


stage


for dealing with


values,


in the


classroom and


in the workplace.


Hamilton


(1979)


established


a link


between


socioeconomic


status


(SES)


and academic achievement


Jamaican high


school


students.


found


that


students


from


upper SES


performed


better


in the General


Certificate Examinations


performance


(Ordinary


in the Common Entrance


Level)


regardless


Examination.


Thes


of their

e results were


more marked


for urban


than


for rural


students.


There are


strong


indications


from


studies


reviewed


that


locus


control


career


maturity may


be affected


SES,


both seem amenable


to change


When


the relationship


among


these


variables


are


better


understood


Jamaican


high


school


students,


administrators,


counselors,


teachers will


have


more


relevant


information


to plan


appropriate


career


interventions.


There


is some


potential


usefulness


for the results


of this


study


beyond Jamaica


s borders.


McKenzie


(1986)


deplored


the virtual















New York City

throughout th


has been


United


estimated


states


at 1


at 4.5


million


million


(Trebay,


(Noel,


1984)


1986).


As with


other minority


groups,


there


is evidence


that


they


participate


minimally


in counseling


(McKenzie,


1984).


obstacles


better understanding


that


professionals


have


failed


to treat


West


Indians as


culturally


different


from


other


black


subcultural


groups


(McKenzie,


1986).


Axelson


(1985)


also


realized


the danger


in ignoring


heterogeneity


within


racial


ethnic


groups.


There


is no attempt


to suggest


that


results


this


study


will


generalize


completely


to post-colonial societies


more


specifically,


to the Anglophone


West


Indies


However


shared


historical,


sociocultural,


and educational heritage


of these countries


will


ensure some


students of


other


degree


relevance


post-colonial


of the findings


societies.


this


findings


study


this


study


also


have


the potential


triggering


comparative


research along


dimensions


career maturity


and locus


control


in other


areas


the English-speaking


West


Indies.


Support


Approach


to the Study


In this


study,


the constructs of


career maturity


and locus


control


Jamaican high


school


students


at three


different


levels


development were


investigated


relationship


between


these















gender,


and socioeconomic


development has


repeatedly


status.


demonstrated


literature


on career


the contribution


of these


variables


to vocational


attitudes and


behaviors


(Crites,


1978b;


Herr


Enderlein


, 1976).


The Career Maturity


Inventory


(CMI)


which


was used


to determine


career


maturity


been


extensively


used


in the United


States


(Hansen,


1974


Moore & McLean,


1977


Palmo &


Lutz,


1983)


has also


been


used


with


cross-cultural


populations


proved


to be


effective

was used


in discriminating


in studies


among


of Nigerians


levels

(Achebe,


career


1975;


maturity.


Ifenwanta,


The CMI


1978),


Chinese


(Huang


1974)


and Arabs


(Moracco


, 1976)


hand-scoring


option


and the short


administration


time


both contribute


to making


this


test an


economical


and efficient


to obtain


diagnostic


assessment


information.


The CMI


is discussed


in detail


in Chapter


III.


Locus


control


orientation


has been


hailed


as one of


the most


useful


recent


developments


in personality


theory


(Stanley


Hyman,


Sharp,


1983).


This


concept,


introduced


Rotter


(1966),


has provided


a useful


framework


and achievement


have


for studying


been


human


identified


behavior.

as factors


Helplessness


Nowicki


luck,


(cited


Furnham & Henry


, 1980)


and replicated


in studies


done


Barling


nnnn W^ /I ha a ia r


Lr: f ^ftv


InflO7Q


T ,,,,, 4*"


AA~C*IA1


i-ij^<- trnn ^^


,-l- /"^Tl-y


*h /














In view


the fact


that Jamaican


society


has been


described


Figueroa


(1971)


as accepting


rather


than


inquiring


"psychologically


dependent"


(Manley


, 1974)


it seemed


promising


explore


belief


system


Jamaican


high


school


students


along


internal/external


orientation


continuum in


this


study


Career


Maturity


and Locus


of Control


Nowicki


and Strickland


(1973)


welcomed


the promise


offered


locus of


control


for targeting


remedial


action


with


students.


Based


on the


expectation


that


those


with


internal


locus


control


would


the "achievers,


Gardner


(1981)


has hypothesized


a positive


relationship


between


internality


career


maturity.


There


considerable


evidence


that


behaviors


and attitudes


linked


"work


personality"


performance


career


choice,


acceptance of


responsibility)


are


related


to both


locus


of control


career


maturity


(Bigelow


, 1981;


Curry


1980;


Gardner


& Beatty,


1981).


Ifenwanta


these


(1978)


two variables


found a


significant


in a male


relationship


and female


group


(r=.49)


of Nigerian


between

college


students


in the United


States.


an investigation


of the relationship


between


career


maturity


locus


of control


in a


population


high


school


seniors,


Wilson


(1975)


found


externality


to be negatively


correlated


with


career


maturity.


He also


found


significantly


higher


scores.


indicative


one


UJ















Techniques


for changing


locus


control


from


external


internal have


been


found


to have


a positive


impact


on career maturity


(Curry


, 1980;


Gardner


, Beatty,


& Bigelow,


1981).


an experimental


study,


females


and 20


males


were


assigned


randomly


to treatment and


control


groups.


treatment


consisted


45 sessions


career


education/life


planning.


experimental


group


in this


study was


found


to be


significantly


higher


on both measures


career


maturity


and locus


of control


during


last


week


treatment


(Gardner


al.,


1981)


McClelland


and Winter


(1969)


have


also


had considerable


success


in motivating


individuals


to increase


their


sense


control


over


their


own destiny.


Clients


in the


program


they


devised


developed


greater


understanding


of themselves,


their


strengths


limitations,


their


values


and aspirations.


It was


important


to the researcher


to conduct


research


that


would


have


immediate


studied.


Warwick


potential


(cited


applications


in Triandis &


within


Berry,


the society


1980)


being


emphasized


obligations


cross-cultural


researchers


to respect


priorities


groups


being


studied


and to show


sensitivity


to their


interests


concerns.


Summary


I















especially


for the


academic


education


provided


the prestigious


academic


high


schools.


Political


independence


has democratized


secondary


education


created


equal


educational


opportunities within Jamaican


society.


order


for these


newly


created


opportunities


to benefit


individuals


the nation,


there


an urgent


need


for more relevant


educational


planning


to counteract


the widescale educational


failure


vast


numbers


unemployable Jamaican


school


leavers


without marketable


skills.


Recommendations


for more


relevant


programs


have


broadened


scope


of secondary


education


to include alternative


types


of schools


and examinations.


In the Jamaican


academic


high


schools,


however,


educators have


unwittingly


colluded


in narrowing


the focus


students


instead


of broadening


their


career


options.


Career


choices seem


to be


frequently


prematurely made


without a


realistic assessment


self


of the world


work.


This


review


literature


indicated


agreement


among


career


theorists


that


career mature


individuals make more appropriate and


more


realistic


career


choices.


Relationships have


been


explored


among


career


maturity,


locus


control,


and a number


of sociological


psychological


variables.


the most


part,


these


links


have


been


-c --. *


1


- .


n. r














non-industrialized


populations.


To avoid misunderstanding


misinterpretation


of the findings,


attention has


been


drawn


to the


observed


variations


in development across


cultures.


















CHAPTER


METHODOLOGY


educational


system


transported


to the West


Indies


British has


been


described


as a


catastrophe


the region


(Williams,


1968).


Cross


(1979)


referred


to it


as more


consequence of


history


than


"the


initiator


of change"


124).


The criticism has


been


leveled


that


the current archaic


system has


failed


to keep


pace


with


the area


s need


for technically-skilled


workers


(James-Reid,


1982


Richards,


1974


Whyte,


1983).


Moreover,


cost


providing


secondary


education


to a


wide


cross-section


of Jamaican


society


consumed


a large


proportion


national


income


without


making


significant


contribution


to social


or economic


equality


(Cross,


1979


Tedesco,


1983)


this


reason,


educators and


social


scientists


have


become


alarmed


at failure


rates


over


in overseas


examinations,


the chief


criterion


educational


success


for Jamaican high


school


students and


have


been


searching


a more


relevant


educational


system which


would


enhance


students


educational and


career


development


other


(Leo-Rhynie,


societies and


1982).


in other


Social


periods


and economic


in history,


needs


created


have,


waves















problem


career maturity

choice which has


explored


Jamaican


been noted


in this


study was


students.


among


lack


lack


Jamaican


of knowledge


realism in


high school


student


career

s and


the inability


to make


appropriate career


choices have,


in other


cultures,


been attributed


to vocational


immaturity


(Westbrook,


1976).


Allusions


have also


been made


that


the majority


Jamaican


high


school


students


have


decided


definitively


on careers


selected


significant adults during


the fantasy


stage


career


development


(Jackson,


1974 ;


Richards


, 1974).


this


reason,


the exploration


the relationship


between


career


maturity


the students


' locus


control


orientation


was warranted.


purpose of


this


study


was to investigate


career maturity


of high school


students


at three


grade


levels


in corporate area


high


schools


in Jamaica.


A further


purpose of


this


study was


investigate


the associations


of grade


level,


locus


of control


orientation,


gender,


socioeconomic


status,


career


maturity


at the


same


three


grade


levels


one at


the beginning


one at the midpoint,


one in the terminal


year


regular


high


school


program.


Further,

maturity


to provide

and locus


baseline


control


data,


a comparison


was made


between


levels of


Jamaican


career


and American


students


of equivalent


age groups.














population


and the sample,


the description


of the instruments


used,


assessment


techniques,


research


procedures,


and data


analysis


techniques.


Research Hypotheses


level


of significance


was


set for the analyses


variance and


for the


tests.


null


hypotheses


tested


in the study


were as


follows:


There


is no significant


difference


in the level


career


maturity


first,


third,


and fifth


form


students


in Jamaican


high


schools


Ho 2:


There


is no


significant


difference


in the locus


of control


orientation


first,


third,


and fifth


form


students


in Jamaican


high


schools.


There


no significant


difference


in the level


career


maturity


of first


, third


, and


fifth


form


students


in Jamaican


high


schools


and students


Ho 4:


There


of similar


ages


no significant


an American


difference


population.


in the locus


of control


orientation


high


first,


schools


third,


students


and fifth


similar


form


ages


students


in an American


in Jamaican


population.


There


no significant


difference


career


maturity


as a


function


locus


of control


orientation


classification


in Jamaican


high


school


students


in the first


third,


and fifth


forms.


,















There


is no significant


difference


career


maturity


as a


function


of gender


in Jamaican


high school students


in the first,


third,


and fifth forms.


Ho 8:


There is


no significant


difference


in locus


of control


orientation as


a function


socioeconomic


status


in Jamaican high


school


students


in the


first


third


, and fifth forms.


There


no significant


difference


in locus


of control


orientation


as a function


gender


in Jamaican


high school


students


in the first,


third,


and fifth


forms.


Research Design


Data


were


collected


on students


' career maturity


and locus


control


orientation


administering


the Career Maturity


Inventory--Attitude


Scale


(Crites,


1978a)


the Nowicki


Strickland


(1973)


Locus


of Control


Scale


for Children.


addition,


the following


demographic


information


was collected:


name,


sex,


form


(i.e.,


grade


level


in the Jamaican high school)


occupation


parents.


Population


and Subjects


Students


are normally


admitted


to the Jamaican


academic


high


school


in the first


form at


a minimum age


of 11


years


on the basis


their


performance


in the Common Entrance Examination


which


is used


i4 Aa o-S 4Fn


f* l r nfl1 nL-4A -- Inn 1 *1 1


'1 -


'1


~~















General


Certificate


Examination


(Ordinary


Level)


of the University


Cambridge


. They


choose


to leave


school at


this


time for


technical


as elementary


, commercial,


school


or lower


teaching


levels


or nursing,


professional


or entry


training


into


such


civil


service.


Students with higher


levels of


achievement may


spend


additional


university


years


entrance


in the sixth


in three or


form


four


(lower


academic


upper)


prepare


disciplines.


exit


examination


General


sixth form students


Certificate Examinations


is the Advanced


set by


Level


the University


of the


Cambridge


England


(Phillips,


1985)


fifth


form


year


then


is the terminal


year


the majority


students


and,


obviously


, one in which major


career


decisions are made.


population for


fifth form students


this


attending


study


consisted


academic high


first,


schools


in the


third,


corporate


area


of Kingston and St.


recently


published


Andrew,


educational


Jamaica.


statistics


According


Jamaica


to the most


(1983-1984)


total


number


of boys


enrolled


in corporate area


high


schools was


11,536,


the total number


of girls


was 15,603.


This means


that


just


under


the total


high


school


student


population


(55,749)


was enrolled


corporate


area


schools.


In the last


population


census,


corporate area


population


was


50% of


the total


island















There


were


1,323


boys and


1,798


girls


in the first


form;


1,494


boys


1,773


girls


in the third


form;


1,418


boys


1,718


girls


the fifth form in


the corporate area high schools


in Jamaica


(Educational Statistics


for Jamaica


1983-1984,


1986)


There


were


academic


high


schools


in this


geographical


area.


boys


schools,


girls


schools,


and 7


coeducational


schools.


sampling


purposes,


schools were


selected:


boys


schools


girls'


schools,


and 1


coeducational


school.


These 5


schools were


selected


geographically


otherwise


to best


depict


the total


population


within


the 18


schools.


The students were


from


randomly


selected English


language


classes


at each


of the three


grade


levels


in each


five Jamaican high


schools


participating


in the study.


selection


of students


from


English


classes


within


each


school


allowed


for the broadest


cross-section


of students,


since


students,


at all grade


levels,


required


to take English


language classes.


The resultant


sample


consisted


of 115 boys


and 116


girls


from


first


form,


boys


girls


from


the third


form


and 103 boys and


girls


from


fifth form.


combined


sample


from


the five


schools


was 663


students.


proportion


of the sample


from each


of the participating


schools


varied


with


the size


of the school's


total


first,


third,


are














The average


of first


form students


was 12.2


years,


third


form students


average


was


years,


and the


average


fifth form students was


16.1


years.


Instruments


Career Maturity


Inventory


The Crites


' (1978a)


Career


Maturity


Inventory


Attitude


Scale


(CMI-Att)


was


used


in this


study


to determine


the maturity


career


attitudes


of first,


third,


and fifth


form students


in Jamaican


academic high


of attitudes


schools.


needed


The CMI


was


realistic


designed


to measure


decision making


(Hansen,


the maturity


1974).


been


used


to identify


problems


career


development,


to assist


counselors


in determining


the attitude


and skills


possessed


clients


for making


programs


their


own career


(Palmo & Lutz,


decision,


1983).


has been


to evaluate career


described


guidance


Crites


as both a


diagnostic and


an assessment


tool.


The CMI,


formerly


the Vocational Development


Inventory


, has been


termed


the most


widely


used


and most


universally


accepted measure of


career maturity


(Moore & McLean,


Palmo &


Lutz,


1983).


It is


based


on the theory


progressing


through


that

succe


vocational


ssive


choice


, distinguishable


a developmental


periods


process,


(Ginzberg


al.,


1951).


Super


(1955,


1957)


added


the concept


vocational


matirri t


I I


( Cfinl hrOro


a thannv















classified


judges as differentiating


among


age and


grade


levels


(Crites,


1961).


Statements are


designed


measure


five


dimensions


career maturity:


involvement


in the choice


process,


orientation


work,


independence


in decision making,


preference


for factors


career


choice,


conceptions


vocational


choice


(Crites,


1973).


instrument


yields


one


score


which is


designed


to give


measure


of career maturity.


Crites has combined


aspects


an age


scale and a


point


scale


into a measurement model


which


constructs


norms


levels,


rather


than


age quotients.


Thus,


individual'


career maturity


is evaluated


based


on his


or her


peer


group


(Hansen,


1974).


scale


is keyed


true/false,


a format


which


differentiated more effectively


between age and


grade


groupings


than


5-point


Likert


scale


(Hansen,


1974).


readability


level


the CMI


is set at


sixth


grade


level.


It is considered


appropriate


the 6th


through


12th


grade


population,


been


used


with


younger


students


with


college


students


(Palmo &


Lutz,


1983)


CMI is untimed


but 20-30 minutes


is suggested


as a timing


sideline


(Hansen


, 1974).


The CMI


to T-scores or


be scored


percentile


hand


ranks


or machine.


(Crites,


ores may


score at


be converted


the 50th


percentile


or above


indicates


that


the respondent


is progressing


along















(Hansen,


1974).


Groups making more appropriate


vocational


choices


were


found


to have


significantly


higher


scores


on the CMI


(Westbrook,


1976).


standardization


sample for


the CMI


Attitude


Scale


consisted


of 74,000


students


in American


schools and was considered


somewhat


representative"


of the national


population


with


regard


to geographic


region


(Crites,


1978c,


29).


Scores


are


reported


for each


grade


level


from


the sixth


grade


and may


be used


for comparison


purp


oses


(Crites,


1978c).


Users


are encouraged


to compile


local norms,


using


the tables


provided


in the manual


as a point


reference


This


distinct advantage


in test


exportation,


in view


of Lonner


s (1981)


warning


that


"test norms


based


on one cultural


group


should


not be


considered


valid


There was


other


a 74%


cultural


agreement


group


with


the standardization


sample

Scale


on scoring


the CMI


responses

has been s


for the CMI


hown


(Hansen,


to be related


1974)


to several


The Attitude

criteria:


realism of


aspiration and


attitude


, consistency


realism in


career


choice,


decisiveness


career


choice


(Bathory,


Carek,


& Hollender,


cited


in Crites,


1978b)


and appropriateness


of vocational


choice


(Westbrook,


1976)


question


has been


raised


that a


significant


proportion


of the


s" (p















between


the CMI and


intelligence.


Palmo


and Lutz


(1983)


also


found


significant


correlations


between


verbal


intelligence


and CMI scales.


This


was,


however,


a disadvantaged


population.


Other


researchers


(e.g.,


Ansell


& Hansen,


1971;


Herr


& Enderlein,


1976)


have


supported


Crites


' (1965)


concept


a general


developmental


progression.


Chodzinski


and Randhawa


(1983)


found


partial


support


for the


construct


validity


of the Attitude


Scale of


the CMI.


Additional


findings


in the validity


study


Chodzinski


Randhawa


(1983)


isolated


sex and grade


level,


not socioeconomic


status


as significant


predictors


career


maturity.


There


was a


tendency


was


truer


for females


of the


score


competence


higher


subtest


on career


which


maturity;


was not used


however,


in this


this


study.


KR 20 reliabilities


the CMI


ranged


from


with


an average


(Crites,


1978b).


Test-retest


reliability


after


one-year


period,


was .71


in the standardization


sample


of 1648


6th and


12th


graders


(Crites,


1974b)


Hansen


(1974)


judged


this to be


sufficiently


high


to establish measurement


of the variable,


but low


enough


to allow


maturational


variance.


Nowicki-S trickland


Locus


of Control


Scale


The Nowicki-Strickland


Locus


of Control


Scale


for Children


(Nowicki


& Strickland,


1973)


was


used


to determine


internal/external















(1966)


and Levenson


s (1974)


I/P/C Scale


have


been


used


primarily


measure


this


variable


in adults.


Nowicki


and Strickland


developed


this


scale


to satisfy


the need


a more reliable measure


locus


control


in children


than


Bialer


s (1961)


measure


and a more easily-


administered


scale


than


that


of Battle


and Rotter


(1963).


Gilmor


(1978)


described


the Nowicki-Strickland


Scale


as "the


most


attractive


choice for measurement


generalized


locus


control"


Nowicki-Strickland


measure


consisting


Scale


is a


questions


paper-and-pencil
that are answered


yes or no
This form


placing


a mark


the measure


next


derives


to the question.
from work which


began


with a


large


number


items


(N=102)


constructed


the basis
external
describe


of Rotter


control


s definition


of reinforcement


reinforcement


and motivational
and dependency.


areas


situations


such


(Nowicki


of the internal-


dimension.


across


as affiliation,


& Strickland,


197


items


tterpersonal
achievement,
'3, p. 149)


group


nine clinical


psychologists


serving


as expert


judges


were


given


the 102


items and Rotter


s description


locus of


control


direction.


dimension and


This


asked


process


answer


eliminated


the items


all but 59 items


an external


on which


judges were


in complete


agreement.


scale was


further


reduced


items as


a result


item analysis which made


a more


homogeneous


scale.


To obtain


demographic measures


and reliability


construct


validity


information,


the 40-item scale


was


then administered















authors


tentatively


concluded


that


internality


positively


related


to higher


socioeconomic


level


, especially


males.


A clear,


inverse


relationship


emerged


between


achievement


locus


of control


scores,


with a stronger


negative


relationship


in the


male


groups.


The achievement


of females


seem


predictable


from


scores


on the NS-IE,


except


a trend


in the 5th and 7th


grades.


Internal


consistency,


determined


the split-half


method,


corrected


the Spearman-Brown


formula,


ranged


from


r=.63


for lower


grades


to r=.81


for the


12th


grade.


These


reliabilities


were


considered


satisfactory


the authors


because


the items


are not


arranged


in order


of difficulty.


Test-retest reliabilities


six weeks


apart,


were


3rd grade,


grade,


.71 for 10th


grade.


Construct


relationship


validity


was


of the NS-IE scale


investigated


to Bialer


further


s (1961)


examining


Intellectual


Achievement


Responsibility


Scale.


Correlations


between


measures


were


significant


but low,


as expected.


Higher


levels


significance were


the Rotter


found


Scale


when


(N=76,


the NS-IE Adult


r=.61,


Scale


N=46,


was


r=.38,


compared


with


.01).


The NS-IE Adult Scale


similar


to the NS-IE Children's


Scale,


except


-1 L1 .. 1 -- -


r- 1 -


tt I It


t- 111 1 tt


P
















based


measurement


are compared.


of locus


goal


control


the authors


against

was to


which


"make


all other


items


measures

readable


at the fifth


grade


level,


appropriate


older


children"


(Nowicki


Strickland,


1973


149).


Administration


time


is about


15-20


minutes.


Respondents


circle


each


answer


"yes"


or "no"


according


to his or her beliefs.


individual'


same


score


as the key


is the total


(i.e.,


of the number


the external


of items


items).


endorsed


resulting


in the


total


is the individual


s I-E


score.


Scores


are grouped


from low


to high


a group.


internals


The median


defines


and externals.


the hypothetical


higher


score,


cut-off


more


between


external


person


(Nowicki


& Duke,


1974).


purposes


of cross-cultural


comparison,


means


and standard


deviations are


available


for males


and females


from


grades


through


(Nowicki


& Strickland


, 1973).


Socioeconomic


Status


Miller


s (1971)


Occupational


Coding


Scheme


was


used


this


investigator


as a measure


of socioeconomic


status


(SES)


in the student


population


studied.


According


to this


scale,


parental


occupations


keyed


into


groups:


higher


professional


and managerial,


lower


professional


managerial,


highly


skilled,


skilled,


, -


are


r


i


I





i















middle


class,


group


as the emerging


middle


class,


groups


and (f)


as the lower


class.


These


groups


were


further


subdivided


into


three categories


for the


purposes


of this


research:


upper


groups


and (b)


middle,


group


and lower,


groups


, (e)


and (f).


Researchers


in Jamaican


society


have


typically


used


occupational


coding


schemes,


such


as Miller'


to determine


SES (Leo-Rhynie


Hamilton,


1982).


Leo-Rhynie


and Hamilton


(1982)


have


developed


a more


comprehensive


measure


of SES


called


a Life


Style


Scale.


It exists


a long


form


comprised


items


or a short


form


with 23


items.


forms


have


correlation


coefficients


and .61


respectively,


with


the Miller


Scale.


They


are,


however


, still


research


instruments


at this


point


in time.


Research


Procedures


and Data


Analy


data


gathering


stage


the study


included


the researcher


English


language


researcher


teachers


met with


and/or


counselors


the principal


of the classes


or the school


counsel


selected.

or in each


of the five


schools


to explain


purpose


of the


study


schedule


administration


of the instruments.


researcher


subsequently


administered


both


instruments


to 21


classes:


classes


each


of the preselected


form


levels.


Information


on parental


occupation

^^ a^ ^m^ 1 af~ 4^ i-


was collected


means


a demographic


questionnaire


a.4 +4 n4 r, 4- r.


nF 4-^^


C4n nt-e rl n-+- /4 /-t^


*C *~ 1: *














instruments.


class


periods


minutes


each)


were


needed


completion


the instruments


and the demographic


questionnaire


means


and standard


deviations


were


computed


on the CMI


the NS-IE


scales


students


at each


of the three


levels


first


, third


, and fifth


form)


. The


level


significance


was used


the anal


yses


variance


and for the


tests


In order


to test


hypotheses


one and


, a one-way


analyst


variance


was used


to determine


if the Jamaican


high


school


students


this


study


differed


significantly


grade


level


on mean


scores


career


maturity


and locus


of control


orientation measures.


test


hypotheses


three


four


, a series


tests


was used


to determine


whether


significant


differences


existed


on mean


scores


on career


maturity


and locus


of control


orientation


Jamaica

Crites


(1978c)


imerican

were u


students


sed


at comparable


the American


ages.


students


Scores


career


reported

maturity


level


ores


provided


Nowicki


& Strickland'


(1973)


experimental


sample were


used


the locus


control


measures


of American


students.


test


hypotheses


five


through


seven


, a series


two-way


ANOVAs


was computed


to test


for the interactions


of grade


level


and locus


control,


grade


level


socioeconomic


status


, grade


level


and gender


respectively


, on the


career


maturity


of the subjects.


















CHAPTER IV


RESULTS


OF THE


STUDY


This


study


was


designed


to investigate


the associations


gender,


socioeconomic


status,


locus


control,


career


maturity


Jamaican high school


students at


three


grade


levels


(i.e.,


beginning,

to explore


mid-point,


and the terminal


the developmental


process


year


in high


career


school)


maturity


In order


locus


control


orientation


researcher


in Jamaican


compared


the mean


students


scores


from a


global


Jamaican


perspective,


students


in the


study


and the normative


scores


American


students.


scores


used


in these comparisons were


those


established


Crites


(1978c)


Career Maturity


Inventory


Attitude


Scale


(CMI)


Nowicki


Strickland


(1973)


for the Locus


of Control


Scale


for Children


(NS-IE).


These


scales were


used


to measure


career maturity


locus


control


orientation,


respectively,


in Jamaican


high


school


students.


In this


chapter,


the composition


the resultant


sample


and the


results


of the analyses


performed


each


null


hypothesis


presented.


data


were


analyzed


using


the SPSS


X states


tical


are















The Jamaican


sample


was selected


from 5


of the 18


academic


high


schools


in the


Kingston


Andrew


corporate


area.


Of the


school


were


girls


' schools,


were


boys


schools,


coeducational.


A random


sample


of English


language


classes


selected


within


each


school


at the first,


third,


and fifth


form level.


According


to Downie


and Starry


(1977)


this


cluster


sampling


procedure


increases


possibility


of sampling


error.


this


reason,


more


stringent


.01 level


significance


was


used


all analyses.


Demographic


Data


Sample


The resultant


sample


consisted


of 663 Jamaican


high


school


students


with


subsamples


231 students


in the first


form,


in the


third


form,


and 195


in the fifth


form.


details


the composition


of the sample


are reported


in Tables


Table


Composition


Jamaican


Sample Groups


Form and


Gender


Form Average Age Male Female Total


1 12.2 years 115 116 231

3 14.0 years 106 131 237

5 16.1 years 103 92 195


was


was















Table


Composition o
Socioeconomic


Jamaican


Sample Groups


Gender


Status


Form Upper SES Middle SES Low SES


1 Boys 28.7% 40.9% 30.4%
Girls 41.4% 30.2% 28.4%

3 Boys 46.2% 34.9% 18.9%
Girls 38.9% 40.5% 20.6%

5 Boys 44.7% 35.9% 19.4%
Girls 50.0% 27.2% 22.8%


The means and


standard


deviations


were computed


on the CMI


the NS-IE for


fifth form.


students


sample


at each


size,


of the three


means,


levels:


and standard


first,


deviations


third,


for each


criterion


variable


used


in the study


are


presented


in Tables


Scores


on each


these


scales


are normally


distributed


for the


Jamaican


sample.


Inspection


of the descriptive


data


on the CMI


scores


for Jamaican


high


school


students


suggested


that


female


students,


as a group,


scored


higher


than males;


scores


increased


with


the number


years


in high


school


3. membership


in the highest


socioeconomic


erouP


was associated














students


classified


as internal


on the locus


of control


orientation


scale


scored


higher


than


students


classified


as external.


(See


data in


Table


Table 3


Summary


of Sample Means and


Standard


Deviations


on the CMI


Independent
Variable


Dependent
Variable


Sample
Means


Standard
Deviations


Gender


Male


4.86


Female


Form


First


28.07


Third


30.02


Fifth


32.04


4.65


High


31.13


Middle


4.84


Locus


of Control


Internal















Table 4


Summary


of Sample Means


Standard


Devisions


on the


NS-IE Scale


Independent N Dependent Sample Standard
Variable Variable Means Deviations


Gender

Male 324 NS-IE 12.57 5.49

Female 339 13.75 4.64

Form

First 231 NS-IE 14.40 4.32

Third 237 13.25 4.36

Fifth 195 11.62 4.51

SES

High 273 NS-IE 12.36 4.36

Middle 234 13.36 4.52

Low 156 14.31 4.61


Inspection


of the descriptive


data


on the NS-IE


scale


Jamaican high


school


students


suggested


that


male


students,


as a group,


scored


more


in the internal


144 w.ne4.j an C 1 a'. a


C~rll~~















membership


with internality


in the highest


, membership


socioeconomic


in the lowest


group


socioeconomic


was associated


group


was


associated


with


externality.


(See


data in


Table 4.)


Results


of Testing


the Null


Hypotheses


Several


null


hypotheses


were


tested.


analysis


of the data


generated


and the results


of the testing


the null


hypotheses are


presented


below.


one-way


analysis


of variance


statistic


was used


to test


first


hypothesis:


There


no significant


difference


in the level


career


maturity


among


first,


third,


fifth form students


in Jamaican high


schools.


results


incrementally


Visual


wit.


evidence


indicated

h grade 1


of this


that


evel


increase


career maturity


does


Jamaican high scho


is presented


increase

ol students.


in Figure


details


ANOVA


data are reported


in Table


data


were


further


submitted


to the Tukey


procedure,


using


studentized


range


statistic,


evaluating


differences


among


pairs


means


(Bartz,


1981).


critical


values


at the


.05 and


levels


of significance are


.31 and


4.12,


respectively,


for three


means with


degrees


of freedom.


results


these analyses


C- -aL -. r i C L


,pt~ a


2 .j-


are


LI1~LLL~J


j-L1


Lt,~


LL ~


CI 11A
















Girls


.65)


(30.34)


(29.62)


(28.20


(27.94)


Form


Figure


mean


scores


gender


form level.















Table


Analysis


Career


of Variance:


Maturity


Effects


of Form Level


Scores


Source Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares F


Between Groups 2 1670.5839 34.30 *

Within Groups 660 16072.4961

Total 662 17743.0799


* p < .00




Table 6

Results of Tukey's Procedure for Testing Differences
Between Means on the CMI for Three Forms



Forms q Significance


Forms 1 and 3 q = 6.04 Significant, p < .01

Forms 3 and 5 q = 5.99 Significant, p < .01

Forms 1 and 5 q = 11.79 Significant, p < .01















fifth form students,


and the


third


and the fifth form students


differed


significantly


.01).


Based


upon


previously


described


null


hypothesis


rejection


criterion,


this


null


hypothesis was


rejected.


second


null hypothesis


tested


in this


study was as


follows:


There


no significant


difference


in locus


control


orientation among


first,


third,


and fifth form


students


in Jamaican


high


schools.


This


hypothesis was


tested


using


one-way


analysis


of variance


statistic


with


the alpha


level


set at


results


indicated


that


locus


of control


orientation moves


from


the external


to the internal


from


youngest


to the oldest


students


in the


study.


Visual


representation


of this


change


is charted


in Figure


details of


the ANOVA are


displayed


in Table


can


seen


that


there


were


significant


differences


among


the three groups


= 21.24,


so the null


hypothesis


was


rejected.


data


were


further


submitted


to the Tukey


procedure,


using


studentized


range


statistic,


evaluating


differences among


pairs


or means

Table 8.


(Bartz

These


1981).


results


results


revealed


that


of this

the mea


analysis

n scores


are presented

of Jamaican


students


on the NS-IE


in the


first


third


forms were


significantly






















Girls
(15.22)







Boys
a (13.57)


(13.99)


(12.34)


(11.68)
(11.55)


Boys
Girls


Form


Figure


Mean


scores


on NS-IE


gender


and form


level.














Table


Analysis


Locus


of Variance:


Control


E Form Level


Orientation


Source Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares F


Between Groups 2 820.6096 21.24 *

Within Groups 660 12751.7886

Total 662 13572.3982


*p < .00




Table 8

Results of Tukey's Procedure for Testing Differences
Between Mean Scores on the NS-IE for Three Forms



Forms q Significance


Forms 1 and 3 q = 4.01 Significant, p < .05

Forms 3 and 5 q = 5.41 Significant, p < .01

Forms 1 and 5 q = 9.68 Significant, p < .01


E-f'fects


Form Level














third


null


hypothesis


tested


in this


study


was as


follows:


Ho 3:


There


no significant


difference


in the


level


career


maturity


of first


third


, and fifth


form


students


in Jamaican


high


schools


and students


of similar


ages


an American


sample.


hypothesi


was tested


a series


tests


which


were


used


compare


mean


scores


of American


students


at the sixth


, eighth,


and tenth


grade


level


with


mean


scores


of Jamaican


students


in the


first,


third


, and fifth


forms


, respectively,


on the CMI.


significance


was set at the


.01 level.


null


hypothesis


be rejected


.576.


details


of these


analy


are reported


in Table


Visual


evidence


of these


differences


is presented


Figure



Table


Mean


Differences on


the CMI


American and Jamaican
- i --


Students


American


Grade


Students


Mean


Jamaican


Form


Students


Mean


29.08


2457


28.07


5.01


2.55


5.72


11971


30.02


5.09


32.75


8249


32.04


4.65


1.75



















.75)


Jamaica
. (32.04)


Grade
Form


(Jamaica)


Figure 3.


CMI mean


scores


country


and grad


e/form


level.


| 1














There


was a


significant


difference


mean


scores


American


students


at the


eighth


grade


level


Jamaican


students


at the third


form level


on the CMI


.01)


difference


between


scores


American


students at


students


first


form


at the sixth


level


was


grade


significant


level


and Jamaican


at the


level


not at


more


stringent


.01 level


.01)


difference


between


mean


scores


American


students


at the tenth


grade


level


and Jamaican


students


in the fifth


form


was not significant


= 1.75


.01).


There


was


only


partial


support


for the null


hypothesis


null


hypothesis


was retained


for comparisons of


the first


form/


sixth


grade


level


and fifth


form/tenth


grade


level.


However


hypothesis


rejected


for the


comparison at


the third


form/eighth


grade


level


fourth


null


hypothesis


tested


in this


study


was as follows:


Ho4


orientation


high


There


is no


of first


school


significant


third


students


and fifth


similar


difference


form


ages


locus of


students


in an American


control


in Jamaican


sample.


This


hypothesis


was tested b


a series


tests


were


used


compare


mean


scores


of American


students


(males


and females)


the sixth


, eighth,


and tenth


grade


level


with


mean


scores


Jamaican


students


in the first


, third


, and fifth


forms.


significance


was


set at the


.01 level.


null


hypothesis


, but


. The


was


A-.


~~.














on the NS-IE


American and


Jamaican mal


and females


at the


equivalent age


level


are reported


in Table


Visual


evidence


these


differences are


presented


in Figures 4 and


Table


Mean


Differences


and Female


on the NS-IE:


American and Jamaican Male


Students


American Males


Jamaican Mal


Grade


Mean


Form


Mean


13.57


4.28


4.35


12.34


4.12


74**


13.0


11.68


4.42


1.81


American


Females


Jamaican Females


Grade


Mean


Form


Mean


4.58


4.23


3.58


13.99


4.43


12.98


5.31


11.55


4.65


1.71


__























(14.73)


(13.73)
(13.57)


(13.05)


U.S.A.
Males


12.34)


(11.68)


Jamaican


Males


6th grade
1st form


Jamaica


grade
form


10th


grade
form


Figure 4.
(males).


NS-IE mean


scores


for American and Jamaican


students




Full Text

PAGE 1

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