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Mnemonic and nonmnemonic science vocabulary instruction with mildly handicapped students

Material Information

Title:
Mnemonic and nonmnemonic science vocabulary instruction with mildly handicapped students
Creator:
King-Sears, Margaret Elaine, 1955-
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xii, 195 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Education ( jstor )
Keywords ( jstor )
Learning ( jstor )
Learning disabilities ( jstor )
Learning modalities ( jstor )
Mnemonics ( jstor )
Students ( jstor )
Teachers ( jstor )
Teaching conditions ( jstor )
Vocabulary ( jstor )
Cognitive learning ( lcsh )
Learning disabled children -- Education ( lcsh )
Mnemonics ( lcsh )
Word recognition ( lcsh )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1989.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 189-193).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Margaret Elaine King-Sears.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
001507858 ( ALEPH )
AHC0740 ( NOTIS )
21576341 ( OCLC )

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Full Text











MNEMONIC AND NONMNEMONIC SCIENCE VOCABULARY
INSTRUCTION WITH MILDLY HANDICAPPED STUDENTS

















By


MARGARET


ELAINE


KING-~l~


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL
FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE 0
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
































Copyright


1989


Margaret


Elaine


King-Sears































This work
of two peop
youngest sister
unique, loving,
people. Second
Lucille Sutliff,
by her model i
substance fc


is dedicated to the memories
le. First, to the memory of my
, Susan, who inspired me to see the
and intriguing qualities of special
1, to the memory of my grandmother,
who inspired me to believe in mysel
of persistence, independence, and
ir life that few people achieve.


(















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Expression


appreciation


people


who


have


helped


me to attain


goal


earning


degree


appropriate


time.


An added


statement


seems


necessary;


only


have


reali


depth


breadth


capabilities,


have


also


realized


depth


and


breadth


those


who


have


supported


and


encouraged


parents,


Joseph


Mary


King,


never


wavered


from


their


support,


goal.


in every


nine


respect,


siblings


also


gave


abilities


to achieve


me encouragement.


am fortunate


to be


a part


this


family.


would


like


thank


committee


members,


Cecil


Mercer,

Correa,


Paul


and


Sindelar,


usan


Bill


Peterson.


Reid,

Each


Lee Mu

person


llally,


provided


ivian

me with


profess


ional


feedback


and


support


, as well


valuable


direction


throughout


coursework


Special


thanks


chairman,


Cecil


Mercer,


who


spent


much


time


with


offer-


encouragement,


suggestions,


and


sharing


professional


expertise


sense


of humor


and


patience


have


been


both


inspiring


helpful


Margo


Mastropieri


from


Purdue


University,


who








often


available


to offer


direction


advice.


contact


with


been


motivating


encouraging.


special


education


office


staff


other


faculty


members


have


also


been


supportive.


have


appreciated


their


willingness


to assist


me during


this


research


and


also


during


years


the


University


Florida.


This


research


would


not


have


been


possible


without


efforts


teachers


who


implemented


interventions


that


were


investigated


this


study.


thank


Donna


Kidwell


from Lincoln

School, and


Middle

Dollean


School,

Watson


Susa

from


Povey


Mebane


from

Middle


Westwood

School


Middle

for


their


cooperation.


also


thank


their


students


their


participation


in this


research.


In addition,


Jan


Benet


from


Exceptional


Student


Education


Department


of Alachua


County


Schools


was


instrumental


in helping


me to conduct


this


research


the


schools.


colleagues


, Stephanie


Carpenter,


Jolenea


Stoutimore,


Chuck


Evans,


Kim


Stoddard,


were


both


supportive


and


helpful


when


needed


those


kinds


of encouragement.


grateful


to Stephanie


who


helped


me with


reliability


measures


this


research


thank


Dave


Miller


and


Addison


Watanabe


their


valuable


assistance


with


the


data


analysis.


graduate


students


who


scored


the


subjects


papers


became


more


than


students


were


working


with


me.








Laura


Risi


and


Lisa


Eaton


became


friends,


have


benefited


from


the


support


they


gave


me.


There


are


many


friends


and


ormer


coll


leagues


, too


numerous


name,


that


have


offered


personal


professional


encouragement


4 I


appreciate


their


friendship


memory


me of


the


and


Karen


support


Moody


strength


during


Fechtel


support


thi


will


one


time.


always


In particular,


be a reminder


experiences


from


friendship.


Finally,


very


special


thanks


extended


husband,


Michael.


thank


him


being


my helpmate.
















TABLE


OF CONTENTS


Page


ACKNOWLEGMENTS


ABSTRACT


CHAPTERS


INTRODUCTION


S 1


Statement
Rationale
Definitio
Delimitat
Limitatio
Summary .


REVIEW OF


of
* .
ns .
ions
ns .


RELATED


Problem


* 6


* 12
* 12
. 13


LITERATURE


Inclusion


Criteria


torical P
Memory Th
Keyword M
Popula
Mnemonics
Popula
Keyword M
Popula
prisons
Instru
Research
Condit
Subject C
Measureme
Experimen
Materi
Instruct


perspectivee
leory .
[nemonics wit]


.ions
with Mi
'ions .
Lemonics
'ions .
if Keywo


t
ie

a
t
a
1
t


C. -* nr .~ S


h Nonhandicapped

Handicapped


* .
Idly

witi


rd Mnen


ional Methods
sign and Desc
ns .
racteristics
Methods
1 Procedures

ional Medium


Mildly


Handi


tonics t

'ription


* apped
apped


Other


* S S S S
* S S S S S S


His








Corn


1
1
J




it

.t
[n









METHOD


S 50


Subjects
Hypotheses
Instrumentat
Written a
Screen
Daily Mea
Devic
Written a:
Devices
Materials .
Procedure .
Screening


Teacher


T


Matching Vocabu
Devices .
e of Vocabulary


Mat


thing


. .
lary


finition


Definition


abulary


finition


* S C S S C S
* S S S C C S S 5 5 5 S S S S


r


tructio
System
System
Prov
Cond
System
Prov
Cond
Control


aining P
nal Impl
tic Teac


Teac


. .
roce
emen
thing
thing


.ded Keywo
.tion
.ic Teachi
ded Keywo
.tion .
Variables


>rd

.ng
ird


dure
taSti


I-


Condition


with


a Teac


Mnemoni

with a
Mnemoni


her-


ubject-


* S 5 4 5 5 5 5 S
* S S S C S S S S S


Measurement .
Experimental Design and
Written and Matching
Written and Matching


Analysis
Scores on
Scores on


Words


12 Words


RESULTS


Training


Scorer Reliabilit
Vocabulary Screen
Statistical Analy
Hypothesis 1
Written on
Weeks 2,
Matching on
Weeks 2,
Written on
Matching on


Hyp




-im


)othe
Writ
Matec
Writ
Matce


aC _


2
on

on
ron
2?


Interobserver
y for Written
ing Devices .
ses of the Da


Words
, and 4
8 Words
, and 4
Words
2 Words
* Words
Words
8 Words
Words
2 Words


* from
from
* .
from
* .
from
from


Agreement
Tests


ta


SWeek
Week
Week


om We*
from Week
from Week
from Week
from Week


Teacher


]
*
4









Written


Mat
Descripti
Wri


Words
Words
of th
thing


from Week
e Data .
Acquisiri


. 103
. 103
. 110


Dai

Related F
Summary


. 110


cauisition


Description 112
findings 114
S. 115


DISCUSSION


. 116


Discuss
Hypo
Hypo
Hypo
Summ
Practice
Discuss


ion
)the
the
the
ary
al
ion


Hypot he


Co
o


Screening
Teacher T;


Instruct
Measure
Feedback fr
Students
Teachers
Educational


ses


a a :16


S I 1
s 2 1
s 3 1
. a a a a 1
nsiderations 1
f the Study's Phases 1
i
raining 1:
onal Implementation 1
nt 1
m Students and Teachers 1
* a 1a
* a 1


.
)r


Implications


S S S a 5 1


APPENDICES


LISTING


OF WORDS


USED


DURING


SCREENING


. 141


EXAMPLES OF
VOCABULARY


EXAMPLES OF
DEFINITION


DAILY QUIZ
DEFINITION


MATCHING
DEVICE .


AND WRITTEN
DEVICES .


S. 142


VOCABULARY
S .* 147


EXAMPLES OF
INTERVENTION


CARDS


USED


WITH


EACH


. 152


SUBJECT

TEACHER


CONSENT

TRAINING


FORM


* 156


PROCEDURES


. 157


TIME


SAMPLING


RECORDING


FORM


. 158


from


Week









SYSTEMATIC TEACHING WITH A
KEYWORD MNEMONIC CONDITION


TEACHER-PROVIDED
TEACHER SCRIPT .


. 165


SYSTEMATIC TEACHING WITH A
KEYWORD MNEMONIC CONDITION


SUBJECT
TEACHER


-PROVIDED
SCRIPT .


. 176


REFERENCES


BIOGRAPHICAL


SKETCH .


S. 189


S S S S S S S S S S194














Abstract


School


of Dissertation


University


Presented


Florida


Graduate


in Partial


Fulfillment


Requirements


Degree


Doctor


Philosophy


MNEMONIC


AND


NONMNEMONIC


SCIENCE


VOCABULARY


INSTRUCTION


WITH


MILDLY


HANDICAPPED


STUDENTS


MARGARET


ELAINE


KING-SEARS


August


1989


Chairman:


Major


Cecil


Department:


Mercer
Special


Education


The


purpose


this


study


was


compare


mildly


handicapped


subjects'


recall


science


vocabulary


definitions


among


three


treatments


during


an acquisition,


short-term


retention,


and


long-term


retention


stage.


The


subjects


were


instructed


using


a nonmnemonic


systematic


teaching


method,


teacher-provided


keyword


mnemonic


method,


or a subject-provided


keyword


mnemonic


method.


Subjects'


recall


was


measured


with


both


a written


and


a matching


assessment.

covariance


Results

procedure


were


analyzed

covariate


with

was


analysis

subject'


Intelligence


Quotient


and


repeated


measures.


No significant


differences


treatment


methods


were


found


written


assessments.


anificant


differences


---


v-








teacher-provided


keyword


mnemonic


method


and


subject-provided


short-term


keyword


retention


mnemonic


stages.


method


These


during


results


acquisition


have


educational


implications


mildly


handicapped


students


who


are


required


to learn


definitions


unfamiliar


vocabulary


words.
















CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


Teachers


of mildly


handicapped


(specific


learning


disabled and emotionally handicapped)


students


have


revised


teaching techniques as


developed


researchers and


improved interventions


educators


for these


have


students.


Commonly


accepted


theories


of education


specific


learning


disabled


(SLD


and emotionally


handicapped


(EH)


students


from


past


have been


rejected


for more effective


and efficient


instructional methods.


Professionals


have witnessed a shift


in emphasis


from


how SLD

use of


students process


effective


information


and efficient


to an


instruction


emphasis


(Kavale


Forness,


1987)


McKinney


(1983)


noted


that


research


from the SLD


institutes promoted


teaching


students


learning


strategies.


this movement


trainers


emphasized cognitive


metacognitive


strategies.


Flavell


(1981)


defined


cognitive


strategies


as those


that


contribute


to performance.


Metacognitive strategies

strategies that reflect


monitor performance:


thinking about


that


thinking.


is,

In











students


become more accountable and aware of


their


behaviors


by teaching


students


methods


such


self-control


techniques.


These


self-control


techniques


can


result


students

their ed


becoming more


ucational


independent


environment


learners


and managers


in both behavioral


and academic


areas


(Hughes,


Ruhl,


Peterson,


1988)


Moreover,


effective


educational


programs


for mildly


handicapped students,


regardless of their exceptionality


label,


are critical


ensure academic


success


(Scruggs


Mastropieri,


1986)


Teaching


students


how to


use


a strategy


i.e.,


how to


learn)


a cognitive


skill,


using


strategies


helped


secondary mildly handicapped students


to achieve


in school


(Schumake r,


Deshler,


Alley,


Warner,


1983)


Student s


who-


are mildly handicapped do not


typically use


strategies


learn academic


information;


thus,


instructing them in the


use


strategies appears


necessary


for them to experience


success


in school


(Ellis


Lenz,


1987;


Shepherd,


Gelzheiser,


Solar,


1985).


Mastering


learning


strategies


enables mildly


handicapped students


to experience


success


with assignments


in both


regular


assignments


special


require


skills


education


in areas


classrooms.


such


These


as writing,


comprehending


reading passages,


identifying words.











acquire


situations


example,


knowledge


other than

writing s


of strategies


those


can


occurring


strategy not


only


use


them


in school

improves


students'


performance with


students


written school


to fill


assignments,


job application


also enables$


forms.


strategy that


be employed by


mildly


handicapped


students


is mnemonics.


Bellezza


(1981)


defined mnemonics


learning


strategies


that


can


improve


initial


learning


later


recall


information.


Learning


disabled and


emotionally disturbed students


have been successfully taught


the meaning of


unfamiliar vocabulary using the


keyword method


of mnemonics


(Mastropieri,


1988;


Mastropieri,


Emerick,


Scruggs,


press)


There


mnemonics.


connects


word by a


are


two components


first


component


familiar word


similar


(the


sound between


to the


keyword method of


is the acoustic link


keyword)


that


unfamiliar


the two words.


second


component


is the


imagery


link


that


a picture


of the


definition


of the


unfamiliar word


that


interacts


in some


manner with a picture of


keyword.


Atkinson


(1975)


referred


to the


keyword mnemonic method


"three


Recoding


three Rs


involve a


unfamiliar word using


systematic


a keyword,


Relating the


~2











keyword's


relation


new word's


definition.


example,


term


"fjord"


(which


is a


stream with


steep


hills


on either


side)


recorded


"board,


" and


two words are


related by using


a picture,


or an interactive


illustration,


of a board connecting the


steep


hills


on either


side of


stream.


When a


student


is required to give


definition


of fjord,


recorded keyword


(board)


is a prompt


for the


student


to relate


term to


interactive


illustration


(a board


over


a fjord),


which


elicits


retrieval


of the definition of


above


fjord


example of


(Fox,


"fjord"


King,


not


Evans,


only


1987)


an explanation


of the keyword method,


also


is an


indication


type


of vocabulary that


secondary


school


students


are


required to


learn. L

in social


low-usage

studies,


vocabulary words,


science,


such as


and geography


those


content


terms

areas,


found

are


more problematic


for mildly


handicapped students.


vocabulary


itself may


new to


students,


the words


may not be


frequently used


in everyday


life.


Yet,


to succeed


those


classes,


students must


learn


the meaning of the


vocabulary.


The majority


initial


research


with


use


of the


keyword mnemonic method to


teach


vocabulary meaning has been


done with


foreign


language


words


taught


to nonhandicapped


4











definition.


nonhandicapped


In addition,


students


investigators


learned


have


retained


found


more


that


vocabulary


definitions


when


these


students


were


instructed


in how


to use /


keyword


method


(Pressley,


Levin,


Kuiper,


Bryant,


Michener,


1982) .


More


recently,


investigators


have


expanded


research


of the


keyword


mnemonics


method


to the


handicapped


population.


majority


ese


studies,


special


education


students


have


been


provided


with


keyword


interactive


illustration


(e.g.,


Mastropieri,


Scruggs,


Levin,


imposed


1986;


Veit,


keyword


Scruggs,


method


Mastropieri,


because


keyword


1986) .


and


This


interactive


illustration


have


been


provided


student.


Levin


(1976)


stated


that


an imposed


keyword


mnemonic


strategy


necessary


students


are


younger


than


years


age.


These


students


can


effectively


use


keyword


and


interactive


illustration


that


experimenter


has provided.


However,


past


this


developmental


students


should


be encouraged


to provide


their


own


keyword


imagine


their


own


interactive


illustration.


advantage


induced


keyword


(i.e.,


keyword


and


interactive


illustration


have


been


made


up by


student)


that


student


actively


involved


process


of learning.











provision


students


independent


of a keyword and an


does


use of


interactive


encourage


keyword method


illustration


students


of mnemonics.


induced keyword method that


requires


students


to make


their


own


keyword and


imagine an


interactive


illustration


would more


likely


result


independent


learning.


A cost


consideration


also apparent.


time


money


spent


to make up the


keywords and print


interactive


illustrations


could be eliminated if


students


could be


taught


to make up


their own


keywords


and imagine an


interactive


illustration.


however,


possible


that


students may


initially be capable of providing their


own keyword,


must be taught


Scruggs,


use of


Mastropieri,


a keyword strategy


Zucker,


(McLoone,


1986).


Statement


the Problem


purpose of


definition recall


this


of mildly


study was to compare


handicapped students


vocabulary


among three


instructional


conditions


three


conditions


were


systemati


provided


teaching,


(imposed)


systematic teaching with a


keyword mnemonic,


teacher-


systematic


teaching with a


subject-provided


(induced)


keyword mnemonic.


Measures


of students'


recall


definitions


from memory











following


instruction


to determine and


compare


acquisition,


short-term retention,


long-term retention of


definitions


among the


three


conditions.


In addition,


measures


were


obtained on a


daily basis


immediately


after


each


instructional


day to determine


and compare


rate of


acquisition


the definitions


taught


each


week.


following


experimental


quest ions


were asked for the


three


treatment


groups:


Does


recall


subjects'


acquisition


definitions


Doe


during

s the


instructional


recall


of subjects'


implementation


differ?


short-term retention


week


following


instructional


implementation differ?


Does


recall


subjects'


long-term retention


weeks


following


instructional


implementation interventions


differ?


The problem this


investigator examined


important


several reasons.


First,


mildly


handicapped students


are


required


to learn


definitions


of words


that


are unfamiliar to


them,


these


students


typically have memory problems


(Torgesen


, 1980)


Second,


these


students typically


do not


utilize a


strategy to help


them experience


success with


academic tasks


(Deshler


unless


Schumaker,


that

1986)


strategy

Third,


is taught


if students


them

can be












remembering


unfamiliar


vocabulary


that


they


need


learn


school


science


class


nonschool


reasons


job-related)


Finally,


indu


ced keyword


method


facilitates


independent


recall


of definitions,


then


students


be able


definitions,


increase


improve


their


their


general


memory


knowledge


these


of vocabulary


terms


definitions


enhance


their


reading


comprehension


language


skills.


Rationale


In order


mildly


handicapped


students


to experience


success


in school


they


must


meet


demands


of academic


tasks.


these


tasks


learn


definitions


unfamiliar


vocabulary.


imposed


keyword


method


learning


unfamiliar


vocabulary


already


been


shown


to be


an effective


way


students


learn


and


remember


definitions


., Mastropieri,


Scruggs,


Levin,


1985a)


Previous


researchers


have


provided


and


EH students


with


keyword


components


interactive


keyword


illustration


mnemonic


that


method


.g.,


are


Condus


Marshall


press


method


Miller,


In order


independently


1986;


Mastropieri,


for students

, they need t


Emeric


to be able


o be able


Scruggs,


use


to make


this


their












A portion


study


conducted


McLoone


(1986)


included


transfer


task


in which


students


made


their


own


keyword


and


imagined


how


keyword


could


interact


with


definition


of the vocabulary


word.


This


transfer


task


immediately


followed


initial


study


with


an imposed


keyword


mnemonic


provided


students.


students


were


instructed


scores


using


than


keyword


students


mnemonic


were


method


instructed


obtained


using


higher


another


method


in both


initial


study


transfer


study.


results


this


study


are


an indication


that


students


seem


be capable


of making


their


own


keyword


and


using


imagery


link


keyword


vocabulary


definition.


present


study,


subjects'


recall


of definitions


was


compared.


subjects


were


taught


using


one


of three


interventions


: systematic


teaching,


systematic


teaching


with


a teacher-provided


keyword,


systematic


teaching


with


subject-provided


keyword.


Definitions


following


definitions


are


given


in order


to define


clarify


terms


used


throughout


this


study


Acoustic


S-imi'a-rit-M


Acoustic


similarity


refers


words


that


are


similar


in sound.











Direct


Instruction.


This


systematic,


explicit


teaching


of academic strategies


or tasks


students


(Gersten,


Woodward,


Darch,


1986).


Imagery.


Imagery


refers


to mental


images that


are


produced by one's memory


imagination.


Imagery


Link.


imagery


link


an illustration


that


links


keyword to


the definition of


vocabulary word


by using


an illustration


or by


imagining the


keyword that


does


something with a


picture


vocabulary word's


definition.


Imposed Keyword Method.


A keyword and


interactive


illustration


provided


student


in the


imposed


keyword method


(Levin,


1976)


Induced Keyword Method.


A keyword and


interactive


illustration


is made


up and


imagined by the


student


induced keyword method


(Levin,


1976).


Keyword.


A keyword is


a familiar,


acoustically


similar


word that


has been


recorded from an


unfamiliar word


(Atkinson,


1975)


Learning Strategy.


Learning


strategies


are


techniques,


principles,


or rules


that


enable


a student


to learn


solve


problems


complete


tasks


independently


(Deshler,


Schumaker,


Lenz,


1984)











Low-U


sacxe


Vocabulary


Vocabulary


words


that


are


frequently


used


in common,


everyday


settings


or situations


are


considered


low-usage


vocabulary


Mnemonic


Techniques.


Mnemonic


techniques


are


systematic


procedures


enhancing


learning


memory


(Bellezza,


1981;


Higbee,


1979)


Recodina.


Transformation


of unfamiliar,


nonmeaningful


stimuli


into


a more


meaningful


entity


is considered


recoding


(Levin,


1983).


Relating.


integration


of initially


unrelated


elements


into


a meaningful


whole


referred


relating


Levin,


1983)


Systematic


Teaching.


Systematic


teaching


referred


this


study


combination


of effective


teaching


literature,


including


direct


instruction,


that


states


basic


format,


instructional


conditions


teacher


behaviors


needed


ensure


that


students


have


been


taught


using


best


available


learning


conditions


(Engelmann,


1980;


Gersten,


Woodward,


Darch,


1986;


Walberg,


1984).


Three


"RS "


stimulus


recoding,


semantic


relating,


and


systematic


retrieving


of a mnemonic


are


considered


"three


(Levin,


1983











Delimitations


This


study


was


delimited


in several


ways.


First,


geographically


this


study


was


restricted


Alachua


County


North


Central


Florida.


Next,


subjects


were


specific


learning


disabled


or emotionally


handicapped


students


were


eligible


this


special


education


placement


according


to federal an

subjects were


state guidelines

attending public


were

middle


included.


schools


Finally,


receiving


special


education


instruction


from


varying


exceptionality


resource


room


teacher.


Limitations


Since


this


study


included


only


learning


disabled


emotionally


handicapped


students


middle


school


grades


(sixth,


seventh,


eighth


grades),


results


should


not


be generalized


to other


handicap


, nonhandicapped,


elementary


or high


school


students.


words


selected


use


in this


study


were


tenth


grade


science


vocabulary.


results


this


study


should


be generalized


to other


geographical


areas,


and


terms


that


were


used


should


be assumed


to be


unfamiliar


vocabulary


students


similar


ages


grade


placement.


Finally,


each


of the


three


teachers


implemented


interventions











Summary


Mildly


handicapped


students


are


required


learn


definitions


unfamiliar


vocabulary


terms


in order


succeed w

typically


ith s

have


ome


academic


memory


tasks


problems


that


However,


hinder


these

their


students

academic


performance


when


required


to remember


information.


addition,


defi


cient


mildly


handicapped


unable


student s


to effectively


are


and


considered


efficiently


strategy


improve


their


academic


performance


unless


they


are


instructed


using


a strategy.


There


is a need


investigations


mnemonic


to examine


regarding


with


use


EH students


results


an imposed


to determine


of successful


keyword


whether


students


can


learn


induced


keyword


mnemonic


strategy.


Students


can


learn


use


a strategy


to make


their


own


keywords


imagine


interactive


illustrations


learn


remember


definitions


will


have


acquired


a skill


that


they


can


use


independently


to remember


word


meanings


both


school


nonschool


purposes.


Moreover,


memory


enhancement


vocabulary


expansion


result


improved


grades


in school


well


an improved


self-concept


regarding


confidence


ability


acquire


retain


information


The


purpose


of this


study


was


to refine


research











definitions


for the mildly


handicapped


students


was


compared


in a


systematic teaching


condition,


systematic teaching with


teacher-provided keyword mnemonic condition,


and systematic


teaching with a


subj


ect-provided keyword mnemonic


condition.


Measures


of recall


of definitions


with both a


production


(written)


and a


recognition


(matching)


test


were


used to


determine


subjects'


performance.


results of


implications


this


for teachers


study


have direct


who require


and immediate


students


learn


definitions of


new vocabulary.


Teaching


students


how to


use


keyword method may be


a more effective


and efficient


method of


instruction


when


the academic task


learn and


remember meanings of


unfamiliar terms.


A review of


presented in


literature


Chapter


relevant


third chapter


to this


study


is a discus


sion


of the methodology that


was


used


implementation


this


study.


Results


implications


of this


study are


presented


in Chapters


IV and V.


















CHAPTER


REVIEW OF RELATED


LITERATURE


The purpose of


this


chapter


to describe,


analyze,


and summarize existing


literature


related to


use


keyword mnemonic method


with specific


learning disabled


(SLD)


and emotionally


handicapped


(EH)


students.


criteria


inclusion


of research


is presented first.


Next,


a description of memory theories


stated.


Third,


historical


perspective


from the


literature supporting the


use


of keyword mnemonics


with nonhandicapped populations and


other mnemonic methods


with handicapped populations


stated.


Finally,


a description


and a


critique of


research


conducted with SLD and EH


students


that


compared


keyword


mnemonic method to alternative methods


Inclusion


is presented.


Criteria


following


criteria


were


used to


select


research reviewed:


The experimental


question


of each


study must











dependent


variable


each


study must


include


recall


factual


information.


Each


study


should


include


a complete


research


report


of data,


including


description


of subjects,


methodology,


and results.


Sources


used for


locating


relevant


literature


included


card


Current


Resources


catalogs at


Index of


University


Journals


Information


of Florida


in Education;


Center


libraries;


Educational


interlibrary


loan


services;


chapters,


reference


and books;


sections


and personal


related articles,


communication with


investigators who are


currently


conducting


research


using


keyword mnemonic method with


learning disabled and


emotionally handicapped students.


Historical


Perspective


Memory Theory


Atkinson and Shiffrin


categorizations


(1968)


presented two


regarding memory theories.


first


categorization


consists of


a structural,


or permanent,


memory and a nonpermanent,


nonpermanent memory


or changing,


is comprised


the outstanding feature of


memory.


of control


nonpermanency


This


processes

is that












a person


modified


chooses


according


to remember


kind


information


instructions


can


given,


meaningfulnes


material


to be


learned,


individual


s learning


history


or background.


second


categorization


Atkinson


Shiffrin


1968)


three


components.


first


a sensory


register,


information


lost


from


this


memory


seconds


or a shorter


amount


time.


second


short-


term


memory,


often


referred


working


memory.


example,


period


a person


time


would


until


remember


information


information


either


a short


longer


useful


or has


not


been


rehearsed


enough


to be remembered.


third


component


long


-term


memory


, and


is in this


theoretical


component


that


information


remembered


long


period


time.


Indeed,


information


always


"be "


in long


-term


memory,


may


not


always


be retrievable.


An example


this


sometimes


referred


as a


"tip


of the


tongue"


phenomena--the


answer


known


to the


person


retrievable


that


moment.


Traces


answer


available


answer


itself


immediately


forthcoming


person.


first


categorization,


examples


of the


control


processes


that


a person


choose


use


in order











In general,


simple


rehearsal


strategies may be all


that


necessary


in order to


retain


information


a short


period


time.


However,


more


complex procedures may be


necessary


order to remember


information


for a


longer period of


time.


For this


purpose,


a coding procedure


such


mnemonics


can be


helpful


when


task


is to


remember


information that


unfamiliar to


learner


longer


period of


time.


Lorayne and Lucas


(1974


referred to three basic


learning


skills.


first


is the


search


information


that


is typically provided by


second is


recall


a teacher to


information,


students.


which is dependent


student's ability to


retain


information.


third


skill


the application


dependent on the

information that


student's

has been


of information,


ability to


taught


that


use effectively the


and remembered.


second skill,


recall


information,


is when


mnemonics


are benefic


proclaimed that


"you


ial.

can


Lorayne and Lucas


remember


(1974)


any new piece of


information


know or


ass


remember"


ociated


to something you


These authors


already


expanded on


this


statement by


discussing


substitute words,


thoughts,


phrases


for the new piece


of information


e. g.,


vocabulary











thinking


of a picture


that


connects


some


association


with


new


information.


Moreover,


emphasis


placed


on persons


imagining


their


own


pictures.


original


cture


is more


meaningful


that


person,


making


picture


forces


person


think


about


new


information


concentrate


more


than


a person


normally


would.


Lorayne


Lucas


(1974


stated


that


simply


applying


idea


mnemonics


improves


person'


memory


to the


increased


concentration


information


to be


learn


Keyword


Mnemonics


with


Nonhandicapped


Populations


Higbee


(1979)


stated


that


only


a few


empirical


studies


of mnemonics


century.


were


Until


1960s,


conducted


revival


research


around


of interest


in mnemonics


was


beginning


in cognition

virtually ex


20th


began


tinct.


Research


regarding


use


mnemonics


to facilitate


acqui


sition


new


vocabulary


definitions


began


with


learning


of foreign


vocabulary


words.


Raugh


Atkinson


(1975)


conducted


four


experiments


with


college


students


comparing


keyword


mnemonics


to other


instructional


strategies


when


teaching


Spanish


vocabulary.


In each


these


experiments,


keyword


method


was


highly


effective.


Levin,


Pressley,


McCormick,


Miller,


Shriberg












setting.


concern


was


that


when


keyword mnemonic


method


was


applied in


a classroom setting


(as opposed to a


laboratory


setting)


its effectiveness


may be


diminished.


Levin and his


colleagues did find in


two experiments


that


high school


students


who were enrolled


in a 2nd


year


foreign


language


class


strategy.


did not benefit


explanation


from the


for this


was


use


that


of the


these


keyword


students


were already


skilled at


learning new vocabulary.


researchers


concluded


from the


results


of two


follow-up


experiments


that


the benefits of


the keyword method appeared


to be greater


for the


less


experienced


(i.e.,


year


foreign


language)


student


These


results prompted the


researchers


to conduct


final


two experiments.


final


two experiments


investigators explored the


possibility


of developmental


trends


the effectiveness


keyword method.


final


(1979)


two experiments


involved elementary aged


conducted by


children.


Levin


Fifth


et al.


grade


students


learning


who were


instructed with


Spanish vocabulary


keyword strategy while


experienced dramatic


learning


gains.


researchers concluded that


success


keyword method in both high school and elementary


classrooms


is dependent


on two variables:


arrangement











instruction


that


strictly


adheres


to the


two components


of the


keyword method.


Atkinson


(1975)


is credited


with


refinement


use


keyword method of mnemonics.


two components


keyword method are


the acoustic keyword link


unfamiliar vocabulary word and


imagery


link


that


connects


the keyword


to the


unfamiliar word's definition.


first


component


requires


student


to associate


spoken

keyword


foreign

. The


word with a


familiar


second component


English


requires


word,


student


to form


a mental


image


(imagery)


of the


keyword


that


interacts


with


the English meaning.


second component


is comparable


paired-associate


learning.


Brans ford


(1979)


emphasized


retrieval process


keyword method and the


dependency


on the


type of


recall


that


was


being tested


(e.g


free


recall,


cued recall,


recognition)


In other words,


testing


context


for the


vocabulary


item would determine


which


organizational


mnemonic method


learner


mnemonic method relies


on the


should use.


retrieval


Because


of the


the keyword


recorded


unfamiliar word


that


has been


related


to a


keyword


(i.e.,


three


Rs),


free


recall method would seem to be an


appropriate method of


assessment


for vocabulary


definitions.











native


language


vocabulary.


Researchers


have


found


that


keyword


method


more


effective


recalling


definitions


of previously


unfamiliar


vocabulary


words


than


other


methods


such


learning


words


in context


directed


rehearsal


(Levin,


McCormick,


Miller,


Berry,


Pressley,


1982;


Pressley,


1977;


Pressley,


Levin,


Kuiper,


Bryant,


Mich


ener,


Mnemonics


with


Mildly


Handicapped


Populations


Bellezza


1981)


noted


in his


review


of mnemonic


devices


that


enhancement


memory


rate


of learning


special


populations


occur


when


mnemonic


methods


are


used.


Torgesen


1980


stated


that


effi


task


strategies


are

that


necessarily


strategies


must


employed


taught


learning

to them.


disabled


that


students--


end,


number


research


hers


Deshler


Schumaker,


1986;


Ellis


Lenz,


1987;


Graham


Harris,


1988;


Mastropieri,


Emerick,


Scruggs


, in press)


have


employed


use


mnemonic


to help


mildly


handicapped


students


remember


strategies


use


when


are


required


to complete


various


academic


tasks


For


example,


students


learn


to RAP


when


taught


a reading


comprehen


sion


strategy--Read


a paragraph,


themselves


what


main


idea


supporting


details


are,


their


own


words.


In addition,












are


that


guided


help


through


ensure


maintenance


students


' use


generalization


stages


strategy


situati


ons


other


than


classroom


setting


in which


strategy


was


taught.


A number


of mnemonic


studies


have


been


conducted


Mastropieri,


Scruggs,


their


colleagues


with


behavior


disordered


(emotionally


handicapped),


mentally


retarded,


specific


learning


disabled


students.


Pegword,


mimetic,


symbolic,


variations


these


mnemonics


have


been


used


to teach


minerals,


mildly


handicapped


attributes


information


from


students


of minerals


chapters


hardness


, memory


of history


levels


prose


texts


passages,


(Mastropieri


Scruggs,


1989;


Mastropieri,


Scruggs,


Levin,


1985;


Scruggs,


Mastropieri,


Levin,


Gaffney,


1985)


pegword


mnemonic


used


when


teaching


ordinal


information


.g.,


bun,


then


relate


to the


information


to be


learned).


mimetic


mnemonic


consists


of representational


pictures


in which


stimulus


response


information


are


linked.


Symbolic


mnemonics


can


be used


meaningful


abstract


information


in which


stimulus


represented


a symbolic


picture.


These


mnemonic


methods


have


been


compared


to questioning,


free


study,


direct


instruction,


picture


context,


sentence-experience


context,











mnemonic method was


superior to


other methods


in recall


of factual


information.


of the academic tasks


that mildly handicapped


students


are


required to do


learn definitions


words


that


are


low-usage English


vocabulary.


These words


are more


frequently used

and geography.


in classes

However, t


such


hese


science,


students


social


typically


studies,

have


academic and memory problems that


hinder their performance


when


required to remember


information.


In addition,


these


students are considered strategy


deficient


and unable


choose an


effective and efficient


way to


remember unfamiliar


definitions


(Kauffman,


1985;


Scruggs


Mastropieri,


press; T

students


orgesen,

can be


1979;

taught


Wong,


use


1988)

the


If mildly handicapped

keyword mnemonic method by


using


self-generated keywords


(induced keyword mnemonic


method)


and imagining their


own


interactive


illustrations,


then


they will have acquired a


strategy that


helps


them to


remember


definitions


of unfamiliar words.


Keyword Mnemonics with Mildly


Handicapped Populations


Seven studies


were


located


that


compared the


keyword


mnemonic method to other methods


instruction


in teaching


vocabulary definitions


learning disabled and emotionally


handicapped students.


Three of


these


studies


contained an











been


conducted


these


with


research


nonhandicapped


studies


populations


to ascertain


were


whether


explored

keyword


mnemonics


would


an effective


method


instruction


mildly


handicapped


population.


Comparisons


of Keyword


Mnemonics


to Other


Instructional


Methods


Researchers


have


conducted


investigations


teaching


vocabulary


definitions


using


keyword


mnemonic


method


and


other


instructional


methods


have


consistently


shown


that


learning


disable


ed and


emotionally


handicapped


students


learn


more


when


keyword


mnemonic


method


been


employed.


keyword


mnemonic


method


been


compared


to unaided


instruction,


questioning,


direct


instruction,


sentence


experience


context,


picture


context,


free


study,


directed


rehearsal


. Condus,


Marshall,


Miller,


1986;


Mastropieri,


Scruggs


Levin,


1985b;


McLoone,


Scruggs


, Mastropieri,


Zucker,


1986) .


A description


each


of these


experiments


included


in this


chapter


under


Experimental


Procedures.


Some


researchers


attempted


variation


of the


keyword


mnemonic


generate


method


their


that


own


consisted


keywords


of instructing


interactive


student


illu


s to


stations


immediately


after


students


had


part


cipated












keywords


illustration


required


(Mastropieri,


subjects


Scruggs


imagine


, Levin,


interactive


Gaffney,


McLoone,


1985c


To date


these


expe


riments


are


only


ones


that


have


investigated


students


' independent


use


keyword


mnemonic


method


to help


them


remember


definitions


vocabulary.


The

discussed


studies


included


critiqued


following


terms


their


review

research


are

designs,


subject


character


stics


, measurement


methods,


experimental


procedures,


taught.


materials


Table


instructional


lists


medium,


investigators,


content


subjects,


interventions,


content


taught


to the


subjects.


Study


results

Research


are


reported


Design


and


summarized.


Description


of Conditions


group


research


design


was


used


in all


reviewed


studies


to determine


effectiveness


interventions.


Random


assignment


to conditions


was


used


when


possible,


stratified


randomization


ensure


equality


of grade-level


representation


in conditions


was


used


when


necessary.


Eight


experiments


compared


keyword


mnemonics


one


other


condition


Mastropi


eri,


Scruggs,


Levin,


Gaffney,


McLoone


1985c)


compared


keyword


mnemonics


to direct


instruction


in Experiment



















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demonstrations,


questioning


during


instruction,


direct


teaching


vocabulary words,


practice


testing


vocabulary words.


In Experiment


variation


keyword mnemonic


condition


was


used with


different


subjects.


Self-generated mnemonic


imagery


(with


keyword provided


subjects)


was


compared


to direct


instruction


Experiment


In both


experiments,


the mean number of


correct


definitions


each


group


was


compared and analyzed


using a


t-test.


Veit,


Scruggs,


and Mastropieri


(1986)


also compared


keyword mnemonic


to direct


instruction.


Again,


group


mean percentage


correct


of vocabulary


definitions


was


compared


using


an independent


t-test.


Berry


(1987)


compared


keyword mnemonic


condition


to a nonmnemonic picture condition


Experiment


nonmnemonic picture


condition


followed


same procedures


the keyword mnemonic


condition


except


that


there


were no


keywords


interactive


illustrations.


Berry's


second


experiment


was


a follow-up


of her


first


experiment,


and she


utilized


the most


appropriate control


condition


from


Experiment


in addition


to increasing the number


vocabulary words


to control


for


a ceiling


effect.


Different


subjects


participated in each


experiment.


Results


from












McLoone


et al.


1986


used


a directed


rehearsal


comparison


condition


in Experiment


directed


rehearsal


condition


was


model


ed from


direct


instruction


conditions


tell


subjects


definitions


have


them


repeat


definitions


several


times)


Immediately


following


Experiment


same


subjects


participated


eriment


second


eriment,


subjects


were


required


use


their


respective


intervention


procedure


from


Experiment


independently.


second


experiment


was


called


a transfer


task.


experimenters


wanted


ascertain


whether


student s


could


independently


use


directed


rehearsal


or make


their


own


keyword


interactive


illustration.


Again,


mean


percentage


of correct


definitions


was


compared


using


t-tests.


Another


experiment


that


compared


keyword


mnemonics


one


other


condition


was


conducted


Mastropieri,


Scruggs,


Fulk


press).


A rehearsal


condition


was


used


that


consisted


students


of telling


repeat


subjects


definitions,


definitions,


providing


having


drill


practice


of the


definitions.


of the


purposes


this


study


was


to ascertain


whether


there


was


a difference


concrete


versus


abstract


vocabulary


learning


in each


conditions.


A two-condition


two-item


type


analysis











Mastropieri,


Emerick,


and Scruggs


press)


compared


keyword mnemonics


traditional


instruction


(which was


similar to the


rehearsal


condition


described above)


These


investigators are the


students


control


subjects.


, and they were


only


ones


to date


subjects


taught


served


two chapters


have


as their


science


used EH


own


using


each of the


interventions.


An analysis


of variance


with


repeated measures on both


intervention and retention


(immediately


following


instruction


day,


next


days prior to


instruction,


week after


instruction


ceased)


was


used


to analyze


subjects


' recall


definitions.


remaining researchers


compared four


conditions


Keyword mnemonics,


picture


context,


sentence-experience


context,


and a


control


group were compared by Condus,


Marshall,

context c


and Miller


conditionn


(1986)


learned


Subjects


the meanings


picture


of words


studying


illustrations


of the definitions


sentence-experience


context


of the words.


condition


Subjects


learned


definitions of


words


by following two


steps.


first


step


consisted of the


student s


three-sentence passage


that


listening to and then


was


rereading a


printed and displayed on


paper.


This passage


contained the


vocabulary word,












sentences.


second


step


consisted


of the


subjects


answering


a question


about


passage.


subjects were


required


to relate


the meaning of the


word


to a


personal


experience


when


they


answered the question.


Finally,


control


condition was


similar to a


free-study


condition.


subjects were


provided


with


a list


of words


and


word


meanings,

instructed


pencils, a

to choose


nd additional


their


paper,


own method


they were


studying to


learn


definitions.


A two-step analysis


procedure--three-way


analysis


of variance


(ANOVA)


and analysis of


covariance


(ANCOVA)--was


used to analyze


four-treatment


condition


by the


receptive-language ability by the


four-time


measures.


That


repeated measures


factorial


was


used.


design


A post hoc comparison


with


(Scheffe)


was


used to analyze


significant


interactions.


In Berry's


(1987)


first


experiment,


keyword


mnemonic


condition was


compared to a mnemonic verbal


keyword,


definitions


with


pictures,


and definitions


with


sentence


contexts.


The mnemonic verbal keyword


condition


was


similar to


the keyword mnemonic condition


except


that


typed keywords


and an


imposed typed sentence describing


interaction


keyword


with


the vocabulary word was


displayed


instead of


pictures.


Subject


performance


in both












Subjects


picture


condition


were


provided with


cards


that


the word,


the word's meaning,


and a


picture of


word


s meaning printed on


Subjects


verbal


condition


word's


were


definition,


provided with


cards


and sentence


listing the


contexts


for the


word,


word


printed on


them,


they were


instructed to


use


these


cards


to study the


words and definitions on


their


own.


A planned


multiple


comparison procedure was


used


to analyze


subject


performance.


To evaluate


planned comparisons,


significance of


a multiple


comparison


each of the


procedure


utilizing t-statistics


was


used.


Subject


Characteristics


students who were


included in


these


studies


been


classified as


and local


criteria.


SLD or


EH according to


The number


subject


federal,

s in the


state,

reviewed


studies

press)


ranged

to 240


from


(Berry,


(Mastropieri,


1987)


Scruggs,


Fourth and fifth


Fulk,

grade


subjects


partic


ipated in Berry's


studies,


and sixth,


seventh,


eighth,


and ninth


grade


subjects


participated


remaining


studies.


some


studies,


a comparison


group


of nonhandicapped subjects


Measurement


participated.


Methods


of the


studies


reviewed


used posttest


data to












definitions


was


reported.


Significance


these


percentages


was


determined


using


independent


t-test


when


two


interventions were


investigated,


or when more than


interventions


were


investigated and


researchers wanted


to compare pairs


of interventions


to each


other.


Analysis


variance


procedures


were


used


to determine


some main


effects,


and


then


tests


such


Scheffe's


and non-parametric


analyses


were


used to determine


where


significant


differences

Most s


vocabulary


could be


found.


studies determined subjects


definitions by verbal


' knowledge


testing methods.


example,


experimenters


the McLoone


et al.


1986)


study


recorded subjects'


verbal


responses


verbatim.


independent


judges


scored these


responses


to establish


interrater


reliability.


The only


researchers


that


specified


a different manner of


determining


subjects'


knowledge of


vocabulary


definitions were Condus


et al


(1986)


These


experimenters

definitions us


assessed subjects'


ing a multiple-choice


knowledge of


test


vocabulary


format.


Condus


based on


et al.


their


(1986


receptive


assigned students


language


to conditions


ability according to


Peabody

wanted t


Picture


Vocabulary Test-Revised.


ascertain


whether


These


high-language or


researchers


low-language











Experimental Procedures


length of


(McLoone


Miller,


et al.,


1986) .


time

1986)


total


for these


week;


instructional


studies re

s (Condus,


time


inged from

Marshall,


a day's


session ranged


from 20 minutes


(Berry,


1987;


Condus


et al.,


1986)


to 25 minutes


(McLoone,


Scruggs,


Mastropieri,


Zucker,


1986)


The


total


instructional


time


daily


sessions


was not


stated


some


studies


(e.g.,


Mastropieri


et al.,


1985a)


investigators


did state


that


amount


of time


spent


treatment


conditions


was equivalent.


Materials.


The materials


used


in all


keyword mnemonic


conditions were


cards


(e.g.,


5" X 5"


1/2"


X 11")


that


contained the vocabulary term,


keyword,


the written


definition of the term,


and an


interactive


illustration


the keyword and


term's


definition.


The materials


used


comparison


conditions


were similar


cards


that


contained


vocabulary term,


an illustration


written


term's


definition


definition


term,


Researchers


used


control


conditions provided


the students


with


a listing


of the vocabulary terms and definitions,


and materials


(such


as paper,


pencils,


flashcards)


that


students


could use


to study the


information


(e.g.,


Berry,


1987)


Condus et


l1. (1986)


compared the


keyword mnemonic to












materials


were


similar to


the materials described


other


studies.


picture


context


condition


students


were


instructed using


illustrations


that


did not


contain


keywords.


keyword was


replaced by


a noun


that


had no


acoustical


similarity


to the vocabulary


item.


term,


definition,


two-sentence


conversation


were


also


included


illustration


For the


sentence-experience


materials,


a three-sentence passage


was printed and displayed


on paper.


vocabulary term was


incorporated into one


sentences


question


so that


was printed


context might


under the


help define


sentences


word.


students


were


required to answer the question.


McLoone et


(1986)


used a


directed rehearsal


condition.


The materials


for this


condition


were


cards


that


were


similar to


comparison


conditions


that


had the


vocabulary term and


definition


printed on


them.


was


not


reported whether


an illustration


term was also on


the card.


During the mnemonic keyword and


directed


rehearsal


transfer


conditions


this


study,


materials


were cards


with


vocabulary terms


and definitions


printed on


them.


Instructional medium.


Experimenters


were


not


subjects'


classroom teachers


conducted most


of these












instructional


portion


and assessment


phases.


Three


studies


differed


from this medium.


Veit,


Scruggs,


and Mastropieri


(1986)


used an


experimenter who was


subject


classroom teacher


subjects


were


instructed in


small


groups


four


students.


Condus


et al.


(1986)


trained


seven


teachers


were


teachers


for the


subjects


to conduct


investigation's


instructional


procedures.


instruction


occurred


in the


teachers'


resource


classrooms


students


were


seen


in small


groups.


Mastropieri,


Emerick,


Scruggs


press


trained


classroom teachers of EH students


to deliver


instruction


science


chapter


content.


testing


for these


investigations


was


conducted by


experimenters.


testing


in all


other


studies


was also conducted by


experimenters.


ExDerimental


constants.


instructions


conditions except


control


free


study


conditions


were


read by the experimenter


Introductions


or teacher


lessons,


from a


regardless


prepared script.


treatment


that


followed


introduction,


were


same.


The amount


instructional


time


with


the experimenter


or teacher was


also


same.


Several


studies


(e.g.,


Mastropieri


et al.,


1986;


Veit


al.,


1986)


reported


that


corrective


feedback,












treatment


conditions.


Assessment


procedures


conditions


within a


study were


also


same.


Result s


Experimenters


who compared keyword mnemonics


to one


other condition


(e.g.,


direct


instruction


free


study


indicated


that


the keyword mnemonic


was


more


effective


than


alternative method for


learning the


vocabulary


definitions.


Table


summarizes


numeric


results


each


of the experiments.


The overall


percentage of


correct


definitions


subjects


keyword mnemonic


conditions


was


73.2%.


This


percent


correct


approximately


subjects


better than


in comparison


overall


conditions.


percent


The average


effect


size for


of the


reviewed research


was


1.71.


effect


size


analogous


to a


standard


score


that


calculation


an effect


size makes


scale of


measurement


same


for all


studies


included in


the calculation.


effect


size of


1.71


indicative of


a powerful


treatment


effect f

student

would be


or

who


keyword mnemonics. In other wor

received instruction using the


expected to


score higher than


the average


keyword method


approximately


student s


who did not


receive


instruction


using the


keyword


method.












Table


2-2.


Numeric


Results


of Studies.


Investigators Percent Correct Effect
Mnemonic versus Size
Control


Mastropieri, Scruggs, Levin, 79.5 versus 31.2 2.52
Gaffney & McLoone (1985) -
Experiment 1


Mastropieri, Scruggs, Levin, 69.3 versus 46.7 1.08
Gaffney & McLoone (1985) -
Experiment 2


Veit, Scruggs & Mastropieri 53.7 versus 29.7 1.05
(1986)


Condus, Marshall & Miller 56.0 versus 29.0 1.69
(1986)


Berry (1986) 82.9 versus 50.4 1.20
Experiment 1


Berry (1986) 77.0 versus 44.0 1.70
Experiment 2


McLoone, Scruggs, Mastropieri 79.0 versus 35.0 1.95
& Zucker (1986) -
Experiments 1 & 2


Mastropieri, Scruggs & Fulk 66.7 versus 22.1 3.25
(in press)


Mastropieri, Emerick & 94.5 versus 58.8 .91
Scruaas (in nressl












1985c)


score


statistical


y higher


than


mean


number


correct


definitions


in the


direct


instruction


condition


.001)


In Experiment


results


were


also


statistically


higher


subjects


had


been


provided


a keyword


were


required


to generate


their


own


eract


illustration


when


compared


direct


instruction


group


.01)


Veit


et al.


1986)


extended


the content


subjects


' instruction


include


daily


lessons


dinosaurs vocabulary,


attributes


of dinosaurs,


and


reasons


dinosaur


extinction.


A test


was


given


after


each


lesson,


students


were


given


tests


content


of all


three


lessons


mnemonic


group


scored


statistically


higher


.008)


than


direct


instruction


group


on all


immediate


delayed


recall


tests,


except


vocabulary


test.


vocabulary


test


mnemonic


group


s scores


were


better


than


direct


instruction


group


s scores.


Condus


et al.


1986)


investigated


effectiveness


keyword


vocabulary


mnemonic


acqui


method


sition


three


maintenance


alternative


definition


methods


recall


students.


subjects


in this


study


were


identified


having


low-


or hiqh-receptive


vocabularies


according












keyword


mnemonic


method


would


be as effective


with


students


having


low-


versus


high-receptive


voc


abulary


skills.


This


experiment


occurred


over


a pe


riod


weeks


with


vocabulary


words


taught


eac


h week.


Four


measures


were


taken


immediately


after


instruction,


the end


of the


wee


weeks


later


(maintenance),


wee


after


maintenance


check.


results


significantly


Students

students


were


higher


that


than


keyword c

treatment


treatment


students


condition perform

conditions on th


groups


control

d better

e four 1


performed


condition.

than


evels


time.

better


Students


than


with


subjects


high

with


-receptive


vocabulary


low-receptive


performed


vocabulary


across


conditions.


However,


results


from


-week


follow-up


test


yielded


data


that


indicated


that


students


with


low-


receptive


vocabularies


keyword


condition


performed


better


than


students


with


high-


low-receptive


vocabularies


assigned


to alternative


conditions.


basis


findings


investigators


concluded


that


learning


effectively


disabled


use


students


a complex


receiving


method


keyword


suC


instruction


mnemonic


can


method


regardless


of their


receptive


language


ability.


Moreover,


keyword


method


seemed


to help


SLD


students


learn


T


v Iv












receptive


language


skills


receiving


alternative methods


instruction.


In addition


subjects


to investigating the benefits


with a mnemonic method


of providing


learning vocabulary


definitions,


Berry


(1987)


was also


interested in


how the


results


of her


experiment s


lent


support


theoretical


views


learning


disabilities


(e.g.,


developmental


lag,


verbal


deficit,


or structural


versus process deficit).


subjects


in her


first


experiment


were


fourth and


fifth


grade


students,


fourth and fifth


grade chronological-age match


students,


and students


who matched the


subjects


reading


level.


subjects


were divided among the


four


treatment


match


more


conditions.


subjects


than


Learning


disabled and reading-age


keyword picture


subjects


condition recalled


the other three conditions


(mnemonic verbal keyword,


definitions


with pictures,


and


definitions with


sentence


contexts)


Berry


concluded that


the overall


results of this experiment


provided support


SLD

with


subjects


overcoming the


the developmental


performance deficit


lag theory


learning


associated


disabilities


when


they


are


instructed using the


keyword mnemonic method.


In Berry's


- -


second experiment


and nonhandicapped fourth


(1987),


graders


subjects


who were


were


instructed












nonhandicapped


students


was


versus


.7%.


Berry


inferred


that


problems


student s


have


when


learning


vocabulary


definitions


be modifiable


through


keyword


mnemonic


instruction.


McLoone

instruction.


However


(1986) c

", these


comparedd


mnemonics


investigators


als'


to direct

o included


transfer


conditions.


same


subj


ects


had


participated


mnemonics


direct


instruction


conditions


were


trained


independent


use


of the


treatment


they


just


received.


vocabulary


items


used


this


study


were


low-usage


English


Italian


vocabulary.


Students


mnemonic


condition


recalled


significantly


more


vocabulary


items t

Similar


han


res


students

ults were


in the


direct


obtained


instruction


in the


transfer


condition.

conditions.


Students


in the


mnemonic


condition


recalled


significantly


more


items


than


students


direct


instruction.


Mastropieri


et al.


press)


investigated


performance


students


when


learning


concrete


abstract v

condition.


vocabulary

Subjects


in a keyword


keyword


mnemonic


and


mnemonic


rehearsal

condition


recalled


significantly


more


than


subj


ects


rehearsal


condition


two


types


tests.


first


test


was


assessment


sub ects'


ability


state


the definition


vr crr~e


c-












word


to a novel


use


word.


There


were


no significant


differences


recall


of abstract


versus


concrete


words.


Mastropieri,


investigated


Emerick,


recall


Scruggs


EH students


press)


received


instruction


on science


terms


using


both


keyword


mnemonic


method


traditional


instruction.


Two


chapt


ers


of the


students'


science


text


were


adapted


keyword


mnemonic


method,


students


received


instruction


counterbalanced


design


so that


each


student


served


as his


own


control


When


instructed


using


keyword


mnemonic


materials,

information


EH students


of science


learned


concepts


than


retained


when


they


more

were


instructed


using


traditional


methods


In addition,


students


reported


enjoying


learning


more


when


taught


with


keyword


mnemonic


method.


Summary


Learning


disabled


emotionally


handicapped


students


who

help


have

them


been

lear


instructed w

n vocabulary


ith


the keyword


definitions


mnemonic


acquire


method

retain


more


information


than


students


have


been


instructed


with


other


methods.


some


instance


mildly


handicapped


students


' recall


of definitions


approximated


F












amplified when


combined with


implications


regarding


learning


in the


classroom;


a strategy that


enhances


student's memory and recall


information may


result


improved


learning


Moreover,


more effective


school.


the keyword mnemonic method appears


long-term retention


to be


information


students


who have been


identified


as having


low-receptive


vocabularies.


In addition,


students who have


received


training


regarding the use of the


keyword mnemonic method


after having been


involved in an


experiment


with


use of


this method have been


successful


in performing better than


students


who have been


trained in


use of


a direct


instruction method.


indication


that


students


are


capable of


learning a


keyword mnemonic


strategy.


students


can be


taught


a strategy to make up


their own


keywords


and imagine


interactive


illustrations,


then


students


will have


learned a


skill


that


helps them to


independently


learn definitions


of unfamiliar vocabulary.


use of


imposed keyword method has been


successful


students'


performance


when


they are


required


to define


previously unfamiliar terms.


However,


imposed


method does not


promote


independent


learning


for the


students


because


the experimenter


is providing the


keywords












able


expanded


independently

vocabularies,


learn

and


definitions. Enhanced memories,

improved achievement in school


are


just


a few of


the benefits


that


students may


experience


they


can


use


keyword mnemonic method independently.


purpose of this


study was


to extend


efforts


of prior


researchers


to determine


whether mildly


handicapped


students


could


learn


to use


keyword mnemonic method


independently.


Chapter


specifies


the methodology used


in this


investigation.


Results


are presented


in Chapter


IV and


discussed in Chapter



















CHAPTER


METHOD


research methods


to allow the


in this


investigator to compare


investigation were designed


performance of


subjects'

treatment


recall


conditions


science words' de

The conditions


finitions


were


among three


systematic


teaching,

mnemonic,


systematic teaching with a

and systematic teaching wit


teacher-provided keyword

h a subject-provided


keyword mnemonic.


Recall


effects


on initial


acquisition,


short-term retention,


and long-term retention of


definitions


in each condition


were measured.


In addition,


daily measures


of the


rate of


acquisition


of recall


of definitions


are


reported


in order to determine


three conditions.


descriptions


learning trends among the


research methodology


subjects,


including


null hypotheses,


instrumentation,


designs


materials,


and analyses


procedures,


is presented in


and


this


experimental


chapter.












Subjects


The

disabled


subjects

(SLD) an


for this


d emotionally


study were


specific


handicapped


(EH)


learning

students


sixth,


seventh,


and eighth


grades.


Each


student


was


eligible


for placement


SLD or


EH placement


in special


education


according to


required by the


criteria


state of


Florida.


Thirty-four males


and three


females participated


this


investigation.


Further


descriptions


subjects are


found in


Table


, according to the


suggested descriptors by


Smith et


(1984


subjects


received


treatment


instruction


from their


special


education


teacher


in a


varying


exceptionality resource classroom located


in Alachua


County,


Florida.


Each


teacher was


randomly


assigned


to one of


three


treatment


conditions.


teachers


taught


two of


their


classes


corresponding treatment


conditions,


students


were


subjects


in this


study unless


they were


eligible according to predetermined qualifications.


subjects

words, s


participated


cored less


than


could write


definitions


on screening measures,


for

and


simple

were


absent


from school


for the majority


instruction


(i.e.,


two out


three days present)


on the assessment


each of the


weeks


this


study.










Tabl


Description


Subjects


Systematic
Teaching


Teacher-
Keyword


Provided


Subject-Provided
Keyword


Numbers:


Numbers


Numbers


mal


mal


femal
total


femal


total

Age:


Age:


male
femal
total


Age:


mean
range


mean
range


Race:
Anglo
Black


mean
range


11-14


Race:


Anglo
Black

SES:
high
middle


SES:


high
middle


low


mean


range
test(s
used


low

IQ:


mean


WISC-
K-ABC


range
test(s
used


Race


Anglo
Black


SES:


high
middle


low


mean


-120


WISC-
K-ABC


range
test(s
used


71-111
WISC-R
K-ABC


Exceptionality
SLD 10
EH 0


Reading
achievement


Exceptionality:
SLD 11


EH

Reading
achievement


Exceptionality
SLD 9


Reading
achievement


mean


range
test(s
used


mean


W-J
K-ABC


range
test(s
used


mean
range
test(


K-ABC


used


62-103
W-J
K-ABC


Spelling
achievement:


mean
range
test(


used


Spelling
achievement


mean
range
test(


used


WRATP


Spelling
achievement


mean


-103


range
test(s


WRAT


issTd


WR Atr















Hypo t he se s


dependent


variables


that


were


examined


this


study


were


recall


of definitions


subjects


were


taught


one


three


ways.


three


interventions


were


systematic


provided


subj


teaching,


keyword


ect-provided


definitions


was


systematic


mnemonic

keyword

measured


teaching


systematic


mnemonic.


acquisition


with


a teacher-


teaching


subjects'

during t


with

recall


instructional


intervention,


short-term


retention


week


after


instruction

instruction


ended,

ended.


and


long-term


Recall


was


retention


measured


weeks


using


after


both


written


production


from


memory)


matching


recognition)


format.


In addition,


subjects'


rate


of acquisition


definitions


during


each


instructional


week


was


measured


reported


addressed


in Chapter


effects


following


three


null


conditions


hypotheses


regarding


subjects'


recall


related


to acqui


sition


retention.


There


will


no statistically


significant


difference


vocabulary


among


experimental


definitions


groups


recalled


on acquisition


after


instruction


occurred


Thbr0


ho inn ci 4 n t1 r


w; 11


~; nn; f~r=lnt


n/













retention


vocabulary


definitions


recalled


week


following


instruction.


There


will


no statistically


significant


difference


retention


among


voc


experim


abulary


ental


definitions


groups


long-term


recalled


weeks


following


instruction.


basis


rejection


of a null


hypothesis


was


level


signifi


chance.


Instrumentation


Five


research


instruments


were


used.


first


instruments


Written


Vocabulary


Definition


Screening


Device


and


Matching


Vocabulary


Definition


Screening


Device


write


, were


or match


vocabulary.


used


to determine


definitions


next


whether


less


instrument,


than

the D


students


aily


could


Measure


Vocabulary


Definition


Device,


was


used


daily


in order


determine


rate


definitions


of acquisition


and


also


to determine


subjects

learning


when


writing


trends.


fourth


and


fifth


instruments,


Written


Vocabulary


Definition


Device


Matching


Vocabulary


Definition


Device,


included


targeted


vocabulary


words


was


used


1 nrcl ,I nnt -it nnr


irr i ri c


t~ ~PtP rm; nP


E


th; c


nn tra ~ E 1 tl













subjects


' production


(writing)


and recognition


(matching)


recall


vocabulary


definitions.


Ninety words were


used for the


screening tests.


Following the administration


of these


tests,


60 words


were


randomly


selected for use


this


study.


Forty-eight


of the


words


were


randomly


selected


treatment


words.


remaining


60 words


were


used


as example


words


of instruction


during


each


instructional


implementation


weeks,


i.e.,


three


words per week


were example


words


and served as


demonstration


words


for that


week's


session.


15 words were clustered according to


their


relation


to each other.


four


categories


of words were


animal and plant


life


terms,


earth science


terms,


body terms,


and weather


and astronomy terms.


purpose of this


categorization


was


to approximate more


closely the


teaching


of words


in a


science


classroom as a


functional


unit


instruction.


Varied


forms of


Written


Vocabulary


Definition Device


the Matching Vocabulary Definition Device


were


used.


word categories


were


listed


in different


orders


each


time the


tests were administered to the


subjects.


Both of


these


devices were


criterion measurement


instruments


that


were


used


aA T n r I I


~r': n^ i


/ | r


tn ~bCn rm: )?h


hH rl I~ 1. nL












Written and Matchin Vochabu larv


Definition Screening Devices


Written and Matching


Vocabulary Definition Screening


Devices


consisted of


vocabulary words


listed


a column


worksheets


and then


words


were


listed with a


selection


of definitions


subjects


to match


(See


listing


of words


Appendix A)


subjects


were


required to


write


and


then


match the definitions


as many words


they


could.


Subjects


with


scores


less than


written and


matching


screening were


eligible


for participation


this


investigation.


Daily Measure of Vocabulary


Definition Device


The Daily Measure of Vocabulary Definition Device


(See


Appendix B)


was


used


immediately


following


each


days


instruction.


This


device


was used


to report


rate of


acquisition


of recall


vocabulary


definitions,


well


learning trends,


subjects


in all


three


conditions.


Each


week's device


had the


targeted words


instruction


that


week


listed on


The words


were


listed in


a random


order each day.

definitions of


the wo


subjects

rds that


were

they


required to write


remembered.


group mean


percentage


score


subjects


in each


condition


was


used


to report


results


this measure.


_













Written and Matchina


Vocabulary Definition


Devices


Vocabulary Definition Devices


(See Appendices


B and


C for


examples)


consisted of


48 of


60 words


randomly


selected for use


in this


study.


Forty-eight


terms


were


randomly


selected


targeted


words


instruction.


Different


forms


of the


Written


Vocabulary


Definition Device


the Matching


Vocabulary Definition


Device


were


used


throughout


study with


word


categories


in varied


orders


for each


week.


Twelve


words were


taught


each


week


over


a period of


weeks.


remaining


words


from the


total


60 were used as


each Day


of the


example


words--three example


instructional


implementation


words


weeks.


Materials


The materials that


were


used


with subjects


systematic teaching


condition


were


1/2"


X 11"


cards


with


word,


definition


definition,


displayed


and an


illustration


Subjects


systematic


teaching with a


teacher-provided keyword


condition


were


provided with


two cards.


first


card was


a 5"


X 8"


card


with


vocabulary word on


one


side and


keyword


other


side.


second


card


was


an 8


card


that


In Cl CC :C


41%~ ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ 1.. ar .. -4~an- .v r, 'r


~A~ CCIA


Anrl


1 A~Y 1J


a--












with


definition


vocabulary


word


printed


cards


three


example


words


used


teach


er-


provided


mnemonic


condition


were


also


used


with


sub ject-


provided


mnemonic


condition


as example


words


on Day


of the


last


instructional


weeks.


Subjects


provided keyword

instruction and


systematic


mnemonic


used


teaching


condition


identical


with


received


materials


as the


a subject-


same

subjects


systematic


teaching


with


a teacher-provided


keyword


mnemonic


condition


during


week


this


investigation.


During


last


weeks


of instruction,


these


subjects


were


taught


strategy


to help


them


make


their


own


keywords


imagine


interactive


illustrations


their


keywords


doing


something

strategy


with

steps


definition


stated


was


term.


displayed


A poster

classroom


with

for


the

the


duration


instructional


implementation


period.


Cards


11")


listing


vocabulary


term


definition


were


used.


Index


cards


X 5")


were


available


subjects


use


writing


vocabulary


term


and


keyword


that


subject


made


Examples


1/2"


X 11"


cards


that


were


used


each


condition


are


located


Appendix













Procedure


procedure


this


investigation


was


divided


into


four


phases.


Phase


one


was


a screening


procedure


determine


subject


eligibility


to elicit


motivation


participate


this


study.


Phase


two


was


training


period


teachers


involved


in the


investigation.


Phase


three


was


instructional


implementation


that


occurred


over


period


weeks.


implementation


On Days


week


subjects


of each


were


instructional


instructed


vocabulary


definitions.


Immediately


following


instruction


these


three


days,


subj


ects


were


given


listing


vocabulary


terms


targeted


instruction


during


that


week


Daily


Measure


Vocabulary


Definition


Device)


subjects


definitions


words


were


that


allowed


they


minutes


remembered.


to write


purpose


of the


daily


measures


was


to determine


rate


acquis


ition


learning


trends


subjects


each


condition


throughout


instructional


days.


Phase


four


included


measurement


of subjects'


recall


vocabulary


definition


acqui


sit ion,


short-term


retention,


long-


term


retention.


subjects


were


assesse


on Day


of each


instructional


week


using


Written


Vocabulary


Definition


flfl!I'1 no I '10 Ma-r'h4 nnnrrfnvt


nfCl ar 4- nr


I,


nP~I; frfr


~ Tn n a h~ r 1 a rr t


1 ic-












implementation


was


considered acquisition.


subjects


recall


of definitions


week after


instruction


was


considered


short-term retention.


subjects'


recall


of definitions


weeks


after


instruction


was


considered long-term retention.


remainder


of this


section


provides


details


of each


procedural 1

Screenina


phase.

(Phase One)


A screening procedure


was


used


to determine


subject


eligibility for participation


unfamiliar


this


science vocabulary words


study


from a


and to


10th


target


grade general


science


text


used in


the Alachua


County


schools.


This


screening was


conducted to make certain


that


words


were


unfamiliar vocabulary words


that


students


could not


define correctly.


Initially,


subjects


were asked


to write


definitions of


six words.


These


words


were purse,


table,


eat,


rug,


family,


and dog.


subject


could


write


definitions


of simple


words


then


it was assumed that,


given


knowledge of


a word's


definition,


subject


could


write


definitions


other


words.


screening


consisted of


science


vocabulary words.


students


were directed


to write


the definitions


these


words


(from memory)


then


to match


the words


to their


^f;i n-it n nnq


Crr 4t r'


rnmnnn nt


'- 1 I


thP rl~isf~ni1Hnn












determine correct


incorrect


definitions.


An overall


score


less than


of words


defined


correctly


indicated


that


subject


was


eligible


for participation


this


investigation.


Results


screening


for the


words


targeted


instruction


this


study


are


reported in


Chapter


An additional


condition


for participation


this


investigation was


willingness


of each


subject


learn


new vocabulary terms


and definitions.


Subjects


participated in


this


study


indicated


this motivation and


desire by


stating


writing that


they wanted


learn new


vocabulary terms and

also discussed with


definitions.


them reasons


subjects'


learning


teachers


definitions of


new words


could help


them with


their


schoolwork and how the


subjects


could benefit


from learning new words


The grades


that


subjects


considered


form that


received on


a portion of


subjects


the weekly tests


subject 's


each


signed,


were


classroom grade.


which indicated


their


intent


to participate


in this


investigation,


Appendix E.


Teacher Trainina Procedures


(Phase


Two)


teachers


volunteered


to participate


this


1 nirncr 4' rr~i- An


Thabt,


3 4- a n4 1 i U'I 1


cI


- n .- ~-


r.l r












their


students.


training was


conducted at


the Alachua


County School Board building or


teacher's


school.


teachers


were given monetary


attendance at


are


the training


outlined in Appendix F.


stipends


sessions


Mastery


from the county


training procedures


in administering the


instructional


procedures


for the


corresponding


condition


each


teacher was demonstrated before


treatments


with


teachers began


subjects.


Independent


observers


viewed teacher demonstrations and


recorded appropriate


teacher behaviors


using a


Time


Sampling


Recording


Form


(See Appendix G)


Teacher


behaviors


that


were


measured were


script,


following the


fluent


script,


pacing of


following the


instruction,


sequencing


using


the materials


for the corresponding treatment


correctly.


Interobserver


reliability


is reported


in Chapter


A compilation of


effective


teaching and direct


instruction


components of


other


researchers


(e.g.


, Engelmann,


1980;


Gersten,


Woodward,


Darch,


1986;


Walberg,


1984)


was


used to determine


systematic teaching.


teaching practices


example,


in all


teacher


conditions--


scripts began


with an advance organizer


and then


proceeded to


demonstration,


modeling,


guided practice phases,


well


;fl 0rrt i117th i tn nn nhrno












In addition,


teacher


behaviors


such


as corrective


feedback,


positive


reinforcement,


prompts,


and elicitation


active


student


involvement


were


used


in all


conditions.


teacher behaviors


were consolidated


into an acronym that


reminded


teachers


responses--PEP.


how to elicit


first


P means


and react


to prompt


to subject


to elicit


responses


from the


subjects.


A teacher


could prompt by


repeating the definition


or word


for the


subject,


pointing to


words


or pictures


on the materials


used,


using proximity


control,


or establishing eye contact.


The E means


Evaluate


corrective


reinforce


subject's


feedback.


subject's


specific praise


responses by


last P


responses,


for the


subjects


stating


means


and this


immediate


to Positively


could be general


regarding their


responses


performance.


treatment


conditions used aspects


of systematic


teaching


during all


instructional


implementation


days.


Borkowski


and Buchel


(1983)


recommended the


use of


best


alternative


treatment


condition


when


comparing other


interventions.


For this


reason,


and to


replicate


what


been


called


"direct


instruction"


"directed rehearsal"


research reviewed in


Chapter


the name given


rnntrn -


nr bhst


trnt 1 t i + rsatment


nnndi tion.


was












Instructional


Implementation


(Phase


Three)


For each


condition,


60 words


were


targeted


for use during


each of


weeks of


instructional


implementation--15


each


week.


Three of


vocabulary


terms


were used


demonstration


purposes


on Day


of each


of the


weeks


implementation.


Twelve


words


were


targeted


definition


recall


for each of the


weeks


instructional


implementation.


words were


clustered


into


four


categories


so that


teachers


were


instructing


subjects


words that


were


related


to each


other.


On Day


15 minutes


were


used for


instruction.


On Days


and 3,


following


12 minutes


each


were


used


instructional


instruction.


day,


subjects


Immediately


were given a


listing of the


vocabulary terms targeted


instruction


during that


week


(the


Daily Measure of Vocabulary


Definition


Device)


The subjects were allowed


minutes


to write


definitions of the


words


the daily measures


was


that


they remembered.


to describe


rate


purpose


acquisition


of definitions


subjects


in each


condition,


well


as to


describe


their


learning trends throughout


instructional


days


of each


week.


On Day


subjects were


assessed


using the


Written


,-,,hr flP n4F 4-4 r'n no nanA 4-h Manh ncr \7n,,


tha M3t nh: nn f7nn~krr 13rlt












words


that


they


knew and write


the definitions


those


words.


subjects


first


completed the


production


(written


assessment and then


they


completed the


recognition


(matching


assessment.


purpose of using all


48 words


Written


and Matching Vocabulary Definition Devices


each Day


was


use a


standard measure


instructional


week.


on all


use of


words


of each


a standard measure


allowed


investigator to ascertain


that


subjects


were


learning


definitions of words


after


instruction had


occurred and


that


subjects


were not


learning


definitions


of words


without


instruction.


In addition,


four


categories


words


from the


words


were


randomly


assigned for


each


week


instruction.


subjects


received instruction


same


category


of words


each


week.


was


anticipated


that


subjects


could neither write


nor match definitions


of words


included


in the


instruction.


Indeed,


subjects


had demonstrated an


inability to define by writing


or matching


definitions


less than


of the


words


during the


screening procedure


prior to


implementation of


this


study.


teachers


emphasized that


subjects were not


expected


to write


definitions


words,


especially


during the


first


3 wP~1cs


^nf in cs+ rllr'* 1 rnl n


; mn 1 ama nt ~ t : nn


~ n ~t Fl a r i.lh r~ C1













define,


contained


was


words


acknowledged


that


that


subjects


assessments


received


instruction


on and,


consequently


were


expected


to know.


tematic


Teac


hina


Condition.


teacher


demonstrated


three


example


words


during


first


minutes


of each


of the


instructional


implementation


weeks.


A cassette


signaled


target


recorder


teacher


words


with


when


on Day


audible


was


and


time


much


tones


to begin


time


intervals


instruction


teacher


left


instruction


remainder


of Day


entire


lesson


on Days


and


Instruction


techniques


including

questioning

corrective


a rapid pace,

g, choral and

feedback, and


active


student


individual

positive


involvement


responses, i

reinforcement


mmediat


using

e and


were


terms


maintained


throughout


on Days


instruction


teacher


targeted


followed


a scripted


lesson


format


Appendix


Following


each


instructional


day,


subjects


were


given


a listing


vocabulary


terms


targeted


instruction


during


that


week


(the


Daily


Measure


of Vocabulary


Definition


Devi


subjects


were


allowed


minutes


write


definitions


of the


words


that


they


remembered.


I II*h 1.1070


nf E


mi nhlT-0Qo


Sn~l nor c


rmrl 1rd-on,


~nAt


e


Irlara


i


Ir rllr












daily


quizzes


stating


terms


definitions


using


cards


systematic


teaching


condition.


Approximately


minutes


were


used


to deliver


this


feedback


subjects.


On Day

Vocabulary


subjects


Definition


Devic


were

e and


given

then


a form


of the


Matching


SWritten

Vocabulary


Definition


Device.


subjects


were


instru


cted


to find


words


they


knew


write


definitions


those


words.


After


subjects


completed


production


(written)


assessment,


then


they


completed


recognition


(mat


ching)


assessment.


There


was


no set


time


limit


these


assessments.


Monday


subjects


Subjects


following


recorded


acqui


received


the c

sition


feedback


completion


(the


these


of these


words


assessments


tests.


taught


during


that


week),


retention


(the


words


taught


during


last


week)


overall


scores


(the


words


taught


during


weeks


intervention)


each


week


eir


written


matching


tests


on a graph.


Systematic


Teach I ncr with Tp~nhsr-Prn7~rinr1 Wa 7T.Tflrt4
-- p p -. %J V *~ ,. '.- .. ~-S J- ~-j-


TP ; r Pr P n tr; r P


Mnemonic


Condition.


teacher


in the


systematic


teaching


with


a teacher-provided


keyword


mnemonic


condition


demonstrated


keyword


method


using


three


of the


15 words


that


were


designated


as example


words.


This


procedure


was


fni lnwsr


nflP r


,-. -r- -7-- rI n LI r,1 ci- ,-,,-+ nn ~ 1


C m~ aL


TEf i]h~nn


wi th


Ka ttvn r~


nr rnn II












words,


instruction


occurred


on Days


words


targeted for that


week.


cards

X 8")


card


were

had


used for each


vocabulary term.


vocabulary term printed on


first


one


side


the keyword printed on


the other


side.


subjects


first


learned the


keyword


for each


vocabulary term.


Then


second card was


used.


Keyword pictures


were


drawn


on 8


1/2"


X 11"


cards.


vocabulary term,


definition,


keyword,


and the


interactive


illustration


of the


keyword


that


does


something with


the definition


vocabulary term


were printed on


teacher


followed a


scripted


lesson


format


Appendix


A cassette


recorder with audible


tones


intervals


signaled


to the


teacher when


was


time


to begin


much


instruction


time


on the


teacher


target


left


words on


instruction


and how


for the


remainder


of Day


and the


entire


lesson on


Days


teacher


first


stated the


pronunciation


of the


vocabulary term and then


told the


subjects


keyword


that


helped the


subjects


subjects


asso


remember the


cited the


term


term with


definition.


keyword,


After


then


subjects


were


told that


way to


remember


term and


definition was


to remember the


keyword and


interactive


illustration


of the vnocahn 1 arv t srm


Tao ro~


~lthlP~t 9


1












illustration,


and


definition


vocabulary


term.


Instruction


including


a rapid


pace,


active


student


involvement


immediate


questioning,


corrective


choral


feedback


and

and


individual

positive re


responses


enforcement


PEP)


were


given


throughout


days


instruction


eac


h week.


Following


each


instructional


day,


subjects


were


given


a listing


vocabulary


terms


targeted


instruction


during


that


week


(the


Daily


Measure


of Vocabulary


Definition


Device)


The


subjects


were


allowed


minutes


write


definitions


of 5


minutes,


words


subjects


that


' papers


they


were


remembered.


collected


teacher


provided


immediate


corrective


feedback


daily


quizzes


stating


terms


definitions


using


cards


systematic


teaching


with


teacher-provided


keyword


condition.


Approximately


minutes


were


used


deliver


this


feedback


to the


subjects,


and


there


was


interaction


between


teacher


subj


ects


during


this


time


other


than


teacher


reading


the definitions


terms.


On Day


subjects


were


given


form


Written


Vocabulary


Definition


Device


Matching


Vocabulary


Definition


Dnevi np


I hIrI


sub~l -It 1-i


WPIr.P


i ns+t rln P t d


-n fi n


e


b












After


subjects


had completed the


production


(written)


assessment,

assessment.


then

Ther


they

e was


completed


set


time


recognition


limit


(matching)


for these


assessments.


the Monday


subjects


Subjects


received feedback


following the


recorded acquisition,


completion


retention,


on these


of these


assessments


tests.


and overall


scores


each


week


for their written and matching tests.


Systematic Teachina with a


Subject-Provided Keyword


Mnemonic


Condition.


procedure


for this


condition


was


identical


mnemonic


to the procedure


for the


condition for the


week


teacher-provided keyword


instruction.


rationale


for this was that


subjects needed sufficient


demonstration of the


keyword method


so that


they


could


understand it


2nd,


well


3rd,


enough


use


weeks


independently.


intervention


During


subjects


were


required to provide their


own keyword and imagine


definition


of the term that


interacts


with


their


keyword.


The Day


procedure began


teacher-provided keyword.


the

The


same


teacher


the procedure for

demonstrated the


keyword and interactive


illustration method using three


words


that


were


designated as


example


words


for that


category


words.


Fnr "-h0 0rYmrnl ,


Iwnrrl -


I r rI


ts.lnhpr fi rst


e: t~tP~ thP












could


help


subjects


remember


term'


definition.


After


subjects


associated


term


with


keyword,


then


subjects


were


told


that


to remember


term


definition


was


to remember


keyword


interactive


illustration

questioned r


of the


regarding


vocabulary


term.


keyword,


Subjects


interactive


were

illustration


definition


of the


vocabulary


term.


Instruction


including


a rapid


pace


active


student


invo


Ivement


questioning,


choral


and


individual


responses,


immediate


corrective


feedback,


positive


throughout


days


reinforcement


of instruction


PEP)


each


were


week.


given


PEP


was


provided


to the


subj


ects


both


during


demonstration


example


this


terms


individually


point


during


subject-provided


instruction.


keyword


mnemonic


condition


differed


from


teacher-provided


keyword


mnemonic


condition.


subjects


were


told


that


they


would


now


receive


instruction


on how


to make


their


own


keyword


interactive


definitions


illustration


of vocabulary


using


imagery


terms.


to remember


following


describes


strategy


that


subje


cts


were


taught.


teacher


followed


a scr


ipted


lesson


format


(See


Appendix


subjects


were


told


that


they


to think


kevwnord


1-h~i- T~ Q 1-nrho crrr'za1-ii 1 r *a tf


c i


kt1 *' a9 ne


e


th~t


t~ tha


W;19


tn rm












term and


keyword.


for the subject,


keyword must be a


keyword


could be a


familiar word


rhyming word or


word similar to,


or a


part


vocabulary term.


subjects


were


reminded


three demonstration


vocabulary


terms


for that


week of


instruction,


well


keywords


interactive


illustrations


that


they had


learned during


week of


instruction.


subjects


were


told to


refer


those examples


when necessary.


subjects were


taught


strategy to


help them use


induced keyword method.


An acronym was


steps


used


strategy.


to help


subjects


The acronym was


IT FITS.


remember the


A poster


with


IT FITS


steps


printed on


was displayed


throughout


instructional


sessions


of the


last


implementation


weeks.


steps


for the


strategy are as


follows:


Identify the


term.


Tell


definition


of the


term.


Eind a keyword.


Imagine


the definition


doing


something with


keyword.


Think about


the definition doing


something


with


keyword.


Study what v


imagined until


know the












rationale


this


sequence


steps


that


subjects


must


first


that


be able


term'


term


pronunciation


state


meaning


definition


become


familiar


subj


ect s


(the


IT part


strategy)


teacher


identify


ed the


term


and


stated


term's


definition


subjects


during


this


study.


Then


subjects


needed


to find


a keyword


imagine


erac


tive


illustration


keyword,


term,


and


definition


of the


term


(the


FITS


part


strategy)


Atkinson


1975


claimed


that


critical


link


keyword


method


that


keyword


makes


subject


think


about


eraction


and


term.


Thus,


keyword


must


remind


subject


information


needed--the


definition


of the


term


(this


FITS


part


strategy)


subjects


minutes


spent


were


used


remaining


to demonstrate


minutes


of Day


keyword


(after


interactive


illustration


using


keywords


interactive


illustrations


that


teacher


provided)


using


this


strategy


learn


definitions


entire


12 minutes


vocabulary.


on Days


The

using


subjects


this


used


strategy


the

to help


them


learn


definitions


vocabulary


terms.


Following


each


instructional


day,


subjects


were


aiven


a listina


of the


vocabulary


terms


targeted


a-I..Sa


L












Definition Device)


subjects were allowed 5


minutes


write


definitions


the words that


they


remembered.


end of


minutes,


subjects'


papers


were


collected and


teacher provided immediate and


corrective


feedback


for the


daily quizzes by


stating the


terms


and definitions using the


cards


for the


systematic teaching with


subject-provided


keyword condition.


Approximately


minutes


were


used


deliver this


feedback


to the


subjects,


and there


was no


interaction between


time other than


teacher


teacher


subjects


reading the


during this


terms and


definitions.


subjects


worked independently to


find a


keyword


(i.e.,


familiar word for them)


vocabulary term during the


that


3 days


sounded similar to


instruction


for each


week.


teacher


stated each


vocabulary term and its


definition,


displayed the cards


with


term and


definition


printed on


them,


then


circulated and assisted


while


subjects


thought


of a keyword


to go


with


each


term.


subjects


were provided with


3" X 5"


cards


so that


they


could


write


term and


their


keyword


on reverse


sides


of the


cards.


After the


subjects


thought


of a keyword for


term,


subjects


were


instructed to


imagine


a picture of


1-hs 1~rwrsznrn 1-t- h1- f Q mlhtnv


a; t


; n5 a r=r rt e


I; a


nmat h; nn \


th;ll-


rinpe


c












day's predesignated


length


instruction


minutes)


Throughout


teacher

steps of


instructional


emphasized that


IT FITS.


Positive


time


subjects


on Days


needed


reinforcement


and 3,


to follow the


was


given


encourage

prompts t


subjects


o encourage


and to maintain


subjects


to find


motivation.


Verbal


a rhyming word or


word within


unfamiliar word


were given


when


necessary.


On Day


subjects


were


given


form of


the Written


Vocabulary Definition Device and


then


the Matching


Vocabulary


Definition Device.


subjects


were


instructed


to find the


words


that


they


knew and write


the definitions


those


words.


After


subjects


completed the


production


(written)


assessment,

assessment.


then

Ther


they

e was


completed th

no set time


reco

limit


gnition

for th


(matching)


ese


assessments.


Subjects


received


feedback


these


assessments


on the Monday following the completion


these


tests.


subjects


recorded acquisition,


retention,


and overall


scores


each


week


for their written


and matching tests


on graphs.


Control


variables.


There


were


five controls


for the


instructional


components of


this


study.


subjects


spent


same


amount


of time


learning


terms


and definitions.


thelT


n1i ~ssrnln rn th ~hr


.c~llh~Prt S WPrP


t;riinht













same


words


were


used


conditions


for each


4-week


instructional


implementation phase.


subjects'


lack


of knowledge of


the majority


of the


words


was


measured by


screenings


prior to


implementation


study.


subject


Days


they remembered of


s were


allowed


instruction


words


minutes


to write


targeted


the end of


definitions


instruction


that


that


week.


This measure


was


used to


determine rate of


acquisition


subjects


in all


conditions.


Effective


teaching techniques


teacher


behaviors,


described in


this


study


systematic teaching,


were


used in


conditions.


Measurement


(Phase Four)


On Day


of each


weeks


of instructional


implementation,


Written


Vocabulary


Definition


Device and


the Matching Vocabulary Definition Device


were given


to the


subjects


recognition


order to measure


(matching)


production


performance


(writing)


regarding vocabulary


definitions.


written assessment


was


always


given


subject s


first,


then


subjects


were


given


the matching


assessment.


flc f- n-? 1- n n flrVr nAQ hlnr0


~ln ~ a hll 1


11


rrrP P ]r


I












instructional


implementation


weeks.


Subjects'


short-term


retention


long-term retention of the


vocabulary


definitions


was


measured during these


times.


A graduate

components of


student


who was


the definition


trained regarding


that must be


written


essential


order to


count


a definition


correct


scored the


written measurement


devices.


subjects


received


point


for words


defined


correctly,


.5 point


definitions


that


were partially


correct,


and no points


incorrect


definitions.


addition,

degree in


a secondary


chemistry was


science


teacher who


available


a masters


consulting with


graduate


student


if she


was


unsure of


the correctness


answer.


worksheets


were


in a mixed order when


graded


so that


the graduate


student


was


unaware of


treatment


condition


each subject.


A second graduate


student


was


similarly trained scored a


random selection


written


measurements


to determine


reliability


regarding


correct,


partially


correct,


incorrect


definitions.


Both


graduate


students


were


unaware


of this


study's


interventions


for the


duration


of the


study.


results


of the


reliability


scoring the written


tests


are


reported


in Chapter












Experimental Design


and Analysis


dependent


variables


were


subjects


' recall


definitions.


(recognition)


Both a


written


measurement


were


(production)


used.


and a matching


independent


variables


were


interventions:


systematic teaching,


systematic teaching with a

systematic teaching with a


teacher-provided keyword,


subject-provided keyword.


and

The


dat a


from the


Written and Matching


Vocabulary Definition


Devices


were analyzed in


two ways


to reject


or accept


each


null hypothesis.


An analysis


covariance


(ANCOVA)


was


performed

covariate.

identified


with subjects' Int

Significant main

using Bonferroni


elligence Quotient


effects or

comparisons.


(IQ)


interactions


were


significance


level


was


.05.


Written and Matchina


Scores


on 48


Words


subjects'


scores


from the


written


and matching tests


on 48 words


from the


2nd,


3rd,


weeks


of instruction


were analyzed to determine acquisition


effects.


Scores


from


week


condition s


this


the same


study were


not


treatment


analyzed because


during that


week.


analysis


used


of covariance


to determine


(ANCOVA)


statistical


with


repeated measures


differences.


Significant


was

main


effects


or interactions


were


identified by usina


Bonferroni












An ANCOVA


was


used to analyze


the data


from the written


and matching measures


of the


words


from the


5th and


week


study


These


weeks


were


weeks


following


conclusion


of the


instruction.


Analyses


from the


week were


used


to determine


short-term


retention


effects,


analyses


from the


week


were


used


to determine


long-term


retention


effects.


Written and Matchina


Scores


12 Words


subjects'


scores


on the


words


taught


during the


4th,


and last,


week of


study were


derived from the


written and matching tests


on 48


words.


By the


last


week


study,


subjects had received at


least


two weeks


instruction


regarding their method of


intervention.


subjects


were attaining higher


levels


of fluency and


proficiency.


This was especially true


subjects


subject-provided keyword condition,


because


they


did not


begin


their


strategy


intervention


until


2nd week


study.


scores


for these


words


were


analyzed during


week


they were taught


to determine


acquisition


effects.


An ANCOVA


was used to determine


whether there were


significant


main


effects,


and Bonferroni


comparisons were


used when


significant main


effects


were


found.


identical


procedure


was


used


to analyze


CI~IL












week


tests.


subjects'


scores


were


derived from the


word tests.


Analyses


from the


5th week were


used


determine


short-term


retention


effects,


analyses


from the


week


were


used


to determine


long-term retention


effects.



















CHAPTER ]
RESULTS


This


chapter


presents


data


gathered


answer


experimental


questions.


First,


interobserver


agreement


obtained


from


teacher


training


procedures


prior


to and


during


scorer


Device


study's


reliability


reported.


implementation


Written


Results


reported.


Vocabulary


Vocabulary


Second,


Definition


Screening


Devices


Next,


written


statistical


analyses


matching


measures


dependent


are


stated.


variables


based


on the


three


hypotheses


are


reported.


Finally,


descriptive


anal


yses


of the


data,


related


findings,


a summary


are


given.


Teacher


Trainina


Interobserver


Agreement


A time


sampling


recording


form


was


used


to obtain


erobserver


agreement


regarding


each


classroom


teacher


ability


to implement


corresponding


condition.


time


sampling


recording


form


was


used


one


time


prior


to the


I a


. I


I ..


I 1











implementation


study.


teachers


were observed


during the


2nd or


3rd week


of the


study


for the


second


time


sampling recording.


Interval


agreement


was


calculated


according to procedures described by Tawney


and Gast


(1984)


Agreements


were divided by the


total


number


of possible


agreements


then multiplied by


to obtain a


percentage.


There


were


four


behaviors


that


teachers


were


scored


on at


script,


30-second


intervals.


following the


These behaviors


sequence of


script,


were


following the


fluent


pacing


during


instruction,


and using


instructional materials


correctly.


The overall


interobserver


agreement


prior to


implementation


of the


study was


93%.


The overall


interobserver agreement


during


implementation


of the


study was


95%.


Individual


scores


each behavior on


each


teacher


are


presented


Table


4-1.


Scorer


Reliability


for Written


Tests


Two graduate


students


graded the


subjects'


written


tests.


Both c

study.


Graduate


students were


One graduate


student


unaware of

initially


the conditions of


graded the


this


written


measures


selection


and the other graduate


to determine


student


reliability.


graded a


subjects'


random


written


definitions


were


score


correct


(subject


received 1


point),


re c e i ve d 1








93



*P oP rP oP3 NPIj
Ct) 0 CO at() ~L
o0 0' C O0\Q \ I

I II II II H IIiI HI
to to (000 0 0
rn (N Cl (N toimN(V
rl0 I, 0' at -4 C t )
(00 I N. N. N( N. NI N. N .
Sa no 0' to 04 (0 0'(0r







U,r

4' .44 T (N 00 0 0

N. N N. N. N.
Cl (N (N r4 Cl Cl


U,
I-'

'U nod (N 0 03 0
r (N (N (N '-4 en C'
(0 0'1 en Cl CO CO 0'
P4 ('4 (l N r4 01(' (N ('
5. C

C >1
0~ Vj

a)
o C C C
02 44 44 4 (N r 0 03 03 r
4.i (Nc (N Vr (N v- en ene
C 0r1 N.N .N 0N .N
0) 0) 4' Cl 0' 0 0 an, 01
2 Ci (N (n r4 (n (N (N
C) 4J 4.i
a) C: C
1- 0) 0
01 2 2



44 44 4' ( 03 0 0
s- *r4 (N (N (N '-4 en e, e

0) 51 N. N. N. 5- N. N. N. 5
U) U enl 4' 000 0t O

o 5-4c

-u U) E a)5-
U) 0) 2 0)rac











graduate


student


determined


reliability


scored


average


of nine


subject


assessments


each


week.


Vocabulary


Screenina


Devices


subjects


were


administered


form


of the


Written


Vocabulary


completed,


Screening


then


Device.


Matching


After


Vocabulary


written


Screening


screening


Device


was


was


administered.


results


of these


screenings,


presented


Table


4-2,


are


reported


48 words


that


were


targeted


instruction


during


this


investigation.


Subject s


in the


systematic


teaching


(Group


condition


could


write


approximately


one


definitions


Written

match a


Vocabulary


approximately


Screening


two


Device.


These


subjects


definitions


could


Matching


Vocabulary


Screening


Device.


Subjects


systematic


teaching


with


teacher-


provided


keyword


(Group


condition


could


write


approximately


five


definitions


on the


Written


Vocabulary


Screening


Device.


These


subjects


could


match


approximately


eight


of the


definitions


Matching


Vocabulary


Screening


Device.


Subjects


systematic


teaching


with


subj


ect-


provided


keyword


Group


condition


could


write


approx


imately


one


of the


definitions


Written


Vocabulary


Screening












Table


ults


the


Written


and


Matching


Vocabulary


Screening


Devi


ces


Condition Written Matching


Systematic Te
Average
Standard


aching


Deviation


Range


Systematic


Teaching


Teacher-
Average
Standard


Provided Keyword

Deviation (SD)


8.00


Range


Systematic


Teaching


Student-Provided


Average
Standard


Deviation


Range


Keyword


(SD)


0.00


- -- --











of the


subjects,


neither


individually


nor


a group,


surpassed


the predetermined


cutoff


score


of writing


matching


19 out


the definitions.


An analysis of variance


test


was


conducted


to determine


whether there


was a


significant


difference among the


three


groups


on the


written and matching


screening measures.


Results


of these analyses


are


reported


Tables


and


4-4.


There was


a significant main


effect


for the


written


screening.


A Scheffe


post


hoc test


was used


to find


the significant main


effect


was


for the


a significant


Written


Vocabulary Screening Device.


difference between


the subjects


There

the


systematic teaching condition


provided keyword condition


(Group A)


(Group


and the


There


teacher-


were


significant main effects among the groups


for the matching


screening measure.


Statistical


Analyses of


Data


This


study had


three


hypotheses.


They


are


restated


below.


There will be no


statistically


difference among the experimental


groups


significant


on acquisition


vocabulary


definitions


recalled on


the day


after


instruction


occurred.












Table


Screening


Summary
Device.


Table


the


Written


Vocabulary


Source of Variance df MS F P


Method 2 102.62 4.52 .0192"

Error 30 22.70


* Significant


the


level.












Tabl


Screening


Summary
Device.


Table


the


Matching


Vocabulary


Source of Variance df MS F p


Method 2 43.38 2.58 .09

Error 29 16.83




Full Text

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