Citation
Career development activities, career maturity, and self-concept among ninth-grade students

Material Information

Title:
Career development activities, career maturity, and self-concept among ninth-grade students
Creator:
Jones, Sandra Rattray, 1941-
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xiv, 205 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Career counseling ( jstor )
College students ( jstor )
Ethnicity ( jstor )
High school students ( jstor )
High schools ( jstor )
School counseling ( jstor )
School counselors ( jstor )
Schools ( jstor )
Students ( jstor )
Vocational education ( jstor )
High school students -- Psychology -- Florida -- Gainesville ( lcsh )
Self-esteem ( lcsh )
Vocational guidance ( lcsh )
Vocational interests ( lcsh )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1989.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 192-203).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Sandra Rattray Jones.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
001507863 ( ALEPH )
AHC0745 ( NOTIS )
21583073 ( OCLC )

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CAREER DEVELOPMENT
AND SELF-CONCEPT


ACTIVITIES, CAREER MATURITY,
AMONG NINTH-GRADE STUDENTS


SANDRA


RATTRAY


JONES


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE S
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


SCHOOL

FOR


OF

THE




























In loving memory


my philosophical


of my


mentor and my


father,


inspiration,


Jack Maurice Rattray
















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Many


wonderful


people


have


given


me encouragement,


love


support


, and


guidance


during


pursuit


doctoral


studi


am grateful


to each


them


wish


express


my gratitude.


appreciate


the


kindness,


encouragement,


time


given


me by


committee


members,


Paul


Fitzgerald


Athol


Packer


To Dr.


Larry


Loesch,


the


chairperson


committee,


will


be eternally


grateful


He has


patiently


guided


me through


the


rough


spots


, never


holding


hand


rather


pointing


at alternative


paths


and


always


being


there


when


arrived.


He has


helped


me realize


potential


concern,


directness,


honesty,


and


thoroughn


ess


have


made


much


easier.


wish


express


gratitude


the


many


coll


eagues


friends


who


helped


me carry


study


Princ


ipal


Bill


Cliett


and


staff


at Fort


Clark


Middle


School


were


very


helpful


would


particularly


like


thank


Carol


Wright


Carole


Hambrick


their


efforts


to get


parent


permit


ssion


letters


returned.


Thanks


the


Buchhol


High


School


S S -


nr\>"i nni n~ 11


Plr 1u hrt


Qnccr*


s. 1rl


i <-i-s MT


tal










Campbell,


Michael


O'Loughlin,


Ret


Thomas,


and


Mary


Warren,


thanks


are


expressed


holding


conferences


last


summer


appreciate


time


and


energy


each


gave


thi


project.


am grateful


to Mel


Lucas


and


Gayle


McLaurin


their


time


technical


assistance.


Appreciation


is expressed


to all


students


parents


who


participated


the


study


Without


their


help


study


would


not


have


been


pos


sible.


am grateful


and


appreciative


many


special


friends


who


have


been


so supportive


me as


have


traveled


on this


doctoral


"voyage


Thanks


and


gratitude


are


expressed


to Dr


. Myrna


Niems


being


so present


in my


life


when


needed


her


The


friendship,


encouragement,


and


loving


care


provided


sustained


critical


times.


am also


very


grateful


. Allen


Neims


timely


help


with


computers


tutelage


statistics.


Gratitude


and


thanks


are


extended


to Dr


. Wiley


Dixon


for


helping


me refine


ideas


thi


project


and


the


support


encouragement


he provided.


colleagues


and


friends,


. Bonnie


Baker,


Beth


Dovell,


Marta


Konik,


and


Thomas,


thanks


are


extended


their


support


and


understanding.


friends


Sandra


Olinger


and


Lynn


Domenech,


thanks


are


order


Their


belief


me provided


needed


strength


at times


when


found


difficult


to believe


in myself


Gratitude


expressed


L-J. LR


friend


and


colleague.


Mary


Ann


Waaner.










want


thank


family


their


love,


support,


loyalty


, and


encouragement.


Thanks


are


expressed


mother,


Elise


Rattray


Booth,


caring


deeply


about


me and


asking


about


progress


throughout


proj ect.


She


always


shown


me her


unconditional


love,


understanding,


and


support.


Thanks


are


expressed


sister


Rita


Rattray


Cannon,


brother


, Jack


Rattray,


their


love


and


many


good


shes


along


the


way


They


are


a major


part


foundation


that


brought


me to


point


life.


father-in


-law,


Thurston


Jones,


and


mother-in-law


, Theo


Alexander


Jones


thanks


are


expressed


being


so unselfish,


sweet


and


proud


me.


special


"family"


friend,


Milton


. Brogdon,


the


love


he has


shown


and


the


pride


he has


taken


efforts


have


enriched


life


and


touched


deeply


will


always


be grateful


expressed


support


loving


care.


final


acknowledgements


immediate


family


who


have


provided


an environment


which


I could


live


and


work


safely


I will


be eternally


grateful


my husband,


Jerry,


and


daughters,


Traci


and


Kelli,


being


so loving


and


supportive


me.


Their


love,


patience,


and


understanding


have


been


mainstay


daughter,


Traci,


thanks


are


expressed


always


sharing


her


spirit


so unselfishly


with


ma a ii


Snr


hainn


cirrh


a nnrori


Fri anti -


r 11 rhtsr


- K ll i.


*II V


I


1


|










relationship


husband,


to become


Jerry,


one


his


good


wonderful,


friends.


unselfish


am grateful


qualities.


stability,


support


, love,


and


friendship


have


provided


foundation


needed


to complete


this


endeavor.


thank


appreciate


his


giving


me this


opportunity


grow.























TABLE OF CONTENTS



Page


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS..... .......... .............. .. .. ii


LIST OF TABLES.......... .. .... .. -... ***** -- *- ****


ABSTRACT. ............ ......... .. ... xii


CHAPTERS


INTRODUCTION .................. .. .


Theoretical Framework.
Need for Study.........
Purpose of Study......
Hypotheses............
Definitions...........
Overview of Study.....


.........OO"
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S S S S S S S
S S S SS S* S S
S S S S S S S


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........O
O SS 0 .0S



...0..00
* *S SS SS

* S S S S S


REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.......................


Career Guidance in the United States...........
Career Education ................. .......
Career Guidance...... ............... .... .
Career Guidance Programs.......................
The Role of School Counselors in Career


Guidance... ... ..... ......... .. .
Super's Career Development Theory....
Vocational Life Stages..........
Career Maturity.................
Vocational Self-Concept.........
Career Patterns.................
Career Guidance Interventions........
Career Guidance Assessment......
Career Planning Program (CPP)...
Individual and Group Counseling.
Extracurricular Activities......
Parnt- 1 Tnvnl vm nt a a .


00~~
S* 555*****


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S.........S




..0.... ...
..........
..........
S S S S

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Page


Research Design................................

Population................ . .
Sampling Procedures...........................
Research Procedures............................
Career Planning Program (CPP).............

School and Career Planning Conference

(SCPC) .. . ........
Research Personnel.............................
Criterion Instruments ..........................
Career Maturity Inventory-Attitude Scale

(CMI-AS) ................................
Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI)..
Extracurricular Involvements Inventory

(EII) .................... .. .. .. ......
Parent Survey (PS)........................

Data Collection and Analysis...................
Limitations............................... ....


RESULTS....... .... ....... .... ....... ......... 108


Career Maturity..............

Self-Concept.................

Grade-Point Average..........
School Attendance............
Extracurricular Involvements.

Career Maturity and GPA......
Self-Concept and GPA.........
Parental Involvement.........


..0.0..
.......

.......
..0...0

.......
.......
..0.0.0
....001
* S S
* S S S

* S S

S S
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S S S


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* 5t5SSS55**

* S S S S S
* SS S S S S* S
* S ** S 1S 55*

* S 55 *** St
SSS*.t S S S


Student and Parent SCPC Evaluations.


DISCUSSION........ ........................... 139


Generalizability Limitations.......

Conclusions........................

Career Maturity...............
Self-Concept..................
Grade-Point Average...........

School Attendance.............

Extracurricular Involvements..
CMI-AS/Post-GPA...............

CSEI/Post-GPA.................
Parental Involvement..........


..0...
.....0

0...0..

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.....0
......

......
......
......
....."
* *SS

* S *S S
* S 55

* S 5it
* S S 55
* S S S

* S 5
S S S 5
555555


SCPC Parent and Student Evaluations.


....I.




......

......
......

......
......
......
......

......
S S SS S
* S *1 S

* S 5)S
* S *

*
* S* 5
* S S C
S S SS S
S 55*5


METHODOLOGY...................................











Page


APPENDICES


EXTRACURRICULAR


INVOLVEMENT


INVENTORY


(EII)


PARENT

PARENT


POST-HIGH


PERMISSION

PERMISSION


SCHOOL


LETTER

LETTER


PLANNING


..........a........

...............OQ...
* *S SS* *SSS .

* S S S S


OPTIONS


BUCHHOLZ


CLUBS


, SPORTS,


AND


ACTIVITIES


LIST


EXTRACURRICULAR


FOUR-YEAR


INVOLVEMENT


EDUCATIONAL


ACTIVITY.


PLAN..


ATTENDANCE,
SYSTEMS....


REPORT


CARDS,


AND


MONITORING


GRADES


TESTING


ORIENTATION


AND


TIPS


PROGRAM

.0....0.


OPTIONS.

..(.5* .


..........

.******.**
*. .S *SO S

* .S *1 S1 SS


SCPC


CONFERENCE


FORMAT/BUCHHOLZ


PERSONNEL.


BUCHHOLZ


MAP.


SCPC


PARENT

SCPC P

SCPC S


BOOKLET


COVER


SURVEY......


AREN'T

STUDENT


EVALUATION.


EVALUATION.


*0 S S S S S "
. 0 .. *****.* ""

......................

......................


STUDENT


SURVEY ..........


SS S S S S S S "


SCPC


APPOINTMENT


CONFIRMATION


LETTER.


REFERENCES...........................


BIOGRAPHICAL


SKETCH......... ........
















LIST


OF TABLES


Table


Page


Experimental


Design


Students
Buchholz


from
High


Four Feeder Schools
School by Gender and


Who Enter
Ethnicity...


Research


Frequencies of
mental and One
Ethnicity.....


Respondents in
Control Groups
.0...0. 00...0..


the Two Experi-
by Gender and


Means and Standard Deviations for Dependent
Variables in the Two Experimental and One
Control Groups by Gender and Ethnicity.........


Dependent
Deviations


Variables,
by Group,


Means,
Gender,


and
and


Standard
Ethnicity.....


4-4


Analysis of Covariance for
Inventory-Attitude Scale by
Ethnicity.................


the Career Maturity
Group, Gender, and


Analysis of
Self-Esteem
Ethnicity..

Analysis of
by Group, G


Analysis
by Group,


Covariance
Inventory


Covariance
ender, and


of Covariance
Gender, and


for the
by Group,


Coopersmith
Gender, and


for Grade-Point
Ethnicity........


for School
Ethnicity..


Average


Attendance


Analysis of
Involvements
Ethnicity...


Covariance
Inventory


for Extracurricular
by Group, Gender, and


S.................... 80


Schedule..............................










Table


Page


Self


-Concept


Coefficients


Post-GPA
Group....


Correlation


Pairwise


Compari


sons


the


CSEI


and


Post-GPA


Group


4-13


Parent


Survey


Response


Rate..


Means


and


Standard


Deviations


the


Parent


Survey..


Analy
Scale


ses
and


Variance


Student


Personal


Adjustment


and


Interaction


Progress


Scal


Group


0. ... .. S. "*


-Square


Contact


Analy


Items


ses


on the


of Responses


Parent


Survey


Parent
Group


4-17


Percentage
by Item...


Responses


to Parent


Contact


Means


Standard


Deviations


SCPC


Parent


Evaluation.


4-19


Means
Survey


Standard


Deviations


the


Student


Group.


........O..........'.










Abstract


of Dissertation


of the University
Requirements I


Presented


of Florida


Degre


the


in Partial
te of Doctoi


Graduate


School


Fulfillment of
r of Philosophy


CAREER


DEVELOPMENT


SELF


-CONCEPT


ACTIVITIES


AMONG


NINTH


CAREER
-GRADE


MATURITY,
STUDENTS


AND


Sandra


Rattray


Jones


August


1989


Chairperson


Major


Dr. Larry


Department


Counse


Loesch


Education


Investigated


this


study


were


changes


in secondary


school


students'


career


maturity,


self


-concept,


grade-point


average


, school


attendance


extracurricular


involvements


after


participation


either


career


guidance


activi


Conceptuali


zed within


Super'


theory


career


development,


Testing


each


Program'


treatment


Career


included


Planning


Program


American


College


comprehensive


vocational


self-assessment


instrument)


(CPP)


and


a School


Career


Planning


Conference


(SCPC).


The


first


treatment


group


students


school


their


counselor


parents/guardians


SCPC


met


individually


other


treatment


with


group


students


and


their


parents/guardians


met


in small


groups


with


a school


counsel


One

selected


hundred


twenty


eighth


participation


-grade students

complete data


were

were


randomly

obtained


s... -


- --- a-


+ 1 l fi | r ,- a. 1 1- 11


es.


| r |


rni- ^


cl ka ra l^ "ni^ i


^T-rt'


c?^n/ M +-c?


1


1 L k\r i










Scale,


Coopersmith's


Self-Esteem Inventory,


and an


Extracur-


ricular


Involvements


Inventory were administered


at the end


of the


fall


semester of


the students'


ninth-grade


year.


Students'


attendance


, eighth-grade


(second semester)


cumulative


(pre-)


GPA,


and ninth-grade cumulative


(post-


GPA


data


were obtained


from school


records.


Factorial


analyses


covariance,


using


eighth-grade GPA


as the covariate,


ficant


were used


to determine


posttreatment differences


there were signi-


career maturity,


self-


concept,


grade-point average,


school


attendance,


or extracur-


ricular


involvement


on the bases of


group


(individual


SCPC,


small


group SCPC,


or control),


gender


(male or


female),


ethnicity


(white or


ethnic minority)


No significant


dif-


ferences were


found


on the basis of


group.


A few


other main


interaction effects were statistically


significant but no


clear pattern was evident.


It was


concluded


that neither


form of


the


treatment


significantly


impacted


variables


interest as


theory


suggested


they


should have.


Therefore,


it was


recommended


that


these


forms of


treatment not be


implemented


if the


goal


is to produce relatively


immediate changes


in the vari-


ables


investigated.


However,


it also was


recommended


that


the study


be replicated but


with assessments made after a


mir.I 1 rnnrnnnrC nne +t r + 1 n 1 n in' 1 r -


1t na 1 l\ \T


-t T\ + a rt sa 1


yor'n'm-II


t1 T T r ra










they are differentially


effective


with students more


specifically


characterized.
















CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


Freshman


students


entering


high


school


first


time


traditionally


have


lower


status


among


other


students


school.


Consequently


, because


their


psychosocial


interpersonal


needs


are


intense


this


time,


they


spend


much


their


first


year


attempting


"survive"


academically,


socially,


and


emotionally.


Unfortunately,


because


psychological


efforts


needs,


they


their


expend


career


on their


development


social


and


issues


and


concerns


are


often


left


unattended.


Simply


put,


they


pay


little


any


attention


to what


they


will


upon


graduation


from


high


school,


even


though


there


are


several


options


available


to them.


For


example,


Herr


and


Cramer


(1984)


listed


six


options


students


upon


graduation


from


high


school


enter


a postsecondary


vocational


or technical


school


pursue


some


skilled


specialty;


attend


institution


of higher


education


(e.g.


, community/junior


college,


college,


or university) ;


work


fulltime


as a


'*fl 4 ntrsa 4+ nfl U .


hailt


wh i lp


h i rh


cnhnnl


nA- A- '


I ||


rII


I


nn












military;


enter an apprenticeship


situation.


Regardless


the choice made,


however,


it would be


to each


freshman student's advantage


to begin


planning


for the choice


early


the high school


experience.


postsecondary reality will be different


each


student.


For some students,


none of


possibilities will


seem viable or appealing


they will


traumatized


threatened by the


indecisiveness about


forthcoming


life and


confrontation with


their place


their


For others,


the burden of


decision making will


be untenable and


they will


try to escape or postpone


facing


such an awareness directly.


And


for a


fortunate


, they will


have


planned


effectively


and will


matriculate smoothly to the


postsecondary


experience


(Herr


Cramer,


1984)


task


for school


counselors


is to


increase


the numbers


in the


latter


category.


Historically


, career development has been seen as a high


priority need by


students,


their parents,


school


boards


, the


business


sector,


the general


public.


1984,


the


American

statement


School


Counselor Association


for school


counselors


(ASCA)


relative


developed a role


to the expectations


and responsibilities


for school


counselors


the area


career guidance.


Among


other things,


emphasized


the need


4.. 4A ..3 1 4L A. r n.4 1 anna an-


uU1: Y~l: L1












need assistance


in developing


knowledge,


skills,


and habits


required


to be able


to respond


the opportunities


expectations of


the world


of work


(Regehr


& Herman,


1981).


Unfortunately


however


, many


high


school


counselors


have not


given career development


for students


a high


priority.


For


example,


Hutchinson and


Bottorff


(1986)


surveyed


320 college


students on


their expressed


needs


for counseling


services as


compared


while


the counseling


in high school.


services


Approximately


they actually received


high schools were


represented


the study.


They


found


that 89%


the


students


surveyed believed


they


needed


career counseling


while


in high school


only


reported


that


they


actually


received


career


counseling.


Criticisms of


lack of


school


career counseling


counseling programs

are well-documented


relative


professional


literature


(e.g


, Aubrey,


1982;


Bradley,


1978).


Keefe


(1983)


stated


that


one of


the most


widely


recognized and


least


discussed


realities of


American


education


inability


school


counselors


to deliver guidance services


to each


student because of


the high student-to-counselor ratios.


Many


other writers have agreed


that high school


counselors


are not able


to provide


the


individual


guidance needed by


-I L --- ---*a a a-


1n4


l17,4.


U


1 ~ UII A CI~ CI Al A rl ~ n


A












(1986),


in a


study


ideal


and actual


functions


of high


school


counselors


, found


that career and


life


planning was


ranked


fourth


as an


ideal


counselor


function but


ninth as an actual


function.


It appears


that


school


counselors


aspire


to serve all


students equally


the area


of career guidance but have not met


that


responsibility


for a


variety


of reasons--not all


their


own


creation


(Super


1957).


the effort


to provide more and better


career guidance


and counseling services


for students,


high school


counselors


have


frequently used


tests


inventories


as effi


cient


methods of


obtaining


data


and as guides


for counseling


processes.


However


, the


use of


tests


inventories has


been


the subject


of considerable controversy.


For example,


between


1972


1976,


leaders


of several major professional


organizations


(e.g.


, National


Education Association,


Association


for Childhood


Education


International,


National


Association


for the Advancement of


Colored


People,


Association


for Supervision and


Curriculum Development


American Association of


Association of


School


Elementary Schoo


Administrators

1 Principals,


National


and National


Council


of Teachers


of English)


either


called


for the


- a -I --A- I I -:~- --- a-;.- z -


I


z m --


;I- -Y-1


-*I f 4 1












within


the counseling profession,


Goldman


(1972)


wrote


that


counselors did not make


effective


use


tests


to help their


clients and suggested


that


a new role


such


as a


"testing


specialist


" in the


area


of guidance be created.


Engen


, Lamb,


Prediger


(1982)


subsequently questioned


whether opinions


relative


testing


had diminished


the use


of tests


survey


in schools

test use


They reported


in grades


on a


through


1979


nationwide


The major


purposes of


the survey were


assess


the current


level


of use of

published


each


four general


tests used


junior


types of


commercially


and senior high schools


, (b)


obtain data


on the


use


"career guidance


tests,


" (c


learn


which sources of funds

their testing programs


were commonly used


for schools


determine common


practices


test


interpretation


from 547


schools.


examines.


Sixty-two


percent


They received


responses


respondents


indicated


that standardized


tests were


still


in wide


use


their situations


(Engen et al.,


1982)


Career guidance


tests


, e.g.,


vocational


aptitude


test batteries or


interest


inventories


, were


the most widely used,


with


respondents


indicating that


they gave at


least one


instrument


this type


to some students


of the


respondents


-..4e -t A- 4. 1. .4 ann t^ iY 4f m


c*ftlonnt -


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nnn- r~t.t-a

^^












testing


came


from the


local/district


school


budgets.


The


major


interpretation


procedure


was group


interpretation.


Individual


interpretation was


next most


used,


followed by


self-interpretation


or no


interpretation.


Thus,


strongly


although


criticized,


tests


in general


it appears


that


have been


their use


widely


the context


of career guidance and


counseling remains high.


Their use


best


justified by the need


for school


counselors


to work with


large numbers of


counselors


students.


to find


The challenge


effective


to school


, yet also efficient ways


help students maximize

in the context of care


information


er guidance a:


from tests,

nd counseling


particularly

g. A variety


of practices


toward


that goal


have been presented


, yet none


received widespread


acclaim and acceptance.


Therefore,


there


is need


to continue


find


effective ways of


providing


career guidance and


counseling to


large numbers


of students.


This study


is an


investigation


of a method


to fulfill


that


need.


Theoretical


Framework


Career development


awareness


theories


evolved


lifelong process of


from increasing


individuals'


career


rihni rae


ranm rA n nr onrlrvV


f


mi 1 'v


Career


r 1 11


1 i Pfmt v1 e












viewed


as the attempts


individuals


to develop and


implement a self-concept


at a given stage of


development


(Super,


1969b).


For high school


counselors,


this


means


creating


programs


that


focus


on developmental


tasks at


the


exploration


stage of


career development


(Mackin


& Hansen,


1981;


Super


Bohn,


1970).


Within Super's


theory


of career development,


career


maturity


a central


concept.


In general,


the more an


individual


has and


uses


pertinent


information about


the world


of work and self,


has developed appropriate attitudes about


work and

decisions


lifestyle

related


and has made


to work,


(or at


least begun making)


the more career mature


the


individual


(Super


, 1969b).


Crites


(1978)


wrote


that the


assumption


that vocational behaviors mature over time


in a


systematic


fashion


implied


the concept of


career


development;


career maturity


known


to increase during the


adolescent


years.


However


left


unattended


, career maturity


among


individuals changes at


widely varying rates.


Therefore


, one of


primary


goals


of high school


counselors


providing


career guidance and


counseling


improve the


career maturity


the students


receiving the services.


Mona


fnr < t" 17 md













when


or how


to convert


general


notions


into


realistic


actions.


Today


most


students


would


still


fall


same


category


Gysbers


1984


reported


that


, traditionally,


career d

remedial


development


work,


programs


immediate


concerns


services

. and i


focused


nformatio


on crisis,

n giving.


He suggested


that


while


in the


future


these


trends


must


continue


, a developmental


approach


career


guidance


must


emerge.


He strongly


recommended


that


career


development


programs


at respective


developmental


stages


focus


interests


placement.


aptitudes


Tennyson


rather


(1970)


than


empha


wrote


size


that


selection


career


guidance


should


cultivate


new


interests


talents


rather


than


singularly


capital


zing


on aptitudes


already


developed.


Prediger


, Rothe


, and


Noeth


(1973)


wrote


that


career


guidance


interventions


have


kept


pace


with


career


development


theory


that


research


has


verified


inability


career


guidance


programs


to meet


the


career


development


needs


of students


with


wide


spread


consistency


Therefore


there


a need


to develop


effective


career


guidance


interventions


that


are


based


soundly


on career


development


theory


The components


this


study


addressed


need


through


deve


lopment


a career


guidance


*~,.,


* .


-~~L- S a- --A 4r .4nf %-ff


* ^


UA~H


CAnC; nn


n rn ~Y Y d m


Ik


C


I












1987


; Barber


reported


McClellan,


1978


that


1987).


43.1%


The U.S.


nation's


Census


youth


Bureau


were not


enrolled


in school


and/or did not graduate


(Gadwa


& Griggs,


1985) .


Pallas


(1986)


reported


that,


nationally


, slightly


less than


three-quarters


of all


19-year-olds


have


completed high school.


Although


calculating dropout rates


difficult


because of


definition


problems,


these data


are


indicative of


the massive


problems


this


country relative


to students


not completing their high school


educations.


There


is no one


reason why students drop out


of school.


Some of


others are


reasons are


related


related


to out-of-school


in-school


experiences.


experiences and


Pallas


(1986)


grouped


dropping


performance,


adulthood.


the reasons


of school


social


Poor


into


for and


factors associated with


three basic categories:


adjustment,


academic performance


early transition


and social


academic


into


adjustment


will


be discussed


subsequently


because


they


are relevant


this study.


For example,


the best


indicator of who will


drop


out of


school


is academic performance.


Students'


grades


school


and,


to a


lesser extent,


performance


on standardized


tests are salient


indicators of


academic success or


failure.


For example,


according to


1983


statistics


from


U.S.


--------------


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Pallas


(1986)


reported


that


students


experiencing


difficulty


negotiating


personal


and


social


adjustments


adolescence


also


are


more


likely


to become


school


dropouts


than


those


students


who


are


well-adjusted.


Students


characterized


as rebellious,


delinquent,


and/or


chronically


truant


drop


school


at higher


rates


than


those


who


are


not.


Further,


students


who


are


chronically


truant


are


more


likely


to drop


of school


than


regularly


attending


students,


delinquent


youth


are


more


likely


to drop


than


are


comparable


nondelinquent


students.


these


problems


leading


to dropping


may


subsumed


under


guise


"aimlessness"


among


many


students.


That


, many


students


lack


perspective


on where


they


are


going


life,


the


deci


sions


they


will


have


confront


make


to get


there,


and,


most


important,


the


relevance


of current


activities


future


goals.


Gallup


(1986)


reported


that


the


American


public


believed


that


one


goals


of education


should


be helping


students


have


better


opportunities,


get


better


jobs,


and


prepare


better


life.


appears


that


the


American


public


would


responsive


to effective


career


guidance


programs


and


that


developmental


focus


would


the


best


approach.


Effective


e-~ roar


mil ri ,no


rrn rI I1 i n nr


Rrct*i vi*1


hbi bnh


snhnn1


SI J


I


r I|II












There


is specific


need


to help


ninth-grade


students


their


parents


develop


career


awareness


upcoming


career


deci


sons


to help


them


reali


that


school


educational


planning


effects


them


both


now


and


future,


emphasize


partic


after


ipation


high


potential


impact


activities


school


wil


years.


that g

1 have


There


rades


on them


is evidence


, attendance,


during


that


and


and


the


student


who


is more


career


mature


at ninth


grade


will


more


career


mature


Super,


1969a)


Moreover


, there


need


to communicate


information


to parents


students


personally


meaningful


way


Purpose


Study


purpose


study


was


to determine


effects


career


guidance


that


combined


career


assessment


with


individual


or small


group


career


planning


conferences


ninth-grade


students.


More


specifically


, in


this


study


investigation


was


made


of differences


in ninth-grade


students

school a


career


attendance


maturity,


self-concept


extracurricular


, grade-point

involvements


average,

as a


result


of partic


ipation


in one


two


career


guidance


and


couns


eling


activity


Two


groups


of students


completed


7ii- a r. w


llanr.4- ~ frnn rm V~ I


r a a


Dl =nn i n


Drnrnsm


r~n '\f C ; ^


r'1 n /n ^


E- I~












their parents


participated


in a


school


counselor-lead small


group School


Career


Planning Conference


(SCPC).


Hvyotheses


following


null


hypotheses were evaluated


this


study.


Each


these hypotheses was evaluated


the p


level


of significance.


Ho 1:


There


no difference


in ninth-grade


students'


career


maturity,


using


eighth-grade GPA as


a covariate,


as a


result


of participation


in any


the career planning


activities.


There


is no gender-based difference


career maturity


as a result of


participation


in career planning


activities.


There


is no ethnicity-based


career maturity


as a result of


difference


participation


in career planning


activities.


There


interaction


effect


for career


maturity


on the basis of


group,


gender


, and


ethnicity.


Ho 2:


There


no difference


in ninth-grade


students'


self-concept,


using


eighth-grade GPA as a


covariate,


- r a -


-L --


J.t.S fl--


i












There


is no gender-based


difference


in self-


concept


as a


result


of participation


career planning activities.


There


is no ethnicity-based difference


self-concept


as a


result


of participation


career planning


activities.


There


interaction


effect


for self-


concept on


the basis of


group,


gender


, and


ethnicity.


Ho 3:


There


no difference


in ninth-grade


students'


grade-point average


(GPA)


, using


eighth-grade GPA as a


covariate,


as a result


of participation


in any


of the


career planning


activities.


There


is no gender-based difference


in their


GPAs


as a result


of participation


in career


planning


activities.


There


their GPAs


no ethnicity-based


a result


difference


of participation


career planning


activities.


There


is no


interaction


effect


on the GPA on


the basis of


group,


gender


, and ethnicity.


Ho 4:


There


no difference


in ninth-grade


students'


school


-n i ,-ri. 4.1^ .rn-h AlT^ aA rl


rchl^-Nri ^^ 3 S^


~CCA~~IYI I. A


I /I *1f*












There


is no gender-based


difference


school


attendance


as a result


of parti-


cipation


in career planning


activities.


There


no ethnicity-based difference


school


attendance


participation


as a result of


in career planning


activities.


There


is no


interaction effect


on school


attendance


on the basis of


group,


gender,


ethnicity


Ho 5:


There


no difference


in ninth-grade students'


extracurricular

as a covariate,


involvement

as a result


using


eighth-grade GPA


of participation


in any


the career planning


There


activities.


no gender-based difference


extracurricular

participation i


involvements as a


n career planning


result of

activities.


There


is no ethnicity-based difference


extracurricular


involvements


as a


result of


participation


career planning


activities.


There


is no


interaction effect


extra-


curricular


involvement on the basis of


group,


gender,


ethnicity.


wn -


Th r0


nn di ffsranrna


in the


relationships


between


ayre


i












There


are


no differences


the


relationships


between


self


-concept


the


ninth-grade


GPAs


among


two


experimental


one


control


groups


Ho 8


There


are


no differences


in parents'


level


sati


sfaction


with


interaction


with


the


school,


their


attitude


toward


students'


school


adjustment


and


progress


or their


amount


of contact


with


the


school


among


the


experimental


and


one


control


groups


Definitions


purposes


this


study,


the


following


terms


are


defined


as follows.


Career


development


used


synonymously


with


vocational


development


occupational


development.


The


lifelong


crystalli


zing


opportunities


recreational,
Development in
investigation,


tional pos
thought of
(Tolbert,


process


of developing


a vocation


, and


and


trying


full-time


evolves
choice


sibiliti


as an aspect


1980,


identity,
out plans


work
ingly


increase
, and e


Career


work


values,


learning
in part-


about
time,


situations
effective


valuation


development


general


occupa-


may


development


. 25)


Career


education


the


sum


total


of experiences


people


have


acquiring


knowledge


and


attitudes


about


self and


work


skill


identify,


choose,


plan,


and


prepare


tnr r


nthcir


lifs


nnti nns


nntentiallv


comor:


isina


a career


anri


J












productive,


and satisfying part


of his


or her way


of life


(Hoyt,


1978).


A career guidance


program


is a


type of


counseling


program that can be


implemented by


high


school


counselors.


A systematic program of


counselor-coordinated


information
individual


experien


ces


designed


career development and,


facilitate


more


specifically, career management;
of career education integrating


and school


multiple
designed


to facilitate


processes, t
to assist an


a major
family,


self-direction;


techniques,
individual


component
community,
a set of


or services
to understand and


to act on self-knowledge,


and knowledge of


opportunities


in work,


education,


leisure and


to develop the decision-making


skill


by which


create and manage his


or her own


career


development.


(Herr


Cramer


, 1984,


The career guidance


testing program


is the


administration and


interpretation


results of


career


guidance


tests and/or


inventories


administered


to students.


A career guidance


test


is a


standardized


test


inventory which


yields quantitative scores


is made


up of


items


that measure


personal


characteristics


related


to career


options.


Career maturity


is the specific


level


career


development a


person has attained


compared


to his/her peers.


is defined


this


study


as a score on


the Career Maturity


T nnan 7T r












that


originate


in the classroom.


this


study they


are


those activities


the students


identify


on an extracurricular


involvements


inventory.


Grade-point average


GPA)


is defined


as the average of


set of


school


grades


based


on the


following


scale:


points


, (b)


points,


points,


point,


= no points.


pre-GPA,


which


was


used


as the


covariate,


semester of


was computed


the eighth-grade


courses


year on all


for the


students


second


in El,


and C.


The


post-GPA


was computed


for all


courses


for the


fall


semester of


the ninth-grade


year


for all


students


in El,


School


attendance


is the


number


of days a


student


present


in school


90 days


that


comprise


1988


fall


semester.


Self-concept


is the set


ideas and beliefs


one holds


about his or her


attributes


capacities


(Coopersmith,


1967).


is defined


this


study


as the


score a


student


receives on the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory.


Overview


the Study


remainder of


this


study


is organized


follows.


rbr T


i r rrnyoc 4 n't1UrI


ml 14a


1 t-orz'a*uirc


nrnC'C-i i^\M31


I l


f\ T-


| | |












Limitations


, conclusions,


discussion,


implications,


and


recommendations


are


provided


Chapter
















CHAPTER


REVIEW


OF THE


LITERATURE


In a historical


review


the


literature


on vocational


guidance,


Borow


(1984)


reported


that


the


concept


career


guidance


human


life


runs


labor


work


throughout


calls


should


the


history


diverse


be compatible


civilization.


talents


with


and


personal


That


temperaments,


makeup.


Accordingly,


Egyptians


practiced


a form


vocational


guidance


around


2500


B.C.


(Bedford,


1948).


In Plato'


Utopian


society


he proposed


that


an equitable


distribution


social


classes


could


be achieved


classifying


individuals


as statesmen,


soldiers,


and


laborers,


each


accordance


with


his/her


abilities


(Ozmon,


1969).


1575


Juan


Huarte,


a physician-philosopher


court


of Phillip


II of Spain


, outlined


a scheme


relating


physiological


aptitude


order


measures


to stop


to pursuits


waste


the


associated


arts


with


and


sciences


inappropriate


choice


career


training


(Brewer,


1942).


In 17th-


, 18th-


, and


19th-century


England,


the


rise


prominent


middle


class


brought


about


the


valuinca


V-


__












vocational


guidance.


Interest


was


taken


in entrepreneurial


and


personal


offering


moral


success


guidance


motives


and


literature


inspiration


focused


to individuals,


including


how


to know


oneself


better


how


to chart


one'


life


course


accordingly


Virtue


was


seen


hard


work,


personal


planning,


and


self


-advancement.


Although


there


was


institutional


form


of vocational


guidance,


the


social


philosophy


the


time


created


hospitable


conditions


later


establishment


of methods


guidance


of youth.


While


England


was


changing


socially


, a parallel


development


was


taking


place


America


(Borow,


1984)


Career


Guidance


the


United


States


In 1836


Edward


Hazen'


The


Panorama


Prof


ess


ions


Trade


, written


as a school


textbook


, was


published


Philadelphia.


In 1859


British


edition


of Readings


Younc


Men


. Merchants.


Men


Business


was


reprinted


Boston.


Prominent


intellectual


leaders


the


day,


recognizing


began


the


delivering


need


career


addresses


direction


on the


subject.


college


The


youth,


president


Harvard


University,


Charles


. Eliot,


understood


the


importance


of recogni


potentialities


youth


early


and


arranca na


their


development.


n 1892


Sin an address


_ _


I..


YL













society


to discover


develop


gifts


and


capacities


each


individual


child


(Borow


, 1984).


early


part


19th


century


the


first


sec


ondary


school


established


America


were


academic


designed


teach


Latin


Greek


and


prepare


young


men


a narrow


range


careers


requiring


a college


education.


However


, because


most


men


go to college


there


existed


a need


occupational


training


past


elementary


school

called


level.

because


Thus

they


the

taugh


first


"English


English


rather


igh s

than


schools"

Latin


(so

and


Greek)


were


created


Boston


1920


to meet


needs


occupational


training


Because


English


high


school


flourished w

difficulties


while


, they


college


were


academies


combined


into


faced


financial


"comprehensive


high


schools"


comprehensive


order

e high


save


school


the

was


academies


serve


The


purpose


students


of the


, through


either


college


preparation


or occupational


training


However


, within


a short


time


, the


occupational


training


aspects


Engli


comprehensive


high


sh high


school


school


came


was


focus


subverted,


primarily


academic


curricula


(Hoyt,


Evans


, Mangum


, Bowen,


Gale


1977)


Tr-n r: rn a


c.l- ,--L


nnnC~~r~~


rl


U


Tu L*


A


~A AC C


k A












educational


guidance.


During


the


next


decade


an engineer


turned


social


worker


, Frank


Parsons,


was


concerned


about


workers


children


caught


the


rapidly


changing


condition


American


industry


Therefore,


he established


the Vocation

1908. This


Bureau

marked


in the


Civic


beginning


Service


House


vocational


Boston


guidance


movement


in public


schools.


Vocational


guidance


then


was


concerned

relative


with


to their


helping


future


students


work


make


and


choices


vocations


and


decisions


(Aubrey,


1977,


1982).


years


since


Parsons


spearheaded


implementation


of a systematic


vocational


guidance


movement


America,


many


changes


have


occurred.


example,


1913


the


National


Vocational


Guidance


Association


(NVGA)


was


formed


introduce


concept


of vocational


education


vocational


guidance


to schools


throughout


country.


The


National


Society


Promotion


of Industrial


Education


(NSPIE)


was


instrumental


identifying


the


need


reform


and


was


moving


force


creation


NVGA


(Tolbert,


1980).


Smith-Hughes


Vocational


Education


Act


of 1917


to the


establishment


to 4


years


of occupational


training


high


schools.


1913


National


Commission


on the


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manpower


needs


of local


communities


, primarily


the


areas


of agriculture


home


economic


(Hoyt


, Evans


, Mackin,


Mangum


, 1974)


In 1918


Educational


Polici


Commission


developed


a list


of 10 curriculum


needs


to be addressed


secondary


school


The


commission


listed


as the


first


need


necessity


high


school


level


training


"salable


skill


and


work


activities


" (Alexander,


Saylor,


& Williams,


1971)


. Hoyt


et al. (1977)


noted,


however,


that


despite


the


recommendations


these


commi


ssiOnS,


vocational


education


was


still


a low


priority


throughout


the


first


half


century.


Tolbert


(1980)


wrote


that


the


intervening


decades


from

has


the

lost


early

its 1


part


egacy


of being


Oth c

part


century


the


vocational


social


guidance


reform


movement


and


position


as an essential


part


vocational


education.


A separation


developed


between


guidance


and


vocational


education.


Vocational


education


has


aligned


itself


with


siness


world


and


guidance


has


become


almo


completely


that


identified


oss


with


of identity


education.


stemming


from


Stephens


(1970)


early


noted


split


still


has


been


remedied.


In 1960


"Project


Talent,


a large


-scale


longitudinal


n f hi rrh


c nIh nn 1


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this


study


ushered


a resurgence


interest


in the


vocational


education


movement.


Ressler


(1973)


noted


that


vocational


educators


of the


1960s


began


to point


that


only


a small


percentage


future


jobs


would


require


a college


degree,


whereas


need


skilled


paraprofessional


and


technicians


was


projected


to be


very


high.


Vocational


Education


Act


of 1963


was


an attempt


redirect


high


school


curricula


order


to bridge


gap


between


education


work.


The


intent


the


act


was


make


vocational


education


more


flexible


and


attractive


more


students


programs,


expansion


development


of existing


new


programs,


vocational


providing


part-time


employment


youth


vocational


training


, and


expanding


vocational


training


include


adults


and


handicapped


individuals.


Ressler


(1973)


noted


that


this


legislation


little


impact


two


reasons.


First,


information


training


related


careers


was


empha


sized


students


facilities


and


high


schools


provided


and


those


adult


in the


education


elementary


middle


schools.


Second,


the


separation


of vocational


education

vocational


from


general


programs


due


education


the


created


emphasis


a poor


most


image


schools


for

placed


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education


into


the elementary


and middle


schools and


included


related academic


instruction


as part of vocational


training.


Thus,


for the


first


time,


vocational


guidance designed


to aid


students


in making


career


choices was viewed a


necessary part


of vocational


education


programs.


Career orientation courses


also were


incorporated


into


the movement.


In a


1967


report,


the Advisory Council


on Vocational


Education stated that


vocational


education


cannot be


limited


the skills


necessary


those


for a


specific occupation.


aspects of


educational


best defined as


experience which help


individuals


discover their talents,


relate them to


the world


of work,


choose an occupation,


them successfully


employment.


refine


their talents,


Evans,


Mangum,


and use


Pragan


(1969)


proposed


that


the new direction


in vocational


education


laid


the groundwork


for the career education


movement


Career


1970s.


Education


Although


term


"career


education"


new


it has been


shown that


the goals of


career


education originated


the


vocational


guidance movement.


Marland


(1974)


wrote


that


"theory"


behind


career


education


fundamentally similar to


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Career education was officially birthed


in 1971


when the


Commissioner


priority


of Education,


Sidney


the United States


Marland,


Office


made


of Education.


Marland


(1974)


reshape


proposed that


career


the educational


education had


system


in the


the


potential


United States.


He saw


career education as a


concept


that would


continue


throughout


a student's


stay


in school


from kindergarten


through


senior


high school


and beyond.


It also was


hope


that all


students


leaving


school


would


possess the


skills


necessary to


give


themselves a start


toward making


livelihood


themselves and


their


families even


they


did not


complete


school.


field


such


of education


instant acceptance and


concepts


acclaim as career


have


received


education.


The


United States


"ills"


needed a


redirection


its educational


system.


try to


Marland


remedy


(1979)


some of


noted


that only


one


five high


school


students


received


vocational


training


only


one


five


finished


four years


of college.


Although


only


the high school


students


completed a

were heavily


college degree


oriented


toward


, high


school


college


counseling


preparation.


activities


Three


five of


the students


who should have


received


preparation


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four and


one-half


years


through


the


first semester of the


1984-85


school


year.


found


that


9,005


.8%)


students


graduated,


3,118


.6%)


transferred


to other schools


, 1,135


students were still


in school,


5,563


(29.5%)


dropped


of school.


Thus,


three


of ten


(and possibly more)


students were dropping


of school.


According to Stern


(1987)


costs,


, dropping


both


is associated with a


individual


wide


to society.


variety


It most


probably


results


in limited


occupational


and


economic


opportunities.


Additionally,


a high


dropout


rate may


cause


society to


increase government expenditures


to assist


individuals and their


families,


high


crime rates,


maintenance of

Unfortunately,


costly programs


vocational


education


employability training.

programs which might


prepare students


for jobs are available


to only


one


five


students


(Marland,


United States Office of


Education has carefully


refrained


from giving a definition of


career education.


They


have preferred


instead


to let state and


local


agencies define


it according to


their


own


needs


(Marland,


1974).


Herr


(1977)


broadly


defined career education as


the


totality


experiences through which a


person


learns about and prepares


a~r


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people


to make work a meaningful,


productive,


and satisfying


part


their


lives


(Sears,


1982) .


Career


education


definitions and


programs


are diverse;


however


, most


of them share


following


common


features


(Baird,


1975,


integration


of career development


through


entire curriculum.


The


integration of


school


community through


exploratory work and volunteer

3. Hands-on experiences

4. Self-awareness and un


experience

in career


derstandin


es


in the community.


exploration.

g in order to develop


coordinate one's


self


in relation


to one's career.


Awareness


of options


the realm of human values


and relating values


to career patterns.


Career resource centers


In-service


Counseling


training


, placement,


faculty.


follow-up services.


Career education


then was


spawned


as an


effort


redirect education


in a


way that would help each


child


entering

wanted t


school


leave with knowledge


o do vocationally.


However,


and skill


to a


of what he/she


large extent,


vocational


education and


guidance have been


split


focus


I -


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need


career guidance has


evolved


from vocational


guidance.



Career Guidance


Herr


and Cramer


(1984)


observed


that


use of


the term


"career guidance"


been


tentative


for nearly


years,


and


that


it has


been


common


use


only


since


the early


1970s.


both an old and


a new term.


is old


in the sense


that


heritage


is derived


from


years


of vocational


guidance


in America.


is new


because


its concepts,


publics,


and emphases are more extensive


associated with


earlier models


than


of vocational


those ty

guidance.


rpically

Herr


and Cramer continued by noting that


following


forces have


increased


the comprehensive nature of


career guidance:


emerging theoretical


perspectives,


rapid


changes


occupations,


economic realities,


legislative


mandates,


unemployment,


concerns


about


the quality


work life and worker productivity,


the school-to-work transition,


more


questions


concerning


participation


labor market of women and minorities,


advancement


technologies,


consumerism


in career guidance.


concept of


career guidance


known


today thus has been


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guidance


services


youth


adults


areas


career


planning


, job


search,


adjustment.


Increasingly


career


guidance


being


sought


adult


population.


Herr


Cramer


(1984)


wrote


that


most


contemporary


adults


have


little


opportunity


adolescents)


assess


their


own


characteristic


, to


investigate


how


their


values


goals


could


be achieved


to know


vocational


alternatives


available


to them.


However


, the


need


career


guidance


is not


confined


adults;


adolescents


public


schools


and


colleges


continue


to need


assistance.


Prediger


, Roth


, and


Noeth


(1973)


, in


a study


involving


students


eighth,


ninth


eleventh


grades


school


found


following


prominent


career


guidance


needs


among


adolescents


more


than


one


-half


eleventh


graders


almost


as many


eighth


graders


wanted


help


with


career


planning;


eleventh


graders


chose


"making


career


plans"


as the


major


area


of need


from


a list


of needs


such


as improving


personal


concerns


study


or academic


or financial


help


skills

for c


course


college;


selection,


over


half


eleventh


graders


and


slightly


more


eighth


graders


state


that


they


received


little


or no help


with


career


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stereotyping


of mal


female


roles


since


over


half


the


eleventh


grade


girls


selected


jobs


three


, clerical,


nursing


education


or 25


available


areas


and


over


one-


half


eleventh


graders


were


uncertain


as to whether


their


educational


plans


were


in line


with


the


occupations


they


were


considering,


approximately


one


-fourth


were


sure


they


would


be able


to complete


the


steps


necessary


entering


those


occupations.


Career


Guidance


Programs


1971


response


increased


attention


given


career


guidance


career


development,


American


Vocational


Guidance


Association


Association


(AVA)


(NVGA)


the


developed


National


a position


Vocational


statement


that


presented


purpose


assist


basic el

position


individual


ements


statement


planning


career

was t


development.


o provide


, organizing,


standards


implementing,


and


evaluating


quality


career


guidance


programs


(NVFA,


1979).


following


assumptions


provide


the


conceptual


framework


position


paper


(NVGA,


1979


, pp.


100-


101)


Development


occurs


during


the


lifetime


individual


. It can


be described i


S.


maturational


terms












evidence


is lacking,


it seems


unlikely that


intervention can


substantially


shorten


this maturational


process.


Individual


development


influenced by both


heredity


environment.


Psychological,


sociological,


educational,


political,


economic,


physical


factors affect


development.


Appropriate


intervention strategies


that


focus


on these


factors can


influence


quality


individual


development.


Development


a continuous process.


Individual


development


strategies


can best be


that begin


facilitated by


the early years


intervention


continue


throughout


life of


person.


Programs


that


focus only


at certain


points or


at certain stages


in the


individual


life will


have


limited


effectiveness.


Although development


is continuous,


certain aspects


are dominant at various


periods


in the


life span.


Programs


designed


to facilitate career development


should account


the dominant aspects at given


stages.


Individual


development


involves a


process


differentiation and


perceived world


integration


Intervention


person's


strategies need


self


to be designed


to assist


individuals


during normal


maturational


stages of


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Although common developmental


stages


can be observed


and described


during


childhood and adult


life,


individual


differences


in progressing through


these stages


can be


expected.


Intervention


programs


should provide


for these


differences,


making


no assumption


that


something


"wrong"


with


those who progress at atypical


rates.


Excessive deprivation with


respect


to any


single


aspect of human development


can retard


optimal


development


other


areas.


Optimal human development programs are


comprehensive


in nature,


limited


to any


single


facet.


recognized that


those who


suffer


from deprivation may


require special


intensive assistance.


Where deprivation


long-term


Thus


intervention


, career guidance


likely to


is a program of


be sufficient.


activities


organized


at all


educational


levels


(i.e.,


kindergarten


through


twelfth


grade)


as a means


of facilitating the process


of career development


understood


that


career


development,


as a lifelong


developmental


process,


normally


occurs


regardless


the presence of


structured career


guidance activities


However


is enhanced by appropriate


career guidance activities.


In addition


, a quality


career


guidance program should not be separated


4 n a 1i f ta ar a .. -7 a ft r


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experiences.


Career guidance


programs


also


should


the


particular needs of


local


setting.


Career guidance


programs


exist


in different


forms


schools.


Many high


schools have occupational


specialists


coordinate career guidance


programs.


However


due


to the


large caseloads

the high schools

comprehensively.


overwhelming numbers of


, career guidance often


Typically,


career guidance program


adolescents


is not


addressed


large high schools


is developed


in a


even


comprehensive


fashion


student

guidance


can meet


population.


the needs


Therefore,


is demonstrated,


of only


as the need


the role of


fraction


for more career


the school


counselor


becomes


increasingly


complex.


The Role


of School


Counselors


in Career Guidance


The American School


Counselor


Association


(ASCA,


1974)


established a


role and


function statement


for high school


counselors.


services


It states


in a


school


that guidance


is part


function of


of student


every member of the


school'


educational


(counseling)


team.


School


counselors


have


primary responsibility


leadership of


guidance program


They


, as well


as other team members,


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staff


consultation,


parent


assistance,


student


self-


appraisal,


educational-vocational


information


presentation


planning,


referral


to allied


community


agencies,


and


public


relations.


School


counselors


work


with


students,


teachers,


administrators,


parents,


and


community


agenci


es.


In 1981,


Miller


was


asked


ASCA


to update


the


role


and


function


focus


statement


on the


of high


developmental


school


and


counselors


consultative


include


aspects


guidance


service.


The


following


four


functions


were


highlighted:


ma3or


functions


performed


school


counselors


are


developmental


guidance


with


students,


consultation


with


teachers,


and


consultation


with


teachers


parents;


school


counselors


are


responsible


for


the


organization


and


availability


of comprehensive


information


systems


purpose


of helping


students


with


educational-


vocational


planning


decision-making;


school


counselors


should


assist


students


with


assessment


their


personal


characteristics


(such


as competencies,


interests,


aptitudes,


needs,


and


level


career


maturity)


to help


students


make


the


best


personal


choices


areas


such


course s

choices;


election,


and


post-high


school


school


counselors


planning,

should pr


and


-ovide


career

remedial


intervention nn


al t'mrnati uce


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ctiri-nntn


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Other


organize


nations


related


to education


and


guidance


also


issue


role


statements


counselors


For


example


, the


United


States


Office


of Education


the


American


Association


Counseling


Development


(AACD)


both


have


issued


policy


statements


which


sugge


the


role


school


counselor


in career


education.


Hoyt


et al. (1977)


reviewed


such


career


statements


education


pres


ented


as having


four


school


counselors'


functions


the


role


school


counselor


as career


education


coordinator


, (b)


school


counselor


as provider


of occupational


information,


school


counsel


as teacher


of deci


sion-making


skill


, and


school


counselor


as career


development


theori


one


were


"overlay"


ASCA


role


and


function


statements

statements


AACD-United


on career


States


education,


Office

the


of Education


career


role


guidance


program


goals


described


previous


section),


many


areas


of commonality


would


be noted.


However


, in


the


actual


school


setting


career


guidance


students


frequently


lost


flurry


to deal


with


crisis


situations


and


to provide


college-bound


students


appropriate


information


(Marland,


1979)


example,


Herr


and


Cramer


(1984)


found


that


many


students


think


no further


than


gaining


access


to college,


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There


been


confusion


and


frustration


some


counselors


, parents


, students


, and


teachers


over


how


school


counselors


should


prioritize


the components


their


jobs.


In that


regard,


Sparacio


(1980)


examined


impediments


four


factors


role


and

that

and f


functions

hindered


unction


of school


the

the


counselors


formation

school c


of a clear


counselor.


They


found


statement

First.


there


was


egal


mechani


established


to regulate


practice


or title


of school


counselor


Second,


school


administrators


teachers


students


lacked


a clear


understanding


the


competencies


of school


counselors


, which


did


allow


counsel


potential


to be recognized


Third,


was


seen


as imperative


counselor


educators,


who


teach


aspiring


skill


school


counselors


continuously


Fourth,


, to maintain


school


upgrade


counselors


their


themselves


must


sess


a sense


purpose


be goal


directed


their


settings.


Martin


(1983)


wrote


that


the


end


the


decade


the


structure


of guidance


will


have


changed.


He li


sted


four


categories


face


of chronic


school


difficult


high


that


demand


counselors


counselor


currently


services


coupled


with


high


counselor-to-student


ratios


, (b)


emphasis


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In a recent


study


Hutchinson,


Barrick


Groves


(1986),


secondary


school


counsel


lors


in public


school


were


surveyed


on the


actual


ideal


perceptions


their


functions.


authors


identified


roles


functions


survey


from


1966


ASCA


-ACES


definition


functions


of school


counselors


The


instrument


consisted


items


separated


into


three


categories


identified


counseling,


consulting


, and


coordination.


Fifty


-Six


secondary

surveyed.


school

The s


couns


ample


elors

include


three


counties


ed counselors


from


in Indiana


large,


were


medium,


small


school


inner


city


, rural


urban


school


average


student


-counselor


ratio


was


395.6/1


and


the


return


rate


was


These


school


counselors


believed


their


five


ideal


functions


, in descending


order


, were


individual


personal


counseling,


academic


counseling,


group


counsel


ling,


career


life


planning


, and


parent


conferences


function,


actual


Although


functioning


ranked


fourth


career


as an ideal


life


planning


placed


ninth


Career


life


planning


group


counseling


were


replaced


five


actual


counselor


functions


scheduling


testing.


Helms


Ibrahim


(1985)


surveyed


parents


and


S


-S


4- ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ fl A-A 1 S.A* n a1 a- a I- rA A


c,,,- a


1


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L


A












agreed


career


on the


importance


counseling


of job


appe


ars


placement


that


vocational/


consumers


parents


are


ess


intere


sted


"counseling"


more


eres


in career


guidance


than


are


school


counsel


lors


Marland


(1974)


also


found


in a survey


American


public


that


respondents


wanted


public


school


to give


more


emphasis


study


trades


, professions


, and


businesses


to help


students


decide


on careers


Perrone


(197


measured


sample


of eighth-


ninth-


grade


students


"readiness


voc


national


plans


" after


their


teachers


been


given


year


-long


in-service


training


on how


students


vocational


integrate


through


develop


curriculum.


information


vocational


presented


maturity


He suggested


various


that


modes


prese


nation


at strategic


developmental


levels


there


should


an earlier


focus


on vocational


aspects


the


home


that


parents


students


should


be regularly


informed


regarding


student'


know


edge


of school


, work,


self


and


how


to integrate


three;


meeting


with


students


individually


had


an advantage


in assess


communicating


knowledge


about


vocational


aspects


because


did


rely


student'


reading


leve


Prowro i nor


,.* *1if


nnflt t or


1aa Q\ \


Scancc e


t* ra Fl e


1 n C?4"'nT












reported


receiving


career


planning


help


from


their


schools.


years


ahead,


school


counselors


will


need


to carefully


career


guidance


priority


, encourage


teacher


parti


cipation


in career


development


activity


use


time


efficiently


address


needs


many


students


on an individual


basi


, develop


career


guidance


interventions


that


are


theoretically


based


assessment


at strategic


developmental


points),


creative


in the


development


new


, more


effective


strategic


es.


Super'


Career


Development


Theory


In 1953


Super


proposed


theory


career


development


which


he believed


was


inherent


in and


emergent


from


the


research


philosophy


of psychology


and


counselors


over


decades


of work.


postulating


career


development


theory


Axelrad


, Super


, and


drew


Herma


upon


work


(1951)


done


who


Ginzberg


eculated


that


, Ginsberg,


career


development


was


a process


that


culminated


in an occupational


choi


in an individual'


early


twenti


es.


Ginzberg


and


colleagues


gave


credence


notion


that


vocational


behavior


finds


roots


in a child's


early


life


develops


over


time.


Herr


Cramer


(1984)


wrote


that


Super


made


t\or\


rd ar4f l 1nmh7urC ,a t. n 1


r~l Q a


C .


n h ~n~ rr n a 1


rJ Altn 1 nnrrr n C~ C












The basic theme


is that


people


choose


j obs


that allow them to


function


in roles consistent with


their self-concepts.


Super's


theory


been


labeled a


developmental


self-


concept


theory


of vocational


behavior


by Osipow


(1983).


Super


(1963)


himself


stated


theory


is based


differential-developmental-social-phenomenological


psychology.


However,


regardless of what


called,


Super


intricately woven


developmental


psychology


into career


development


formulate his


theory


Herr


Cramer,


1984).


It appears


that Super was


influenced


strongly


by two groups.


He was


first


influenced


relative


to self-concept


theory


through writings of people such as


Rogers


(1942)


, Carter


(1940),


Bordin


(1943


, all


of whom suggested


that


behavior


is a


reflection


an individual's


attempt


implement


self-descriptive and


self-evaluative


thoughts.


other words,


a person


rejects


an occupational


field


consistent


with his/her self-view.


The


second major


influence


on Super was


work


of Buehler


(1933)


field of


developmental


psychology who suggested


that


life can


be viewed


Super


as consisting


of distinct stages.


formulated his theory


the basis of


following


10 propositions


(Super


, 1953):


r-u fa a -3^ j,


-tlL! j^


*- t -


I












Each


these occupations


requires


a characteristic


pattern of


abilities,


interests,


and personality traits,


with


tolerances wide enough,


however


, to allow both some


variety


of occupations


each


individual


some


variety


individuals


in each


occupation.


Vocational


preferences


competencies


(the


situations


in which


people


live and


work)


and hence


their


self-concepts


, change with


time


experience


(although


self-concepts are generally


fairly


stable


from


late


adolescence until


late maturity)


, making


choice and


adjustment a


continuous process.


This


process may be summed


in a


series of


life


stages characterized


establishment,


as those


maintenance,


of growth,


decline,


exploration,


and these stages may


in turn be subdivided


into


the


fantasy,


tentative,


realistic phases of


exploratory


stage


trial


and stable


phases of


the establishment stage.


The nature


the career pattern


(that


occupational


duration


level


trial


attained


stable


sequence,


jobs)


frequency,


is determined by the


individual


Soc


ioeconomic


level,


mental


ability


, personality


characteristics,


and by the


opportunity to which he


w n a- .3












interests


partly


aiding


in reality


testing


the


development


the


self-concept.


process


of vocational


development


essentially


that


of developing


implementing


a self-concept.


"compromise


process


in which


the


self


-concept


a product


the


endocrine


interaction


makeup,


inherited


opportunity


aptitudes,


to play


neural


various


and


roles,


evaluations


of the


extent


which


the


results


of role-


playing


meet


with


approval


superiors


and


fellows


The


process


compromise


between


individual


social


factors


between


self-concept


and


reality,


is one


of rol


playing,


life


whether


activities


the

such


role


played


as school


asses


fantasy

, clubs,


real


part-time


work,


and


entry


jobs.


Work


satis


faction


and


life


sati


sfactions


depend


upon


extent


to which


the


individual


finds


adequate


outlets


abiliti


, interests,


personality


traits,


values.


They


depend


upon


establishment


a type


work


, a role


which


growth


exploratory


experiences


have


him


to consider


congenial


and


appropriate


(pp.


189-190)


Thus,


Super'


(1953)


career


development


theory


concentrates


on four


major


areas


vocational


life


stages


vnocatl nnal


mRmRtllVi *u


fri


t+r"nc1 t* I rtrn


tho


ccl f--


, (b)


I r!a ro-r^












Vocational


Life Stages


the development


concept


of vocational


life


stages,


Super drew heavily upon


work


of Buehler


(1933).


Super


identified


five


vocational


life stages


the


approximate ages at which


they


occur.


The growth stage


(ages


0-14


the stage


in which


the self-concept develops


through


interaction with significant


people


person's


life.


an individual


passes


through


this


stage,


he/she


progresses


from a


state where needs


likes dominate hi


s/her


vocational


development


into a


state


where abilities


are given


a higher consideration


exploration


stage


(ages


15-24


is a


time when the


individual


goes


through a


period


of self-


examination and


through


role tryout.


three substages


an individual


, he/she considers


progresses


needs,


capacities,


values and


opportunities


and makes


a series of


tentative occupational


choices


based


on the assessments.


this stage


reality


factors


play


increasingly


important


role.


the establishment


stage


(ages


24-44),


the


individual


effort


finds an appropriate


secure a


field


firm place within


of work and makes an


field.


maintenance


stace


(ages


45-64)


individual


works


progress within the vocational


field which he/she has


I


A


a a 4 A /^ -^ i ^ -


cr l I",,4- A/ ^


^


LI*





n


n r rr nrr I ~ n rr n L L


r~ur \











exploration


stage


warrants


further


discussion


because


applicability


to thi


study


In the


course


work


done


on the


Career


Pattern


Studi


uper


and


colleagues,


insights


into


life


stages


and


the


developmental


tasks


which


compri


them


have


become


refined


(Herr


& Cramer,


discussed


as part


1984)


In updating


of the


exploration


writing,

stage.


age

Thi


now


stage


appears


to be a period


the


adol


esc


ent'


life


when


he/she


involved


self


-examination.


An individual


or small


group


career


planning


conference


as the


14-year-old


enters


high


school


therefore


should


provide


a timely


and


perhaps


critical


opportunity


to examine


self


It also


has been


substantiated


that


thi


adole


scents


tryout


roles


and


explore


occupations


taking


part


leisure


activity


part-time


work.


Being


involved


in extracurricular


activities


there fore


a practical


means


occupational


exploration.


Support


Super'


description


occurrences


during


exploration


stage


of development


can


be found


the


Career


Pattern


Studi


which


give


support


to Super'


concept


of vocational


floundering


life


during


stages.


early


There


appears


twenti


to be a period


as well


as a subsequent


settling


down


to a specific


occupation


during


the


mid-











Career


Maturity


Career


maturity


was


defined


Super


(1969b)


as the


behavior


a person


in comparison


to others


coping


with


same


vocational


"tasks


The


exploration


stage


three


substages


tentative


(ages


15-17),


transition


(ages


18-21)


, and


trial


little


commitment


(ages


22-24


Each


substage


has


a vocational


developmental


task


associated


with


During


tentative


substage


adolescents


explore


needs,


interests,


capacities


, values,


and


opportunities


related


self


and


career


choi


ces.


They


so through


discussion,


fantasy,


academic


courses


, part-time


or volunteer


work,


participation


in activities.


An adolescent'


vocational


task


the


tentative


substage


"crystalli


zing


a vocational


preference"


(Herr


Cramer,


1984;


Osipow


, 1983;


Tolbert,


1980;


Super,


1969b)


The


second


stage


the


exploration


stage


transition.


During


transition


substage


reality


considerations


are


given


more


weight


as individual


enter


labor


market


or professional


training


and


attempt


implement

choice is


a self-concept.


converted


the


to specific


choice.


time

The


when


generalized


vocational


task


appropriate


transition


substage


"specifying


vocational


preference.












tried


as a


potential


lifework.


vocational


task for


this substage


"implementing


a vocational


However


commitment


still


provisional


this


substage and


is not appropriate,


person may


reinstitute


process of


crystallizing,


specifying,


and


implementing a


preference


(Herr


Cramer


1984;


Osipow,


1983;


Tolbert,


1980) .


Many research studies


have


been done on Super's career


development


theory


example,


the Career


Pattern Study


was a


20-year,


longitudinal


study


eighth-


and ninth-


grade boys


that


investigated various


aspects of


Super's


theory.


In the study,


it was


found


that


career maturity


increases with


age and advancement


in school.


It also was


found


that most


ninth-grade boys


did not


seem


to have


career maturity needed


to make


sound


vocational


decis


ions


about


world


of work.


However,


it was


found


that at this


age career maturity


related


ability,


opportunity


taking


arousal


advantage of


interests and


such


use


opportunities


abilities,

(Super,


1969b)


It has


been shown


that aspects


of career maturity


ninth grade accurately predict


career maturity


the


twelfth


grade


at acre


Career maturity


. as iudaed by


level


preference.


. .


VI


.












career


guidance


or education


can


stimulate


career


development


many


students


(Herr


Cramer


, 1984)


Super


(1969b)


reported


additional


support


career


development


interventions


He wrote


that


boys


who


are


given


opportunities


out-of-school


who


use


opportunities


while


they


are


in school


tend


to make


good


use


their


later


career


measures


opportunity


career


es.


In addition,


maturity


high


been


school


found


predict


that


career


success


better


than


test


scores


or grades


Also


how


boys


deal


with


developmental


tasks


one


stage


tell


something


about


their


level


of maturity


later


life


Most


poignantly


, the


foundations


later


careers


are


laid


early


growth


years


(Herr


Cramer


, 1984)


Post

eleventh-

career ma


-Kammer


grade

turity


(1987)


students

between


a study


found


ninth-


of 885


no difference


ninth-


and


in the


eleventh-grade


level


students.


(402)


female


(483)


study


were


enrolled


in a public,


suburban


high


school


a large


midwestern


city


Ninety


black,


career


-three


percent


were


maturity


students


class


does not


ified


"other


increase


were


white


, 5%


surmised


with


ess


were


that


specific


activity


designed


increase


students'


levels


career


maturity


are


used.












Vocational


Self-Concept


The th

development


ird major area


theory


upon which Super'


is concentrated


career


translating the self-


concept


into a


vocational


self-concept.


This


premise


is of


maj or


importance


in Super


theory.


example,


Super


(1969b)


believed


that


the expression of


vocational


preference


is an attempt by the


individual


to state his/her


ideas of


the kind


of person he/she


in vocational


terms.


Therefore,


development


through


life


stages


coincides with


the development of


a vocational


self-concept.


Relatedly


person who


has a


poorly


defined self-concept


would


find it


difficult


to make sound vocational


choices or to


implement a


career plan.


According to Super


(1963


, self-concept


formation


requires an


individual


to recognize his/her uniqueness,


yet at


same


time be aware


the similarities


between


him/herself


integrated person


entity,


others.


is a


shifting somewh


indicate changes


The


self-concept


constantly

at through


necessary to


refl


changing

ut life a

ect reali


of a well-


and developing

s experiences

ty. Super


presumed


that vocational


self-concept


develops


in a


similar


way


individuals grow


in maturity,


they test


themselves


in many wav


mn.c;t


onf whil havy


1 mn i it i nnrnnc


* f r


,o rnr'+- "* ,-n 1


m












involved


in the career


change


of becoming


counselors


identified


their self-concepts


as being more


closely related


that of


a counselor than


to a teacher.


Blocher


and Schutz


(1961)


also


found that


the self-concepts of


their subjects


closely resembled their descriptions of people working

their most-preferred occupations.


Career


Patterns


fourth major


area


upon which


Super's career


development


theory


is concentrated relates


to career


patterns.


He believed


that


individuals


can be classified


according to career patterns.


example,


some


people


change


jobs


often throughout


life while others


tend


stabilize


in an occupation


long periods


time.


Stable,


conventional


career patterns


seem to characterize


those


individuals


of higher socioeconomic


levels


while


unstable


career patterns are more characteristic of


individuals


from


lower socioeconomic


levels


(Super,


1969b) .


Career Guidance


Interventions


Career guidance personnel


use


numerous


strategies


in an


effort


to intervene


in a


manner that


will


help


students be


vocational1v nrenar d tn


functi n


. I


resnonsiblv union


1eavina












school.


Students


may


know


exactly


what


they


want


to do,


but


they


should


have


"next


step"


plan.


Mackin


and


Hansen


(1981)


and


Prediger,


Roth,


and


Noeth


(1973)


noted


that,


unfortunately,


career


guidance


interventions


have


not


kept


pace


with


aspect


career


development


theory.


School


counselors


occupational


specialists


need


operate


from


a theoretical


base


the


development


career


guidance


interventions.


The


following


are


examples


various


programs,


activity


experiences


based


on career


development


theory


and


designed


increase


students'


vocational


self-concept


, knowledge,


and


awareness


(Hansen,


1967,


1972


Deci


sion-making


experiences.


Deci


sion-making


lessons


or activities


provided


eighth


and


ninth


graders


might

teacher


include


a seri


or school


of once-a-week


counselor


using


experiences


commercially


or locally


developed


materials


Industrial


and


education


field


trips.


Periodic


industrial


visits


scheduled


systematically


over


grades


ten,


eleven


, and


twelve


could


provide


students


with


firsthand


view


of several


occupations


training


institutions.


Counseling


Individual


or group


counseling


experiences


should


be provided


Points


the


eicrhth


r


^*j J


W* *


.. 1












Career


games.


Life


career


games


are


designed


help


students


examine


various


alternatives


to gain


erstanding


consequences


of alternatives


Career


resource


center


vis


its.


Most


school


have


well-developed


career


information


centers


where


students


can


to gather


educational


occupational


information.


College


repres


entative


vis


or college


nights


Colleges


send


repre


sentatives


to high


schools


to recruit


students


or to events


planned


which


many


colleges


exhibit


their


information


large


groups


of students.


Guest


speakers


Community


members


who


speak


asses


about


their


occupations


and


careers


Career


days


or career


fairs


Events


arranged


provide


students


with


opportunity


to hear


and


talk


business


professionals


about


their


job.


Career


shadowing


Much


like


a brief


internship,


students


can


spend


a day


"shadowing"


someone


which


they


are


interest


Computer-ba


career


interventions.


A relatively


new


development


the


field


career


guidance


use


computer-based


career


guidance


programs.


These


programs


have


been


designed


- a a a 1


- a


to provide g
a a. a a


guidance


functions


- C aI .8 -


/ r<,,,,


as well

- 1fl7fl.













changes


in the


United


States


have


shifted


from


inflationary


environment


to a predominantly


dis


inflationary


one,


this


shift


produced


a renewed


interest


in career


development


processes


Adol


esce


no longer


can


defer


until


their


senior


year


high


school


serious


consideration


their


educational


vocational


futures


Tyhey


need


to be


aware


economici


realities


" such


as the


high


rate


unemployment


critical


nature


need


educational


and


career


planning


future.


Super


(1983)


noted


that


purpose


career


planning


activity


raise


career


awareness


of students.


contended


that


"awareness


a much


used


term


in career


education


, has


meanings.


The


first


is arousal


recognition


of a need


sec


knowledge


understanding


He postulated


that


career


guidance


neglected


first


meaning


assumed


that


students


are


ready


second


meaning


awareness.


The


career


planning

designed


activity

to help


developed


students


first


this


study


recognize


have


the


been


need"


to focus


on aspects


their


career


planning


second


"become


more


knowledgeable


understanding"


their


career


responsibilities


choices.


_2 _


C it fl m r r a '7a 1 a V., ar n I-'~ I(t -'7 I


knhr na ,,l 1


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1T


1 ^^vm w^\v\


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1^^


I- _


________


~ n~rAnr nh


A












with


parental


involvement


will


have a


positive


impact on


career maturity,


self-concept,


extracurricular


involvements,


grades,


and attendance of


ninth-grade


students


first


semester of


their ninth-grade


year.


Career Guidance Assessment


Unfortunately,


large


numbers


of schools career


guidance simply means


the administration


aptitude


tests


students.


According to Super


(1957) ,


career guidance


actually means educational


vocational


guidance


aimed at


helping


students make a


life


as well


as make


a living.


requires


that


systematic effort be made


to reach all


students


as they make curricular


extracurricular


choices during


high school,


and as


they


decide


what


to do after high school.


A comprehensive and


provides career assessment,


effective career guidance program


it also provides


information about


the world


of work


, (b)


education about


what


jobs are available,


experience


(both direct and


vicarious)

potential


with

roles


the world


the world


of work,


of work,


insights


and


into


career planning


and decision-making


skills


(Prediger


Ferguson,


1982


Students are


interested


getting help with


education


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grade


students


surveyed


demonstrated


effective


career


planning


strategies.


Mitchell


(1977)


reported


that


only


one-


third


of 17-year-olds


could


name


appropriate


skills


needed


their


preferred


occupations.


Hutchison


and


Bottorff


(1986)


surveyed


college


students


about


their


school.


The


counseling


interactions


study


serve


with


compared

ices with


school


the

the


counselors


students'

counseling


while


"expressed

a services


high


needs

they


"actually


received"


from


their


high


school


counselors.


was


found


that


the


students


believed


they


needed


career


counseling


high


school,


but


only


reported


that


they


received


career


counseling.


This


investigation


also


revealed


that


two


important


areas


student


need


(i.e.,


career


counseling


and


personal


counseling)


were


not


being


addressed


sufficiently.


Relatedly,


Leviton


(1977)


polled


students


to determine


what


they


felt


were


the


most


important


guidance


functions


of school


counselors.


Students


ranked


getting help

as the most


from


counselors


important


guidance


on high


school


function


and


program

getting


planning


help


post-high


school


planning


as the


second


most


important


function.


Historically,


career


guidance


programs


have


consisted


mainly


-a


the


use


of ability


tests


and/or


interest












supplant,


career


guidance


efforts.


As Prediger


Ferguson


(198


suggested,


maj or


role


tests


in career


guidance


to stimulate


career


exploration


as well


as the


exploration


of self


relation


careers


the


world


becomes


more


complex


more


vocational


choices


become


available


, students


face


the


difficult


task


identifying


goals


career


options


characteristic


Cs.


appropriate


A major


their


function


personal


of school


counselors


therefore


provi


sion


career


guidance


provide


students


with


a broad


view


their


options


help


them


pursue


those


options.


Prediger


and


Ferguson


(1982)


suggest


that


"focused


exploration"


the


most


appropriate


phra


to describe


task


career


guidance


personnel


Tests


other


assessment


proce


dures


can


provide


focus


career


exploration.


However,


focus


that


singles


"right"


occupation;


rather,


identify


options


exploration


Career


development


theory


common


sense,


suggest


that

more


more


is required


is required


of students


of school


couns


than


elors


taking


than


tests


giving


tests


that

for


career


planning


to be of


value.


career


planning


test


program


moot


combined


Prorl i nor


with


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school


orricn /


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(1QP9\


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Career guidance


testing


programs selected


should


reflect the


fact


that a


career


"cuts


the core"


life.


That


a broad range


of personal


characteristics and


concerns


are


relevant


to career planning,


so the program


should,


at a minimum,


assess


a student's multiple abilities


interests.


Score


reports


from


test


results must have


capacity to help school


counselors


students


"bridge the


gap"


between


test


scores


their


implications.


The


reports


should have built-in procedures


for translating test data


counseling


information.


is best


students


can


follow


procedures and


translate


information on


their own.


critical


for students


to have help


transforming test


information


into experience


the


test


data are


to have a


lasting


effect


on career development.


order


a testing program to


the students


to do something


be effective


as a result of


it must motivate


their


participation


in the


program


Therefore,


test


results should


be accompanied by materials


that encourage and


facilitate


career


exploration.


Through


counseling,


students


can


evaluate what


they


learned


from


taking the


test.


Engen,


Lamb


, and


Prediger


(1982


analyzed


responses


from


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student


caseloads


of school


counselors.


Therefore,


imperative


career


to develop


planning


a sound,


stimulation


efficient


plan


experiences


delivering


to all


students


regard


ess


their


post-high


school


plans.


Miller


(1982)


reported


on trends


1970s


that


influenced


the


development


and


use


tests


for


career


counseling,


guidance,


and


education:


introduction


and


widespread


adoption


career


education


programs;


increased


emphasis


on equality


including


the


rights


handicapped


people


and


women;


increased


interest


working


with


adults


from


the


baby-boom


generation;


development


and


administration


of widescale


assessment


programs


at both


national


and


state


level


development


of computer

reporting,


technology


in the


computerized


areas


guidance


test


systems


scoring,

; (f) decreased


funding


educational


programs;


increased


public


awareness


testing.


The


results


of these


developments


was


an increased


interest


and


awareness


the


use


testing


career


planning


Thi


in turn


stimulated


efforts


to develop


new


methods


scoring


and


reporting


results.


An effort


was


made


to develop


multidimensional


instruments


which


provided


fh\


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major


assis


tance


in translating


appraisal


information


into


counseling


information


(Miller,


1982).


Examples


these


multidimensional


instruments


are


Career


Planning


Program


(American


College


Testing


Program


, 1983)


which


combines


measures


of interests


experience


, abiliti


student


information;


Differential


Aptitude


Test


Career


Planning


Profile


uper,


1973)


which


includes


with


a career


planning


questionnaire


to provide


interpretive


career


planning


report;


Planning


Career


Goal


, developed


American


Institutes


Research


1977) ,


which


measures


life


career


plans


Kuder


, interests


Career


, general


Development


information


Inventory


, and


(Kuder


abiliti


& Diamond


and


, 1975) ,


which


measures


school


nonschool


experiences


, attitudes,


plans


achievements


interests


The


Career


PlanninQ


Proaram


(CPP)


The


was


selected


use


this


study


several


reasons


based


on career


development


theory;


been


simple


thoroughly


administration


rese


arched


procedures;


has practical


the


score


and


reporting


procedures


are


concise,


thorough,


lend


themselves


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of this


research therefore could


provide suggestions


on how


to more


effectively use


the CPP


career guidance


strategies.


The CPP


interest


is a


inventory,


combination


of an ability test battery,


scales assessing


career-related


experiences,


and a background


plans


inventory.


The


comparatively


brief


total


testing time of two and


one-half


hours


is an advantage,


is the


fact


that


it can be


scheduled


in a single


session.


A major purpose of the CPP


to help school


counselors


use


their time more


effectively


when assisting


students with


their


career planning.


school


counselor's


time


saved


through


use of


group


administration


thus enables


them


to provide strengthened and


enhanced


follow-up activities with


individuals.


The primary


goals of


the CPP are


to help


students expand


self-awareness,


develop career awareness,


identify personally


relevant


career


options,


and begin exploring


evaluating those options.


The CPP materials were designed specifically to help


students


identify


explore


personally relevant


career


options.


The materials are based


on the


premise


that self-


information


is related


to career


information.


When the CPP


is used students obtain an overview


the work world and,


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Interest


Scales


Unisex


Edition


the


ACT


Interest


Inventory


(UNIACT)


assess


preferences


of work-related


activities


with


scales


organi


acc


ording


the


types


of interests


Experience


described


Scales


Holland'


assess


(1973)


career-related


theory


careers


experiences


which


parallel


six


areas


measured


the


interest


scal


es.


The


Ability


Scal


assess


level


of development


six


areas


relevant


career


planning:


reading


skill


numerical


skill


, language


usage,


mechanical


reasoning,


space


relations,


clerical


speed/accuracy


The


Self-Ratings


of Abilities


is a structured


self-rating


exercise


which


ass


ists


individual


rating


themselves


nine


ability


areas


not


easily


measured


tests


helping


others,


creative/artistic)


The


program


uses


circular


configuration


of occupations


suggested


Roe


and


Klos


(1969)


These


configurations


are


also


compatible


with


the


results


of research


on Holland'


types


of interests


occupations


(Prediger


1982


After


students


have


taken


CPP


, they


receive


a two-


page


score


report


("Your


Career


Planning


Report")


which


integrates


scores


on all


measures


around


the


theme


of job


clusters


and


4-page


interpretive


booklet


(CPP


Career


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interpretation


leads


students


the


identification


specific


occupations


Students


are


encouraged


narrow


list


of job


family


to explore


at least


one


"trial


choice.


CPP


was


normed


on a sample


of 2


000


high


school


students


from


high


school


states.


Interval


reliability


ability


coefficients


measures


range


from


, from


the


interest


scal


from


the


experience


scal


Test


-retest


reliability


coefficients


over


a 9-week


period


ranged


from


ability


measures


, from


on the


interest


measures


, and


from


on the


experience


measures


(ACT


, 1984)


The


CPP


validity


has


been


evaluated


several


ways.


Correlations


between


overall


grade-point


averages


compo


site


scores


ability


measures


yielded


coefficient


criterion-related


validity


The


construct


validity


illustrated


through


intercorrelation


measures


with


other


ability


interest


measures.


Individual


Group


Counseling


Krumbol


Z (1966)


wrote


that


"what


we need


to know


which


procedures


techniques


, when


used


to accompli


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importantly,


as extens


ively


and


comprehensively,


national


studi


He broadly


defined


an intervention


as an


activity or

development.

presenting r


program in

It could


results


tended


be as bri


interest


facilitate


career


as administering


inventory


and


or as extends ive


as a full


-year


course


on career


development


The


treatment


rese


arch


study


incorporates


career


assessment


coupled


with


(one


individual


one


group)


career


planning


conferences.


public


functional


school


feasible


setting


treatments


there


that


a need


can


find


be carried


existing


per


sonnel


that


also


are


cos


effective


Therefore,


found


that


results


from


either


both


the


treatments


in thi


study


make


a significant


difference


in the


desired


outcomes


, then


possible


that


this


career


guidance


intervention


could


implemented


other


schools.


Hanson


Sander


(1973


studied


the


differential


effects


individual


counseling


compared


group


counseling


on the


"realism"


career


choices


of 60 eleventh-


twelfth-grade


boys


The


students


were


divided


into


groups


of 30


"overshooters"


students


aspiring


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then


into


three


intervention


groups:


individual


counseling,


group


counseling,


a control


group.


Both


individual


group


counseling


were


more


effective


than


intervention.


Krumbolz


Thorenson


(1964)


also


studied


effects


of individual


versus


group


counseling


One


hundred


ninety-


eleventh-grade


students


were


randomly


ass


signed


individual


group


settings


in which


similar


counseling


strategies


were


used


couns


elors.


Both


types


of counseling


strategies


were


effective


facilitating


career


information-


seeking


behavior


when


compared


no counseling


differences


were


found


between


individual


and


group


counseling


strategic


Fretz


(1981


found


five


types


career


interventions


basi


of hi


review


literature:


comparisons


techniques


senting


occupational


information,


comparisons


techniques


presenting


test


interpretations,


group


versus


individual


career


interventions,


structured


self


-admini


stered


versus


computer


-ass


isted


versus


individual


group


, and


comparisons


of a combination


interventions


In examining


studi


interventions


that


incorporated


career


assessme


as well


individual


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Extracurricular


Activities


As students


enter


high


school


they


are


faced


with


academic


social


, and


emotional


choi


ces


that


will


affect


their


vocational


self-concepts.


believed


that


developmental


stage


they


are


made


more


aware


impact


their


ninth-


tenth-grade


choi


ces


will


make


their


future


is possible


influence


some


them


make


choi


ces


that


would


improve


their


self


-concepts,


level


career


maturity,


grades


, and


attendance


, and


increase


their


extracurricular


extracurricular


involvement.


activities


way


Participation


to explore


development


of skill


that


strengthen


self-concept


provide


experience


that


can


enhance


influence


occupational


opportunities


choi


ces


(Super


, 1969b)


examination


of Super'


developmental


stages


exploratory


stage


begins


(generally


ninth


grade)


ends


firs


t step


that


stage,


students


begin


-out


various


es.


Aside


from


their


academic


endeavors


their


occ


upational


exploration


must


done


through


partic


ipation


in extracurricular


involvements


(Super


, Starishevsky,


involvements


include


Matlin,


Jordaan,


activities


that


1963)


are


These


outgrowths


a ---


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social


and


exploratory


purposes,


e.g.,


Key


Club,


Y Clubs,


Future


sponsored


Educators,


or Alpha


or available


Gamma


through


(legislative


community


, e.g


clubs);


, scouting,


Junior


Achievement


Clubs,


or volunteering


at hospitals,


nursing


homes,


or nursery


schools;


church


sponsored,


e.g.,


youth


fellowship


groups,


choir


groups,


or Sunday


school


attendance


or teaching;


private


lessons


, e.g.,


dance,


plano,


guitar,


karate,


or voice


lessons;


part-time


jobs


fast-food


restaurants,


babysitting,


bagging


groceries,


cashiering,


being


a stock


clerk,


or running


errands


business.


appropriate


to note


here


that


employers


do not


typically

However,


hire


also


14-year-old


should


students


noted


that


part-time


some


jobs.


ninth-grade


students


may


or 16


years


because


of late


entry


into


school


or retention


in one


or more


grades.


Also


typical


situations,


14-year-old


students


could


have


part-time


jobs


such


camp,


as babysitting,


being


yardwork,


a "go-for"


being


a business


a junior


office,


counselor


or volunteering


on a regular


basis.


According


to a report


prepared


Charner


Fraser


(1988),


more


than


one-third


of all


high


school


students


hold


part-time


j obs


during


the


academic


year.


T*'rA lana*e1t


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rank,


attendance,


or extracurricular


activities


were


found


for students who worked


20 hours


or less


a week.


1968,


Dilley


found


evidence


that decision-making


ability was


related


to intelligence


, achievement


, and


participation

that because


in extracurricular


these


activities.


variables were related


He surmised


to career maturity


decision making was


related


to career maturity.


Thus,


students who


involve


themselves


in extracurricular


activities


are apt


to be more career mature.


Super


(1957)


wrote


that


extracurricular activities are a


means by which


schools provide


exploratory


experiences.


Clubs make


possible orientation


to vocational


areas


such as


farming,


science


, journalism,


drama,


other


fields of


endeavor without


formal


commitment.


Super


(1957


examined


intelligence


nature of


education,


level


of extracurricular activities,


work experience,


nature


of personality,


and career guidance as each


related


getting


job.


found


that


intelligence had little


to do


with getting

influenced by


an entry-level

evidence of "


job;


employers were more


maturity.


Education did play


part


in getting


a job.


Those


students with more education


and better grades


tended


to get


jobs


more


readily.


& -


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leadership ability.


Work


experience was considered an asset


in getting


job.


Employers


felt


was easier not


to have


to "break in"


inexperienced


workers.


Personality was


found to be particularly


important.


Career guidance also was


related to getting a

vocational counseling


satisfactory

supplemented


job.

with


Subjects who had

career and aptitude


testing


(as opposed to vocational


counseling with no tests)


showed more


job stability,


promotions,


and


earnings as well


as better


employer ratings.


Super


(1957)


deduced


from his


findings


that a


well-formulated self-concept which


takes


into


account experiences,


easier transition


interests,


from school


aptitudes makes


to work.


Parental


Involvement


There have been significant


increases


of late


number of


children


who


live


in poverty,


proportion of


children who


have one


parent


families,


the number of


mothers who work outside


the home.


These changes


in the


demographics


efforts


of society


on the part of


increase

schools t


importance of


o actively


involve


active

the


parents


the education


their children


(Anselmo,


1977;


Hawley,


Rosenholtz,


Goodstein,


& Hasselbring,


1984)


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family


the school


function


as the


two most significant


institutions affecting


socialization


and development of


children.


Therefore,


crucial


that


they understand each


other and


communicate directly.


Strother


and Jacobs


also


listed


following


benefits


which may


be derived


from


counselor-parent consultation:


it can provide strategies


for parents


to enhance


relationships


with


their child;


can provide counselors with


valuable


information


related


parental


atmosphere,


attitudes,


expectations;


it can


help parents


understand


roles


that


counselors


and schools


play


in their child


education;


it can provide


credibility


for the counselor


school


as parent


resources;


is preventative and developmental


in nature;


and


is good public


relations


for the


school


and


counselors.


McNair and


Brown


(1983)


found


that


parental


influence


was a significant


predictor


of career maturity


for blacks and


white


female


es.


They therefore


suggested


that


counselors


should


include parents


in career development


programs


adolescents.


Parents also


should be


informed


that


they are


influential


in determining


their


children's career


expectations and aspirations.


However


, they


also


need help


in developing


and/or


improving


strategies


improve


nri 1 4 4-,


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Cattemol


Robinson


(1985)


surveyed


a sample


parents


about


home


-school


communication


methods.


The


survey


was


done


in a community


50,000


res


idents


where


the


school


district


students


enrolled


31 elementary


five


high


school


Fifty


-three


percent


(215)


the


parent


survey


were


returned.


survey


asked


parents


to respond


to a prepared


way


they


actually


learned


about


their


child'


school,


way


they


preferred


learn


about


school


and


which


methods


of home


-school


communication


were


considered


mos


effective.


Parents


reported


that


they


actually


earned


about


their


child'


school


from


what


their


child


told


them,


their


child'


report


card


school


newsletter


The


way


parents


preferred


to learn


about


their


child'


school


were


what


their


child


told


them,


through


school


newsletter


, and


from


report


card.


Parents'


opinions


about


most


effective


method


of communication


with


schools


were


chose


a direc


t approach


such


as by


telephone


in per


son,


chose


parent/teacher


conferences,


ose


working


as a school


volunteer


Thus


meeting


appears


with


that


school


parents


counselors


are


willing


or teach


and


ers


desirous


learn


what


hsnrn nni nt-


T1r7 1 H


th o-


rh i lrion


;+- cfQ nnl












to educate


career planning


parents about


importance of


this developmental


stage.


school


The conference


should at


least


part have


legitimized


the


parents'


involvement at


the high


school


level.


This


important


because often high


school


students do


not want


parent


involvement at


that


level.


In addition,


the conference


oriented and provided


a school


contact


for both


the student


parent which


potentially made


future


school


contacts


easier and


less


intimidating.


Demographic


Variables


A brief


discussion of how grades,


attendance,


gender,


and ethnicity


interact


with


career maturity


self-concept


follows.



Grades


School


achievement


frequently


examined


in a


research


study because


readily


observable and


indicative of


student's


school


adjustment and


performance.


Super,


Kowalski,


and Gotken


(1967)


10-year


follow-up


report of


the Career


Pattern Study to examine which


variables could be


predictors of


later


effective


vocational


behavior.


It was


P, a 41-. r,, ,- ,, r a-rr41


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Herman and


(1983)


studied


parental


involvement


the schools.


They


coordinated


large


evaluative


study


California's


Early Childhood Education


Program


in which


they


randomly


sampled


two second-grade classes and


two third-grade


classes


from each


of 256


schools.


Results


indicated


that


amount of


school-home communication was directly related


achievement.


positive

success


educational


They


influence


keeping


process.


recommended

parents can

the parents


that


schools capitalize on


have on a st

informed and


Herman and


(1983)


udent's s

involved


projected


school


that


research had


implications


for students


and parents at


middle and high school


levels.


Other researchers have examined


the effects


of parental


involvement


on students'


grades and


found


that


parents'


encouragement


to achieve and


interest


in school


performance


is significantly related


to student


motivation


to learn and


higher grades


(Hawley


, 1976;


Mayeske,


1973;


Rollins


Thomas,


1975) .


In an examination of


the effects of home on school,


Bloom


(1980)


Clark


(1983)


acknowledged


that


there are


many areas


in which school


personnel


cannot


positively


impact


parents


to effect better performances


from students.


However


, they


stated


that


schools can


affect


what


parents do


T r^Ar- 1^ 1 nfl T-T i ^l" YIC L?


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in












counselors


Increase


, parents


amount


student'


students


of parental


program


thus


have


interest


increasing


potential


involvement


student


achievement



Attendance


Schaeffer


(1971)


wrote


that


students


should


more


actively


suggested


involved


that


their


they


own


were,


educ


it might


national


proc


reduce


esses.


the


"rebellion"


against


academic


education


that


is apparent


from


high


dropout


rate


that


been


prev


iously


reported


(Gadwa


Griggs,


1985;


Pallas


, 1986;


Stern


, 1987)


Involving


students


an individual


or small


group


career


planning


conference


before


they


enter


high


school


is a method


designed


involve


them


directly


their


own


educational


plans.


Hahn


(1987


reviewed


studies


and


reports


available


high


dropout


rates


nation.


He deduced


that


more


research


was


necessary


to identify


the dropouts


or their


reasons


dropping


out.


What


needed


are


programs


address


their


needs.


According


to Hahn,


mos


common


reason


leaving


school


is poor


academic


performance;


students


drop


typically


have


mostly


"Ds" in


school.


V.7 n, A t1#%ntt y.h~ *Hn F r


-q-ff; p -,, 1 4-17


T"T7k h 4


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is associated with school


dropout behavior,


and


therefore


that multiple


factors


have


to be addressed.


Duke


(1978)


explored which discipline


problems


principals


identified


as most


pressing


in their


high schools.


He sent questionnaires


randomly


selected high school


principals


in New


York and


to another


principals


California.


results showed


that administrators


perceived


attendance-related


problems


as the


primary


disciplinary


problem.


"Skipping


class"


was


the most


pressing problem


selected by all


four groups


of principals.


"Truancy"


and


"lateness


to class"


were


second and


third most


pressing


problems.


Interest and motivation


to stay


in school


in class


continue


to be a major school


problem.


intervention such


as the one planned


this


study


should


give


information


students and


class,


parents about


the consequences


importance of


of not being


in class


attending

(i.e.,


missing valuable work,


being


assigned to after-school


or in-


school


detention


, poor dean's office records,


or association


with students who are


not making good choices),


the class


check system


(i.e.,


an attendance and academic work


monitoring


system available


for parents


to use with


-t -,, -, I -I -- --,1. ---


,,1












Gender


Ethnicity


Career


Pattern


Study


was


a 22


-year


longitudinal


study


the vocational


development


of approximately


eighth-


ninth-grade


boys


a small


town


about


65 miles


from


New


York


City


Super


coll


eagues


began


study


1951


comply


eted


1973


when


subjects


were


approximately


years


boys


were


studied


at ninth


grade


twelfth


grade


primary


questionnaires


, tests


at about


sources


of data


school


were


records


again

from i


(Jordaan


ages


interviews,


& Heyde,


1979)


The


Career


Pattern


Studi


were


done


with


white


males,


there fore


much


data


regarding


vocational


maturity


were


only


general


zabl


to white


es.


Grades


, achievement,


and p

found


participation


in-


to be positively


or out-of-school


related


career


activity

maturity


were

white


(Super


Overstreet,


1960)


important


determine


these


variable


are


related


to gender


(sex)


ethni


city


(race)


Although


sex


typically


been


found


to be


factor


In career


maturity


, there


have


been


equivocal


results


Herr

~h raa


which


suggest


Enderlein


n-rran a


1 atya


I _


that


(1976)

In n i-I- ,


should


compared

4-an4-l,


be examined


career


maturity


1 lf-h\


further


among


-e e O C u i^Sant'e


1 n1












maturity than males.


Therefore


typically


females begin the


ninth grade more career mature and widen


twelfth


the difference by


grade.


Post-Kammer


(1987)


collected


data


on career maturity and


work values


from a sample


of 885


(402


boys and


483


girls)


ninth-


eleventh-grade


students.


Ninety-three percent of


the students were white,


5% were black,


2% were other


ethnic groups.


found


that girls


have more work values


related


to career maturity than


boys.


Among


other things,


she concluded


that


sex


differences


in work values and


career


maturity


differ according to


sex


more than on


the basis of


grade level.


Career development


patterns such as


this should


be considered when developing programs


for students.


Pound


total


(1978)


population of


sampled


six high


500 males


schools


females


in predominantly


from the


lower


and lower-middle


social


class


strata.


Eighty-five percent of


students were white and


were assessed


were black.


The students


on career maturity and self-concept.


He found


that


for high


school


students Super's


self-concept


theory had


more validity when referring to black males


than when


referring to


females or whites


in general.


In a similar


study,


Lawrence and


Brown


(1976)


found


that


for twelfth-grade


n 4-.~ ~3 a -


- I -


+%an naI IIl r I-1


calf P--nrrin n


xr 1; tti ^ i -\ Th


I^ron i i Tf iijr i ^hiEricjr '












aspirations


career


maturity


(black


white


, male,


female

grade


tenth


students


graders

from a


centra


sample

1 North


consisted

Carolina


of 259


tenth-


community


sample


consisted


femal


black


80 white)


black


white)


Students


were


assessed


career


maturity


They


found


that


white


students


scored


higher


that


than


femal


black


scored


students


higher


on career


than


maturity


measures


Self-concept


was


found


to be


a predictor


career


maturity


only


white


Parental


influence


was


a signifi


cant


predictor


career


maturity


black


femal


white


femal


not


white


This


particular


finding


also


supports


research


done


Krumbolz


, Mitchell


, and


Jones


(1976)


that


important


"mod


els"


influence


career


deve


lopment


Research


McNair


Brown


(1983)


suggests


that


school


counselors


must


aware


race


sex


differences


career


development


Black


white


students


appear


to have


nearly


same


occupational


aspirations


expectations


tenth


grade


, but


blacks


behind


whites


career


maturity.


ess


black


students


in particular


are


given


skills


attitudes


needed


pursue


their


career


goal


they


will


eventually


find


themselves


lowering


their


occupational


ar nr arfn a a 4- 4 r. eeet


4--'A


ac, l tf+ 1i 1 ..-C1


nrrn~nl nr~


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3a 1pI rnn












research


studies


in order


to develop


interventions


that


are


specifically


applicable


various


subgroups















CHAPTER


METHODOLOGY


study


career


guidance


was

that


designed

combined


to investigate


career


the


assessment


effects

with


individual


or small


group,


parent-attended


conferences


ninth-grade


students.


Assessed


were


changes


their


career


maturity, s

attendance,


.elf-concepts,


grade-point


extracurricular


averages,


involvements


school


as a result


participation


either


two


career


guidance


and


counseling


activities.


Parents


who


partic


ipated


the


study


were


assessed


on their


attitudes


and


opinions


regarding


sati


sfaction


with


their


own


interaction


with


the


school


with


their


students'


school


adjustment


and


progress.


Research


Design


Thi


study


used


a randomized


control-group


posttest


only


design.


There


were


two


experimental


groups


and


one


control


group.


The


experimental


design


this


study


was


follows











Table


Experimental


Desiran


students


the


two


experimental


groups


and


completed

Planning


the


American


Program


(CPP).


College

The s


Testing


students


Program'


El met


Career


individually


with


at least


one


their


parents


or guardians


and


a school


counselor


to participate


a School


and


Career


Planning


Conference


(SCPC).


The


students


E2 participated


with


least


one


their


parents


or guardians


a counselor-lead,


small


group


SCPC.


The


control


group


did


not


participate


CPP


or SCPC.


The


CPP


was


given


identified


eighth-grade


students


the


end


the


eighth-grade


school


year


(i.e.,


prior


their


entrance


into


ninth


grade)


and


the


SCPCs


took


place


during


summer


preceding


their


entrance


into


their


ninth-grade


academic


year.


During


third


week


after


end


the


1988


fall


semester -


the


students


from


both


ernerimenta 1











Involvements


Inventory


(EII)


(see


Appendix


The


(cumulative)


pre-GPAs


from


the


second


semester


the


eighth-


grade


year


of all


students


the


study


were


obtained


from


school


semester


records.


and


The


attendance


(cumulative)


records


post-GPAs


of all


the


ninth-grade


fall


students


the


study


were


collected


the


end


the


1988


fall


semester.


Population


The


population


eighth-grade


students


this


at Fort


study


Clark


consisted


Middle


the


School


Gainesville,


Florida


Alachua


County),


who


were


scheduled


enter


beginning


located


Buchholz

of the


the


High s

1988-89


north


school a

school


central


s ninth

year.


part


graders

Alachua


of Florida,


the


County,


has


population


considered


approximately


rural.


180,000.


Gainesville


Most

the 1


Alachua


largest


County


population


center


county


with


a population


approximately


85,000.


The


University


Florida,


the


largest


university


state,


located


Gainesville


(Whitaker,


1987)


In the


1987-88


school


year,


the


Alachua


County


School


System


served


23,771


students


grades


kindergarten


through


twelve. Of


these


student


17.439


attended


schools


, .


-.


i


A.&A











school


51%)


year


was


es.


1,774


Also,


There


there


were


were


(49%)


(31%)


black


females


and


and


non-


Hispanic


Hispanic,


(66%)


white


and


non-


Hispanic


and


students


of other


national


origins


(Lucas,


1988)


Students


from


four


middle


schools


enter


Buchhol


High


School


comprise


student


population.


Fort


Clark


Middle


School,


Howard


Bishop


Middle


School,


Lincoln


Middl


School,


Westwood


Middle


School.


the


1987


school


year


number


eighth-grade


students


(486)


these


schools


comprise


Buchholz


' ninth-grade


class


were


Fort


Clark


Middle


School,


276;


Howard


Bishop


Middle


School,


Lincoln


Middl


School,


and


Westwood


Middl


School,


The


percentages


male


(M),


female


(F) ,


white


Hispanic


(H),


other


(ethnic


cities ,


and


the


total


Fort


Clark


School


Middl


fall


School


1988


are


students


presented


entering


follows


Buchholz


(Lucas,


High


1988)


Table


Students


School


from


Four


Gender


Feeder
d Ethni


School


Who


city


Enter


Buchhol


Hiah


Fort Clark Bishop Lincoln Westwood


F 54 49 63 55











SamDlinac


Procedures


The


Clark


sample


Middle


was


School


drawn

who w


from


ere


eighth-grade


scheduled


students


to attend


Fort


Buchholz


High


School.


Excluded


were


students


classified


as Educably


Mentally


Handicapped.


The


eighth


graders


at Fort


Clark


Middle


School


were


selected


because


they


were


considered


representative


of Buchholz


' entering


students.


1987


88 school


year


Fort


Clark


Middle


School


had


a total


population


of 939


students


grades


through


The


school'


population


consisted


of 482


(51%)


femal


, 457


(49%)


, 214


23%)


black


and


non-Hispanic,


Hispanic,


(74%)


white


non-Hispanic,


and


(18%)


of other


national


origins


(Lucas,


1988).


Buchhol z


High


School,


the


largest


school


Alachua


County,


was


chosen


the


study


because


size


geographical


location.


considered


representative


schools


northwestern


county


part


Buchholz


of Gainesville


High


, was


School,


built


located


1971.


1987


school


year


had


a total


population


of 1


students


grades


through


(Lucas,


1988)


A sample


eighth-grade


Fort


Clark


Middle


School


students


from


among


the


who


were


entering


Buchhol


High


School in t


1988


fall


semester


were


requested











students


were


available


the


sample


.e.,


in each


group),


names


randomly


(i.e.,


permission


each


letters


were


group)


sent


were


their


selected


parents


legal


guardians.


hundred


twenty


randomly


selected


eighth-grade


students


returned


permission


forms


and


thus


were


placed


into


three


groups


of 40 students


each.


Eighty


students


formed


experimental


groups


El and


and


the


other


40 students


formed


control


group.


The


students


El and


E2 completed


a career


assessment


inventory,


the


Career


Planning


Program


(CPP),


which


was


designed


the


American


College


Testing


Program.


The


students


El participated,


with


their


parent(


guardian(s),


in an SCPC


individually


with


a school


counselor


which


focused


upon


school


orientation,


extracurricular


involvement,


educational


planning,


and


career


planning.


students


E2 also


parti


cipated


with


their


parents)


guardians)


in a counselor-led,


small-group


SCPC


which


focused


upon


school


orientation,


extracurricular


involvement,


educational


planning,


career


planning.


Both


treatment


groups


participated


in an SCPC


which


addressed


the


same


content.


The


counseling


format


was


the


difference


between


two


student.


treatment


their


groups


parent(


(i.e.,


was


or guardian(


the


and


individual


the


school


~___


9. 9


Y.











students


the


control


group


did


not


complete


the


CPP


participate


either


individual


or small-group


SCPCs.


One


hundred


ten


students


were


posttested


on the


CMI-AS,


CSEI


, and


EII.


The


GPAs


and


attendance


records


first


semester


participating


students


were


collected


at the


of the


1988


fall


semester.


The


parents


the


students


three


groups


were


surveyed


regarding


sati


sfaction


with


their


personal


interaction


with


the


school


and


with


their


student'


school


adjustment


and


progress.


Research


Procedures


The


individual


charge


of coordinating


research


projects


Alachua


County


School


Board


was


contacted


acquire


granted


perml


and


ssion


to conduct


principals


and


thi


study


school


Permission


counselors


from


was


Fort


Clark


Middle


School


and


Buchholz


High


School


were


contacted.


They


agreed


to allow


study


to be conducted


and


encourage


their


teachers


counselors


help


conduct


the


study.


researcher


met


with


Fort


Clark


Middle


School'


eighth-grade


teachers


guidance


staff


to coordinate


the


sending


and


receiving


of parent


permission


letters


students


oriainallv


selected.


Students


El and


renesived


I. ^


a .


ff











from


school


records


was


granted


from


the


Alachua


County


School


Board'


Office


of Research


Evaluation.


If parent


permission


researcher


letters


called


had


the


been


homes


returned


the


after


students


five


days,


to explain


the


study


and


request


that


the


letter


returned.


As a method


of encouraging


response,


students


received


candy


bar


when


they


returned


their


parent


permission


letter


the


guidance


office.


When


letters


had


been


returned,


the

the


CPP

two


was


administered


treatment


groups.


to the 80 students

School counselors


identified


from


Buchholz


High


School


trained


administration


the


inventory


administered


the


test


and


were


assisted


the


counselors


principal


at Fort


Clark


Middle


School.


The


CPP


was


scored


computer


and


the


results


were


returned


within


weeks.


participating


students


and


their


parents


were


then


contacted


telephone


arrange


the


SCPCs.


The


conferences


took


place


during


10-week


period


lasting


from


the


last


2 weeks


June


through


the


end


August,


1988.


During


the


third


week


the


second


(i.e.,


sprain

High


1989)


School


semester,

coordinated


school

the a


counselors


administration


from


Buchholz


of CMI-AS


the


CSEI,


and


the


EII.


The


students'


first


semester


cumulative


GPAs and


attendance


records


were


obtained


from


school




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